Science.gov

Sample records for defense identification code

  1. Secure surface identification codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekhof, F.; Voloshynovskiy, S.; Koval, O.; Villan, R.; Pun, T.

    2008-02-01

    This paper introduces an identification framework for random microstructures of material surfaces. These microstructures represent a kind of unique fingerprints that can be used to track and trace an item as well as for anti-counterfeiting. We first consider the architecture for mobile phone-based item identification and then introduce a practical identification algorithm enabling fast searching in large databases. The proposed algorithm is based on reference list decoding. The link to digital communications and robust perceptual hashing is shown. We consider a practical construction of reference list decoding, which comprizes computational complexity, security, memory storage and performance requirements. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on experimental data obtained from natural paper surfaces.

  2. 76 FR 38046 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Assignment of Order Codes (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Logistics Agency with Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Program Development and Implementation, as... Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Assignment of Order Codes (DFARS Case 2011-D004) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Large Packaging identification codes. 178.905... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.905 Large Packaging identification codes. Large packaging code... letter(s) specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (a) Large packaging code number designations are...

  4. A comparative test of the developmental, role-playing, and defensive explanations of offspring identification.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J L; Minns, D R

    1978-01-01

    Following Mussen and Distler (1959) and Bandura, Ross and Ross (1963), the developmental, defensive, and role-playing theories of identification are tested on high school seniors. Previous tests have supported the developmental and role-playing hypotheses about equally, while the defensive hypothesis lacks consistent empirical support. Questions are raised, however, about the merit of these tests. Data are presented on seniors in an Eastern suburban school and a Midwestern small town school which support the developmental (warmth) hypothesis but which are inconsistent with the defensive and role-playing hypotheses. Parental behavior is measured by the Bronfenbrenner Parent Behavior Questionnaire and identification is measured by the semantic differential.

  5. 33 CFR 181.31 - Manufacturer identification code assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.31 Manufacturer... request a manufacturer identification code in writing from the Recreational Boating Product Assurance... the Recreational Boating Product Assurance Branch (CG-54223), 2100 2nd St., SW., Stop 7581,...

  6. 33 CFR 181.31 - Manufacturer identification code assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.31 Manufacturer... request a manufacturer identification code in writing from the Recreational Boating Product Assurance... the Recreational Boating Product Assurance Branch (CG-54223), 2100 2nd St., SW., Stop 7581,...

  7. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  8. Identification of a Maize Locus that Modulates the Hypersensitive Defense Response, Using Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is the most visible and arguably the most important defense response in plants, although the details of how it is controlled and executed remain patchy. In this paper a novel genetic technique called MAGIC (Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization) i...

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.95 - What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases commercially? 102... identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.95 - What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases commercially? 102... identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases...

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.95 - What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases commercially? 102... identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.95 - What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases commercially? 102... identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.95 - What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What motor vehicle identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases commercially? 102... identification must the Department of Defense (DOD) display on motor vehicles it owns or leases...

  14. Predictive Fallout Composition Modeling: Improvements and Applications of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, David A; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Monterial, Mateusz

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines several improvements to the Particle Activity Module of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). The modeling of each phase of the fallout process is discussed within DELFIC to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations with the code for modeling and simulation. Expansion of the DELFIC isotopic library to include actinides and light elements is shown. Several key features of the new library are demonstrated, including compliance with ENDF/B-VII standards, augmentation of hardwired activated soil and actinide decay calculations with exact Bateman calculations, and full physical and chemical fractionation of all material inventories. Improvements to the radionuclide source term are demonstrated, including the ability to specify heterogeneous fission types and the ability to import source terms from irradiation calculations using the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code. Additionally, the dose, kerma, and effective dose conversion factors are revised. Finally, the application of DELFIC for consequence management planning and forensic analysis is presented. For consequence management, DELFIC is shown to provide disaster recovery teams with simulations of real-time events, including the location, composition, time of arrival, activity rates, and dose rates of fallout, accounting for site-specific atmospheric effects. The results from DELFIC are also demonstrated for use by nuclear forensics teams to plan collection routes (including the determination of optimal collection locations), estimate dose rates to collectors, and anticipate the composition of material at collection sites. These capabilities give mission planners the ability to maximize their effectiveness in the field while minimizing risk to their collectors.

  15. Bar Coding MS(2) Spectra for Metabolite Identification.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Jonathan L; Cho, Kevin; Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Nikolskiy, Igor; Llufrio, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Stephen L; Patti, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Metabolite identifications are most frequently achieved in untargeted metabolomics by matching precursor mass and full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra to metabolite databases and standards. Here we considered an alternative approach for establishing metabolite identifications that does not rely on full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra. First, we select mass-to-charge regions containing the most informative metabolite fragments and designate them as bins. We then translate each metabolite fragmentation pattern into a binary code by assigning 1's to bins containing fragments and 0's to bins without fragments. With 20 bins, this binary-code system is capable of distinguishing 96% of the compounds in the METLIN MS(2) library. A major advantage of the approach is that it extends untargeted metabolomics to low-resolution triple quadrupole (QqQ) instruments, which are typically less expensive and more robust than other types of mass spectrometers. We demonstrate a method of acquiring MS(2) data in which the third quadrupole of a QqQ instrument cycles over 20 wide isolation windows (coinciding with the location and width of our bins) for each precursor mass selected by the first quadrupole. Operating the QqQ instrument in this mode yields diagnostic bar codes for each precursor mass that can be matched to the bar codes of metabolite standards. Furthermore, our data suggest that using low-resolution bar codes enables QqQ instruments to make MS(2)-based identifications in untargeted metabolomics with a specificity and sensitivity that is competitive to high-resolution time-of-flight technologies.

  16. Identification of Drosophila Mutants Affecting Defense to an Entomopathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Wang, Jonathan B.; Brown, Markus A.; Euerle, Christopher; St. Leger, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi cause the majority of insect disease. However, to date attempts to model host–fungal interactions with Drosophila have focused on opportunistic human pathogens. Here, we performed a screen of 2,613 mutant Drosophila lines to identify host genes affecting susceptibility to the natural insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma549). Overall, 241 (9.22%) mutant lines had altered resistance to Ma549. Life spans ranged from 3.0 to 6.2 days, with females being more susceptible than males in all lines. Speed of kill correlated with within-host growth and onset of sporulation, but total spore production is decoupled from host genotypes. Results showed that mutations affected the ability of Drosophila to restrain rather than tolerate infections and suggested trade-offs between antifungal and antibacterial genes affecting cuticle and gut structural barriers. Approximately, 13% of mutations where in genes previously associated with host pathogen interactions. These encoded fast-acting immune responses including coagulation, phagocytosis, encapsulation and melanization but not the slow-response induction of anti-fungal peptides. The non-immune genes impact a wide variety of biological functions, including behavioral traits. Many have human orthologs already implicated in human disorders; while others were mutations in protein and non-protein coding genes for which disease resistance was the first biological annotation. PMID:26202798

  17. CRITICA: coding region identification tool invoking comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, J. H.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Gene recognition is essential to understanding existing and future DNA sequence data. CRITICA (Coding Region Identification Tool Invoking Comparative Analysis) is a suite of programs for identifying likely protein-coding sequences in DNA by combining comparative analysis of DNA sequences with more common noncomparative methods. In the comparative component of the analysis, regions of DNA are aligned with related sequences from the DNA databases; if the translation of the aligned sequences has greater amino acid identity than expected for the observed percentage nucleotide identity, this is interpreted as evidence for coding. CRITICA also incorporates noncomparative information derived from the relative frequencies of hexanucleotides in coding frames versus other contexts (i.e., dicodon bias). The dicodon usage information is derived by iterative analysis of the data, such that CRITICA is not dependent on the existence or accuracy of coding sequence annotations in the databases. This independence makes the method particularly well suited for the analysis of novel genomes. CRITICA was tested by analyzing the available Salmonella typhimurium DNA sequences. Its predictions were compared with the DNA sequence annotations and with the predictions of GenMark. CRITICA proved to be more accurate than GenMark, and moreover, many of its predictions that would seem to be errors instead reflect problems in the sequence databases. The source code of CRITICA is freely available by anonymous FTP (rdp.life.uiuc.edu in/pub/critica) and on the World Wide Web (http:/(/)rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu).

  18. Identification of protein coding regions in RNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shiyuyun; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Massive parallel sequencing of RNA transcripts by next-generation technology (RNA-Seq) generates critically important data for eukaryotic gene discovery. Gene finding in transcripts can be done by statistical (alignment-free) as well as by alignment-based methods. We describe a new tool, GeneMarkS-T, for ab initio identification of protein-coding regions in RNA transcripts. The algorithm parameters are estimated by unsupervised training which makes unnecessary manually curated preparation of training sets. We demonstrate that (i) the unsupervised training is robust with respect to the presence of transcripts assembly errors and (ii) the accuracy of GeneMarkS-T in identifying protein-coding regions and, particularly, in predicting translation initiation sites in modelled as well as in assembled transcripts compares favourably to other existing methods. PMID:25870408

  19. We Are Not Numbers: The Use of Identification Codes in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis-Poscente, Krista; Moisey, Susan Darlene

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses students' experiences with the use of identification codes in a graduate course delivered asynchronously via the Internet. While teaching an introductory masters level graduate course in distance learning, the authors discovered that the learning management system, Moodle, was programmed to display identification codes rather…

  20. Proposing national identification number on dental prostheses as universal personal identification code - A revolution in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Baad, Rajendra K.; Belgaumi, Uzma; Vibhute, Nupura; Kadashetti, Vidya; Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Gugwad, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    The proper identification of a decedent is not only important for humanitarian and emotional reasons, but also for legal and administrative purposes. During the reconstructive identification process, all necessary information is gathered from the unknown body of the victim and hence that an objective reconstructed profile can be established. Denture marking systems are being used in various situations, and a number of direct and indirect methods are reported. We propose that national identification numbers be incorporated in all removable and fixed prostheses, so as to adopt a single and definitive universal personal identification code with the aim of achieving a uniform, standardized, easy, and fast identification method worldwide for forensic identification. PMID:26005294

  1. Identification of putative TAL effector targets of the citrus canker pathogens shows functional convergence underlying disease development and defense response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TAL effectors PthA“s” and PthC“s” of the citrus canker bacteria Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii pathotype C (XaC), respectively, are poorly characterized. Of particular interest, XaC causes canker disease in its host lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), but triggers a defense response in sweet orange. Results Based on, 1) the TAL effector-DNA binding code, 2) gene expression data of Xc and XaC-infiltrated sweet orange leaves, and 3) citrus hypocotyls transformed with PthA2, PthA4 or PthC1, we have identified a collection of Citrus sinensis genes potentially targeted by Xc and XaC TAL effectors. Our results suggest that similar with other strains of Xanthomonas TAL effectors, PthA2 and PthA4, and PthC1 to some extent, functionally converge. In particular, towards induction of genes involved in the auxin and gibberellin synthesis and response, cell division, and defense response. We also present evidence indicating that the TAL effectors act as transcriptional repressors and that the best scoring predicted DNA targets of PthA“s” and PthC“s” in citrus promoters predominantly overlap with or localize near to TATA boxes of core promoters, supporting the idea that TAL effectors interact with the host basal transcriptional machinery to recruit the RNA pol II and start transcription. Conclusions The identification of PthA“s” and PthC“s” targets, such as the LOB (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY) and CCNBS genes that we report here, is key for the understanding

  2. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), and National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  6. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Josefson, Beverly M.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  7. Identification of ICD Codes Suggestive of Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Slusher, Paula L.; Kruse, Robin L.; Tarleton, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In order to be reimbursed for the care they provide, hospitals in the United States are required to use a standard system to code all discharge diagnoses: the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9). Although ICD-9 codes specific for child maltreatment exist, they do not identify all…

  8. Anomalies and specific functions in the clinical identification of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Perry, J Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Standard teaching about defense mechanisms generally focuses on definitions, which do not readily aid the clinician in identifying defenses whenever individuals use them. This report demonstrates a process by which the clinician can identify when a defense is used, which ones are likely being used, and with what aim. Clinicians first notice that a defense may be operating whenever the other individual presents with anomalies in the expression of affect, behavior, speech, or its content. Some of these anomalies are described. Next, to identify the specific defense or general level of defensive functioning used, the clinician must identify the specific function of the defense in context using a process of guided clinical inference. This report examines 2 verbatim examples from recorded interviews of one case to demonstrate this process. The examples present a microcosm of clinical concerns that have a surprising relationship to the individual's course and prognosis.

  9. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwell, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Codes for the unique identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems are presented. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new books. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Cancer intelligence acquired (CIA): tumor glycosylation and sialylation codes dismantling antitumor defense.

    PubMed

    Boligan, Kayluz Frias; Mesa, Circe; Fernandez, Luis Enrique; von Gunten, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a key feature of malignant transformation and reflects epigenetic and genetic anomalies among the multitude of molecules involved in glycan biosynthesis. Although glycan biosynthesis is not template bound, altered tumor glycosylation is not random, but associated with common glycosylation patterns. Evidence suggests that acquisition of distinct glycosylation patterns evolves from a 'microevolutionary' process conferring advantages in terms of tumor growth, tumor dissemination, and immune escape. Such glycosylation modifications also involve xeno- and hypersialylation. Xeno-autoantigens such as Neu5Gc-gangliosides provide potential targets for immunotherapy. Hypersialylation may display 'enhanced self' to escape immunosurveillance and involves several not mutually exclusive inhibitory pathways that all rely on protein-glycan interactions. A better understanding of tumor 'glycan codes' as deciphered by lectins, such as siglecs, selectins, C-type lectins and galectins, may lead to novel treatment strategies, not only in cancer, but also in autoimmune disease or transplantation.

  11. 49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the capital letter(s) specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (a) Large packaging code number...). (2) “B” means aluminum. (3) “C” means natural wood. (4) “D” means plywood. (5) “F”...

  12. The effect of a redundant color code on an overlearned identification task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of finding redundancy gains with overlearned tasks was examined using a paradigm varying familiarity with the stimulus set. Redundant coding in a multidimensional stimulus was demonstrated to result in increased identification accuracy and decreased latency of identification when compared to stimuli varying on only one dimension. The advantages attributable to redundant coding are referred to as redundancy gain and were found for a variety of stimulus dimension combinations, including the use of hue or color as one of the dimensions. Factors that have affected redundancy gain include the discriminability of the levels of one stimulus dimension and the level of stimulus-to-response association. The results demonstrated that response time is in part a function of familiarity, but no effect of redundant color coding was demonstrated. Implications of research on coding in identification tasks for display design are discussed.

  13. Self-reported Pleasantness Ratings and Examiner-Coded Defensiveness in Response to Touch in Children with ASD: Effects of Stimulus Material and Bodily Location.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Carissa J; Lorenzi, Jill; Baranek, Grace T

    2016-05-01

    Tactile defensiveness, characterized by behavioral hyperresponsiveness and negative emotional responses to touch, is a common manifestation of aberrant sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Variations in tactile defensiveness with the properties of the stimulus and the bodily site of stimulation have been addressed in adults with self-report of perceived tactile pleasantness, but not in children. We presented three materials (pleasant, unpleasant, social) at three bodily sites and measured both examiner-coded defensiveness and self-reported pleasantness from a group of children with ASD and two comparison groups (one with DD, one with typical development (TD)). The main findings were: (1) children with ASD and DD showed significantly more defensiveness reactions and lower pleasantness ratings than the TD group, with higher variability, (2) there was a double dissociation for the effects of material and bodily site of stimulation: while bodily site predicted behavioral defensiveness, material predicted pleasantness rating. Additionally, it was noted that (3) the most pleasant material and the social touch conditions best distinguished ASD and DD from TD on defensiveness, and (4) within the ASD group, social impairment and defensiveness in bodily sites associated with social touch were positively correlated, suggesting a clinically relevant distinction between social and discriminative touch in ASD.

  14. Identification of Novel Defense Response Genes in Medicago truncatula for Improving Disease Resistance in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of plants by pathogens initiates a cascade of defense responses that halt or limit pathogen growth. However, the role of many of the genes induced by pathogens is unknown. Transcript profiling was used to identify genes associated with defense responses in the model legume Medicago truncat...

  15. 27 CFR 73.12 - What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Signatures § 73.12 What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords? If you use electronic signatures based upon...

  16. 22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identification of principal geographic code numbers. 228.03 Section 228.03 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE..., Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait,...

  17. 47 CFR 3.22 - Number of accounting authority identification codes per applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Application Procedures § 3.22 Number of accounting authority identification codes per applicant... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number of accounting authority...

  18. Identification of transcriptional regulatory nodes in soybean defense networks using transient co-transactivation assays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yujie; Du, Haiping; Yang, Qing; Yu, Deyue

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to major environmental stressors, such as insect feeding, not only occur via the functions of defense genes but also involve a series of regulatory factors. Our previous transcriptome studies proposed that, in addition to two defense-related genes, GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR, a high proportion of transcription factors (TFs) participate in the incompatible soybean-common cutworm interaction networks. However, the regulatory mechanisms and effects of these TFs on those induced defense-related genes remain unknown. In the present work, we isolated and identified 12 genes encoding MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, and DREB TFs from a common cutworm-induced cDNA library of a resistant soybean line. Sequence analysis of the promoters of three co-expressed genes, including GmVSPα, GmVSPβ, and GmN:IFR, revealed the enrichment of various TF-binding sites for defense and stress responses. To further identify the regulatory nodes composed of these TFs and defense gene promoters, we performed extensive transient co-transactivation assays to directly test the transcriptional activity of the 12 TFs binding at different levels to the three co-expressed gene promoters. The results showed that all 12 TFs were able to transactivate the GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR promoters. GmbZIP110 and GmMYB75 functioned as distinct regulators of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression, respectively, while GmWRKY39 acted as a common central regulator of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression. These corresponding TFs play crucial roles in coordinated plant defense regulation, which provides valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in insect-induced transcriptional regulation in soybean. More importantly, the identified TFs and suitable promoters can be used to engineer insect-resistant plants in molecular breeding studies. PMID:26579162

  19. Computational identification of genetic subnetwork modules associated with maize defense response to Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Maize, a crop of global significance, is vulnerable to a variety of biotic stresses resulting in economic losses. Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is one of the key fungal pathogens of maize, causing ear rots and stalk rots. To better understand the genetic mechanisms involved in maize defense as well as F. verticillioides virulence, a systematic investigation of the host-pathogen interaction is needed. The aim of this study was to computationally identify potential maize subnetwork modules associated with its defense response against F. verticillioides. Results We obtained time-course RNA-seq data from B73 maize inoculated with wild type F. verticillioides and a loss-of-virulence mutant, and subsequently established a computational pipeline for network-based comparative analysis. Specifically, we first analyzed the RNA-seq data by a cointegration-correlation-expression approach, where maize genes were jointly analyzed with known F. verticillioides virulence genes to find candidate maize genes likely associated with the defense mechanism. We predicted maize co-expression networks around the selected maize candidate genes based on partial correlation, and subsequently searched for subnetwork modules that were differentially activated when inoculated with two different fungal strains. Based on our analysis pipeline, we identified four potential maize defense subnetwork modules. Two were directly associated with maize defense response and were associated with significant GO terms such as GO:0009817 (defense response to fungus) and GO:0009620 (response to fungus). The other two predicted modules were indirectly involved in the defense response, where the most significant GO terms associated with these modules were GO:0046914 (transition metal ion binding) and GO:0046686 (response to cadmium ion). Conclusion Through our RNA-seq data analysis, we have shown that a network-based approach can enhance our understanding of the

  20. One-time collision arbitration algorithm in radio-frequency identification based on the Manchester code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Chan, Yin-Tsung

    2011-02-01

    In radio-requency identification (RFID) systems, when multiple tags transmit data to a reader simultaneously, these data may collide and create unsuccessful identifications; hence, anticollision algorithms are needed to reduce collisions (collision cycles) to improve the tag identification speed. We propose a one-time collision arbitration algorithm to reduce both the number of collisions and the time consumption for tags' identification in RFID. The proposed algorithm uses Manchester coding to detect the locations of collided bits, uses the divide-and-conquer strategy to find the structure of colliding bits to generate 96-bit query strings as the 96-bit candidate query strings (96BCQSs), and uses query-tree anticollision schemes with 96BCQSs to identify tags. The performance analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has three advantages: (i) reducing the number of collisions to only one, so that the time complexity of tag identification is the simplest O(1), (ii) storing identified identification numbers (IDs) and the 96BCQSs in a register to save the used memory, and (iii) resulting in the number of bits transmitted by both the reader and tags being evidently less than the other algorithms in one-tag identification or in all tags identification.

  1. Identification of defense-related genes newly-associated with tomato flower abscission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current abscission model suggests the formation of a post-abscission trans-differentiation of a protective layer as the last step of the process. The present report expands the repertoire of genes activated in the tomato flower abscission zone (AZ), which are likely to be involved in defense res...

  2. Identification and characterization of the gene expression profiles for protein coding and non-coding RNAs of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Laura; Corchete, Luis; Teodosio, Cristina; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; Abad, María del Mar; Iglesias, Manuel; Esteban, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Significant advances have been achieved in recent years in the identification of the genetic and the molecular alterations of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Despite this, at present the understanding of the precise mechanisms involved in the development and malignant transformation of PDAC remain relatively limited. Here, we evaluated for the first time, the molecular heterogeneity of PDAC tumors, through simultaneous assessment of the gene expression profile (GEP) for both coding and non-coding genes of tumor samples from 27 consecutive PDAC patients. Overall, we identified a common GEP for all PDAC tumors, characterized by an increased expression of genes involved in PDAC cell proliferation, local invasion and metastatic capacity, together with a significant alteration of the early steps of the cellular immune response. At the same time, we confirm and extend on previous observations about the genetic complexity of PDAC tumors as revealed by the demonstration of two clearly distinct and unique GEPs (e.g. epithelial-like vs. mesenchymal-like) reflecting the alteration of different signaling pathways involved in the oncogenesis and progression of these tumors. Our results also highlight the potential role of the immune system microenvironment in these tumors, with potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26053098

  3. Malnutrition: The Importance of Identification, Documentation, and Coding in the Acute Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Greg; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Naunton, Mark; Luff, Narelle

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant issue in the hospital setting. This cross-sectional, observational study determined the prevalence of malnutrition amongst 189 adult inpatients in a teaching hospital using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool and compared data to control groups for coding of malnutrition to determine the estimated unclaimed financial reimbursement associated with this comorbidity. Fifty-three percent of inpatients were classified as malnourished. Significant associations were found between malnutrition and increasing age, decreasing body mass index, and increased length of stay. Ninety-eight percent of malnourished patients were coded as malnourished in medical records. The results of the medical history audit of patients in control groups showed that between 0.9 and 5.4% of patients were coded as malnourished which is remarkably lower than the 52% of patients who were coded as malnourished from the point prevalence study data. This is most likely to be primarily due to lack of identification. The estimated unclaimed annual financial reimbursement due to undiagnosed or undocumented malnutrition based on the point prevalence study was AU$8,536,200. The study found that half the patients were malnourished, with older adults being particularly vulnerable. It is imperative that malnutrition is diagnosed and accurately documented and coded, so appropriate coding, funding reimbursement, and treatment can occur. PMID:27774317

  4. Analytical qualification of system identification (modal analysis) codes for use in the dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, H.J.; Ng, D.; Lager, D.

    1980-01-02

    The analytical evaluation of two particular system identification codes used at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is presented. Both codes are eigenparameter identification codes; however, one uses a time domain approach while the other a frequency domain approach. The evaluation was accomplished by analytically generating several time history signals in which the true modal parameters were known. These time histories ranged from widely spaced modes with spacing factors of 100 percent to closely spaced modes with spacing factors of 6 percent. These signals were then polluted with various levels of simulated measurement noise and the ability of our computer codes to extract the parameters from this noisy data was evaluated.

  5. 76 FR 52138 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... a proposed rule at 76 FR 14641 on March 17, 2011, to add a contract clause that clearly identifies... published at 76 FR 14642 on March 17, 2011. Briefly, the combination of the actions of the design control... Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS Case 2010-D022) AGENCY:...

  6. Identification of Aedes aegypti Long Intergenic Non-coding RNAs and Their Association with Wolbachia and Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Etebari, Kayvan; Asad, Sultan; Zhang, Guangmei; Asgari, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are appearing as an important class of regulatory RNAs with a variety of biological functions. The aim of this study was to identify the lincRNA profile in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and evaluate their potential role in host-pathogen interaction. The majority of previous RNA-Seq transcriptome studies in Ae. aegypti have focused on the expression pattern of annotated protein coding genes under different biological conditions. Here, we used 35 publically available RNA-Seq datasets with relatively high depth to screen the Ae. aegypti genome for lincRNA discovery. This led to the identification of 3,482 putative lincRNAs. These lincRNA genes displayed a slightly lower GC content and shorter transcript lengths compared to protein-encoding genes. Ae. aegypti lincRNAs also demonstrate low evolutionary sequence conservation even among closely related species such as Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae. We examined their expression in dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and Wolbachia infected and non-infected adult mosquitoes and Aa20 cells. The results revealed that DENV-2 infection increased the abundance of a number of host lincRNAs, from which some suppress viral replication in mosquito cells. RNAi-mediated silencing of lincRNA_1317 led to enhancement in viral replication, which possibly indicates its potential involvement in the host anti-viral defense. A number of lincRNAs were also differentially expressed in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. The results will facilitate future studies to unravel the function of lncRNAs in insects and may prove to be beneficial in developing new ways to control vectors or inhibit replication of viruses in them. PMID:27760142

  7. Evidence for a Nest Defense Pheromone in Bald-Faced Hornets, Dolichovespula Maculata, and Identification of Components.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Sebastian Ibarra; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Derstine, Nathan; McCann, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    In eusocial insects like Bald-faced hornets, Dolichovespula maculata, nest defense is essential because nests contain a large number of protein-rich larvae and pupae, and thus are attractive to nest predators. Our objectives were to investigate whether D. maculata exhibit pheromone-mediated nest defense, and to identify and field test any pheromone components. We tested for pheromone-mediated nest defense behavior of D. maculata by placing a paired box-apparatus near the entrance of D. maculata nests, and treating both boxes with a solvent control, or one of the two boxes with a solvent control and the other with either venom sac extract, the putative source of nest defense pheromone, or synthetic pheromone. The sound impulses caused by nest mates attempting to sting or strike the boxes were recorded for 3 min. Compared to the double-control treatment, the number of strikes increased 27-fold when one of the two boxes was treated with venom sac extract, providing evidence for an alarm response. The box treated with venom sac extract also induced a significantly greater proportion of strikes than the corresponding control box, providing evidence for a target-oriented response. Analyzing venom sac extract by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of seven candidate pheromone components: (a) dimethylaminoethanol, (b) dimethylamino ethyl acetate, (c) 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, (d) N-3-methylbutylacetamide, (e) 2-heptadecanone, (f) (Z)-8-heptadecen-2-one, and (g) (Z)-10-nonadecen-2-one. Testing in paired-box bioassays blends of the nitrogen-containing volatile components a-d, the less volatile ketones e-g, or both (a-g), indicated that a-d primarily have an alarm function. The ketones e-g, in contrast, induced target-oriented responses, possibly marking the box, or potential nest predators, for guided and concerted attacks, or enhancing the alarm-inducing effect of the volatile pheromone components

  8. Evidence for a Nest Defense Pheromone in Bald-Faced Hornets, Dolichovespula Maculata, and Identification of Components.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Sebastian Ibarra; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Derstine, Nathan; McCann, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    In eusocial insects like Bald-faced hornets, Dolichovespula maculata, nest defense is essential because nests contain a large number of protein-rich larvae and pupae, and thus are attractive to nest predators. Our objectives were to investigate whether D. maculata exhibit pheromone-mediated nest defense, and to identify and field test any pheromone components. We tested for pheromone-mediated nest defense behavior of D. maculata by placing a paired box-apparatus near the entrance of D. maculata nests, and treating both boxes with a solvent control, or one of the two boxes with a solvent control and the other with either venom sac extract, the putative source of nest defense pheromone, or synthetic pheromone. The sound impulses caused by nest mates attempting to sting or strike the boxes were recorded for 3 min. Compared to the double-control treatment, the number of strikes increased 27-fold when one of the two boxes was treated with venom sac extract, providing evidence for an alarm response. The box treated with venom sac extract also induced a significantly greater proportion of strikes than the corresponding control box, providing evidence for a target-oriented response. Analyzing venom sac extract by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of seven candidate pheromone components: (a) dimethylaminoethanol, (b) dimethylamino ethyl acetate, (c) 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, (d) N-3-methylbutylacetamide, (e) 2-heptadecanone, (f) (Z)-8-heptadecen-2-one, and (g) (Z)-10-nonadecen-2-one. Testing in paired-box bioassays blends of the nitrogen-containing volatile components a-d, the less volatile ketones e-g, or both (a-g), indicated that a-d primarily have an alarm function. The ketones e-g, in contrast, induced target-oriented responses, possibly marking the box, or potential nest predators, for guided and concerted attacks, or enhancing the alarm-inducing effect of the volatile pheromone components

  9. Department of Defense picture archiving and communication system acceptance testing: results and identification of problem components.

    PubMed

    Allison, Scott A; Sweet, Clifford F; Beall, Douglas P; Lewis, Thomas E; Monroe, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The PACS implementation process is complicated requiring a tremendous amount of time, resources, and planning. The Department of Defense (DOD) has significant experience in developing and refining PACS acceptance testing (AT) protocols that assure contract compliance, clinical safety, and functionality. The DOD's AT experience under the initial Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support System contract led to the current Digital Imaging Network-Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (DIN-PACS) contract AT protocol. To identify the most common system and component deficiencies under the current DIN-PACS AT protocol, 14 tri-service sites were evaluated during 1998-2000. Sixteen system deficiency citations with 154 separate types of limitations were noted with problems involving the workstation, interfaces, and the Radiology Information System comprising more than 50% of the citations. Larger PACS deployments were associated with a higher number of deficiencies. The most commonly cited systems deficiencies were among the most expensive components of the PACS. PMID:15924273

  10. Identification of Synthetic and Natural Host Defense Peptides with Leishmanicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marr, A. K.; Cen, S.; Hancock, R. E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are a major public health problem worldwide. Effective treatment of leishmaniasis is hampered by the high incidence of adverse effects to traditional drug therapy and the emergence of resistance to current therapeutics. A vaccine is currently not available. Host defense peptides have been investigated as novel therapeutic agents against a wide range of pathogens. Here we demonstrate that the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the three synthetic peptides E6, L-1018, and RI-1018 exhibit leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes and intramacrophage amastigotes of Leishmania donovani and Leishmania major. We also report that the Leishmania protease/virulence factor GP63 confers protection to Leishmania from the cytolytic properties of all l-form peptides (E6, L-1018, and LL-37) but not the d-form peptide RI-1018. The results suggest that RI-1018, E6, and LL-37 are promising peptides to develop further into components for antileishmanial therapy. PMID:26883699

  11. Wind turbine control systems: Dynamic model development using system identification and the fast structural dynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    Mitigating the effects of damaging wind turbine loads and responses extends the lifetime of the turbine and, consequently, reduces the associated Cost of Energy (COE). Active control of aerodynamic devices is one option for achieving wind turbine load mitigation. Generally speaking, control system design and analysis requires a reasonable dynamic model of {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} (i.e., the system being controlled). This paper extends the wind turbine aileron control research, previously conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), by presenting a more detailed development of the wind turbine dynamic model. In prior research, active aileron control designs were implemented in an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code, FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). In this paper, the FAST code is used, in conjunction with system identification, to generate a wind turbine dynamic model for use in active aileron control system design. The FAST code is described and an overview of the system identification technique is presented. An aileron control case study is used to demonstrate this modeling technique. The results of the case study are then used to propose ideas for generalizing this technique for creating dynamic models for other wind turbine control applications.

  12. Genome Wide Identification and Functional Prediction of Long Non-Coding RNAs Responsive to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Infection in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Megha, Swati; Basu, Urmila; Rahman, Muhammad H.; Kav, Nat N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum affects canola production worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in plants, in response to both abiotic and biotic stress. So far, identification of lncRNAs has been limited to a few model plant species, and their roles in mediating responses to biotic stresses are yet to be characterized in Brassica napus. The present study reports the identification of novel lncRNAs responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection in B. napus at two time points after infection (24 hpi and 48 hpi) using a stranded RNA-Sequencing technique and a detection pipeline for lncRNAs. Of the total 3,181 lncRNA candidates, 2,821 lncRNAs were intergenic, 111 were natural antisense transcripts, 76 possessed exonic overlap with the reference coding transcripts while the remaining 173 represented novel lnc- isoforms. Forty one lncRNAs were identified as the precursors for microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR156, miR169 and miR394, with significant roles in mediating plant responses to fungal phytopathogens. A total of 931 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in response to S. sclerotiorum infection and the expression of 12 such lncRNAs was further validated using qRT-PCR. B. napus antisense lncRNA, TCONS_00000966, having 90% overlap with a plant defensin gene, showed significant induction at both infection stages, suggesting its involvement in the transcriptional regulation of defense responsive genes under S. sclerotiorum infection. Additionally, nine lncRNAs showed overlap with cis-regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes of B. napus. Quantitative RT-PCR verification of a set of S. sclerotiorum responsive sense/antisense transcript pairs revealed contrasting expression patterns, supporting the hypothesis that steric clashes of transcriptional machinery may lead to inactivation of sense promoter. Our findings highlight the potential

  13. Genome Wide Identification and Functional Prediction of Long Non-Coding RNAs Responsive to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Infection in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Megha, Swati; Basu, Urmila; Rahman, Muhammad H; Kav, Nat N V

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum affects canola production worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in plants, in response to both abiotic and biotic stress. So far, identification of lncRNAs has been limited to a few model plant species, and their roles in mediating responses to biotic stresses are yet to be characterized in Brassica napus. The present study reports the identification of novel lncRNAs responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection in B. napus at two time points after infection (24 hpi and 48 hpi) using a stranded RNA-Sequencing technique and a detection pipeline for lncRNAs. Of the total 3,181 lncRNA candidates, 2,821 lncRNAs were intergenic, 111 were natural antisense transcripts, 76 possessed exonic overlap with the reference coding transcripts while the remaining 173 represented novel lnc- isoforms. Forty one lncRNAs were identified as the precursors for microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR156, miR169 and miR394, with significant roles in mediating plant responses to fungal phytopathogens. A total of 931 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in response to S. sclerotiorum infection and the expression of 12 such lncRNAs was further validated using qRT-PCR. B. napus antisense lncRNA, TCONS_00000966, having 90% overlap with a plant defensin gene, showed significant induction at both infection stages, suggesting its involvement in the transcriptional regulation of defense responsive genes under S. sclerotiorum infection. Additionally, nine lncRNAs showed overlap with cis-regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes of B. napus. Quantitative RT-PCR verification of a set of S. sclerotiorum responsive sense/antisense transcript pairs revealed contrasting expression patterns, supporting the hypothesis that steric clashes of transcriptional machinery may lead to inactivation of sense promoter. Our findings highlight the potential

  14. Identification and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) defense responses.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Folta, Kevin M; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria spp) is an emerging model for the development of basic genomics and recombinant DNA studies among rosaceous crops. Functional genomic and molecular studies involve relative quantification of gene expression under experimental conditions of interest. Accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of an optimal reference control transcript. There is no information available on validated endogenous reference genes for use in studies testing strawberry-pathogen interactions. Thirteen potential pre-selected strawberry reference genes were tested against different tissues, strawberry cultivars, biotic stresses, ripening and senescent conditions, and SA/JA treatments. Evaluation of reference candidate's suitability was analyzed by five different methodologies, and information was merged to identify best reference transcripts. A combination of all five methods was used for selective classification of reference genes. The resulting superior reference genes, FaRIB413, FaACTIN, FaEF1α and FaGAPDH2 are strongly recommended as control genes for relative quantification of gene expression in strawberry. This report constitutes the first systematic study to identify and validate optimal reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in strawberry plant defense response studies.

  15. The defensive secretion of Carabus lefebvrei Dejean 1826 pupa (Coleoptera, Carabidae): gland ultrastructure and chemical identification.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Dalpozzo, Renato; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2009-05-01

    This study documents the defensive function of flavored humor secreted by the abdominal glands of Carabus lefebvrei pupae. The morphology and the ultrastructure of these glands were described and the volatile compounds of glands secretion were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The ultrastructure analysis shows an acinose complex formed by about 50 clusters. Each cluster has 20 glandular units and the unit-composed of one secretory and one canal cell lying along a duct-belongs to the class 3 cell type of Quennedey (1998). In the cytoplasm, the secretory cell contains abundant rough endoplasmatic reticula, glycogen granules, numerous mitochondria, and many well-developed Golgi complexes producing electron-dense secretory granules. Mitochondria are large, elongated, and often adjoining electronlucent vesicles. The kind and the origin of secretory granules varying in size and density were discussed. The chemical analysis of the gland secretion revealed the presence of a mixture of low molecular weight terpenes, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and carboxylic acids. Monoterpenes, especially linalool, were the major products. We supposed that ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and carboxylic acids have a deterrent function against the predators and monoterpenes provide a prophylaxis function against pathogens.

  16. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-bing; Feng, Jie; Ward, Robert D; Wan, Ping; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Wei-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF) to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish) and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae). Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40%) for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37%) for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  17. Identification of Genes in Thuja plicata Foliar Terpenoid Defenses1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Adam J.; Hall, Dawn E.; Mortimer, Leanne; Abercromby, Shelley; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Jörg; Russell, John; Mattsson, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Thuja plicata (western redcedar) is a long-lived conifer species whose foliage is rarely affected by disease or insect pests, but can be severely damaged by ungulate browsing. Deterrence to browsing correlates with high foliar levels of terpenoids, in particular the monoterpenoid α-thujone. Here, we set out to identify genes whose products may be involved in the production of α-thujone and other terpenoids in this species. First, we generated a foliar transcriptome database from which to draw candidate genes. Second, we mapped the storage of thujones and other terpenoids to foliar glands. Third, we used global expression profiling to identify more than 600 genes that are expressed at high levels in foliage with glands, but can either not be detected or are expressed at low levels in a natural variant lacking foliar glands. Fourth, we used in situ RNA hybridization to map the expression of a putative monoterpene synthase to the epithelium of glands and used enzyme assays with recombinant protein of the same gene to show that it produces sabinene, the monoterpene precursor of α-thujone. Finally, we identified candidate genes with predicted enzymatic functions for the conversion of sabinene to α-thujone. Taken together, this approach generated both general resources and detailed functional characterization in the identification of genes of foliar terpenoid biosynthesis in T. plicata. PMID:23388118

  18. Violations of Temporary Flight Restrictions and Air Defense Identification Zones: An Analysis of Airspace Violations and Pilot Report Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuschlag, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This document provides the results from a study into the apparent factors and causes of violations of restricted airspace, particularly temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) and air defense identification zones (ADIZs). By illuminating the reasons for these violations, this study aims to take the first step towards reducing them. The study assesses the basic characteristics of restricted airspace violations as well as the probable causes and factors contributing to violations. Results from the study imply most violations occur where the restriction has been in place for a significant amount of time prior to the violation. Additionally, the study results imply most violations are not due to the pilot simply being unaware of the airspace at the time of violation. In most violations, pilots are aware of the presence of the restricted airspace but have incorrect information about it, namely, its exact boundaries or procedures for authorized penetration. These results imply that the best means to reduce violations of restricted airspace is to improve the effectiveness of providing pilots the details required to avoid the airspace.

  19. Evaluation of the personalized bar-code identification card to verify high-risk, high-alert medications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Maria

    2013-09-01

    An effective intervention to decrease medication errors related to high-risk, high-alert medications is to implement double checks and second verification using the five rights of medication administration. To evaluate the effectiveness and use of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification card in verifying high-risk, high-alert medications, the High-Risk, High-Alert Medication Verification Audit Tool was used to collect data from the medical records of patients who received high-risk, high-alert medications in four ICUs. Data were collected for administered high-risk, high-alert medication, primary registered nurses who administered the high-risk, high-alert medication, and secondary registered nurses who verified the medication. The percentage of medications that were "not verified," "Personalized Bar-Code Identification verified," and "verified" using a method other than the Personalized Bar-Code Identification was calculated and compared using Z tests for two proportions. The percentage of Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications (83.5%) was significantly higher than the percentage of medications that were not verified (10.9%) (Z = 38.43, P < .05). Also, the difference between the proportion of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications and those that were verified using another method (5.6%) was significant (Z = 41.42, P < .05). The results show that nurses generally tend to follow the standardized procedure for verifying high-risk, high-alert medications in the four ICUs.

  20. Computational identification of human long intergenic non-coding RNAs using a GA-SVM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqiu; Li, Yang; Wang, Qi; Lv, Yingli; Wang, Shiyuan; Chen, Xi; Yu, Xuexin; Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a new type of non-coding RNAs and are closely related with the occurrence and development of diseases. In previous studies, most lincRNAs have been identified through next-generation sequencing. Because lincRNAs exhibit tissue-specific expression, the reproducibility of lincRNA discovery in different studies is very poor. In this study, not including lincRNA expression, we used the sequence, structural and protein-coding potential features as potential features to construct a classifier that can be used to distinguish lincRNAs from non-lincRNAs. The GA-SVM algorithm was performed to extract the optimized feature subset. Compared with several feature subsets, the five-fold cross validation results showed that this optimized feature subset exhibited the best performance for the identification of human lincRNAs. Moreover, the LincRNA Classifier based on Selected Features (linc-SF) was constructed by support vector machine (SVM) based on the optimized feature subset. The performance of this classifier was further evaluated by predicting lincRNAs from two independent lincRNA sets. Because the recognition rates for the two lincRNA sets were 100% and 99.8%, the linc-SF was found to be effective for the prediction of human lincRNAs.

  1. Identification of mutations by RNA conformational polymorphism {open_quotes}bar code{close_quotes} analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, H.J.; Danenberg, K.D.; Schnieders, B. |

    1995-11-01

    DNA single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis is widely used for detection of point mutations in clinical specimens. Performing SSCP analysis with cRNA instead of DNA has been shown to improve mutation detection frequency. RNA can exist in numerous metastable conformations, which appear as patterns of bands on nondenaturing electrophoresis gels. Single base mutations can cause not only mobility shifts of major bands, but also loss of some conformations and appearance of new conformations. Unique RNA SSCP patterns associated with specific base sequences in many cases allow visual identification of point mutations. However, in some cases, the RNA SSCP pattern of a single base change in a sequence is not sufficiently different for a positive identification of the mutation. Improvement in the detection capability of RNA SSCP was obtained by adding 3{prime}-deoxy-nucleotides to the transcription reaction. The presence of chain-terminating nucleotides in the transcription reaction formed numerous new RNA fragments, thereby generating complex band patterns ({open_quotes}bar codes{close_quotes}) unique to each RNA sequence. This method was applied to analyzing p53 mutations in patients with colon cancer. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Identification of long non-coding RNAs involved in neuronal development and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    D’haene, Eva; Jacobs, Eva Z.; Volders, Pieter-Jan; De Meyer, Tim; Menten, Björn; Vergult, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Recently, exome sequencing led to the identification of causal mutations in 16–31% of patients with intellectual disability (ID), leaving the underlying cause for many patients unidentified. In this context, the noncoding part of the human genome remains largely unexplored. For many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) a crucial role in neurodevelopment and hence the human brain is anticipated. Here we aimed at identifying lncRNAs associated with neuronal development and ID. Therefore, we applied an integrated genomics approach, harnessing several public epigenetic datasets. We found that the presence of neuron-specific H3K4me3 confers the highest specificity for genes involved in neurodevelopment and ID. Based on the presence of this feature and GWAS hits for CNS disorders, we identified 53 candidate lncRNA genes. Extensive expression profiling on human brain samples and other tissues, followed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis indicates that at least 24 of these lncRNAs are indeed implicated in processes such as synaptic transmission, nervous system development and neurogenesis. The bidirectional or antisense overlapping orientation relative to multiple coding genes involved in neuronal processes supports these results. In conclusion, we identified several lncRNA genes putatively involved in neurodevelopment and CNS disorders, providing a resource for functional studies. PMID:27319317

  3. Genome-wide identification of non-coding RNAs interacted with microRNAs in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chu-Yu; Xu, Hao; Shen, Enhui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Shen, Yifei; Qiu, Jie; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Fan, Longjiang

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of RNA species interacting with microRNAs (miRNAs) form a complex gene regulation network and play vital roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification of endogenous target mimics (eTMs) for miRNAs and phased-siRNA-producing loci (PHAS) in soybean with a focus on those involved in lipid metabolism. The results showed that a large number of eTMs and PHAS genes could be found in soybean. Additionally, we found that lipid metabolism related genes were potentially regulated by 28 miRNAs, and nine of them were potentially further regulated by a number of eTMs with expression evidence. Thirty-three miRNAs were found to trigger production of phasiRNAs from 49 PHAS genes, which were able to target lipid metabolism related genes. Degradome data supported miRNA- and/or phasiRNA-mediated cleavage of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Most eTMs for miRNAs involved in lipid metabolism and phasiRNAs targeting lipid metabolism related genes showed a tissue-specific expression pattern. Our bioinformatical evidences suggested that lipid metabolism in soybean is potentially regulated by a complex non-coding network, including miRNAs, eTMs, and phasiRNAs, and the results extended our knowledge on functions of non-coding RNAs. PMID:25566308

  4. WISCOD: a statistical web-enabled tool for the identification of significant protein coding regions.

    PubMed

    Vilardell, Mireia; Parra, Genis; Civit, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    Classically, gene prediction programs are based on detecting signals such as boundary sites (splice sites, starts, and stops) and coding regions in the DNA sequence in order to build potential exons and join them into a gene structure. Although nowadays it is possible to improve their performance with additional information from related species or/and cDNA databases, further improvement at any step could help to obtain better predictions. Here, we present WISCOD, a web-enabled tool for the identification of significant protein coding regions, a novel software tool that tackles the exon prediction problem in eukaryotic genomes. WISCOD has the capacity to detect real exons from large lists of potential exons, and it provides an easy way to use global P value called expected probability of being a false exon (EPFE) that is useful for ranking potential exons in a probabilistic framework, without additional computational costs. The advantage of our approach is that it significantly increases the specificity and sensitivity (both between 80% and 90%) in comparison to other ab initio methods (where they are in the range of 70-75%). WISCOD is written in JAVA and R and is available to download and to run in a local mode on Linux and Windows platforms. PMID:25313355

  5. WISCOD: a statistical web-enabled tool for the identification of significant protein coding regions.

    PubMed

    Vilardell, Mireia; Parra, Genis; Civit, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    Classically, gene prediction programs are based on detecting signals such as boundary sites (splice sites, starts, and stops) and coding regions in the DNA sequence in order to build potential exons and join them into a gene structure. Although nowadays it is possible to improve their performance with additional information from related species or/and cDNA databases, further improvement at any step could help to obtain better predictions. Here, we present WISCOD, a web-enabled tool for the identification of significant protein coding regions, a novel software tool that tackles the exon prediction problem in eukaryotic genomes. WISCOD has the capacity to detect real exons from large lists of potential exons, and it provides an easy way to use global P value called expected probability of being a false exon (EPFE) that is useful for ranking potential exons in a probabilistic framework, without additional computational costs. The advantage of our approach is that it significantly increases the specificity and sensitivity (both between 80% and 90%) in comparison to other ab initio methods (where they are in the range of 70-75%). WISCOD is written in JAVA and R and is available to download and to run in a local mode on Linux and Windows platforms.

  6. Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1988-01-01

    This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

  7. Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1985-01-01

    This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

  8. Genome analysis of poplar LRR-RLP gene clusters reveals RISP, a defense-related gene coding a candidate endogenous peptide elicitor

    PubMed Central

    Petre, Benjamin; Hacquard, Stéphane; Duplessis, Sébastien; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In plants, cell-surface receptors control immunity and development through the recognition of extracellular ligands. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) constitute a large multigene family of cell-surface receptors. Although this family has been intensively studied, a limited number of ligands has been identified so far, mostly because methods used for their identification and characterization are complex and fastidious. In this study, we combined genome and transcriptome analyses to describe the LRR-RLP gene family in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). In total, 82 LRR-RLP genes have been identified in P. trichocarpa genome, among which 66 are organized in clusters of up to seven members. In these clusters, LRR-RLP genes are interspersed by orphan, poplar-specific genes encoding small proteins of unknown function (SPUFs). In particular, the nine largest clusters of LRR-RLP genes (47 LRR-RLPs) include 71 SPUF genes that account for 59% of the non-LRR-RLP gene content within these clusters. Forty-four LRR-RLP and 55 SPUF genes are expressed in poplar leaves, mostly at low levels, except for members of some clusters that show higher and sometimes coordinated expression levels. Notably, wounding of poplar leaves strongly induced the expression of a defense SPUF gene named Rust-Induced Secreted protein (RISP) that has been previously reported as a marker of poplar defense responses. Interestingly, we show that the RISP-associated LRR-RLP gene is highly expressed in poplar leaves and slightly induced by wounding. Both gene promoters share a highly conserved region of ~300 nucleotides. This led us to hypothesize that the corresponding pair of proteins could be involved in poplar immunity, possibly as a ligand/receptor couple. In conclusion, we speculate that some poplar SPUFs, such as RISP, represent candidate endogenous peptide ligands of the associated LRR-RLPs and we discuss how to investigate further this hypothesis. PMID:24734035

  9. Validation of ICD-9-CM codes for identification of acetaminophen-related emergency department visits in a large pediatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen overdose is a major concern among the pediatric population. Our objective was to assess the validity of International Classification of Disease (ICD-9-CM) codes for identification of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits resulting from acetaminophen exposure or overdose. Methods We conducted a retrospective medical record review of ED visits at Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston, Texas, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2010. Visits coded with 1 or more ICD-9 codes for poisoning (965, 977, and their subcodes and supplemental E-codes E850, E858, E935, E947, and E950 and their subcodes) were identified from an administrative database, and further review of the medical records was conducted to identify true cases of acetaminophen exposure or overdose. We then examined the sensitivity, positive predictive value, and percentage of false positives identified by various codes and code combinations to establish which codes most accurately identified acetaminophen exposure or overdose. Results Of 1,215 ED visits documented with 1 or more of the selected codes, 316 (26.0%) were a result of acetaminophen exposure or overdose. Sensitivity was highest (87.0%) for the combination of codes 965.4 (poisoning by aromatic analgesics, not elsewhere classified) and E950.0 (suicide and self-inflicted poisoning by analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics), with a positive predictive value of 86.2%. Code 965.4 alone yielded a sensitivity of 85.1%, with a positive predictive value of 92.8%. Code performance varied among age groups and depending on the type of exposure (intentional or unintentional). Conclusion ICD-9 codes are useful for ascertaining which ED visits are a result of acetaminophen exposure or overdose within the pediatric population. However, because ICD-9 coding differs by age group and depending on the type of exposure, hypothesis-driven strategies must be utilized for each pediatric age group to avoid misclassification. PMID

  10. Genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids in eukaryotes by non-coding DNA occurs through CRISPR-like mechanisms in the cytosol and the bodyguard protection in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the protective function of the abundant non-coding DNA in the eukaryotic genome is discussed from the perspective of genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids. Peripheral non-coding DNA has been proposed to act as a bodyguard that protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. In the proposed mechanism of protection, the radicals generated by water radiolysis in the cytosol and IR energy are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin; then, the DNA damage sites in the heterochromatin are removed and expelled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes, most likely through the formation of extrachromosomal circular DNA. To strengthen this hypothesis, this review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the protective function of non-coding DNA against exogenous nucleic acids. Based on these data, I hypothesize herein about the presence of an additional line of defense formed by small RNAs in the cytosol in addition to their bodyguard protection mechanism in the nucleus. Therefore, exogenous nucleic acids may be initially inactivated in the cytosol by small RNAs generated from non-coding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. Exogenous nucleic acids may enter the nucleus, where some are absorbed and/or blocked by heterochromatin and others integrate into chromosomes. The integrated fragments and the sites of DNA damage are removed by repetitive non-coding DNA elements in the heterochromatin and excluded from the nucleus. Therefore, the normal eukaryotic genome and the central protein-coding sequences are triply protected by non-coding DNA against invasion by exogenous nucleic acids. This review provides evidence supporting the protective role of non-coding DNA in genome defense.

  11. Identification of the coding region for a second poly(A) polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, G J; Pogliano, J; Sarkar, N

    1996-01-01

    We had earlier identified the pcnB locus as the gene for the major Escherichia coli poly(A) polymerase (PAP I). In this report, we describe the disruption and identification of a candidate gene for a second poly(A) polymerase (PAP II) by an experimental strategy which was based on the assumption that the viability of E. coli depends on the presence of either PAP I or PAP II. The coding region thus identified is the open reading frame f310, located at about 87 min on the E. coli chromosome. The following lines of evidence support f310 as the gene for PAP II: (i) the deduced peptide encoded by f310 has a molecular weight of 36,300, similar to the molecular weight of 35,000 estimated by gel filtration of PAP II; (ii) the deduced f310 product is a relatively hydrophobic polypeptide with a pI of 9.4, consistent with the properties of partially purified PAP II; (iii) overexpression of f310 leads to the formation of inclusion bodies whose solubilization and renaturation yields poly(A) polymerase activity that corresponds to a 35-kDa protein as shown by enzyme blotting; and (iv) expression of a f310 fusion construct with hexahistidine at the N-terminus of the coding region allowed purification of a poly(A) polymerase fraction whose major component is a 36-kDa protein. E. coli PAP II has no significant sequence homology either to PAP I or to the viral and eukaryotic poly(A) polymerases, suggesting that the bacterial poly(A) polymerases have evolved independently. An interesting feature of the PAP II sequence is the presence of sets of two paired cysteine and histidine residues that resemble the RNA binding motifs seen in some other proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8876178

  12. Identification of Long Non-Coding RNAs Deregulated in Multiple Myeloma Cells Resistant to Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Ehsan; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Driscoll, James J.

    2016-01-01

    While the clinical benefit of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) for multiple myeloma (MM) treatment remains unchallenged, dose-limiting toxicities and the inevitable emergence of drug resistance limit their long-term utility. Disease eradication is compromised by drug resistance that is either present de novo or therapy-induced, which accounts for the majority of tumor relapses and MM-related deaths. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a broad class of RNA molecules, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), that do not encode proteins but play a major role in regulating the fundamental cellular processes that control cancer initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. While lncRNAs have recently attracted significant attention as therapeutic targets to potentially improve cancer treatment, identification of lncRNAs that are deregulated in cells resistant to PIs has not been previously addressed. We have modeled drug resistance by generating three MM cell lines with acquired resistance to either bortezomib, carfilzomib, or ixazomib. Genome-wide profiling identified lncRNAs that were significantly deregulated in all three PI-resistant cell lines relative to the drug-sensitive parental cell line. Strikingly, certain lncRNAs deregulated in the three PI-resistant cell lines were also deregulated in MM plasma cells isolated from newly diagnosed patients compared to healthy plasma cells. Taken together, these preliminary studies strongly suggest that lncRNAs represent potential therapeutic targets to prevent or overcome drug resistance. More investigations are ongoing to expand these initial studies in a greater number of MM patients to better define lncRNAs signatures that contribute to PI resistance in MM. PMID:27782060

  13. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  14. Systematic Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqian; Cheng, Tingcai; Liu, Chun; Liu, Duolian; Zhang, Quan; Long, Renwen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in various biological processes. However, to date, no systematic characterization of lncRNAs has been reported in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In the present study, we generated eighteen RNA-seq datasets with relatively high depth. Using an in-house designed lncRNA identification pipeline, 11,810 lncRNAs were identified for 5,556 loci. Among these lncRNAs, 474 transcripts were intronic lncRNAs (ilncRNAs), 6,250 transcripts were intergenic lncRNAs (lincRNAs), and 5,086 were natural antisense lncRNAs (lncNATs). Compared with protein-coding mRNAs, silkworm lncRNAs are shorter in terms of full length but longer in terms of exon and intron length. In addition, lncRNAs exhibit a lower level of sequence conservation, more repeat sequences overlapped and higher tissue specificity than protein-coding mRNAs in the silkworm. We found that 69 lncRNA transcripts from 33 gene loci may function as miRNA precursors, and 104 lncRNA transcripts from 72 gene loci may act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). In total, 49.47% of all gene loci (2,749/5,556) for which lncRNAs were identified showed sex-biased expression. Co-expression network analysis resulted in 19 modules, 12 of which revealed relatively high tissue specificity. The highlighted darkgoldenrod module was specifically associated with middle and posterior silk glands, and the hub lncRNAs within this module were co-expressed with proteins involved in translation, translocation, and secretory processes, suggesting that these hub lncRNAs may function as regulators of the biosynthesis, translocation, and secretion of silk proteins. This study presents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of silkworm lncRNAs and provides an invaluable resource for genetic, evolutionary, and genomic studies of B. mori.

  15. Systematic Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuqian; Cheng, Tingcai; Liu, Chun; Liu, Duolian; Zhang, Quan; Long, Renwen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in various biological processes. However, to date, no systematic characterization of lncRNAs has been reported in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In the present study, we generated eighteen RNA-seq datasets with relatively high depth. Using an in-house designed lncRNA identification pipeline, 11,810 lncRNAs were identified for 5,556 loci. Among these lncRNAs, 474 transcripts were intronic lncRNAs (ilncRNAs), 6,250 transcripts were intergenic lncRNAs (lincRNAs), and 5,086 were natural antisense lncRNAs (lncNATs). Compared with protein-coding mRNAs, silkworm lncRNAs are shorter in terms of full length but longer in terms of exon and intron length. In addition, lncRNAs exhibit a lower level of sequence conservation, more repeat sequences overlapped and higher tissue specificity than protein-coding mRNAs in the silkworm. We found that 69 lncRNA transcripts from 33 gene loci may function as miRNA precursors, and 104 lncRNA transcripts from 72 gene loci may act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). In total, 49.47% of all gene loci (2,749/5,556) for which lncRNAs were identified showed sex-biased expression. Co-expression network analysis resulted in 19 modules, 12 of which revealed relatively high tissue specificity. The highlighted darkgoldenrod module was specifically associated with middle and posterior silk glands, and the hub lncRNAs within this module were co-expressed with proteins involved in translation, translocation, and secretory processes, suggesting that these hub lncRNAs may function as regulators of the biosynthesis, translocation, and secretion of silk proteins. This study presents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of silkworm lncRNAs and provides an invaluable resource for genetic, evolutionary, and genomic studies of B. mori. PMID:26771876

  16. Isolation, identification, and quantification of potential defensive compounds in the viceroy butterfly and its larval host-plant, Carolina willow.

    PubMed

    Prudic, Kathleen L; Khera, Smriti; Sólyom, Anikó; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2007-06-01

    The viceroy-monarch and viceroy-queen butterfly associations are classic examples of mimicry. These relationships were originally classified as Batesian, or parasitic, but were later reclassified as Müllerian, or mutalistic, based on predator bioassays. The Müllerian reclassification implies that viceroy is unpalatable because it too is chemically defended like the queen and the monarch. However, unlike the queen and the monarch, the viceroy defensive chemistry has remained uncharacterized. We demonstrate that the viceroy butterfly (Limenitis archippus, Nymphalidae) not only sequesters nonvolatile defensive compounds from its larval host-plant, the Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana, Salicaceae), but also secretes volatile defensive compounds when disturbed. We developed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods to identify a set of phenolic glycosides shared between the adult viceroy butterfly and the Carolina willow, and solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods to identify volatile phenolic compounds released from stressed viceroy butterflies. In both approaches, all structures were characterized based on their mass spectral fragmentation patterns and confirmed with authentic standards. The phenolics we found are known to deter predator attack in other prey systems, including other willow-feeding insect species. Because these compounds have a generalized defensive function at the concentrations we described, our results are consistent with the Müllerian reclassification put forth by other researchers based on bioassay results. It seems that the viceroy butterfly possesses chemical defenses different from its monarch and queen butterfly counterparts (phenolic glycosides vs. cardiac glycosides, respectively), an unusual phenomenon in mimicry warranting future study.

  17. The identification and characterization of non-coding and coding RNAs and their modified nucleosides by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ribonucleic acids (RNA) by mass spectrometry has been a valuable analytical approach for more than 25 years. In fact, mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for the analysis of modified nucleosides from RNA isolated out of biological samples. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in both nucleoside and oligonucleotide mass spectral analysis. Applications of mass spectrometry in the identification, characterization and quantification of modified nucleosides are discussed. At the oligonucleotide level, advances in modern mass spectrometry approaches combined with the standard RNA modification mapping protocol enable the characterization of RNAs of varying lengths ranging from low molecular weight short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the extremely large 23 S rRNAs. New variations and improvements to this protocol are reviewed, including top-down strategies, as these developments now enable qualitative and quantitative measurements of RNA modification patterns in a variety of biological systems. PMID:25616408

  18. CSTminer: a web tool for the identification of coding and noncoding conserved sequence tags through cross-species genome comparison.

    PubMed

    Castrignanò, Tiziana; Canali, Alessandro; Grillo, Giorgio; Liuni, Sabino; Mignone, Flavio; Pesole, Graziano

    2004-07-01

    The identification and characterization of genome tracts that are highly conserved across species during evolution may contribute significantly to the functional annotation of whole-genome sequences. Indeed, such sequences are likely to correspond to known or unknown coding exons or regulatory motifs. Here, we present a web server implementing a previously developed algorithm that, by comparing user-submitted genome sequences, is able to identify statistically significant conserved blocks and assess their coding or noncoding nature through the measure of a coding potential score. The web tool, available at http://www.caspur.it/CSTminer/, is dynamically interconnected with the Ensembl genome resources and produces a graphical output showing a map of detected conserved sequences and annotated gene features.

  19. 33 CFR 181.33 - Conditions for use of manufacturer identification codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats... advise the Recreational Boating Product Assurance Branch (CG-54223), 2100 2nd St., SW., Stop...

  20. 33 CFR 181.33 - Conditions for use of manufacturer identification codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats... advise the Recreational Boating Product Assurance Branch (CG-54223), 2100 2nd St., SW., Stop...

  1. 48 CFR 204.7005 - Assignment of order codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Identification Numbers 204.7005 Assignment of order codes. (a) The Defense Logistics Agency, Acquisition Policy... use in the first two positions of an order number when an activity places an order against another activity's contract or agreement (see 204.7004(d)(2)). The executive agent distributes blocks of...

  2. Coupling scanning electronc microscopy with DNA bar coding: A novel approach for thrips identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small size and cryptic nature of thrips pests help them acquire microhabitats of a plant and in the field, often making their monitoring and the identification process difficult. Accurate identification of such pests is a fundamental requirement in development of any effective quarantine and man...

  3. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  4. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Associated with Defense Responses to Phytophthora capsici in Pepper Line "PI 201234".

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingyong; Liu, Xiaodan; Guo, Jinju; Liu, Chen; Fu, Nan; Shen, Huolin

    2015-05-18

    Phytophthora capsici (Leonian), classified as an oomycete, seriously threatens the production of pepper (Capsicum annuum). Current understanding of the defense responses in pepper to P. capsici is limited. In this study, RNA-sequencing analysis was utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in the resistant line "PI 201234", with 1220 differentially expressed genes detected. Of those genes, 480 were up-regulated and 740 were down-regulated, with 211 candidate genes found to be involved in defense responses based on the gene annotations. Furthermore, the expression patterns of 12 candidate genes were further validated via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). These genes were found to be significantly up-regulated at different time points post-inoculation (6 hpi, 24 hpi, and 5 dpi) in the resistant line "PI 201234" and susceptible line "Qiemen". Seven genes were found to be involved in cell wall modification, phytoalexin biosynthesis, symptom development, and phytohormone signaling pathways, thus possibly playing important roles in combating exogenous pathogens. The genes identified herein will provide a basis for further gene cloning and functional verification studies and will aid in an understanding of the regulatory mechanism of pepper resistance to P. capsici.

  5. In Defense of Reading Badly: The Politics of Identification in "Benito Cereno," "Uncle Tom's Cabin," and Our Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Faye

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, we English faculty have warned our students against simply identifying with a literary work's characters. For us, such attachments constitute "reading badly." But we engage in identifications, too, including ones with the work's author. A consideration of critical responses to "Benito Cereno" and "Uncle Tom's Cabin" enables us to…

  6. TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-03-01

    The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given.

  7. HYPERSENSITIVE RESPONSE-LIKE LESIONS 1 Codes for AtPPT1 and Regulates Accumulation of ROS and Defense Against Bacterial Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Aditya; Chan, Samuel H.P.; Pauli, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Plants employ both basal and resistance gene (R gene)-mediated defenses in response to pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely reported to play a central role in both basal and R gene-mediated defense; however, the nature of ROS has been less well established for basal defense. In addition, spatial distribution of redox moieties and mechanisms of plant responses during basal defense are poorly understood. We investigated redox signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to virulent bacterial pathogen, focusing on the role of the mitochondria in balancing energy demands against generation of physiologically relevant ROS. Results: Positional cloning of an Arabidopsis lesion mimic mutant identified a polyprenyl transferase involved in the biosynthesis of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ), which leads to novel insights into physiological ROS levels and their role in basal resistance. Gain- and loss-of-function studies identified Coenzyme Q10 redox state to be a key determinant of ROS levels. These Coenzyme Q10 redox state-mediated ROS levels had a direct bearing on both response against pathogen and ability to thrive in high oxidative stress environments. Innovation: We demonstrate that Coenzyme Q10 redox state generates an ROS threshold for a successful basal resistance response. Perturbation of the Coenzyme Q10 redox state has the potential to disrupt plant defense responses against bacterial pathogens. Conclusions: Coenzyme Q10 redox state is a key regulator of Arabidopsis basal resistance against bacterial pathogens. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 785–796. PMID:25557512

  8. Identification of novel non-coding small RNAs from Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 using high-resolution genome tiling arrays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The identification of non-coding transcripts in human, mouse, and Escherichia coli has revealed their widespread occurrence and functional importance in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic life. In prokaryotes, studies have shown that non-coding transcripts participate in a broad range of cellular functions like gene regulation, stress and virulence. However, very little is known about non-coding transcripts in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), an obligate human respiratory pathogen responsible for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. Tiling microarrays enable genome wide mRNA profiling as well as identification of novel transcripts at a high-resolution. Results Here, we describe a high-resolution transcription map of the S. pneumoniae clinical isolate TIGR4 using genomic tiling arrays. Our results indicate that approximately 66% of the genome is expressed under our experimental conditions. We identified a total of 50 non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) from the intergenic regions, of which 36 had no predicted function. Half of the identified sRNA sequences were found to be unique to S. pneumoniae genome. We identified eight overrepresented sequence motifs among sRNA sequences that correspond to sRNAs in different functional categories. Tiling arrays also identified approximately 202 operon structures in the genome. Conclusions In summary, the pneumococcal operon structures and novel sRNAs identified in this study enhance our understanding of the complexity and extent of the pneumococcal 'expressed' genome. Furthermore, the results of this study open up new avenues of research for understanding the complex RNA regulatory network governing S. pneumoniae physiology and virulence. PMID:20525227

  9. Automatic identification of large collections of protein-coding or rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Arigon, Anne-Muriel; Perrière, Guy; Gouy, Manolo

    2008-04-01

    The number of available genomic sequences is growing very fast, due to the development of massive sequencing techniques. Sequence identification is needed and contributes to the assessment of gene and species evolutionary relationships. Automated bioinformatics tools are thus necessary to carry out these identification operations in an accurate and fast way. We developed HoSeqI (Homologous Sequence Identification), a software environment allowing this kind of automated sequence identification using homologous gene family databases. HoSeqI is accessible through a Web interface (http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/HoSeqI/) allowing to identify one or several sequences and to visualize resulting alignments and phylogenetic trees. We also implemented another application, MultiHoSeqI, to quickly add a large set of sequences to a family database in order to identify them, to update the database, or to help automatic genome annotation. Lately, we developed an application, ChiSeqI (Chimeric Sequence Identification), to automate the processes of identification of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences and of detection of chimeric sequences.

  10. Validity of ICD-9-CM codes for the identification of complications related to central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Tukey, Melissa H; Borzecki, Ann M; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2015-01-01

    Two complications of central venous catheterization (CVC), iatrogenic pneumothorax and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), have dedicated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Despite increasing use of ICD-9-CM codes for research and pay-for-performance purposes, their validity for detecting complications of CVC has not been established. Complications of CVCs placed between July 2010 and December 2011 were identified by ICD-9-CM codes in discharge records from a single hospital and compared with those revealed by medical record abstraction. The ICD-9-CM code for iatrogenic pneumothorax had a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.5%. The ICD-9-CM codes for CLABSI had a sensitivity of 33.3%, specificity of 99.0%, PPV of 28.6%, and NPV of 99.2%. The low sensitivity and variable PPV of ICD-9-CM codes for detection of complications of CVC raise concerns about their use for research or pay-for-performance purposes. PMID:24343034

  11. Non-coding RNAs revealed during identification of genes involved in chicken immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ahanda, Marie-Laure Endale; Ruby, Thomas; Wittzell, Håkan; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Morin, Veronique; Oudin, Anne; Chevalier, Catherine; Young, John R; Zoorob, Rima

    2009-01-01

    Recent large-scale cDNA cloning studies have shown that a significant proportion of the transcripts expressed from vertebrate genomes do not appear to encode protein. Moreover, it was reported in mammals (human and mice) that these non-coding transcripts are expressed and regulated by mechanisms similar to those involved in the control of protein-coding genes. We have produced a collection of cDNA sequences from immunologically active tissues with the aim of discovering chicken genes involved in immune mechanisms, and we decided to explore the non-coding component of these immune-related libraries. After finding known non-coding RNAs (miRNA, snRNA, snoRNA), we identified new putative mRNA-like non-coding RNAs. We characterised their expression profiles in immune-related samples. Some of them showed changes in expression following viral infections. As they exhibit patterns of expression that parallel the behaviour of protein-coding RNAs in immune tissues, our study suggests that they could play an active role in the immune response.

  12. 78 FR 78163 - Eligibility of the Gulf Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ..., Washington, December 16, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-30984 Filed 12-23-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 4710-10 ... Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961... that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Gulf Cooperation Council...

  13. Molecular identification of three novel glutaredoxin genes that play important roles in antioxidant defense in Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Dou; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs), also known as thioltransferases, play key roles in maintaining intracellular redox balance and protecting cells from oxidative damage in plants and mammals. We tested whether Grxs play important roles in antioxidant defense in insects using the moth, Helicoverpa armigera. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of three novel Grx genes, named HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. Sequence analysis indicated that HaGrx shared a high amino acid identity (58%-78%) and a CPYC motif of conserved redox activity with homologues from other selected insect species. In contrast, HaGrx3 and HaGrx5 both shared a CGF(S/G) motif, a conserved catalytic domain, with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 exhibited temporally- and spatially-dependent patterns of expression. The mRNA expression of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 was induced by various temperature stresses and H2O2 treatments. We further investigated the knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 in H. armigera larvae and found that most of the selected antioxidant genes were up regulated. However, Tpx was down regulated, and further interpretation of the complementary functions of these antioxidant genes is still required. We also determined the effect of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 knockdown on antioxidant enzymatic activity and metabolite content. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD, and the metabolite contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate, protein carbonyl, and total GSH increased after RNAi mediated knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. These results supported our hypothesis that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 play important roles in antioxidant defense of Helicoverpa armigera and provided a theoretical basis for further in-depth study of physiological function in the insect glutaredoxin family genes. PMID:27339760

  14. Molecular identification of three novel glutaredoxin genes that play important roles in antioxidant defense in Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Dou; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs), also known as thioltransferases, play key roles in maintaining intracellular redox balance and protecting cells from oxidative damage in plants and mammals. We tested whether Grxs play important roles in antioxidant defense in insects using the moth, Helicoverpa armigera. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of three novel Grx genes, named HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. Sequence analysis indicated that HaGrx shared a high amino acid identity (58%-78%) and a CPYC motif of conserved redox activity with homologues from other selected insect species. In contrast, HaGrx3 and HaGrx5 both shared a CGF(S/G) motif, a conserved catalytic domain, with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 exhibited temporally- and spatially-dependent patterns of expression. The mRNA expression of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 was induced by various temperature stresses and H2O2 treatments. We further investigated the knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 in H. armigera larvae and found that most of the selected antioxidant genes were up regulated. However, Tpx was down regulated, and further interpretation of the complementary functions of these antioxidant genes is still required. We also determined the effect of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 knockdown on antioxidant enzymatic activity and metabolite content. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD, and the metabolite contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate, protein carbonyl, and total GSH increased after RNAi mediated knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. These results supported our hypothesis that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 play important roles in antioxidant defense of Helicoverpa armigera and provided a theoretical basis for further in-depth study of physiological function in the insect glutaredoxin family genes.

  15. Identification of non-coding RNAs associated with telomeres using a combination of enChIP and RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Ohki, Rieko; Fujii, Hodaka

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that RNAs interacting with genomic regions play important roles in the regulation of genome functions, including X chromosome inactivation and gene expression. However, to our knowledge, no non-biased methods of identifying RNAs that interact with a specific genomic region have been reported. Here, we used enChIP-RNA-Seq, a combination of engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), to perform a non-biased search for RNAs interacting with telomeres. In enChIP-RNA-Seq, the target genomic regions are captured using an engineered DNA-binding molecule such as a transcription activator-like protein. Subsequently, RNAs that interact with the target genomic regions are purified and sequenced. The RNAs detected by enChIP-RNA-Seq contained known telomere-binding RNAs, including the telomerase RNA component (Terc), the RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease (Rmrp), and Cajal body-specific RNAs. In addition, a number of novel telomere-binding non-coding RNAs were also identified. Binding of two candidate non-coding RNAs to telomeres was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH) analyses. The novel telomere-binding non-coding RNAs identified here may play important roles in telomere functions. To our knowledge, this study is the first non-biased identification of RNAs associated with specific genomic regions. The results presented here suggest that enChIP-RNA-Seq analyses are useful for the identification of RNAs interacting with specific genomic regions, and may help to contribute to current understanding of the regulation of genome functions.

  16. Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar coding.

    PubMed

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-08-01

    This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (< or = 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs from Mulberry (Morus notabilis) RNA-seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaobo; Sun, Liang; Luo, Haitao; Ma, Qingguo; Zhao, Yi; Pei, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Numerous sources of evidence suggest that most of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed into protein-coding mRNAs and also into a large number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), a group consisting of ncRNAs longer than 200 nucleotides, have been found to play critical roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic gene regulation across all kingdoms of life. However, lncRNAs and their regulatory roles remain poorly characterized in plants, especially in woody plants. In this paper, we used a computational approach to identify novel lncRNAs from a published RNA-seq data set and analyzed their sequences and expression patterns. In total, 1133 novel lncRNAs were identified in mulberry, and 106 of these lncRNAs displayed a predominant tissue-specific expression in the five major tissues investigated. Additionally, functional predictions revealed that tissue-specific lncRNAs adjacent to protein-coding genes might play important regulatory roles in the development of floral organ and root in mulberry. The pipeline used in this study would be useful for the identification of lncRNAs obtained from other deep sequencing data. Furthermore, the predicted lncRNAs would be beneficial towards an understanding of the variations in gene expression in plants. PMID:26938562

  18. The identification of the first molluscan Akirin2 with immune defense function in the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fufa; Xiang, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yuehuan; Yu, Ziniu

    2014-12-01

    The Akirin protein is a nuclear factor in the innate immune system that is highly conserved from insects to mammals and plays key roles in diverse biological processes, including immunity, myogenesis, development and the cellular stress response. However, the function of Akirins in mollusk, the second most diverse group of animals, is still poorly understood. In this study, we report the discovery of an Akirin2 gene homolog (ChAkirin2) and its biological functions in the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. ChAkirin2 is 189 amino acids in length and shares significant homology with invertebrate homologs. Phylogenetic analysis results revealed that ChAkirin2 is clustered with invertebrate Akirin2s. A sequence analysis of the 5' flanking regions of ChAkirin2 indicated that it harbors several potential PAMP-activated transcription factor binding sites (TFB), including sites for NF-κB, C/EBPα, AP-1, SRF, Oct-1 and GATA-1. An RT-PCR analysis showed that ChAkirin2 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and at different embryonic and larval stages. Additionally, upon infection by pathogens (Vibrio alginolyticus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: LPS, PGN and polyI:C), the expression of ChAkirin2 was significantly up-regulated. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy observations show that ChAkirin2 is located in the nuclei of HeLa cells, and the overexpression of ChAkirin2 activated the transcriptional activities of the NF-κB reporter gene in HEK293T cells. Altogether, this report provided the first experimental demonstration that mollusks possess a functional Akirin2 that is involved in the innate defense and embryogenesis processes of the oyster.

  19. Identification of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH) involved in immune defense in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-xia; Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Wang, Ke-jian

    2013-01-01

    Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH), originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahemolyticus), bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan (PGN), and β-1, 3-glucan of fungus. But no direct antibacterial activity of Sp-SPH protein was shown by using minimum inhibitory concentration or minimum bactericidal concentration assays. Nevertheless, the Sp-SPH protein was found to significantly enhance the crab hemocyte adhesion activity (paired t-test, P<0.05), and increase phenoloxidase activity if triggered by PGN in vitro (paired t-test, P<0.05). Importantly, the Sp-SPH protein was demonstrated to promote the survival rate of the animals after challenge with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus which were both recognized by Sp-SPH protein, if pre-incubated with Sp-SPH protein, respectively. Whereas, the crabs died much faster when challenged with Vibrio alginolyiicus, a pathogenic bacterium not recognized by Sp-SPH protein, compared to those of crabs challenged with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus when pre-coated with Sp-SPH protein. Taken together, these data suggested that Sp-SPH molecule might play an important role in immune defense against bacterial infection in the mud crab S. paramamosain.

  20. Identification and analysis of a Sciaenops ocellatus ISG15 homologue that is involved in host immune defense against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Sheng; Sun, Yun; Zhang, Min; Sun, Li

    2010-07-01

    ISG15 is an interferon-stimulated gene that encodes a ubiquitin-like protein. ISG15 homologues have been identified in a number of fish species, some of which are known to be regulated at expression level by virus infection and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. However, the relationship between ISG15 and live bacterial infection has not been investigated in piscine models. In this study, an ISG15 homologue, SoISG15, was identified from red drum Sciaenops ocellatus and analyzed at expression and functional levels. The open reading frame of SoISG15 is 477 base pairs (bp) and intronless, with a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 91 bp and a 3'-UTR of 415 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of SoISG15 shares 60-67% overall identities with the ISG15 of several fish species. SoISG15 possesses two conserved ubiquitin-like domains and the canonical ubiquitin conjugation motif, LRGG, at the C-terminus. Expressional analysis showed that constitutive expression of SoISG15 was highest in blood and lowest in kidney. Experimental challenges with LPS and bacterial pathogens induced significant SoISG15 expression in the kidney but not in the liver. Similar differential induction was also observed at cellular level with primary hepatocytes and head kidney (HK) lymphocytes. Poly(I:C), however, effected drastic induction of SoISG15 expression in kidney and liver at both tissue and cellular levels. Immunoblot analysis showed that SoISG15 was secreted by cultured HK lymphocytes into the extracellular milieu. Recombinant SoISG15 expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli was able to enhance the respiratory burst activity, acid phosphatase activity, and bactericidal activity of HK macrophages. Taken together, the results of this study indicated that SoISG15 possesses apparent immunological property and is likely to be involved in host immune defense against bacterial infection. PMID:20385242

  1. Identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs in rainbow trout eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are in general considered as a diverse class of transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that structurally resemble mRNAs but do not encode proteins. Recent advances in RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and bioinformatics methods have provided an opportunity to indentify and ana...

  2. Identification of maize long non-coding RNAs responsive to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Han, Zhaoxue; Guo, Qingli; Liu, Yu; Zheng, Yuxian; Wu, Fangli; Jin, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a class of riboregulators that either directly act in long form or are processed to shorter miRNAs and siRNAs. Emerging evidence shows that lncRNAs participate in stress responsive regulation. In this study, to identify the putative maize lncRNAs responsive to drought stress, 8449 drought responsive transcripts were first uploaded to the Coding Potential Calculator website for classification as protein coding or non-coding RNAs, and 1724 RNAs were identified as potential non-coding RNAs. A Perl script was written to screen these 1724 ncRNAs and 664 transcripts were ultimately identified as drought-responsive lncRNAs. Of these 664 transcripts, 126 drought-responsive lncRNAs were highly similar to known maize lncRNAs; the remaining 538 transcripts were considered as novel lncRNAs. Among the 664 lncRNAs identified as drought responsive, 567 were upregulated and 97 were downregulated in drought-stressed leaves of maize. 8 lncRNAs were identified as miRNA precursor lncRNAs, 62 were classified as both shRNA and siRNA precursors, and 279 were classified as siRNA precursors. The remaining 315 lncRNAs were classified as other lncRNAs that are likely to function as longer molecules. Among these 315 lncRNAs, 10 are identified as antisense lncRNAs and 7 could pair with 17 CDS sequences with near-perfect matches. Finally, RT-qPCR results confirmed that all selected lncRNAs could respond to drought stress. These findings extend the current view on lncRNAs as ubiquitous regulators under stress conditions.

  3. Identification of Non-Coding RNAs in the Candida parapsilosis Species Group

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Paul D.; Schröder, Markus S.; Higgins, Desmond G.

    2016-01-01

    The Candida CTG clade is a monophyletic group of fungal species that translates CTG as serine, and includes the pathogens Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Research has typically focused on identifying protein-coding genes in these species. Here, we use bioinformatic and experimental approaches to annotate known classes of non-coding RNAs in three CTG-clade species, Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Lodderomyces elongisporus. We also update the annotation of ncRNAs in the C. albicans genome. The majority of ncRNAs identified were snoRNAs. Approximately 50% of snoRNAs (including most of the C/D box class) are encoded in introns. Most are within mono- and polycistronic transcripts with no protein coding potential. Five polycistronic clusters of snoRNAs are highly conserved in fungi. In polycistronic regions, splicing occurs via the classical pathway, as well as by nested and recursive splicing. We identified spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs, the telomerase RNA component, signal recognition particle, RNase P RNA component and the related RNase MRP RNA component in all three genomes. Stem loop IV of the U2 spliceosomal RNA and the associated binding proteins were lost from the ancestor of C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, following the divergence from L. elongisporus. The RNA component of the MRP is longer in C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and L. elongisporus than in S. cerevisiae, but is substantially shorter than in C. albicans. PMID:27658249

  4. A proteomic characterization of water buffalo milk fractions describing PTM of major species and the identification of minor components involved in nutrient delivery and defense against pathogens.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Salzano, Anna Maria; Renzone, Giovanni; Ledda, Luigi; Scaloni, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Water buffalo has been studied in relation to the exclusive use of its milk for the manufacture of high-quality dairy products. Buffalo milk presents physicochemical features different from that of other ruminant species, such as a higher content of fatty acids and proteins. We report here a detailed proteomic analysis of buffalo skim milk, whey and milk fat globule membrane fractions. Notwithstanding the poor information available on buffalo genome, identification of protein isoforms corresponding to 72 genes was achieved by a combined approach based on 2-DE/MALDI-TOF PMF and 1-DE/muLC-ESI-IT-MS-MS. Major protein components, i.e. alpha(Sl)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, kappa-caseins, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, were characterized for PTM, providing a scientific basis to coagulation/cheese making processes used in dairy productions. Minor proteins detected emphasized the multiple functions of milk, which besides affording nutrition to the newborn through its major components, also promotes development and digestive tract protection in the neonate, and ensures optimal mammary gland function in the mother. Defense against pathogens is guaranteed by an arsenal of antimicrobial/immunomodulatory proteins, which are directly released in milk or occur on the surface of secreted milk-lipid droplets. Proteins associated with cell signaling or membrane/protein trafficking functions were also identified, providing putative insights into major secretory pathways in mammary epithelial cells.

  5. Identification of protein-coding sequences using the hybridization of 18S rRNA and mRNA during translation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chuanhua; Bitzer, Donald L; Alexander, Winser E; Vouk, Mladen A; Stomp, Anne-Marie

    2009-02-01

    We introduce a new approach in this article to distinguish protein-coding sequences from non-coding sequences utilizing a period-3, free energy signal that arises from the interactions of the 3'-terminal nucleotides of the 18S rRNA with mRNA. We extracted the special features of the amplitude and the phase of the period-3 signal in protein-coding regions, which is not found in non-coding regions, and used them to distinguish protein-coding sequences from non-coding sequences. We tested on all the experimental genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The identification was consistent with the corresponding information from GenBank, and produced better performance compared to existing methods that use a period-3 signal. The primary tests on some fly, mouse and human genes suggests that our method is applicable to higher eukaryotic genes. The tests on pseudogenes indicated that most pseudogenes have no period-3 signal. Some exploration of the 3'-tail of 18S rRNA and pattern analysis of protein-coding sequences supported further our assumption that the 3'-tail of 18S rRNA has a role of synchronization throughout translation elongation process. This, in turn, can be utilized for the identification of protein-coding sequences.

  6. Titanic's unknown child: the critical role of the mitochondrial DNA coding region in a re-identification effort.

    PubMed

    Just, Rebecca S; Loreille, Odile M; Molto, J Eldon; Merriwether, D Andrew; Woodward, Scott R; Matheson, Carney; Creed, Jennifer; McGrath, Stacey E; Sturk-Andreaggi, Kimberly; Coble, Michael D; Irwin, Jodi A; Ruffman, Alan; Parr, Ryan L

    2011-06-01

    This report describes a re-examination of the remains of a young male child recovered in the Northwest Atlantic following the loss of the Royal Mail Ship Titanic in 1912 and buried as an unknown in Halifax, Nova Scotia shortly thereafter. Following exhumation of the grave in 2001, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 sequencing and odontological examination of the extremely limited skeletal remains resulted in the identification of the child as Eino Viljami Panula, a 13-month-old Finnish boy. This paper details recent and more extensive mitochondrial genome analyses that indicate the remains are instead most likely those of an English child, Sidney Leslie Goodwin. The case demonstrates the benefit of targeted mtDNA coding region typing in difficult forensic cases, and highlights the need for entire mtDNA sequence databases appropriate for forensic use.

  7. Identification and characterisation of non-coding small RNAs in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence demonstrates that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are indispensable components of many organisms and play important roles in cellular events, regulation, and development. Results Here, we analysed the small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcriptome of Trichophyton rubrum by constructing and sequencing a cDNA library from conidia and mycelia. We identified 352 ncRNAs and their corresponding genomic loci. These ncRNA candidates included 198 entirely novel ncRNAs and 154 known ncRNAs classified as snRNAs, snoRNAs and other known ncRNAs. Further bioinformatic analysis detected 96 snoRNAs, including 56 snoRNAs that had been annotated in other organisms and 40 novel snoRNAs. All snoRNAs belonged to two major classes—C/D box snoRNAs and H/ACA snoRNAs—and their potential target sites in rRNAs and snRNAs were predicted. To analyse the evolutionary conservation of the ncRNAs in T. rubrum, we aligned all 352 ncRNAs to the genomes of six dermatophytes and to the NCBI non-redundant nucleotide database (NT). The results showed that most of the identified snRNAs were conserved in dermatophytes. Of the 352 ncRNAs, 102 also had genomic loci in other dermatophytes, and 27 were dermatophyte-specific. Conclusions Our systematic analysis may provide important clues to the function and evolution of ncRNAs in T. rubrum. These results also provide important information to complement the current annotation of the T. rubrum genome, which primarily comprises protein-coding genes. PMID:24377353

  8. Identification of Genes Coding Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes in E. coli of UTI Patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Yasir; Dar, Firdous Ahmad; Sekhar, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study is to probe the pattern of antibiotic resistance against aminoglycosides and its mechanism in E. coli obtained from patients from Chennai, India. Isolation and identification of pathogens were done on MacConkey agar. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by disc diffusion test. The identification of genes encoding aminoglycoside modifying enzymes was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Out of 98 isolates, 71 (72.45%) isolates were identified as E. coli and the remaining 27 (27.55%) as other bacteria. Disc diffusion method results showed a resistance level of 72.15% for streptomycin, 73.4% for gentamicin, 63.26% for neomycin, 57.14% for tobramycin, 47.9% for netilmicin, and 8.16% for amikacin in E. coli. PCR screening showed the presence of four genes, namely, rrs, aacC2, aacA-aphD, and aphA3, in their plasmid DNA. The results point towards the novel mechanism of drug resistance in E. coli from UTI patients in India as they confirm the presence of genes encoding enzymes that cause resistance to aminoglycoside drugs. This could be an alarm for drug prescription to UTI patients. PMID:27403451

  9. Identification of differentially expressed non-coding RNAs in embryonic stem cell neural differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Skreka, Konstantinia; Schafferer, Simon; Nat, Irina-Roxanna; Zywicki, Marek; Salti, Ahmad; Apostolova, Galina; Griehl, Matthias; Rederstorff, Mathieu; Dechant, Georg; Hüttenhofer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Protein-coding genes, guiding differentiation of ES cells into neural cells, have extensively been studied in the past. However, for the class of ncRNAs only the involvement of some specific microRNAs (miRNAs) has been described. Thus, to characterize the entire small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcriptome, involved in the differentiation of mouse ES cells into neural cells, we have generated three specialized ribonucleo-protein particle (RNP)-derived cDNA libraries, i.e. from pluripotent ES cells, neural progenitors and differentiated neural cells, respectively. By high-throughput sequencing and transcriptional profiling we identified several novel miRNAs to be involved in ES cell differentiation, as well as seven small nucleolar RNAs. In addition, expression of 7SL, 7SK and vault-2 RNAs was significantly up-regulated during ES cell differentiation. About half of ncRNA sequences from the three cDNA libraries mapped to intergenic or intragenic regions, designated as interRNAs and intraRNAs, respectively. Thereby, novel ncRNA candidates exhibited a predominant size of 18–30 nt, thus resembling miRNA species, but, with few exceptions, lacking canonical miRNA features. Additionally, these novel intraRNAs and interRNAs were not only found to be differentially expressed in stem-cell derivatives, but also in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and astrocytes, strengthening their potential function in neural ES cell differentiation. PMID:22492625

  10. Identification of a conserved sequence in the non-coding regions of many human genes.

    PubMed Central

    Donehower, L A; Slagle, B L; Wilde, M; Darlington, G; Butel, J S

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed a sequence of approximately 70 base pairs (bp) that shows a high degree of similarity to sequences present in the non-coding regions of a number of human and other mammalian genes. The sequence was discovered in a fragment of human genomic DNA adjacent to an integrated hepatitis B virus genome in cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue. When one of the viral flanking sequences was compared to nucleotide sequences in GenBank, more than thirty human genes were identified that contained a similar sequence in their non-coding regions. The sequence element was usually found once or twice in a gene, either in an intron or in the 5' or 3' flanking regions. It did not share any similarities with known short interspersed nucleotide elements (SINEs) or presently known gene regulatory elements. This element was highly conserved at the same position within the corresponding human and mouse genes for myoglobin and N-myc, indicating evolutionary conservation and possible functional importance. Preliminary DNase I footprinting data suggested that the element or its adjacent sequences may bind nuclear factors to generate specific DNase I hypersensitive sites. The size, structure, and evolutionary conservation of this sequence indicates that it is distinct from other types of short interspersed repetitive elements. It is possible that the element may have a cis-acting functional role in the genome. Images PMID:2536922

  11. Identification of differentially expressed non-coding RNAs in embryonic stem cell neural differentiation.

    PubMed

    Skreka, Konstantinia; Schafferer, Simon; Nat, Irina-Roxanna; Zywicki, Marek; Salti, Ahmad; Apostolova, Galina; Griehl, Matthias; Rederstorff, Mathieu; Dechant, Georg; Hüttenhofer, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Protein-coding genes, guiding differentiation of ES cells into neural cells, have extensively been studied in the past. However, for the class of ncRNAs only the involvement of some specific microRNAs (miRNAs) has been described. Thus, to characterize the entire small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcriptome, involved in the differentiation of mouse ES cells into neural cells, we have generated three specialized ribonucleo-protein particle (RNP)-derived cDNA libraries, i.e. from pluripotent ES cells, neural progenitors and differentiated neural cells, respectively. By high-throughput sequencing and transcriptional profiling we identified several novel miRNAs to be involved in ES cell differentiation, as well as seven small nucleolar RNAs. In addition, expression of 7SL, 7SK and vault-2 RNAs was significantly up-regulated during ES cell differentiation. About half of ncRNA sequences from the three cDNA libraries mapped to intergenic or intragenic regions, designated as interRNAs and intraRNAs, respectively. Thereby, novel ncRNA candidates exhibited a predominant size of 18-30 nt, thus resembling miRNA species, but, with few exceptions, lacking canonical miRNA features. Additionally, these novel intraRNAs and interRNAs were not only found to be differentially expressed in stem-cell derivatives, but also in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and astrocytes, strengthening their potential function in neural ES cell differentiation. PMID:22492625

  12. Identification of two genes coding for the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha of S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schirmaier, F; Philippsen, P

    1984-12-20

    The translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coded for by two genes, called TEF1 and TEF2. Both genes were cloned. TEF1 maps on chromosome II close to LYS2. The location of TEF2 is unknown. TEF2 alone is sufficient to promote growth of the cells as shown with a strain deleted for TEF1. TEF1 and TEF2 were originally identified as two strongly transcribed genes, which most likely code for an identical or nearly identical protein as judged from S1 nuclease protection experiments with mRNA-DNA hybrids. The DNA sequence analysis of TEF1 allowed the prediction of the protein sequence. This was shown, by a search in the Dayhoff protein data bank, to represent the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha due to the striking similarity to EF-1 alpha from the shrimp Artemia. A search for TEF1 homologous sequences in several yeast species shows, in most cases, duplicated genes and a much higher sequence conservation than among genes encoding amino acid biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:6396088

  13. DD3MAT - a code for yield criteria anisotropy parameters identification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, P. D.; Carvalho, P. D.; Alves, J. L.; Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the main strategies and algorithms adopted in the DD3MAT inhouse code, specifically developed for identifying the anisotropy parameters. The algorithm adopted is based on the minimization of an error function, using a downhill simplex method. The set of experimental values can consider yield stresses and r -values obtained from in-plane tension, for different angles with the rolling direction (RD), yield stress and r -value obtained for biaxial stress state, and yield stresses from shear tests performed also for different angles to RD. All these values can be defined for a specific value of plastic work. Moreover, it can also include the yield stresses obtained from in-plane compression tests. The anisotropy parameters are identified for an AA2090-T3 aluminium alloy, highlighting the importance of the user intervention to improve the numerical fit.

  14. [Identification of Spatial Coding Schemes by Errors Distribuition of Human Memory].

    PubMed

    Lyakhovetskii, V A; Karpinskaia, V Ju; Bobrova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The error distributions of sensory screen touches at kinesthetically memorization and reproduction of visual stimuli containing Muller-Lyer illusion and neutral stimuli were investigated. One group of right-handers begins the task with the right hand and continues with the left one, while the other group--vice versa. It was shown that the errors are distributed either exponentially (with the maximal amount of small errors) either with the maxima at the 2nd bin. The number of errors distributions decaying exponentially is higher for the group beginning the task with the right hand. The errors distributions of touches on the upper segment by the right hand decay exponentially faster than other distributions. Comparison of these data with the simulation results supports the hypothesis of specific for the right and left hemisphere positional and vector coding schemes at human memory. PMID:26601502

  15. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Non-Coding RNA Involved in Sperm Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Min-Jie; Hu, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Mo-Fang; Lu, Min-hua; Zhang, Jin-Song; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yong-Lian

    2011-01-01

    A long and ever-expanding roster of small (∼20–30 nucleotides) RNAs has emerged during the last decade, and most can be subsumed under the three main headings of microRNAs(miRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs(piRNAs), and short interferingRNAs(siRNAs). Among the three categories, miRNAs is the most quickly expanded group. The most recent number of identified miRNAs is 16,772 (Sanger miRbase, April 2011). However, there are insufficient publications on their primary forms, and no tissue-specific small RNAs precursors have been reported in the epididymis. Here, we report the identification in rats of an epididymis-specific, chimeric, noncoding RNA that is spliced from two different chromosomes (chromosomes 5 and 19), which we named HongrES2. HongrES2 is a 1.6 kb mRNA-like precursor that gives rise to a new microRNA-like small RNA (mil-HongrES2) in rat epididymis. The generation of mil-HongrES2 is stimulated during epididymitis. An epididymis-specific carboxylesterase named CES7 had 100% cDNA sequence homology at the 3′end with HongrES2 and its protein product could be downregulated by HongrES2 via mil-HongrES2. This was confirmed in vivo by initiating mil-HongrES2 over-expression in rats and observing an effect on sperm capacitation. PMID:22022505

  16. Identification of novel long non-coding RNAs in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaokun; Xie, Bojian; Ma, Zhaosheng; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Wenmin; Xu, Dong; Yan, Xinqiang; Chen, Beibei; Yu, Longyao; Li, Jicheng; Chen, Xiaobing; Ding, Kan; Cao, Feilin

    2015-08-28

    Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBC) are characterized by particularly poor outcomes, and there are no established markers significantly associated with prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are subclass of noncoding RNAs that have been recently shown to play critical roles in cancer biology. However, little is known about their mechanistic role in TNBC pathogenesis. In this report, we investigated the expression patterns of lncRNAs from TNBC tissues and matched normal tissues with Agilent Human lncRNA array. We identified 1,758 lncRNAs and 1,254 mRNAs that were differentially expressed (≥ 2-fold change), indicating that many lncRNAs are significantly upregulated or downregulated in TNBC. Among these, XR_250621.1 and NONHSAT125629 were the most upregulated and downregulated lncRNAs respectively. qRT-PCR was employed to validate the microarray analysis findings, and results were consistent with the data from the microarrays. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were applied to explore the potential lncRNAs functions, some pathways including microtubule motor activity and DNA replication were identified in TNBC pathogenesis. Our study revealed that a set of lncRNAs were differentially expressed in TNBC tissues, suggesting that they may play role in TNBC. These results shed light on lncRNAs' biological functions and provide useful information for exploring potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer.

  17. Combining protein identification and quantification: C-terminal isotope-coded tagging using sulfanilic acid.

    PubMed

    Panchaud, Alexandre; Guillaume, Elisabeth; Affolter, Michael; Robert, Fabien; Moreillon, Philippe; Kussmann, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Two methods of differential isotopic coding of carboxylic groups have been developed to date. The first approach uses d0- or d3-methanol to convert carboxyl groups into the corresponding methyl esters. The second relies on the incorporation of two 18O atoms into the C-terminal carboxylic group during tryptic digestion of proteins in H(2)18O. However, both methods have limitations such as chromatographic separation of 1H and 2H derivatives or overlap of isotopic distributions of light and heavy forms due to small mass shifts. Here we present a new tagging approach based on the specific incorporation of sulfanilic acid into carboxylic groups. The reagent was synthesized in a heavy form (13C phenyl ring), showing no chromatographic shift and an optimal isotopic separation with a 6 Da mass shift. Moreover, sulfanilic acid allows for simplified fragmentation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) due the charge fixation of the sulfonate group at the C-terminus of the peptide. The derivatization is simple, specific and minimizes the number of sample treatment steps that can strongly alter the sample composition. The quantification is reproducible within an order of magnitude and can be analyzed either by electrospray ionization (ESI) or MALDI. Finally, the method is able to specifically identify the C-terminal peptide of a protein by using GluC as the proteolytic enzyme.

  18. Identification of a novel molluscan short-type peptidoglycan recognition protein in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) involved in host antibacterial defense.

    PubMed

    Premachandra, H K A; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2014-07-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a widely studied group of pattern recognition receptors found in invertebrate as well as vertebrate lineages, and are involved in bacterial pathogen sensing. However, in addition to this principal role, they can also function in multiple host defense processes, including cell phagocytosis and hydrolysis of peptidoglycans (PGNs). In this study, a novel invertebrate short-type PGRP was identified in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) designated as AbPGRP. The complete coding sequence of AbPGRP was 534 bp, encoding a 178-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 20 kDa. The AbPGRP gene had a bipartite arrangement consisting of two exons separated by a single intron. Homology analysis revealed that AbPGRP shares conserved features, including amino acid residues critical for substrate and ion binding as well as for its amidase activity, with homologs of other species. Phylogenetic analysis of AbPGRP revealed that it likely evolved from a common ancestor of invertebrates, having significant homology with other molluscan PGRPs. Recombinant AbPGRP exhibited detectable, dose-dependent PGN-hydrolyzing activity with the presence of Zn(2+), and strong antibacterial activity against Vibrio tapetis, consistent with the functional properties previously reported for PGRPs in other mollusks. Moreover, AbPGRP transcription was induced upon treatment of healthy abalones with bacterial peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide, although the expression profiles differed with treatment, suggesting a capacity for discriminating between bacterial pathogens through molecular pattern recognition. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that AbPGRP is a true homolog of invertebrate PGRPs and likely plays an indispensable role in host immunity.

  19. Identification of Differentially Expressed Long Non-coding RNAs in Polarized Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zikun; Luo, Qing; Yao, Fangyi; Qing, Cheng; Ye, Jianqing; Deng, Yating; Li, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages display remarkable plasticity, with the ability to undergo dynamic transition between classically and alternatively activated phenotypes. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are more than 200 nucleotides in length and play roles in various biological pathways. However, the role of lncRNAs in regulating macrophage polarization has yet to be explored. In this study, lncRNAs expression profiles were determined in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) incubated in conditions causing activation toward M(IFN-γ + LPS) or M(IL-4) phenotypes. Compared with primary MDMs, 9343 lncRNAs and 5903 mRNAs were deregulated in M(IFN-γ + LPS) group (fold change ≥2.0, P < 0.05), 4592 lncRNAs and 3122 mRNAs were deregulated in M(IL-4) group. RT-qPCR results were generally consistent with the microarray data. Furthermore, we found that TCONS_00019715 is expressed at a higher level in M(IFN-γ + LPS) macrophages than in M(IL-4) macrophages. TCONS_00019715 expression was decreased when M(IFN-γ + LPS) converted to M(IL-4) whereas increased when M(IL-4) converted to M(IFN-γ + LPS). Knockdown of TCONS_00019715 following the activation of THP-1 cellls using IFN-γ and LPS diminished the expression of M(IFN-γ + LPS) markers, and elevated the expression of M(IL-4) markers. These data show a significantly altered lncRNA and mRNA expression profile in macrophages exposure to different activating conditions. Dysregulation of some of these lncRNAs may play important roles in regulating macrophage polarization. PMID:26796525

  20. Identification and characterization of small non-coding RNAs from Chinese fir by high throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play key roles in plant development, growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. At least four classes of sRNAs have been well characterized in plants, including repeat-associated siRNAs (rasiRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) and natural antisense transcript-derived siRNAs. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is one of the most important coniferous evergreen tree species in China. No sRNA from Chinese fir has been described to date. Results To obtain sRNAs in Chinese fir, we sequenced a sRNA library generated from seeds, seedlings, leaves, stems and calli, using Illumina high throughput sequencing technology. A comprehensive set of sRNAs were acquired, including conserved and novel miRNAs, rasiRNAs and tasiRNAs. With BLASTN and MIREAP we identified a total of 115 conserved miRNAs comprising 40 miRNA families and one novel miRNA with precursor sequence. The expressions of 16 conserved and one novel miRNAs and one tasiRNA were detected by RT-PCR. Utilizing real time RT-PCR, we revealed that four conserved and one novel miRNAs displayed developmental stage-specific expression patterns in Chinese fir. In addition, 209 unigenes were predicted to be targets of 30 Chinese fir miRNA families, of which five target genes were experimentally verified by 5' RACE, including a squamosa promoter-binding protein gene, a pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein gene, a BolA-like family protein gene, AGO1 and a gene of unknown function. We also demonstrated that the DCL3-dependent rasiRNA biogenesis pathway, which had been considered absent in conifers, existed in Chinese fir. Furthermore, the miR390-TAS3-ARF regulatory pathway was elucidated. Conclusions We unveiled a complex population of sRNAs in Chinese fir through high throughput sequencing. This provides an insight into the composition and function of sRNAs in Chinese fir and sheds new light on land plant sRNA evolution. PMID:22894611

  1. Phosphoprotein Isotope-coded Affinity Tags: Application to the Enrichment and Identification of Low-Abundance Phosphoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Goshe, Michael; Veenstra, Timothy D. ); Panisko, Ellen A.; Conrads, Thomas P. ); Angell, Nicolas H.; Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-02-01

    A novel approach using different isotopic labeling and biotinylation has been developed for the enrichment and quantitation of phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl-peptides. The phosphoprotein isotope-coded affinity tag (PhIAT) exploits the high affinity biotin-avidin interaction to isolate modified phosphopeptides from a complex mixture of peptides. The PhIAT strategy for quantifying and enriching mixtures for phosphopeptides was demonstrated using a commercially available sample of the phosphoprotein B-casein. A denatured solution of B-casein was labeled using the PhIAT method and after proteolytic digestion, the labeled peptides were isolated using immobilize avidin. The recovered peptides were separated by capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. PhIAT-labeled peptides corresponding to known O-phosphorylated peptides from B-casein were identified as were phosphorylated peptides from as1-casein and ase-casein, known low-level (< 5%) contaminants of commercially available B-casein. All of the identified phosphopeptides from these caseins have been previously documented to be phosphorylated at the sites elucidated by the PhIAT approach. The results illustrate the efficancy of the PhIAT-labeling strategy to enrich mixtures for phosphopeptides and permit the detection and identification of low abundance phosphopeptides. In addition, experiments using light and heavy isotopic version of the PhIAT reagents demonstrated that a 10% difference in phosphorylation state could be determined between phosphopeptides in comparative samples.

  2. Defense Mechanisms: Discussions and Bibliographies; General or Multiple, and Specific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This publication considers some Freudian ego mechanisms. The first discussion and bibliography concerns defense mechanisms, in general or in multiple; after which, the discussions and bibliographies concern specific defense mechanisms: denial; displacement, substitution, sublimation; fixation; identification, introjection, incorporation,…

  3. Analysis of Putative Apoplastic Effectors from the Nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and Identification of an Expansin-Like Protein That Can Induce and Suppress Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Gerič; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses. PMID:25606855

  4. Analysis of putative apoplastic effectors from the nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and identification of an expansin-like protein that can induce and suppress host defenses.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Gerič; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses.

  5. Identification of Predictive Markers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Rectal Carcinomas by Proteomic Isotope Coded Protein Label (ICPL) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Croner, Roland S.; Sevim, Müzeyyen; Metodiev, Metodi V.; Jo, Peter; Ghadimi, Michael; Schellerer, Vera; Brunner, Maximillian; Geppert, Carol; Rau, Tilman; Stürzl, Michael; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Matzel, Klaus E.; Hohenberger, Werner; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Kellermann, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) is an established procedure in stage union internationale contre le cancer (UICC) II/III rectal carcinomas. Around 53% of the tumours present with good tumor regression after nCRT, and 8%–15% are complete responders. Reliable selection markers would allow the identification of poor or non-responders prior to therapy. Tumor biopsies were harvested from 20 patients with rectal carcinomas, and stored in liquid nitrogen prior to therapy after obtaining patients’ informed consent (Erlangen-No.3784). Patients received standardized nCRT with 5-Fluoruracil (nCRT I) or 5-Fluoruracil ± Oxaliplatin (nCRT II) according to the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 protocol. After surgery, regression grading (Dworak) of the tumors was performed during histopathological examination of the specimens. Tumors were classified as poor (Dworak 1 + 2) or good (Dworak 3 + 4) responders. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) for tumor enrichment was performed on preoperative biopsies. Differences in expressed proteins between poor and good responders to nCRT I and II were identified by proteomic analysis (Isotope Coded Protein Label, ICPL™) and selected markers were validated by immunohistochemistry. Tumors of 10 patients were classified as histopathologically poor (Dworak 1 or 2) and the other 10 tumor samples as histopathologically good (Dworak 3 or 4) responders to nCRT after surgery. Sufficient material in good quality was harvested for ICPL analysis by LCM from all biopsies. We identified 140 differentially regulated proteins regarding the selection criteria and the response to nCRT. Fourteen of these proteins were synchronously up-regulated at least 1.5-fold after nCRT I or nCRT II (e.g., FLNB, TKT, PKM2, SERINB1, IGHG2). Thirty-five proteins showed a complete reciprocal regulation (up or down) after nCRT I or nCRT II and the rest was regulated either according to nCRT I or II. The protein expression of regulated proteins such as PLEC1, TKT, HADHA and TAGLN was

  6. The Fusion Protein Signal-Peptide-Coding Region of Canine Distemper Virus: A Useful Tool for Phylogenetic Reconstruction and Lineage Identification

    PubMed Central

    Sarute, Nicolás; Calderón, Marina Gallo; Pérez, Ruben; La Torre, José; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H) gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages. PMID:23675493

  7. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  8. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process. PMID:7429737

  9. Identification of a long non-coding RNA gene, growth hormone secretagogue receptor opposite strand, which stimulates cell migration in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Eliza J; Seim, Inge; Pauli, Jana P; O'Keeffe, Angela J; Thomas, Patrick B; Carter, Shea L; Walpole, Carina M; Fung, Jenny N T; Josh, Peter; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2013-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in non‑small cell lung cancer tumourigenesis are largely unknown; however, recent studies have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are likely to play a role. In this study, we used public databases to identify an mRNA-like, candidate long non-coding RNA, GHSROS (GHSR opposite strand), transcribed from the antisense strand of the ghrelin receptor gene, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed higher expression of GHSROS in lung cancer tissue compared to adjacent, non-tumour lung tissue. In common with many long non-coding RNAs, GHSROS is 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated (mRNA-like), lacks an extensive open reading frame and harbours a transposable element. Engineered overexpression of GHSROS stimulated cell migration in the A549 and NCI-H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, but suppressed cell migration in the Beas-2B normal lung-derived bronchoepithelial cell line. This suggests that GHSROS function may be dependent on the oncogenic context. The identification of GHSROS, which is expressed in lung cancer and stimulates cell migration in lung cancer cell lines, contributes to the growing number of non-coding RNAs that play a role in the regulation of tumourigenesis and metastatic cancer progression.

  10. Defense use and defense understanding in children.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P; Brilliant, M A

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the relation between children's use of defense mechanisms and their understanding of those defenses. We hypothesized that, once a child understands how a particular defense functions, the use of that defense will no longer be successful and will be replaced by another defense mechanism that is not yet understood. Defense use was assessed from the Thematic Appreception Test (TAT) stories told by 122 children; defense understanding was determined from the children's understanding of stories portraying defenses. The results indicated that younger children (mean age = 7-8) used the defense of denial more than the older children (mean age = 9-11). Older children understood the functioning of denial and projection better than the younger children. A comparison of children who did and did not understand a defense showed that younger children who understood the functioning of denial were less likely to themselves use denial. Likewise, older children who understood the functioning of projection were less likely to use this defense.

  11. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Associated with Defense Responses to Phytophthora capsici in Pepper Line “PI 201234”

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pingyong; Liu, Xiaodan; Guo, Jinju; Liu, Chen; Fu, Nan; Shen, Huolin

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici (Leonian), classified as an oomycete, seriously threatens the production of pepper (Capsicum annuum). Current understanding of the defense responses in pepper to P. capsici is limited. In this study, RNA-sequencing analysis was utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in the resistant line “PI 201234”, with 1220 differentially expressed genes detected. Of those genes, 480 were up-regulated and 740 were down-regulated, with 211 candidate genes found to be involved in defense responses based on the gene annotations. Furthermore, the expression patterns of 12 candidate genes were further validated via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). These genes were found to be significantly up-regulated at different time points post-inoculation (6 hpi, 24 hpi, and 5 dpi) in the resistant line “PI 201234” and susceptible line “Qiemen”. Seven genes were found to be involved in cell wall modification, phytoalexin biosynthesis, symptom development, and phytohormone signaling pathways, thus possibly playing important roles in combating exogenous pathogens. The genes identified herein will provide a basis for further gene cloning and functional verification studies and will aid in an understanding of the regulatory mechanism of pepper resistance to P. capsici. PMID:25993303

  12. PCR assay based on DNA coding for 16S rRNA for detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples.

    PubMed Central

    Kox, L F; van Leeuwen, J; Knijper, S; Jansen, H M; Kolk, A H

    1995-01-01

    A PCR and a reverse cross blot hybridization assay were developed for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples. The PCR amplifies a part of the DNA coding for 16S rRNA with a set of primers that is specific for the genus Mycobacterium and that flanks species-specific sequences within the genes coding for 16S rRNA. The PCR product is analyzed in a reverse cross blot hybridization assay with probes specific for M. tuberculosis complex (pTub1), M. avium (pAvi3), M. intracellulare (pInt5 and pInt7), M. kansasii complex-M. scrofulaceum complex (pKan1), M. xenopi (pXen1), M. fortuitum (pFor1), M. smegmatis (pSme1), and Mycobacterium spp. (pMyc5a). The PCR assay can detect 10 fg of DNA, the equivalent of two mycobacteria. The specificities of the probes were tested with 108 mycobacterial strains (33 species) and 31 nonmycobacterial strains (of 17 genera). The probes pAvi3, pInt5, pInt7, pKan1, pXen1, and pMyc5a were specific. With probes pTub1, pFor1, and pSme1, slight cross hybridization occurred. However, the mycobacterial strains from which the cross-hybridizing PCR products were derived belonged to nonpathogenic or nonopportunistic species which do not occur in clinical samples. The test was used on 31 different clinical specimens obtained from patients suspected of having mycobacterial disease, including a patient with a double mycobacterial infection. The samples included sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, tissue biopsy samples, cerebrospinal fluid, pus, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, and blood. The results of the PCR assay agreed with those of conventional identification methods or with clinical data, showing that the test can be used for the direct and rapid detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples. PMID:8586707

  13. Genome-wide identification of novel long non-coding RNAs in Populus tomentosa tension wood, opposite wood and normal wood xylem by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinhui; Quan, Mingyang; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function as important regulatory factors during plant development, but few reports have examined lncRNAs in trees. Here, we report our genome-scale identification and characterization of lncRNAs differentially expressed in the xylem of tension wood, opposite wood and normal wood in Populus tomentosa, by high-throughput RNA sequencing. We identified 1,377 putative lncRNAs by computational analysis, and expression and structure analyses showed that the lncRNAs had lower expression levels and shorter lengths than protein-coding transcripts in Populus. Of the 776 differently expressed (log2FC ≥1 or ≤-1, FDR ≤0.01) lncRNAs, 389 could potentially target 1,151 genes via trans-regulatory effects. Functional annotation of these target genes demonstrated that they are involved in fundamental processes, and in specific mechanisms such as response to stimuli. We also identified 16 target genes involved in wood formation, including cellulose and lignin biosynthesis, suggesting a potential role for lncRNAs in wood formation. In addition, three lncRNAs harbor precursors of four miRNAs, and 25 were potentially targeted by 44 miRNAs where a negative expression relationship between them was detected by qRT-PCR. Thus, a network of interactions among the lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs was constructed, indicating widespread regulatory interactions between non-coding RNAs and mRNAs. Lastly, qRT-PCR validation confirmed the differential expression of these lncRNAs, and revealed that they have tissue-specific expression in P. tomentosa. This study presents the first global identification of lncRNAs and their potential functions in wood formation, providing a starting point for detailed dissection of the functions of lncRNAs in Populus.

  14. Defense mechanisms and psychological adjustment in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Marlene J; Cramer, Phebe

    2003-08-01

    The association between maturity of defense use and psychological functioning was assessed in a group of 95 elementary school children. Defense mechanisms were measured using a valid and reliable storytelling task, and psychological adjustment was assessed through a combination of parent and self-report questionnaires. Correlational analyses indicated that children who relied on the developmentally immature defense of denial reported higher levels of self-rated social anxiety and depression and received higher ratings of parent-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, children who made use of the developmentally mature defense of identification exhibited higher scores on perceived competence in social, academic, conduct, athletic, and global domains. Significantly, there was no relationship between children's use of denial and their level of perceived competence or between children's use of identification and their degree of maladjustment.

  15. When a threat to the brand is a threat to the self: the importance of brand identification and implicit self-esteem in predicting defensiveness.

    PubMed

    Lisjak, Monika; Lee, Angela Y; Gardner, Wendi L

    2012-09-01

    This research examines how people respond when a commercial brand they identify with is threatened. Across four studies, the authors found that among participants who identified with a brand, a threat to the brand elicited the same responses as a threat to the self. Specifically, participants with low implicit self-esteem defended the brand when the self was activated, unlike their high implicit self-esteem counterparts. In addition, brand defense was reduced when individuals had the opportunity to affirm a valued aspect of their self-concept. These findings suggest that when a brand that people identify with is threatened, they may defend the brand to preserve the integrity of the self. More broadly, these findings are consistent with the notion that brands may be included into the extended self-concept, which supports William James's original ideas concerning the breadth and heterogeneity of the self.

  16. Identification of a Conserved Non-Protein-Coding Genomic Element that Plays an Essential Role in Alphabaculovirus Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kikhno, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Highly homologous sequences 154–157 bp in length grouped under the name of “conserved non-protein-coding element” (CNE) were revealed in all of the sequenced genomes of baculoviruses belonging to the genus Alphabaculovirus. A CNE alignment led to the detection of a set of highly conserved nucleotide clusters that occupy strictly conserved positions in the CNE sequence. The significant length of the CNE and conservation of both its length and cluster architecture were identified as a combination of characteristics that make this CNE different from known viral non-coding functional sequences. The essential role of the CNE in the Alphabaculovirus life cycle was demonstrated through the use of a CNE-knockout Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) bacmid. It was shown that the essential function of the CNE was not mediated by the presumed expression activities of the protein- and non-protein-coding genes that overlap the AcMNPV CNE. On the basis of the presented data, the AcMNPV CNE was categorized as a complex-structured, polyfunctional genomic element involved in an essential DNA transaction that is associated with an undefined function of the baculovirus genome. PMID:24740153

  17. Construction of a full-length cDNA library of Solen grandis dunker and identification of defense- and immune-related genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guohua; Liu, Xiangquan; Ren, Lihua; Yang, Jianmin; Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong

    2013-11-01

    The basic genetic characteristics, important functional genes, and entire transcriptome of Solen grandis Dunker were investigated by constructing a full-length cDNA library with the `switching mechanism at the 5'-end of the RNA transcript' (SMART) technique. Total RNA was isolated from the immune-relevant tissues, gills and hemocytes, using the Trizol reagent, and cDNA fragments were digested with Sfi I before being ligated to the pBluescript II SK* vector. The cDNA library had a titer of 1048 cfu μL-1 and a storage capacity of 1.05×106 cfu. Approximately 98% of the clones in the library were recombinants, and the fragment lengths of insert cDNA ranged from 0.8 kb to 3.0 kb. A total of 2038 expressed sequence tags were successfully sequenced and clustered into 965 unigenes. BLASTN analysis showed that 240 sequences were highly similar to the known genes (E-value < 1e -5; percent identity >80%), accounting for 25% of the total unigenes. According to the Gene Ontology, these unigenes were related to several biological processes, including cell structure, signal transport, protein synthesis, transcription, energy metabolism, and immunity. Fifteen of the identified sequences were related to defense and immunity. The full-length cDNA sequence of HSC70 was obtained. The cDNA library of S. grandis provided a useful resource for future researches of functional genomics related to stress tolerance, immunity, and other physiological activities.

  18. Identification of soybean MYC2-like transcription factors and overexpression of GmMYC1 could stimulate defense mechanism against common cutworm in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ding, Changwen; Du, Haiping; Liu, Hailun; Wang, Yongli; Yu, Deyue

    2014-09-01

    MYC2 is a basic helix-loop-helix Leu zipper transcription factor (TF). Here, 22 putative soybean MYC-like TFs were identified bioinformatically. Of these TFs, seven MYC2-like genes without introns were isolated and characterized. All seven GmMYCs displayed transactivation activity in yeast cells. Six genes (excepting GmMYC3) were expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seed wall but not in the developing seeds and up-regulated after insect feeding. The GmMYC1 transgenic tobacco rejected common cutworm (CCW, Spodoptera litura Fabricius) more strongly and lost less leaf area than the control (2.94 ± 2.36 vs 7.84 ± 4.63 cm(2)). The average relative growth rate of CCW feeding on transgenic tobacco leaves was lower than on control tobacco leaves (136 ± 60 vs 271 ± 76 %). These results indicated that GmMYC could stimulate the defense mechanism against insects in plants.

  19. Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense from Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Cheng; Yao, Jianxiu; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris [Palisot de Beauvois]) feeding. By facilitating the piercing, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the plant fluids are ingested by TPBs. To identify salivary gland genes, mRNA was extracted from salivary glands and cDNA library clones were sequenced. A de novo-assembling of 7,000 Sanger sequences revealed 666 high-quality unique cDNAs with an average size of 624 bp, in which the identities of 347 cDNAs were determined using Blast2GO. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis indicated that these genes participate in eighteen metabolic pathways. Identifications of large number of enzyme genes in TPB salivary glands evidenced functions for extra-oral digestion and feeding damage mechanism, including 45 polygalacturonase, two α- amylase, one glucosidase, one glycan enzyme, one aminopeptidase, four lipase, and many serine protease cDNAs. The presence of multiple transcripts, multigene members, and high abundance of cell wall degradation enzymes (polygalacturonases) indicated that the enzyme-rich saliva may cause damage to plants by breaking down plant cell walls to make nutrients available for feeding. We also identified genes potentially involved in insect adaptation and detoxifying xenobiotics that may allow insects to overcome plant defense responses, including four glutathione S-transferases, three esterases, one cytochrome P450, and several serine proteases. The gene profiles of TPB salivary glands revealed in this study provides a foundation for further understanding and potential development of novel enzymatic inhibitors, or other RNAi approaches that may interrupt or minimize TPB feeding damage. PMID:27324587

  20. Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense from Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Cheng; Yao, Jianxiu; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris [Palisot de Beauvois]) feeding. By facilitating the piercing, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the plant fluids are ingested by TPBs. To identify salivary gland genes, mRNA was extracted from salivary glands and cDNA library clones were sequenced. A de novo-assembling of 7,000 Sanger sequences revealed 666 high-quality unique cDNAs with an average size of 624 bp, in which the identities of 347 cDNAs were determined using Blast2GO. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis indicated that these genes participate in eighteen metabolic pathways. Identifications of large number of enzyme genes in TPB salivary glands evidenced functions for extra-oral digestion and feeding damage mechanism, including 45 polygalacturonase, two α- amylase, one glucosidase, one glycan enzyme, one aminopeptidase, four lipase, and many serine protease cDNAs. The presence of multiple transcripts, multigene members, and high abundance of cell wall degradation enzymes (polygalacturonases) indicated that the enzyme-rich saliva may cause damage to plants by breaking down plant cell walls to make nutrients available for feeding. We also identified genes potentially involved in insect adaptation and detoxifying xenobiotics that may allow insects to overcome plant defense responses, including four glutathione S-transferases, three esterases, one cytochrome P450, and several serine proteases. The gene profiles of TPB salivary glands revealed in this study provides a foundation for further understanding and potential development of novel enzymatic inhibitors, or other RNAi approaches that may interrupt or minimize TPB feeding damage. PMID:27324587

  1. Identification of Tissue-Specific Protein-Coding and Noncoding Transcripts across 14 Human Tissues Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinhang; Chen, Geng; Zhu, Sibo; Li, Suqing; Wen, Zhuo; Bin Li; Zheng, Yuanting; Shi, Leming

    2016-01-01

    Many diseases and adverse drug reactions exhibit tissue specificity. To better understand the tissue-specific expression characteristics of transcripts in different human tissues, we deeply sequenced RNA samples from 14 different human tissues. After filtering many lowly expressed transcripts, 24,729 protein-coding transcripts and 1,653 noncoding transcripts were identified. By analyzing highly expressed tissue-specific protein-coding transcripts (TSCTs) and noncoding transcripts (TSNTs), we found that testis expressed the highest numbers of TSCTs and TSNTs. Brain, monocytes, ovary, and heart expressed more TSCTs than the rest tissues, whereas brain, placenta, heart, and monocytes expressed more TSNTs than other tissues. Co-expression network constructed based on the TSCTs and TSNTs showed that each hub TSNT was co-expressed with several TSCTs, allowing functional annotation of TSNTs. Important biological processes and KEGG pathways highly related to the specific functions or diseases of each tissue were enriched with the corresponding TSCTs. These TSCTs and TSNTs may participate in the tissue-specific physiological or pathological processes. Our study provided a unique data set and systematic analysis of expression characteristics and functions of both TSCTs and TSNTs based on 14 distinct human tissues, and could facilitate future investigation of the mechanisms behind tissue-specific diseases and adverse drug reactions. PMID:27329541

  2. Identification of Tissue-Specific Protein-Coding and Noncoding Transcripts across 14 Human Tissues Using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinhang; Chen, Geng; Zhu, Sibo; Li, Suqing; Wen, Zhuo; Bin Li; Zheng, Yuanting; Shi, Leming

    2016-06-22

    Many diseases and adverse drug reactions exhibit tissue specificity. To better understand the tissue-specific expression characteristics of transcripts in different human tissues, we deeply sequenced RNA samples from 14 different human tissues. After filtering many lowly expressed transcripts, 24,729 protein-coding transcripts and 1,653 noncoding transcripts were identified. By analyzing highly expressed tissue-specific protein-coding transcripts (TSCTs) and noncoding transcripts (TSNTs), we found that testis expressed the highest numbers of TSCTs and TSNTs. Brain, monocytes, ovary, and heart expressed more TSCTs than the rest tissues, whereas brain, placenta, heart, and monocytes expressed more TSNTs than other tissues. Co-expression network constructed based on the TSCTs and TSNTs showed that each hub TSNT was co-expressed with several TSCTs, allowing functional annotation of TSNTs. Important biological processes and KEGG pathways highly related to the specific functions or diseases of each tissue were enriched with the corresponding TSCTs. These TSCTs and TSNTs may participate in the tissue-specific physiological or pathological processes. Our study provided a unique data set and systematic analysis of expression characteristics and functions of both TSCTs and TSNTs based on 14 distinct human tissues, and could facilitate future investigation of the mechanisms behind tissue-specific diseases and adverse drug reactions.

  3. Mobile, hybrid Compton/coded aperture imaging for detection, identification and localization of gamma-ray sources at stand-off distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornga, Shawn R.

    The Stand-off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) program is an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) project through the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) with the goal of detection, identification and localization of weak radiological sources in the presence of large dynamic backgrounds. The Raytheon-SORDS Tri-Modal Imager (TMI) is a mobile truck-based, hybrid gamma-ray imaging system able to quickly detect, identify and localize, radiation sources at standoff distances through improved sensitivity while minimizing the false alarm rate. Reconstruction of gamma-ray sources is performed using a combination of two imaging modalities; coded aperture and Compton scatter imaging. The TMI consists of 35 sodium iodide (NaI) crystals 5x5x2 in3 each, arranged in a random coded aperture mask array (CA), followed by 30 position sensitive NaI bars each 24x2.5x3 in3 called the detection array (DA). The CA array acts as both a coded aperture mask and scattering detector for Compton events. The large-area DA array acts as a collection detector for both Compton scattered events and coded aperture events. In this thesis, developed coded aperture, Compton and hybrid imaging algorithms will be described along with their performance. It will be shown that multiple imaging modalities can be fused to improve detection sensitivity over a broader energy range than either alone. Since the TMI is a moving system, peripheral data, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) must also be incorporated. A method of adapting static imaging algorithms to a moving platform has been developed. Also, algorithms were developed in parallel with detector hardware, through the use of extensive simulations performed with the Geometry and Tracking Toolkit v4 (GEANT4). Simulations have been well validated against measured data. Results of image reconstruction algorithms at various speeds and distances will be presented as well as

  4. Defense mechanisms in adolescent conduct disorder and adjustment reaction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2004-02-01

    The use of defense mechanisms by male and female adolescents with a diagnosis of conduct disorder was compared with the defense use of adolescents with a diagnosis of adjustment reaction. Because conduct disorder has been shown to be associated with a developmental lag in several areas of psychological functioning, we expected that these adolescents would show immaturity in the use of defenses. This expectation was confirmed. As compared with adjustment reaction, conduct disordered youths were more likely to use the immature defense of denial and less likely to use the mature defense of identification.

  5. Identification of the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens xylosidase gene (xylB) coding region and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, G W; Utt, E A; Hespell, R B; Mackenzie, K F; Ingram, L O

    1989-01-01

    The gene encoding the principal Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens xylosidase (xylB) has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the lac promoter. The coding region for this gene was localized within a 3.2-kilobase B. fibrisolvens DNA fragment in pUC18. A new protein band was observed in recombinant E. coli containing xylB. This protein (approximately 60,000 molecular weight) was presumed to be the xylosidase monomer. The optimal pH (5.5) and substrate range for the recombinant and native xylosidases appeared identical. Both enzymes hydrolyzed xylo-oligosaccharides with chain lengths of 2 to 5 and both were inactive on xylan. Images PMID:2497707

  6. Identification of a sarcoma virus-coded phosphoprotein in nonproducer cells transformed by Kirsten or Harvey murine sarcoma virus.

    PubMed

    Shih, T Y; Weeks, M O; Young, H A; Scholnick, E M

    1979-07-15

    A similar protein of 21,000 MW (p21) coded for by Harvey or Kirsten murine sarcoma virus has been identified in nonproducer cells transformed by these two viruses. Antisera prepared from rats bearing tumors induced by syngeneic transplantation of NRK cells transformed by Harvey murine sarcoma virus (Ha-MuSV) specifically precipitated the Ha-MuSV p21 from a nonproducer Balb/c mouse cell and a nonproducer dog cell transformed by Ha-MuSV. The same antisera also precipitated a similar protein, Ki-MuSV p21, from a nonproducer mink cell transformed by Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (Ki-MuSV). Both the p21 of Ha-MuSV and of Ki-MuSV are phosphoproteins. Previous studies have reported a virus-specific p21 polypeptide from translation of Ha-MuSV RNA in cell-free protein synthesis systems (W. P. Parks and E. M. Scolnick, 1977, J. Virol. 22, 711-719; T. Y. Shih, D. R. Williams, M. O. Weeks, J. M. Maryak, W. C. Vass, and E. M. Scolnick, 1978, J. Virol 27, 45-55). This p21 protein was specifically precipitated by the same anti-tumor sera. Similarly, a p21 polypeptide translated from Ki-MuSV RNA was also specifically precipitated by the antitumor sera. Therefore, it is concluded that the p21 of Ha-MuSV and Ki-MuSV are homologous proteins coded for bv homologous sequences found in the recombinant genomes of Ha-MuSV and Ki-MuSV.

  7. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  8. Perceptions of Usefulness: Using the Holland Code Theory, Multiple Intelligences Theory, and Role Model Identification to Determine a Career Niche in the Fashion Industry for First-Quarter Fashion Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Crystal D.

    2010-01-01

    This action research study investigated the perceptions that student participants had on the development of a career exploration model and a career exploration project. The Holland code theory was the primary assessment used for this research study, in addition to the Multiple Intelligences theory and the identification of a role model for the…

  9. Experimental RNomics in Aquifex aeolicus: identification of small non-coding RNAs and the putative 6S RNA homolog

    PubMed Central

    Willkomm, Dagmar K.; Minnerup, Jens; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Hartmann, Roland K.

    2005-01-01

    By an experimental RNomics approach, we have generated a cDNA library from small RNAs expressed from the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. The library included RNAs that were antisense to mRNAs and tRNAs as well as RNAs encoded in intergenic regions. Substantial steady-state levels in A.aeolicus cells were confirmed for several of the cloned RNAs by northern blot analysis. The most abundant intergenic RNA of the library was identified as the 6S RNA homolog of A.aeolicus. Although shorter in size (150 nt) than its γ-proteobacterial homologs (∼185 nt), it is predicted to have the most stable structure among known 6S RNAs. As in the γ-proteobacteria, the A.aeolicus 6S RNA gene (ssrS) is located immediately upstream of the ygfA gene encoding a widely conserved 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase. We identifed novel 6S RNA candidates within the γ-proteobacteria but were unable to identify reasonable 6S RNA candidates in other bacterial branches, utilizing mfold analyses of the region immediately upstream of ygfA combined with 6S RNA blastn searches. By RACE experiments, we mapped the major transcription initiation site of A.aeolicus 6S RNA primary transcripts, located within the pheT gene preceding ygfA, as well as three processing sites. PMID:15814812

  10. Identification of long non-coding RNAs as novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target for atrial fibrillation in old adults.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingjia; Huang, Ritai; Gu, Jianing; Jiang, Weifeng

    2016-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent cardiac arrhythmia disease, which widely leads to exacerbate heart failure and ischemic stroke in elder world. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a subclass of noncoding RNAs, have been reported to play critical roles in pathophysiology of cardiac heart. However, little is known of their role in cardiac arrhythmia. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of lncRNAs of AF patients and healthy people with Agilent Human lncRNA array for the first time. 177 lncRNAs of 78243 and 153 mRNAs of 30215 tested were identified to be differentially expressed (≥ 2-fold change), indicating that the expression of many lncRNAs are upregulated or downregulated in AF. Among these, NONHSAT040387 and NONHSAT098586 were the most upregulated and downregulated lncRNAs. Real time quantitative PCR were employed to validate the microarray analysis findings, and the results confirmed the consistence. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were applied to explore the potential lncRNAs functions, some pathways including oxygen transporter activity and protein heterodimerization activity were speculated to be involved in AF pathogenesis. These results shed some light on lncRNAs' physiologic functions and provide useful information for exploring potential therapeutic treatments for heart rhythm disease.

  11. Genome-wide long non-coding RNA screening, identification and characterization in a model microorganism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Meirong; Xiao, Peng; Hu, Changxing; Zeng, Zhiyong; Wang, Chaogang; Wang, Jiangxin; Hu, Zhangli

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are regarded as the most promising biofuel candidates and extensive metabolic engineering were conducted but very few improvements were achieved. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) investigation and manipulation may provide new insights for this issue. LncRNAs refer to transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides, do not encode proteins but play important roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. However, no information of potential lncRNAs has been reported in eukaryotic alga. Recently, we performed RNA sequencing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and obtained totally 3,574 putative lncRNAs. 1440 were considered as high-confidence lncRNAs, including 936 large intergenic, 310 intronic and 194 anti-sense lncRNAs. The average transcript length, ORF length and numbers of exons for lncRNAs are much less than for genes in this green alga. In contrast with human lncRNAs of which more than 98% are spliced, the percentage in C. reinhardtii is only 48.1%. In addition, we identified 367 lncRNAs responsive to sulfur deprivation, including 36 photosynthesis-related lncRNAs. This is the first time that lncRNAs were explored in the unicellular model organism C. reinhardtii. The lncRNA data could also provide new insights into C. reinhardtii hydrogen production under sulfur deprivation. PMID:27659799

  12. Non-coding RNA identification based on topology secondary structure and reading frame in organelle genome level.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yan; Li, Qian-Zhong; Feng, Zhen-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes make transcripts as same as the encoding genes, and ncRNAs directly function as RNAs rather than serve as blueprints for proteins. As the function of ncRNA is closely related to organelle genomes, it is desirable to explore ncRNA function by confirming its provenance. In this paper, the topology secondary structure, motif and the triplets under three reading frames are considered as parameters of ncRNAs. A method of SVM combining the increment of diversity (ID) algorithm is applied to construct the classifier. When the method is applied to the ncRNA dataset less than 80% sequence identity, the overall accuracies reach 95.57%, 96.40% in the five-fold cross-validation and the jackknife test, respectively. Further, for the independent testing dataset, the average prediction success rate of our method achieved 93.24%. The higher predictive success rates indicate that our method is very helpful for distinguishing ncRNAs from various organelle genomes. PMID:26697761

  13. Identification and expression of small non-coding RNA, L10-Leader, in different growth phases of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Xia, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Li, Wuju; Liu, Jiaojiao; Ding, Hongmei; Li, Jie; Li, Hui; Chen, Ying; Su, Xueting; Wang, Wei; Sun, Li; Wang, Chenglong; Shao, Ningsheng; Chu, Bingfeng

    2012-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans is one of the major cariogenic bacteria in the oral environment. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of bacterial growth, stress tolerance, and virulence. In this study, we experimentally verified the existence of sRNA, L10-Leader, in S. mutans for the first time. Our results show that the expression level of L10-Leader was growth-phase dependent in S. mutans and varied among different clinical strains of S. mutans. The level of L10-Leader in S. mutans UA159 was closely related to the pH value, but not to the concentrations of glucose and sucrose in culture medium. We predicted target mRNAs of L10-Leader bioinformatically and found that some of these mRNAs were related to growth and stress response. Five predicted mRNA targets were selected and detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and we found that the expression levels of these mRNAs were closely related to the level of L10-Leader at different growth phases of the bacteria. Our results indicate that L10-Leader may play an important role in the regulation of responses in S. mutans, especially during its growth phase and acid adaption response.

  14. Community perceptions of allowable counterforce in self-defense and defense of property.

    PubMed

    Oleson, K C; Darley, J M

    1999-12-01

    What level of force do people believe is appropriate to use in self-defense and defense of property? One answer is that a person may use only the bare minimum of force necessary to terminate the threat in self-defense and must retreat if it is possible. One may not use deadly force in defense of property since that would be disproportionate. This set of rules is in the Model Penal Code (MPC). The current research explores the patterning of lay views about the use of counterforce in defense of self and property. Several New Jersey samples (N = 197 total) made liability ratings for four self-defense and four property defense case vignettes that differed in their underlying rationales for action. For both the self-defense and property defense cases, participants gave much lower sentences for cases in which a person kills a thief who is stealing his car, kills an unarmed attacker, or kills an attacker even when he could safely retreat, as compared to a control case in which the person is killed in response to a trivial threat. Participants' sentencing ratings were predicted by their beliefs about whether the force the defender used in the situation was necessary. In addition, participants who lacked confidence in the ability of the criminal justice system to protect them and their property recommended shorter sentences; those with less confidence in the system seemed to believe that a person should not be punished as much for taking the law into his own hands. Further results suggest that participants believed that their sentencing judgments mirrored the New Jersey Criminal Code, modeled after the MPC, although they were actually discrepant from it. We consider implications of these results for legal codes.

  15. Identification and characterization of three Vibrio alginolyticus non-coding RNAs involved in adhesion, chemotaxis, and motility processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lixing; Hu, Jiao; Su, Yongquan; Qin, Yingxue; Kong, Wendi; Ma, Ying; Xu, Xiaojin; Lin, Mao; Yan, Qingpi

    2015-01-01

    The capability of Vibrio alginolyticus to adhere to fish mucus is a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Our previous research showed that stress conditions, such as Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and low pH, can reduce this adhesion ability. Non-coding (nc) RNAs play a crucial role in regulating bacterial gene expression, affecting the bacteria's pathogenicity. To investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the decline in adhesion ability caused by stressors, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational techniques to detect stressed ncRNA dynamics. These approaches yielded three commonly altered ncRNAs that are predicted to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, which plays a key role in the adhesion process of bacteria. We hypothesized they play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus. In this study, we validated the effects of these three ncRNAs on their predicted target genes and their role in the V. alginolyticus adhesion process with RNA interference (i), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), northern blot, capillary assay, and in vitro adhesion assays. The expression of these ncRNAs and their predicted target genes were confirmed by qPCR and northern blot, which reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data and the target prediction. Overexpression of these ncRNAs was capable of reducing the chemotactic and adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus, and the expression levels of their target genes were also significantly reduced. Our results indicated that these three ncRNAs: (1) are able to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, and (2) play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus.

  16. Identification of long non-coding RNA involved in osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells using RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Song, W Q; Gu, W Q; Qian, Y B; Ma, X; Mao, Y J; Liu, W J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) associated with osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data. RNA-Seq dataset was obtained from the European Bioinformatics Institute (accession No. PRJEB4496), including two replicates each for immortalized mesenchymal stem cells iMSC#3 cultured in growth medium (GM) and differentiation medium (DM) for 28 days. The clean reads were aligned to a hg19 reference genome by Tophat and assembled by Cufflinks to identify the known and novel transcripts. RPKM values were calculated to screen for differentially expressed RNA. Novel lncRNA were screened based on various filter criteria. Subsequently, the underlying function of novel lncRNAs were predicted by functional annotation by ERPIN, a co-expression network was constructed by WGCNA and the KEGG pathway enriched by KOBAS. A total of 3171 RNA differentially expressed between the DM and GM groups (2597 mRNA and 574 lncRNA) were identified. Among the 574 differentially expressed lncRNA, 357 were known and 217 were novel lncRNA. Furthermore, 32 novel lncRNA were found to be miRNA precursors (including miR-689, miR-640, miR-601, and miR-544). A total of 14,275 co-expression relationships and 217 co-expression networks were obtained between novel lncRNA and mRNA. The differentially expressed lncRNA and mRNA were enriched into 6 significant pathways, including those for cancer, ECM-receptor interaction, and focal adhesion. Therefore, novel lncRNAwere identified and their underlying function predicted, which may provide the basis for future analyses of the role of lncRNA in osteoblastic differentiation.

  17. 77 FR 43469 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... from the Code of Federal Regulations with the publication of DFARS Case 2011-D048 (77 FR 19128), and... DFARS Case 2012-D003 (77 FR 35879). List of Subjects in 48 CFR Part 252 Government procurement. Ynette R... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  18. Identification of a non-coding KLF4 transcript generated from intron retention and downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junwei; Lai, Paul Bo-San; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing

    2015-10-01

    The Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) gene is related to various biological processes including stem cell reprogramming and tumorigenesis. In this study, we identified and characterized a non-coding transcript of KLF4, which was designated KLF4‑003, in human liver tissue samples. KLF4‑003 was identified in a number of cell lines by reverse transcription PCR and DNA sequencing. Its expression levels were determined in 54 pairs of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and a number of HCC cell lines by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Methylation status of KLF4‑003 CpG islands was determined by bisulfite sequencing. The regulatory effect of KLF4‑003 CpG islands hypermethylation in Hep3B cells was then validated by the 5-aza-dC demethylation treatment, followed by RT-PCR analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was created to evaluate the diagnostic value for differentiating between HCC cancer and benign diseases. The association study between KLF4‑003 expression level and clinical traits of HCC patients was performed with SPSS. We found that KLF4‑003 was downregulated in 46 out of 54 HCC samples compared with their adjunct normal tissues. The reduced KLF4‑003 expression was significantly associated with HCC recurrence (P=0.045) in the follow-up of 31 HCC patients. Significant differences were detected between the methylation status of HCC specimens and their adjacent normal controls. Demethylation treatment significantly rescued the expression of KLF4‑003 in Hep3B cells. Such observation indicated that the CpG island hypermethylation was at least partially responsible for the downregulation of KLF4‑003 in HCC. The area under ROC curve for the prediction of HCC reached 0.803 (95% CI=0.719-0.886, P<0.001). Our results suggested that the expression of KLF4‑003 was epigenetically regulated by methylation status of a KLF4‑003 CpG island in HCC. The differential expression of KLF4‑003 might play an important role in HCC development and might

  19. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique.

  20. Dynamic defense workshop :

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  1. The military insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the military insanity defense. The success of the litigated insanity defense is explored through the number of insanity acquittals over a 28-month period. A questionnaire distributed to all United States Army psychiatrists provided information on the number of forensic evaluations performed, the number of not criminally responsible (NCR) opinions made, and the disposition of noncontested NCR opinions. The questionnaire also tested the Army psychiatrists' knowledge about recent changes in the military insanity defense. This pilot study raises interesting questions about the military insanity defense that further research can address.

  2. Technologies for distributed defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  3. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  4. Defense mechanisms development in children, adolescents, and late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, J H; Thomas, S; Hibbard, S; Cogan, R

    1998-12-01

    To replicate and extend Cramer's (1987) original cross-sectional study concerning the development of defense mechanisms, the Thematic Apperception Test responses of 148 students in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11, and college freshmen were collected and scored for denial, projection, and identification using Cramer's Defense Mechanisms Manual (1991). Our results supported the notion that the relative use of denial and projection decreases and identification increases as a function of grade level. The findings provide additional support for the psychoanalytic view (Freud, 1966) of an ontogenetic developmental line of defense.

  5. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  6. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  7. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  8. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  9. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  10. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  11. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  12. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  13. Defense Workforce Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; And Others

    This report discusses the amount and kinds of Department of Defense (DoD) interactive courseware (ICW) programs that are candidates for transfer to the private sector. Candidates for transfer were identified through an analysis of the Defense Instructional Technology Information System (DITIS). Out of 4,644 ICW programs that have been reported to…

  14. 75 FR 64710 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Department of Defense Services Contracts Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... section 2330a of title 10 United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08) section 807, the Office of the Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Department of Defense Services...

  15. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique. PMID:23421665

  16. Emptiness as defense in severe regressive states.

    PubMed

    LaFarge, L

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the empty states experienced by severely ill borderline patients. At times of stressful regression, these patients use complaints of emptiness to describe profound disturbances of affect, cognition, object relations, and bodily experience. Empty states may be seen as complex defensive configurations which protect a borderline level of psychic structure from the impact of aggressively charged object relations, and ward off further regression to states of fragmentation or fusion. Severely ill borderline patients consolidate an empty screen by means of a characteristic repertoire of primitive defenses consisting of various forms of projective identification, including bitriangulation and projective identification of psychic agencies, somatization, acting out, and specific alterations in cognition. The author describes the highly deviant organizations of the object world seen in empty states, and the complex and disturbing countertransferences which these states evoke.

  17. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  18. Moscow's defense intellectuals

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    This essay was originally written two decades ago as a seminar paper. A substantial portion of it addresses what were then only the first steps toward the establishment of a community of professional civilian defense analysts in the Soviet Union. Throughout most of the intervening period, that community found itself mired in immobilism as jurisdiction over such key Soviet national security inputs as military doctrine, force requirements, resource needs, and to a considerable degree, arms negotiating positions remained an exclusive prerogative of the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. Today, this former military monopoly has come to be challenged with increasing success by a host of newcomers to the Soviet defense scene, including the Foreign Ministry, the Supreme Soviet, and an ambitious cadre of civilian analysts attached to the social science research institutes of the Academy of Sciences. These individuals are making a determined bid for greater influence over Soviet defense policy, with the express encouragement of President Gorbachev and his supporters. The result has been an unprecedented infusion of pluralism into Soviet defense politics and a significant change in the content and goals of Soviet military policy.

  19. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the “non-hostile” colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7. PMID:25250017

  20. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  1. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  2. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  3. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  4. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  5. In Defense of Rubrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandel, Vicki

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author expresses her views in defense of writing rubrics. She explains that when rubrics are thoughtfully crafted and used with discretion and understanding, they can be among the most useful instructional tools that teachers have. A rubric captures the essence of performance at various levels. Because rubric demands…

  6. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  7. Identification of acute myocardial infarction from electronic healthcare records using different disease coding systems: a validation study in three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Coloma, Preciosa M; Valkhoff, Vera E; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Nielsson, Malene Schou; Pedersen, Lars; Molokhia, Mariam; Mosseveld, Mees; Morabito, Paolo; Schuemie, Martijn J; van der Lei, Johan; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Trifirò, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate positive predictive value (PPV) of different disease codes and free text in identifying acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from electronic healthcare records (EHRs). Design Validation study of cases of AMI identified from general practitioner records and hospital discharge diagnoses using free text and codes from the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC), International Classification of Diseases 9th revision-clinical modification (ICD9-CM) and ICD-10th revision (ICD-10). Setting Population-based databases comprising routinely collected data from primary care in Italy and the Netherlands and from secondary care in Denmark from 1996 to 2009. Participants A total of 4 034 232 individuals with 22 428 883 person-years of follow-up contributed to the data, from which 42 774 potential AMI cases were identified. A random sample of 800 cases was subsequently obtained for validation. Main outcome measures PPVs were calculated overall and for each code/free text. ‘Best-case scenario’ and ‘worst-case scenario’ PPVs were calculated, the latter taking into account non-retrievable/non-assessable cases. We further assessed the effects of AMI misclassification on estimates of risk during drug exposure. Results Records of 748 cases (93.5% of sample) were retrieved. ICD-10 codes had a ‘best-case scenario’ PPV of 100% while ICD9-CM codes had a PPV of 96.6% (95% CI 93.2% to 99.9%). ICPC codes had a ‘best-case scenario’ PPV of 75% (95% CI 67.4% to 82.6%) and free text had PPV ranging from 20% to 60%. Corresponding PPVs in the ‘worst-case scenario’ all decreased. Use of codes with lower PPV generally resulted in small changes in AMI risk during drug exposure, but codes with higher PPV resulted in attenuation of risk for positive associations. Conclusions ICD9-CM and ICD-10 codes have good PPV in identifying AMI from EHRs; strategies are necessary to further optimise utility of ICPC codes and free-text search. Use of

  8. Identification of genes potentially responsible for extra-oral digestion and overcoming plant defense from salivary glands of the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) using cDNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris) feeding. TPBs secrete saliva during feeding to facilitate the piercing into plant tissues. More importantly, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the p...

  9. Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A; Highland, Heather M; Locke, Adam E; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J; Teslovich, Tanya M; Rayner, N William; Robertson, Neil R; Beer, Nicola L; Rundle, Jana K; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P; Groves, Christopher J; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Jackson, Anne U; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S; Stringham, Heather M; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Doney, Alex S F; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Bergman, Richard N; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C; Morris, Andrew P; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Gloyn, Anna L

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  10. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A.; Highland, Heather M.; Locke, Adam E.; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Rayner, N. William; Robertson, Neil R.; Beer, Nicola L.; Rundle, Jana K.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P.; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S.; Stringham, Heather M.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G.; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Bergman, Richard N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C.; Morris, Andrew P.; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  11. 32 CFR 536.125 - Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Justice (UCMJ) Claims. 536.125 Section 536.125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... 139, Uniform Code of Military Justice § 536.125 Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims. The authority for this subpart is Article 139, Uniform Code of Military...

  12. 32 CFR 536.125 - Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Justice (UCMJ) Claims. 536.125 Section 536.125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... 139, Uniform Code of Military Justice § 536.125 Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims. The authority for this subpart is Article 139, Uniform Code of Military...

  13. 32 CFR 536.125 - Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Justice (UCMJ) Claims. 536.125 Section 536.125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... 139, Uniform Code of Military Justice § 536.125 Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims. The authority for this subpart is Article 139, Uniform Code of Military...

  14. 32 CFR 536.125 - Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Justice (UCMJ) Claims. 536.125 Section 536.125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... 139, Uniform Code of Military Justice § 536.125 Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims. The authority for this subpart is Article 139, Uniform Code of Military...

  15. 32 CFR 536.125 - Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Justice (UCMJ) Claims. 536.125 Section 536.125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... 139, Uniform Code of Military Justice § 536.125 Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims. The authority for this subpart is Article 139, Uniform Code of Military...

  16. 76 FR 58122 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Material Inspection and Receiving Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 56961) on September 17, 2010, to amend DFARS Appendix F, Material Inspection and...'' cannot be a CAGE code, only a DoDAAC or Military Assistance Program Address Codes. Response: No revision...), and that DoDAACs and Military Assistance Program Address Codes (MAPACs) are valid in Defense...

  17. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  18. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  19. Codes and Standards Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Codes and Standards Tech Team (CSTT) mission is to enable and facilitate the appropriate research, development, & demonstration (RD&D) for the development of safe, performance-based defensible technical codes and standards that support the technology readiness and are appropriate for widespread consumer use of fuel cells and hydrogen-based technologies with commercialization by 2020. Therefore, it is important that the necessary codes and standards be in place no later than 2015.

  20. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  1. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  2. Assessment Instruments for the Identification of Children Who Are Gifted, as Approved by the Ohio Department of Education in Accordance with Ohio Revised Code 3324.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Special Education.

    This document is intended to provide Ohio State school district personnel with information about approved assessment instruments for the screening and identification of students who are gifted. Instruments listed are intended to identify students in each of four gifted ability areas: superior cognitive ability, specific academic ability, creative…

  3. Identification of bacterial species associated with the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis) by using amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Hogg, J C; Lehane, M J

    1999-09-01

    This was the first molecular study of the bacterial flora of the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis). A sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA revealed that Serratia marcescens and bacteria closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius or Staphylococcus chromogens and Alloiococcus otitidis were present. These bacteria were associated with skin lesions, dermatitis, and otitis media caused by P. ovis.

  4. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  5. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections.

  6. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  7. 76 FR 76318 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ..., Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, is the DoD Office of Inspector General at the following... omitted from a final rule published at 76 FR 58152 on September 20, 2011. This coverage was previously... (Acquisition & Procurement)''; and 0 d. Removing the Defense Business Transformation Agency Contracting...

  8. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  9. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  10. Identification of a Novel Small Cysteine-Rich Protein in the Fraction from the Biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum Strain CS-20 that Mitigates Fusarium Wilt Symptoms and Triggers Defense Responses in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Larisa A.; Odintsova, Tatyana I.; Stakheev, Alexander A.; Fravel, Deborah R.; Zavriev, Sergey K.

    2016-01-01

    The biocontrol effect of the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. This study shows that CS-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses in tomato plants. Three protein-containing fractions were isolated from CS-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. Exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic FOL strains significantly reduced wilt severity. This fraction initiated an ion exchange response in cultured tomato cells resulting in a reversible alteration of extracellular pH; increased tomato chitinase activity, and induced systemic resistance by enhancing PR-1 expression in tomato leaves. Two other protein fractions were inactive in seedling protection. The main polypeptide (designated CS20EP), which was specifically present in the defense-inducing fraction and was not detected in inactive protein fractions, was identified. The nucleotide sequence encoding this protein was determined, and its complete amino acid sequence was deduced from direct Edman degradation (25 N-terminal amino acid residues) and DNA sequencing. The CS20EP was found to be a small basic cysteine-rich protein with a pI of 9.87 and 23.43% of hydrophobic amino acid residues. BLAST search in the NCBI database showed that the protein is new; however, it displays 48% sequence similarity with a hypothetical protein FGSG_10784 from F. graminearum strain PH-1. The contribution of CS20EP to elicitation of tomato defense responses resulting in wilt mitigating is discussed. PMID:26779237

  11. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  12. Improvement of genome assembly completeness and identification of novel full-length protein-coding genes by RNA-seq in the giant panda genome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meili; Hu, Yibo; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Wei, Fuwen; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-12-11

    High-quality and complete gene models are the basis of whole genome analyses. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome was the first genome sequenced on the basis of solely short reads, but the genome annotation had lacked the support of transcriptomic evidence. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to globally improve the genome assembly completeness and to detect novel expressed transcripts in 12 tissues from giant pandas, by using a transcriptome reconstruction strategy that combined reference-based and de novo methods. Several aspects of genome assembly completeness in the transcribed regions were effectively improved by the de novo assembled transcripts, including genome scaffolding, the detection of small-size assembly errors, the extension of scaffold/contig boundaries, and gap closure. Through expression and homology validation, we detected three groups of novel full-length protein-coding genes. A total of 12.62% of the novel protein-coding genes were validated by proteomic data. GO annotation analysis showed that some of the novel protein-coding genes were involved in pigmentation, anatomical structure formation and reproduction, which might be related to the development and evolution of the black-white pelage, pseudo-thumb and delayed embryonic implantation of giant pandas. The updated genome annotation will help further giant panda studies from both structural and functional perspectives.

  13. Improvement of genome assembly completeness and identification of novel full-length protein-coding genes by RNA-seq in the giant panda genome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meili; Hu, Yibo; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Wei, Fuwen; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    High-quality and complete gene models are the basis of whole genome analyses. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome was the first genome sequenced on the basis of solely short reads, but the genome annotation had lacked the support of transcriptomic evidence. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to globally improve the genome assembly completeness and to detect novel expressed transcripts in 12 tissues from giant pandas, by using a transcriptome reconstruction strategy that combined reference-based and de novo methods. Several aspects of genome assembly completeness in the transcribed regions were effectively improved by the de novo assembled transcripts, including genome scaffolding, the detection of small-size assembly errors, the extension of scaffold/contig boundaries, and gap closure. Through expression and homology validation, we detected three groups of novel full-length protein-coding genes. A total of 12.62% of the novel protein-coding genes were validated by proteomic data. GO annotation analysis showed that some of the novel protein-coding genes were involved in pigmentation, anatomical structure formation and reproduction, which might be related to the development and evolution of the black-white pelage, pseudo-thumb and delayed embryonic implantation of giant pandas. The updated genome annotation will help further giant panda studies from both structural and functional perspectives. PMID:26658305

  14. Improvement of genome assembly completeness and identification of novel full-length protein-coding genes by RNA-seq in the giant panda genome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meili; Hu, Yibo; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Wei, Fuwen; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    High-quality and complete gene models are the basis of whole genome analyses. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome was the first genome sequenced on the basis of solely short reads, but the genome annotation had lacked the support of transcriptomic evidence. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to globally improve the genome assembly completeness and to detect novel expressed transcripts in 12 tissues from giant pandas, by using a transcriptome reconstruction strategy that combined reference-based and de novo methods. Several aspects of genome assembly completeness in the transcribed regions were effectively improved by the de novo assembled transcripts, including genome scaffolding, the detection of small-size assembly errors, the extension of scaffold/contig boundaries, and gap closure. Through expression and homology validation, we detected three groups of novel full-length protein-coding genes. A total of 12.62% of the novel protein-coding genes were validated by proteomic data. GO annotation analysis showed that some of the novel protein-coding genes were involved in pigmentation, anatomical structure formation and reproduction, which might be related to the development and evolution of the black-white pelage, pseudo-thumb and delayed embryonic implantation of giant pandas. The updated genome annotation will help further giant panda studies from both structural and functional perspectives. PMID:26658305

  15. 75 FR 3178 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Lead System Integrators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... an interim rule at 73 FR 1823 on January 10, 2008, to implement Section 807 of the National ] Defense... 74 FR 34268 on July 15, 2009, is adopted as a final rule without change. BILLING CODE 5001-08-P ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Lead System Integrators AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION:...

  16. 76 FR 4322 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Missile Defense Agency Services Contracts Inventory Pursuant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Missile Defense Agency Services Contracts... Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/SS) will make available to the...

  17. 75 FR 20578 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2008 Defense Threat Reduction Agency Services Contracts Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    .... SUMMARY: In accordance with section 2330a of title 10 United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08) section 807, the Director of DTRA and the Office... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2008 Defense Threat Reduction Agency...

  18. 75 FR 32087 - Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ..., 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-13659 Filed 6-4-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 4410-10-P ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of May 19, 2010 Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act... authority vested in me by section 722(b)(2) of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (section 11...

  19. Thermoregulatory defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sessler, Daniel I

    2009-07-01

    Core body temperature is normally tightly regulated by an effective thermoregulatory system. Thermoregulatory control is sometimes impaired by serious illness, but more typically remains intact. The primary autonomic defenses against heat are sweating and active precapillary vasodilation; the primary autonomic defenses against cold are arteriovenous shunt vasoconstriction and shivering. The core temperature triggering each response defines its activation threshold. Temperatures between the sweating and vasoconstriction thresholds define the inter-threshold range. The shivering threshold is usually a full 1 degrees C below the vasoconstriction threshold and is therefore a "last resort" response. Both vasoconstriction and shivering are associated with autonomic and hemodynamic activation; and each response is effective, thus impeding induction of therapeutic hypothermia. It is thus helpful to accompany core cooling with drugs that pharmacologically induce a degree of thermal tolerance. No perfect drug or drug combination has been identified. Anesthetics, for example, induce considerable tolerance, but are rarely suitable. Meperidine-especially in combination with buspirone-is especially effective while provoking only modest toxicity. The combination of buspirone and dexmedetomidine is comparably effective while avoiding the respiratory depression association with opioid administration.

  20. Identification of a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-D-glucanase inhibitor protein from apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) as a potential defense gene against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    PubMed

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yugang; Dai, Hongyi

    2015-02-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is the causal agent of apple ring rot which is a highly destructive apple disease in China. Here, a putative xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-d-glucanase inhibitor protein from Malus×domestica (designated as MdXEGIP1) was found to be involved in defense against B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 shares high amino acid sequence identity with other apple XEGIPs, but exhibited significantly different responses to B. dothidea infection. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that MdXEGIP1 expression was significantly induced in shoot bark of apple plant by B. dothidea and showed different expression pattern in resistant and susceptible apple cultivars. In resistant cultivar, MdXEGIP1 expression was elevated with larger amplitude than that in susceptible cultivar after B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 expression was also significantly enhanced by treatment with exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in apple plantlets. Further investigation revealed that recombinant MdXEGIP1 has significant inhibitor activity to XEGs from family 12 and 74 of glycoside hydrolase. More importantly, recombinant MdXEGIP1 inhibited crude enzyme solution of XEG from B. dothidea, suggesting that MdXEGIP1 might protect apple plant from B. dothidea infection by inhibiting XEG activity. Taken together, the results indicated that MdXEGIP1 is a potential defense gene against B. dothidea in apple. PMID:25575987

  1. Identification of a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-D-glucanase inhibitor protein from apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) as a potential defense gene against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    PubMed

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yugang; Dai, Hongyi

    2015-02-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is the causal agent of apple ring rot which is a highly destructive apple disease in China. Here, a putative xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-d-glucanase inhibitor protein from Malus×domestica (designated as MdXEGIP1) was found to be involved in defense against B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 shares high amino acid sequence identity with other apple XEGIPs, but exhibited significantly different responses to B. dothidea infection. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that MdXEGIP1 expression was significantly induced in shoot bark of apple plant by B. dothidea and showed different expression pattern in resistant and susceptible apple cultivars. In resistant cultivar, MdXEGIP1 expression was elevated with larger amplitude than that in susceptible cultivar after B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 expression was also significantly enhanced by treatment with exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in apple plantlets. Further investigation revealed that recombinant MdXEGIP1 has significant inhibitor activity to XEGs from family 12 and 74 of glycoside hydrolase. More importantly, recombinant MdXEGIP1 inhibited crude enzyme solution of XEG from B. dothidea, suggesting that MdXEGIP1 might protect apple plant from B. dothidea infection by inhibiting XEG activity. Taken together, the results indicated that MdXEGIP1 is a potential defense gene against B. dothidea in apple.

  2. Longitudinal study of defense mechanisms: late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2007-02-01

    Based on longitudinal data from the Institute of Human Development Intergenerational Study, the use and change in defense mechanisms of more than 150 individuals, as assessed from TAT stories, was studied across ages 11, 12, and 18. The findings of this study, based on an earlier generation, were generally consistent with cross-sectional findings from current samples, showing that the defenses of projection and identification were used more frequently than denial at all three ages and that the use of projection and identification increased from early to late adolescence. However, unlike current findings, the 18-year-olds did not show greater use of identification than of projection, perhaps due to IQ differences between this community sample and the samples of more recent studies.

  3. Identification of kakusei, a Nuclear Non-Coding RNA, as an Immediate Early Gene from the Honeybee, and Its Application for Neuroethological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiya, Taketoshi; Ugajin, Atsushi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Kubo, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The honeybee is a social insect that exhibits various social behaviors. To elucidate the neural basis of honeybee behavior, we detected neural activity in freely-moving honeybee workers using an immediate early gene (IEG) that is expressed in a neural activity-dependent manner. In European honeybees (Apis mellifera), we identified a novel nuclear non-coding RNA, termed kakusei, as the first insect IEG, and revealed the neural activity pattern in foragers. In addition, we isolated a homologue of kakusei, termed Acks, from the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana), and detected active neurons in workers fighting with the giant hornet. PMID:23443077

  4. Identification of Potential Key Long Non-Coding RNAs and Target Genes Associated with Pneumonia Using Long Non-Coding RNA Sequencing (lncRNA-Seq): A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sai; Feng, Cong; Chen, Li; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Bei; Wang, Li-li; Chen, Wei; Lv, Fa-qin; Li, Tan-shi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to identify the potential key long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and target genes associated with pneumonia using lncRNA sequencing (lncRNA-seq). Material/Methods A total of 9 peripheral blood samples from patients with mild pneumonia (n=3) and severe pneumonia (n=3), as well as volunteers without pneumonia (n=3), were received for lncRNA-seq. Based on the sequencing data, differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs) were identified by the limma package. After the functional enrichment analysis, target genes of DE-lncRNAs were predicted, and the regulatory network was constructed. Results In total, 99 DE-lncRNAs (14 upregulated and 85 downregulated ones) were identified in the mild pneumonia group and 85 (72 upregulated and 13 downregulated ones) in the severe pneumonia group, compared with the control group. Among these DE-lncRNAs, 9 lncRNAs were upregulated in both the mild and severe pneumonia groups. A set of 868 genes were predicted to be targeted by these 9 DE-lncRNAs. In the network, RP11-248E9.5 and RP11-456D7.1 targeted the majority of genes. RP11-248E9.5 regulated several genes together with CTD-2300H10.2, such as QRFP and EPS8. Both upregulated RP11-456D7.1 and RP11-96C23.9 regulated several genes, such as PDK2. RP11-456D7.1 also positively regulated CCL21. Conclusions These novel lncRNAs and their target genes may be closely associated with the progression of pneumonia. PMID:27663962

  5. [Student Identification for Gifted Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Evelyn Levsky, Ed.; Covington, Jeanette, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document, a first "theme" issue of a projected quarterly publication on developments in gifted education, focuses on theoretical principles and practical suggestions concerning student identification for gifted programs in Texas. The first article, "Developing Defensible Identification Procedures," is by Tommie Sue Anthony. It notes that…

  6. Defense acquisition programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The continuing instability in the overall defense budget and the recent changes in Eastern Europe are forcing DOD and the military services to reexamine the need, priority, and annual funding levels for many weapon system acquisition programs. GAO reviewed six weapon system acquisition programs that DOD was scheduled to make an acquisition milestone decision on during fiscal year 1991. Under milestone authorization, up to five years funding can be approved to cover the entire acquisition phase for either full-scale development or full-rate production. This report examines the Non-Line-of-Sight Missile, the Light Helicopter, the MK-50 Torpedo, the Sensor Fuzed Weapon, the Advanced Tactical Fighter, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Class 2 Terminals.

  7. Identification and procaryotic expression of the gene coding for the highly immunogenic 28-kilodalton structural phosphoprotein (pp28) of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, H; Bankier, A T; Landini, M P; Brown, C M; Barrell, B G; Rüger, B; Mach, M

    1988-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus contains a structural polypeptide that is 28 kilodaltons in apparent molecular size and is reactive in Western blot (immunoblot) analysis with the majority of human sera. The gene coding for this polypeptide was mapped on the genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. A monoclonal antibody specific for the 28-kilodalton polypeptide was used to screen a cDNA library constructed from poly(A)+ RNA of human cytomegalovirus-infected cells in the procaryotic expression vector lambda gt11. Hybridization of cDNA with cosmid and plasmid clones mapped the gene to the HindIII R fragment. The gene was transcribed into a late 1.3-kilobase RNA. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region was determined. Parts of the 28-kilodalton polypeptide were expressed in Escherichia coli as hybrid proteins fused to beta-galactosidase. In Western blots these proteins were recognized by human sera. Antibodies raised against the hybrid proteins reacted specifically with the viral antigen in immunoprecipitations and Western blots. In vitro phosphorylation of HCMV virions and immunoprecipitation showed that the 28-kilodalton polypeptide was phosphorylated. Images PMID:2836608

  8. 48 CFR 211.275 - Radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Radio frequency identification....

  9. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  10. Comprehensive Identification of Long Non-coding RNAs in Purified Cell Types from the Brain Reveals Functional LncRNA in OPC Fate Determination

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaomin; Chen, Kenian; Cuevas-Diaz Duran, Raquel; You, Yanan; Sloan, Steven A.; Zhang, Ye; Zong, Shan; Cao, Qilin; Barres, Ben A.; Wu, Jia Qian

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (> 200 bp) play crucial roles in transcriptional regulation during numerous biological processes. However, it is challenging to comprehensively identify lncRNAs, because they are often expressed at low levels and with more cell-type specificity than are protein-coding genes. In the present study, we performed ab initio transcriptome reconstruction using eight purified cell populations from mouse cortex and detected more than 5000 lncRNAs. Predicting the functions of lncRNAs using cell-type specific data revealed their potential functional roles in Central Nervous System (CNS) development. We performed motif searches in ENCODE DNase I digital footprint data and Mouse ENCODE promoters to infer transcription factor (TF) occupancy. By integrating TF binding and cell-type specific transcriptomic data, we constructed a novel framework that is useful for systematically identifying lncRNAs that are potentially essential for brain cell fate determination. Based on this integrative analysis, we identified lncRNAs that are regulated during Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell (OPC) differentiation from Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and that are likely to be involved in oligodendrogenesis. The top candidate, lnc-OPC, shows highly specific expression in OPCs and remarkable sequence conservation among placental mammals. Interestingly, lnc-OPC is significantly up-regulated in glial progenitors from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse models compared to wild-type mice. OLIG2-binding sites in the upstream regulatory region of lnc-OPC were identified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-Sequencing and validated by luciferase assays. Loss-of-function experiments confirmed that lnc-OPC plays a functional role in OPC genesis. Overall, our results substantiated the role of lncRNA in OPC fate determination and provided an unprecedented data source for future functional investigations in CNS cell types. We present our datasets and analysis results

  11. Tryptophan catabolism via kynurenine production in Streptomyces coelicolor: identification of three genes coding for the enzymes of tryptophan to anthranilate pathway.

    PubMed

    Zummo, F P; Marineo, S; Pace, A; Civiletti, F; Giardina, A; Puglia, A M

    2012-05-01

    Most enzymes involved in tryptophan catabolism via kynurenine formation are highly conserved in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. In humans, alterations of this pathway have been related to different pathologies mainly involving the central nervous system. In Bacteria, tryptophan and some of its derivates are important antibiotic precursors. Tryptophan degradation via kynurenine formation involves two different pathways: the eukaryotic kynurenine pathway, also recently found in some bacteria, and the tryptophan-to-anthranilate pathway, which is widespread in microorganisms. The latter produces anthranilate using three enzymes also involved in the kynurenine pathway: tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), kynureninase (KYN), and kynurenine formamidase (KFA). In Streptomyces coelicolor, where it had not been demonstrated which genes code for these enzymes, tryptophan seems to be important for the calcium- dependent antibiotic (CDA) production. In this study, we describe three adjacent genes of S. coelicolor (SCO3644, SCO3645, and SCO3646), demonstrating their involvement in the tryptophan-to-anthranilate pathway: SCO3644 codes for a KFA, SCO3645 for a KYN and SCO3646 for a TDO. Therefore, these genes can be considered as homologous respectively to kynB, kynU, and kynA of other microorganisms and belong to a constitutive catabolic pathway in S. coelicolor, which expression increases during the stationary phase of a culture grown in the presence of tryptophan. Moreover, the S. coelicolor ΔkynU strain, in which SCO3645 gene is deleted, produces higher amounts of CDA compared to the wild-type strain. Overall, these results describe a pathway, which is used by S. coelicolor to catabolize tryptophan and that could be inactivated to increase antibiotic production.

  12. Molecular Characterization of the Tumor Suppressor Candidate 5 Gene: Regulation by PPARγ and Identification of TUSC5 Coding Variants in Lean and Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Knotts, Trina A.; Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jae Bum; Oort, Pieter J.; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Tachibana, Keisuke; Doi, Takefumi; Yu, Songtao; Reddy, Janardan K.; Uno, Kenji; Katagiri, Hideki; Pasarica, Magdalena; Smith, Steven R.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Grino, Michel; Adams, Sean H.

    2009-01-01

    Tumor suppressor candidate 5 (TUSC5) is a gene expressed abundantly in white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and peripheral afferent neurons. Strong adipocyte expression and increased expression following peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes suggested a role for Tusc5 in fat cell proliferation and/or metabolism. However, the regulation of Tusc5 in WAT and its potential association with obesity phenotypes remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the TUSC5 gene is a bona fide PPARγ target and evaluated whether its WAT expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TUSC5 coding region are associated with human obesity. Induction of Tusc5 mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by troglitazone and GW1929 followed a dose-response consistent with these agents' binding affinities for PPARγ. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirmed that PPARγ protein binds a ∼ −1.1 kb promotor sequence of murine TUSC5 transiently during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, concurrent with histone H3 acetylation. No change in Tusc5 mRNA or protein levels was evident in type 2 diabetic patients treated with pioglitazone. Tusc5 expression was not induced appreciably in liver preparations overexpressing PPARs, suggesting that tissue-specific factors regulate PPARγ responsiveness of the TUSC5 gene. Finally, we observed no differences in Tusc5 WAT expression or prevalence of coding region SNPs in lean versus obese human subjects. These studies firmly establish the murine TUSC5 gene locus as a PPARγ target, but the significance of Tusc5 in obesity phenotypes or in the pharmacologic actions of PPARγ agonists in humans remains equivocal. PMID:20204174

  13. Identification of mRNA-like non-coding RNAs and validation of a mighty one named MAR in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meizhen; Wu, Bin; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shanfa

    2015-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play significant roles in plants. However, little is known about lncRNAs in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, an economically significant medicinal plant species. A total of 3,688 mRNA-like non-coding RNAs (mlncRNAs), a class of lncRNAs, were identified in P. ginseng. Approximately 40% of the identified mlncRNAs were processed into small RNAs, implying their regulatory roles via small RNA-mediated mechanisms. Eleven miRNA-generating mlncRNAs also produced siRNAs, suggesting the coordinated production of miRNAs and siRNAs in P. ginseng. The mlncRNA-derived small RNAs might be 21-, 22-, or 24-nt phased and could be generated from both or only one strand of mlncRNAs, or from super long hairpin structures. A full-length mlncRNA, termed MAR (multiple-function-associated mlncRNA), was cloned. It generated the most abundant siRNAs. The MAR siRNAs were predominantly 24-nt and some of them were distributed in a phased pattern. A total of 228 targets were predicted for 71 MAR siRNAs. Degradome sequencing validated 68 predicted targets involved in diverse metabolic pathways, suggesting the significance of MAR in P. ginseng. Consistently, MAR was detected in all tissues analyzed and responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. It sheds light on the function of mlncRNAs in plants.

  14. Sequence analysis and identification of new variations in the coding sequence of melatonin receptor gene (MTNR1A) of Indian Chokla sheep breed

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Bipul Kumar; Meena, Amar Singh; Naqvi, S.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin receptor 1A gene is the prime receptor mediating the effect of melatonin at the neuroendocrine level for control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the polymorphism pattern of coding sequence of MTNR1A gene in Chokla sheep, a breed of Indian arid tract and to identify new variations in relation to its aseasonal status. Genomic DNAs of 101 Chokla sheep were collected and an 824 bp coding sequence of Exon II was amplified. RFLP was performed with enzyme RsaI and MnlI to assess the presence of polymorphism at position C606T and G612A, respectively. Genotyping revealed significantly higher frequency of M and R alleles than m and r alleles. RR and MM were found to be dominantly present in the group of studied population. Cloning and sequencing of Exon II followed by mutation/polymorphism analysis revealed ten mutations of which three were non-synonymous mutations (G706A, C893A, G931C). G706A leads to substitution of valine by isoleucine Val125I (U14109) in the fifth transmembrane domain. C893A leads to substitution of alanine by aspartic acid in the third extracellular loop. G931C mutation brings about substitution of amino acid alanine by proline in the seventh transmembrane helix, can affect the conformational stability of the molecule. Polyphen-2 analysis revealed that the polymorphism at position 931 is potentially damaging while the mutations at positions 706 and 893 were benign. It is concluded that G931C mutation of MTNR 1A gene, may explain, in part, the importance of melatonin structure integrity in influencing seasonality in sheep. PMID:25606429

  15. Adolescent Suicide and Defensive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between ego defense mechanisms, diagnoses, and suicidality among 200 adolescent psychiatric patients classified as suicide attempters, suicidal ideators, and nonsuicidal patients. Using Defense Mechanisms Inventory, found the suicidal adolescents score higher on turning-against-self and lower on reversal, as compared to…

  16. Insanity defense in Canada.

    PubMed

    Arboleda-Florez, J

    1978-02-01

    The author has reviewed in this paper the difficulties in developing a more generally accepted test of criminal responsibility. Such difficulties are more clearly seen when studying the applicability of the criminal responsibility test in Canadian law, Section 16, which the author describes as a disguised M'Naghten rule. Finally it is agrued that, because of the strictures encountered in the application of M'Naghten, some alternative routes have been developed at the courtroom level, notably Section 215 of the Criminal Code which deals with provocation. Section 215 gives legal footing to emotional conditions, producing an impairment in an accused's ability to form intent.

  17. Identification of a novel Drosophila melanogaster heat-shock gene, lethal(2)denticleless [l(2)dtl], coding for an 83-kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Kurzik-Dumke, U; Neubauer, M; Debes, A

    1996-06-01

    In this study, we describe the identification of a novel Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) gene, l(2)dtl, characterized by elevated expression under heat-shock (HS) conditions. It encodes a protein of 83 kDa with no homology to known members of the HSP90 family and other proteins. Gene l(2)dtl is located on the right arm of the second chromosome at locus 59F5, close to the tumor suppressor gene l(2)tid, a homolog of the dnaJ encoding a chaperone strongly conserved in evolution. In the following, we present the sequence of l(2)dtl, the putative protein it encodes, and its molecular localization in a closely interspaced gene cluster consisting of at least four nested genes spanning an approximately 10-kb genomic interval. Furthermore, we present the temporal expression of l(2)dtl in the wild type under normal and HS conditions, and describe the isolation and the phenotype of eight embryonic lethal l(2)dtl mutants.

  18. Identification of novel Arabidopsis thaliana upstream open reading frames that control expression of the main coding sequences in a peptide sequence-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ebina, Isao; Takemoto-Tsutsumi, Mariko; Watanabe, Shun; Koyama, Hiroaki; Endo, Yayoi; Kimata, Kaori; Igarashi, Takuya; Murakami, Karin; Kudo, Rin; Ohsumi, Arisa; Noh, Abdul Latif; Takahashi, Hiro; Naito, Satoshi; Onouchi, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are often found in the 5′-leader regions of eukaryotic mRNAs and can negatively modulate the translational efficiency of the downstream main ORF. Although the effects of most uORFs are thought to be independent of their encoded peptide sequences, certain uORFs control translation of the main ORF in a peptide sequence-dependent manner. For genome-wide identification of such peptide sequence-dependent regulatory uORFs, exhaustive searches for uORFs with conserved amino acid sequences have been conducted using bioinformatic analyses. However, whether the conserved uORFs identified by these bioinformatic approaches encode regulatory peptides has not been experimentally determined. Here we analyzed 16 recently identified Arabidopsis thaliana conserved uORFs for the effects of their amino acid sequences on the expression of the main ORF using a transient expression assay. We identified five novel uORFs that repress main ORF expression in a peptide sequence-dependent manner. Mutational analysis revealed that, in four of them, the C-terminal region of the uORF-encoded peptide is critical for the repression of main ORF expression. Intriguingly, we also identified one exceptional sequence-dependent regulatory uORF, in which the stop codon position is not conserved and the C-terminal region is not important for the repression of main ORF expression. PMID:25618853

  19. 32 CFR 2400.12 - Identification and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification and markings. 2400.12 Section 2400.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  20. 32 CFR 1907.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1907.13 Section 1907.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF...

  1. 32 CFR 1907.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1907.13 Section 1907.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF...

  2. 32 CFR 1907.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1907.13 Section 1907.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF...

  3. 32 CFR 1907.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1907.13 Section 1907.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF...

  4. 32 CFR 1907.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1907.13 Section 1907.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF...

  5. 32 CFR 536.26 - Identification of a proper claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standard Form (SF) 95 (Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death). When the claim is not presented on an SF 95... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of a proper claim. 536.26 Section 536.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND...

  6. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  7. Evaluating ego defense mechanisms using clinical interviews: an empirical study of adolescent diabetic and psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A M; Beardslee, W; Hauser, S T; Noam, G G; Powers, S I; Houlihan, J; Rider, E

    1986-12-01

    Ego defense mechanisms were studied in three groups of early adolescents: diabetic patients, non-psychotic psychiatric patients, and healthy high school students. Defenses were assessed from ratings of open-ended, in-depth interviews. High levels of denial and low levels of asceticism were found in all three groups. Comparisons between groups indicated that psychiatric patients had a distinctive profile of defense usage, in comparison to adolescents from the other two groups. An independent measure of ego development was positively correlated with the defenses of altruism, intellectualization, and suppression, while it was negatively correlated with acting out, avoidance, denial, displacement, projection, and repression. The findings of substantial differences in defense usage between the psychiatric and non-psychiatric samples, and the size and directions of the correlations with ego development level, lend support to the validity of the defense codes.

  8. Directed energy planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Bible, Johanna; Bublitz, Jesse; Arriola, Josh; Motta, Caio; Suen, Jon; Johansson, Isabella; Riley, Jordan; Sarvian, Nilou; Clayton-Warwick, Deborah; Wu, Jane; Milich, Andrew; Oleson, Mitch; Pryor, Mark; Krogen, Peter; Kangas, Miikka

    2013-09-01

    Asteroids and comets that cross Earth's orbit pose a credible risk of impact, with potentially severe disturbances to Earth and society. Numerous risk mitigation strategies have been described, most involving dedicated missions to a threatening object. We propose an orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the vaporization point as a feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. We call the system DE-STAR for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. DE-STAR is a modular phased array of kilowatt class lasers powered by photovoltaic's. Modular design allows for incremental development, test, and initial deployment, lowering cost, minimizing risk, and allowing for technological co-development, leading eventually to an orbiting structure that would be developed in stages with both technological and target milestones. The main objective of DE-STAR is to use the focused directed energy to raise the surface spot temperature to ~3,000K, allowing direct vaporization of all known substances. In the process of heating the surface ejecting evaporated material a large reaction force would alter the asteroid's orbit. The baseline system is a DE-STAR 3 or 4 (1-10km array) depending on the degree of protection desired. A DE-STAR 4 allows for asteroid engagement starting beyond 1AU with a spot temperature sufficient to completely evaporate up to 500-m diameter asteroids in one year. Small asteroids and comets can be diverted/evaporated with a DESTAR 2 (100m) while space debris is vaporized with a DE-STAR 1 (10m).

  9. Insanity defenses: contested or conceded?

    PubMed

    Rogers, J L; Bloom, J D; Manson, S M

    1984-07-01

    The authors examined 316 Oregon criminal cases in which the accused successfully pleaded the insanity defense. Prosecutors agreed to the insanity verdict in more than four out of five cases. In most cases all examining experts diagnosed the defendant as psychotic. The smaller number of defendants who were diagnosed by the state hospital staff as displaying only personality disorders accounted for a disproportionately large percentage of the contested trials. Observing that Oregon's insanity defense system is run by consensus, the authors suggest a reorientation of the insanity defense debate.

  10. The Redox Code

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O2 and H2O2 contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Recent Advances: Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Critical Issues: Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Future Directions: Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 734–746. PMID:25891126

  11. Anorexia and attachment: dysregulated defense and pathological mourning

    PubMed Central

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Salcuni, Silvia; Lis, Adriana; George, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The role of defensive exclusion (Deactivation and Segregated Systems) in the development of early relationships and related to subsequent manifestations of symptoms of eating disorders was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Fifty-one DSM-IV diagnosed women with anorexia participated in the study. Anorexic patients were primarily classified as dismissing or unresolved. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of defensive exclusion were carried out. Results showed potential benefits of using the AAP defense exclusion coding system, in addition to the main attachment classifications, in order to better understand the developmental issues involved in anorexia. Discussion concerned the processes, such as pathological mourning, that may underlie the associations between dismissing and unresolved attachment and anorexia. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed. PMID:25389412

  12. MCNP code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids.

  13. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  14. Strategic Defense Initiative - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A general framework for developing the concept and implementing options for strategic ballistic missile defense systems is emerging. The objective of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program is to conduct research on those technologies for defensive system which could intercept ballistic missiles after they have been launched and prevent them from hitting their targets. Its goal is to acquire the technical knowledge as a basis for a later decision on deployment, not a program for deployment or star wars. Abrahamson reviews the basic technological questions facing researchers, outlines the multi-layered defense possibilities and summarizes the status of technology to date. He argues for a continuity of resources to conduct the program. 4 figures.

  15. Defenseive Structuring and Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J.

    1970-01-01

    This essay explores a kind of adaptation, referred to as defenseive structuring, that recurs with great regularity among groups that perceive themselves as exposed to environmental stress of long duration with which they cannot cope directly and aggressively." (Author)

  16. Defense mechanisms development in typical children.

    PubMed

    Tallandini, Maria Anna; Caudek, Corrado

    2010-09-01

    The defense mechanisms (DMs) of 103 nonreferred children ages 47 to 102 months were assessed through dollhouse play. The authors measured the children's temperament (Temperament Assessment Battery for Children-Teacher Form [TABC]) and verbal capacities (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). Four main findings were derived: (1) DM use decreased with age with different developmental trajectories; (2) regression, displacement, and reaction formation were more frequent in girls and denial more frequent in boys; (3) the number of DMs used was negatively associated with the TABC Adaptability score and positively with the TABC Approach/Withdrawal score; and (4) children who used rationalization and did not use identification and suppression scored better on verbal capacities.

  17. The insanity defense on trial.

    PubMed

    Stone, A A

    1982-08-01

    What was once a great romance between law and psychiatry has ended in disenchantment on both sides. Legal rulings during the 1950s intended to increase the psychiatric presence in the courtroom have been repudiated, and there is now a mood to abolish the traditional insanity defense. Abolitionists charge that the insanity defense has been successfully employed by large numbers of dangerous criminals to avoid punishment, that psychiatrists are dishonest because they serve as expert witnesses for both sides, and that the existence of the defense is evidence of a permissive society that coddles violent criminals. Each of these charges is rebutted by the author, who contends that until recently the insanity defense was a profound hypocrisy: the courts found the defendants not guilty by reason of insanity and then relied on psychiatry to confine them for the rest of their lives. But legal reforms and changes in psychiatric practice during the past 20 years have made it more difficult to confine such persons, and thus the insanity defense has real meaning for the first time. The author believes that despite the loss of protection to society, there are important legal and moral barriers to abolishing the insanity defense.

  18. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  19. 32 CFR 636.11 - Installation traffic codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Installation traffic codes 636.11 Section 636.11... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.11 Installation traffic codes In addition to the requirements in § 634.25(d) of this...

  20. 32 CFR 636.11 - Installation traffic codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation traffic codes 636.11 Section 636.11... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.11 Installation traffic codes In addition to the requirements in § 634.25(d) of this...

  1. The neuroecology of chemical defenses.

    PubMed

    Derby, Charles D; Aggio, Juan F

    2011-11-01

    Chemicals are a frequent means whereby organisms defend themselves against predators, competitors, parasites, microbes, and other potentially harmful organisms. Much progress has been made in understanding how a phylogenetic diversity of organisms living in a variety of environments uses chemical defenses. Chief among these advances is determining the molecular identity of defensive chemicals and the roles they play in shaping interactions between individuals. Some progress has been made in deciphering the molecular, cellular, and systems level mechanisms underlying these interactions, as well as how these interactions can lead to structuring of communities and even ecosystems. The neuroecological approach unifies practices and principles from these diverse disciplines and at all scales as it attempts to explain in a single conceptual framework the abundances of organisms and the distributions of species within natural habitats. This article explores the neuroecology of chemical defenses with a focus on aquatic organisms and environments. We review the concept of molecules of keystone significance, including examples of how saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin can shape the organization and dynamics of marine and riparian communities, respectively. We also describe the current status and future directions of a topic of interest to our research group-the use of ink by marine molluscs, especially sea hares, in their defense. We describe a diversity of molecules and mechanisms mediating the protective effects of sea hares' ink, including use as chemical defenses against predators and as alarm cues toward conspecifics, and postulate that some defensive molecules may function as molecules of keystone significance. Finally, we propose future directions for studying the neuroecology of the chemical defenses of sea hares and their molluscan relatives, the cephalopods.

  2. Is the insanity defense "unconscionable"?

    PubMed

    Perr, I N

    1975-01-01

    The debate over the meaningfulness and utility of the insanity defense has continued unabated ober the years. President Nixon has referred to the "unconscionably abuse" of the defense. This paper, presented as part of a panel on the subject, has propounded the view that the defense is unconscionable, using that aspect of the definition dealing with unreasonableness. The historical antecedents and the religious and social philosophy of the concept of responsibility and nonresponsibility have been reviewed. In addition to the inapplicability of the concept to current social problems, and the difficulties of applying current psychiatric knowledge to effect a rational delineation between the two legal entities encompassed under the rubric of responsibility and nonresponsibility, the potential problems and the potential opportunities which may result from the abolition of the plea are presented. With these factors in mind, as well as the obvious failure of the legal-social-penal system in handling the problems of the behaviorally deviant, I believe that the use of the current system has hampered the development of possibly more reasonable alternative systems and that, therefore, the maintenance of the insanity defense is unreasonable and harmful to our society. The insanity defense, as currently constituted and institutionalized, has evolved into a rigid and archaic vestige of the legal system of an earlier era and therefore its use has, in the sense defined, indeed become "unconscionable" and lacking in social meaningfulness.

  3. Plant Defense against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.

  4. Plant Defense against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection. PMID:27524994

  5. Plant Defense against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M.; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection. PMID:27524994

  6. Bulgy tadpoles: inducible defense morph.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2004-08-01

    Predator induced morphological defenses are marked morphological shifts induced directly by cues associated with a predator. Generally, remote cues, i.e., chemical substances emitted from predators or injured conspecifics, are considered to be ideal signals to induce morphological change in aquatic environments rather than close cues, i.e., close chemical or tactile cues, since chemical substances that can propagate over relatively long distances and persist for a long period may allow organisms to keep safe and to deliberately change their morph. In fact, most organisms adopting an inducible morphological defense utilize remote chemical cues to detect predation risk and to produce morphological defenses. In this paper, we report a unique and functionally well designed inducible morphological defense strategy where the induction process requires close cues from a predator. The tadpoles of Rana pirica exhibited a bulgy bodied morphology when threatened with predation by larval salamanders, Hynobius retardatus, in close proximity. Predation trials and a function experiment showed that the induced bulgy morph is an adaptive defense phenotype against the gape-limited predator larval H. retardatus. Furthermore, R. pirica tadpoles use two adaptive strategies in terms of cost saving, i.e., adjustment of the extent of bulginess according to predation risk and reversibility by actual shrink of bulgy body after removing the predation threat. In general, R. pirica hatch earlier than H. retardatus. In natural ponds, during the early developmental stage R. pirica tadpoles live in close proximity to young H. retardatus larvae. As they grow, the salamanders gradually become serious predators and the predator-prey interaction becomes intimate. After a while, predation, cannibalism and metamorphosis decrease the number of salamanders in the ponds, and the predator-prey interaction weakens. Such a phenology in the predator-prey interaction allows the evolution of a close

  7. Bulgy tadpoles: inducible defense morph.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2004-08-01

    Predator induced morphological defenses are marked morphological shifts induced directly by cues associated with a predator. Generally, remote cues, i.e., chemical substances emitted from predators or injured conspecifics, are considered to be ideal signals to induce morphological change in aquatic environments rather than close cues, i.e., close chemical or tactile cues, since chemical substances that can propagate over relatively long distances and persist for a long period may allow organisms to keep safe and to deliberately change their morph. In fact, most organisms adopting an inducible morphological defense utilize remote chemical cues to detect predation risk and to produce morphological defenses. In this paper, we report a unique and functionally well designed inducible morphological defense strategy where the induction process requires close cues from a predator. The tadpoles of Rana pirica exhibited a bulgy bodied morphology when threatened with predation by larval salamanders, Hynobius retardatus, in close proximity. Predation trials and a function experiment showed that the induced bulgy morph is an adaptive defense phenotype against the gape-limited predator larval H. retardatus. Furthermore, R. pirica tadpoles use two adaptive strategies in terms of cost saving, i.e., adjustment of the extent of bulginess according to predation risk and reversibility by actual shrink of bulgy body after removing the predation threat. In general, R. pirica hatch earlier than H. retardatus. In natural ponds, during the early developmental stage R. pirica tadpoles live in close proximity to young H. retardatus larvae. As they grow, the salamanders gradually become serious predators and the predator-prey interaction becomes intimate. After a while, predation, cannibalism and metamorphosis decrease the number of salamanders in the ponds, and the predator-prey interaction weakens. Such a phenology in the predator-prey interaction allows the evolution of a close

  8. 75 FR 52732 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense... notice that it is renewing the charter for the Missile Defense Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to... Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology & Logistics and the Director, Missile Defense...

  9. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG25 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is adopting...

  10. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG81 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Interim rule with request for...

  11. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the revised Defense Logistics... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense....

  12. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Pedra, Joao H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes. PMID:22315529

  13. Violence and the epilepsy defense.

    PubMed

    Treiman, D M

    1999-05-01

    The essence of the epilepsy defense is the argument that a crime was committed as a result of the perpetrator having epilepsy, and thus that he or she should not be held responsible for a violent crime. Neurologists are frequently asked to pass judgment regarding whether an alleged act may have been the result of an epileptic condition; therefore, neurologists should be informed as to what criteria should be used to decide if a given act was, or could have been, the result of an epileptic seizure. This article discusses three cases where epilepsy is used as the defense argument. In addition, this article reviews types of epileptic seizures, syncopal events, and pseudoseizures.

  14. RNase 7 in Cutaneous Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    RNase 7 belongs to the RNase A superfamily and exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. RNase 7 is expressed in human skin, and expression in keratinocytes can be induced by cytokines and microbes. These properties suggest that RNase 7 participates in innate cutaneous defense. In this review, we provide an overview about the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense with focus on the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, the regulation of RNase 7 expression, and the role of RNase 7 in skin diseases. PMID:27089327

  15. Transport of defense compounds from source to sink: lessons learned from glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2015-08-01

    Plants synthesize a plethora of defense compounds crucial for their survival in a challenging and changing environment. Transport processes are important for shaping the distribution pattern of defense compounds, albeit focus hitherto has been mostly on their biosynthetic pathways. A recent identification of two glucosinolate transporters represents a breakthrough in our understanding of glucosinolate transport in Arabidopsis and has advanced knowledge in transport of defense compounds. In this review, we discuss the role of the glucosinolate transporters in establishing dynamic glucosinolate distribution patterns and source-sink relations. We focus on lessons learned from glucosinolate transport that may apply to transport of other defense compounds and discuss future avenues in the emerging field of defense compound transport.

  16. Event-recording devices with identification codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, David G. (Inventor); Huestis, David L. (Inventor); Bahr, Alfred J. (Inventor); Vidmar, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A recording device allows wireless interrogation to determine its identity and its state. The state indicates whether one or more physical or chemical events have taken place. In effect, the one or more physical or chemical events are recorded by the device. The identity of the device allows it to be distinguished from a number of similar devices. The recording device may be used in an array of devices that allows wireless probing by an interrogation unit. When probed, each device tells the interrogator who it is and what state it is in. The devices allow multiple use and the interrogator may use a logical reset to determine the state of each device. The interrogator can thus easily identify particular items in an array that have reached a particular condition. The device may record the status of each device in a database to maintain a history for each.

  17. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  18. Directions for Defense Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes directions, challenges, and objectives of the information management program of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The program envisions the rigor and organization normally associated with a research library to be virtually rendered and extended in the networked world of distributed information. (AEF)

  19. Radiological Defense Officer. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This student workbook includes the necessary administrative materials, briefs, exercises and answer sheets for the quizzes and final course examination as needed by the students during the conduct of the Radiological Defense Officer course. Among the briefs included are the following: (1) Reporting Forms; (2) Forecasting Dose Rates; (3) Dose…

  20. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  1. In Defense of the Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, G. Brockett

    1975-01-01

    The problems that are encountered when cooperation breaks down between the industrial source operator and the pollution control equipment vendor are examined. The focal point of this examination is the study of defenses available to the equipment vendor when industrial source operators refuse to cooperate. (Author/BT)

  2. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  3. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  4. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  5. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  6. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light. Submarines may display, as a distinctive means of identification, an intermittent flashing amber beacon...

  7. Issues in national missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-01

    Strategic missiles and weapons are proliferating rapidly; thus, the US and its Allies are likely to face both capable bilateral threats and multilateral configurations with complex coalitions for which defenses could be essential for stability. Current hit-to-kill interceptor and radar and infrared detection, track, and discrimination technology should suffice for limited threats, but it is necessary to meet those threats in time while maintaining growth potential for the more sophisticated threats likely to follow. National Missile Defense faces a confusing array of threats, programs, and alternatives, but the technologies in development are clearly an appropriate first step towards any of them. They are likely to succeed in the near term; the challenge is to retain flexibility to provide needed options in the mid and long terms.

  8. Defense bill: Earmarking as usual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earmarked funds in the $268 billion defense appropriations bill for fiscal year 1991 stirred congressional debate in late October. Senator Sam Nunn (D-Ga.), chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, charged that the defense bill contains questionable projects totaling tens of millions of dollars. AGU opposes legislative earmarking of money for particular institutions, maintaining that the practice prevents the best use of federal funding by circumventing competitive review. Nunn noted on the Senate floor that the appropriations bill provided specific funds for cited institutions—contravening a federal law promoting competition. “ If these programs have merit, they will succeed in a fair and competent review in competition,” Nunn said. “If no other institution in the country is able to compete, there should be no fear whatever of competition… But no one else in the world is allowed to compete to work on these projects.”

  9. The insanity defense to suicide.

    PubMed

    Massello, W

    1986-07-01

    The certification of suicide as the manner of death can result in either the complete loss or a significant reduction in life insurance benefits to the victim's survivors. It is, thus, not uncommon for these beneficiaries to contest suicide as the manner of death. Insanity is a recognized defense in law against suicide. It is recognized in law that, in some cases, an insane man cannot intentionally destroy himself. However, it is also recognized that life insurers can exclude suicide by an insane man from coverage. This article discusses the common law doctrines upon which the insanity defense to suicide is based, with references to judicial opinions from cases which involve contested suicides and the issue of insanity.

  10. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  11. Second line of defense program

    SciTech Connect

    Cantut, L; Thomas, L L

    1999-07-15

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the prospect of nuclear materials entering the world market has become an ever-increasing threat. The Second Line of Defense (SLD) program was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43) to assist the Russian Federation State Customs Committee (RFSCC) in strengthening its capability to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials across Russia's borders. The SLD program is a natural complement to the Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC and A) program, which represents a first line of defense against the theft and diversion of nuclear materials. The SLD program is the first U.S.-Russian cooperative program to combat the illicit trafficking of nuclear and nuclear-related materials to would-be proliferators across Russia's borders.

  12. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  13. Technical issues in theater missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note discusses technical issues in theater missile defenses in the terminal, midcourse, and boost phases. The first two are familiar and developed, but face fundamental countermeasures. Boost phase intercepts engage missiles when they are most vulnerable, but have been studied less for theater defense because the engagement times are short. Overall, theater missile defenses resemble strategic defenses, complicated by the tenfold shorter boost phase. 12 refs.

  14. Defense of a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  15. Problems of National Missile Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, John

    2000-04-01

    The currently-proposed national missile defense (NMD) is supposed to counter accidental Russian or Chinese launches of intercontinental nuclear-armed missiles, or rogue nation launches of similar nuclear missiles or of missiles armed with biological weapons, by using mid-course hit-to-kill vehicles guided by IR and radar. But it seems very likely that any nation capable of building (or buying) such a missile offense can build (or buy) effective countermeasures to NMD. These include anti-simulation decoys made of multi-layer insulation (MLI), with warheads covered in MLI sheaths so their signatures resemble those of the decoys. MLI can be effective against both passive IR and radar detection/discrimination. Biological warheads can counter any mid-course defense by releasing a great number of submunitions early in flight. Both nuclear and biological weapons can be deployed by other means, including covert ships in port; trucks; and cruise missiles. The best defense against Russian/Chinese accidental launches is assistance to these countries in improving their launch control systems.

  16. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  17. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  18. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  19. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  20. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  1. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9...

  2. Radiological Defense. Planning and Operations Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This guide is a reprint of published and draft materials from the Federal Civil Defense Guide. This guide is intended to assist the student in planning, developing, implementing and operating a local, county, or state radiological defense (RADEF) system. The state and local radiological defense program objectives are to create an effective and…

  3. 32 CFR 1801.13 - Requirements as to identification of requester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements as to identification of requester. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL... perjury or a notarized statement swearing to or affirming identity. If NACIC determines that...

  4. 76 FR 71467 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Department of Defense Mentor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Department of Defense Mentor-Prot g Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2011-D050) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

  5. 77 FR 11367 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Department of Defense Mentor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Department of Defense Mentor-Prot g Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2012-D024) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

  6. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal...

  7. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... (DLA) published a Notice of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION:...

  8. Change in children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems: the role of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the relation of defense mechanism to children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, as assessed from mothers' report at age 9 and 12 years, based on archival data. The defense mechanisms of denial, projection, and identification were assessed from Thematic Apperception Test stories told by the children at age 9 years, using the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, The development of defense mechanisms: Theory, research and assessment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991a; Protecting the self: Defense mechanisms in action. New York: Guilford Press, 2006). The results showed that the use of identification predicted a decrease in externalizing behaviors between age 9 and 12 years. In contrast, change in internalizing behaviors was not predicted by defense use, but the use of projection was related to fewer internalizing behaviors at both ages. These findings are consistent with the idea that behavioral intervention stressing self-regulation can be effective in reducing externalizing problems, but internalizing problems require an intervention that is sensitive to the underlying behavioral inhibition in these children.

  9. Change in children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems: the role of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the relation of defense mechanism to children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, as assessed from mothers' report at age 9 and 12 years, based on archival data. The defense mechanisms of denial, projection, and identification were assessed from Thematic Apperception Test stories told by the children at age 9 years, using the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, The development of defense mechanisms: Theory, research and assessment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991a; Protecting the self: Defense mechanisms in action. New York: Guilford Press, 2006). The results showed that the use of identification predicted a decrease in externalizing behaviors between age 9 and 12 years. In contrast, change in internalizing behaviors was not predicted by defense use, but the use of projection was related to fewer internalizing behaviors at both ages. These findings are consistent with the idea that behavioral intervention stressing self-regulation can be effective in reducing externalizing problems, but internalizing problems require an intervention that is sensitive to the underlying behavioral inhibition in these children. PMID:25668653

  10. Amplitude-temporal method of speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababii, Victor; Sudacevschi, Viorica

    2005-02-01

    A method of speech coding and decoding is proposed. The speech coding algorithm is based on first derivate calculation of input speech signal, identification of critical points and input signal amplitude in these points, time period measurement between critical points. The result of codification represents a sequence of amplitudes and time periods. The decoding algorithm utilizes values of COS or SIN functions for reconstruction on the input speech. The codec structure that consists from encoder and decoder units is proposed.

  11. An empirical look at the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT): reliability and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Ekehammar, Bo; Zuber, Irena; Konstenius, Marja-Liisa

    2005-07-01

    Although the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) has been in use for almost half a century, there are still quite contradictory views about whether it is a reliable instrument, and if so, what it really measures. Thus, based on data from 39 female students, we first examined DMT inter-coder reliability by analyzing the agreement among trained judges in their coding of the same DMT protocols. Second, we constructed a "parallel" photographic picture that retained all structural characteristic of the original and analyzed DMT parallel-test reliability. Third, we examined the construct validity of the DMT by (a) employing three self-report defense-mechanism inventories and analyzing the intercorrelations between DMT defense scores and corresponding defenses in these instruments, (b) studying the relationships between DMT responses and scores on trait and state anxiety, and (c) relating DMT-defense scores to measures of self-esteem. The main results showed that the DMT can be coded with high reliability by trained coders, that the parallel-test reliability is unsatisfactory compared to traditional psychometric standards, that there is a certain generalizability in the number of perceptual distortions that people display from one picture to another, and that the construct validation provided meager empirical evidence for the conclusion that the DMT measures what it purports to measure, that is, psychological defense mechanisms.

  12. Homological stabilizer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  13. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwon; Felton, Gary W

    2013-06-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction. A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses, both biotic and abiotic, and upon the following stimulus, induce defenses more quickly and strongly. For instance, some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding. Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently, but significant advances were made in the past three years, including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming, epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming, and others. It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plant-insect interactions.

  14. NBS-LRR-Encoding genes in sorghum and their role in plant defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR) proteins are encoded by a large class of plant genes and many of them play an important role in plant defense against pest attack. Identification and characterization of the whole set of NBS-LRR genes in a plant genome will provide insights int...

  15. 75 FR 80426 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... reporting requirements for Government-furnished property to include items uniquely and non-uniquely... Government-furnished property (GFP) with existing unique item identification to the DoD IUID Registry;...

  16. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  17. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  18. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  19. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  20. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  1. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue. PMID:26633789

  2. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  3. 77 FR 16649 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 1045 of the National Defense Authorization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, March 16, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-6993 Filed 3-20-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, and Condition 9 of the Resolution of... the Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the New START Treaty. Subsection...

  4. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1265 of the National Defense Authorization Act for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and......

  5. 77 FR 49438 - Establishment of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...Under the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C. Appendix) and 41 Code of Federal Regulations Sec. 102- 3.50(d), the Secretary of Defense, on October 11, 2010, established the Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission. This discretionary advisory committee was chartered to provide independent advice and recommendations on matters relating to the Army National......

  6. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  7. To Code or Not To Code?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Brian; Sandhu, Parveen; Lacorte, Manel; Gourlay, Lesley

    1998-01-01

    This article considers arguments for and against the use of coding systems in classroom-based language research and touches on some relevant considerations from ethnographic and conversational analysis approaches. The four authors each explain and elaborate on their practical decision to code or not to code events or utterances at a specific point…

  8. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  9. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item identification and valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Item identification and valuation. 252.211-7003 Section 252.211-7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES...

  10. 48 CFR 204.203 - Taxpayer identification information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information. 204.203 Section 204.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Distribution 204.203 Taxpayer identification information. (b) The procedure at FAR 4.203(b) does not apply to contracts that include the...

  11. 48 CFR 204.203 - Taxpayer identification information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information. 204.203 Section 204.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Distribution 204.203 Taxpayer identification information. (b) The procedure at FAR 4.203(b) does not apply to contracts that include...

  12. Bare Code Reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clair, Jean J.

    1980-05-01

    The Bare code system will be used, in every market and supermarket. The code, which is normalised in US and Europe (code EAN) gives informations on price, storage, nature and allows in real time the gestion of theshop.

  13. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    PubMed

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems.

  14. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    PubMed

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  16. Biogeography of a defensive symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Stubblefield, J. William; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic microorganisms play important roles in nutrition, reproduction and defense of many insects, yet the factors contributing to their maintenance and dispersal remain unknown in most cases. Theory suggests that collaboration can be maintained by repeated interaction of the same partners (partner fidelity) or by selective discrimination against non-cooperative partners (partner choice). In the defensive mutualism between solitary beewolf wasps and their antibiotic-producing Streptomyces bacteria, partner choice by host control of vertical symbiont transmission reinforces partner fidelity and has helped to maintain this highly specific association since it originated in the late Cretaceous. However, co-phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses suggest that there has also been considerable horizontal transmission of the symbionts. While the beewolves clearly have a paleotropic or palearctic origin, with later colonization of the nearctic and neotropics via Beringia and the Aves ridge, respectively, the bacteria show only weak geographical clustering, implying global dispersal or vicariance within the confines of an otherwise apparently exclusive symbiotic relationship. We discuss several hypotheses that may explain these patterns. Future studies investigating the occurrence of beewolf symbionts in the environment could yield broadly applicable insights into the relative impact of animal-vectored and free-living dispersal on the distribution of microorganisms in nature. PMID:26479018

  17. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  18. Defensive anality and anal narcissism.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1985-01-01

    This paper aims at demonstrating a currently beleaguered assumption: the central importance, the continuing vitality, and the appropriate complexity of Freud's theory of the drives and of his idea of the primacy of the body ego. It is not enough to consider man a thinking machine or a social being; his animal nature must be given a central place in psychology. The paper postulates that 'anal or sphincter defensiveness' is one of the precursors of the repression barrier. Anality has been comparatively neglected in recent psychoanalytic literature, and so has its explorer, Karl Abraham. The paper's thesis is that there is a special defensive importance to anal erogeneity and libido, and to those aspects of ego and superego that are functionally operative (as the 'sadistic-anal organization' (Freud, 1917)) during the so-called 'sadistic-anal' developmental phase. Any of the psychic danger situations can evoke regression to manifestations of 'anal narcissim'--an attempt to master overwhelming feeling by a kind of emotional sphincter action, narrowing down the world to the controllable and the predictable. The basic assumption here is Fliess's idea that the attainment of anal sphincter control functions--with, as-it-were, 'psychic resonance'--as a means to master primal (murderous, cannibalistic) affect. For optimal psychic development, a proper balance must be attained between anal control of, and anal expression of, instinctual derivatives--especially of affect laden with aggression.

  19. Fluorescent taggants with temporally coded signatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyang; Vyas, Raul; Dwyer, Chris

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, resonance energy transfer (RET) networks between chromophores are used to implement fluorescent taggants with temporally coded signatures. Because the temporal signature of such a fluorescent taggant is a phase-type distribution defined by the geometry of its RET network, the taggant design is not constrained by resolvable dyes and has a significantly larger coding capacity than spectrally or lifetime coded fluorescent taggants. Meanwhile, the detection process becomes highly efficient when the signatures are coded in the time domain. The taggant identification method is based on the multinomial distribution of detected photons and Maximum Likelihood Estimation, which guarantees high accuracy even with only a few hundred photons and also applies to a mixture of taggants in multiplex detection. Therefore, these temporally coded fluorescent taggants have great potential for both in situ and Lidar applications. PMID:27410827

  20. Secured network sensor-based defense system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sixiao; Shen, Dan; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Network sensor-based defense (NSD) systems have been widely used to defend against cyber threats. Nonetheless, if the adversary finds ways to identify the location of monitor sensors, the effectiveness of NSD systems can be reduced. In this paper, we propose both temporal and spatial perturbation based defense mechanisms to secure NSD systems and make the monitor sensor invisible to the adversary. The temporal-perturbation based defense manipulates the timing information of published data so that the probability of successfully recognizing monitor sensors can be reduced. The spatial-perturbation based defense dynamically redeploys monitor sensors in the network so that the adversary cannot obtain the complete information to recognize all of the monitor sensors. We carried out experiments using real-world traffic traces to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed defense mechanisms. Our data shows that our proposed defense mechanisms can reduce the attack accuracy of recognizing detection sensors.

  1. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    PubMed

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim.

  2. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    PubMed

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim. PMID:26568089

  3. Thermoelectric pump performance analysis computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is presented that was used to analyze and design dual-throat electromagnetic dc conduction pumps for the 5-kwe ZrH reactor thermoelectric system. In addition to a listing of the code and corresponding identification of symbols, the bases for this analytical model are provided.

  4. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  5. Flexible defense strategies: competition modifies investment in behavioral vs. morphological defenses.

    PubMed

    Teplitsky, Céline; Laurila, Anssi

    2007-07-01

    Competition is predicted to affect the expression of inducible defenses, but because costs of behavioral and morphological antipredator defenses differ along resource gradients, its effects on defenses may depend on the traits considered. We tested the predictions from different defense models in tadpoles of the common frog Rana temporaria, which exhibit both types of defenses. In an outdoor experiment, we exposed the tadpoles to nonlethal predators (Aeshna dragonfly larvae) and to a gradient of intraspecific competition. Morphological responses did not follow any of the expected patterns, since investment in defense was not affected by resource level. Instead, tail depth decreased in the absence of predators. Behavioral defenses followed a state-dependent model. Overall, the defense strategy of the tadpoles revealed a shift from morphological and behavioral defenses at low tadpole density to morphological defense only at high density. This difference probably reflects the different efficiency of the defenses. Hiding is an effective means of defense, but it is unsustainable when resources are scarce. Morphological responses become more important with increasing density to compensate for the increase in behavioral risk-taking. Our results indicate that competition can strongly affect reaction norms of inducible defenses and highlight the importance of integrating ecological parameters that affect the cost-benefit balance of phenotypic plasticity.

  6. Criticality Code Validation Exercises with TSUNAMI

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T

    2007-01-01

    In the criticality code validation of common systems, many paths may exist to a correct bias, bias uncertainty, and upper subcritical limit. The challenge for the criticality analyst is to select an efficient, defensible, and safe methodology to consistently obtain the correct values. One method of testing criticality code validation techniques is to use a sample system with a known bias as a test application and determine whether the methods employed can reproduce the known bias. In this paper, a low-enriched uranium (LEU) lattice critical experiment with a known bias is used as the test application, and numerous other LEU experiments are used as the benchmarks for the criticality code validation exercises using traditional and advanced parametric techniques. The parameters explored are enrichment, energy of average lethargy causing fission (EALF), and the TSUNAMI integral index ck with experiments with varying degrees of similarity. This paper is an extension of a previously published summary.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories analysis code data base

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, mission is to solve important problems in the areas of national defense, energy security, environmental integrity, and industrial technology. The Laboratories` strategy for accomplishing this mission is to conduct research to provide an understanding of the important physical phenomena underlying any problem, and then to construct validated computational models of the phenomena which can be used as tools to solve the problem. In the course of implementing this strategy, Sandia`s technical staff has produced a wide variety of numerical problem-solving tools which they use regularly in the design, analysis, performance prediction, and optimization of Sandia components, systems and manufacturing processes. This report provides the relevant technical and accessibility data on the numerical codes used at Sandia, including information on the technical competency or capability area that each code addresses, code ``ownership`` and release status, and references describing the physical models and numerical implementation.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories analysis code data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C. W.

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' mission is to solve important problems in the areas of national defense, energy security, environmental integrity, and industrial technology. The laboratories' strategy for accomplishing this mission is to conduct research to provide an understanding of the important physical phenomena underlying any problem, and then to construct validated computational models of the phenomena which can be used as tools to solve the problem. In the course of implementing this strategy, Sandia's technical staff has produced a wide variety of numerical problem-solving tools which they use regularly in the design, analysis, performance prediction, and optimization of Sandia components, systems, and manufacturing processes. This report provides the relevant technical and accessibility data on the numerical codes used at Sandia, including information on the technical competency or capability area that each code addresses, code 'ownership' and release status, and references describing the physical models and numerical implementation.

  9. Defense Mechanisms Reported by Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Axis II Comparison Subjects Over 16 Years of Prospective Follow-up: Description and Prediction of Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the defensive functioning of 290 borderline patients and compared it to that of 72 patients with other forms of axis II psychopathology over 16 years of prospective follow-up. It also assessed the relationship between time-varying defenses and recovery from borderline personality disorder. Method The Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure with demonstrated criterion validity and internal consistency, was initially administered at study entry. It was readministered at eight contiguous two-year long follow-up periods. Results Borderline patients had significantly lower scores than axis II comparison subjects on one mature defense mechanism (suppression) and significantly higher scores on seven of the other 18 defenses studied. More specifically, borderline patients had significantly higher scores on one neurotic-level defense (undoing), four immature defenses (acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, passive aggression, and projection), and two image-distorting/borderline defenses (projective identification and splitting). In terms of change, borderline patients were found to have had significant improvement on 13 of the 19 defenses studied. More specifically, they had significantly higher scores over time on one mature defense (anticipation) and significantly lower scores on two neurotic defenses (isolation and undoing), all immature defenses, and all image-distorting/borderline defenses except primitive idealization. In addition, four time-varying defense mechanisms were found to predict time-to-recovery: humor, acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and projection. Conclusions Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the longitudinal defensive functioning of borderline patients is both distinct and improves substantially over time. They also suggest that immature defenses are the best predictors of time-to-recovery. PMID:23223866

  10. Theater missile defense programs: Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.

    1994-09-01

    The Clinton administration now calls the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) the ballistic missile defense program. But the names have simply been changed to protect the guilty - the new program exhibits substantial continuity with the old in technology and goals. While acronyms have been changed, many of the programs continued by the Clinton administration date from the Reagan or Bush eras. And most strikingly, the Clinton administrations` ambitions for a virtually perfect defense against theater ballistic missiles harken to the unattainable goals for strategic defense initially set by President Reagan over a decade ago.

  11. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups. PMID:27086223

  12. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups.

  13. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Carles; Pamer, Eric G

    2012-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiota contributes to the development and differentiation of the mammalian immune system. The composition of the microbiota affects immune responses and affects susceptibility to infection by intestinal pathogens and development of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities and decreases host resistance to antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we review recent advances that begin to define the interactions between complex intestinal microbial populations and the mammalian immune system and how this relation is perturbed by antibiotic administration. We further discuss how antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota and immune homeostasis can lead to disease and we review strategies to restore immune defenses during antibiotic administration.

  14. Deciphering the genetic regulatory code using an inverse error control coding framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; May, Elebeoba Eni; Brown, William Michael; Johnston, Anna Marie; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2005-03-01

    We have found that developing a computational framework for reconstructing error control codes for engineered data and ultimately for deciphering genetic regulatory coding sequences is a challenging and uncharted area that will require advances in computational technology for exact solutions. Although exact solutions are desired, computational approaches that yield plausible solutions would be considered sufficient as a proof of concept to the feasibility of reverse engineering error control codes and the possibility of developing a quantitative model for understanding and engineering genetic regulation. Such evidence would help move the idea of reconstructing error control codes for engineered and biological systems from the high risk high payoff realm into the highly probable high payoff domain. Additionally this work will impact biological sensor development and the ability to model and ultimately develop defense mechanisms against bioagents that can be engineered to cause catastrophic damage. Understanding how biological organisms are able to communicate their genetic message efficiently in the presence of noise can improve our current communication protocols, a continuing research interest. Towards this end, project goals include: (1) Develop parameter estimation methods for n for block codes and for n, k, and m for convolutional codes. Use methods to determine error control (EC) code parameters for gene regulatory sequence. (2) Develop an evolutionary computing computational framework for near-optimal solutions to the algebraic code reconstruction problem. Method will be tested on engineered and biological sequences.

  15. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  16. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  17. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  18. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  19. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  20. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  1. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  2. An Empirical Investigation of Defense Interpretation Depth, Defensive Functioning, and Alliance Strength in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Bhatia, Maneet; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Drapeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between depth of defense interpretations by therapists, and patient defensive functioning, on the therapeutic alliance in a sample of 36 patients undergoing short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Defense interpretation depth was defined as the degree to which therapist interpretations contained information regarding the motivation for patient defenses and historical origins of the defensive processes (Greensen, 1967). Mean depth of interpretation was compared between sessions that were identified beforehand as either high-alliance or low-alliance sessions using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II: Luborsky et al., 1996). Results indicated that defensive functioning was correlated to defense interpretation depth in low-alliance sessions. Moreover, mean depth of interpretation was also higher in low-alliance sessions, pointing to the possible "destabilizing" effects that these interpretations may have on both defensive functioning and the therapeutic alliance. These results are discussed within the context of previous studies of therapeutic technique in dynamic psychotherapy.

  3. Parafermion stabilizer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngördü, Utkan; Nepal, Rabindra; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2014-10-01

    We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes, which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. A locality-preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established that allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation.

  4. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  5. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  6. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the "layered" defense…

  7. 75 FR 13093 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Acquisition University Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... University Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... amended), and 41 CFR 102-3.50(c), the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Acquisition University Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the Board)....

  8. 75 FR 15695 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of Visitors National Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Board of Visitors National Defense University (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Committee... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of...

  9. Defense Economic Impact Modeling System (DEIMS). A New Concept in Economic Forecasting for Defense Expenditures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, David L.

    The Defense Economic Impact Modeling System (DEIMS) analyzes the economic effect of defense expenditures on the United States economy by using a consistent, reliable framework of economic models and government policy assumptions. Planning information on defense requirements is also provided to private sector firms. The DEIMS allows the Department…

  10. Department of Defense Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... American Act. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 06/00/10 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes... DoD oversight of contractor business systems. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 01/15/10 75 FR 2457... Part V Department of Defense Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD)...

  11. Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Phebe

    2006-01-01

    Integrating theory, research, and practical applications, this book provides a comprehensive examination of defense mechanisms and their role in both normal development and psychopathology. The author describes how children and adults mobilize specific kinds of defenses to maintain their psychological equilibrium and preserve self-esteem,…

  12. Density-dependent adjustment of inducible defenses

    PubMed Central

    Tollrian, Ralph; Duggen, Sonja; Weiss, Linda C.; Laforsch, Christian; Kopp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a major factor driving evolution, and organisms have evolved adaptations increasing their survival chances. However, most defenses incur trade-offs between benefits and costs. Many organisms save costs by employing inducible defenses as responses to fluctuating predation risk. The level of defense often increases with predator densities. However, individual predation risk should not only depend on predator density but also on the density of conspecifics. If the predator has a saturating functional response one would predict a negative correlation between prey density and individual predation risk and hence defense expression. Here, we tested this hypothesis using six model systems, covering a taxonomic range from protozoa to rotifers and crustaceans. In all six systems, we found that the level of defense expression increased with predator density but decreased with prey density. In one of our systems, i.e. in Daphnia, we further show that the response to prey density is triggered by a chemical cue released by conspecifics and congeners. Our results indicate that organisms adjust the degree of defense to the acute predation risk, rather than merely to predators’ densities. Our study suggests that density-dependent defense expression reflects accurate predation-risk assessment and is a general principle in many inducible-defense systems. PMID:26235428

  13. The Defense Mechanisms of Coronary Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peglar, Marian; Borgen, Fred H.

    1984-01-01

    Tested 73 male inpatients with coronary heart disease on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a perception of health measure. Subjects were followed for five years. Principalization was discovered to be the most successful and projection the least successful defense. (JAC)

  14. Plea of insanity as a defense in criminal cases: an update.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, S; Jagawat, T

    1994-01-01

    Mc'Naughten Rule is die commonest formulation for plea of insanity in most countries. Although assessment of the mental state at the time of offence is difficult, few instruments have been devised for this purpose. In the USA, efforts are being made to abolish the insanity defense and in the United Kingdom, amendments in the provisions of insanity defense have been proposed. The authors have stressed the need for some changes in the relevant sections of Indian Penal Code to increase the credibility of Psychiatric testimony in such cases.

  15. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    PubMed

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  16. Research and technology for strategic defense

    SciTech Connect

    Rankine, R.R. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    In response to President Reagan's speech related to the objective for putting an end to the threat of nuclear ballistic missiles, an intensive study was conducted by the Dept. of Defense regarding the technologies applicable to ballistic-missile defense. It was concluded that emerging technologies do hold substantial promise for achieving the President's long-term ballistic-missile defense goal. The committee recommended a long-term program to bring the new technologies to a point of readiness where a decision could be made whether to enter full-scale development. Based on the results of the study, DOD has established a new program for the President's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Details regarding the SDI program are discussed. Surveillance, acquisition, tracking, and kill assessment (SATKA) programs will culminate in technical demonstrations. Attention is given to directed energy weapons, battle management, and survivable defenses.

  17. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrich K

    2007-05-01

    An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models. In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated with these defenses were reduced developmental rate, reduced growth, and reduced survival. At low resource availability, these costs predominately resulted in reduced survival, while at high resource availability the costs yielded a reduced developmental rate. Defensive traits responded strongly to predation risk, but did not respond to resource availability (with the exception of feeding activity), whereas traits construed as costs of defenses showed the opposite pattern. Therefore, defensive traits were highly sensitive to predation risk, while traits construed as costs of defense were highly sensitive to resource allocation tradeoffs. This difference in sensitivity between the two groups of traits may explain why the correlation between the expression of defensive traits and the expression of the associated defense costs was weak. Furthermore, my results indicate that genetic linkages and mechanistic integration of multiple defensive traits and their associated costs may constrain time and resource allocation in ways that are not addressed in existing models.

  18. Nonbinary Quantum Convolutional Codes Derived from Negacyclic Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianzhang; Li, Jianping; Yang, Fan; Huang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, some families of nonbinary quantum convolutional codes are constructed by using negacyclic codes. These nonbinary quantum convolutional codes are different from quantum convolutional codes in the literature. Moreover, we construct a family of optimal quantum convolutional codes.

  19. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  20. Spectral derivative feature coding for hyperspectral signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chein-I.; Chakravarty, Sumit

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach to hyperspectral signature analysis, called Spectral Derivative Feature Coding (SDFC). It makes use of gradient changes in adjacent bands to characterize spectral variations so as to improve spectral discrimination and identification. In order to evaluate its performance, two binary coding methods, SPectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) are used to conduct comparative analysis. The experimental results demonstrate the proposed SDFC performs more effectively in capturing spectral characteristics.

  1. Finding the Key to a Better Code: Code Team Restructure to Improve Performance and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Cynthia R.; Hines, Elizabeth J.; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient’s status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team’s resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital’s code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role’s position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

  2. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  3. Analyzing plant defenses in nature

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D

    2009-01-01

    A broad range of chemical plant defenses against herbivores has been studied extensively under laboratory conditions. In many of these cases there is still little understanding of their relevance in nature. In natural systems, functional analyses of plant traits are often complicated by an extreme variability, which affects the interaction with higher trophic levels. Successful analyses require consideration of the numerous sources of variation that potentially affect the plant trait of interest. In our recent study on wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in South Mexico, we applied an integrative approach combining analyses for quantitative correlations of cyanogenic potential (HCNp; the maximum amount of cyanide that can be released from a given tissue) and herbivory in the field with subsequent feeding trials under controlled conditions. This approach allowed us to causally explain the consequences of quantitative variation of HCNp on herbivore-plant interactions in nature and highlights the importance of combining data obtained in natural systems with analyses under controlled conditions. PMID:19820300

  4. Defensive medicine: two historical cases.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Dalla-Vorgia, P

    1996-01-01

    Two characteristic historical examples of defensive medicine are referred to and analysed. The first of them relates to the behaviour of the eminent and experienced physician Critobulus, a member of the family of Asclepiades of Cos Island, native island of Hippocrates, who hesitated to undertake the operation on the severely wounded Alexander the Great, who was hurt during the siege of a town of the Mallians in India (326 BC). The second case refers to the Byzantine Emperor, Justin II (578 AD), when his physicians hesitated to undertake an operation for a possible wedging of a stone in the urethra, which caused painful inflammation. In both cases, the physicians proceeded to the operation after being reassured by their illustrious patients that they would not be punished in the event of failure. Furthermore, in the second case, of the mentally unbalanced Justin II, the physicians requested, obviously in the presence of witnesses, their immunity from punishment with the symbolic gesture of the handing over of the scalpel to them by the patient. This act symbolised the agreement of the patient to the operation.

  5. Toward directed energy planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Bible, Johanna; Bublitz, Jesse; Arriola, Josh; Motta, Caio; Suen, Jon; Johansson, Isabella; Riley, Jordan; Sarvian, Nilou; Clayton-Warwick, Deborah; Wu, Jane; Milich, Andrew; Oleson, Mitch; Pryor, Mark; Krogen, Peter; Kangas, Miikka; O'Neill, Hugh

    2014-02-01

    Asteroids and comets that cross Earth's orbit pose a credible risk of impact, with potentially severe disturbances to Earth and society. We propose an orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the vaporization point as a feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. We call the system DE-STAR, for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. The DE-STAR is a modular-phased array of kilowatt class lasers powered by photovoltaic's. Modular design allows for incremental development, minimizing risk, and allowing for technological codevelopment. An orbiting structure would be developed in stages. The main objective of the DE-STAR is to use focused directed energy to raise the surface spot temperature to ˜3000 K, sufficient to vaporize all known substances. Ejection of evaporated material creates a large reaction force that would alter an asteroid's orbit. The baseline system is a DE-STAR 3 or 4 (1- to 10-km array) depending on the degree of protection desired. A DE-STAR 4 allows initial engagement beyond 1 AU with a spot temperature sufficient to completely evaporate up to 500-m diameter asteroids in 1 year. Small objects can be diverted with a DE-STAR 2 (100 m) while space debris is vaporized with a DE-STAR 1 (10 m).

  6. Duodenal Chemosensing and Mucosal Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    The duodenal mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including acid, CO2, bile acids and nutrients. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility. We propose a mucosal chemosensing system by which luminal chemicals are sensed via mucosal acid sensors and G-protein-coupled receptors. Luminal acid/CO2 sensing consists of ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases, epithelial ion transporters, and acid sensors expressed on the afferent nerves in the duodenum. Furthermore, a luminal L-glutamate signal is mediated via mucosal L-glutamate receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and taste receptor 1 family heterodimers, with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase, whereas luminal Ca2+ is differently sensed via the calcium-sensing receptor in the duodenum. Recent studies also show the involvement of enteroendocrine G-protein-coupled receptors in bile acid and fatty acid sensing in the duodenum. These luminal chemosensors help activate mucosal defense mechanisms in or- der to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiological responses. Stimulation of luminal chemosensing in the duodenal mucosa may prevent mucosal injury, affect nutrient metabolism, and modulate sensory nerve activity. PMID:21389725

  7. Immune defense against pneumonic plague

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Yersinia pestis is one of the world's most virulent human pathogens. Inhalation of this Gram-negative bacterium causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease. Extensively antibiotic-resistant strains of Y. pestis exist and have significant potential for exploitation as agents of terrorism and biowarfare. Subunit vaccines comprised of the Y. pestis F1 and LcrV proteins are well-tolerated and immunogenic in humans but cannot be tested for efficacy, because pneumonic plague outbreaks are uncommon and intentional infection of humans is unethical. In animal models, F1/LcrV-based vaccines protect mice and cynomolgus macaques but have failed, thus far, to adequately protect African green monkeys. We lack an explanation for this inconsistent efficacy. We also lack reliable correlate assays for protective immunity. These deficiencies are hampering efforts to improve vaccine efficacy. Here, I review the immunology of pneumonic plague, focusing on evidence that humoral and cellular defense mechanisms collaborate to defend against pulmonary Y. pestis infection. PMID:18837787

  8. The myoepithelial defense: a host defense against cancer.

    PubMed

    Sternlicht, M D; Barsky, S H

    1997-01-01

    advance our hypothesis that host myoepithelial cells regulate the progression of in situ to invasive carcinoma by providing an important host defense against cancer invasion.

  9. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of...

  10. 77 FR 13013 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 225 and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulations System, OUSD (AT&L) DPAP (DARS), Room 3B855, 3060 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC...

  11. 75 FR 78619 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 216 and 237 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is making technical amendments to the Defense Federal...

  12. Asymmetric quantum convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Guardia, Giuliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the first families of asymmetric quantum convolutional codes (AQCCs). These new AQCCs are constructed by means of the CSS-type construction applied to suitable families of classical convolutional codes, which are also constructed here. The new codes have non-catastrophic generator matrices, and they have great asymmetry. Since our constructions are performed algebraically, i.e. we develop general algebraic methods and properties to perform the constructions, it is possible to derive several families of such codes and not only codes with specific parameters. Additionally, several different types of such codes are obtained.

  13. On fuzzy semantic similarity measure for DNA coding.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tang; Bhuiyan, Md Al-Amin

    2016-02-01

    A coding measure scheme numerically translates the DNA sequence to a time domain signal for protein coding regions identification. A number of coding measure schemes based on numerology, geometry, fixed mapping, statistical characteristics and chemical attributes of nucleotides have been proposed in recent decades. Such coding measure schemes lack the biologically meaningful aspects of nucleotide data and hence do not significantly discriminate coding regions from non-coding regions. This paper presents a novel fuzzy semantic similarity measure (FSSM) coding scheme centering on FSSM codons׳ clustering and genetic code context of nucleotides. Certain natural characteristics of nucleotides i.e. appearance as a unique combination of triplets, preserving special structure and occurrence, and ability to own and share density distributions in codons have been exploited in FSSM. The nucleotides׳ fuzzy behaviors, semantic similarities and defuzzification based on the center of gravity of nucleotides revealed a strong correlation between nucleotides in codons. The proposed FSSM coding scheme attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 36-133% as compared to other existing coding measure schemes tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms.

  14. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light... off-period. The light will be located where it can best be seen, as near as practicable, all...

  15. 48 CFR 211.275 - Passive radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passive radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Passive radio frequency identification....

  16. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light... off-period. The light will be located where it can best be seen, as near as practicable, all...

  17. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light... off-period. The light will be located where it can best be seen, as near as practicable, all...

  18. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light... off-period. The light will be located where it can best be seen, as near as practicable, all...

  19. 32 CFR 1802.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1802.13... EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Filing Of Challenges § 1802.13 Identification of material at issue. Authorized holders shall append the documents at issue and clearly mark those portions subject to the challenge....

  20. 48 CFR 211.275 - Passive radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passive radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Passive radio frequency identification....

  1. 48 CFR 211.275 - Passive radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passive radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Passive radio frequency identification....

  2. 48 CFR 211.275 - Passive radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passive radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Passive radio frequency identification....

  3. California's diminished capacity defense: evolution and transformation.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R; Leong, G B; Silva, J A

    1996-01-01

    Diminished capacity survives in California as a severely attenuated mens rea defense known as diminished actuality. Some other states have similar limited strict mens rea defenses. The lost advantages of California's former expanded concept of diminished capacity are reviewed. As opposed to the all-or-none insanity defense, mens rea defenses permit the trier of fact to find gradations of guilt but are generally inapplicable unless the elements of a crime are redefined to permit consideration of motivational aspects, as California had done. The change from diminished capacity to a diminished actuality defense was a return to the complex, somewhat artificial legal concept of intent and a resurrection of confusing and antiquated common law definitions. The change was made in response to an unpopular jury verdict and a political climate in which little interest existed or still exists for understanding the reasons behind the commission of any crime. Some of the later restrictions imposed by the California Supreme Court on allowing voluntary intoxication to reduce murder to voluntary manslaughter logically should not apply to mental illness. Knowledge of the complex mens rea issues and the various relevant current defenses is essential for any forensic psychiatrist evaluating defendants in jurisdictions in which such defenses are admissible.

  4. Strategic defenses and crisis stability. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, D.; Watman, K.; Kennedy, M.; Darilek, R.

    1989-04-01

    The effect that defenses have on crisis stability is one of the central issues in the current debate over the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Crisis stability would be threatened in a situation in which either the United States or the Soviet Union feels pressure to strike first in the hope of producing a more favorable outcome to what appears to be inevitable nuclear war. This note examines various issues surrounding the question of crisis stability. In particular, it considers options for ameliorating any potential instabilities that might arise during a transition to higher levels of strategic defenses. The authors suggest that a crisis-stable transition is possible, that the mutual survivability of strategic offensive forces is crucial to maintaining crisis stability, that space-based defenses of strategic offensive forces (SOF) are potentially crisis-destabilizing unless they are backed up by terminal defenses of SOF, and that the mutual survivability of strategic defenses and defense suppression forces is also critical to crisis stability.

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 516 - Department of Defense Directive 5405.2, Release of Official Information in Litigation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Official Information in Litigation and Testimony by DoD Personnel as Witnesses C Appendix C to... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Pt. 516, App. C Appendix C to Part 516—Department of Defense... Code, Sections 301, 552, and 552a (b) Title 10, United States Code, Section 133 (c) DoD Directive...

  6. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  7. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  8. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  9. Strategic defense initiative: Folly or future

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, P.E.; Merritt, J.

    1986-01-01

    This collection of analyses is a guide through the maze of claims and criticisms about ''Star Wars,'' the controversial effort of the Reagan administration to reorient United States nuclear strategy to strategic defense. The text starts with an introduction by the editors followed by individual chapters outlining the strategic defense initiative as originally conceived and subsequently modified by the Reagan administration; the arguments for and against the plan's strategic and technical feasibility; and assessments of the harmful and constructive effects of strategic defense on U.S.-Soviet and U.S.-allied relations.

  10. The insanity defense: the case for abolition.

    PubMed

    Perr, I N

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses psychiatrists' objections to the insanity defense, including the negative publicity generated by murder trials in which psychiatrists provide expert testimony. He also examines the legal profession's attitudes toward the defense and the pressure applied to expert witnesses through our adversarial system of justice. The abolition of the insanity defense might expedite the legal process, the author concludes, but it would not greatly affect the courtroom role of psychiatrists. Psychiatric evaluation would still be required in certain cases, such as those involving diminished responsibility and competency to stand trial.

  11. 78 FR 36113 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 222 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: June 17, 2013. FOR...

  12. 77 FR 10976 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: February 24, 2012. FOR...

  13. 77 FR 11775 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: February 28, 2012. FOR...

  14. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to direct contracting officers to additional guidance on supporting contingency...

  15. 78 FR 41331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to insert a hyperlink and direct contracting officers to the DFARS Procedures,...

  16. 77 FR 19128 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 203 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to add a reference for reporting suspected lobbying violations. DATES: Effective...

  17. Impact of defense-only and opposing eyewitness experts on juror judgments.

    PubMed

    Devenport, Jennifer L; Cutler, Brian L

    2004-10-01

    Previous research shows that expert testimony on eyewitness memory influences mock-juror judgments. We examined the extent to which opposing expert testimony mitigates the impact of defense-only expert testimony. Participants (N = 497) viewed a video-taped trial involving an eyewitness identification and individually rendered verdicts and evaluated the evidence and the experts. We manipulated the Foils (unbiased vs. biased) and Instructions (unbiased vs. biased) of the lineup and Expert Testimony (no expert vs. defense-only expert vs. opposing experts). Expert testimony did not significantly influence juror judgments, but the opposing expert testimony diminished the credibility of the defense expert in the eyes of the jurors. Results point to the need for further research on conditions that qualify the impact of expert testimony. PMID:15638210

  18. Attachment style and defense mechanisms in parents who abuse their children.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2010-09-01

    Adult attachment style, defense mechanisms, and personal history of abuse was studied in a group of abusive parents. As a group, these parents made unusually high use of the defense of denial; this was especially true of those with a Fearful attachment style. However, the use of Identification was characteristic of those with a Preoccupied attachment style. Further, personal abuse history was related to adult attachment style. Those who reported having been abused as a child were less likely to have a Secure attachment style, and a history of physical or sexual abuse was associated with a Preoccupied style. In general, these findings support the deactivating/hyperactivating defensive theory of Mikulincer et al (Emotion Regulation in Couples and Families: Pathways to Dysfunction and Health. 2006; pp 77-99. Washington (WA): American Psychological Association).

  19. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  20. Identification of linc-NeD125, a novel long non coding RNA that hosts miR-125b-1 and negatively controls proliferation of human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Valeria; Gioia, Ubaldo; Di Carlo, Valerio; Tortorelli, Anna F; Colombo, Teresa; Bozzoni, Irene; Laneve, Pietro; Caffarelli, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    The human genome contains some thousands of long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Many of these transcripts are presently considered crucial regulators of gene expression and functionally implicated in developmental processes in Eukaryotes. Notably, despite a huge number of lncRNAs are expressed in the Central Nervous System (CNS), only a few of them have been characterized in terms of molecular structure, gene expression regulation and function. In the present study, we identify linc-NeD125 as a novel cytoplasmic, neuronal-induced long intergenic non coding RNA (lincRNA). Linc-NeD125 represents the host gene for miR-125b-1, a microRNA with an established role as negative regulator of human neuroblastoma cell proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that these two overlapping non coding RNAs are coordinately induced during in vitro neuronal differentiation, and that their expression is regulated by different mechanisms. While the production of miR-125b-1 relies on transcriptional regulation, linc-NeD125 is controlled at the post-transcriptional level, through modulation of its stability. We also demonstrate that linc-NeD125 functions independently of the hosted microRNA, by reducing cell proliferation and activating the antiapoptotic factor BCL-2. PMID:26480000

  1. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Dandurand, Frédéric; Grainger, Jonathan; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Granier, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations) and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity. PMID:21734901

  2. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    SciTech Connect

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  3. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  4. Behavioral genomics of honeybee foraging and nest defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Greg J.; Amdam, Gro V.; Schlipalius, David; Emore, Christine; Sardesai, Nagesh; Williams, Christie E.; Rueppell, Olav; Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; Arechavaleta-Velasco, Miguel; Chandra, Sathees; Fondrk, M. Kim; Beye, Martin; Page, Robert E.

    2007-04-01

    The honeybee has been the most important insect species for study of social behavior. The recently released draft genomic sequence for the bee will accelerate honeybee behavioral genetics. Although we lack sufficient tools to manipulate this genome easily, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence natural variation in behavior have been identified and tested for their effects on correlated behavioral traits. We review what is known about the genetics and physiology of two behavioral traits in honeybees, foraging specialization (pollen versus nectar), and defensive behavior, and present evidence that map-based cloning of genes is more feasible in the bee than in other metazoans. We also present bioinformatic analyses of candidate genes within QTL confidence intervals (CIs). The high recombination rate of the bee made it possible to narrow the search to regions containing only 17-61 predicted peptides for each QTL, although CIs covered large genetic distances. Knowledge of correlated behavioral traits, comparative bioinformatics, and expression assays facilitated evaluation of candidate genes. An overrepresentation of genes involved in ovarian development and insulin-like signaling components within pollen foraging QTL regions suggests that an ancestral reproductive gene network was co-opted during the evolution of foraging specialization. The major QTL influencing defensive/aggressive behavior contains orthologs of genes involved in central nervous system activity and neurogenesis. Candidates at the other two defensive-behavior QTLs include modulators of sensory signaling ( Am5HT 7 serotonin receptor, AmArr4 arrestin, and GABA-B-R1 receptor). These studies are the first step in linking natural variation in honeybee social behavior to the identification of underlying genes.

  5. 78 FR 54968 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: September 9,...

  6. 78 FR 30232 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective: May 22, 2013....

  7. 78 FR 38235 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: June 26, 2013....

  8. 78 FR 13543 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial...

  9. Coding for Electronic Mail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  10. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  11. Department of Defense Helps "Fight" Poverty Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opportunity, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Begun in April, 1969, the Department of Defense Domestic Action Program's activities include: loan of equipment to Community Action Agencies; use of DOD facilities for training and recreation; assistance in technical areas; and, general aid. (JM)

  12. Defense mechanisms: 40 years of empirical research.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on defense mechanisms carried out over the past 40 years with children, adolescents, adults, and psychiatric patients. Both experimental and observational studies are included.

  13. Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Headache Following Concussion/Mild TBI Clinical Recommendation DCoE Blog TBI Highlights Give Concussion the Red Card (link ... of TBI (link is external) Read more DCoE blog articles » Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Crisis ...

  14. Self-defense training for college women.

    PubMed

    Cummings, N

    1992-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of self-defense training for college women. Advocates of self-defense training believe these courses will not only provide women with the physical survival techniques necessary to repel attacks effectively, but that this kind of training will also help to prevent future violence by developing traits such as assertiveness and confidence in individuals. There is evidence that women who convey such characteristics are less likely to be victimized. Opponents argue that self-defense training does not properly prepare women for an attack, does not adequately address acquaintance rape threats, and can provide a dangerous false sense of security to students. This article reviews the relevant literature, outlines practical suggestions for initiatives in this area, and describes a model self-defense course at one university. Guidelines for evaluation and implications for university policy and program decisions that address violence against women on college campuses are included. PMID:1583240

  15. 2-Nitroethenylbenzenes as natural products in millipede defense secretions.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Omura, Hisashi; Tanabe, Tsutomu

    2002-07-01

    The white millipede Eucondylodesmus elegans Miyosi (Polydesmida: Doratodesmidae) secretes odoriferous droplets from the glands on both lateral surfaces of its body segments. The secretion was shown to be composed of a mixture of (1E)- and (1Z)-2-nitroethenylbenzenes (2-3 microg per millipede), identified by GC/MS analyses and synthesis. This is the first identification of these compounds as natural products. A granulated sugar block baited with the synthetic compound (more than 0.71 microg) demonstrated repellent activity against foraging wild ants, indicating that the compound functioned as a defense substance against potential predators. alpha,beta,2,3,4,5,6-d7-(1E)-2-Nitroethenylbenzene was detected by GC/MS analysis in the millipede secretion after feeding with alpha,beta,beta,2,3,4,5,6-d8-L-phenylalanine, indicating that L-phenylalanine is the precursor of these compounds.

  16. 2-Nitroethenylbenzenes as natural products in millipede defense secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Ômura, Hisashi; Tanabe, Tsutomu

    2002-05-01

    The white millipede Eucondylodesmus elegans Miyosi (Polydesmida: Doratodesmidae) secretes odoriferous droplets from the glands on both lateral surfaces of its body segments. The secretion was shown to be composed of a mixture of (1E)- and (1Z)-2-nitroethenylbenzenes (2-3 µg per millipede), identified by GC/MS analyses and synthesis. This is the first identification of these compounds as natural products. A granulated sugar block baited with the synthetic compound (more than 0.71 µg) demonstrated repellent activity against foraging wild ants, indicating that the compound functioned as a defense substance against potential predators. α,β,2,3,4,5,6-d7-(1E)-2-Nitroethenylbenzene was detected by GC/MS analysis in the millipede secretion after feeding with α,β,β,2,3,4,5,6-d8-L-phenylalanine, indicating that L-phenylalanine is the precursor of these compounds.

  17. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guolong; Sunkara, Lakshmi T.

    2014-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens. PMID:24583933

  18. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  19. [Medical Service of the Estonian Defense Forces].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, A S; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakin, R A

    2015-06-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Estonian Defense Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Estonia, its Defense Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  20. [Irony and cynicism as forms of defense].

    PubMed

    Blaser, A

    1976-01-01

    Irony and Cynicism are understood to be defense mechanisms. The principle of opposites explains Irony best: it serves the purpose of avoiding the negative affect of a state by maintaining its dialectic opposite. Irony can thus be attributed to counter-cathexis. Cynicism has already been shown in its historical development to be a form of denial with the purpose to minimize the importance of the object. Sarcasm is not a defense but a form of aggressive discharge.

  1. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  2. DLLExternalCode

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read frommore » files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.« less

  3. Parafermion stabilizer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungordu, Utkan; Nepal, Rabindra; Kovalev, Alexey

    2015-03-01

    We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes [Phys. Rev. A 90, 042326 (2014)] which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one dimensional model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. Our results show that parafermions can achieve a better encoding rate than Majorana fermions. A locality preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established which allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation. This work was supported in part by the NSF under Grants No. Phy-1415600 and No. NSF-EPSCoR 1004094.

  4. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  5. Low Levels of Polymorphism in Genes That Control the Activation of Defense Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Erica G.; Traw, M. Brian; Toomajian, Christopher; Kreitman, Martin; Bergelson, Joy

    2008-01-01

    Plants use signaling pathways involving salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene to defend against pathogen and herbivore attack. Many defense response genes involved in these signaling pathways have been characterized, but little is known about the selective pressures they experience. A representative set of 27 defense response genes were resequenced in a worldwide set of 96 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, and patterns of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated in relation to an empirical distribution of SNPs generated from either 876 fragments or 236 fragments with >400 bp coding sequence (this latter set was selected for comparisons with coding sequences) distributed across the genomes of the same set of accessions. Defense response genes have significantly fewer protein variants, display lower levels of nonsynonymous nucleotide diversity, and have fewer nonsynonymous segregating sites. The majority of defense response genes appear to be experiencing purifying selection, given the dearth of protein variation in this set of genes. Eight genes exhibit some evidence of partial selective sweeps or transient balancing selection. These results therefore provide a strong contrast to the high levels of balancing selection exhibited by genes at the upstream positions in these signaling pathways. PMID:18245336

  6. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-10-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.

  7. Amphibian defenses against ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Andrew R; Belden, Lisa K

    2003-01-01

    As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, amphibian populations throughout the world are disappearing. There are a number of potential causes for these declines, including those related to environmental changes such as increasing ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion. UV-B radiation can kill amphibian embryos or can cause sublethal effects that can harm amphibians in later life stages. However, amphibians have defenses against UV-B damage that can limit damage or repair it after exposure to UV-B radiation. These include behavioral, physiological, and molecular defenses. These defenses differ interspecifically, with some species more able to cope with exposure to UV-B than others. Unfortunately, the defense mechanisms of many species may not be effective against increasing persistent levels of UV-B radiation that have only been present for the past several decades due to human-induced environmental damage. Moreover, we predict that persistent UV-B-induced mortality and sublethal damage in species without adequate defenses could lead to changes in community structure. In this article we review the effects of UV-B radiation on amphibians and the defenses they use to avoid solar radiation and make some predictions regarding community structure in light of interspecific differences in UV-B tolerance. PMID:12492415

  8. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

  9. Origins of the Strategic Defense Initiative: Ballistic Missile Defense, 1944-1983. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baucom, D.R.

    1989-12-01

    America's ballistic missile defense program may be said to have its roots in the V-2 attacks on London in 1944. This document traces the development of antiballistic missile defense policy from the V-2 attacks up to President Reagan's 1983 speech announcing the new strategic defense initiative. The history follows the policy debates from the NIKE-X, SALT I and SALT II, the ABM Treaty, and SAFEGUARD through research and development innovations in the areas of computers, optical sensors, interceptors, and directed energy weapons. The emergence of political organizations and individuals who either opposed or championed ballistic missile defense is also included.

  10. The comprehensive assessment of defense style: measuring defense mechanisms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laor, N; Wolmer, L; Cicchetti, D V

    2001-06-01

    This study introduces the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS), a new method to assess descriptively the defensive behavior of children and adolescents. Parents of 124 children and adolescents referred to a mental health clinic, of 104 nontreated children, and of 15 children whose fathers were treated for posttraumatic stress disorder completed the CADS. Factor analysis of 28 defenses yielded one mature factor, one immature factor of defenses expressed in relations with the environment (other-oriented), and one of defenses expressed in relations with the self (self-oriented). The CADS significantly discriminated between patients and nonpatients. Psychiatric patients used more immature and fewer mature defenses than control subjects, and adolescents used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than children. Girls used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than boys. The reliability and validity data of the CADS are encouraging. The three defense factors may be implemented for diagnostic and clinical purposes as well as for screening for psychopathology risk in untreated populations.

  11. 47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on this frequency. Identification may be made by voice or International Morse Code. When the call... minute and by means of tone modulation of the transmitter, the tone frequency being between 800 and 1000..., control codes, or digitized voice may also be identified by digital transmission of the call sign....

  12. 47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... on this frequency. Identification may be made by voice or International Morse Code. When the call... minute and by means of tone modulation of the transmitter, the tone frequency being between 800 and 1000..., control codes, or digitized voice may also be identified by digital transmission of the call sign....

  13. 47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... on this frequency. Identification may be made by voice or International Morse Code. When the call... minute and by means of tone modulation of the transmitter, the tone frequency being between 800 and 1000..., control codes, or digitized voice may also be identified by digital transmission of the call sign....

  14. 47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... on this frequency. Identification may be made by voice or International Morse Code. When the call... minute and by means of tone modulation of the transmitter, the tone frequency being between 800 and 1000..., control codes, or digitized voice may also be identified by digital transmission of the call sign....

  15. 47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... on this frequency. Identification may be made by voice or International Morse Code. When the call... minute and by means of tone modulation of the transmitter, the tone frequency being between 800 and 1000..., control codes, or digitized voice may also be identified by digital transmission of the call sign....

  16. Non-host defense response in a novel Arabidopsis-Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri pathosystem.

    PubMed

    An, Chuanfu; Mou, Zhonglin

    2012-01-01

    Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. Progress of breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties is modest due to limited resistant germplasm resources and lack of candidate genes for genetic manipulation. The objective of this study is to establish a novel heterologous pathosystem between Xcc and the well-established model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for defense mechanism dissection and resistance gene identification. Our results indicate that Xcc bacteria neither grow nor decline in Arabidopsis, but induce multiple defense responses including callose deposition, reactive oxygen species and salicylic aicd (SA) production, and defense gene expression, indicating that Xcc activates non-host resistance in Arabidopsis. Moreover, Xcc-induced defense gene expression is suppressed or attenuated in several well-characterized SA signaling mutants including eds1, pad4, eds5, sid2, and npr1. Interestingly, resistance to Xcc is compromised only in eds1, pad4, and eds5, but not in sid2 and npr1. However, combining sid2 and npr1 in the sid2npr1 double mutant compromises resistance to Xcc, suggesting genetic interactions likely exist between SID2 and NPR1 in the non-host resistance against Xcc in Arabidopsis. These results demonstrate that the SA signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating non-host defense against Xcc in Arabidopsis and suggest that the SA signaling pathway genes may hold great potential for breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties through modern gene transfer technology.

  17. DEFENSIVE SPIROKETALS FROM Asceles glaber (PHASMATODEA): ABSOLUTE CONFIGURATION AND EFFECTS ON ANTS AND MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    DOSSEY, AARON T.; WHITAKER, JOHN M.; DANCEL, MARIA CRISTINA A.; VANDER MEER, ROBERT K.; BERNIER, ULRICH R.; GOTTARDO, MARCO; ROUSH, WILLIAM R.

    2012-01-01

    Insects are the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth, with over 1,000,000 species identified to date. Stick insects (“walkingsticks” or “phasmids”, Order Phasmatodea) are well known for and name derived from their uncanny stereotypical use of camouflage as a primary line of defense from predation. However, many species also possess a potent chemical defense spray. Recently we discovered that the defensive spray of Asceles glaber contains spiroketals (confirmed major component: (2S,6R)-(−)(E)-2-methyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane and tentative minor component: 2-ethyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane) and glucose. In this paper we 1) illustrate the identification of spiroketals and glucose in the defense spray of A. glaber using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS), and comparison with a synthetic reference sample, 2) provide the elucidation of the absolute configuration of the major spiroketal in that defense spray and 3) demonstrate the effect of this compound and its enantiomer on both fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). PMID:22976590

  18. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyan; Yang, Haibian; Bao, Fei; Ao, Kevin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuelin; Yang, Shuhua

    2015-10-01

    Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR)-type resistance (R) protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains) domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5), which largely suppresses chilling-activated defense responses. IBR5 encodes a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase. The accumulation of CHS3 protein at chilling temperatures is inhibited by the IBR5 mutation. Moreover, chs3-conferred defense phenotypes were synergistically suppressed by mutations in HSP90 and IBR5. Further analysis showed that IBR5, with holdase activity, physically associates with CHS3, HSP90 and SGT1b (Suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1) to form a complex that protects CHS3. In addition to the positive role of IBR5 in regulating CHS3, IBR5 is also involved in defense responses mediated by R genes, including SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, Constitutive 1), RPS4 (Resistance to P. syringae 4) and RPM1 (Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1). Thus, the results of the present study reveal a role for IBR5 in the regulation of multiple R protein-mediated defense responses. PMID:26451844

  19. Isonitrosoacetophenone Drives Transcriptional Reprogramming in Nicotiana tabacum Cells in Support of Innate Immunity and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Djami-Tchatchou, Arnaud T.; Maake, Mmapula P.; Piater, Lizelle A.; Dubery, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to various stress stimuli by activating broad-spectrum defense responses both locally as well as systemically. As such, identification of expressed genes represents an important step towards understanding inducible defense responses and assists in designing appropriate intervention strategies for disease management. Genes differentially expressed in tobacco cell suspensions following elicitation with isonitrosoacetophenone (INAP) were identified using mRNA differential display and pyro-sequencing. Sequencing data produced 14579 reads, which resulted in 198 contigs and 1758 singletons. Following BLAST analyses, several inducible plant defense genes of interest were identified and classified into functional categories including signal transduction, transcription activation, transcription and protein synthesis, protein degradation and ubiquitination, stress-responsive, defense-related, metabolism and energy, regulation, transportation, cytoskeleton and cell wall-related. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the expression of 17 selected target genes within these categories. Results indicate that INAP has a sensitising or priming effect through activation of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid- and ethylene pathways that result in an altered transcriptome, with the expression of genes involved in perception of pathogens and associated cellular re-programming in support of defense. Furthermore, infection assays with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci confirmed the establishment of a functional anti-microbial environment in planta. PMID:25658943

  20. The Department of Defense Information Security Process: A Study of Change Acceptance and Past-Performance-Based Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Dennis W. G.

    2011-01-01

    Subchapter III of Chapter 35 of Title 44, United States Code, Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002; Department of Defense (DoD) Directive 8500.01E, Information Assurance, October 24, 2002; DoD Directive 8100.1, Global Information Grid Overarching Policy, September 19, 2002; and DoD Instruction 8500.2, Information Assurance…

  1. Identification of two factors which bind to the upstream sequences of a number of nuclear genes coding for mitochondrial proteins and to genetic elements important for cell division in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Dorsman, J C; van Heeswijk, W C; Grivell, L A

    1988-01-01

    Two abundant factors, GFI and GFII which interact with the 5' flanking regions of nuclear genes coding for proteins of the mitochondrial respiratory chain have been identified. In one case (subunit VIII of QH2: cytochrome c oxidoreductase) the binding sites for both factors overlap completely and their binding is mutually exclusive. For the other 5' regions tested the GFI and GFII binding sites do not coincide. Interestingly, binding sites for GFI and GFII are also present in or at the 3' ends of the coding regions of two genes of the PHO gene family and in DNA elements important for optimal ARS and CEN function respectively. The sites recognized by GFI conform to the consensus RTCRNNNNNNACGNR, while those recognized by GFII contain the element RTCACGTG. We speculate that GFI and GFII may play a role in different cellular processes, dependent on the context of their binding sites and that one of these processes may be the coordination of the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis with the progress of the cell cycle. Images PMID:3045755

  2. Six S100 genes are clustered on human chromosome 1q21: Identification of two genes coding for the two previously unreported calcium-binding proteins S100D and S100E

    SciTech Connect

    Engelkamp, D.; Schaefer, B.W.; Heizmann, C.W. ); Mattei, M.G. ); Erne, P. )

    1993-07-15

    The human genome contains large regions that are highly structured. Sequence-related members of multigene families are often found in a clustered organization. Here the authors describe a previously unrecognized gene cluster composed of genes coding for calcium-binding proteins of the S100 family. The linkage of six S100 genes was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and a contiguous DNA sequence of 15 kilobases containing the full coding region of four different S100 genes was characterized. This is the tightest mammalian gene cluster discovered so far to the authors' knowledge. Two additional S100 genes are located within the cluster, both of which exhibit unique structural features when compared with other S100 genes. The product of S100E is cysteine-rich, whereas that of S100D contains a long hydrophobic N-terminal tail. The gene cluster was assigned to chromosome 1q21, one of the bands showing rearrangements in neoplasms at high frequency. The deregulated expression of some S100 genes in the cluster during tumor progression suggests that chromosomal abnormalities may influence the expression of S100 genes in late stages of cancer, particularly in association with the formation of metastases. 43 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences through chaos-game representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mayukha; Satish, B.; Srinivas, K.; Rao, P. Madhusudana; Manimaran, P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new approach combining the chaos game representation and the two dimensional multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis methods to examine multifractal behavior in power law cross correlation between any pair of nucleotide sequences of unequal lengths. In this work, we analyzed the characteristic behavior of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of eight prokaryotes. The results show the presence of strong multifractal nature between coding and non-coding sequences of all data sets. We found that this integrative approach helps us to consider complete DNA sequences for characterization, and further it may be useful for classification, clustering, identification of class affiliation of nucleotide sequences etc. with high precision.

  4. Industrial Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1991-01-01

    The industrial codes will consist of modules of 2-D and simplified 2-D or 1-D codes, intended for expeditious parametric studies, analysis, and design of a wide variety of seals. Integration into a unified system is accomplished by the industrial Knowledge Based System (KBS), which will also provide user friendly interaction, contact sensitive and hypertext help, design guidance, and an expandable database. The types of analysis to be included with the industrial codes are interfacial performance (leakage, load, stiffness, friction losses, etc.), thermoelastic distortions, and dynamic response to rotor excursions. The first three codes to be completed and which are presently being incorporated into the KBS are the incompressible cylindrical code, ICYL, and the compressible cylindrical code, GCYL.

  5. Updating the Read Codes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David; Comp, Dip; Schulz, Erich; Brown, Philip; Price, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The Read Codes are a hierarchically-arranged controlled clinical vocabulary introduced in the early 1980s and now consisting of three maintained versions of differing complexity. The code sets are dynamic, and are updated quarterly in response to requests from users including clinicians in both primary and secondary care, software suppliers, and advice from a network of specialist healthcare professionals. The codes' continual evolution of content, both across and within versions, highlights tensions between different users and uses of coded clinical data. Internal processes, external interactions and new structural features implemented by the NHS Centre for Coding and Classification (NHSCCC) for user interactive maintenance of the Read Codes are described, and over 2000 items of user feedback episodes received over a 15-month period are analysed. PMID:9391934

  6. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  7. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  8. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  9. Doubled Color Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    Combining protection from noise and computational universality is one of the biggest challenges in the fault-tolerant quantum computing. Topological stabilizer codes such as the 2D surface code can tolerate a high level of noise but implementing logical gates, especially non-Clifford ones, requires a prohibitively large overhead due to the need of state distillation. In this talk I will describe a new family of 2D quantum error correcting codes that enable a transversal implementation of all logical gates required for the universal quantum computing. Transversal logical gates (TLG) are encoded operations that can be realized by applying some single-qubit rotation to each physical qubit. TLG are highly desirable since they introduce no overhead and do not spread errors. It has been known before that a quantum code can have only a finite number of TLGs which rules out computational universality. Our scheme circumvents this no-go result by combining TLGs of two different quantum codes using the gauge-fixing method pioneered by Paetznick and Reichardt. The first code, closely related to the 2D color code, enables a transversal implementation of all single-qubit Clifford gates such as the Hadamard gate and the π / 2 phase shift. The second code that we call a doubled color code provides a transversal T-gate, where T is the π / 4 phase shift. The Clifford+T gate set is known to be computationally universal. The two codes can be laid out on the honeycomb lattice with two qubits per site such that the code conversion requires parity measurements for six-qubit Pauli operators supported on faces of the lattice. I will also describe numerical simulations of logical Clifford+T circuits encoded by the distance-3 doubled color code. Based on a joint work with Andrew Cross.

  10. 75 FR 11868 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... of the Secretary Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION..., a subcommittee of the Defense Health Board (DHB), will receive briefings from various speakers... registration are available online at the Defense Health Board Web site, http://www.ha.osd.mil/dhb ....

  11. 75 FR 9399 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... of the Secretary Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces, a subcommittee of the Defense Health Board (DHB), will... difficulties, beyond the control of the Defense Health Board or its Designated Federal Officer, the...

  12. 75 FR 5289 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... of the Secretary Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION..., and in accordance with section 10(a)(2) of Public Law, DoD announces that the Defense Health Board...- 3317. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Commander Edmond F. Feeks, Executive Secretary, Defense...

  13. 76 FR 6766 - Meeting of the Defense Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... persons may submit a written statement for consideration by the Defense Science Board. Individuals... of the Secretary Meeting of the Defense Science Board AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Advisory Committee Meetings. SUMMARY: The Defense Science Board will meet in closed session...

  14. 76 FR 21705 - Closed Meeting of the Defense Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... statement for consideration by the Defense Science Board. Individuals submitting a written statement must... of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Defense Science Board AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Defense Science Board will meet in closed session on May 11-12, 2011; at...

  15. 77 FR 20795 - Establishment of the Defense Legal Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... of the Secretary Establishment of the Defense Legal Policy Board AGENCY: Department of Defense, DoD... establishing the Defense Legal Policy Board (hereafter referred to as ``the Board''). The Board is a... Board relating to legal and related legal policy matters within the Department of Defense. The Board,...

  16. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  17. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  18. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  19. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  20. [Compulsive molecular hoarding enables the evolution of protein-coding DNA from non-coding DNA].

    PubMed

    Casane, Didier; Laurenti, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    It was thought until recently that a new gene could only evolve from a previously existing gene, from recombination of genes, or from horizontal gene transfer. Recently a series of genomic and transcriptomic studies have led to the identification of non-coding DNA as a significant source of protein coding genes. The mechanism, which is probably universal since it has been identified in a wide array of eukaryotes, implies that a gradient of proto-genes, probably established by a balance between selection and genetic drift, exists between coding DNA and non-coding DNA. Therefore genome dynamics could account for the progressive formation of genes "out of the blue" thanks to the interplay of mutation and natural selection.

  1. Space-based ballistic-missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Bethe, H.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Kendall, H.W.

    1984-10-01

    This article, based on a forthcoming book by the Union for Concerned Scientists, focuses on the technical aspects of the issue of space-based ballistic-missile defense. After analysis, the authors conclude that the questionable performance of the proposed defense, the ease with which it could be overwhelmed or circumvented, and its potential as an antisatellite system would cause grievous damage to the security of the US if the Strategic Defense Initiative were to be pursued. The path toward greater security lies in quite another direction, they feel. Although research on ballistic-missile defense should continue at the traditional level of expenditure and within the constraints of the ABM Treaty, every effort should be made to negotiate a bilateral ban on the testing and use of space weapons. The authors think it is essential that such an agreement cover all altitudes, because a ban on high-altitude antisatellite weapons alone would not viable if directed energy weapons were developed for ballistic-missile defense. Further, the Star Wars program, unlikely ever to protect the entire nation against a nuclear attack, would nonetheless trigger a major expansion of the arms race.

  2. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  3. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de León, Francisco J García

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  4. Insanity Defense: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Moirangthem, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Insanity defense is primarily used in criminal prosecutions. It is based on the assumption that at the time of the crime, the defendant was suffering from severe mental illness and therefore, was incapable of appreciating the nature of the crime and differentiating right from wrong behavior, hence making them not legally accountable for crime. Insanity defense is a legal concept, not a clinical one (medical one). This means that just suffering from a mental disorder is not sufficient to prove insanity. The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by a "preponderance of the evidence" which is similar to a civil case. It is hard to determine legal insanity, and even harder to successfully defend it in court. This article focuses on the recent Supreme Court decision on insanity defense and standards employed in Indian court. Researchers present a model for evaluating a defendant's mental status examination and briefly discuss the legal standards and procedures for the assessment of insanity defense evaluations. There is an urgent need to initiate formal graduation course, setup Forensic Psychiatric Training and Clinical Services Providing Centers across the country to increase the manpower resources and to provide fair and speedy trail.

  5. Insanity Defense: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Moirangthem, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Insanity defense is primarily used in criminal prosecutions. It is based on the assumption that at the time of the crime, the defendant was suffering from severe mental illness and therefore, was incapable of appreciating the nature of the crime and differentiating right from wrong behavior, hence making them not legally accountable for crime. Insanity defense is a legal concept, not a clinical one (medical one). This means that just suffering from a mental disorder is not sufficient to prove insanity. The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by a “preponderance of the evidence” which is similar to a civil case. It is hard to determine legal insanity, and even harder to successfully defend it in court. This article focuses on the recent Supreme Court decision on insanity defense and standards employed in Indian court. Researchers present a model for evaluating a defendant's mental status examination and briefly discuss the legal standards and procedures for the assessment of insanity defense evaluations. There is an urgent need to initiate formal graduation course, setup Forensic Psychiatric Training and Clinical Services Providing Centers across the country to increase the manpower resources and to provide fair and speedy trail. PMID:26702167

  6. Insanity Defense: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Moirangthem, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Insanity defense is primarily used in criminal prosecutions. It is based on the assumption that at the time of the crime, the defendant was suffering from severe mental illness and therefore, was incapable of appreciating the nature of the crime and differentiating right from wrong behavior, hence making them not legally accountable for crime. Insanity defense is a legal concept, not a clinical one (medical one). This means that just suffering from a mental disorder is not sufficient to prove insanity. The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by a "preponderance of the evidence" which is similar to a civil case. It is hard to determine legal insanity, and even harder to successfully defend it in court. This article focuses on the recent Supreme Court decision on insanity defense and standards employed in Indian court. Researchers present a model for evaluating a defendant's mental status examination and briefly discuss the legal standards and procedures for the assessment of insanity defense evaluations. There is an urgent need to initiate formal graduation course, setup Forensic Psychiatric Training and Clinical Services Providing Centers across the country to increase the manpower resources and to provide fair and speedy trail. PMID:26702167

  7. Identification of crevice corrosion in the titanium alloy TiCode-12 in simulated rock salt brine at 150/sup 0/C. [Ti-0. 3Mo-0. 8Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, T.M.; Lee, B.S.; Soo, P.

    1982-01-01

    TiCode-12 (Ti-0.3Mo-0.8Ni) is a prime corrosion-resistant material for high-level nuclear-waste containers which will be emplaced in mined geologic repositories such as those in rock salt. The crevice corrosion behavior of this alloy was investigated in simulated rock salt brine solutions at a temperature of 150/sup 0/C. A distinct corrosion product with a range of interference colors was observed in a mechanically simulated crevice after two to four-weeks' exposure. Low pH accelerated the reaction rate and deaerated solutions give less corrosion than aerated ones. Also, increasing specimen size, decreasing crevice gap, and preoxidation of the cathodic area gave more voluminous corrosion products inside the crevice. High temperature did not necessarily accelerate crevice corrosion. These results are consistent with those expected from macroscopic concentration cell formation accompanied by oxygen depletion, potential drop, and acidification inside the crevice. TEM and SEM techniques were extensively utilized to identify the film formed inside the crevice at each stage of the corrosion process. Based on the study, and pH and potential measurements inside the crevice of commercially pure titanium done by other workers, a mechanism for crevice corrosion in TiCode-12 has been developed. It involves the initial formation of compact anatase crystals inside the crevice.As the macroscopic cell develops further, it is postulated that either the anatase form of TiO/sub 2/ will transform to the lower oxide Ti/sub 3/O/sub 5/ and to the rutile form of TiO/sub 2/, or titanium dissolves into the solution after the breakdown of the protective film and subsequent hydrolysis takes place to form the lower oxide and the rutile form of TiO/sub 2/. The role of alloying elements (Mo and Ni) and dissolved solutes are discussed with respect to these postulations. 10 figures, 3 tables.

  8. A two-dimensional neuropsychology of defense: fear/anxiety and defensive distance.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Neil; Corr, Philip J

    2004-05-01

    We present in this paper a picture of the neural systems controlling defense that updates and simplifies Gray's "Neuropsychology of Anxiety". It is based on two behavioural dimensions: 'defensive distance' as defined by the Blanchards and 'defensive direction'. Defensive direction is a categorical dimension with avoidance of threat corresponding to fear and approach to threat corresponding to anxiety. These two psychological dimensions are mapped to underlying neural dimensions. Defensive distance is mapped to neural level, with the shortest defensive distances involving the lowest neural level (periaqueductal grey) and the largest defensive distances the highest neural level (prefrontal cortex). Defensive direction is mapped to separate parallel streams that run across these levels. A significant departure from prior models is the proposal that both fear and anxiety are represented at all levels. The theory is presented in a simplified form that does not incorporate the interactions that must occur between non-adjacent levels of the system. It also requires expansion to include the dimension of escapability of threat. Our current development and these proposed future extensions do not change the core concepts originally proposed by Gray and, we argue, demonstrate their enduring value.

  9. 22 CFR 120.2 - Designation of defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... services. 120.2 Section 120.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.2 Designation of defense articles and defense services. The Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(a) and 2794(7)) provides that the President shall designate...

  10. 22 CFR 120.2 - Designation of defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... services. 120.2 Section 120.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.2 Designation of defense articles and defense services. The Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(a) and 2794(7)) provides that the President shall designate...

  11. Defense Dollars and Sense: A Common Cause Guide to the Defense Budget Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovner, Mark

    Designed to increase public awareness of military spending, this 5-part guide examines the process and problems of preparing the national defense budget. The publication begins with a brief overview of the 1984 defense budget. Major military programs, trends in budgeting, and key concerns in budget formulation are explored. Graphs and charts…

  12. Ego Defenses and Reaction to Stress: A Validation Study of the Defense Mechanisms Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleser, Goldine C.; Sacks, Marilyn

    1973-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between scores on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory and reaction to an experimental conflict situation in which Ss (85 undergraduate college students) were led to believe that their performance was deficient on a new test of scholastic ability. The pattern of defenses predicted residual posttest estimates of…

  13. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence as Predictors of Adult Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-01

    Our study examines whether defense styles and separate defenses in depressed adolescent outpatients predict adult personality disorders (PDs). We obtained data from consecutive adolescent outpatients who participated in the Adolescent Depression Study at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up (N = 140). Defense styles were divided into mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature and a secondary set of analyses were made with separate defenses as predictors of a PD diagnosis. Neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles in adolescence were associated with adulthood PDs. Neurotic defense style associated with cluster B diagnosis and image-distorting defense style associated with cluster A diagnosis. Separate defenses of displacement, isolation, and reaction formation were independent predictors of adult PD diagnosis even after adjusting for PD diagnosis in adolescence. Defense styles and separate defenses predict later PDs and could be used in the focusing of treatment interventions for adolescents.

  14. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  15. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  16. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...

  17. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...

  18. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...

  19. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...

  20. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will...