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Sample records for defense identification code

  1. 49 CFR 178.502 - Identification codes for packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification codes for packagings. 178.502... FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.502 Identification codes for packagings. (a) Identification codes for designating kinds of packagings consist of the following: (1)...

  2. 49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Large Packaging identification codes. 178.905... FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.905 Large Packaging identification codes. Large packaging code designations consist of: two numerals specified in paragraph (a) of this section; followed...

  3. 33 CFR 181.31 - Manufacturer identification code assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturer identification code... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.31 Manufacturer... request a manufacturer identification code in writing from the Recreational Boating Product...

  4. Improving the Use of Self-Generated Identification Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Rainer; Bachteler, Tobias; Reiher, Jorg

    2010-01-01

    In panel studies on sensitive topics, respondent-generated identification codes are often used to link records across surveys. However, usually a substantial number of cases are lost due to the codes. These losses may cause biased estimates. Using more components and linking the codes by the Levenshtein string distance function will reduce the…

  5. Accurate documentation, correct coding, and compliance: it's your best defense!

    PubMed

    Coles, T S; Babb, E F

    1999-07-01

    This article focuses on the need for physicians to maintain an awareness of regulatory policy and the law impacting the federal government's medical insurance programs, and to internalize and apply this knowledge in their practices. Basic information concerning selected fraud and abuse statutes and the civil monetary penalties and sanctions for noncompliance is discussed. The application of accurate documentation and correct coding principles, as well as the rationale for implementating an effective compliance plan in order to prevent fraud and abuse and/or minimize disciplinary action from government regulatory agencies, are emphasized.

  6. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  7. 21 CFR 11.300 - Controls for identification codes/passwords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Controls for identification codes/passwords. 11... identification codes/passwords. Persons who use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords shall employ controls to ensure their security and integrity. Such controls...

  8. 21 CFR 11.300 - Controls for identification codes/passwords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controls for identification codes/passwords. 11... identification codes/passwords. Persons who use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords shall employ controls to ensure their security and integrity. Such controls...

  9. 27 CFR 73.12 - What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... must I use for identification codes and passwords? 73.12 Section 73.12 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... controls must I use for identification codes and passwords? If you use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords, you must employ controls to ensure...

  10. 27 CFR 73.12 - What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... I use for identification codes and passwords? 73.12 Section 73.12 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... controls must I use for identification codes and passwords? If you use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords, you must employ controls to ensure...

  11. 27 CFR 73.12 - What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... must I use for identification codes and passwords? 73.12 Section 73.12 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... controls must I use for identification codes and passwords? If you use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords, you must employ controls to ensure...

  12. 21 CFR 11.300 - Controls for identification codes/passwords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controls for identification codes/passwords. 11... identification codes/passwords. Persons who use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords shall employ controls to ensure their security and integrity. Such controls...

  13. 21 CFR 11.300 - Controls for identification codes/passwords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controls for identification codes/passwords. 11... identification codes/passwords. Persons who use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords shall employ controls to ensure their security and integrity. Such controls...

  14. 27 CFR 73.12 - What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... must I use for identification codes and passwords? 73.12 Section 73.12 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... controls must I use for identification codes and passwords? If you use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords, you must employ controls to ensure...

  15. 27 CFR 73.12 - What security controls must I use for identification codes and passwords?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... must I use for identification codes and passwords? 73.12 Section 73.12 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... controls must I use for identification codes and passwords? If you use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords, you must employ controls to ensure...

  16. Bar Coding MS(2) Spectra for Metabolite Identification.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Jonathan L; Cho, Kevin; Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Nikolskiy, Igor; Llufrio, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Stephen L; Patti, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Metabolite identifications are most frequently achieved in untargeted metabolomics by matching precursor mass and full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra to metabolite databases and standards. Here we considered an alternative approach for establishing metabolite identifications that does not rely on full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra. First, we select mass-to-charge regions containing the most informative metabolite fragments and designate them as bins. We then translate each metabolite fragmentation pattern into a binary code by assigning 1's to bins containing fragments and 0's to bins without fragments. With 20 bins, this binary-code system is capable of distinguishing 96% of the compounds in the METLIN MS(2) library. A major advantage of the approach is that it extends untargeted metabolomics to low-resolution triple quadrupole (QqQ) instruments, which are typically less expensive and more robust than other types of mass spectrometers. We demonstrate a method of acquiring MS(2) data in which the third quadrupole of a QqQ instrument cycles over 20 wide isolation windows (coinciding with the location and width of our bins) for each precursor mass selected by the first quadrupole. Operating the QqQ instrument in this mode yields diagnostic bar codes for each precursor mass that can be matched to the bar codes of metabolite standards. Furthermore, our data suggest that using low-resolution bar codes enables QqQ instruments to make MS(2)-based identifications in untargeted metabolomics with a specificity and sensitivity that is competitive to high-resolution time-of-flight technologies.

  17. CRITICA: coding region identification tool invoking comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, J. H.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Gene recognition is essential to understanding existing and future DNA sequence data. CRITICA (Coding Region Identification Tool Invoking Comparative Analysis) is a suite of programs for identifying likely protein-coding sequences in DNA by combining comparative analysis of DNA sequences with more common noncomparative methods. In the comparative component of the analysis, regions of DNA are aligned with related sequences from the DNA databases; if the translation of the aligned sequences has greater amino acid identity than expected for the observed percentage nucleotide identity, this is interpreted as evidence for coding. CRITICA also incorporates noncomparative information derived from the relative frequencies of hexanucleotides in coding frames versus other contexts (i.e., dicodon bias). The dicodon usage information is derived by iterative analysis of the data, such that CRITICA is not dependent on the existence or accuracy of coding sequence annotations in the databases. This independence makes the method particularly well suited for the analysis of novel genomes. CRITICA was tested by analyzing the available Salmonella typhimurium DNA sequences. Its predictions were compared with the DNA sequence annotations and with the predictions of GenMark. CRITICA proved to be more accurate than GenMark, and moreover, many of its predictions that would seem to be errors instead reflect problems in the sequence databases. The source code of CRITICA is freely available by anonymous FTP (rdp.life.uiuc.edu in/pub/critica) and on the World Wide Web (http:/(/)rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu).

  18. 22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification of principal geographic code... § 228.03 Identification of principal geographic code numbers. The USAID Geographic Code Book sets forth the official description of all geographic codes used by USAID in authorizing or...

  19. 33 CFR 181.33 - Conditions for use of manufacturer identification codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturer identification codes. 181.33 Section 181.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.33 Conditions for use of manufacturer identification codes. (a) No manufacturer or importer...

  20. The investigation and identification of a civil defense canister.

    PubMed

    Webb, James; Colleli, James; Fonseca, Steven

    2002-08-01

    A Civil Defense canister was found in a high school storage area with no radioactive labels or instructions. Initial screening with a 2" x 2" NaI detector indicated elevated count rates above background. Using field instruments with gamma peak analysis features and a laboratory counting system, the collective effort indicated that the contents included 238U and 235U. A Civil Defense Item Specification introduced later in the investigation show that the canister contained approximately 3.0 g of uranyl acetate. The specification also stated that the purpose of the canister was to determine the amount of radioactive material in water and solid, or liquid food samples.

  1. Predictive Fallout Composition Modeling: Improvements and Applications of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, David A; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Monterial, Mateusz

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines several improvements to the Particle Activity Module of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). The modeling of each phase of the fallout process is discussed within DELFIC to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations with the code for modeling and simulation. Expansion of the DELFIC isotopic library to include actinides and light elements is shown. Several key features of the new library are demonstrated, including compliance with ENDF/B-VII standards, augmentation of hardwired activated soil and actinide decay calculations with exact Bateman calculations, and full physical and chemical fractionation of all material inventories. Improvements to the radionuclide source term are demonstrated, including the ability to specify heterogeneous fission types and the ability to import source terms from irradiation calculations using the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code. Additionally, the dose, kerma, and effective dose conversion factors are revised. Finally, the application of DELFIC for consequence management planning and forensic analysis is presented. For consequence management, DELFIC is shown to provide disaster recovery teams with simulations of real-time events, including the location, composition, time of arrival, activity rates, and dose rates of fallout, accounting for site-specific atmospheric effects. The results from DELFIC are also demonstrated for use by nuclear forensics teams to plan collection routes (including the determination of optimal collection locations), estimate dose rates to collectors, and anticipate the composition of material at collection sites. These capabilities give mission planners the ability to maximize their effectiveness in the field while minimizing risk to their collectors.

  2. Identification of a Maize Locus that Modulates the Hypersensitive Defense Response, Using Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is the most visible and arguably the most important defense response in plants, although the details of how it is controlled and executed remain patchy. In this paper a novel genetic technique called MAGIC (Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization) i...

  3. PIPI: PTM-Invariant Peptide Identification Using Coding Method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengchao; Li, Ning; Yu, Weichuan

    2016-12-02

    In computational proteomics, the identification of peptides with an unlimited number of post-translational modification (PTM) types is a challenging task. The computational cost associated with database search increases exponentially with respect to the number of modified amino acids and linearly with respect to the number of potential PTM types at each amino acid. The problem becomes intractable very quickly if we want to enumerate all possible PTM patterns. To address this issue, one group of methods named restricted tools (including Mascot, Comet, and MS-GF+) only allow a small number of PTM types in database search process. Alternatively, the other group of methods named unrestricted tools (including MS-Alignment, ProteinProspector, and MODa) avoids enumerating PTM patterns with an alignment-based approach to localizing and characterizing modified amino acids. However, because of the large search space and PTM localization issue, the sensitivity of these unrestricted tools is low. This paper proposes a novel method named PIPI to achieve PTM-invariant peptide identification. PIPI belongs to the category of unrestricted tools. It first codes peptide sequences into Boolean vectors and codes experimental spectra into real-valued vectors. For each coded spectrum, it then searches the coded sequence database to find the top scored peptide sequences as candidates. After that, PIPI uses dynamic programming to localize and characterize modified amino acids in each candidate. We used simulation experiments and real data experiments to evaluate the performance in comparison with restricted tools (i.e., Mascot, Comet, and MS-GF+) and unrestricted tools (i.e., Mascot with error tolerant search, MS-Alignment, ProteinProspector, and MODa). Comparison with restricted tools shows that PIPI has a close sensitivity and running speed. Comparison with unrestricted tools shows that PIPI has the highest sensitivity except for Mascot with error tolerant search and Protein

  4. We Are Not Numbers: The Use of Identification Codes in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis-Poscente, Krista; Moisey, Susan Darlene

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses students' experiences with the use of identification codes in a graduate course delivered asynchronously via the Internet. While teaching an introductory masters level graduate course in distance learning, the authors discovered that the learning management system, Moodle, was programmed to display identification codes rather…

  5. Proposing national identification number on dental prostheses as universal personal identification code - A revolution in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Baad, Rajendra K; Belgaumi, Uzma; Vibhute, Nupura; Kadashetti, Vidya; Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Gugwad, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    The proper identification of a decedent is not only important for humanitarian and emotional reasons, but also for legal and administrative purposes. During the reconstructive identification process, all necessary information is gathered from the unknown body of the victim and hence that an objective reconstructed profile can be established. Denture marking systems are being used in various situations, and a number of direct and indirect methods are reported. We propose that national identification numbers be incorporated in all removable and fixed prostheses, so as to adopt a single and definitive universal personal identification code with the aim of achieving a uniform, standardized, easy, and fast identification method worldwide for forensic identification.

  6. Proposing national identification number on dental prostheses as universal personal identification code - A revolution in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Baad, Rajendra K.; Belgaumi, Uzma; Vibhute, Nupura; Kadashetti, Vidya; Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Gugwad, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    The proper identification of a decedent is not only important for humanitarian and emotional reasons, but also for legal and administrative purposes. During the reconstructive identification process, all necessary information is gathered from the unknown body of the victim and hence that an objective reconstructed profile can be established. Denture marking systems are being used in various situations, and a number of direct and indirect methods are reported. We propose that national identification numbers be incorporated in all removable and fixed prostheses, so as to adopt a single and definitive universal personal identification code with the aim of achieving a uniform, standardized, easy, and fast identification method worldwide for forensic identification. PMID:26005294

  7. Identification of proteins binding coding and non-coding human RNAs using protein microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The regulation and function of mammalian RNAs has been increasingly appreciated to operate via RNA-protein interactions. With the recent discovery of thousands of novel human RNA molecules by high-throughput RNA sequencing, efficient methods to uncover RNA-protein interactions are urgently required. Existing methods to study proteins associated with a given RNA are laborious and require substantial amounts of cell-derived starting material. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a rapid and large-scale approach to characterize binding of in vitro transcribed labeled RNA to ~9,400 human recombinant proteins spotted on protein microarrays. Results We have optimized methodology to probe human protein microarrays with full-length RNA molecules and have identified 137 RNA-protein interactions specific for 10 coding and non-coding RNAs. Those proteins showed strong enrichment for common human RNA binding domains such as RRM, RBD, as well as K homology and CCCH type zinc finger motifs. Previously unknown RNA-protein interactions were discovered using this technique, and these interactions were biochemically verified between TP53 mRNA and Staufen1 protein as well as between HRAS mRNA and CNBP protein. Functional characterization of the interaction between Staufen 1 protein and TP53 mRNA revealed a novel role for Staufen 1 in preserving TP53 RNA stability. Conclusions Our approach demonstrates a scalable methodology, allowing rapid and efficient identification of novel human RNA-protein interactions using RNA hybridization to human protein microarrays. Biochemical validation of newly identified interactions between TP53-Stau1 and HRAS-CNBP using reciprocal pull-down experiments, both in vitro and in vivo, demonstrates the utility of this approach to study uncharacterized RNA-protein interactions. PMID:23157412

  8. Identification of Drosophila Mutants Affecting Defense to an Entomopathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Wang, Jonathan B.; Brown, Markus A.; Euerle, Christopher; St. Leger, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi cause the majority of insect disease. However, to date attempts to model host–fungal interactions with Drosophila have focused on opportunistic human pathogens. Here, we performed a screen of 2,613 mutant Drosophila lines to identify host genes affecting susceptibility to the natural insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma549). Overall, 241 (9.22%) mutant lines had altered resistance to Ma549. Life spans ranged from 3.0 to 6.2 days, with females being more susceptible than males in all lines. Speed of kill correlated with within-host growth and onset of sporulation, but total spore production is decoupled from host genotypes. Results showed that mutations affected the ability of Drosophila to restrain rather than tolerate infections and suggested trade-offs between antifungal and antibacterial genes affecting cuticle and gut structural barriers. Approximately, 13% of mutations where in genes previously associated with host pathogen interactions. These encoded fast-acting immune responses including coagulation, phagocytosis, encapsulation and melanization but not the slow-response induction of anti-fungal peptides. The non-immune genes impact a wide variety of biological functions, including behavioral traits. Many have human orthologs already implicated in human disorders; while others were mutations in protein and non-protein coding genes for which disease resistance was the first biological annotation. PMID:26202798

  9. 76 FR 38046 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Assignment of Order Codes (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... responsible for maintaining order code assignments. The order code procedures are moved from the DFARS to its... agreement. In addition, the procedures and addresses for order code monitors are moved to the...

  10. Identification of ICD Codes Suggestive of Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Slusher, Paula L.; Kruse, Robin L.; Tarleton, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In order to be reimbursed for the care they provide, hospitals in the United States are required to use a standard system to code all discharge diagnoses: the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9). Although ICD-9 codes specific for child maltreatment exist, they do not identify all…

  11. The effect of a redundant color code on an overlearned identification task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of finding redundancy gains with overlearned tasks was examined using a paradigm varying familiarity with the stimulus set. Redundant coding in a multidimensional stimulus was demonstrated to result in increased identification accuracy and decreased latency of identification when compared to stimuli varying on only one dimension. The advantages attributable to redundant coding are referred to as redundancy gain and were found for a variety of stimulus dimension combinations, including the use of hue or color as one of the dimensions. Factors that have affected redundancy gain include the discriminability of the levels of one stimulus dimension and the level of stimulus-to-response association. The results demonstrated that response time is in part a function of familiarity, but no effect of redundant color coding was demonstrated. Implications of research on coding in identification tasks for display design are discussed.

  12. Alcohol misuse Y91 coding in ICD-11: rational terminology and logical coding specifically to encourage early identification and advice.

    PubMed

    Touquet, Robin; Harris, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol misuse is a common presentation to the Emergency Department (ED). The International Classification of Diseases ICD-10 for alcohol misuse, both under F10 and Y90/Y91, is not straightforward. The practicalities of coding ED attendances reveal an increasing detachment from ICD-10 (currently under review). Early identification [sometimes using blood alcohol concentrations (BACs)] and brief advice (IBA) can reduce unscheduled alcohol-related ED re-attendance. The UK Government Department of Health has implemented use of the terms 'Hazardous Drinking', 'Harmful Drinking' and 'Dependent Drinking' in its Public Service Agreements aimed at reducing harm by alcohol. Simplifying coding might increase IBA usage. We suggest that coding improvements in ICD-11 should update Y91 (currently 'clinical assessment')-with ICD-10 Y90 remaining for BAC to classify a patient's 'alcohol status'. Y90 and Y91 together would indicate the urgency for early IBA and/or speciality referral, aiming to reduce the prevalence of 'Dependent Drinking'.

  13. Binary Code Extraction and Interface Identification for Security Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-02

    October 2007. [24] Juan Caballero, Heng Yin , Zhenkai Liang, and Dawn Song. Polyglot: Automatic extraction of protocol message format using dynamic...from binary code. In Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Program Comprehension, 1999. [27] Weidong Cui, Vern Paxson, Nicholas C. Weaver...Intel IA-32 architecture. In Workshop on Binary Translation, Barcelona, Spain, September 2001. [39] Dawn Song, David Brumley, Heng Yin , Juan Caballero

  14. Secure and Practical Defense Against Code-Injection Attacks using Software Dynamic Translation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    we describe an implementation that uses a strong cipher algorithm —the Advanced Encryption Stan- dard (AES), to perform randomization. AES is generally...this paper, we will use the term ISR exclu- sively. The basic operation of an ISR system is as follows. An encryption algorithm (typically XOR’ing the...exploits a vulnerability to inject code, the injected code is also decrypted before emulation. Unless the attacker knows the encryption key/process

  15. Identification of putative TAL effector targets of the citrus canker pathogens shows functional convergence underlying disease development and defense response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TAL effectors PthA“s” and PthC“s” of the citrus canker bacteria Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii pathotype C (XaC), respectively, are poorly characterized. Of particular interest, XaC causes canker disease in its host lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), but triggers a defense response in sweet orange. Results Based on, 1) the TAL effector-DNA binding code, 2) gene expression data of Xc and XaC-infiltrated sweet orange leaves, and 3) citrus hypocotyls transformed with PthA2, PthA4 or PthC1, we have identified a collection of Citrus sinensis genes potentially targeted by Xc and XaC TAL effectors. Our results suggest that similar with other strains of Xanthomonas TAL effectors, PthA2 and PthA4, and PthC1 to some extent, functionally converge. In particular, towards induction of genes involved in the auxin and gibberellin synthesis and response, cell division, and defense response. We also present evidence indicating that the TAL effectors act as transcriptional repressors and that the best scoring predicted DNA targets of PthA“s” and PthC“s” in citrus promoters predominantly overlap with or localize near to TATA boxes of core promoters, supporting the idea that TAL effectors interact with the host basal transcriptional machinery to recruit the RNA pol II and start transcription. Conclusions The identification of PthA“s” and PthC“s” targets, such as the LOB (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY) and CCNBS genes that we report here, is key for the understanding

  16. Defense Logistics: Better Strategic Planning Can Help Ensure DOD’s Successful Implementation of Passive Radio Frequency Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    GAO United States Government Accountability OfficeReport to Congressional CommitteesSeptember 2005 DEFENSE LOGISTICS Better Strategic Planning Can...LOGISTICS Better Strategic Planning Can Help Ensure DOD’s Successful Implementation of Passive Radio Frequency Identification Since 2003, DOD and the...discuss issues involving RFID and the implications of RFID for current business processes, new technology concerns, and strategic planning and

  17. 21 CFR 11.300 - Controls for identification codes/passwords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Controls for identification codes/passwords. 11.300 Section 11.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Signatures § 11.300 Controls...

  18. 47 CFR 3.22 - Number of accounting authority identification codes per applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Application Procedures § 3.22 Number of accounting authority identification codes per applicant... assign U.S. AAICs for entities settling accounts of U.S. licensed vessels in the maritime mobile...

  19. 47 CFR 3.22 - Number of accounting authority identification codes per applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Application Procedures § 3.22 Number of accounting authority identification codes per applicant... assign U.S. AAICs for entities settling accounts of U.S. licensed vessels in the maritime mobile...

  20. Identification of a Polyketide Synthase Coding Sequence Specific for Anatoxin-a-Producing Oscillatoria Cyanobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cadel-Six, Sabrina; Iteman, Isabelle; Peyraud-Thomas, Caroline; Mann, Stéphane; Ploux, Olivier; Méjean, Annick

    2009-01-01

    We report the identification of a sequence from the genome of Oscillatoria sp. strain PCC 6506 coding for a polyketide synthase. Using 50 axenic cyanobacteria, we found this sequence only in the genomes of Oscillatoria strains producing anatoxin-a or homoanatoxin-a, indicating its likely involvement in the biosynthesis of these toxins. PMID:19447947

  1. Towards a spectrum-based bar code for identification of weakly fluorescent microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrášek, Zdeněk; Wiedemann, Jens; Schwille, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Spectrally resolved detection of fluorescent probes can be used to identify multiple labeled target molecules in an unknown mixture. We study how the spectral shape, the experimental noise, and the number of spectral detection channels affect the success of identification of weakly fluorescent beads on basis of their emission spectra. The proposed formalism allows to estimate the performance of the spectral identification procedure with a given set of spectral codes on the basis of the reference spectra only. We constructed a simple prism-based setup for spectral detection and demonstrate that seven distinct but overlapping spectral codes realized by combining up to three fluorescent dyes bound to a single bead in a barcode-based manner can be reliably identified. The procedure allows correct identification even in the presence of known autofluorescence background stronger than the actual signal.

  2. Cancer intelligence acquired (CIA): tumor glycosylation and sialylation codes dismantling antitumor defense.

    PubMed

    Boligan, Kayluz Frias; Mesa, Circe; Fernandez, Luis Enrique; von Gunten, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a key feature of malignant transformation and reflects epigenetic and genetic anomalies among the multitude of molecules involved in glycan biosynthesis. Although glycan biosynthesis is not template bound, altered tumor glycosylation is not random, but associated with common glycosylation patterns. Evidence suggests that acquisition of distinct glycosylation patterns evolves from a 'microevolutionary' process conferring advantages in terms of tumor growth, tumor dissemination, and immune escape. Such glycosylation modifications also involve xeno- and hypersialylation. Xeno-autoantigens such as Neu5Gc-gangliosides provide potential targets for immunotherapy. Hypersialylation may display 'enhanced self' to escape immunosurveillance and involves several not mutually exclusive inhibitory pathways that all rely on protein-glycan interactions. A better understanding of tumor 'glycan codes' as deciphered by lectins, such as siglecs, selectins, C-type lectins and galectins, may lead to novel treatment strategies, not only in cancer, but also in autoimmune disease or transplantation.

  3. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CAGE codes. 204.7202-1..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Identification 204.7202-1 CAGE codes. (a) DLIS assigns or records and maintains CAGE codes to identify commercial and Government entities....

  4. 48 CFR 204.7005 - Assignment of order codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of order codes... Identification Numbers 204.7005 Assignment of order codes. (a) The Defense Logistics Agency, Acquisition Policy Branch (J71), Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6221, is the executive agent for maintenance of code assignments...

  5. Identification and characterization of the gene expression profiles for protein coding and non-coding RNAs of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Laura; Corchete, Luis; Teodosio, Cristina; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; Abad, María del Mar; Iglesias, Manuel; Esteban, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Significant advances have been achieved in recent years in the identification of the genetic and the molecular alterations of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Despite this, at present the understanding of the precise mechanisms involved in the development and malignant transformation of PDAC remain relatively limited. Here, we evaluated for the first time, the molecular heterogeneity of PDAC tumors, through simultaneous assessment of the gene expression profile (GEP) for both coding and non-coding genes of tumor samples from 27 consecutive PDAC patients. Overall, we identified a common GEP for all PDAC tumors, characterized by an increased expression of genes involved in PDAC cell proliferation, local invasion and metastatic capacity, together with a significant alteration of the early steps of the cellular immune response. At the same time, we confirm and extend on previous observations about the genetic complexity of PDAC tumors as revealed by the demonstration of two clearly distinct and unique GEPs (e.g. epithelial-like vs. mesenchymal-like) reflecting the alteration of different signaling pathways involved in the oncogenesis and progression of these tumors. Our results also highlight the potential role of the immune system microenvironment in these tumors, with potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26053098

  6. Anomalies and specific functions in the clinical identification of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Perry, J Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Standard teaching about defense mechanisms generally focuses on definitions, which do not readily aid the clinician in identifying defenses whenever individuals use them. This report demonstrates a process by which the clinician can identify when a defense is used, which ones are likely being used, and with what aim. Clinicians first notice that a defense may be operating whenever the other individual presents with anomalies in the expression of affect, behavior, speech, or its content. Some of these anomalies are described. Next, to identify the specific defense or general level of defensive functioning used, the clinician must identify the specific function of the defense in context using a process of guided clinical inference. This report examines 2 verbatim examples from recorded interviews of one case to demonstrate this process. The examples present a microcosm of clinical concerns that have a surprising relationship to the individual's course and prognosis.

  7. Identification of Aedes aegypti Long Intergenic Non-coding RNAs and Their Association with Wolbachia and Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Etebari, Kayvan; Asad, Sultan; Zhang, Guangmei; Asgari, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are appearing as an important class of regulatory RNAs with a variety of biological functions. The aim of this study was to identify the lincRNA profile in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and evaluate their potential role in host-pathogen interaction. The majority of previous RNA-Seq transcriptome studies in Ae. aegypti have focused on the expression pattern of annotated protein coding genes under different biological conditions. Here, we used 35 publically available RNA-Seq datasets with relatively high depth to screen the Ae. aegypti genome for lincRNA discovery. This led to the identification of 3,482 putative lincRNAs. These lincRNA genes displayed a slightly lower GC content and shorter transcript lengths compared to protein-encoding genes. Ae. aegypti lincRNAs also demonstrate low evolutionary sequence conservation even among closely related species such as Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae. We examined their expression in dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and Wolbachia infected and non-infected adult mosquitoes and Aa20 cells. The results revealed that DENV-2 infection increased the abundance of a number of host lincRNAs, from which some suppress viral replication in mosquito cells. RNAi-mediated silencing of lincRNA_1317 led to enhancement in viral replication, which possibly indicates its potential involvement in the host anti-viral defense. A number of lincRNAs were also differentially expressed in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. The results will facilitate future studies to unravel the function of lncRNAs in insects and may prove to be beneficial in developing new ways to control vectors or inhibit replication of viruses in them. PMID:27760142

  8. Wind turbine control systems: Dynamic model development using system identification and the fast structural dynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    Mitigating the effects of damaging wind turbine loads and responses extends the lifetime of the turbine and, consequently, reduces the associated Cost of Energy (COE). Active control of aerodynamic devices is one option for achieving wind turbine load mitigation. Generally speaking, control system design and analysis requires a reasonable dynamic model of {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} (i.e., the system being controlled). This paper extends the wind turbine aileron control research, previously conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), by presenting a more detailed development of the wind turbine dynamic model. In prior research, active aileron control designs were implemented in an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code, FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). In this paper, the FAST code is used, in conjunction with system identification, to generate a wind turbine dynamic model for use in active aileron control system design. The FAST code is described and an overview of the system identification technique is presented. An aileron control case study is used to demonstrate this modeling technique. The results of the case study are then used to propose ideas for generalizing this technique for creating dynamic models for other wind turbine control applications.

  9. Fratricide-preventing friend identification tag based on photonic band structure coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyahu, Danny; Sadovnik, Lev S.; Manasson, Vladimir A.

    2000-07-01

    A new friend foe identification tag based on photonic band structure (PBS) is presented. The tag utilizes frequency-coded radar signal return. Targets that include the passive tag responds selectively to slightly different frequencies generated by interrogating MMW radar. It is possible to use in- and out-of-band gap frequencies or defect modes of the PBS in order to obtain frequency dependent radar waves reflections. This tag can be made in the form of patch attachable such as plate or corner reflectors, to be worn by an individual marine, or to be integrated into the platform camouflage. Ultimately, it can be incorporated as smart skin or a ground or airborne vehicle. The proposed tag takes full advantage of existing sensors for interrogation (minimal chances required), it is lightweight and small in dimensions, it operates in degraded environments, it has no impact on platform vulnerability, it has low susceptibility to spoofing and mimicking (code of the day) and it has low susceptibility to active jamming. We demonstrated the operation of the tag using multi-layer dielectric (Duroid) having periodic structure of metal on top of each of the layers (metal strips in this case). The experimental results are consistent with numerical simulation. The device can be combined with temporal coding to increase target detection and identification resolution.

  10. Genome Wide Identification and Functional Prediction of Long Non-Coding RNAs Responsive to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Infection in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Megha, Swati; Basu, Urmila; Rahman, Muhammad H.; Kav, Nat N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum affects canola production worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in plants, in response to both abiotic and biotic stress. So far, identification of lncRNAs has been limited to a few model plant species, and their roles in mediating responses to biotic stresses are yet to be characterized in Brassica napus. The present study reports the identification of novel lncRNAs responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection in B. napus at two time points after infection (24 hpi and 48 hpi) using a stranded RNA-Sequencing technique and a detection pipeline for lncRNAs. Of the total 3,181 lncRNA candidates, 2,821 lncRNAs were intergenic, 111 were natural antisense transcripts, 76 possessed exonic overlap with the reference coding transcripts while the remaining 173 represented novel lnc- isoforms. Forty one lncRNAs were identified as the precursors for microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR156, miR169 and miR394, with significant roles in mediating plant responses to fungal phytopathogens. A total of 931 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in response to S. sclerotiorum infection and the expression of 12 such lncRNAs was further validated using qRT-PCR. B. napus antisense lncRNA, TCONS_00000966, having 90% overlap with a plant defensin gene, showed significant induction at both infection stages, suggesting its involvement in the transcriptional regulation of defense responsive genes under S. sclerotiorum infection. Additionally, nine lncRNAs showed overlap with cis-regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes of B. napus. Quantitative RT-PCR verification of a set of S. sclerotiorum responsive sense/antisense transcript pairs revealed contrasting expression patterns, supporting the hypothesis that steric clashes of transcriptional machinery may lead to inactivation of sense promoter. Our findings highlight the potential

  11. Cracking the Dual Code: Toward a Unitary Model of Phoneme Identification

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Donald J.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    The results of five experiments on the nature of the speech code and on the role of sentence context on speech processing are reported. The first three studies test predictions from the dual code model of phoneme identification (Foss, D. J., & Blank, M. A. Cognitive Psychology, 1980, 12, 1–31). According to that model, subjects in a phoneme monitoring experiment respond to a prelexical code when engaged in a relatively easy task, and to a postlexical code when the task is difficult. The experiments controlled ease of processing either by giving subjects multiple targets for which to monitor or by preceding the target with a similar-sounding phoneme that draws false alarms. The predictions from the model were not sustained. Furthermore, evidence for a paradoxical nonword superiority effect was observed. In Experiment IV reaction times (RTs) to all possible /d/-initial CVCs were gathered. RTs were unaffected by the target item's status as a word or nonword. but they were affected by the internal phonetic structure of the target-bearing item. Vowel duration correlated highly (0.627) with RTs. Experiment V examined previous work purporting to demonstrate that semantic predictability affects how the speech code is processed, in particular that semantic predictability leads to responses based upon a postlexical code. That study found “predictability” effects when words occurred in isolation; further, it found that vowel duration and other phonetic factors can account parsimoniously for the existing results. These factors also account for the apparent nonword superiority effects observed earlier. Implications of the present work for theoretical models that stress the interaction between semantic context and speech processing are discussed, as are implications for use of the phoneme monitoring task. PMID:25520528

  12. The genomic fingerprinting of the coding region of the beta-tubulin gene in Leishmania identification.

    PubMed

    Luis, L; Ramírez, A; Aguilar, C M; Eresh, S; Barker, D C; Mendoza-León, A

    1998-06-01

    We have demonstrated the polymorphism of the beta-tubulin gene region in Leishmania and its value in the identification of the parasite. In this work we have shown that the coding region of the gene has sufficient variation to accurately discriminate these parasites at the subgenus level. Nevertheless, intrasubgenus diversity, for particular restriction enzymes, was found in New World Leishmania belonging to the Leishmania subgenus. For instance, differences were found between mexicana and amazonensis strains. A unique pattern at the species level was found in particular species of both subgenera, e.g. L. (L.) major strain P and L. (L.) tropica belonging to the Leishmania subgenus, and L. (V.) panamensis strain LS94 from the Viannia subgenus. Particular endonucleases are diagnostic in Leishmania species discrimination as in the case of PvuII for the mexicana and amazonensis. This variation evidenced in the beta-tubulin gene region of Leishmania also occurred in other Kinetoplastida e.g. Trypanosoma cruzi, Leptomonas spp. and Crithidia spp. Moreover, these organisms showed a different genomic fingerprinting for the beta-tubulin gene among them and also Leishmania. Thus, the polymorphism of the coding region of the beta-tubulin gene can be used as a molecular marker for the identification of Leishmania.

  13. Evaluation of the personalized bar-code identification card to verify high-risk, high-alert medications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Maria

    2013-09-01

    An effective intervention to decrease medication errors related to high-risk, high-alert medications is to implement double checks and second verification using the five rights of medication administration. To evaluate the effectiveness and use of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification card in verifying high-risk, high-alert medications, the High-Risk, High-Alert Medication Verification Audit Tool was used to collect data from the medical records of patients who received high-risk, high-alert medications in four ICUs. Data were collected for administered high-risk, high-alert medication, primary registered nurses who administered the high-risk, high-alert medication, and secondary registered nurses who verified the medication. The percentage of medications that were "not verified," "Personalized Bar-Code Identification verified," and "verified" using a method other than the Personalized Bar-Code Identification was calculated and compared using Z tests for two proportions. The percentage of Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications (83.5%) was significantly higher than the percentage of medications that were not verified (10.9%) (Z = 38.43, P < .05). Also, the difference between the proportion of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications and those that were verified using another method (5.6%) was significant (Z = 41.42, P < .05). The results show that nurses generally tend to follow the standardized procedure for verifying high-risk, high-alert medications in the four ICUs.

  14. Computational identification of human long intergenic non-coding RNAs using a GA-SVM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqiu; Li, Yang; Wang, Qi; Lv, Yingli; Wang, Shiyuan; Chen, Xi; Yu, Xuexin; Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a new type of non-coding RNAs and are closely related with the occurrence and development of diseases. In previous studies, most lincRNAs have been identified through next-generation sequencing. Because lincRNAs exhibit tissue-specific expression, the reproducibility of lincRNA discovery in different studies is very poor. In this study, not including lincRNA expression, we used the sequence, structural and protein-coding potential features as potential features to construct a classifier that can be used to distinguish lincRNAs from non-lincRNAs. The GA-SVM algorithm was performed to extract the optimized feature subset. Compared with several feature subsets, the five-fold cross validation results showed that this optimized feature subset exhibited the best performance for the identification of human lincRNAs. Moreover, the LincRNA Classifier based on Selected Features (linc-SF) was constructed by support vector machine (SVM) based on the optimized feature subset. The performance of this classifier was further evaluated by predicting lincRNAs from two independent lincRNA sets. Because the recognition rates for the two lincRNA sets were 100% and 99.8%, the linc-SF was found to be effective for the prediction of human lincRNAs.

  15. Investigating the Department of Defense’s Implementation of Passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    truck, since there is a bar code, the bar code gets scanned . The barcode is linked to the satellite tracking unit on the truck, and customers can...on that truck, since they see a bar code, they scan the bar code. Link the barcode to the satellite tracking unit on the truck. So you can drill down...world someone has to get the carton, turn it around 2 or so times to locate the bar code and scan it with the barcode reader. In the new world, you

  16. Feasibility and validation of virtual autopsy for dental identification using the Interpol dental codes.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ademir; Thevissen, Patrick; Coudyzer, Walter; Develter, Wim; Van de Voorde, Wim; Oyen, Raymond; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Willems, Guy

    2013-05-01

    Virtual autopsy is a medical imaging technique, using full body computed tomography (CT), allowing for a noninvasive and permanent observation of all body parts. For dental identification clinically and radiologically observed ante-mortem (AM) and post-mortem (PM) oral identifiers are compared. The study aimed to verify if a PM dental charting can be performed on virtual reconstructions of full-body CT's using the Interpol dental codes. A sample of 103 PM full-body CT's was collected from the forensic autopsy files of the Department of Forensic Medicine University Hospitals, KU Leuven, Belgium. For validation purposes, 3 of these bodies underwent a complete dental autopsy, a dental radiological and a full-body CT examination. The bodies were scanned in a Siemens Definition Flash CT Scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). The images were examined on 8- and 12-bit screen resolution as three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and as axial, coronal and sagittal slices. InSpace(®) (Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany) software was used for 3D reconstruction. The dental identifiers were charted on pink PM Interpol forms (F1, F2), using the related dental codes. Optimal dental charting was obtained by combining observations on 3D reconstructions and CT slices. It was not feasible to differentiate between different kinds of dental restoration materials. The 12-bit resolution enabled to collect more detailed evidences, mainly related to positions within a tooth. Oral identifiers, not implemented in the Interpol dental coding were observed. Amongst these, the observed (3D) morphological features of dental and maxillofacial structures are important identifiers. The latter can become particularly more relevant towards the future, not only because of the inherent spatial features, yet also because of the increasing preventive dental treatment, and the decreasing application of dental restorations. In conclusion, PM full-body CT examinations need to be implemented in the

  17. Identification of transcriptional regulatory nodes in soybean defense networks using transient co-transactivation assays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yujie; Du, Haiping; Yang, Qing; Yu, Deyue

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to major environmental stressors, such as insect feeding, not only occur via the functions of defense genes but also involve a series of regulatory factors. Our previous transcriptome studies proposed that, in addition to two defense-related genes, GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR, a high proportion of transcription factors (TFs) participate in the incompatible soybean-common cutworm interaction networks. However, the regulatory mechanisms and effects of these TFs on those induced defense-related genes remain unknown. In the present work, we isolated and identified 12 genes encoding MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, and DREB TFs from a common cutworm-induced cDNA library of a resistant soybean line. Sequence analysis of the promoters of three co-expressed genes, including GmVSPα, GmVSPβ, and GmN:IFR, revealed the enrichment of various TF-binding sites for defense and stress responses. To further identify the regulatory nodes composed of these TFs and defense gene promoters, we performed extensive transient co-transactivation assays to directly test the transcriptional activity of the 12 TFs binding at different levels to the three co-expressed gene promoters. The results showed that all 12 TFs were able to transactivate the GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR promoters. GmbZIP110 and GmMYB75 functioned as distinct regulators of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression, respectively, while GmWRKY39 acted as a common central regulator of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression. These corresponding TFs play crucial roles in coordinated plant defense regulation, which provides valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in insect-induced transcriptional regulation in soybean. More importantly, the identified TFs and suitable promoters can be used to engineer insect-resistant plants in molecular breeding studies. PMID:26579162

  18. Identification of transcriptional regulatory nodes in soybean defense networks using transient co-transactivation assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yujie; Du, Haiping; Yang, Qing; Yu, Deyue

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to major environmental stressors, such as insect feeding, not only occur via the functions of defense genes but also involve a series of regulatory factors. Our previous transcriptome studies proposed that, in addition to two defense-related genes, GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR, a high proportion of transcription factors (TFs) participate in the incompatible soybean-common cutworm interaction networks. However, the regulatory mechanisms and effects of these TFs on those induced defense-related genes remain unknown. In the present work, we isolated and identified 12 genes encoding MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, and DREB TFs from a common cutworm-induced cDNA library of a resistant soybean line. Sequence analysis of the promoters of three co-expressed genes, including GmVSPα, GmVSPβ, and GmN:IFR, revealed the enrichment of various TF-binding sites for defense and stress responses. To further identify the regulatory nodes composed of these TFs and defense gene promoters, we performed extensive transient co-transactivation assays to directly test the transcriptional activity of the 12 TFs binding at different levels to the three co-expressed gene promoters. The results showed that all 12 TFs were able to transactivate the GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR promoters. GmbZIP110 and GmMYB75 functioned as distinct regulators of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression, respectively, while GmWRKY39 acted as a common central regulator of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression. These corresponding TFs play crucial roles in coordinated plant defense regulation, which provides valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in insect-induced transcriptional regulation in soybean. More importantly, the identified TFs and suitable promoters can be used to engineer insect-resistant plants in molecular breeding studies.

  19. Computational identification of genetic subnetwork modules associated with maize defense response to Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Maize, a crop of global significance, is vulnerable to a variety of biotic stresses resulting in economic losses. Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is one of the key fungal pathogens of maize, causing ear rots and stalk rots. To better understand the genetic mechanisms involved in maize defense as well as F. verticillioides virulence, a systematic investigation of the host-pathogen interaction is needed. The aim of this study was to computationally identify potential maize subnetwork modules associated with its defense response against F. verticillioides. Results We obtained time-course RNA-seq data from B73 maize inoculated with wild type F. verticillioides and a loss-of-virulence mutant, and subsequently established a computational pipeline for network-based comparative analysis. Specifically, we first analyzed the RNA-seq data by a cointegration-correlation-expression approach, where maize genes were jointly analyzed with known F. verticillioides virulence genes to find candidate maize genes likely associated with the defense mechanism. We predicted maize co-expression networks around the selected maize candidate genes based on partial correlation, and subsequently searched for subnetwork modules that were differentially activated when inoculated with two different fungal strains. Based on our analysis pipeline, we identified four potential maize defense subnetwork modules. Two were directly associated with maize defense response and were associated with significant GO terms such as GO:0009817 (defense response to fungus) and GO:0009620 (response to fungus). The other two predicted modules were indirectly involved in the defense response, where the most significant GO terms associated with these modules were GO:0046914 (transition metal ion binding) and GO:0046686 (response to cadmium ion). Conclusion Through our RNA-seq data analysis, we have shown that a network-based approach can enhance our understanding of the

  20. 76 FR 14641 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... any items being purchased that are critical safety items so that the proper risk-based surveillance... This DFARS case was initiated at the request of the Defense Contract Management Agency so that when DoD requiring activities identify procurements involving critical safety items, the buying activities...

  1. 76 FR 9714 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Passive Radio Frequency Identification (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... relating to the use of passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). DATES: Comments on the proposed rule...) to revise DFARS 211.275, Radio frequency identification, to-- --Clarify that the RFID requirement pertains solely to ``passive RFID''; --Supply a link to a web site in lieu of individually listing...

  2. 76 FR 58142 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Passive Radio Frequency Identification (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... relating to the use of passive radio frequency identification (RFID). DATES: Effective Date: September 20... passive radio frequency identification (RFID). II. Discussion and Analysis DoD received comments from two...: A respondent stated that RFID tags will play an expanded role in inventory management and...

  3. Identification and Role of Regulatory Non-Coding RNAs in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Izar, Benjamin; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Hain, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial regulatory non-coding RNAs control numerous mRNA targets that direct a plethora of biological processes, such as the adaption to environmental changes, growth and virulence. Recently developed high-throughput techniques, such as genomic tiling arrays and RNA-Seq have allowed investigating prokaryotic cis- and trans-acting regulatory RNAs, including sRNAs, asRNAs, untranslated regions (UTR) and riboswitches. As a result, we obtained a more comprehensive view on the complexity and plasticity of the prokaryotic genome biology. Listeria monocytogenes was utilized as a model system for intracellular pathogenic bacteria in several studies, which revealed the presence of about 180 regulatory RNAs in the listerial genome. A regulatory role of non-coding RNAs in survival, virulence and adaptation mechanisms of L. monocytogenes was confirmed in subsequent experiments, thus, providing insight into a multifaceted modulatory function of RNA/mRNA interference. In this review, we discuss the identification of regulatory RNAs by high-throughput techniques and in their functional role in L. monocytogenes. PMID:21954346

  4. Department of Defense Standard Practice: Identification Marking of U.S. Military Property

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE MIL- STD -130L w/CHANGE 1 20 December 2004 SUPERSEDING MIL- STD -130L 10 October 2003 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Superseding Mil- STD -130L, 10 October 2003 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 MIL- STD -130L ii FOREWORD FOREWORD 1. This standard is approved for use by all

  5. China’s Air Defense Identification Zone: Concept, Issues at Stake and Regional Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-23

    By Alex Calvo Introduction. News in the Indian-Pacific Ocean Region have been dominated in the past couple of weeks by Beijing’s 23 November...News in the Indian-Pacific Ocean Region have been dominated in the past couple of weeks by Beijing’s 23 November announcement of an Air Defense...and “This is 86 Nicholas Szechenyi, Victor Cha, Bonnie S. Glaser , Michael J. Green, and

  6. Identification of Long Non-Coding RNAs Deregulated in Multiple Myeloma Cells Resistant to Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Ehsan; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Driscoll, James J.

    2016-01-01

    While the clinical benefit of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) for multiple myeloma (MM) treatment remains unchallenged, dose-limiting toxicities and the inevitable emergence of drug resistance limit their long-term utility. Disease eradication is compromised by drug resistance that is either present de novo or therapy-induced, which accounts for the majority of tumor relapses and MM-related deaths. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a broad class of RNA molecules, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), that do not encode proteins but play a major role in regulating the fundamental cellular processes that control cancer initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. While lncRNAs have recently attracted significant attention as therapeutic targets to potentially improve cancer treatment, identification of lncRNAs that are deregulated in cells resistant to PIs has not been previously addressed. We have modeled drug resistance by generating three MM cell lines with acquired resistance to either bortezomib, carfilzomib, or ixazomib. Genome-wide profiling identified lncRNAs that were significantly deregulated in all three PI-resistant cell lines relative to the drug-sensitive parental cell line. Strikingly, certain lncRNAs deregulated in the three PI-resistant cell lines were also deregulated in MM plasma cells isolated from newly diagnosed patients compared to healthy plasma cells. Taken together, these preliminary studies strongly suggest that lncRNAs represent potential therapeutic targets to prevent or overcome drug resistance. More investigations are ongoing to expand these initial studies in a greater number of MM patients to better define lncRNAs signatures that contribute to PI resistance in MM. PMID:27782060

  7. Evidence for a Nest Defense Pheromone in Bald-Faced Hornets, Dolichovespula Maculata, and Identification of Components.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Sebastian Ibarra; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Derstine, Nathan; McCann, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    In eusocial insects like Bald-faced hornets, Dolichovespula maculata, nest defense is essential because nests contain a large number of protein-rich larvae and pupae, and thus are attractive to nest predators. Our objectives were to investigate whether D. maculata exhibit pheromone-mediated nest defense, and to identify and field test any pheromone components. We tested for pheromone-mediated nest defense behavior of D. maculata by placing a paired box-apparatus near the entrance of D. maculata nests, and treating both boxes with a solvent control, or one of the two boxes with a solvent control and the other with either venom sac extract, the putative source of nest defense pheromone, or synthetic pheromone. The sound impulses caused by nest mates attempting to sting or strike the boxes were recorded for 3 min. Compared to the double-control treatment, the number of strikes increased 27-fold when one of the two boxes was treated with venom sac extract, providing evidence for an alarm response. The box treated with venom sac extract also induced a significantly greater proportion of strikes than the corresponding control box, providing evidence for a target-oriented response. Analyzing venom sac extract by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of seven candidate pheromone components: (a) dimethylaminoethanol, (b) dimethylamino ethyl acetate, (c) 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, (d) N-3-methylbutylacetamide, (e) 2-heptadecanone, (f) (Z)-8-heptadecen-2-one, and (g) (Z)-10-nonadecen-2-one. Testing in paired-box bioassays blends of the nitrogen-containing volatile components a-d, the less volatile ketones e-g, or both (a-g), indicated that a-d primarily have an alarm function. The ketones e-g, in contrast, induced target-oriented responses, possibly marking the box, or potential nest predators, for guided and concerted attacks, or enhancing the alarm-inducing effect of the volatile pheromone components

  8. Identification of Drosophila mutants altering defense of and endurance to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Janelle S; Freitag, Nancy; Schneider, David S

    2008-03-01

    We extended the use of Drosophila beyond being a model for signaling pathways required for pattern recognition immune signaling and show that the fly can be used to identify genes required for pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. We performed a forward genetic screen to identify Drosophila mutations altering sensitivity to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. We recovered 18 mutants with increased susceptibility to infection, none of which were previously shown to function in a Drosophila immune response. Using secondary screens, we divided these mutants into two groups: In the first group, mutants have reduced endurance to infections but show no change in bacterial growth. This is a new fly immunity phenotype that is not commonly studied. In the second group, mutants have a typical defense defect in which bacterial growth is increased and survival is decreased. By further challenging mutant flies with L. monocytogenes mutants, we identified subgroups of fly mutants that affect specific stages of the L. monocytogenes life cycle, exit from the vacuole, or actin-based movement. There is no overlap between our genes and the hundreds of genes identified in Drosophila S2 cells fighting L. monocytogenes infection, using genomewide RNAi screens in vitro. By using a whole-animal model and screening for host survival, we revealed genes involved in physiologies different from those that were found in previous screens, which all had defects in defensive immune signaling.

  9. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    is located in Sacramento, California, which positions it close to the Silicon Valley to better support its mission. DMEA’s mission is to provide...grouped in the category of automatic identification technologies, along with barcodes, magnetic stripes, smart cards and biometrics . RFID uses

  10. Department of Defense picture archiving and communication system acceptance testing: results and identification of problem components.

    PubMed

    Allison, Scott A; Sweet, Clifford F; Beall, Douglas P; Lewis, Thomas E; Monroe, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The PACS implementation process is complicated requiring a tremendous amount of time, resources, and planning. The Department of Defense (DOD) has significant experience in developing and refining PACS acceptance testing (AT) protocols that assure contract compliance, clinical safety, and functionality. The DOD's AT experience under the initial Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support System contract led to the current Digital Imaging Network-Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (DIN-PACS) contract AT protocol. To identify the most common system and component deficiencies under the current DIN-PACS AT protocol, 14 tri-service sites were evaluated during 1998-2000. Sixteen system deficiency citations with 154 separate types of limitations were noted with problems involving the workstation, interfaces, and the Radiology Information System comprising more than 50% of the citations. Larger PACS deployments were associated with a higher number of deficiencies. The most commonly cited systems deficiencies were among the most expensive components of the PACS.

  11. Identification of Synthetic and Natural Host Defense Peptides with Leishmanicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marr, A. K.; Cen, S.; Hancock, R. E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are a major public health problem worldwide. Effective treatment of leishmaniasis is hampered by the high incidence of adverse effects to traditional drug therapy and the emergence of resistance to current therapeutics. A vaccine is currently not available. Host defense peptides have been investigated as novel therapeutic agents against a wide range of pathogens. Here we demonstrate that the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the three synthetic peptides E6, L-1018, and RI-1018 exhibit leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes and intramacrophage amastigotes of Leishmania donovani and Leishmania major. We also report that the Leishmania protease/virulence factor GP63 confers protection to Leishmania from the cytolytic properties of all l-form peptides (E6, L-1018, and LL-37) but not the d-form peptide RI-1018. The results suggest that RI-1018, E6, and LL-37 are promising peptides to develop further into components for antileishmanial therapy. PMID:26883699

  12. Non-Logistics Bar Code Uses for the Department of Defense: Illustrative Applications for the Naval Postgraduate School

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    late 1960’s through about 1976, engineers in many different companies developed their own symbology. Figure D. 1 shows selections from this...application by Bruce Dobras dated March 29, 1972 (resulting in U.S. Patent 3784792 reissued as RE. 28198). A variation of Codabar was among the original...McDonald, R.A., "Bar Code Systems Enhance Productivity of Computer Systems with Real-time Mode," Industrial Engineering , Vol. 17, No. 11, November

  13. Systematic Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqian; Cheng, Tingcai; Liu, Chun; Liu, Duolian; Zhang, Quan; Long, Renwen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in various biological processes. However, to date, no systematic characterization of lncRNAs has been reported in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In the present study, we generated eighteen RNA-seq datasets with relatively high depth. Using an in-house designed lncRNA identification pipeline, 11,810 lncRNAs were identified for 5,556 loci. Among these lncRNAs, 474 transcripts were intronic lncRNAs (ilncRNAs), 6,250 transcripts were intergenic lncRNAs (lincRNAs), and 5,086 were natural antisense lncRNAs (lncNATs). Compared with protein-coding mRNAs, silkworm lncRNAs are shorter in terms of full length but longer in terms of exon and intron length. In addition, lncRNAs exhibit a lower level of sequence conservation, more repeat sequences overlapped and higher tissue specificity than protein-coding mRNAs in the silkworm. We found that 69 lncRNA transcripts from 33 gene loci may function as miRNA precursors, and 104 lncRNA transcripts from 72 gene loci may act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). In total, 49.47% of all gene loci (2,749/5,556) for which lncRNAs were identified showed sex-biased expression. Co-expression network analysis resulted in 19 modules, 12 of which revealed relatively high tissue specificity. The highlighted darkgoldenrod module was specifically associated with middle and posterior silk glands, and the hub lncRNAs within this module were co-expressed with proteins involved in translation, translocation, and secretory processes, suggesting that these hub lncRNAs may function as regulators of the biosynthesis, translocation, and secretion of silk proteins. This study presents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of silkworm lncRNAs and provides an invaluable resource for genetic, evolutionary, and genomic studies of B. mori.

  14. Systematic Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuqian; Cheng, Tingcai; Liu, Chun; Liu, Duolian; Zhang, Quan; Long, Renwen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in various biological processes. However, to date, no systematic characterization of lncRNAs has been reported in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In the present study, we generated eighteen RNA-seq datasets with relatively high depth. Using an in-house designed lncRNA identification pipeline, 11,810 lncRNAs were identified for 5,556 loci. Among these lncRNAs, 474 transcripts were intronic lncRNAs (ilncRNAs), 6,250 transcripts were intergenic lncRNAs (lincRNAs), and 5,086 were natural antisense lncRNAs (lncNATs). Compared with protein-coding mRNAs, silkworm lncRNAs are shorter in terms of full length but longer in terms of exon and intron length. In addition, lncRNAs exhibit a lower level of sequence conservation, more repeat sequences overlapped and higher tissue specificity than protein-coding mRNAs in the silkworm. We found that 69 lncRNA transcripts from 33 gene loci may function as miRNA precursors, and 104 lncRNA transcripts from 72 gene loci may act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). In total, 49.47% of all gene loci (2,749/5,556) for which lncRNAs were identified showed sex-biased expression. Co-expression network analysis resulted in 19 modules, 12 of which revealed relatively high tissue specificity. The highlighted darkgoldenrod module was specifically associated with middle and posterior silk glands, and the hub lncRNAs within this module were co-expressed with proteins involved in translation, translocation, and secretory processes, suggesting that these hub lncRNAs may function as regulators of the biosynthesis, translocation, and secretion of silk proteins. This study presents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of silkworm lncRNAs and provides an invaluable resource for genetic, evolutionary, and genomic studies of B. mori. PMID:26771876

  15. The identification and characterization of non-coding and coding RNAs and their modified nucleosides by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ribonucleic acids (RNA) by mass spectrometry has been a valuable analytical approach for more than 25 years. In fact, mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for the analysis of modified nucleosides from RNA isolated out of biological samples. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in both nucleoside and oligonucleotide mass spectral analysis. Applications of mass spectrometry in the identification, characterization and quantification of modified nucleosides are discussed. At the oligonucleotide level, advances in modern mass spectrometry approaches combined with the standard RNA modification mapping protocol enable the characterization of RNAs of varying lengths ranging from low molecular weight short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the extremely large 23 S rRNAs. New variations and improvements to this protocol are reviewed, including top-down strategies, as these developments now enable qualitative and quantitative measurements of RNA modification patterns in a variety of biological systems. PMID:25616408

  16. The defensive secretion of Carabus lefebvrei Dejean 1826 pupa (Coleoptera, Carabidae): gland ultrastructure and chemical identification.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Dalpozzo, Renato; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2009-05-01

    This study documents the defensive function of flavored humor secreted by the abdominal glands of Carabus lefebvrei pupae. The morphology and the ultrastructure of these glands were described and the volatile compounds of glands secretion were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The ultrastructure analysis shows an acinose complex formed by about 50 clusters. Each cluster has 20 glandular units and the unit-composed of one secretory and one canal cell lying along a duct-belongs to the class 3 cell type of Quennedey (1998). In the cytoplasm, the secretory cell contains abundant rough endoplasmatic reticula, glycogen granules, numerous mitochondria, and many well-developed Golgi complexes producing electron-dense secretory granules. Mitochondria are large, elongated, and often adjoining electronlucent vesicles. The kind and the origin of secretory granules varying in size and density were discussed. The chemical analysis of the gland secretion revealed the presence of a mixture of low molecular weight terpenes, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and carboxylic acids. Monoterpenes, especially linalool, were the major products. We supposed that ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and carboxylic acids have a deterrent function against the predators and monoterpenes provide a prophylaxis function against pathogens.

  17. Identification and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) defense responses.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Folta, Kevin M; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria spp) is an emerging model for the development of basic genomics and recombinant DNA studies among rosaceous crops. Functional genomic and molecular studies involve relative quantification of gene expression under experimental conditions of interest. Accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of an optimal reference control transcript. There is no information available on validated endogenous reference genes for use in studies testing strawberry-pathogen interactions. Thirteen potential pre-selected strawberry reference genes were tested against different tissues, strawberry cultivars, biotic stresses, ripening and senescent conditions, and SA/JA treatments. Evaluation of reference candidate's suitability was analyzed by five different methodologies, and information was merged to identify best reference transcripts. A combination of all five methods was used for selective classification of reference genes. The resulting superior reference genes, FaRIB413, FaACTIN, FaEF1α and FaGAPDH2 are strongly recommended as control genes for relative quantification of gene expression in strawberry. This report constitutes the first systematic study to identify and validate optimal reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in strawberry plant defense response studies.

  18. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Transcript Normalization in Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Folta, Kevin M.; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria spp) is an emerging model for the development of basic genomics and recombinant DNA studies among rosaceous crops. Functional genomic and molecular studies involve relative quantification of gene expression under experimental conditions of interest. Accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of an optimal reference control transcript. There is no information available on validated endogenous reference genes for use in studies testing strawberry-pathogen interactions. Thirteen potential pre-selected strawberry reference genes were tested against different tissues, strawberry cultivars, biotic stresses, ripening and senescent conditions, and SA/JA treatments. Evaluation of reference candidate’s suitability was analyzed by five different methodologies, and information was merged to identify best reference transcripts. A combination of all five methods was used for selective classification of reference genes. The resulting superior reference genes, FaRIB413, FaACTIN, FaEF1α and FaGAPDH2 are strongly recommended as control genes for relative quantification of gene expression in strawberry. This report constitutes the first systematic study to identify and validate optimal reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in strawberry plant defense response studies. PMID:23940602

  19. CSTminer: a web tool for the identification of coding and noncoding conserved sequence tags through cross-species genome comparison.

    PubMed

    Castrignanò, Tiziana; Canali, Alessandro; Grillo, Giorgio; Liuni, Sabino; Mignone, Flavio; Pesole, Graziano

    2004-07-01

    The identification and characterization of genome tracts that are highly conserved across species during evolution may contribute significantly to the functional annotation of whole-genome sequences. Indeed, such sequences are likely to correspond to known or unknown coding exons or regulatory motifs. Here, we present a web server implementing a previously developed algorithm that, by comparing user-submitted genome sequences, is able to identify statistically significant conserved blocks and assess their coding or noncoding nature through the measure of a coding potential score. The web tool, available at http://www.caspur.it/CSTminer/, is dynamically interconnected with the Ensembl genome resources and produces a graphical output showing a map of detected conserved sequences and annotated gene features.

  20. Violations of Temporary Flight Restrictions and Air Defense Identification Zones: An Analysis of Airspace Violations and Pilot Report Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuschlag, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This document provides the results from a study into the apparent factors and causes of violations of restricted airspace, particularly temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) and air defense identification zones (ADIZs). By illuminating the reasons for these violations, this study aims to take the first step towards reducing them. The study assesses the basic characteristics of restricted airspace violations as well as the probable causes and factors contributing to violations. Results from the study imply most violations occur where the restriction has been in place for a significant amount of time prior to the violation. Additionally, the study results imply most violations are not due to the pilot simply being unaware of the airspace at the time of violation. In most violations, pilots are aware of the presence of the restricted airspace but have incorrect information about it, namely, its exact boundaries or procedures for authorized penetration. These results imply that the best means to reduce violations of restricted airspace is to improve the effectiveness of providing pilots the details required to avoid the airspace.

  1. Genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids in eukaryotes by non-coding DNA occurs through CRISPR-like mechanisms in the cytosol and the bodyguard protection in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the protective function of the abundant non-coding DNA in the eukaryotic genome is discussed from the perspective of genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids. Peripheral non-coding DNA has been proposed to act as a bodyguard that protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. In the proposed mechanism of protection, the radicals generated by water radiolysis in the cytosol and IR energy are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin; then, the DNA damage sites in the heterochromatin are removed and expelled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes, most likely through the formation of extrachromosomal circular DNA. To strengthen this hypothesis, this review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the protective function of non-coding DNA against exogenous nucleic acids. Based on these data, I hypothesize herein about the presence of an additional line of defense formed by small RNAs in the cytosol in addition to their bodyguard protection mechanism in the nucleus. Therefore, exogenous nucleic acids may be initially inactivated in the cytosol by small RNAs generated from non-coding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. Exogenous nucleic acids may enter the nucleus, where some are absorbed and/or blocked by heterochromatin and others integrate into chromosomes. The integrated fragments and the sites of DNA damage are removed by repetitive non-coding DNA elements in the heterochromatin and excluded from the nucleus. Therefore, the normal eukaryotic genome and the central protein-coding sequences are triply protected by non-coding DNA against invasion by exogenous nucleic acids. This review provides evidence supporting the protective role of non-coding DNA in genome defense.

  2. Identification of Genes in Thuja plicata Foliar Terpenoid Defenses1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Adam J.; Hall, Dawn E.; Mortimer, Leanne; Abercromby, Shelley; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Jörg; Russell, John; Mattsson, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Thuja plicata (western redcedar) is a long-lived conifer species whose foliage is rarely affected by disease or insect pests, but can be severely damaged by ungulate browsing. Deterrence to browsing correlates with high foliar levels of terpenoids, in particular the monoterpenoid α-thujone. Here, we set out to identify genes whose products may be involved in the production of α-thujone and other terpenoids in this species. First, we generated a foliar transcriptome database from which to draw candidate genes. Second, we mapped the storage of thujones and other terpenoids to foliar glands. Third, we used global expression profiling to identify more than 600 genes that are expressed at high levels in foliage with glands, but can either not be detected or are expressed at low levels in a natural variant lacking foliar glands. Fourth, we used in situ RNA hybridization to map the expression of a putative monoterpene synthase to the epithelium of glands and used enzyme assays with recombinant protein of the same gene to show that it produces sabinene, the monoterpene precursor of α-thujone. Finally, we identified candidate genes with predicted enzymatic functions for the conversion of sabinene to α-thujone. Taken together, this approach generated both general resources and detailed functional characterization in the identification of genes of foliar terpenoid biosynthesis in T. plicata. PMID:23388118

  3. Genome analysis of poplar LRR-RLP gene clusters reveals RISP, a defense-related gene coding a candidate endogenous peptide elicitor

    PubMed Central

    Petre, Benjamin; Hacquard, Stéphane; Duplessis, Sébastien; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In plants, cell-surface receptors control immunity and development through the recognition of extracellular ligands. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) constitute a large multigene family of cell-surface receptors. Although this family has been intensively studied, a limited number of ligands has been identified so far, mostly because methods used for their identification and characterization are complex and fastidious. In this study, we combined genome and transcriptome analyses to describe the LRR-RLP gene family in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). In total, 82 LRR-RLP genes have been identified in P. trichocarpa genome, among which 66 are organized in clusters of up to seven members. In these clusters, LRR-RLP genes are interspersed by orphan, poplar-specific genes encoding small proteins of unknown function (SPUFs). In particular, the nine largest clusters of LRR-RLP genes (47 LRR-RLPs) include 71 SPUF genes that account for 59% of the non-LRR-RLP gene content within these clusters. Forty-four LRR-RLP and 55 SPUF genes are expressed in poplar leaves, mostly at low levels, except for members of some clusters that show higher and sometimes coordinated expression levels. Notably, wounding of poplar leaves strongly induced the expression of a defense SPUF gene named Rust-Induced Secreted protein (RISP) that has been previously reported as a marker of poplar defense responses. Interestingly, we show that the RISP-associated LRR-RLP gene is highly expressed in poplar leaves and slightly induced by wounding. Both gene promoters share a highly conserved region of ~300 nucleotides. This led us to hypothesize that the corresponding pair of proteins could be involved in poplar immunity, possibly as a ligand/receptor couple. In conclusion, we speculate that some poplar SPUFs, such as RISP, represent candidate endogenous peptide ligands of the associated LRR-RLPs and we discuss how to investigate further this hypothesis. PMID:24734035

  4. Identification and analysis of mouse non-coding RNA using transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhui; Liu, Wanfei; Zeng, Jingyao; Liu, Shoucheng; Tan, Xinyu; Aljohi, Hasanawad; Hu, Songnian

    2016-06-01

    Transcripts are expressed spatially and temporally and they are very complicated, precise and specific; however, most studies are focused on protein-coding related genes. Recently, massively parallel cDNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged to be a new and promising tool for transcriptome research, and numbers of non-coding RNAs, especially lincRNAs, have been widely identified and well characterized as important regulators of diverse biological processes. In this study, we used ultra-deep RNA-seq data from 15 mouse tissues to study the diversity and dynamic of non-coding RNAs in mouse. Using our own criteria, we identified totally 16,249 non-coding genes (21,569 non-coding RNAs) in mouse. We annotated these non-coding RNAs by diverse properties and found non-coding RNAs are generally shorter, have fewer exons, express in lower level and are more strikingly tissue-specific compared with protein-coding genes. Moreover, these non-coding RNAs show significant enrichment with transcriptional initiation and elongation signals including histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3), RNAPII binding sites and CAGE tags. The gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) result revealed several sets of lincRNAs associated with diverse biological processes such as immune effector process, muscle development and sexual reproduction. Taken together, this study provides a more comprehensive annotation of mouse non-coding RNAs and gives an opportunity for future functional and evolutionary study of mouse non-coding RNAs.

  5. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  6. Identification of long non-coding RNAs biomarkers for early diagnosis of myocardial infarction from the dysregulated coding-non-coding co-expression network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chaoyu; Jiang, Hao; Sun, Zhiguo; Gui, Yifang; Xia, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been shown as novel promising diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for various cancers. However, lncRNA expression patterns and their predictive value in early diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) have not been systematically investigated. In our study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of lncRNA expression profiles in MI and found altered lncRNA expression pattern in MI compared to healthy samples. We then constructed a lncRNA-mRNA dysregulation network (DLMCEN) by integrating aberrant lncRNAs, mRNAs and their co-dysregulation relationships, and found that some of mRNAs were previously reported to be involved in cardiovascular disease, suggesting the functional roles of dysregulated lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of MI. Therefore, using support vector machine (SVM) and leave one out cross-validation (LOOCV), we developed a 9-lncRNA signature (termed 9LncSigAMI) from the discovery cohort which could distinguish MI patients from healthy samples with accuracy of 95.96%, sensitivity of 93.88% and specificity of 98%, and validated its predictive power in early diagnosis of MI in another completely independent cohort. Functional analysis demonstrated that these nine lncRNA biomarkers in the 9LncSigAMI may be involved in myocardial innate immune and inflammatory response, and their deregulation may lead to the dysfunction of the inflammatory and immune system contributing to MI recurrence. With prospective validation, the 9LncSigAMI identified by our work will provide additional diagnostic information beyond other known clinical parameters, and increase the understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of MI. PMID:27634901

  7. TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-03-01

    The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given.

  8. Validity of ICD-9-CM codes for the identification of complications related to central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Tukey, Melissa H; Borzecki, Ann M; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2015-01-01

    Two complications of central venous catheterization (CVC), iatrogenic pneumothorax and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), have dedicated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Despite increasing use of ICD-9-CM codes for research and pay-for-performance purposes, their validity for detecting complications of CVC has not been established. Complications of CVCs placed between July 2010 and December 2011 were identified by ICD-9-CM codes in discharge records from a single hospital and compared with those revealed by medical record abstraction. The ICD-9-CM code for iatrogenic pneumothorax had a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.5%. The ICD-9-CM codes for CLABSI had a sensitivity of 33.3%, specificity of 99.0%, PPV of 28.6%, and NPV of 99.2%. The low sensitivity and variable PPV of ICD-9-CM codes for detection of complications of CVC raise concerns about their use for research or pay-for-performance purposes.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs from Mulberry (Morus notabilis) RNA-seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaobo; Sun, Liang; Luo, Haitao; Ma, Qingguo; Zhao, Yi; Pei, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Numerous sources of evidence suggest that most of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed into protein-coding mRNAs and also into a large number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), a group consisting of ncRNAs longer than 200 nucleotides, have been found to play critical roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic gene regulation across all kingdoms of life. However, lncRNAs and their regulatory roles remain poorly characterized in plants, especially in woody plants. In this paper, we used a computational approach to identify novel lncRNAs from a published RNA-seq data set and analyzed their sequences and expression patterns. In total, 1133 novel lncRNAs were identified in mulberry, and 106 of these lncRNAs displayed a predominant tissue-specific expression in the five major tissues investigated. Additionally, functional predictions revealed that tissue-specific lncRNAs adjacent to protein-coding genes might play important regulatory roles in the development of floral organ and root in mulberry. The pipeline used in this study would be useful for the identification of lncRNAs obtained from other deep sequencing data. Furthermore, the predicted lncRNAs would be beneficial towards an understanding of the variations in gene expression in plants. PMID:26938562

  10. COME: a robust coding potential calculation tool for lncRNA identification and characterization based on multiple features

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Long; Xu, Zhiyu; Hu, Boqin; Lu, Zhi John

    2017-01-01

    Recent genomic studies suggest that novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are specifically expressed and far outnumber annotated lncRNA sequences. To identify and characterize novel lncRNAs in RNA sequencing data from new samples, we have developed COME, a coding potential calculation tool based on multiple features. It integrates multiple sequence-derived and experiment-based features using a decompose–compose method, which makes it more accurate and robust than other well-known tools. We also showed that COME was able to substantially improve the consistency of predication results from other coding potential calculators. Moreover, COME annotates and characterizes each predicted lncRNA transcript with multiple lines of supporting evidence, which are not provided by other tools. Remarkably, we found that one subgroup of lncRNAs classified by such supporting features (i.e. conserved local RNA secondary structure) was highly enriched in a well-validated database (lncRNAdb). We further found that the conserved structural domains on lncRNAs had better chance than other RNA regions to interact with RNA binding proteins, based on the recent eCLIP-seq data in human, indicating their potential regulatory roles. Overall, we present COME as an accurate, robust and multiple-feature supported method for the identification and characterization of novel lncRNAs. The software implementation is available at https://github.com/lulab/COME. PMID:27608726

  11. Identification of evolutionarily conserved non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in human coding sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Ivaylo P.; Firth, Andrew E.; Michel, Audrey M.; Atkins, John F.; Baranov, Pavel V.

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, it is generally assumed that translation initiation occurs at the AUG codon closest to the messenger RNA 5′ cap. However, in certain cases, initiation can occur at codons differing from AUG by a single nucleotide, especially the codons CUG, UUG, GUG, ACG, AUA and AUU. While non-AUG initiation has been experimentally verified for a handful of human genes, the full extent to which this phenomenon is utilized—both for increased coding capacity and potentially also for novel regulatory mechanisms—remains unclear. To address this issue, and hence to improve the quality of existing coding sequence annotations, we developed a methodology based on phylogenetic analysis of predicted 5′ untranslated regions from orthologous genes. We use evolutionary signatures of protein-coding sequences as an indicator of translation initiation upstream of annotated coding sequences. Our search identified novel conserved potential non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in 42 human genes including VANGL2, FGFR1, KCNN4, TRPV6, HDGF, CITED2, EIF4G3 and NTF3, and also affirmed the conservation of known non-AUG-initiated extensions in 17 other genes. In several instances, we have been able to obtain independent experimental evidence of the expression of non-AUG-initiated products from the previously published literature and ribosome profiling data. PMID:21266472

  12. Identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs in rainbow trout eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are in general considered as a diverse class of transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that structurally resemble mRNAs but do not encode proteins. Recent advances in RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and bioinformatics methods have provided an opportunity to indentify and ana...

  13. Key for protein coding sequences identification: computer analysis of codon strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, F; Gabarro-Arpa, J; Ehrlich, R; Reiss, C

    1982-01-01

    The signal qualifying an AUG or GUG as an initiator in mRNAs processed by E. coli ribosomes is not found to be a systematic, literal homology sequence. In contrast, stability analysis reveals that initiators always occur within nucleic acid domains of low stability, for which a high A/U content is observed. Since no aminoacid selection pressure can be detected at N-termini of the proteins, the A/U enrichment results from a biased usage of the code degeneracy. A computer analysis is presented which allows easy detection of the codon strategy. N-terminal codons carry rather systematically A or U in third position, which suggests a mechanism for translation initiation and helps to detect protein coding sequences in sequenced DNA. PMID:7038623

  14. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianqin; Wu, Bin; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus best-known for its medicinal activities. We have previously sequenced its genome and annotated the protein coding genes. However, long non-coding RNAs in G. lucidum genome have not been analyzed. In this study, we have identified and characterized long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNA) in G. lucidum systematically. We developed a computational pipeline, which was used to analyze RNA-Seq data derived from G. lucidum samples collected from three developmental stages. A total of 402 lincRNA candidates were identified, with an average length of 609 bp. Analysis of their adjacent protein-coding genes (apcGenes) revealed that 46 apcGenes belong to the pathways of triterpenoid biosynthesis and lignin degradation, or families of cytochrome P450, mating type B genes, and carbohydrate-active enzymes. To determine if lincRNAs and these apcGenes have any interactions, the corresponding pairs of lincRNAs and apcGenes were analyzed in detail. We developed a modified 3' RACE method to analyze the transcriptional direction of a transcript. Among the 46 lincRNAs, 37 were found unidirectionally transcribed, and 9 were found bidirectionally transcribed. The expression profiles of 16 of these 37 lincRNAs were found to be highly correlated with those of the apcGenes across the three developmental stages. Among them, 11 are positively correlated (r>0.8) and 5 are negatively correlated (r<-0.8). The co-localization and co-expression of lincRNAs and those apcGenes playing important functions is consistent with the notion that lincRNAs might be important regulators for cellular processes. In summary, this represents the very first study to identify and characterize lincRNAs in the genomes of basidiomycetes. The results obtained here have laid the foundation for study of potential lincRNA-mediated expression regulation of genes in G. lucidum.

  15. Identification of Non-Coding RNAs in the Candida parapsilosis Species Group

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Paul D.; Schröder, Markus S.; Higgins, Desmond G.

    2016-01-01

    The Candida CTG clade is a monophyletic group of fungal species that translates CTG as serine, and includes the pathogens Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Research has typically focused on identifying protein-coding genes in these species. Here, we use bioinformatic and experimental approaches to annotate known classes of non-coding RNAs in three CTG-clade species, Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Lodderomyces elongisporus. We also update the annotation of ncRNAs in the C. albicans genome. The majority of ncRNAs identified were snoRNAs. Approximately 50% of snoRNAs (including most of the C/D box class) are encoded in introns. Most are within mono- and polycistronic transcripts with no protein coding potential. Five polycistronic clusters of snoRNAs are highly conserved in fungi. In polycistronic regions, splicing occurs via the classical pathway, as well as by nested and recursive splicing. We identified spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs, the telomerase RNA component, signal recognition particle, RNase P RNA component and the related RNase MRP RNA component in all three genomes. Stem loop IV of the U2 spliceosomal RNA and the associated binding proteins were lost from the ancestor of C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, following the divergence from L. elongisporus. The RNA component of the MRP is longer in C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and L. elongisporus than in S. cerevisiae, but is substantially shorter than in C. albicans. PMID:27658249

  16. Self-Reported Pleasantness Ratings and Examiner-Coded Defensiveness in Response to Touch in Children with ASD: Effects of Stimulus Material and Bodily Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Carissa J.; Lorenzi, Jill; Baranek, Grace T.

    2016-01-01

    Tactile defensiveness, characterized by behavioral hyperresponsiveness and negative emotional responses to touch, is a common manifestation of aberrant sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Variations in tactile defensiveness with the properties of the stimulus and the bodily site of…

  17. The RNA targetome of Staphylococcus aureus non-coding RNA RsaA: impact on cell surface properties and defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, Arnaud; Moreau, Karen; Chicher, Johana; Geissmann, Thomas; Vandenesch, François; Romby, Pascale; Marzi, Stefano; Caldelari, Isabelle

    2017-04-03

    The virulon of Staphyloccocus aureus is controlled by intricate connections between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators including proteins and small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). Many of the sRNAs regulate gene expression through base-pairings with mRNAs. However, characterization of the direct sRNA targets in Gram-positive bacteria remained a difficult challenge. Here, we have applied and adapted the MS2-affinity purification approach coupled to RNA sequencing (MAPS) to determine the targetome of RsaA sRNA of S. aureus, known to repress the synthesis of the transcriptional regulator MgrA. Several mRNAs were enriched with RsaA expanding its regulatory network. Besides mgrA, several of these mRNAs encode a family of SsaA-like enzymes involved in peptidoglycan metabolism and the secreted anti-inflammatory FLIPr protein. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, these mRNAs were validated as direct RsaA targets. Quantitative differential proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains corroborated the MAPS results. Additionally, it revealed that RsaA indirectly activated the synthesis of surface proteins supporting previous data that RsaA stimulated biofilm formation and favoured chronic infections. All together, this study shows that MAPS could also be easily applied in Gram-positive bacteria for identification of sRNA targetome.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNAs in Ganoderma lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiang; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus best-known for its medicinal activities. We have previously sequenced its genome and annotated the protein coding genes. However, long non-coding RNAs in G. lucidum genome have not been analyzed. In this study, we have identified and characterized long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNA) in G. lucidum systematically. We developed a computational pipeline, which was used to analyze RNA-Seq data derived from G. lucidum samples collected from three developmental stages. A total of 402 lincRNA candidates were identified, with an average length of 609 bp. Analysis of their adjacent protein-coding genes (apcGenes) revealed that 46 apcGenes belong to the pathways of triterpenoid biosynthesis and lignin degradation, or families of cytochrome P450, mating type B genes, and carbohydrate-active enzymes. To determine if lincRNAs and these apcGenes have any interactions, the corresponding pairs of lincRNAs and apcGenes were analyzed in detail. We developed a modified 3′ RACE method to analyze the transcriptional direction of a transcript. Among the 46 lincRNAs, 37 were found unidirectionally transcribed, and 9 were found bidirectionally transcribed. The expression profiles of 16 of these 37 lincRNAs were found to be highly correlated with those of the apcGenes across the three developmental stages. Among them, 11 are positively correlated (r>0.8) and 5 are negatively correlated (r<−0.8). The co-localization and co-expression of lincRNAs and those apcGenes playing important functions is consistent with the notion that lincRNAs might be important regulators for cellular processes. In summary, this represents the very first study to identify and characterize lincRNAs in the genomes of basidiomycetes. The results obtained here have laid the foundation for study of potential lincRNA-mediated expression regulation of genes in G. lucidum. PMID:24932683

  19. Identification of a Novel Small Non-Coding RNA Modulating the Intracellular Survival of Brucella melitensis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufei; Ke, Yuehua; Xu, Jie; Wang, Ligui; Wang, Tongkun; Liang, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Chunli; Yuan, Jiuyun; Zhuang, Yubin; An, Chang; Lei, Shuangshuang; Du, Xinying; Wang, Zhoujia; Li, Wenna; Yuan, Xitong; Huang, Liuyu; Yang, Xiaoli; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are gene expression modulators respond to environmental changes, stressful conditions, and pathogenesis. In this study, by using a combined bioinformatic and experimental approach, eight novel sRNA genes were identified in intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis. BSR0602, one sRNA that was highly induced in stationary phase, was further examined and found to modulate the intracellular survival of B. melitensis. BSR0602 was present at very high levels in vitro under stresses similar to those encountered during infection in host macrophages. Furthermore, BSR0602 was found to be highly expressed in the spleens of infected mice, suggesting its potential role in the control of pathogenesis. BSR0602 targets the mRNAs coding for gntR, a global transcriptional regulator, which is required for B. melitensis virulence. Overexpression of BSR0602 results in distinct reduction in the gntR mRNA level. B. melitensis with high level of BSR0602 is defective in bacteria intracellular survival in macrophages and defective in growth in the spleens of infected mice. Therefore, BSR0602 may directly inhibit the expression of gntR, which then impairs Brucellae intracellular survival and contributes to Brucella infection. Our findings suggest that BSR0602 is responsible for bacterial adaptation to stress conditions and thus modulate B. melitensis intracellular survival. PMID:25852653

  20. Identification of Genes Coding Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes in E. coli of UTI Patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Yasir; Dar, Firdous Ahmad; Sekhar, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study is to probe the pattern of antibiotic resistance against aminoglycosides and its mechanism in E. coli obtained from patients from Chennai, India. Isolation and identification of pathogens were done on MacConkey agar. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by disc diffusion test. The identification of genes encoding aminoglycoside modifying enzymes was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Out of 98 isolates, 71 (72.45%) isolates were identified as E. coli and the remaining 27 (27.55%) as other bacteria. Disc diffusion method results showed a resistance level of 72.15% for streptomycin, 73.4% for gentamicin, 63.26% for neomycin, 57.14% for tobramycin, 47.9% for netilmicin, and 8.16% for amikacin in E. coli. PCR screening showed the presence of four genes, namely, rrs, aacC2, aacA-aphD, and aphA3, in their plasmid DNA. The results point towards the novel mechanism of drug resistance in E. coli from UTI patients in India as they confirm the presence of genes encoding enzymes that cause resistance to aminoglycoside drugs. This could be an alarm for drug prescription to UTI patients. PMID:27403451

  1. Identification of non-coding RNAs with a new composite feature in the Hybrid Random Forest Ensemble algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lertampaiporn, Supatcha; Thammarongtham, Chinae; Nukoolkit, Chakarida; Kaewkamnerdpong, Boonserm; Ruengjitchatchawalya, Marasri

    2014-01-01

    To identify non-coding RNA (ncRNA) signals within genomic regions, a classification tool was developed based on a hybrid random forest (RF) with a logistic regression model to efficiently discriminate short ncRNA sequences as well as long complex ncRNA sequences. This RF-based classifier was trained on a well-balanced dataset with a discriminative set of features and achieved an accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 92.11%, 90.7% and 93.5%, respectively. The selected feature set includes a new proposed feature, SCORE. This feature is generated based on a logistic regression function that combines five significant features—structure, sequence, modularity, structural robustness and coding potential—to enable improved characterization of long ncRNA (lncRNA) elements. The use of SCORE improved the performance of the RF-based classifier in the identification of Rfam lncRNA families. A genome-wide ncRNA classification framework was applied to a wide variety of organisms, with an emphasis on those of economic, social, public health, environmental and agricultural significance, such as various bacteria genomes, the Arthrospira (Spirulina) genome, and rice and human genomic regions. Our framework was able to identify known ncRNAs with sensitivities of greater than 90% and 77.7% for prokaryotic and eukaryotic sequences, respectively. Our classifier is available at http://ncrna-pred.com/HLRF.htm. PMID:24771344

  2. Co-expression analysis and identification of fecundity-related long non-coding RNAs in sheep ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Zhao, Huijing; Qin, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Small Tail Han sheep, including the FecBBFecBB (Han BB) and FecB+ FecB+ (Han++) genotypes, and Dorset sheep exhibit different fecundities. To identify novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with sheep fecundity to better understand their molecular mechanisms, a genome-wide analysis of mRNAs and lncRNAs from Han BB, Han++ and Dorset sheep was performed. After the identification of differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs, 16 significant modules were explored by using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) followed by functional enrichment analysis of the genes and lncRNAs in significant modules. Among these selected modules, the yellow and brown modules were significantly related to sheep fecundity. lncRNAs (e.g., NR0B1, XLOC_041882, and MYH15) in the yellow module were mainly involved in the TGF-β signalling pathway, and NYAP1 and BCORL1 were significantly associated with the oxytocin signalling pathway, which regulates several genes in the coexpression network of the brown module. Overall, we identified several gene modules associated with sheep fecundity, as well as networks consisting of hub genes and lncRNAs that may contribute to sheep prolificacy by regulating the target mRNAs related to the TGF-β and oxytocin signalling pathways. This study provides an alternative strategy for the identification of potential candidate regulatory lncRNAs. PMID:27982099

  3. An improved method for identification of small non-coding RNAs in bacteria using support vector machine

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Das, Santasabuj

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are not translated into proteins, but act as functional RNAs. They are involved in diverse biological processes like virulence, stress response and quorum sensing. Several high-throughput techniques have enabled identification of sRNAs in bacteria, but experimental detection remains a challenge and grossly incomplete for most species. Thus, there is a need to develop computational tools to predict bacterial sRNAs. Here, we propose a computational method to identify sRNAs in bacteria using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The primary sequence and secondary structure features of experimentally-validated sRNAs of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (SLT2) was used to build the optimal SVM model. We found that a tri-nucleotide composition feature of sRNAs achieved an accuracy of 88.35% for SLT2. We validated the SVM model also on the experimentally-detected sRNAs of E. coli and Salmonella Typhi. The proposed model had robustly attained an accuracy of 81.25% and 88.82% for E. coli K-12 and S. Typhi Ty2, respectively. We confirmed that this method significantly improved the identification of sRNAs in bacteria. Furthermore, we used a sliding window-based method and identified sRNAs from complete genomes of SLT2, S. Typhi Ty2 and E. coli K-12 with sensitivities of 89.09%, 83.33% and 67.39%, respectively. PMID:28383059

  4. DD3MAT - a code for yield criteria anisotropy parameters identification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, P. D.; Carvalho, P. D.; Alves, J. L.; Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the main strategies and algorithms adopted in the DD3MAT inhouse code, specifically developed for identifying the anisotropy parameters. The algorithm adopted is based on the minimization of an error function, using a downhill simplex method. The set of experimental values can consider yield stresses and r -values obtained from in-plane tension, for different angles with the rolling direction (RD), yield stress and r -value obtained for biaxial stress state, and yield stresses from shear tests performed also for different angles to RD. All these values can be defined for a specific value of plastic work. Moreover, it can also include the yield stresses obtained from in-plane compression tests. The anisotropy parameters are identified for an AA2090-T3 aluminium alloy, highlighting the importance of the user intervention to improve the numerical fit.

  5. Systematic identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs in mouse mature sperm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Gao, Fengxin; Fu, Jianbo; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yuqing; Zeng, Xuhui

    2017-01-01

    Increasing studies have shown that mature spermatozoa contain many transcripts including mRNAs and miRNAs. However, the expression profile of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mammalian sperm has not been systematically investigated. Here, we used highly purified RNA to investigate lncRNA expression profiles in mouse mature sperm by stranded-specific RNA-seq. We identified 20,907 known and 4,088 novel lncRNAs transcripts, and the existence of intact lncRNAs was confirmed by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization on two representative lncRNAs. Compared to round spermatids, 1,794 upregulated and 165 downregulated lncRNAs and 4,435 upregulated and 3,920 downregulated mRNAs were identified in sperm. Based on the “Cis and Trans” RNA-RNA interaction principle, we found 14,259 targeted coding genes of differently expressed lncRNAs. In terms of Gene ontology (GO) analysis, differentially expressed lncRNAs targeted genes mainly related to nucleic acid metabolic, protein modification, chromatin and histone modification, heterocycle compound metabolic, sperm function, spermatogenesis and other processes. In contrast, differentially expressed transcripts of mRNAs were highly enriched for protein metabolic process and RNA metabolic, spermatogenesis, sperm motility, cell cycle, chromatin organization, heterocycle and aromatic compound metabolic processes. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the differentially expressed lncRNAs were involved in RNA transport, mRNA surveillance pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. Metabolic pathways, mRNA surveillance pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, cell cycle, RNA transport splicesome and endocytosis incorporated with the differentially expressed mRNA. Furthermore, many lncRNAs were specifically expressed in testis/sperm, and 880 lncRNAs were conserved between human and mouse. In summary, this study provides a preliminary

  6. Identification and characterisation of coding tandem repeat variants in incA gene of Chlamydophila pecorum.

    PubMed

    Yousef Mohamad, Khalil; Rekiki, Abdessalem; Myers, Garry; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rodolakis, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria of the family Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens of human and animals. Chlamydophila pecorum is associated with different pathological conditions in ruminants, swine and koala. To characterize a coding tandem repeat (CTR) identified at the 3' end of incA gene of C. pecorum, 51 strains of different chlamydial species were examined. The CTR were observed in 18 of 18 tested C. pecorum isolates including symptomatic and asymptomatic animals from diverse geographical origins. The CTR were also found in two strains of C. abortus respectively isolated from faeces from a healthy ewe and from a goat belonging to asymptomatic herds, but were absent in C. abortus strains isolated from clinical disease specimens, and in tested strains of C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis and C. trachomatis. The number of CTR repeats is variable and encode several motifs that are rich in alanine and proline. The CTR-derived variable structure of incA, which encode the Chlamydiaceae-specific type III secreted inclusion membrane protein, IncA, may be involved in the adaptation of C. pecorum to its environment by allowing it to persist in the host cell.

  7. Streptococcus gordonii Biofilm Formation: Identification of Genes that Code for Biofilm Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Loo, C. Y.; Corliss, D. A.; Ganeshkumar, N.

    2000-01-01

    Viridans streptococci, which include Streptococcus gordonii, are pioneer oral bacteria that initiate dental plaque formation. Sessile bacteria in a biofilm exhibit a mode of growth that is distinct from that of planktonic bacteria. Biofilm formation of S. gordonii Challis was characterized using an in vitro biofilm formation assay on polystyrene surfaces. The same assay was used as a nonbiased method to screen isogenic mutants generated by Tn916 transposon mutagenesis for defective biofilm formation. Biofilms formed optimally when bacteria were grown in a minimal medium under anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation was affected by changes in pH, osmolarity, and carbohydrate content of the growth media. Eighteen biofilm-defective mutants of S. gordonii Challis were identified based on Southern hybridization with a Tn916-based probe and DNA sequences of the Tn916-flanking regions. Molecular analyses of these mutants showed that some of the genes required for biofilm formation are involved in signal transduction, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and adhesion. These characteristics are associated with quorum sensing, osmoadaptation, and adhesion functions in oral streptococci. Only nine of the biofilm-defective mutants had defects in genes of known function, suggesting that novel aspects of bacterial physiology may play a part in biofilm formation. Further identification and characterization of biofilm-associated genes will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation of oral streptococci. PMID:10671461

  8. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Genes Coding Pharmaceutically Important Enzymes from Halo-Thermo Tolerant Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Safary, Azam; Moniri, Rezvan; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Dastmalchi, Siavoush

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Robust pharmaceutical and industrial enzymes from extremophile microorganisms are main source of enzymes with tremendous stability under harsh conditions which make them potential tools for commercial and biotechnological applications. Methods: The genome of a Gram-positive halo-thermotolerant Bacillus sp. SL1, new isolate from Saline Lake, was investigated for the presence of genes coding for potentially pharmaceutical enzymes. We determined gene sequences for the enzymes laccase (CotA), l-asparaginase (ansA3, ansA1), glutamate-specific endopeptidase (blaSE), l-arabinose isomerase (araA2), endo-1,4-β mannosidase (gmuG), glutaminase (glsA), pectate lyase (pelA), cellulase (bglC1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ycbD) and allantoinases (pucH) in the genome of Bacillus sp. SL1. Results: Based on the DNA sequence alignment results, six of the studied enzymes of Bacillus sp. SL-1 showed 100% similarity at the nucleotide level to the same genes of B. licheniformis 14580 demonstrating extensive organizational relationship between these two strains. Despite high similarities between the B. licheniformis and Bacillus sp. SL-1 genomes, there are minor differences in the sequences of some enzyme. Approximately 30% of the enzyme sequences revealed more than 99% identity with some variations in nucleotides leading to amino acid substitution in protein sequences. Conclusion: Molecular characterization of this new isolate provides useful information regarding evolutionary relationship between B. subtilis and B. licheniformis species. Since, the most industrial processes are often performed in harsh conditions, enzymes from such halo-thermotolerant bacteria may provide economically and industrially appealing biocatalysts to be used under specific physicochemical situations in medical, pharmaceutical, chemical and other industries.

  9. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Genes Coding Pharmaceutically Important Enzymes from Halo-Thermo Tolerant Bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Safary, Azam; Moniri, Rezvan; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Dastmalchi, Siavoush

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Robust pharmaceutical and industrial enzymes from extremophile microorganisms are main source of enzymes with tremendous stability under harsh conditions which make them potential tools for commercial and biotechnological applications. Methods: The genome of a Gram-positive halo-thermotolerant Bacillus sp. SL1, new isolate from Saline Lake, was investigated for the presence of genes coding for potentially pharmaceutical enzymes. We determined gene sequences for the enzymes laccase (CotA), l-asparaginase (ansA3, ansA1), glutamate-specific endopeptidase (blaSE), l-arabinose isomerase (araA2), endo-1,4-β mannosidase (gmuG), glutaminase (glsA), pectate lyase (pelA), cellulase (bglC1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ycbD) and allantoinases (pucH) in the genome of Bacillus sp. SL1. Results: Based on the DNA sequence alignment results, six of the studied enzymes of Bacillus sp. SL-1 showed 100% similarity at the nucleotide level to the same genes of B. licheniformis 14580 demonstrating extensive organizational relationship between these two strains. Despite high similarities between the B. licheniformis and Bacillus sp. SL-1 genomes, there are minor differences in the sequences of some enzyme. Approximately 30% of the enzyme sequences revealed more than 99% identity with some variations in nucleotides leading to amino acid substitution in protein sequences. Conclusion: Molecular characterization of this new isolate provides useful information regarding evolutionary relationship between B. subtilis and B. licheniformis species. Since, the most industrial processes are often performed in harsh conditions, enzymes from such halo-thermotolerant bacteria may provide economically and industrially appealing biocatalysts to be used under specific physicochemical situations in medical, pharmaceutical, chemical and other industries. PMID:28101462

  10. Identification and expression profiling of Ceratitis capitata genes coding for β-hexosaminidases.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Maria E; Intra, Jari; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Calvenzani, Valentina; Petroni, Katia; Briani, Federica; Perotti, Maria Elisa

    2011-02-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the genes coding for β-N-acetylhexosaminidases in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata, one of the most destructive agricultural pests, belonging to the Tephritidae family, order Diptera. Two dimeric β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, HEXA and HEXB, have been recently identified on Drosophila sperm. These enzymes are involved in egg binding through interactions with complementary carbohydrates on the surface of the egg shell. Three genes, Hexosaminidase 1 (Hexo1), Hexosaminidase 2 (Hexo2) and fused lobes (fdl), encode for HEXA and HEXB subunits. The availability of C. capitata EST libraries derived from embryos and adult heads allowed us to identify three sequences homologous to the D. melanogaster Hexo1, Hexo2 and fdl genes. Here, we report the expression profile analysis of CcHexo1, CcHexo2 and Ccfdld in several tissues, organs and stages. Ccfdl expression was highest in heads of both sexes and in whole adult females. In the testis and ovary the three genes showed distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns. All the mRNAs were detectable in early stages of spermatogenesis; CcHexo2 and Ccfdl were also expressed in early elongating spermatid cysts. All three genes are expressed in the ovarian nurse cells. CcHexo1 and Ccfdl are stage specific, since they have been observed in stages 12 and 13 during oocyte growth, when programmed cell death occurs in nurse cells. The expression pattern of the three genes in medfly gonads suggests that, as their Drosophila counterparts, they may encode for proteins involved in gametogenesis and fertilization.

  11. An Analysis of Information Assurance Relating to the Department of Defense Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Passive Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    conveniences to automate and improve asset tracking this technology offers, consumer groups have obstinately opposed this adoption due to the perceived...weaknesses in security and privacy of the network. While the heated debate between consumers and retailers continues, little to no research has addressed...codes speed up consumer shopping, package shipping, and inventory tracking. RFID offers many advantages over bar codes, as the table below shows

  12. Identification and characterization of novel host defense peptides from the skin secretion of the fungoid frog, Hydrophylax bahuvistara (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Vineeth Kumar, Thundi Parambil Vasanth Kumar; Asha, Radhamony; Shyla, Gopal; George, Sanil

    2017-01-10

    Two novel peptides (brevinin1 HYba1 and brevinin1 HYba2) were identified from the skin secretion of the frog Hydrophylax bahuvistara, endemic to Western Ghats, India, and their amino acid sequences were confirmed using cDNA cloning and LC/MS/MS. Antibacterial, hemolytic, and cytotoxic activities of brevinin1 peptides and their synthetic analogs (amidated C-terminus) were investigated and compared. All the peptides except the acidic forms showed antibacterial activity against all tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They exhibited low hemolysis on human erythrocytes and showed potent cytotoxic activity against Hep 3B cancer cell line. Upon amidation, the peptides showed increased activity against the tested microbes without altering their hemolytic and cytotoxic properties. The study also emphasizes the need for screening endemic amphibian fauna of Western Ghats, as a potential source of host defense peptides with possible therapeutic applications in the future.

  13. Self-generated identification codes in longitudinal prevention research with adolescents: a pilot study of matched and unmatched subjects.

    PubMed

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Sigfusson, Jon; Allegrante, John P

    2014-04-01

    Self-generated identification codes (SGICs) are an increasingly utilized methodological feature of longitudinal prevention research among adolescents. This study sought to test the differences between the matched and unmatched groups at baseline on a number of background, health, and well-being and risk behavior measures in a prevention study among 13- to 16-year-old Icelandic adolescents where a SGIC was constructed and used to link individual-level respondent data over two data collection points one year apart. We use pilot data from two Reykjavik city secondary schools collected as part of the population study Youth in Iceland in February 2010 and 2011 (N = 366, SGIC matching rate 61%). Baseline results for the matched and unmatched participants are compared. Findings indicate that the unmatched subjects are both more likely to be substance users than their matched counterparts as well as being more likely to be boys and/or from disrupted families. Five out of the seven scaled measures for risk and protective factors and personality indicators reveal no difference between the matched and unmatched subjects and the significantly different measures reveal small effect sizes between the two groups. However, the effect sizes for substance use are significantly different between the matched and unmatched groups for all seven substance use measures with effect sizes from 0.52 to 1.32. These findings therefore indicate that the measurement validity of adolescent risk behaviors such as substance use may be put in jeopardy when using SGIC and that unmatched subjects may be more likely to distrust the SGIC process.

  14. Identification and analysis of a Sciaenops ocellatus ISG15 homologue that is involved in host immune defense against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Sheng; Sun, Yun; Zhang, Min; Sun, Li

    2010-07-01

    ISG15 is an interferon-stimulated gene that encodes a ubiquitin-like protein. ISG15 homologues have been identified in a number of fish species, some of which are known to be regulated at expression level by virus infection and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. However, the relationship between ISG15 and live bacterial infection has not been investigated in piscine models. In this study, an ISG15 homologue, SoISG15, was identified from red drum Sciaenops ocellatus and analyzed at expression and functional levels. The open reading frame of SoISG15 is 477 base pairs (bp) and intronless, with a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 91 bp and a 3'-UTR of 415 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of SoISG15 shares 60-67% overall identities with the ISG15 of several fish species. SoISG15 possesses two conserved ubiquitin-like domains and the canonical ubiquitin conjugation motif, LRGG, at the C-terminus. Expressional analysis showed that constitutive expression of SoISG15 was highest in blood and lowest in kidney. Experimental challenges with LPS and bacterial pathogens induced significant SoISG15 expression in the kidney but not in the liver. Similar differential induction was also observed at cellular level with primary hepatocytes and head kidney (HK) lymphocytes. Poly(I:C), however, effected drastic induction of SoISG15 expression in kidney and liver at both tissue and cellular levels. Immunoblot analysis showed that SoISG15 was secreted by cultured HK lymphocytes into the extracellular milieu. Recombinant SoISG15 expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli was able to enhance the respiratory burst activity, acid phosphatase activity, and bactericidal activity of HK macrophages. Taken together, the results of this study indicated that SoISG15 possesses apparent immunological property and is likely to be involved in host immune defense against bacterial infection.

  15. Combining subproteome enrichment and Rubisco depletion enables identification of low abundance proteins differentially regulated during plant defense.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Ivy; Naumann, Kai; Roth, Udo; Wolf, Noreen; Mackey, David; Dangl, Jeffery L; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic Arabidopsis conditionally expressing the bacterial avrRpm1 type III effector under the control of a dexamethasone-responsive promoter were used for proteomics studies. This model system permits study of an individual effector without interference from additional bacterial components. Coupling of different prefractionation approaches to high resolution 2-DE facilitated the discovery of low abundance proteins - enabling the identification of proteins that have escaped detection in similar experiments. A total of 34 differentially regulated protein spots were identified. Four of these (a remorin, a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), an RNA-binding protein, and a C2-domain-containing protein) are potentially early signaling components in the interaction between AvrRpm1 and the cognate disease resistance gene product, resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1 (RPM1). For the remorin and RNA-binding protein, involvement of PTM and post-transcriptional regulation are implicated, respectively.

  16. Validation of ICD-9 Code 787.2 for identification of individuals with dysphagia from administrative databases.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Marlís; Gardyn, Michael; Wyckoff, Shamolie; Ky, Paul K S; Palmer, Jeffrey B

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of dysphagia coding using the International Classification of Diseases version 9 (ICD-9) code 787.2. We used the administrative database of a tertiary hospital and sequential videofluorographic swallowing study (VFSS) reports for patients admitted to the same hospital from January to June 2007. The VFSS reports were abstracted and the hospital's database was queried to abstract the coding associated with the admission during which the VFSS was performed. The VFSS and administrative data were merged for data analysis. Dysphagia was coded (using code 787.2) in 36 of 168 cases that had a VFSS. Of these, 34 had dysphagia diagnosed by VFSS (our gold standard) and one had a prior history of dysphagia. Code 787.2 had sensitivity of 22.8, specificity of 89.5, and positive and negative predictive values of 94.4 and 12.9, respectively. Dysphagia was largely undercoded in this database, but when the code was present those individuals were very likely to be dysphagic. Selection of dysphagic cases using the ICD-9 code is appropriate for within-group comparisons. Absence of the code, however, is not a good predictor of the absence of dysphagia.

  17. Identification of Predictive Markers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Rectal Carcinomas by Proteomic Isotope Coded Protein Label (ICPL) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Croner, Roland S.; Sevim, Müzeyyen; Metodiev, Metodi V.; Jo, Peter; Ghadimi, Michael; Schellerer, Vera; Brunner, Maximillian; Geppert, Carol; Rau, Tilman; Stürzl, Michael; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Matzel, Klaus E.; Hohenberger, Werner; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Kellermann, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) is an established procedure in stage union internationale contre le cancer (UICC) II/III rectal carcinomas. Around 53% of the tumours present with good tumor regression after nCRT, and 8%–15% are complete responders. Reliable selection markers would allow the identification of poor or non-responders prior to therapy. Tumor biopsies were harvested from 20 patients with rectal carcinomas, and stored in liquid nitrogen prior to therapy after obtaining patients’ informed consent (Erlangen-No.3784). Patients received standardized nCRT with 5-Fluoruracil (nCRT I) or 5-Fluoruracil ± Oxaliplatin (nCRT II) according to the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 protocol. After surgery, regression grading (Dworak) of the tumors was performed during histopathological examination of the specimens. Tumors were classified as poor (Dworak 1 + 2) or good (Dworak 3 + 4) responders. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) for tumor enrichment was performed on preoperative biopsies. Differences in expressed proteins between poor and good responders to nCRT I and II were identified by proteomic analysis (Isotope Coded Protein Label, ICPL™) and selected markers were validated by immunohistochemistry. Tumors of 10 patients were classified as histopathologically poor (Dworak 1 or 2) and the other 10 tumor samples as histopathologically good (Dworak 3 or 4) responders to nCRT after surgery. Sufficient material in good quality was harvested for ICPL analysis by LCM from all biopsies. We identified 140 differentially regulated proteins regarding the selection criteria and the response to nCRT. Fourteen of these proteins were synchronously up-regulated at least 1.5-fold after nCRT I or nCRT II (e.g., FLNB, TKT, PKM2, SERINB1, IGHG2). Thirty-five proteins showed a complete reciprocal regulation (up or down) after nCRT I or nCRT II and the rest was regulated either according to nCRT I or II. The protein expression of regulated proteins such as PLEC1, TKT, HADHA and TAGLN was

  18. 32 CFR 32.42 - Codes of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Codes of conduct. 32.42 Section 32.42 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.42 Codes of conduct....

  19. The Fusion Protein Signal-Peptide-Coding Region of Canine Distemper Virus: A Useful Tool for Phylogenetic Reconstruction and Lineage Identification

    PubMed Central

    Sarute, Nicolás; Calderón, Marina Gallo; Pérez, Ruben; La Torre, José; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H) gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages. PMID:23675493

  20. Potential prognostic long non-coding RNA identification and their validation in predicting survival of patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ai-Xin; Huang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Lin; Shen, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Multiple myeloma, a typical hematological malignancy, is characterized by malignant proliferation of plasma cells. This study was to identify differently expressed long non-coding RNAs to predict the survival of patients with multiple myeloma efficiently. Gene expressing profiles of diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma, GSE24080 (559 samples) and GSE57317 (55 samples), were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. After processing, survival-related long non-coding RNAs were identified by Cox regression analysis. The prognosis of multiple myeloma patients with differently expressed long non-coding RNAs was predicted by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Meanwhile, stratified analysis was performed based on the concentrations of serum beta 2-microglobulin (S-beta 2m), albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase of multiple myeloma patients. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed to further explore the functions of identified long non-coding RNAs. A total of 176 long non-coding RNAs significantly related to the survival of multiple myeloma patients (p < 0.05) were identified. In dataset GSE24080 and GSE57317, there were 558 and 55 patients being clustered into two groups with significant differences, respectively. Stratified analysis indicated that prediction of the prognoses with these long non-coding RNAs was independent from other clinical phenotype of multiple myeloma. Gene set enrichment analysis-identified pathways of cell cycle, focal adhesion, and G2-M checkpoint were associated with these long non-coding RNAs. A total of 176 long non-coding RNAs, especially RP1-286D6.1, AC008875.2, MTMR9L, AC069360.2, and AL512791.1, were potential biomarkers to evaluate the prognosis of multiple myeloma patients. These long non-coding RNAs participated indispensably in many pathways associated to the development of multiple myeloma; however, the molecular mechanisms need to be further studied.

  1. Identification of a long non-coding RNA gene, growth hormone secretagogue receptor opposite strand, which stimulates cell migration in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Eliza J; Seim, Inge; Pauli, Jana P; O'Keeffe, Angela J; Thomas, Patrick B; Carter, Shea L; Walpole, Carina M; Fung, Jenny N T; Josh, Peter; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2013-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in non‑small cell lung cancer tumourigenesis are largely unknown; however, recent studies have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are likely to play a role. In this study, we used public databases to identify an mRNA-like, candidate long non-coding RNA, GHSROS (GHSR opposite strand), transcribed from the antisense strand of the ghrelin receptor gene, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed higher expression of GHSROS in lung cancer tissue compared to adjacent, non-tumour lung tissue. In common with many long non-coding RNAs, GHSROS is 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated (mRNA-like), lacks an extensive open reading frame and harbours a transposable element. Engineered overexpression of GHSROS stimulated cell migration in the A549 and NCI-H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, but suppressed cell migration in the Beas-2B normal lung-derived bronchoepithelial cell line. This suggests that GHSROS function may be dependent on the oncogenic context. The identification of GHSROS, which is expressed in lung cancer and stimulates cell migration in lung cancer cell lines, contributes to the growing number of non-coding RNAs that play a role in the regulation of tumourigenesis and metastatic cancer progression.

  2. Choice of ICD-10 codes for the identification of acute coronary syndrome in the French hospitalization database.

    PubMed

    Bezin, Julien; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Rambelomanana, Sahondra; Touya, Maëlys; Ferreira, Paul; Gilleron, Véronique; Robinson, Philip; Moore, Nicholas; Pariente, Antoine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10(th) Edition) coding in the French hospitalization database (PMSI) to identify acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurrence. Eligible hospitalizations were those that occurred at the Bordeaux teaching hospitals between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2011 and had one of the ICD-10 codes related to ischaemic heart diseases (I20 to I25, excluding I23 and I25.2). Among these, 100 hospitalizations were randomly selected; for each case, the ACS diagnosis was confirmed/excluded after medical file examination by an independent events validation committee and the performance of codes, and combinations of codes, to identify ACS was evaluated by calculating the positive predictive value (PPV). Of the individual codes, I20.0, I21 and I24 had the highest PPV; 100.0% for I24 (95%CI [15.8-100.0]); 90.0% for I21 (95%CI [76.3-97.2]); and 66.7% for I20.0 (95%CI [38.4-88.2]). The combination of I20.0 or I24 codes was able to identify 12 of the 56 validated ACS cases with a PPV of 70.6% (95%CI [44.0-89.7]), the combination of I21 or I24 identified 38 cases with a PPV of 90.5% (95%CI [77.4-97.3]), the combination of I20.0 or I21 identified 46 cases with a PPV of 83.6% (95%CI [71.2-92.2]), and the combination of I20.0, I21 or I24 identified 48 cases with a PPV of 84.2% (95%CI [72.1-92.5]). The combination of I20.0, I21 or I24 codes had the best performance to identify occurrence of ACS in the French hospitalization database.

  3. Transforming Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    or agency each week?” 47 By way of just one example, Madrid’s La Razon reported on September 13 , 2004, that Spain would lose U.S. bases to Portugal...public release, distribution unlimited 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...DEFENSE 7 responsibilities. The homeland security JOC envisions a layered and comprehensive defense requiring geographical and functional integra- tion. 13

  4. Maximum Likelihood Expectation-Maximization Algorithms Applied to Localization and Identification of Radioactive Sources with Recent Coded Mask Gamma Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, H.; Barat, E.; Carrel, F.; Dautremer, T.; Dubos, S.; Limousin, O.; Montagu, T.; Normand, S.; Schoepff, V.; Amgarou, K.; Menaa, N.; Angelique, J.-C.; Patoz, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we tested Maximum likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) algorithms optimized for gamma imaging applications on two recent coded mask gamma cameras. We respectively took advantage of the characteristics of the GAMPIX and Caliste HD-based gamma cameras: noise reduction thanks to mask/anti-mask procedure but limited energy resolution for GAMPIX, high energy resolution for Caliste HD. One of our short-term perspectives is the test of MAPEM algorithms integrating specific prior values for the data to reconstruct adapted to the gamma imaging topic. (authors)

  5. 32 CFR 635.19 - Offense codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Offense codes. 635.19 Section 635.19 National... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.19 Offense codes. (a) The offense code describes, as nearly as possible, the complaint or offense by using an alphanumeric code. Appendix C of AR...

  6. An Analysis of the Use of the Social Security Number as Veteran Identification as it Relates to Identity Theft; A Cost Benefit Analysis of Transitioning the Department of Defense and Veterans Administration to a Military Identification Number

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Oregon 19 39 56 Pennsylvania 13 33 52 Rhode Island 11 31 51 South Carolina 14 34 53 South Dakota 17 37 55 Tennessee 14 34 53 Texas 18 38 54...G. Grimes Chief Information Officer Department of Defense Washington, D.C. 9. Mr. Vincent Lauter Defense Data Management Center Seaside

  7. Isolation and identification of a cDNA clone coding for an HLA-DR transplantation antigen alpha-chain.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, K; Bill, P; Larhammar, D; Wiman, K; Claesson, L; Schenning, L; Servenius, B; Sundelin, J; Rask, L; Peterson, P A

    1982-10-01

    Membrane-bound mRNA was isolated from Raji cells and enriched for message coding for the HLA-DR transplantation antigen alpha-chain by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Double-stranded cDNA was constructed from this mRNA fraction, ligated to plasmid pBR322, and cloned into Escherichia coli. By hybrid selection, a plasmid, pDR-alpha-1, able to hybridize with mRNA coding for the HLA-DR alpha-chain was identified. From the nucleotide sequence of one end of the insert an amino acid sequence was predicted which is identical to part of the amino-terminal sequence of an HLA-DR alpha-chain preparation isolated from Raji cells. This clearly shows that pDR-alpha-1 carries almost the complete message for an HLD-DR alpha-chain. From the nucleotide sequence of this plasmid it will be possible to predict the primary structure of an HLA-DR alpha-chain.

  8. Identification of differentially expressed small non-coding RNAs in the legume endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    del Val, Coral; Rivas, Elena; Torres-Quesada, Omar; Toro, Nicolás; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I

    2007-12-01

    Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are being recognized as novel widespread regulators of gene expression in response to environmental signals. Here, we present the first search for sRNA-encoding genes in the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, performed by a genome-wide computational analysis of its intergenic regions. Comparative sequence data from eight related alpha-proteobacteria were obtained, and the interspecies pairwise alignments were scored with the programs eQRNA and RNAz as complementary predictive tools to identify conserved and stable secondary structures corresponding to putative non-coding RNAs. Northern experiments confirmed that eight of the predicted loci, selected among the original 32 candidates as most probable sRNA genes, expressed small transcripts. This result supports the combined use of eQRNA and RNAz as a robust strategy to identify novel sRNAs in bacteria. Furthermore, seven of the transcripts accumulated differentially in free-living and symbiotic conditions. Experimental mapping of the 5'-ends of the detected transcripts revealed that their encoding genes are organized in autonomous transcription units with recognizable promoter and, in most cases, termination signatures. These findings suggest novel regulatory functions for sRNAs related to the interactions of alpha-proteobacteria with their eukaryotic hosts.

  9. Identification of prognostic biomarkers in glioblastoma using a long non-coding RNA-mediated, competitive endogenous RNA network

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuze; Wang, Peng; Ning, Shangwei; Xiao, Wenbiao; Xiao, Bo; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor associated with a poor prognosis. Cross-talk between competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) plays a critical role in tumor development and physiology. In this study, we present a multi-step computational approach to construct a functional GBM long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-mediated ceRNA network (LMCN) by integrating genome-wide lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles, miRNA-target interactions, functional analyses, and clinical survival analyses. LncRNAs in the LMCN exhibited specific topological features consistent with a regulatory association with coding mRNAs across GBM pathology. We determined that the lncRNA MCM3AP-AS was involved in RNA processing and cell cycle-related functions, and was correlated with patient survival. MCM3AP-AS and MIR17HG acted synergistically to regulate mRNAs in a network module of the competitive LMCN. By integrating the expression profile of this module into a risk model, we stratified GBM patients in both the The Cancer Genome Atlas and an independent GBM dataset into distinct risk groups. Finally, survival analyses demonstrated that the lncRNAs and network module are potential prognostic biomarkers for GBM. Thus, ceRNAs could accelerate biomarker discovery and therapeutic development in GBM. PMID:27229531

  10. Identification of coding exon 3 duplication in the BMPR1A gene in a patient with juvenile polyposis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Junya; Nagayama, Satoshi; Chino, Akiko; Sakata, Ai; Yamamoto, Noriko; Sato, Yuri; Ashihara, Yuumi; Kita, Mizuho; Nomura, Sachio; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Igarashi, Masahiro; Ueno, Masashi; Arai, Masami

    2014-10-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by multiple juvenile polyps arising in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers, specifically colon cancer. BMPR1A and SMAD4 germline mutations have been found in patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome. We identified a BMPR1A mutation, which involves a duplication of coding exon 3 (c.230+452_333+441dup1995), on multiple ligation dependent probe amplification in a patient with juvenile polyposis syndrome. The mutation causes a frameshift, producing a truncated protein (p.D112NfsX2). Therefore, the mutation is believed to be pathogenic. We also identified a duplication breakpoint in which Alu sequences are located. These results suggest that the duplication event resulted from recombination between Alu sequences. To our knowledge, partial duplication in the BMPR1A gene has not been reported previously. This is the first case report to document coding exon 3 duplication in the BMPR1A gene in a patient with juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  11. Mobile, hybrid Compton/coded aperture imaging for detection, identification and localization of gamma-ray sources at stand-off distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornga, Shawn R.

    The Stand-off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) program is an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) project through the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) with the goal of detection, identification and localization of weak radiological sources in the presence of large dynamic backgrounds. The Raytheon-SORDS Tri-Modal Imager (TMI) is a mobile truck-based, hybrid gamma-ray imaging system able to quickly detect, identify and localize, radiation sources at standoff distances through improved sensitivity while minimizing the false alarm rate. Reconstruction of gamma-ray sources is performed using a combination of two imaging modalities; coded aperture and Compton scatter imaging. The TMI consists of 35 sodium iodide (NaI) crystals 5x5x2 in3 each, arranged in a random coded aperture mask array (CA), followed by 30 position sensitive NaI bars each 24x2.5x3 in3 called the detection array (DA). The CA array acts as both a coded aperture mask and scattering detector for Compton events. The large-area DA array acts as a collection detector for both Compton scattered events and coded aperture events. In this thesis, developed coded aperture, Compton and hybrid imaging algorithms will be described along with their performance. It will be shown that multiple imaging modalities can be fused to improve detection sensitivity over a broader energy range than either alone. Since the TMI is a moving system, peripheral data, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) must also be incorporated. A method of adapting static imaging algorithms to a moving platform has been developed. Also, algorithms were developed in parallel with detector hardware, through the use of extensive simulations performed with the Geometry and Tracking Toolkit v4 (GEANT4). Simulations have been well validated against measured data. Results of image reconstruction algorithms at various speeds and distances will be presented as well as

  12. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... Codes (MPC). (a) MPCs identify individual Provost Marshal Offices/Directorates of Emergency...

  13. 32 CFR 634.24 - Traffic planning and codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic planning and codes. 634.24 Section 634.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND... codes. (a) Safe and efficient movement of traffic on an installation requires traffic supervision....

  14. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  15. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    to be combined in a patterned way. – Web services stacks, iOS, Android, LAMP stack, AUTOSAR, SCADA and controls, ERP/ SCM / CRM infrastructure, network...ecosystem lead Challenge issues • Technology leadership focal point • Smart customer: inside expertise • Accelerate the pipeline 5 Software has a critical...Disproportionate benefits from software in economic growth – ICT industries since 1995 ICT drives 20-15% of economic growth is US and Europe ICT drives 40

  16. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    situations. The well known case of the Therac 25 failures (Nancy G. Leveson and Clark S. Turner, 1993, “An Investigation of the Therac -25 Accidents,” IEEE...known case of the Therac 25 failures (Nancy G. Leveson and Clark S. Turner, 1993, “An Investigation of the Therac -25 Accidents,” IEEE Computer 26(7

  17. Perceptions of Usefulness: Using the Holland Code Theory, Multiple Intelligences Theory, and Role Model Identification to Determine a Career Niche in the Fashion Industry for First-Quarter Fashion Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Crystal D.

    2010-01-01

    This action research study investigated the perceptions that student participants had on the development of a career exploration model and a career exploration project. The Holland code theory was the primary assessment used for this research study, in addition to the Multiple Intelligences theory and the identification of a role model for the…

  18. Genome-wide long non-coding RNA screening, identification and characterization in a model microorganism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Meirong; Xiao, Peng; Hu, Changxing; Zeng, Zhiyong; Wang, Chaogang; Wang, Jiangxin; Hu, Zhangli

    2016-09-23

    Microalgae are regarded as the most promising biofuel candidates and extensive metabolic engineering were conducted but very few improvements were achieved. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) investigation and manipulation may provide new insights for this issue. LncRNAs refer to transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides, do not encode proteins but play important roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. However, no information of potential lncRNAs has been reported in eukaryotic alga. Recently, we performed RNA sequencing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and obtained totally 3,574 putative lncRNAs. 1440 were considered as high-confidence lncRNAs, including 936 large intergenic, 310 intronic and 194 anti-sense lncRNAs. The average transcript length, ORF length and numbers of exons for lncRNAs are much less than for genes in this green alga. In contrast with human lncRNAs of which more than 98% are spliced, the percentage in C. reinhardtii is only 48.1%. In addition, we identified 367 lncRNAs responsive to sulfur deprivation, including 36 photosynthesis-related lncRNAs. This is the first time that lncRNAs were explored in the unicellular model organism C. reinhardtii. The lncRNA data could also provide new insights into C. reinhardtii hydrogen production under sulfur deprivation.

  19. Identification and expression of small non-coding RNA, L10-Leader, in different growth phases of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Xia, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Li, Wuju; Liu, Jiaojiao; Ding, Hongmei; Li, Jie; Li, Hui; Chen, Ying; Su, Xueting; Wang, Wei; Sun, Li; Wang, Chenglong; Shao, Ningsheng; Chu, Bingfeng

    2012-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans is one of the major cariogenic bacteria in the oral environment. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of bacterial growth, stress tolerance, and virulence. In this study, we experimentally verified the existence of sRNA, L10-Leader, in S. mutans for the first time. Our results show that the expression level of L10-Leader was growth-phase dependent in S. mutans and varied among different clinical strains of S. mutans. The level of L10-Leader in S. mutans UA159 was closely related to the pH value, but not to the concentrations of glucose and sucrose in culture medium. We predicted target mRNAs of L10-Leader bioinformatically and found that some of these mRNAs were related to growth and stress response. Five predicted mRNA targets were selected and detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and we found that the expression levels of these mRNAs were closely related to the level of L10-Leader at different growth phases of the bacteria. Our results indicate that L10-Leader may play an important role in the regulation of responses in S. mutans, especially during its growth phase and acid adaption response.

  20. Identification and characterization of an enhancer in the coding region of the genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Verdin, E; Becker, N; Bex, F; Droogmans, L; Burny, A

    1990-01-01

    Transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is regulated by cis-acting DNA elements located in the viral long terminal repeats, by viral transregulatory proteins, and by cellular transcription factors acting in concert to modulate the degree of viral expression. We demonstrate that a DNA fragment corresponding to the central portion of the HIV-1 genome exhibits enhancer activity when cloned upstream of the thymidine kinase promoter of herpes simplex virus. This enhancer is inducible by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in HeLa cells and is independent of its position and orientation with respect to the promoter. We have mapped the activity of the enhancer to two independent domains encompassing nucleotides 4079-4342 (end of the pol gene) and nucleotides 4781-6026 (vif gene and first coding exon of tat). This intragenic enhancer and its subdomains demonstrate cellular specificity because they are only active in specific cell lines. The presence of similar intragenic enhancer elements in other retroviruses suggests that they might be a conserved feature of this family of viruses. Images PMID:2352955

  1. Identification of a novel human long non-coding RNA that regulates hepatic lipid metabolism by inhibiting SREBP-1c

    PubMed Central

    Li, Duan; Cheng, Min; Niu, Yuqiang; Chi, Xiaojing; Liu, Xiuying; Fan, Jingjing; Fan, Heng; Chang, Yongsheng; Yang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are master regulators of hepatic lipid homeostasis. Aberrant expression of SREBPs frequently leads to lipid metabolism dysregulation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified with diverse biological functions, but the effects of lncRNAs on lipid metabolism are rarely reported. Here, we identified a novel human specific lncRNA, lncHR1, as a negative regulator of SREBP-1c expression. Overexpression of lncHR1 inhibited expression of SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase (FAS) and then repressed oleic acid-induced hepatic cell triglyceride (TG) and lipid droplet (LD) accumulation. In vivo, the data of established transgenic animals showed that mice with lncHR1 expression had less hepatic expression of SREBP-1c, FAS, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα), and less hepatic and plasma TG after being fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, we report a novel lncRNA which can decrease lipid metabolism by repressing SREBP-1c gene expression. PMID:28367099

  2. Genome-wide long non-coding RNA screening, identification and characterization in a model microorganism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Meirong; Xiao, Peng; Hu, Changxing; Zeng, Zhiyong; Wang, Chaogang; Wang, Jiangxin; Hu, Zhangli

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are regarded as the most promising biofuel candidates and extensive metabolic engineering were conducted but very few improvements were achieved. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) investigation and manipulation may provide new insights for this issue. LncRNAs refer to transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides, do not encode proteins but play important roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. However, no information of potential lncRNAs has been reported in eukaryotic alga. Recently, we performed RNA sequencing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and obtained totally 3,574 putative lncRNAs. 1440 were considered as high-confidence lncRNAs, including 936 large intergenic, 310 intronic and 194 anti-sense lncRNAs. The average transcript length, ORF length and numbers of exons for lncRNAs are much less than for genes in this green alga. In contrast with human lncRNAs of which more than 98% are spliced, the percentage in C. reinhardtii is only 48.1%. In addition, we identified 367 lncRNAs responsive to sulfur deprivation, including 36 photosynthesis-related lncRNAs. This is the first time that lncRNAs were explored in the unicellular model organism C. reinhardtii. The lncRNA data could also provide new insights into C. reinhardtii hydrogen production under sulfur deprivation. PMID:27659799

  3. Identification of a cell lineage-specific gene coding for a sea urchin alpha 2(IV)-like collagen chain.

    PubMed

    Exposito, J Y; Suzuki, H; Geourjon, C; Garrone, R; Solursh, M; Ramirez, F

    1994-05-06

    We report the isolation of several overlapping cDNAs from an embryonic library of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus coding for a novel sea urchin collagen chain. The conceptual amino acid translation of the cDNAs indicated that the protein displays the structural features of a vertebrate type IV-like collagen alpha chain. In addition to a putative 31-residue signal peptide, the sea urchin molecule contains a 14-residue amino-terminal non-collagenous segment, a discontinuous 1,477-amino acid triple helical domain, and a 225-residue carboxyl-terminal domain rich in cysteines. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal non-collagenous regions of the echinoid molecule are remarkably similar to the 7 S and carboxyl-terminal non-collagenous (NC1) domains of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains of vertebrate type IV collagen. The sequence similarity and distinct structural features of the 7 S and NC1 domains strongly suggest that the sea urchin polypeptide is evolutionarily related to the alpha 2(IV) class of collagen chains. Finally, in situ hybridizations revealed that expression of this collagen gene is restricted to the mesenchyme cell lineage of the developing sea urchin embryo.

  4. Experimental RNomics in Aquifex aeolicus: identification of small non-coding RNAs and the putative 6S RNA homolog

    PubMed Central

    Willkomm, Dagmar K.; Minnerup, Jens; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Hartmann, Roland K.

    2005-01-01

    By an experimental RNomics approach, we have generated a cDNA library from small RNAs expressed from the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. The library included RNAs that were antisense to mRNAs and tRNAs as well as RNAs encoded in intergenic regions. Substantial steady-state levels in A.aeolicus cells were confirmed for several of the cloned RNAs by northern blot analysis. The most abundant intergenic RNA of the library was identified as the 6S RNA homolog of A.aeolicus. Although shorter in size (150 nt) than its γ-proteobacterial homologs (∼185 nt), it is predicted to have the most stable structure among known 6S RNAs. As in the γ-proteobacteria, the A.aeolicus 6S RNA gene (ssrS) is located immediately upstream of the ygfA gene encoding a widely conserved 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase. We identifed novel 6S RNA candidates within the γ-proteobacteria but were unable to identify reasonable 6S RNA candidates in other bacterial branches, utilizing mfold analyses of the region immediately upstream of ygfA combined with 6S RNA blastn searches. By RACE experiments, we mapped the major transcription initiation site of A.aeolicus 6S RNA primary transcripts, located within the pheT gene preceding ygfA, as well as three processing sites. PMID:15814812

  5. Analysis of Putative Apoplastic Effectors from the Nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and Identification of an Expansin-Like Protein That Can Induce and Suppress Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Gerič; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses. PMID:25606855

  6. Identification and characterization of three Vibrio alginolyticus non-coding RNAs involved in adhesion, chemotaxis, and motility processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lixing; Hu, Jiao; Su, Yongquan; Qin, Yingxue; Kong, Wendi; Ma, Ying; Xu, Xiaojin; Lin, Mao; Yan, Qingpi

    2015-01-01

    The capability of Vibrio alginolyticus to adhere to fish mucus is a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Our previous research showed that stress conditions, such as Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and low pH, can reduce this adhesion ability. Non-coding (nc) RNAs play a crucial role in regulating bacterial gene expression, affecting the bacteria's pathogenicity. To investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the decline in adhesion ability caused by stressors, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational techniques to detect stressed ncRNA dynamics. These approaches yielded three commonly altered ncRNAs that are predicted to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, which plays a key role in the adhesion process of bacteria. We hypothesized they play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus. In this study, we validated the effects of these three ncRNAs on their predicted target genes and their role in the V. alginolyticus adhesion process with RNA interference (i), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), northern blot, capillary assay, and in vitro adhesion assays. The expression of these ncRNAs and their predicted target genes were confirmed by qPCR and northern blot, which reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data and the target prediction. Overexpression of these ncRNAs was capable of reducing the chemotactic and adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus, and the expression levels of their target genes were also significantly reduced. Our results indicated that these three ncRNAs: (1) are able to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, and (2) play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus.

  7. Identification and characterization of three Vibrio alginolyticus non-coding RNAs involved in adhesion, chemotaxis, and motility processes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lixing; Hu, Jiao; Su, Yongquan; Qin, Yingxue; Kong, Wendi; Ma, Ying; Xu, Xiaojin; Lin, Mao; Yan, Qingpi

    2015-01-01

    The capability of Vibrio alginolyticus to adhere to fish mucus is a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Our previous research showed that stress conditions, such as Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+, and low pH, can reduce this adhesion ability. Non-coding (nc) RNAs play a crucial role in regulating bacterial gene expression, affecting the bacteria's pathogenicity. To investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the decline in adhesion ability caused by stressors, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational techniques to detect stressed ncRNA dynamics. These approaches yielded three commonly altered ncRNAs that are predicted to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, which plays a key role in the adhesion process of bacteria. We hypothesized they play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus. In this study, we validated the effects of these three ncRNAs on their predicted target genes and their role in the V. alginolyticus adhesion process with RNA interference (i), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), northern blot, capillary assay, and in vitro adhesion assays. The expression of these ncRNAs and their predicted target genes were confirmed by qPCR and northern blot, which reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data and the target prediction. Overexpression of these ncRNAs was capable of reducing the chemotactic and adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus, and the expression levels of their target genes were also significantly reduced. Our results indicated that these three ncRNAs: (1) are able to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, and (2) play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus. PMID:26217589

  8. Identification of the long non‑coding RNA LET as a novel tumor suppressor in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jingjing; Hu, Xibao; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Xinrong; Ma, Junhong; Yuan, Hongxia

    2017-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged recently as important factors in regulating fundamental biological processes. Alterations in the expression and function of lncRNAs have been observed to promote tumor formation, progression and metastasis. Although downregulation of the expression levels of LET lncRNA in several tumors has been reported, its role in gastric cancer remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and function of LET in gastric cancer development. The expression levels of LET in 37 pairs of gastric cancer and adjacent non‑tumor tissues were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). In addition, LET expression in gastric cancer cell lines was analyzed by RT‑qPCR assay analysis. Furthermore, the impact of LET on cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis were detected using the cell counting kit‑8, wound scratch and ELISA assays, respectively. The results demonstrated that the expression level of LET was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines (SGC‑7901 and MGC‑803) compared with normal tissues and a normal human gastric epithelial cell line (GES‑1). Restoration of LET expression using a synthesized recombinant overexpression vector transfected into SGC‑7901 and MGC‑803 cells, significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and promoted cell apoptosis in vitro. The present study is the first to demonstrate that LET may function as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. The results indicate that LET may be a promising biomarker and/or a therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  9. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  10. Identification of a RNA-Seq Based 8-Long Non-Coding RNA Signature Predicting Survival in Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qiaowei; Liu, Bingrong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as oncogenic or tumor suppressive regulators in the development of various cancers. In the present study, we aimed to identify a lncRNA signature based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data to predict survival in esophageal cancer. Material/Methods The RNA-seq lncRNA expression data and clinical information were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Differentially expressed lncRNAs were screened out between esophageal cancer and normal tissues. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were performed to establish a lncRNA-related prognostic model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to test the sensitivity and specificity of the model. GO (gene ontology) functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed for mRNAs co-expressed with the lncRNAs to explore the potential functions of the prognostic lncRNAs. Results A total of 265 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified between esophageal cancer and normal tissues. After univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, eight lncRNAs (GS1-600G8.5, LINC00365, CTD-2357A8.3, RP11-705O24.1, LINC01554, RP1-90J4.1, RP11-327J17.1, and LINC00176) were finally screened out to establish a predictive model by which patients could be classified into high-risk and low-risk groups with significantly different overall survival. Further analysis indicated independent prognostic capability of the 8-lncRNA signature from other clinicopathological factors. ROC curve analysis demonstrated good performance of the 8-lncRNA signature. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the prognostic lncRNAs were mainly associated with esophageal cancer related biological processes such as regulation of glucose metabolic process and amino acid and lipids metabolism. Conclusions Our study developed a novel candidate model providing additional and more powerful prognostic information

  11. Polar Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes. iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the most common. Many civilian systems use low density parity check (LDPC) FEC codes, and the Navy is planning to use LDPC for some future systems...other forward error correction methods: a turbo code, a low density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes

  12. Metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitor based persistent memory for electronic product code class-1 generation-2 uhf passive radio-frequency identification tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Bongno; Sung, Man Young; Yeon, Sujin; Oh, Hyun S.; Kwon, Yoonjoo; Kim, Chuljin; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2009-03-01

    With the circuits using metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitor, rf operational signal properties are almost the same or superior to those of polysilicon-insulator-polysilicon, metal-insulator-metal, and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. In electronic product code global class-1 generation-2 uhf radio-frequency identification (RFID) protocols, the MFM can play a crucial role in satisfying the specifications of the inventoried flag's persistence times (Tpt) for each session (S0-S3, SL). In this paper, we propose and design a new MFM capacitor based memory scheme of which persistence time for S1 flag is measured at 2.2 s as well as indefinite for S2, S3, and SL flags during the period of power-on. A ferroelectric random access memory embedded RFID tag chip is fabricated with an industry-standard complementary MOS process. The chip size is around 500×500 μm2 and the measured power consumption is about 10 μW.

  13. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  14. Identification of an ortholog of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III subunit RPC34 in Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota suggests specialization of RNA polymerases for coding and non-coding RNAs in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Blombach, Fabian; Makarova, Kira S; Marrero, Jeannette; Siebers, Bettina; Koonin, Eugene V; Oost, John van der

    2009-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of eukaryotic information processing is the co-existence of 3 distinct, multi-subunit RNA polymerase complexes that are dedicated to the transcription of specific classes of coding or non-coding RNAs. Archaea encode only one RNA polymerase that resembles the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II with respect to the subunit composition. Here we identify archaeal orthologs of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III subunit RPC34. Genome context analysis supports a function of this archaeal protein in the transcription of non-coding RNAs. These findings suggest that functional separation of RNA polymerases for protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs might predate the origin of the Eukaryotes. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Andrei Osterman and Patrick Forterre (nominated by Purificación López-García) PMID:19828044

  15. Identification of an ortholog of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III subunit RPC34 in Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota suggests specialization of RNA polymerases for coding and non-coding RNAs in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Fabian; Makarova, Kira S; Marrero, Jeannette; Siebers, Bettina; Koonin, Eugene V; van der Oost, John

    2009-10-14

    One of the hallmarks of eukaryotic information processing is the co-existence of 3 distinct, multi-subunit RNA polymerase complexes that are dedicated to the transcription of specific classes of coding or non-coding RNAs. Archaea encode only one RNA polymerase that resembles the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II with respect to the subunit composition. Here we identify archaeal orthologs of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III subunit RPC34. Genome context analysis supports a function of this archaeal protein in the transcription of non-coding RNAs. These findings suggest that functional separation of RNA polymerases for protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs might predate the origin of the Eukaryotes.

  16. Defense mechanisms and psychological adjustment in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Marlene J; Cramer, Phebe

    2003-08-01

    The association between maturity of defense use and psychological functioning was assessed in a group of 95 elementary school children. Defense mechanisms were measured using a valid and reliable storytelling task, and psychological adjustment was assessed through a combination of parent and self-report questionnaires. Correlational analyses indicated that children who relied on the developmentally immature defense of denial reported higher levels of self-rated social anxiety and depression and received higher ratings of parent-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, children who made use of the developmentally mature defense of identification exhibited higher scores on perceived competence in social, academic, conduct, athletic, and global domains. Significantly, there was no relationship between children's use of denial and their level of perceived competence or between children's use of identification and their degree of maladjustment.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of the Department of Defense (DoD) Passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Policy and Perspective in Terms of Site Implementations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Technology, and Logistics issued a memorandum delineating the final policy and an extensive plan for RFID implementation within DoD. This project...cause(s) of compliance variances between the projected plan based on DoD policy and the actual implementations at DoD activities. 15...Implementation Plan , In-Transit Visibility (ITV), Total Asset Visibility (TAV). 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18

  18. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  19. Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense from Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Cheng; Yao, Jianxiu; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris [Palisot de Beauvois]) feeding. By facilitating the piercing, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the plant fluids are ingested by TPBs. To identify salivary gland genes, mRNA was extracted from salivary glands and cDNA library clones were sequenced. A de novo-assembling of 7,000 Sanger sequences revealed 666 high-quality unique cDNAs with an average size of 624 bp, in which the identities of 347 cDNAs were determined using Blast2GO. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis indicated that these genes participate in eighteen metabolic pathways. Identifications of large number of enzyme genes in TPB salivary glands evidenced functions for extra-oral digestion and feeding damage mechanism, including 45 polygalacturonase, two α- amylase, one glucosidase, one glycan enzyme, one aminopeptidase, four lipase, and many serine protease cDNAs. The presence of multiple transcripts, multigene members, and high abundance of cell wall degradation enzymes (polygalacturonases) indicated that the enzyme-rich saliva may cause damage to plants by breaking down plant cell walls to make nutrients available for feeding. We also identified genes potentially involved in insect adaptation and detoxifying xenobiotics that may allow insects to overcome plant defense responses, including four glutathione S-transferases, three esterases, one cytochrome P450, and several serine proteases. The gene profiles of TPB salivary glands revealed in this study provides a foundation for further understanding and potential development of novel enzymatic inhibitors, or other RNAi approaches that may interrupt or minimize TPB feeding damage. PMID:27324587

  20. Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense from Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Cheng; Yao, Jianxiu; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris [Palisot de Beauvois]) feeding. By facilitating the piercing, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the plant fluids are ingested by TPBs. To identify salivary gland genes, mRNA was extracted from salivary glands and cDNA library clones were sequenced. A de novo-assembling of 7,000 Sanger sequences revealed 666 high-quality unique cDNAs with an average size of 624 bp, in which the identities of 347 cDNAs were determined using Blast2GO. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis indicated that these genes participate in eighteen metabolic pathways. Identifications of large number of enzyme genes in TPB salivary glands evidenced functions for extra-oral digestion and feeding damage mechanism, including 45 polygalacturonase, two α- amylase, one glucosidase, one glycan enzyme, one aminopeptidase, four lipase, and many serine protease cDNAs. The presence of multiple transcripts, multigene members, and high abundance of cell wall degradation enzymes (polygalacturonases) indicated that the enzyme-rich saliva may cause damage to plants by breaking down plant cell walls to make nutrients available for feeding. We also identified genes potentially involved in insect adaptation and detoxifying xenobiotics that may allow insects to overcome plant defense responses, including four glutathione S-transferases, three esterases, one cytochrome P450, and several serine proteases. The gene profiles of TPB salivary glands revealed in this study provides a foundation for further understanding and potential development of novel enzymatic inhibitors, or other RNAi approaches that may interrupt or minimize TPB feeding damage.

  1. Defense Mechanisms Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Weingeroff, Jolie L.; Frankenburg, Frances R.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the defensive functioning of 290 criteria-defined borderline patients and compared it to that of 72 patients with other forms of axis II psychopathology. The Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure with demonstrated criterion validity and internal consistency, was administered to 362 axis II inpatients diagnosed using semistructured interviews of proven reliability. Borderline patients had significantly higher scores than axis II comparison subjects on three of the four defense styles assessed by the DSQ: self-sacrificing, maladaptive action, and image-distorting defenses. They also had significantly higher scores than axis II comparison subjects on eight of the 19 defense mechanisms studied. More specifically, borderline patients had significantly higher scores on one neurotic-level defense (undoing), four immature defenses (acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, passive aggression, and projection), and two image- distorting/borderline defenses (projective identification and splitting). In contrast, axis II comparison subjects had a significantly higher score than borderline patients on one mature defense (suppression). When all significant defenses were considered together, three were found to be significant predictors of a borderline diagnosis: acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and undoing. This model has both good sensitivity (.95) and positive predictive power (.86). Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the defensive profile of borderline patients is distinct from that of patients with other forms of axis II pathology. They also suggest that the defensive triad of acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and undoing may serve as a useful clinical marker for the borderline diagnosis, particularly in settings where the base rate of the disorder is high. PMID:19379090

  2. Cross-Talk in Viral Defense Signaling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ju Y.; Park, Jeong M.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that have small genomes with limited coding capacity; therefore, they extensively use host intracellular machinery for their replication and infection in host cells. In recent years, it was elucidated that plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to prevent or limit damage from such pathogens. Plants employ two major strategies to counteract virus infections: resistance (R) gene-mediated and RNA silencing-based defenses. In this review, plant defenses and viral counter defenses are described, as are recent studies examining the cross-talk between different plant defense mechanisms. PMID:28066385

  3. Defense mechanisms in adolescent conduct disorder and adjustment reaction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2004-02-01

    The use of defense mechanisms by male and female adolescents with a diagnosis of conduct disorder was compared with the defense use of adolescents with a diagnosis of adjustment reaction. Because conduct disorder has been shown to be associated with a developmental lag in several areas of psychological functioning, we expected that these adolescents would show immaturity in the use of defenses. This expectation was confirmed. As compared with adjustment reaction, conduct disordered youths were more likely to use the immature defense of denial and less likely to use the mature defense of identification.

  4. Construction of a full-length cDNA library of Solen grandis dunker and identification of defense- and immune-related genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guohua; Liu, Xiangquan; Ren, Lihua; Yang, Jianmin; Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong

    2013-11-01

    The basic genetic characteristics, important functional genes, and entire transcriptome of Solen grandis Dunker were investigated by constructing a full-length cDNA library with the `switching mechanism at the 5'-end of the RNA transcript' (SMART) technique. Total RNA was isolated from the immune-relevant tissues, gills and hemocytes, using the Trizol reagent, and cDNA fragments were digested with Sfi I before being ligated to the pBluescript II SK* vector. The cDNA library had a titer of 1048 cfu μL-1 and a storage capacity of 1.05×106 cfu. Approximately 98% of the clones in the library were recombinants, and the fragment lengths of insert cDNA ranged from 0.8 kb to 3.0 kb. A total of 2038 expressed sequence tags were successfully sequenced and clustered into 965 unigenes. BLASTN analysis showed that 240 sequences were highly similar to the known genes (E-value < 1e -5; percent identity >80%), accounting for 25% of the total unigenes. According to the Gene Ontology, these unigenes were related to several biological processes, including cell structure, signal transport, protein synthesis, transcription, energy metabolism, and immunity. Fifteen of the identified sequences were related to defense and immunity. The full-length cDNA sequence of HSC70 was obtained. The cDNA library of S. grandis provided a useful resource for future researches of functional genomics related to stress tolerance, immunity, and other physiological activities.

  5. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  6. 32 CFR 634.25 - Installation traffic codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation traffic codes. 634.25 Section 634.25... codes. (a) Installation or activity commanders will establish a traffic code for operation of motor vehicles on the installation. Commanders in overseas areas will establish a traffic code, under...

  7. Small Boat and Swarm Defense: A Gap Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    for mounting an effective defense is often very short. This thesis shows that a gap in capability exists in the surface force to defend itself...timeline for mounting an effective defense is often very short. This thesis shows that a gap in capability exists in the surface force to defend...identification of and defense against hostile small craft extremely difficult. Even after a craft is designated hostile the timeline for mounting an

  8. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  9. User Instructions for the EPIC-3 Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Johnson, G.R., D.D Colby, and D J Vavrick. "Three-Dimensional Computer Code for Dynamic Response of Solids to Intense Impulsive Loads." Internatiunal...A182 728 USER INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE EPIC-3 CODE (U) HONEYWELL INC 1/1 BROOKLYN PARK MN DEFENSE SYSTEMS DIV JOHNSON ET AL MAY 87 7-8B-6 AFATL-TR-87-iB...COed AFATL-TR-87-10 AD-A 182 728 User Instructions for the EPIC -3 Code G R Johnson R A Stryk HONEYWELL INCORPORATED DEFENSE SYSTEMS DIVISION 7225

  10. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A.; Highland, Heather M.; Locke, Adam E.; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Rayner, N. William; Robertson, Neil R.; Beer, Nicola L.; Rundle, Jana K.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P.; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S.; Stringham, Heather M.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G.; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Bergman, Richard N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C.; Morris, Andrew P.; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  11. 32 CFR 536.125 - Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Justice (UCMJ) Claims. 536.125 Section 536.125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... 139, Uniform Code of Military Justice § 536.125 Statutory authority for Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Claims. The authority for this subpart is Article 139, Uniform Code of Military...

  12. Codes and Standards Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Codes and Standards Tech Team (CSTT) mission is to enable and facilitate the appropriate research, development, & demonstration (RD&D) for the development of safe, performance-based defensible technical codes and standards that support the technology readiness and are appropriate for widespread consumer use of fuel cells and hydrogen-based technologies with commercialization by 2020. Therefore, it is important that the necessary codes and standards be in place no later than 2015.

  13. Understanding Defense Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding defense mechanisms is an important part of psychotherapy. In this article, we trace the history of the concept of defense, from its origin with Freud to current views. The issue of defense as an unconscious mechanism is examined. The question of whether defenses are pathological, as well as their relation to pathology, is discussed. The effect of psychotherapy on the use of defenses, and their relation to a therapeutic alliance is explored. A series of empirical research studies that demonstrate the functioning of defense mechanisms and that support the theory is presented. Research also shows that as part of normal development, different defenses emerge at different developmental periods, and that gender differences in defense use occur.

  14. Defense Spending and Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-02

    Background paper on SIPRI military expenditure data Public Notice, “ Spending and Defending Defense spending has become a highly......Budget; Finance Reform; Military Spending ; Defense Spending ; Budget Cuts 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  15. 32 CFR 536.27 - Identification of a proper claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Identification of a proper claimant. 536.27 Section 536.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.27 Identification of a proper claimant. The following are...

  16. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants.

  17. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  18. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  19. CADD score has limited clinical validity for the identification of pathogenic variants in non-coding regions in a hereditary cancer panel

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Cheryl A; Mooney, Sean D; Salipante, Stephen J; Scroggins, Sheena; Wu, David; Pritchard, Colin C; Shirts, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Several in silico tools have been shown to have reasonable research sensitivity and specificity for classifying sequence variants in coding regions. The recently-developed Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) method generates predictive scores for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in all areas of the genome, including non-coding regions. We sought to determine the clinical validity of non-coding variant CADD scores. METHODS We evaluated 12,391 unique SNVs in 624 patient samples submitted for germline mutation testing in a cancer-related gene panel. We compared the distributions of CADD scores of rare SNVs, common SNVs in our patient population, and the null distribution of all possible SNVs stratifying by genomic region. RESULTS The median CADD scores of intronic and nonsynonymous variants were significantly different between rare and common SNVs (p<0.0001). Despite these different distributions, no individual variants could be identified as plausibly causative among rare intronic variants with the highest scores. The ROC AUC for non-coding variants is modest, and the positive predictive value of CADD for intronic variants in panel testing was found to be 0.088. CONCLUSION Focused in-silico scoring systems with much higher predictive value will be necessary for clinical genomic applications. PMID:27148939

  20. Characterization of the DNF15S2locus on human chromosome 3: Identification of a gene coding for four kringle domains with homology to hepatocytes growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Su; Stuart, L.A.; Degen, S.J.F. )

    1991-10-08

    A human genomic DNA library was screened by using conditions of reduced stringency with a bovine cDNA probe coding for the kringle domains in prothrombin in order to isolate the human prothrombin gene. Twelve positives were identified, three of which coded for prothrombin. Phage L5 was characterized in more detail because of its strong hybridization to the cDNA probe and its unique restriction map compare to the gene coding for human prothrombin. The gene in L5 was sequenced and found to code for a kringle-containing protein. A human liver cDNA library was screened by using a genomic probe from the gene in L5. cDNAs were isolated that contained sequence identical with regions in the gene in L5. Comparison of the cDNA with the gene indicated that the gene in L5 was composed of 18 exons separated by 17 intervening sequences and is 4,690 bp in length. The putative protein encoded by the gene in L5 contains four kringle domains followed by a serine protease-like domain. The authors propose that the putative L5 protein be tentatively called HGF-like protein until a function is identified. The DNA sequence of the gene and cDNA and its translated amino acid sequence were compared against GenBank and NBRF databases. The DNF15S2 locus has been proposed to code for one or more tumor suppressor genes since this locus is deleted in DNA from small cell lung carcinoma, other lung cancers, renal cell carcinoma, and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

  1. Defense Science Board 1988 Summer Study on the Defense Industrial and Technology Base. Volume 2. Subgroup Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    hingtono D.C. 2030143140 99 220Z PREFACE This volume of the report of the 1988 Defense Science Board Summer Study on the Defense Industrial and Technology ...and Technology Base, Volume I. Accession For NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Unnnnounced U icati~~ Distribution/ Avatlbii lty Codes Av ih and/or Dist Spec ial .L.A...Jrtt1O8 n an Mah" IN DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL AND TECHNOLOGY BASE Mr. Robert A. Fuhrman, Chairman Mr. William A

  2. 32 CFR 634.25 - Installation traffic codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Installation traffic codes. 634.25 Section 634... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.25 Installation traffic codes. (a) Installation or activity commanders will establish a traffic code for...

  3. 32 CFR 634.25 - Installation traffic codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Installation traffic codes. 634.25 Section 634... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.25 Installation traffic codes. (a) Installation or activity commanders will establish a traffic code for...

  4. 32 CFR 636.11 - Installation traffic codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation traffic codes 636.11 Section 636.11... § 636.11 Installation traffic codes In addition to the requirements in § 634.25(d) of this subchapter, on-post violations offenders will be cited under the appropriate Georgia Traffic Code as...

  5. Identification of novel non-coding RNA-based negative feedback regulating the expression of the oncogenic transcription factor GLI1.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Victoria E; Rahman, Mohammed Ferdous-Ur; Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G; Diao, Yumei; Liapi, Eleni; Sonkoly, Enikö; Ståhle, Mona; Pivarcsi, Andor; Annaratone, Laura; Sapino, Anna; Ramírez Clavijo, Sandra; Bürglin, Thomas R; Shimokawa, Takashi; Ramachandran, Saraswathi; Kapranov, Philipp; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2014-07-01

    Non-coding RNAs are a complex class of nucleic acids, with growing evidence supporting regulatory roles in gene expression. Here we identify a non-coding RNA located head-to-head with the gene encoding the Glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1), a transcriptional effector of multiple cancer-associated signaling pathways. The expression of this three-exon GLI1 antisense (GLI1AS) RNA in cancer cells was concordant with GLI1 levels. siRNAs knockdown of GLI1AS up-regulated GLI1 and increased cellular proliferation and tumor growth in a xenograft model system. Conversely, GLI1AS overexpression decreased the levels of GLI1, its target genes PTCH1 and PTCH2, and cellular proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that GLI1 knockdown reduced GLI1AS, while GLI1 overexpression increased GLI1AS, supporting the role of GLI1AS as a target gene of the GLI1 transcription factor. Activation of TGFβ and Hedgehog signaling, two known regulators of GLI1 expression, conferred a concordant up-regulation of GLI1 and GLI1AS in cancer cells. Finally, analysis of the mechanism underlying the interplay between GLI1 and GLI1AS indicates that the non-coding RNA elicits a local alteration of chromatin structure by increasing the silencing mark H3K27me3 and decreasing the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to this locus. Taken together, the data demonstrate the existence of a novel non-coding RNA-based negative feedback loop controlling GLI1 levels, thus expanding the repertoire of mechanisms regulating the expression of this oncogenic transcription factor.

  6. In Silico identification and annotation of non-coding RNAs by RNA-seq and De Novo assembly of the transcriptome of Tomato Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Scarano, Daria; Rao, Rosa; Corrado, Giandomenico

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) transcriptome has not yet been fully elucidated. To gain insights into the diversity and features of coding and non-coding RNA molecules of tomato fruits, we generated strand-specific libraries from berries of two tomato cultivars grown in two open-field conditions with different soil type. Following high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), more than 90% of the reads (over one billion, derived from twelve dataset) were aligned to the tomato reference genome. We report a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome, improved with 39,095 transcripts, which reveals previously unannotated novel transcripts, natural antisense transcripts, long non-coding RNAs and alternative splicing variants. In addition, we investigated the sequence variants between the cultivars under investigation to highlight their genetic difference. Our strand-specific analysis allowed us to expand the current tomato transcriptome annotation and it is the first to reveal the complexity of the poly-adenylated RNA world in tomato. Moreover, our work demonstrates the usefulness of strand specific RNA-seq approach for the transcriptome-based genome annotation and provides a resource valuable for further functional studies. PMID:28187155

  7. Improvement of genome assembly completeness and identification of novel full-length protein-coding genes by RNA-seq in the giant panda genome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meili; Hu, Yibo; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Wei, Fuwen; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    High-quality and complete gene models are the basis of whole genome analyses. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome was the first genome sequenced on the basis of solely short reads, but the genome annotation had lacked the support of transcriptomic evidence. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to globally improve the genome assembly completeness and to detect novel expressed transcripts in 12 tissues from giant pandas, by using a transcriptome reconstruction strategy that combined reference-based and de novo methods. Several aspects of genome assembly completeness in the transcribed regions were effectively improved by the de novo assembled transcripts, including genome scaffolding, the detection of small-size assembly errors, the extension of scaffold/contig boundaries, and gap closure. Through expression and homology validation, we detected three groups of novel full-length protein-coding genes. A total of 12.62% of the novel protein-coding genes were validated by proteomic data. GO annotation analysis showed that some of the novel protein-coding genes were involved in pigmentation, anatomical structure formation and reproduction, which might be related to the development and evolution of the black-white pelage, pseudo-thumb and delayed embryonic implantation of giant pandas. The updated genome annotation will help further giant panda studies from both structural and functional perspectives. PMID:26658305

  8. Improvement of genome assembly completeness and identification of novel full-length protein-coding genes by RNA-seq in the giant panda genome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meili; Hu, Yibo; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Wei, Fuwen; Wu, Jiayan

    2015-12-11

    High-quality and complete gene models are the basis of whole genome analyses. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome was the first genome sequenced on the basis of solely short reads, but the genome annotation had lacked the support of transcriptomic evidence. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to globally improve the genome assembly completeness and to detect novel expressed transcripts in 12 tissues from giant pandas, by using a transcriptome reconstruction strategy that combined reference-based and de novo methods. Several aspects of genome assembly completeness in the transcribed regions were effectively improved by the de novo assembled transcripts, including genome scaffolding, the detection of small-size assembly errors, the extension of scaffold/contig boundaries, and gap closure. Through expression and homology validation, we detected three groups of novel full-length protein-coding genes. A total of 12.62% of the novel protein-coding genes were validated by proteomic data. GO annotation analysis showed that some of the novel protein-coding genes were involved in pigmentation, anatomical structure formation and reproduction, which might be related to the development and evolution of the black-white pelage, pseudo-thumb and delayed embryonic implantation of giant pandas. The updated genome annotation will help further giant panda studies from both structural and functional perspectives.

  9. NemaFootPrinter: a web based software for the identification of conserved non-coding genome sequence regions between C. elegans and C. briggsae

    PubMed Central

    Rambaldi, Davide; Guffanti, Alessandro; Morandi, Paolo; Cassata, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Background NemaFootPrinter (Nematode Transcription Factor Scan Through Philogenetic Footprinting) is a web-based software for interactive identification of conserved, non-exonic DNA segments in the genomes of C. elegans and C. briggsae. It has been implemented according to the following project specifications: a) Automated identification of orthologous gene pairs. b) Interactive selection of the boundaries of the genes to be compared. c) Pairwise sequence comparison with a range of different methods. d) Identification of putative transcription factor binding sites on conserved, non-exonic DNA segments. Results Starting from a C. elegans or C. briggsae gene name or identifier, the software identifies the putative ortholog (if any), based on information derived from public nematode genome annotation databases. The investigator can then retrieve the genome DNA sequences of the two orthologous genes; visualize graphically the genes' intron/exon structure and the surrounding DNA regions; select, through an interactive graphical user interface, subsequences of the two gene regions. Using a bioinformatics toolbox (Blast2seq, Dotmatcher, Ssearch and connection to the rVista database) the investigator is able at the end of the procedure to identify and analyze significant sequences similarities, detecting the presence of transcription factor binding sites corresponding to the conserved segments. The software automatically masks exons. Discussion This software is intended as a practical and intuitive tool for the researchers interested in the identification of non-exonic conserved sequence segments between C. elegans and C. briggsae. These sequences may contain regulatory transcriptional elements since they are conserved between two related, but rapidly evolving genomes. This software also highlights the power of genome annotation databases when they are conceived as an open resource and the possibilities offered by seamless integration of different web services via the http

  10. Identification of a cDNA clone that contains the complete coding sequence for a 140-kD rat NCAM polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) are cell surface glycoproteins that appear to mediate cell-cell adhesion. In vertebrates NCAMs exist in at least three different polypeptide forms of apparent molecular masses 180, 140, and 120 kD. The 180- and 140-kD forms span the plasma membrane whereas the 120-kD form lacks a transmembrane region. In this study, we report the isolation of NCAM clones from an adult rat brain cDNA library. Sequence analysis indicated that the longest isolate, pR18, contains a 2,574 nucleotide open reading frame flanked by 208 bases of 5' and 409 bases of 3' untranslated sequence. The predicted polypeptide encoded by clone pR18 contains a single membrane-spanning region and a small cytoplasmic domain (120 amino acids), suggesting that it codes for a full-length 140-kD NCAM form. In Northern analysis, probes derived from 5' sequences of pR18, which presumably code for extracellular portions of the molecule hybridized to five discrete mRNA size classes (7.4, 6.7, 5.2, 4.3, and 2.9 kb) in adult rat brain but not to liver or muscle RNA. However, the 5.2- and 2.9-kb mRNA size classes did not hybridize to either a large restriction fragment or three oligonucleotides derived from the putative transmembrane coding region and regions that lie 3' to it. The 3' probes did hybridize to the 7.4-, 6.7-, and 4.3-kb message size classes. These combined results indicate that clone pR18 is derived from either the 7.4-, 6.7-, or 4.3- kb adult rat brain RNA size class. Comparison with chicken and mouse NCAM cDNA sequences suggests that pR18 represents the amino acid coding region of the 6.7- or 4.3-kb mRNA. The isolation of pR18, the first cDNA that contains the complete coding sequence of an NCAM polypeptide, unambiguously demonstrates the predicted linear amino acid sequence of this probable rat 140-kD polypeptide. This cDNA also contains a 30-base pair segment not found in NCAM cDNAs isolated from other species. The significance of this segment and other

  11. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  12. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the "non-hostile" colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  13. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the “non-hostile” colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7. PMID:25250017

  14. Identification of Potential Key Long Non-Coding RNAs and Target Genes Associated with Pneumonia Using Long Non-Coding RNA Sequencing (lncRNA-Seq): A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sai; Feng, Cong; Chen, Li; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Bei; Wang, Li-li; Chen, Wei; Lv, Fa-qin; Li, Tan-shi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to identify the potential key long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and target genes associated with pneumonia using lncRNA sequencing (lncRNA-seq). Material/Methods A total of 9 peripheral blood samples from patients with mild pneumonia (n=3) and severe pneumonia (n=3), as well as volunteers without pneumonia (n=3), were received for lncRNA-seq. Based on the sequencing data, differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs) were identified by the limma package. After the functional enrichment analysis, target genes of DE-lncRNAs were predicted, and the regulatory network was constructed. Results In total, 99 DE-lncRNAs (14 upregulated and 85 downregulated ones) were identified in the mild pneumonia group and 85 (72 upregulated and 13 downregulated ones) in the severe pneumonia group, compared with the control group. Among these DE-lncRNAs, 9 lncRNAs were upregulated in both the mild and severe pneumonia groups. A set of 868 genes were predicted to be targeted by these 9 DE-lncRNAs. In the network, RP11-248E9.5 and RP11-456D7.1 targeted the majority of genes. RP11-248E9.5 regulated several genes together with CTD-2300H10.2, such as QRFP and EPS8. Both upregulated RP11-456D7.1 and RP11-96C23.9 regulated several genes, such as PDK2. RP11-456D7.1 also positively regulated CCL21. Conclusions These novel lncRNAs and their target genes may be closely associated with the progression of pneumonia. PMID:27663962

  15. Identification of circulating long non-coding RNA GAS5 as a potential biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer diagnosisnon-small cell lung cancer, long non-coding RNA, plasma, GAS5, biomarker.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qian; Zuo, Jiangcheng; Qiu, Shili; Yu, Yalan; Zhou, Hu; Li, Nandi; Wang, Hui; Liang, Chunzi; Yu, Mingxia; Tu, Jiancheng

    2017-05-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most malignant cancers in the world. Early diagnosis of NSCLC has become especially important for patient treatment and prognosis. Increasing evidence suggest that long non-coding RNA GAS5 plays vital roles in cancer proliferation and differentiation in NSCLC. However, its clinical value in the diagnosis of NSCLC is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of circulating GAS5 as a biomarker for NSCLC diagnosis. In our study, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was applied to detect the GAS5 expression level in 80 pairs of cancer tissues and 57 pairs of plasma samples of NSCLC patients. Further analysis was performed to study the differential expression of circulating GAS5 in 111 NSCLC patients and 78 healthy controls in our study. The results showed that GAS5 decreased in NSCLC tissues compared to noncancerous tissues (P<0.001). Furthermore, the GAS5 expression level was statistically declined in early stage of NSCLC before surgery compared with healthy controls (P<0.05) and sharply increased in postoperative groups (P=0.026). ROC curve analysis for early stage of NSCLC with the combination of GAS5, CEA and CA199 showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.734 (95% CI, 0.628‑0.839; P<0.0005). In conclusion, circulating GAS5 could be functioned as a potential combined biomarker for screening NSCLC and patient monitoring after surgical treatment.

  16. Identification of an androgen-repressed mRNA in rat ventral prostate as coding for sulphated glycoprotein 2 by cDNA cloning and sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bettuzzi, S; Hiipakka, R A; Gilna, P; Liao, S T

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of a small number of mRNAs in the rat ventral prostate increase after castration and then decrease upon androgen treatment. Since the repression of specific gene expression may be important in the regulation of organ growth, we have cloned a cDNA for an androgen-repressed mRNA, the concentration of which increased 17-fold 4 days after castration, and this increase was reversed rapidly by androgen treatment. By sequence analysis the androgen-repressed mRNA was identified as that coding for sulphated glycoprotein 2. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2920020

  17. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Roles of Military Power 9  U.S. Defense Objectives 11  REBALANCING THE FORCE 17  Defend the United States and Support Civil Authorities at Home 18...the need to plan for the broadest possible range of operations—from homeland defense and defense support to civil authorities, to deterrence and...Defend the United States and support civil authorities at home: The rapid proliferation of destructive technologies, combined with potent

  18. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  19. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  20. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  1. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  2. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  3. Dynamic defense workshop :

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  4. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  5. Technologies for distributed defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  6. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  7. Comprehensive Identification of Long Non-coding RNAs in Purified Cell Types from the Brain Reveals Functional LncRNA in OPC Fate Determination

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaomin; Chen, Kenian; Cuevas-Diaz Duran, Raquel; You, Yanan; Sloan, Steven A.; Zhang, Ye; Zong, Shan; Cao, Qilin; Barres, Ben A.; Wu, Jia Qian

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (> 200 bp) play crucial roles in transcriptional regulation during numerous biological processes. However, it is challenging to comprehensively identify lncRNAs, because they are often expressed at low levels and with more cell-type specificity than are protein-coding genes. In the present study, we performed ab initio transcriptome reconstruction using eight purified cell populations from mouse cortex and detected more than 5000 lncRNAs. Predicting the functions of lncRNAs using cell-type specific data revealed their potential functional roles in Central Nervous System (CNS) development. We performed motif searches in ENCODE DNase I digital footprint data and Mouse ENCODE promoters to infer transcription factor (TF) occupancy. By integrating TF binding and cell-type specific transcriptomic data, we constructed a novel framework that is useful for systematically identifying lncRNAs that are potentially essential for brain cell fate determination. Based on this integrative analysis, we identified lncRNAs that are regulated during Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell (OPC) differentiation from Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and that are likely to be involved in oligodendrogenesis. The top candidate, lnc-OPC, shows highly specific expression in OPCs and remarkable sequence conservation among placental mammals. Interestingly, lnc-OPC is significantly up-regulated in glial progenitors from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse models compared to wild-type mice. OLIG2-binding sites in the upstream regulatory region of lnc-OPC were identified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-Sequencing and validated by luciferase assays. Loss-of-function experiments confirmed that lnc-OPC plays a functional role in OPC genesis. Overall, our results substantiated the role of lncRNA in OPC fate determination and provided an unprecedented data source for future functional investigations in CNS cell types. We present our datasets and analysis results

  8. Molecular Characterization of the Tumor Suppressor Candidate 5 Gene: Regulation by PPARγ and Identification of TUSC5 Coding Variants in Lean and Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Knotts, Trina A.; Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jae Bum; Oort, Pieter J.; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Tachibana, Keisuke; Doi, Takefumi; Yu, Songtao; Reddy, Janardan K.; Uno, Kenji; Katagiri, Hideki; Pasarica, Magdalena; Smith, Steven R.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Grino, Michel; Adams, Sean H.

    2009-01-01

    Tumor suppressor candidate 5 (TUSC5) is a gene expressed abundantly in white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and peripheral afferent neurons. Strong adipocyte expression and increased expression following peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes suggested a role for Tusc5 in fat cell proliferation and/or metabolism. However, the regulation of Tusc5 in WAT and its potential association with obesity phenotypes remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the TUSC5 gene is a bona fide PPARγ target and evaluated whether its WAT expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TUSC5 coding region are associated with human obesity. Induction of Tusc5 mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by troglitazone and GW1929 followed a dose-response consistent with these agents' binding affinities for PPARγ. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirmed that PPARγ protein binds a ∼ −1.1 kb promotor sequence of murine TUSC5 transiently during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, concurrent with histone H3 acetylation. No change in Tusc5 mRNA or protein levels was evident in type 2 diabetic patients treated with pioglitazone. Tusc5 expression was not induced appreciably in liver preparations overexpressing PPARs, suggesting that tissue-specific factors regulate PPARγ responsiveness of the TUSC5 gene. Finally, we observed no differences in Tusc5 WAT expression or prevalence of coding region SNPs in lean versus obese human subjects. These studies firmly establish the murine TUSC5 gene locus as a PPARγ target, but the significance of Tusc5 in obesity phenotypes or in the pharmacologic actions of PPARγ agonists in humans remains equivocal. PMID:20204174

  9. Molecular Characterization of the Tumor Suppressor Candidate 5 Gene: Regulation by PPARgamma and Identification of TUSC5 Coding Variants in Lean and Obese Humans.

    PubMed

    Knotts, Trina A; Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jae Bum; Oort, Pieter J; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Tachibana, Keisuke; Doi, Takefumi; Yu, Songtao; Reddy, Janardan K; Uno, Kenji; Katagiri, Hideki; Pasarica, Magdalena; Smith, Steven R; Sears, Dorothy D; Grino, Michel; Adams, Sean H

    2009-01-01

    Tumor suppressor candidate 5 (TUSC5) is a gene expressed abundantly in white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and peripheral afferent neurons. Strong adipocyte expression and increased expression following peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes suggested a role for Tusc5 in fat cell proliferation and/or metabolism. However, the regulation of Tusc5 in WAT and its potential association with obesity phenotypes remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the TUSC5 gene is a bona fide PPARgamma target and evaluated whether its WAT expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TUSC5 coding region are associated with human obesity. Induction of Tusc5 mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by troglitazone and GW1929 followed a dose-response consistent with these agents' binding affinities for PPARgamma. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirmed that PPARgamma protein binds a approximately -1.1 kb promotor sequence of murine TUSC5 transiently during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, concurrent with histone H3 acetylation. No change in Tusc5 mRNA or protein levels was evident in type 2 diabetic patients treated with pioglitazone. Tusc5 expression was not induced appreciably in liver preparations overexpressing PPARs, suggesting that tissue-specific factors regulate PPARgamma responsiveness of the TUSC5 gene. Finally, we observed no differences in Tusc5 WAT expression or prevalence of coding region SNPs in lean versus obese human subjects. These studies firmly establish the murine TUSC5 gene locus as a PPARgamma target, but the significance of Tusc5 in obesity phenotypes or in the pharmacologic actions of PPARgamma agonists in humans remains equivocal.

  10. Identification of mRNA-like non-coding RNAs and validation of a mighty one named MAR in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meizhen; Wu, Bin; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shanfa

    2015-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play significant roles in plants. However, little is known about lncRNAs in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, an economically significant medicinal plant species. A total of 3,688 mRNA-like non-coding RNAs (mlncRNAs), a class of lncRNAs, were identified in P. ginseng. Approximately 40% of the identified mlncRNAs were processed into small RNAs, implying their regulatory roles via small RNA-mediated mechanisms. Eleven miRNA-generating mlncRNAs also produced siRNAs, suggesting the coordinated production of miRNAs and siRNAs in P. ginseng. The mlncRNA-derived small RNAs might be 21-, 22-, or 24-nt phased and could be generated from both or only one strand of mlncRNAs, or from super long hairpin structures. A full-length mlncRNA, termed MAR (multiple-function-associated mlncRNA), was cloned. It generated the most abundant siRNAs. The MAR siRNAs were predominantly 24-nt and some of them were distributed in a phased pattern. A total of 228 targets were predicted for 71 MAR siRNAs. Degradome sequencing validated 68 predicted targets involved in diverse metabolic pathways, suggesting the significance of MAR in P. ginseng. Consistently, MAR was detected in all tissues analyzed and responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. It sheds light on the function of mlncRNAs in plants.

  11. Helmet-mounted display targeting symbology color coding: an air-to-air scenario evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiselman, Eric E.; Post, David L.

    1999-07-01

    Laboratory and flight test evaluations have consistently demonstrated the potential for helmet-mounted display (HMD) presented information to enhance air combat performance. The Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL's) Helmet-Mounted Sight Plus (HMS+) program seeks to provide further enhancement by enabling the presentation of multi-color symbology and sensor imagery. To take proper advantage of color-capable HMDs, systematic evaluations must be conducted to identify the best color-coding techniques. The experiment described here is the second we have conducted to address this need. The first experiment identified the better of two competing color coding strategies for air-to-air weapons symbology and indicated that pilots preferred the color codes over an otherwise equivalent monochrome baseline. The present experiment compared the 'winning' color code to the monochrome baseline during trials of a complex multi-player air-to-air weapon delivery scenario. Twelve fighter pilots representing three different countries (U.S., U.K., and Sweden) flew simulator trials that included target identification, intercept, attack, missile launch, and defensive maneuvering tasks. Participants' subjective feedback and performance data indicated a preference for color coded symbology.

  12. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Cyber Defense Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    DSB Task Force Report on Cyber Defense Management September 2016 (U) This page intentionally blank REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD STUDY ON Cyber...U) This report is a product of the Defense Science Board (DSB). (U) The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent...position of the Department of Defense (DoD). The Defense Science Board Study on Cyber Defense completed its information-gathering in November 2015. The

  13. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  14. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  15. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  16. A genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2014-08-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code.

  17. Strategic and Operational Considerations for the Implementation of Performance Based Logistics (PBL) Within the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Implementation of Performance Based Logistics (PBL) Within the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force By: Gaku Harada June 2010 Advisors: Keenan...and Operational Considerations for the Implementation of Performance Based Logistics (PBL) Within the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force 6...public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) will

  18. Identification of non-coding genetic variants in samples from hypoxemic respiratory disease patients that affect the transcriptional response to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Olga; Deguiz, María Laura; Tiana, María; Galiana-Ribote, Clara; Martinez-Alcazar, Daniel; Rey-Serra, Carlos; Ranz-Ribeiro, Beatriz; Casitas, Raquel; Galera, Raúl; Fernández-Navarro, Isabel; Sánchez-Cuéllar, Silvia; Bernard, Virginie; Ancochea, Julio; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; García-Rio, Francisco; Jimenez, Benilde; del Peso, Luis

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of diseases course with an unbalance between the consumption of oxygen by tissues and its supply. This situation triggers a transcriptional response, mediated by the hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), that aims to restore oxygen homeostasis. Little is known about the inter-individual variation in this response and its role in the progression of disease. Herein, we sought to identify common genetic variants mapping to hypoxia response elements (HREs) and characterize their effect on transcription. To this end, we constructed a list of genome-wide HIF-binding regions from publicly available experimental datasets and studied the genetic variability in these regions by targeted re-sequencing of genomic samples from 96 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 144 obstructive sleep apnea patients. This study identified 14 frequent variants disrupting potential HREs. The analysis of the genomic regions containing these variants by means of reporter assays revealed that variants rs1009329, rs6593210 and rs150921338 impaired the transcriptional response to hypoxia. Finally, using genome editing we confirmed the functional role of rs6593210 in the transcriptional regulation of EGFR. In summary, we found that inter-individual variability in non-coding regions affect the response to hypoxia and could potentially impact on the progression of pulmonary diseases. PMID:27625398

  19. Identification and functional analysis of long non-coding RNAs in human and mouse early embryos based on single-cell transcriptome data

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jia-jun; Ren, Zhao-rui; Yan, Jing-bin

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics regulations have an important role in fertilization and proper embryonic development, and several human diseases are associated with epigenetic modification disorders, such as Rett syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. However, the dynamics and functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), one type of epigenetic regulators, in human pre-implantation development have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of human and mouse early-stage embryonic lncRNAs was performed based on public single-cell RNA sequencing data. Expression profile analysis revealed that lncRNAs are expressed in a developmental stage–specific manner during human early-stage embryonic development, whereas a more temporal-specific expression pattern was identified in mouse embryos. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis suggested that lncRNAs involved in human early-stage embryonic development are associated with several important functions and processes, such as oocyte maturation, zygotic genome activation and mitochondrial functions. We also found that the network of lncRNAs involved in zygotic genome activation was highly preservative between human and mouse embryos, whereas in other stages no strong correlation between human and mouse embryo was observed. This study provides insight into the molecular mechanism underlying lncRNA involvement in human pre-implantation embryonic development. PMID:27542205

  20. The 1987 defense budget

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Brookings annual analysis of the defense budget is designed to identify critical national security issues facing the country, to clarify choices that must be made in allocating resources, and to encourage informed public debate. This volume examines the Reagan administration's 1987 budget and associated multi-year plan for defense. It is also part of a long-range effort at Brookings to use dynamic campaign analysis to address more explicitly and in greater detail the full scope of force planning and defense budgeting issues.

  1. The 1988 defense budget

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Brookings annual analysis of the defense budget is designed to identify critical national security issues facing the country, to clarify choices that must be made in allocating resources, and to encourage informed public debate. Like its predecessors, this volume critically examines the Reagan administration's 1988 budget and associated multi-year plan for defense. It is part of a long-range effort at Brookings to use dynamic campaign analysis to address more explicitly and in greater detail the full scope of force planning and defense budgeting issues.

  2. Combined identification of long non-coding RNA CCAT1 and HOTAIR in serum as an effective screening for colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weimin; Song, Mu; Zhang, Jie; Kuerban, Mulati; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) CCAT1 and HOTAIR have been shown to play an important regulatory role in cancer biology, and CCAT1 and HOTAIR are upregulated in several cancers, however, its value in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of plasma CCAT1 and HOTAIR as a biomarker in the screening of CRC. In our study, we found that the levels of HOTAIR (P < 0.05) and CCAT1 (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in plasma of CRC patients than that of the healthy control. Moreover, the levels of lincRNA-p21 (P < 0.05) were obviously decreased in plasma of CRC patients as compared to those of healthy control. There was highly correlated for CCAT1 (R = 0.752, mean differences = -0.06 ± 1.20), HOTAIR (R = 0.739, mean differences = -0.26 ± 0.76) and lincRNA-p21 (R = 0.848, mean differences = -0.41 ± 0.89) in plasma and serum. By receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, plasma CCAT1 provided the higher diagnostic performance for detection of CRC (the area under the ROC curve (AUC), 0.836; P < 0.001; sensitivity, 75.7%; specificity, 85.3%). Moreover, CCAT1 combining with HOTAIR could provide a more effective diagnosis performance (AUC, 0.954, P < 0.001, sensitivity, 84.3%; specificity, 80.2%). Most importantly, this combination was effective to detect CRC at an early stage (85%). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that increased plasma HOTAIR and CCAT1 could be used as a predictive biomarker for CRC screening, and that combination of HOTAIR and CCAT1 had a higher positive diagnostic rate of CRC than HOTAIR or CCAT1 alone.

  3. 48 CFR 211.275 - Radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Radio frequency identification....

  4. Defense Logistics: A Completed Comprehensive Strategy is Needed to Guide DOD’s In-Transit Visibility Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Defense Logistics List of Abbreviations aRFID active radio frequency identification DOD Department of Defense RFID ...incomplete delivery data for many surface shipments; inadequate radio-frequency identification ( RFID )9 information to track all cargo movements to and...entered onto RFID tags. In July 2011, we also recommended that DOD develop a comprehensive corrective action plan for improving asset visibility, and

  5. 7 CFR 54.17 - Official identifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identifications. (a) A shield enclosing the letters “USDA” and code identification letters of the grader.... The code identification letters of the grader performing the service will appear intermittently... in Figure 1, with the appropriate yield grade designation “1,” “2,” “3”, “4,” or “5” as provided...

  6. 7 CFR 54.17 - Official identifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... identifications. (a) A shield enclosing the letters “USDA” and code identification letters of the grader.... The code identification letters of the grader performing the service will appear intermittently... in Figure 1, with the appropriate yield grade designation “1,” “2,” “3”, “4,” or “5” as provided...

  7. 7 CFR 54.17 - Official identifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... identifications. (a) A shield enclosing the letters “USDA” and code identification letters of the grader.... The code identification letters of the grader performing the service will appear intermittently... in Figure 1, with the appropriate yield grade designation “1,” “2,” “3”, “4,” or “5” as provided...

  8. 7 CFR 54.17 - Official identifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifications. (a) A shield enclosing the letters “USDA” and code identification letters of the grader.... The code identification letters of the grader performing the service will appear intermittently... in Figure 1, with the appropriate yield grade designation “1,” “2,” “3”, “4,” or “5” as provided...

  9. 7 CFR 54.17 - Official identifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identifications. (a) A shield enclosing the letters “USDA” and code identification letters of the grader.... The code identification letters of the grader performing the service will appear intermittently... in Figure 1, with the appropriate yield grade designation “1,” “2,” “3”, “4,” or “5” as provided...

  10. DEFENSE INDUSTRY PROFIT REVIEW

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Department of Defense (DoD) must employ contracting policies and methods that create an environment for profit opportunities. Just where the... profit range should fall is a matter of judgment and a point on which there probably will always be disagreement. This report is intended to serve as a...partial basis for DoD management’s assessment of the adequacy of defense business profits , as part of their continuing evaluation of contracting policies and methods.

  11. Identification of genes potentially responsible for extra-oral digestion and overcoming plant defense from salivary glands of the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) using cDNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris) feeding. TPBs secrete saliva during feeding to facilitate the piercing into plant tissues. More importantly, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the p...

  12. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  13. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  14. National Missile Defense Contingency Deployment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Defense Organization PMCS IDEA PAPER TITLE: National Missile Defense, Contingency Deployment Planning PMCS CLASS: 95C AUTHOR: Clifford E. Reeves... NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE CONTINGENCY DEPLOYMENT INTRODUCTION The author feels it is vital to start strategic planning for the development of operational...PROFESSIONAL MILITARY COMPTROLLER SCHOOL IDEA PAPER TITLE NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE CONTINGENCY DEPLOYMENT AUTHOR CLIFFORD E. REEVES GS-15, OSD

  15. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... System for Award Management (SAM) database (see FAR subpart 4.11) and does not have a CAGE code, DLA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CAGE codes. 204.7202-1 Section 204.7202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS...

  16. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... System for Award Management (SAM) database (see FAR subpart 4.11) and does not have a CAGE code, DLA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CAGE codes. 204.7202-1 Section 204.7202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS...

  17. 32 CFR 636.11 - Installation traffic codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Installation traffic codes. 636.11 Section 636.11... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.11 Installation traffic codes. In addition to the requirements in § 634.25(d) of this...

  18. 32 CFR 636.11 - Installation traffic codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Installation traffic codes. 636.11 Section 636... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.11 Installation traffic codes. In addition to the requirements in § 634.25(d)...

  19. 32 CFR 636.11 - Installation traffic codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Installation traffic codes 636.11 Section 636.11... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.11 Installation traffic codes In addition to the requirements in § 634.25(d) of this...

  20. 32 CFR 636.11 - Installation traffic codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Installation traffic codes 636.11 Section 636.11... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.11 Installation traffic codes In addition to the requirements in § 634.25(d) of this...

  1. 32 CFR 1802.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1802.13 Section 1802.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  2. 32 CFR 1802.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1802.13 Section 1802.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  3. 32 CFR 1802.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1802.13 Section 1802.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  4. 32 CFR 1802.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1802.13 Section 1802.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  5. 32 CFR 1802.13 - Identification of material at issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of material at issue. 1802.13 Section 1802.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  6. 32 CFR 2400.12 - Identification and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification and markings. 2400.12 Section 2400.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  7. 32 CFR 2400.12 - Identification and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification and markings. 2400.12 Section 2400.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  8. 32 CFR 2400.12 - Identification and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification and markings. 2400.12 Section 2400.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  9. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-04

    Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated October 4, 2007 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense

  10. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-15

    The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food infrastructure of the United States is a key...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated November 15, 2007 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  11. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-04

    FAD). The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food infrastructure of the United States is...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress September 4, 2007 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  12. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-10

    Directive/HSPD-9, January 30, 2004. The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food infrastructure...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated September 10, 2007 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  13. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-03

    Directorate congressional budget justification, p. 44. The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food ...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated April 3, 2008 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-19

    National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food infrastructure of the United States is a key component...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated May 19, 2008 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. 3 CFR - Delegation of Reporting Function Specified in Section 1043 of the National Defense Authorization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Defense the Secretary of Energy By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code,...

  16. Analysis and Defense of Vulnerabilities in Binary Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-29

    additional web browser vulnerabilities. The client-end web - browser vulnerabilities come from the Month of Browser Bugs (MOBB) website [7]. These bugs...program written as part of a web page. Modern web - browsers allow for various scripting languages, such as JScript, JavaScript, and VBScript. Scripting...languages extend basic HTML with the ability to call native methods on the browser’s computer, e.g., ActiveX controls. When the web - browser renders a

  17. Global ISR: Toward a Comprehensive Defense Against Unauthorized Code Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    concurrently. The users exe- cuted, in a round - robin fashion, a set of five queries over 100 trials. The average length of the queries was 639 bytes...interpreted languages that could benefit from ISR include VBS , Python, and others. 6 SQL Randomization SQL-injection attacks have serious security and

  18. 75 FR 52917 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items, DFARS Case 2009-D018 AGENCY: Defense.../DARS, Room 3B855, 3060 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3060. Comments received generally will be... IUID items. The tracking of warranties, from the identification of the requirement to the...

  19. Federal Logistics Information System (FLIS) Procedures Manual. Volume 8. Document Identifier Code Input/Output Formats (Fixed Length)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    COLLABORATION CODE 0002X B Fl 41-42 2533 AUTHORIZED ITEM IDENTIFICATION DATA COLLABORATION CODE 0002X B Fl 43-44 2533 AUTHORIZED ITEM IDENTIFICATION DATA ... COLLABORATION CODE 0002X B Fl 45-46 2533 AUTHORIZED ITEM IDENTIFICATION DATA COLLABORATION CODE 0002X B F1 47-48 2533 AUTHORIZED ITEM IDENTIFICATION... DATA COLLABORATION CODE 0002X B F1 49-50 2533 AUTHORIZED ITEM IDENTIFICATION DATA COLLABORATION CODE 0002X B Fl 51-52 0 3 DIC LMD DoD 4100.39-M Volume

  20. Defense against ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, H. )

    1992-01-01

    A development history and development status evaluation is presented for weapons technologies capable of serving as defenses against nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. The decisive turning-point in this history was the March 23, 1983 announcement by President Reagan of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Due to President Reagan's emphasis on population protection, 'global' defense systems have tended to dominate SDI design efforts. The most important SDI technical achievements to date encompass (1) miniature homig devices, (2) the upgrade of the Patriot SAM for missile-interception capabilities, (3) light exoatmospheric projectiles, such as 'Brilliant Pebbles', (4) successful laser-communications experiments, and (5) the warhead/decoy-discriminating Firepond lidar system. 7 refs.

  1. Defense Acquisition Structures and Capabilities Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    requirements, budget, industry, and organizations. See Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress, John Warner National Defense Authorization Act...Shortage of Skills and Talent. 3 Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress, John Warner National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year...Capabilities, Final Report, January 2004. 28 Secretary of Defense, Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress, John War- ner National Defense

  2. Chemical and Biological Defense Program Annual Report to Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    state public health systems, to expand existing biosurveillance efforts, and to fund research on medical countermeasures against potential bioterror...Detection System (JBSDS) • Joint Portal Shield • Biological Identification System (BIDS) • Dry Filter Units (DFUs) Table 2-3 Biological Defense...Detection System (BIDS) • Joint Portal Shield Network Sensor System • Automated biological remote detection and early warning capabilities

  3. 32 CFR 634.21 - Department of Defense Form 2220.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Defense Form 2220. (a) Use. DD Form 2220 will be used to identify registered POVs on Army, Navy...). (ii) Alphanumeric individual form identification number. (iii) DOD seal. (2) Name of the installation... guided by state or host nation laws will specify the exact placement of DD Form 2220. (5) For Navy...

  4. 32 CFR 634.21 - Department of Defense Form 2220.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Defense Form 2220. (a) Use. DD Form 2220 will be used to identify registered POVs on Army, Navy...). (ii) Alphanumeric individual form identification number. (iii) DOD seal. (2) Name of the installation... guided by state or host nation laws will specify the exact placement of DD Form 2220. (5) For Navy...

  5. 32 CFR 634.21 - Department of Defense Form 2220.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Department of Defense Form 2220. (a) Use. DD Form 2220 will be used to identify registered POVs on Army, Navy...). (ii) Alphanumeric individual form identification number. (iii) DOD seal. (2) Name of the installation... guided by state or host nation laws will specify the exact placement of DD Form 2220. (5) For Navy...

  6. 32 CFR 634.21 - Department of Defense Form 2220.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense Form 2220. (a) Use. DD Form 2220 will be used to identify registered POVs on Army, Navy...). (ii) Alphanumeric individual form identification number. (iii) DOD seal. (2) Name of the installation... guided by state or host nation laws will specify the exact placement of DD Form 2220. (5) For Navy...

  7. 32 CFR 634.21 - Department of Defense Form 2220.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department of Defense Form 2220. (a) Use. DD Form 2220 will be used to identify registered POVs on Army, Navy...). (ii) Alphanumeric individual form identification number. (iii) DOD seal. (2) Name of the installation... guided by state or host nation laws will specify the exact placement of DD Form 2220. (5) For Navy...

  8. Classification and Coding, An Introduction and Review of Classification and Coding Systems. Management Guide No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacConnell, W.

    Nearly all organizations are faced with problems of classifying and coding financial data, management and technical information, components, stores, etc. and need to apply some logical and meaningful system of identification. This report examines the objectives and applications of classification and coding systems and reviews eight systems…

  9. 9. BASRELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BAS-RELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT DEARBORN - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Michigan Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  11. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections.

  12. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  13. Defense Language Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Discussed in this Defense Language Institute (DLI) brochure are its intensive language programs' history, and its four schools, which are located in Monterey, California, Washington, D.C., Lackland Air Force Base, and Fort Bliss, Texas. Proficiency levels determined by the DLI and utilization of the audiolingual method are also described.…

  14. Defense Business Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    other. SCM and ERP systems both contribute to the overall distribution and coordination of resources. Just as an ERP enhances information flow...inventory management system (Thureen 2008). It combines the Army’s disparate wholesale and retail inventories, into one combined system (Sparacino 2002...Studies.............................................................................. 73 1. Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System

  15. Strategic Defense Initiative program

    SciTech Connect

    Conachan, F.C.

    1991-05-01

    This paper discusses the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. It summarizes the major programmatic and technological lessons learned from the SDI program over the past 7 years. It provides information on: past uses of SDI funds, persistent optimism in planning and starting projects, evolution of SDI architecture, and accuracy of cost estimates.

  16. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  17. Identification of a Novel Small Cysteine-Rich Protein in the Fraction from the Biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum Strain CS-20 that Mitigates Fusarium Wilt Symptoms and Triggers Defense Responses in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Larisa A.; Odintsova, Tatyana I.; Stakheev, Alexander A.; Fravel, Deborah R.; Zavriev, Sergey K.

    2016-01-01

    The biocontrol effect of the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. This study shows that CS-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses in tomato plants. Three protein-containing fractions were isolated from CS-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. Exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic FOL strains significantly reduced wilt severity. This fraction initiated an ion exchange response in cultured tomato cells resulting in a reversible alteration of extracellular pH; increased tomato chitinase activity, and induced systemic resistance by enhancing PR-1 expression in tomato leaves. Two other protein fractions were inactive in seedling protection. The main polypeptide (designated CS20EP), which was specifically present in the defense-inducing fraction and was not detected in inactive protein fractions, was identified. The nucleotide sequence encoding this protein was determined, and its complete amino acid sequence was deduced from direct Edman degradation (25 N-terminal amino acid residues) and DNA sequencing. The CS20EP was found to be a small basic cysteine-rich protein with a pI of 9.87 and 23.43% of hydrophobic amino acid residues. BLAST search in the NCBI database showed that the protein is new; however, it displays 48% sequence similarity with a hypothetical protein FGSG_10784 from F. graminearum strain PH-1. The contribution of CS20EP to elicitation of tomato defense responses resulting in wilt mitigating is discussed. PMID:26779237

  18. Event-recording devices with identification codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, David G. (Inventor); Huestis, David L. (Inventor); Bahr, Alfred J. (Inventor); Vidmar, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A recording device allows wireless interrogation to determine its identity and its state. The state indicates whether one or more physical or chemical events have taken place. In effect, the one or more physical or chemical events are recorded by the device. The identity of the device allows it to be distinguished from a number of similar devices. The recording device may be used in an array of devices that allows wireless probing by an interrogation unit. When probed, each device tells the interrogator who it is and what state it is in. The devices allow multiple use and the interrogator may use a logical reset to determine the state of each device. The interrogator can thus easily identify particular items in an array that have reached a particular condition. The device may record the status of each device in a database to maintain a history for each.

  19. Defense Spending and the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-07

    DEFENSE SPENDING AND THE ECONOMY Rudolph G. Penner Director Congressional Budget Office Before the Task Force on Economic Policy and Growth...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Spending and the Economy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Administration budgets have proposed even more defense spending and less nondefense spending than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense

  20. Identification of a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-D-glucanase inhibitor protein from apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) as a potential defense gene against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    PubMed

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yugang; Dai, Hongyi

    2015-02-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is the causal agent of apple ring rot which is a highly destructive apple disease in China. Here, a putative xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-d-glucanase inhibitor protein from Malus×domestica (designated as MdXEGIP1) was found to be involved in defense against B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 shares high amino acid sequence identity with other apple XEGIPs, but exhibited significantly different responses to B. dothidea infection. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that MdXEGIP1 expression was significantly induced in shoot bark of apple plant by B. dothidea and showed different expression pattern in resistant and susceptible apple cultivars. In resistant cultivar, MdXEGIP1 expression was elevated with larger amplitude than that in susceptible cultivar after B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 expression was also significantly enhanced by treatment with exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in apple plantlets. Further investigation revealed that recombinant MdXEGIP1 has significant inhibitor activity to XEGs from family 12 and 74 of glycoside hydrolase. More importantly, recombinant MdXEGIP1 inhibited crude enzyme solution of XEG from B. dothidea, suggesting that MdXEGIP1 might protect apple plant from B. dothidea infection by inhibiting XEG activity. Taken together, the results indicated that MdXEGIP1 is a potential defense gene against B. dothidea in apple.

  1. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  2. Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    4. KRFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER($) r NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME...and ZIPCode) Cincinnati, Ohio 45219 *. NAME OF FUNDING ISPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBERORGANIZATION U.S...Unclassified 2a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL . 22b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) W 2c.-FICE SYMBOL Mrs. Virginia M. Miller 3011663-725 SGRD 19. continued

  3. Avian host defense peptides.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  4. Natural host defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Heggers, J P

    1979-10-01

    Severe injury, whether the result of a major accident, a large burn, or a complicated surgical operation, often results in sepsis. Under such conditions both specific and nonspecific host defense systems are affected. The individual facets of major concern are chemotaxis, phagocytosis, intracellular killing, complement depletion, and depression of humoral and cellular mediated immunity. The most profound changes occur in cell-mediated immunity. Within a few hours o injury, the number of circulating T cells becomes depleted, concomitantly thoracic duct lymphocytes are markedly reduced. This change is not only quantitative but functional. The clinical impact of these deficient host defense mechanisms lies in the fact that low virulent organisms may become a lethal threat to the injured patient. Currently, investigators are attempting to reverse thse deficiencies through the use of immunotherapy.

  5. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  6. Getting Defense Acquisition Right

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    Buying Power 1.0 Figure 2. Better Buying Power 2.0 Figure 3. Better Buying Power 3.0 179 Figure 4. Contract Cost Growth on Highest Risk (Major...Crossing Critical Congressional Cost- Growth Thresholds iv Getting Defense Acquisition Right 67 96 97 184 Table 1. Root...Causes for Major Programs Crossing Critical Con­ gressional Cost- Growth Thresholds or Other Major Problems 185 Figure 8. Planned Length of Active

  7. AFRL Defensive IO Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NUMBER Air Force Research Laboratory 525 Brooks Road, Rome NY 13441 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for...entire NOSC crew Air Force Enterprise Defense Moving from Data-Centric to Mission-Centric Operations 16 Summary • The AFRL /IF program includes all...William E.; Simpson, Lt. Col Richard 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Air Force

  8. Foreign Internal Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-12

    projects conducted were a primary factor in the decision to form the JTF. Other JTFs may be organized to accomplish specific functional missions such...IV-8 Table of Contents viii JP 3-22 VI-1 Force Employment Factors in Foreign Internal Defense Operations ........ VI-2 VI-2...US combat operations in support of FID Executive Summary xi operations, which requires a Presidential decision and serves only as a temporary

  9. Guidelines for Making Lease/Buy Decisions Involving Defense Communications System Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    the Information upon which this paper Is based. Defense Communications Agency Mr. John R. Casteel Code H67O Mr. Michael N. Bollard Code J6OO Mr...LEASAT, and TDRSS. MILSATCOM Acquisition Strategies: Lease-Versus-Buy, A Briefing, Patricia M. Dinneen , Rand Working Draft WD-1579-AF, August 1982

  10. Soviet strategic defense technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, E.

    1987-04-01

    The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was well within the American grasp 10 years ago. Where advanced and as yet undeployed technologies are concerned, the difference seems to be smaller; perhaps as little as five or seven years, with approximate parity in particle-beam research. 3. The Soviet Union, possibly more sensitive to prestige considerations, appears to be much more inclined than the US to demonstrate and deploy a technology before it is actually fully operational, and to undertake field modifications later. They also are much more reluctant to retire aging and obsolete technologies. As a result, they presently possess the world's only deployed ASAT and ABM systems, however, doubtful their actual operational effectiveness might be. 4. Soviet strategic defenses tend to be more fragmentary in design, reflecting their difficulties with the supporting and integrative technologies such as sensing, signal processing, heavy-lift boosters, and computing hardware and software. 5. The Soviets should also be expected to explore alternative avenues of near-term response to SDI, for example by expanding their strategic nuclear arsenal. 28 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  12. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  13. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.

  14. Evolutionary Drift Models for Moving Target Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Peterson, Elena S.; Teuton, Jeremy R.

    2012-10-31

    One of the biggest challenges faced by cyber defenders is that attacks evolve more rapidly than our ability to recognize them. We propose a moving target defense concept in which the means of detection is set in motion. This is done by moving away from static signature-based detection and instead adopting biological modeling techniques that describe families of related sequences. We present here one example for how to apply evolutionary models to cyber sequences, and demonstrate the feasibility of this technique on analysis of a complex, evolving software project. Specifically, we applied sequence-based and profile-based evolutionary models and report the ability of these models to recognize highly volatile code regions. We found that different drift models reliably identify different types of evolutionarily related code regions. The impact is that these (and possibly other) evolutionary models could be used in a moving target defense in which the "signature" being used to detect sequence-based behaviors is not a fixed signature but one that can recognize new variants of a known family based on multiple evolutionary models.

  15. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R.; Marcec, Matthew J.; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes. PMID:28174578

  16. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  17. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  18. Synthetic plant defense elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  19. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  20. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light. Submarines may display, as a distinctive means of identification, an intermittent flashing amber beacon...

  1. Does strategic defense breed offense

    SciTech Connect

    York, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author examines the question of whether strategic defense activity, in any form, stimulates a related offensive activity. The author studies four post-World II efforts of the superpowers to develop and deploy strategic defenses. The author then derives lessons from those cases that he applies to his analysis of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. Commentaries on the author's analysis are provided by four scholars.

  2. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  3. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  4. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  5. Control Processes and Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    HOROWITZ, MARDI; COOPER, STEVEN; FRIDHANDLER, BRAM; PERRY, J. CHRISTOPHER; BOND, MICHAEL; VAILLANT, GEORGE

    1992-01-01

    Defense-mechanism theory and control-process theory are related psychodynamic approaches to explaining and classifying how people ward off emotional upsets. Although both theories explain defensive maneuvers in the same motivational terms, each defines categories different1y. Classic categories define defense mechanisms at a relatively macroscopic level, whereas control-process theory aims at relatively microgenetic analysis of how cognitive maneuvers—involving what is thought, how it is thought, and how it is organized—may generate defensive states. The theories are not contradictory, but they are focused on different levels of observation; it is useful to compare how these classifications are applied to specific case material. PMID:22700114

  6. 21 CFR 206.10 - Code imprint required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identification than a symbol or logo by itself. Homeopathic drug products are required only to bear an imprint... National Drug Code, or a mark, symbol, logo, or monogram, or a combination of letters, numbers, and...

  7. Nonbinary codeword-stabilized quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xie; Zeng, Bei; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2008-12-01

    The codeword-stabilized (CWS) quantum code formalism presents a unifying approach to both additive and nonadditive quantum error-correcting codes [see A. Cross , e-print arXiv:0708.1021], but only for binary states. Here we generalize the CWS framework to the nonbinary case (of both prime and nonprime dimensions) and map the search for nonbinary quantum codes to a corresponding search problem for classical nonbinary codes with specific error patterns. We show that while the additivity properties of nonbinary CWS codes are similar to the binary case, the structural properties of the nonbinary codes differ substantially from the binary case, even for prime dimensions. In particular, we identify specific structure patterns of stabilizer groups, based on which efficient constructions might be possible for codes that encode more dimensions than any stabilizer codes of the same length and distance; similar methods cannot be applied in the binary case. Understanding of these structural properties can help prune the search space and facilitate the identification of good nonbinary CWS codes.

  8. Defense Scrap Yard Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    or recovery basis, subject to agreement between buyer and seller. V-A-7 DoD 4160.21-H ATTACHMENT 2.-INI)USTRY SPECIFICATIONS FOR NONFERROUS SCRAPI ...SPECIFICATIONS FOR NONFERROUS SCRAPI --Continued NARI NARI Code Item Word (76) Old Mixed Aluminum Wire and Cable-Shall consist of old, unalloyed aluminum wire

  9. Anorexia and attachment: dysregulated defense and pathological mourning

    PubMed Central

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Salcuni, Silvia; Lis, Adriana; George, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The role of defensive exclusion (Deactivation and Segregated Systems) in the development of early relationships and related to subsequent manifestations of symptoms of eating disorders was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Fifty-one DSM-IV diagnosed women with anorexia participated in the study. Anorexic patients were primarily classified as dismissing or unresolved. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of defensive exclusion were carried out. Results showed potential benefits of using the AAP defense exclusion coding system, in addition to the main attachment classifications, in order to better understand the developmental issues involved in anorexia. Discussion concerned the processes, such as pathological mourning, that may underlie the associations between dismissing and unresolved attachment and anorexia. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed. PMID:25389412

  10. Thermoelectric pump performance analysis computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is presented that was used to analyze and design dual-throat electromagnetic dc conduction pumps for the 5-kwe ZrH reactor thermoelectric system. In addition to a listing of the code and corresponding identification of symbols, the bases for this analytical model are provided.

  11. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  12. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  13. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories analysis code data base

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, mission is to solve important problems in the areas of national defense, energy security, environmental integrity, and industrial technology. The Laboratories` strategy for accomplishing this mission is to conduct research to provide an understanding of the important physical phenomena underlying any problem, and then to construct validated computational models of the phenomena which can be used as tools to solve the problem. In the course of implementing this strategy, Sandia`s technical staff has produced a wide variety of numerical problem-solving tools which they use regularly in the design, analysis, performance prediction, and optimization of Sandia components, systems and manufacturing processes. This report provides the relevant technical and accessibility data on the numerical codes used at Sandia, including information on the technical competency or capability area that each code addresses, code ``ownership`` and release status, and references describing the physical models and numerical implementation.

  15. Criticality Code Validation Exercises with TSUNAMI

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T

    2007-01-01

    In the criticality code validation of common systems, many paths may exist to a correct bias, bias uncertainty, and upper subcritical limit. The challenge for the criticality analyst is to select an efficient, defensible, and safe methodology to consistently obtain the correct values. One method of testing criticality code validation techniques is to use a sample system with a known bias as a test application and determine whether the methods employed can reproduce the known bias. In this paper, a low-enriched uranium (LEU) lattice critical experiment with a known bias is used as the test application, and numerous other LEU experiments are used as the benchmarks for the criticality code validation exercises using traditional and advanced parametric techniques. The parameters explored are enrichment, energy of average lethargy causing fission (EALF), and the TSUNAMI integral index ck with experiments with varying degrees of similarity. This paper is an extension of a previously published summary.

  16. The Relationship between Inflation and Defense Expenditures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    All Federal Expenditures .. ......... . 22 2. Defense Expenditures .... ........... 24 3. Suggested Research on the Impact of DoD Spending ...only major study specifically simulating changes in military spending implied that defense and non- defense expenditures have identical impacts upon...analyzed in Chapter I is that defense expenditures are not assigned a central role in generating inflation. Even when defense spending is incorporated

  17. Do Oil Exports Fuel Defense Spending?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    defense spending , and there were years when defense expenditures actually increased. Additionally, in countries that did... spending , especially defense expenditures , but such is not always the case. One can study the impact of oil revenues on defense spending by using a...oil revenue levels and levels of military expenditures , however, appear weak, meaning that attempts to limit defense spending by tinkering with

  18. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  19. 78 FR 78163 - Eligibility of the Gulf Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961... that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Gulf Cooperation Council...

  20. 32 CFR 1801.13 - Requirements as to identification of requester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements as to identification of requester. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests §...

  1. 32 CFR 1801.13 - Requirements as to identification of requester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements as to identification of requester. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests §...

  2. 32 CFR 1801.13 - Requirements as to identification of requester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements as to identification of requester. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests §...

  3. 32 CFR 1801.13 - Requirements as to identification of requester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements as to identification of requester. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests §...

  4. 32 CFR 1801.13 - Requirements as to identification of requester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements as to identification of requester. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests §...

  5. 32 CFR 1901.13 - Requirements as to identification of requester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements as to identification of requester. 1901.13 Section 1901.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests §...

  6. 32 CFR 1901.13 - Requirements as to identification of requester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements as to identification of requester. 1901.13 Section 1901.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests §...

  7. 47 CFR 95.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station identification is the call sign assigned to the GMRS station or system. (c) A unit number may be included after the call sign in the identification. (d) The station identification must be transmitted in: (1) Voice in the English language; or (2) International Morse code telegraphy. (e) A station need...

  8. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  9. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  10. Deciphering the genetic regulatory code using an inverse error control coding framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; May, Elebeoba Eni; Brown, William Michael; Johnston, Anna Marie; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2005-03-01

    We have found that developing a computational framework for reconstructing error control codes for engineered data and ultimately for deciphering genetic regulatory coding sequences is a challenging and uncharted area that will require advances in computational technology for exact solutions. Although exact solutions are desired, computational approaches that yield plausible solutions would be considered sufficient as a proof of concept to the feasibility of reverse engineering error control codes and the possibility of developing a quantitative model for understanding and engineering genetic regulation. Such evidence would help move the idea of reconstructing error control codes for engineered and biological systems from the high risk high payoff realm into the highly probable high payoff domain. Additionally this work will impact biological sensor development and the ability to model and ultimately develop defense mechanisms against bioagents that can be engineered to cause catastrophic damage. Understanding how biological organisms are able to communicate their genetic message efficiently in the presence of noise can improve our current communication protocols, a continuing research interest. Towards this end, project goals include: (1) Develop parameter estimation methods for n for block codes and for n, k, and m for convolutional codes. Use methods to determine error control (EC) code parameters for gene regulatory sequence. (2) Develop an evolutionary computing computational framework for near-optimal solutions to the algebraic code reconstruction problem. Method will be tested on engineered and biological sequences.

  11. The doctor's defense.

    PubMed

    Tur, Richard H S

    2002-10-01

    The paper takes as its point of departure a relatively recent case which attracted publicity in Britain, concerning a doctor charged with (but acquitted of) the murder of his terminally ill patient, and critically examines the criminal law of England and Wales relating to homicide in the context of medical practice. While similar issues obviously arise in many other countries, no comparative study is attempted in the paper. However, the arguments which have been presented are of more than local interest. From an analysis of this case and others, it appears that there is in common law something which can be called the doctor s defense. It holds that a doctor may, when caring for a patient who is suffering great pain, lawfully administer pain-killing drugs, despite the fact that, as the doctor well knows, one certain or highly probable consequence will be to shorten the patient s life. Current justifications for this defense are either incoherent or too weak. Some require that different conceptions of intention be deployed, depending on whether the agent is a doctor or not. Others rely on the philosophically controversial doctrine of double effect. Still others invoke an implausible notion of minimal causation. All these justifications apply readily enough to morally and factually easy cases, but fail in hard cases where the need for some justification is most pressing. These justifications seem incapable of providing adequate guidance to prosecutors or trial judges. Absent principled and transparent justification, the English criminal justice system exhibits different outcomes on what appear to be broadly similar facts. It is disturbing that the law is uncertain and incapable of giving adequate guidance. A doctor, compelled by conscience to intervene to end a person s life, should certainly be ready and willing to face rigorous legal scrutiny, but the law applied should not be arbitrary and random, nor should the outcome turn solely or chiefly on prosecutorial

  12. Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization (DHMSM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED DHMSM 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations...Dollars MAIS - Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD...Determined TY - Then Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics DHMSM 2016 MAR

  13. Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 (DAI Inc 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED DAI Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS Programs...Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel Development...Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics DAI Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3 Mr

  14. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-362 Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then

  15. Self-Defense for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givler, Jill I.

    2005-01-01

    Resources for self-defense training programs have become more popular and available over the last few years. Introducing a self-defense unit as part of a school physical education program is a wonderful way to address a number of psychosocial issues that prevail among teenagers today. The physical skills learned in this type of program allow…

  16. Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DAPA Project Officer” BeCKeR, gRACe CHuNg , Associate Deputy General Counsel, Office of the Secretary of Defense – “Legal view of the Processes...FiguRes Jordan, Dr. Leland G. “Systemic Fiscal Optimism in Defense Planning.” Acquisition Review Quarterly Winter 2000: 47-62. Joyce, Michael and Bettina

  17. 22 CFR 120.44 - Foreign defense article or defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign defense article or defense service. 120... PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.44 Foreign defense article or defense service. Foreign defense article or defense service means any article or service described on the U.S. Munitions List of non-U.S....

  18. Large Scale System Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    gram models, which further raises the bar and makes it more difficult for attackers to build precise packet structures to evade Anagram even if they...pealing because of the need to modify source code. Since source-level annotations serve as a vestigial policy, we articulated a way to augment self...is ideally suited to the problem of detecting when con- straints on a system’s behavior and information structures have been violated. The CW model

  19. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  20. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  1. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  2. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  3. 76 FR 22003 - Delegation of Functions and Authority Under Sections 315 and 325 of Title 32, United States Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... 325 of Title 32, United States Code Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense By the authority vested in... 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you: (a) the functions and authority of the President contained in section 315 of title 32, United States Code, to permit a commissioned officer of...

  4. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative): Myth or reality

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1988-06-01

    This report reviews previous attempts to develop strategic defenses, the technologies currently under consideration by the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), their main unknowns, and the likely performance of strategic defense concepts against evolving threats. 47 refs.

  5. Efficient entropy coding for scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woong Il; Yang, Jungyoup; Jeon, Byeungwoo

    2005-10-01

    The standardization for the scalable extension of H.264 has called for additional functionality based on H.264 standard to support the combined spatio-temporal and SNR scalability. For the entropy coding of H.264 scalable extension, Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) scheme is considered so far. In this paper, we present a new context modeling scheme by using inter layer correlation between the syntax elements. As a result, it improves coding efficiency of entropy coding in H.264 scalable extension. In simulation results of applying the proposed scheme to encoding the syntax element mb_type, it is shown that improvement in coding efficiency of the proposed method is up to 16% in terms of bit saving due to estimation of more adequate probability model.

  6. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  7. Finding the Key to a Better Code: Code Team Restructure to Improve Performance and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Cynthia R.; Hines, Elizabeth J.; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient’s status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team’s resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital’s code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role’s position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

  8. Finding the key to a better code: code team restructure to improve performance and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Prince, Cynthia R; Hines, Elizabeth J; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J

    2014-09-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient's status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team's resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital's code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role's position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients.

  9. Optimal defense theory explains deviations from latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kooyers, Nicholas J; Blackman, Benjamin K; Holeski, Liza M

    2017-04-01

    The latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis (LHDH) postulates that the prevalence of species interactions, including herbivory, is greater at lower latitudes, leading to selection for increased levels of plant defense. While latitudinal defense clines may be caused by spatial variation in herbivore pressure, optimal defense theory predicts that clines could also be caused by ecogeographic variation in the cost of defense. For instance, allocation of resources to defense may not increase plant fitness when growing seasons are short and plants must reproduce quickly. Here we use a common garden experiment to survey genetic variation for constitutive and induced phenylpropanoid glycoside (PPG) concentrations across 35 Mimulus guttatus populations over a ~13° latitudinal transect. Our sampling regime is unique among studies of the LHDH in that it allows us to disentangle the effects of growing season length from those of latitude, temperature, and elevation. For five of the seven PPGs surveyed, we find associations between latitude and plant defense that are robust to population structure. However, contrary to the LHDH, only two PPGs were found at higher levels in low latitude populations, and total PPG concentrations were higher at higher latitudes. PPG levels are strongly correlated with growing season length, with higher levels of PPGs in plants from areas with longer growing seasons. Further, flowering time is positively correlated with the concentration of nearly all PPGs, suggesting that there may be a strong trade-off between development time and defense production. Our results reveal that ecogeographic patterns in plant defense may reflect variation in the cost of producing defense compounds in addition to variation in herbivore pressure. Thus, the biogeographic pattern predicted by the LHDH may not be accurate because the underlying factors driving variation in defense, in this case, growing season length, are not always associated with latitude in the same

  10. Plant Defense against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M.; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection. PMID:27524994

  11. Spectral derivative feature coding for hyperspectral signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chein-I.; Chakravarty, Sumit

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach to hyperspectral signature analysis, called Spectral Derivative Feature Coding (SDFC). It makes use of gradient changes in adjacent bands to characterize spectral variations so as to improve spectral discrimination and identification. In order to evaluate its performance, two binary coding methods, SPectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) are used to conduct comparative analysis. The experimental results demonstrate the proposed SDFC performs more effectively in capturing spectral characteristics.

  12. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  13. Transport of defense compounds from source to sink: lessons learned from glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2015-08-01

    Plants synthesize a plethora of defense compounds crucial for their survival in a challenging and changing environment. Transport processes are important for shaping the distribution pattern of defense compounds, albeit focus hitherto has been mostly on their biosynthetic pathways. A recent identification of two glucosinolate transporters represents a breakthrough in our understanding of glucosinolate transport in Arabidopsis and has advanced knowledge in transport of defense compounds. In this review, we discuss the role of the glucosinolate transporters in establishing dynamic glucosinolate distribution patterns and source-sink relations. We focus on lessons learned from glucosinolate transport that may apply to transport of other defense compounds and discuss future avenues in the emerging field of defense compound transport.

  14. Object relations and defense mechanisms of a psychopathic serial sexual homicide perpetrator: a TAT analysis.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, J H; Abramsky, M F; Hibbard, S; Kamoo, R

    2001-08-01

    The case of a 24-year-old African American man who committed serial sexual homicide and who met criteria (Hare, 1991) for psychopathy is presented. His Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) responses were used to code key aspects of personality organization--object relations and defense mechanisms--via the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, Lohr, Silk, & Kerber, 1989) and the Defense Mechanisms Manual (Cramer, 1991), respectively. Severe object relations pathology and a reliance on the defense mechanism of immature projection and immature denial are noted. Findings are relatively consistent with previous psychodynamic Rorschach studies of psychopathic sexual homicide perpetrators (Gacono, Meloy, & Bridges, 2000; Meloy, Gacono, & Kenney, 1994).

  15. Honesty and Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2002-01-01

    Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)

  16. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  17. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  18. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  19. DIANE multiparticle transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

    2014-06-01

    DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

  20. Public-Private Partnerships in Defense Acquisition Programs-Defensible?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Ministry of Defence (Singapore) MOD Ministry of Defence (UK) xii MRO maintenance, repair and overhaul NAO National Accounting Office (UK) NPV net...in 2002). Similarly, in Australia—one of the early trend setters for PPPs—the implementation of defense PPPs by the Defense Material Organisation...wide range of systems and equipment, and material and services for those systems and equipment...The systems and equipment include vehicles, ships

  1. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  2. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  3. Strategic defense initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Engineering Technology Division has a leading role, including that of program management, in a major new programmatic thrust of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that is in support of the national Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). It is appropriate for the Laboratory to become significantly involved in the program because several of the most promising SDI technologies are in areas for which ORNL (together with Y-12 and K-25) have strong capabilities and significant resources. The initial ORNL work in support of the SDI program is focused on three technologies in which ORNL has extensive experience and traditionally strong research and development programs: (1) space nuclear power, (2) flywheel energy storage, and (3) neutral particle beams. The space nuclear program will utilize our capabilities in areas such as refractory materials, high-temperature alkali metal systems, shielding, and instrumentation. Space nuclear reactors capable of supplying multimegawatt levels of electrical power on a continuous and long-term basis are envisioned to be required for a variety of SDI surveillance satellites and space-borne weapons platforms. The feasibility of an alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycle, which has promise of providing high power with a very low system mass, is planned for study.

  4. Gastroduodenal Mucosal Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hyder; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review To highlight recent developments in the field of gastroduodenal mucosal defense with emphasis on lumen-gut interactions. Recent Findings There has been a growing interest in the physiological functions of luminal chemosensors present from tongue to colon that detect organic molecules in the luminal content associated with nutrient ingestion, usually associated with specialized cells, in particular the enteroendocrine cells. These receptors transduce the release of peptide hormones, in particular proglucagon-derived products such as the glucagon-like-peptides (GLPs), which have profound effects on gut function and on metabolism. Luminal chemosensors transduce GLP release in response to changes in the cellular environment, as part of the mechanism of nutrient chemosensing. GLP-2 has important trophic effects on the intestinal mucosa, including increasing the proliferation rate of stem cells and reducing transmucosal permeability to ions and small molecules, in addition to increasing the rate of duodenal bicarbonate secretion. GLP-1, although traditionally considered an incretin that enhances the effect of insulin on peripheral tissues, also has trophic effects on the intestinal epithelium. Summary A better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate GLP release can further illuminate the importance of nutrient chemosensing as an important component of the mechanism that mediates the trophic effects of luminal nutrients. GLP-1 and -2 are already in clinical use for the treatment of diabetes and intestinal failure. Improved understanding of the control of their release and their end-organ effects will identify new clinical indications and interventions that enhance their release. PMID:26376476

  5. Mapping Local Codes to Read Codes.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Wilfred; Galloway, James; Hall, Christopher; Ghattas, Mikhail; Tramma, Leandro; Nind, Thomas; Donnelly, Louise; Jefferson, Emily; Doney, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Legacy laboratory test codes make it difficult to use clinical datasets for meaningful translational research, where populations are followed for disease risk and outcomes over many years. The Health Informatics Centre (HIC) at the University of Dundee hosts continuous biochemistry data from the clinical laboratories in Tayside and Fife dating back as far as 1987. However, the HIC-managed biochemistry dataset is coupled with incoherent sample types and unstandardised legacy local test codes, which increases the complexity of using the dataset for reasonable population health outcomes. The objective of this study was to map the legacy local test codes to the Scottish 5-byte Version 2 Read Codes using biochemistry data extracted from the repository of the Scottish Care Information (SCI) Store.

  6. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  7. How to Overcome Defensive Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    After discussing the defensive response in interpersonal communications in organizations, the article presents eight communication techniques for improving organizational communication skills and thereby creating a more supportive organizational climate. (MF)

  8. Strategic Defense Initiative - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A general framework for developing the concept and implementing options for strategic ballistic missile defense systems is emerging. The objective of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program is to conduct research on those technologies for defensive system which could intercept ballistic missiles after they have been launched and prevent them from hitting their targets. Its goal is to acquire the technical knowledge as a basis for a later decision on deployment, not a program for deployment or star wars. Abrahamson reviews the basic technological questions facing researchers, outlines the multi-layered defense possibilities and summarizes the status of technology to date. He argues for a continuity of resources to conduct the program. 4 figures.

  9. An Analysis of the Defense Acquisition Strategy for Unmanned Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    VHSIC Development .........................................................................34 3. RFID Development...product service code RAA Rapid Acquisition Authority RCS radar cross section REF Rapid Equipping Force RFID radio frequency identification RDT... RFID technology. 28 1. The Semiconductor Industry This section divides the early semiconductor industry history into three periods based on the

  10. Theater Missile Defense Integration Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    high endoatmospheric defense interceptor (HEDI) proposed t earlier. EADTB. Extended Air Defense Test Bed. A computer-based analysis center for...for attacking deeper elements of an aggressors’s ground forces. Known in NATO as Follow-on Force Attack ( FOFA ). JSTARS. Joint surveillance target...AFIA/INKS ATTN. INKS AFIS/INT ATTN: INT AIR hORCE CTR FOR STUDIES & ANALYSIS ATTN: AFSAA/SAKI 9 Dist-1 w^mmmm mmmm^-mmmemH

  11. US Home Defense Forces Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Groups and Length of Service. ....... . . . 69 Figure 16- Connecticut State Guard Personnel, 1940-1945 - Losses August 1940-1944...sought authority to form a cohesive group . In the East mayors, businessmen, and professionals formed Committees for Public Safety, Home Defense...forces that could apply for such support was as shown in Figure 2. The difficulty of grouping the various types of home defense forces in the 48 states in

  12. 77 FR 10976 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  13. 78 FR 30232 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 204 and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

  14. 78 FR 41331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  15. 76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 215 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  16. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  17. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  18. Defeating the coding monsters.

    PubMed

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  19. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  20. 75 FR 33587 - Defense Science Board; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... of the Secretary Defense Science Board; Correction AGENCY: Department of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice... 32416) announcing a meeting of the Defense Science Board Task Force. In one instance the notice... meeting of the Defense Science Board Task Force on the Survivability of DoD Systems and Assets...

  1. 29 CFR 1630.15 - Defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defenses. 1630.15 Section 1630.15 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.15 Defenses. Defenses to an allegation of... charges. It may be a defense to a charge of disparate treatment brought under §§ 1630.4 through 1630.8...

  2. 47 CFR 1.6005 - Exclusive defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusive defenses. 1.6005 Section 1.6005... Against Satellite Carriers for Retransmission Without Consent § 1.6005 Exclusive defenses. (a) The defenses listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section, are the only defenses available to...

  3. 47 CFR 1.6005 - Exclusive defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exclusive defenses. 1.6005 Section 1.6005... Against Satellite Carriers for Retransmission Without Consent § 1.6005 Exclusive defenses. (a) The defenses listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section, are the only defenses available to...

  4. DEFENSE INDUSTRY PROFIT REVIEW: VOLUME 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Summary findings (comparison of profit on defense business with profit on commercial business, analysis of defense profits , capital market...analysis); Profit /capital investment ratios and capital investment turnover; Profit /sales ratios ( profit by type of business (defense/ commercial ... profit by type contract); Department of Defense profit review system; Unallowable and nonrecoverable costs; Capital market analysis; Discussions with

  5. 1985-1986 American defense annual

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, G.E.; Kruzel, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Perspectivfes; U.S. defense strategy: A debate; The Defense budget; Strategic forces; Theater forces: U.S. Defense policy in NATO: Seapower and projection forces; Manpower; Organization and management; Arms control; The Strategic Defense Initiative; and Low-intensity conflict, the strategic challenge.

  6. Defense Science Board Task Force on Mobility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Under Secretary of Defense For Acquisition, Technology , and Logistics Washington, D.C. 20301-3140 20051201 017 This report is a product of the...DEFENSE PENTAGON WASHINGTON, DC 20301-3140 DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD MEMORANDUM FOR UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY , AND LOGISTICS...27 V. End-to-End Framework ..................................................... 28 CHAPTER 2. MOBILITY TECHNOLOGIES

  7. Identification of linc-NeD125, a novel long non coding RNA that hosts miR-125b-1 and negatively controls proliferation of human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Valeria; Gioia, Ubaldo; Di Carlo, Valerio; Tortorelli, Anna F; Colombo, Teresa; Bozzoni, Irene; Laneve, Pietro; Caffarelli, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    The human genome contains some thousands of long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Many of these transcripts are presently considered crucial regulators of gene expression and functionally implicated in developmental processes in Eukaryotes. Notably, despite a huge number of lncRNAs are expressed in the Central Nervous System (CNS), only a few of them have been characterized in terms of molecular structure, gene expression regulation and function. In the present study, we identify linc-NeD125 as a novel cytoplasmic, neuronal-induced long intergenic non coding RNA (lincRNA). Linc-NeD125 represents the host gene for miR-125b-1, a microRNA with an established role as negative regulator of human neuroblastoma cell proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that these two overlapping non coding RNAs are coordinately induced during in vitro neuronal differentiation, and that their expression is regulated by different mechanisms. While the production of miR-125b-1 relies on transcriptional regulation, linc-NeD125 is controlled at the post-transcriptional level, through modulation of its stability. We also demonstrate that linc-NeD125 functions independently of the hosted microRNA, by reducing cell proliferation and activating the antiapoptotic factor BCL-2. PMID:26480000

  8. Adaptive midlife defense mechanisms and late-life health.

    PubMed

    Malone, Johanna C; Cohen, Shiri; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Waldinger, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of research suggests that personality characteristics relate to physical health; however, this relation ship has primarily been tested in cross-sectional studies that have not followed the participants into old age. The present study utilizes data from a 70-year longitudinal study to prospectively examine the relationship between the adaptive defense mechanisms in midlife and objectively assessed physical health in late life. In addition to examining the direct effect, we test whether social support mediates this relation ship. The sample consisted of 90 men who were followed for over seven decades beginning in late adolescence. Health ratings from medical records were made at three time points (ages 70, 75, and 80). Defense mechanisms were coded from narratives by trained independent raters (Vaillant, Bond, & Vaillant, 1986). Independent raters assessed social supports between ages 50 and 70. More adaptive defenses in midlife were associated with better physical health at all three time points in late life. These relationships were partially mediated by social support. Findings are consistent with the theory that defense maturity is important for building social relationships, which in turn contribute to better late-life physical health. Psychological interventions aimed at improving these domains may be beneficial for physical health.

  9. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  10. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  11. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  12. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  13. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. 643.22 Section 643.22 National Defense Department of...—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  14. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. 643.22 Section 643.22 National Defense Department of...—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  15. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. 643.22 Section 643.22 National Defense Department of...—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  16. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. 643.22 Section 643.22 National Defense Department of...—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  17. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. 643.22 Section 643.22 National Defense Department of...—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  18. Counterfeit Electronic Parts Controls in the Department of Defense Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Equipment Manufacturer RFID Radio Frequency Identification SASC Senate Armed Services Committee SECDEF Secretary of Defense SWPaC Space, Weight...radio frequency identification ( RFID ). Upon the use of that printer, the RFID is checked to ensure it is a valid platform, and will not work if the... RFID is not confirmed to be valid (Richetto, 2011). Greater collaboration with industry would also help with one of the primary drivers of

  19. 47 CFR 90.735 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... termination of the communication in progress on this frequency. (c) Station identification may be by voice or... Commission, upon its request, information (such as digital codes and algorithms) sufficient to decipher...

  20. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  1. Topological subsystem codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.

    2010-03-15

    We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error syndrome. We study the computational power of code deformation in these codes and show that boundaries cannot be introduced in the usual way. In addition, we give a general mapping connecting suitable classical statistical mechanical models to optimal error correction in subsystem stabilizer codes that suffer from depolarizing noise.

  2. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  3. Transonic airfoil codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Computer codes for the design and analysis of transonic airfoils are considered. The design code relies on the method of complex characteristics in the hodograph plane to construct shockless airfoil. The analysis code uses artificial viscosity to calculate flows with weak shock waves at off-design conditions. Comparisons with experiments show that an excellent simulation of two dimensional wind tunnel tests is obtained. The codes have been widely adopted by the aircraft industry as a tool for the development of supercritical wing technology.

  4. 75 FR 52732 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... development, technology, program maturity and readiness of configurations for the Ballistic Missile Defense... technical areas relating ] to Ballistic Missile Defense System Programs. Committee members appointed by the... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile...

  5. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences through chaos-game representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mayukha; Satish, B.; Srinivas, K.; Rao, P. Madhusudana; Manimaran, P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new approach combining the chaos game representation and the two dimensional multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis methods to examine multifractal behavior in power law cross correlation between any pair of nucleotide sequences of unequal lengths. In this work, we analyzed the characteristic behavior of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of eight prokaryotes. The results show the presence of strong multifractal nature between coding and non-coding sequences of all data sets. We found that this integrative approach helps us to consider complete DNA sequences for characterization, and further it may be useful for classification, clustering, identification of class affiliation of nucleotide sequences etc. with high precision.

  6. Optimal patch code design via device characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dalal, Edul N.

    2012-01-01

    In many color measurement applications, such as those for color calibration and profiling, "patch code" has been used successfully for job identification and automation to reduce operator errors. A patch code is similar to a barcode, but is intended primarily for use in measurement devices that cannot read barcodes due to limited spatial resolution, such as spectrophotometers. There is an inherent tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of code levels available for encoding. Previous methods have attempted to address this tradeoff, but those solutions have been sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose a method to design optimal patch codes via device characterization. The tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of available code levels is optimized in terms of printing and measurement efforts, and decoding robustness against noises from the printing and measurement devices. Effort is drastically reduced relative to previous methods because print-and-measure is minimized through modeling and the use of existing printer profiles. Decoding robustness is improved by distributing the code levels in CIE Lab space rather than in CMYK space.

  7. An empirical look at the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT): reliability and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Ekehammar, Bo; Zuber, Irena; Konstenius, Marja-Liisa

    2005-07-01

    Although the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) has been in use for almost half a century, there are still quite contradictory views about whether it is a reliable instrument, and if so, what it really measures. Thus, based on data from 39 female students, we first examined DMT inter-coder reliability by analyzing the agreement among trained judges in their coding of the same DMT protocols. Second, we constructed a "parallel" photographic picture that retained all structural characteristic of the original and analyzed DMT parallel-test reliability. Third, we examined the construct validity of the DMT by (a) employing three self-report defense-mechanism inventories and analyzing the intercorrelations between DMT defense scores and corresponding defenses in these instruments, (b) studying the relationships between DMT responses and scores on trait and state anxiety, and (c) relating DMT-defense scores to measures of self-esteem. The main results showed that the DMT can be coded with high reliability by trained coders, that the parallel-test reliability is unsatisfactory compared to traditional psychometric standards, that there is a certain generalizability in the number of perceptual distortions that people display from one picture to another, and that the construct validation provided meager empirical evidence for the conclusion that the DMT measures what it purports to measure, that is, psychological defense mechanisms.

  8. Change in children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems: the role of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the relation of defense mechanism to children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, as assessed from mothers' report at age 9 and 12 years, based on archival data. The defense mechanisms of denial, projection, and identification were assessed from Thematic Apperception Test stories told by the children at age 9 years, using the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, The development of defense mechanisms: Theory, research and assessment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991a; Protecting the self: Defense mechanisms in action. New York: Guilford Press, 2006). The results showed that the use of identification predicted a decrease in externalizing behaviors between age 9 and 12 years. In contrast, change in internalizing behaviors was not predicted by defense use, but the use of projection was related to fewer internalizing behaviors at both ages. These findings are consistent with the idea that behavioral intervention stressing self-regulation can be effective in reducing externalizing problems, but internalizing problems require an intervention that is sensitive to the underlying behavioral inhibition in these children.

  9. Midbrain circuits for defensive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tovote, Philip; Esposito, Maria Soledad; Botta, Paolo; Chaudun, Fabrice; Fadok, Jonathan P; Markovic, Milica; Wolff, Steffen B E; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Fenno, Lief; Deisseroth, Karl; Herry, Cyril; Arber, Silvia; Lüthi, Andreas

    2016-06-09

    Survival in threatening situations depends on the selection and rapid execution of an appropriate active or passive defensive response, yet the underlying brain circuitry is not understood. Here we use circuit-based optogenetic, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological, and neuroanatomical tracing methods to define midbrain periaqueductal grey circuits for specific defensive behaviours. We identify an inhibitory pathway from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey that produces freezing by disinhibition of ventrolateral periaqueductal grey excitatory outputs to pre-motor targets in the magnocellular nucleus of the medulla. In addition, we provide evidence for anatomical and functional interaction of this freezing pathway with long-range and local circuits mediating flight. Our data define the neuronal circuitry underlying the execution of freezing, an evolutionarily conserved defensive behaviour, which is expressed by many species including fish, rodents and primates. In humans, dysregulation of this 'survival circuit' has been implicated in anxiety-related disorders.

  10. 32 CFR 537.6 - Identification of recovery incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Identification of recovery incidents. 537.6... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.6 Identification of recovery incidents. (a) Responsibilities. Each command claims service and ACO will develop means to identify recovery incidents arising...

  11. 32 CFR 537.6 - Identification of recovery incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Identification of recovery incidents. 537.6... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.6 Identification of recovery incidents. (a) Responsibilities. Each command claims service and ACO will develop means to identify recovery incidents arising...

  12. 48 CFR 211.275 - Passive radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passive radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Passive radio frequency identification....

  13. 48 CFR 211.275 - Passive radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passive radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Passive radio frequency identification....

  14. 48 CFR 211.275 - Passive radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passive radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Passive radio frequency identification....

  15. 48 CFR 211.275 - Passive radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passive radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Passive radio frequency identification....

  16. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light... off-period. The light will be located where it can best be seen, as near as practicable, all...

  17. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light... off-period. The light will be located where it can best be seen, as near as practicable, all...

  18. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light... off-period. The light will be located where it can best be seen, as near as practicable, all...

  19. 32 CFR 2400.12 - Identification and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification and markings. 2400.12 Section... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Original Classification § 2400.12 Identification and markings. (a) At the time of...

  20. 32 CFR 2400.12 - Identification and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification and markings. 2400.12 Section... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Original Classification § 2400.12 Identification and markings. (a) At the time of...

  1. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light... off-period. The light will be located where it can best be seen, as near as practicable, all...

  2. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ...: Comment Addressed on Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR... of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the revised Defense...

  3. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  4. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions.

  5. 75 FR 3713 - Meeting With Interested Public on Offsets in Defense Trade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Strategic Industry and Economic Security. BILLING CODE 3510-JT-P ... Bureau of Industry and Security Meeting With Interested Public on Offsets in Defense Trade AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  6. 77 FR 8837 - Termination of the Department of Defense Web-Based TRICARE Assistance Program Demonstration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... of the Secretary Termination of the Department of Defense Web-Based TRICARE Assistance Program...) demonstration project, under authority of Title 10, U.S. Code, Section 1092, entitled Web-Based TRICARE... allow web-based behavioral health and related services including non-medical counseling and...

  7. Defense Logistics Information System (DLIS). Volume 17. Fed Log Federal Logistics Data On Compact Disc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Defense Logistics Information System (DLIS) and contains technical and administrative information and samples for selected transactions concerning FED...J I of 9 tene Cooqpny Nme: PUTT AND WHITNEY CANADA INC Address: 1000 UARIE-VICTORIN BLVD LONGUEUIL NUE CAN J4G IA1 Zip Code: Telephone: 514-662-8333

  8. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1265 of the National Defense Authorization Act for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority...

  9. 77 FR 49438 - Establishment of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...Under the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C. Appendix) and 41 Code of Federal Regulations Sec. 102- 3.50(d), the Secretary of Defense, on October 11, 2010, established the Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission. This discretionary advisory committee was chartered to provide independent advice and recommendations on matters relating to the Army National......

  10. Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lubahn, D B; Brown, T R; Simental, J A; Higgs, H N; Migeon, C J; Wilson, E M; French, F S

    1989-12-01

    Androgens act through a receptor protein (AR) to mediate sex differentiation and development of the male phenotype. We have isolated the eight exons in the amino acid coding region of the AR gene from a human X chromosome library. Nucleotide sequences of the AR gene intron/exon boundaries were determined for use in designing synthetic oligonucleotide primers to bracket coding exons for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic DNA was amplified from 46,XY phenotypic female siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. AR binding affinity for dihydrotestosterone in the affected siblings was lower than in normal males, but the binding capacity was normal. Sequence analysis of amplified exons demonstrated within the AR steroid-binding domain (exon G) a single guanine to adenine mutation, resulting in replacement of valine with methionine at amino acid residue 866. As expected, the carrier mother had both normal and mutant AR genes. Thus, a single point mutation in the steroid-binding domain of the AR gene correlated with the expression of an AR protein ineffective in stimulating male sexual development.

  11. Identification of two factors which bind to the upstream sequences of a number of nuclear genes coding for mitochondrial proteins and to genetic elements important for cell division in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Dorsman, J C; van Heeswijk, W C; Grivell, L A

    1988-01-01

    Two abundant factors, GFI and GFII which interact with the 5' flanking regions of nuclear genes coding for proteins of the mitochondrial respiratory chain have been identified. In one case (subunit VIII of QH2: cytochrome c oxidoreductase) the binding sites for both factors overlap completely and their binding is mutually exclusive. For the other 5' regions tested the GFI and GFII binding sites do not coincide. Interestingly, binding sites for GFI and GFII are also present in or at the 3' ends of the coding regions of two genes of the PHO gene family and in DNA elements important for optimal ARS and CEN function respectively. The sites recognized by GFI conform to the consensus RTCRNNNNNNACGNR, while those recognized by GFII contain the element RTCACGTG. We speculate that GFI and GFII may play a role in different cellular processes, dependent on the context of their binding sites and that one of these processes may be the coordination of the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis with the progress of the cell cycle. Images PMID:3045755

  12. RNase 7 in Cutaneous Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    RNase 7 belongs to the RNase A superfamily and exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. RNase 7 is expressed in human skin, and expression in keratinocytes can be induced by cytokines and microbes. These properties suggest that RNase 7 participates in innate cutaneous defense. In this review, we provide an overview about the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense with focus on the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, the regulation of RNase 7 expression, and the role of RNase 7 in skin diseases. PMID:27089327

  13. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Harmon Daniel B. Levine Stanley A. Horowitz, Project Leader INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1882 Approved...T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5112 Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition Bruce R. Harmon Daniel B. Levine...might do a better job? The focus of the study is on aircraft procurement. By way of terminology , “cost index,” “price index,” and “deflator” are used

  14. The inflammasome in host defense.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Pedra, Joao H F

    2010-01-01

    Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  15. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  16. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  17. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  18. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  19. Coding Acoustic Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boyang; Tang, Kun; Cheng, Hua; Liu, Zhengyou; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Coding acoustic metasurfaces can combine simple logical bits to acquire sophisticated functions in wave control. The acoustic logical bits can achieve a phase difference of exactly π and a perfect match of the amplitudes for the transmitted waves. By programming the coding sequences, acoustic metasurfaces with various functions, including creating peculiar antenna patterns and waves focusing, have been demonstrated.

  20. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses.

  1. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  2. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-06

    the 1980s President Ronald Reagan utilized defense spending to stimulate the economy engendering names like Reaganomics, or Voodoo Economics. A look...until the economy spontaneously develops and sustains growth on its own. 19 Barry D. Bowen, “Supply Side 2 – Voodoo Revisited,” 20 August 1996

  3. NBS-LRR-Encoding genes in sorghum and their role in plant defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR) proteins are encoded by a large class of plant genes and many of them play an important role in plant defense against pest attack. Identification and characterization of the whole set of NBS-LRR genes in a plant genome will provide insights int...

  4. Defensive Spiroketals from Asceles glaber (Phasmatodea): Absolute Configuration and Effects on Ants and Mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently we discovered that the defensive spray of Asceles glaber, a stick insect native to Thailand, contains two spiroketals (major: 2(S)-(-)-(E,E)-2- methyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane and minor: 2-ethyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane) and glucose. In this report we: 1) illustrate the identification o...

  5. Evolving genetic code

    PubMed Central

    OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

    2008-01-01

    In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed. PMID:18941287

  6. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  7. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    Korea Defense Industry Association (KDIA). (2007). Annual management review of Korean Defense Industry. Seoul: Author. Lee, D.O. (2000...COMPETITIVENESS OF THE KOREAN NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRY Published: 23 April 2008 by Dr. Dae Ok Lee 5th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the...International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  8. Iris Recognition for Human Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alandkar, Lajari; Gengaje, Sachin

    2010-11-01

    Iris recognition system is the biometric identification system. Iris has an intricate structure, uniqueness, stability, and natural protection. Due to these features of the iris it can be used for biometric identification. This system gives better performance than other biometric identification systems. A novel eyelash removal method for preprocessing of human iris images in a human iris recognition system is presented.. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) method is used for feature extraction. For matching of two-iris code Hamming distance calculation is used. EER value must be less for the optimum performance of the system.

  9. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  10. Integrated Defensive Electronic Countermeasures (IDECM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-418 Integrated Defensive Electronic Countermeasures (IDECM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be

  11. Individual Defenses against Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that death anxiety is related to degree of individuation and self-actualization. Sees concerns about death increasing as people relinquish defenses, reach new levels of differentiation of self, and expand their lives and personal power. Notes that therapeutic progress poses existential dilemma. (Author/NB)

  12. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, J. W., Jr.; Arnold, C. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program is a total satellite system composed of spacecraft with meteorological sensors, an Earth-based command and control network, user stations, launch vehicle and support; with a communication network linking the various segments together. The various system segments are described.

  13. Radiological Defense Officer. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This student workbook includes the necessary administrative materials, briefs, exercises and answer sheets for the quizzes and final course examination as needed by the students during the conduct of the Radiological Defense Officer course. Among the briefs included are the following: (1) Reporting Forms; (2) Forecasting Dose Rates; (3) Dose…

  14. Defense Display Strategy and Roadmaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-06

    ultra-resolution, true 3D , and intelligent displays (integration of computers and communication functions into screens). The new strategy is Service...led. Keywords: defense, electronic displays, high definition, micro-display, 25-megapixel, true 3D , novel and intelligent displays 1...megapixel and true 3D devices. The approved roadmap is illustrated in Figure 1. * Paper

  15. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Plantenga, Todd.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  16. In Defense of the Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, G. Brockett

    1975-01-01

    The problems that are encountered when cooperation breaks down between the industrial source operator and the pollution control equipment vendor are examined. The focal point of this examination is the study of defenses available to the equipment vendor when industrial source operators refuse to cooperate. (Author/BT)

  17. Soviet debate on missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  18. Directions for Defense Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes directions, challenges, and objectives of the information management program of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The program envisions the rigor and organization normally associated with a research library to be virtually rendered and extended in the networked world of distributed information. (AEF)

  19. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... co-channel licensee. (4) Should activation of automatic Morse code identification equipment interrupt the communications of another co-channel licensee, the Commission may require the use of equipment which will delay automatic station identification until such co-channel communications are completed....

  20. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  1. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  2. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  3. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  4. Embedded foveation image coding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  5. 78 FR 4844 - Defense Programs Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Nuclear Security Administration Defense Programs Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Defense Programs, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Intent...

  6. DOE Defense Program (DP) safety programs. Final report, Task 003

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The overall objective of the work on Task 003 of Subcontract 9-X52-W7423-1 was to provide LANL with support to the DOE Defense Program (DP) Safety Programs. The effort included the identification of appropriate safety requirements, the refinement of a DP-specific Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Format and Content Guide (FCG) and Comprehensive Review Plan (CRP), incorporation of graded approach instructions into the guidance, and the development of a safety analysis methodologies document. All tasks which were assigned under this Task Order were completed. Descriptions of the objectives of each task and effort performed to complete each objective is provided here.

  7. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  8. Policies and Procedures Needed to Reconcile Ministry of Defense Advisors Program Disbursements to Other DoD Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-28

    Interdepartmental Purchase Requests MoDA Ministry of Defense Advisors U.S.C. United States Code...What We Did In 2009, DoD developed the Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MoDA ) pilot program to support a pool of civilians capable of building...ministerial capacity in Afghanistan. Between FY 2010 and FY 2012, MoDA program officials reimbursed other DoD agencies for some of the deployed civilians

  9. Applications of Bar Code Technology in the Construction Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    per week. This is an indication that we have much better control of our inventory " ( Ryan 87 ). Producto Machine Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut... marketing and patenting advanced technologies to encourage firms to take on the risks involved. Our country, however, has no such policy. Until it does...assistance in marketing and patenting their achievements. 2) The Department of Defense, who already requires bar codes on all supplies accepted into

  10. PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF AMERICA’S DEFENSES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    considered in the analysis. These included the public’s estimate of effectiveness of active and passive defenses. Examination of the confidence in...passive defenses involved the evaluation of evacuation programs, shelter programs, problems of warning time, local civil defense efforts, cost effectiveness ...of the system, and evaluation of civil defense programs in relation to various types of weapons effects . All available empirical evidence on these

  11. The Economic Effects of Reduced Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    DEFENSE EXPENDITURES ON THE LEVEL OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY How Changes in Defense Spending Affect the Economy 5 Defining Alternative Paths for...EFFECTS OF REDUCED DEFENSE SPENDING The Congress of the United States Congressional Budget Office NOTES All years referred to when discussing...the effects of cuts in defense spending not only on the national economy but also on states, industries, and selected local areas. R. William

  12. U.S. Defense Strategy after Saddam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    budgets. Once the Iraq mission is concluded, it may be possible to then hold real-dollar defense spending steady―but right now it is simply too soon... defense plan called for. But a Democratic president would almost certainly also have boosted defense spending after the tragic attacks, since the existing...high. Depending on how one estimates the spending of countries such as China and 7 Russia, U.S. defense spending almost equals that of the rest of

  13. Economic Impacts of Increased Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    identify by block number) Economic impacts. Defense spending , M-X development. Expenditure - Output Multipliers, Employment, Inflation 20... expenditures from nondefense to defense leaves the Federal deficit unchanged. o The major impact of increased defense spending financed by reallocation of...GNP devoted to military expenditures and the rate of inflation is extremely tenuous. For instance, since the early 1960s, defense spending as a

  14. Stability of missile forces and defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-04-01

    This note derives the exchange equation for mixes of missiles and defenses and discusses the impact on stability of varying their relative proportions. For fixed offenses increasing defenses decreases stability until first strikes fall to zero. The same is true of decreasing offenses for fixed defenses, although the decrease in indices is smaller. A judicious increase in defenses and decrease in offenses should effect that transition with minimum loss of stability.

  15. Non-coding RNAs: An Introduction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jennifer X; Rastetter, Raphael H; Wilhelm, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    For many years the main role of RNA, it addition to the housekeeping functions of for example tRNAs and rRNAs, was believed to be a messenger between the genes encoded on the DNA and the functional units of the cell, the proteins. This changed drastically with the identification of the first small non-coding RNA, termed microRNA, some 20 years ago. This discovery opened the field of regulatory RNAs with no or little protein-coding potential. Since then many new classes of regulatory non-coding RNAs, including endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs, have been identified and we have made amazing progress in elucidating their expression, biogenesis, mechanisms and mode of action, and function in many, if not all, biological processes. In this chapter we provide an introduction about the current knowledge of the main classes of non-coding RNAs, what is know about their biogenesis and mechanism of function.

  16. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.9 Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training)...

  17. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.9 Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training)...

  18. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.9 Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training)...

  19. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.9 Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training)...

  20. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.9 Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training)...

  1. Analysis to Inform Defense Planning Despite Austerity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Secretary of Defense with responsibili- ties for both strategy and program analysis, and—for many years—an analyst and manager at the RAND...Corporation. The monograph’s primary intended audience includes defense analysts, their managers , and the policymakers who are consumers of defense analysis...26 Multiple Objectives, Including Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

  2. 75 FR 32416 - Defense Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Science Board AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Defense Science Board Task Force on the Survivability of DoD... Science Board Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (TRAC) Task Force findings, recommendations and...

  3. 45 CFR 160.410 - Affirmative defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Affirmative defenses. 160.410 Section 160.410... defenses. (a) For violations occurring prior to February 18, 2009, the Secretary may not impose a civil... defense exists with respect to the violations, including the following: (1) The violation is an...

  4. The Anatomy of Self-Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks Stein, Pamela; Richardson, April D.; Challman, Sandra D.

    2008-01-01

    The following study describes a creative application of anatomical principles in the instruction of self-defense. Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky were invited to a special lecture that featured a series of self-defense moves introduced by a local police officer. Following a demonstration of each self-defense tactic, the students were…

  5. 45 CFR 160.410 - Affirmative defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Affirmative defenses. 160.410 Section 160.410... defenses. (a) The Secretary may not: (1) Prior to February 18, 2011, impose a civil money penalty on a... affirmative defense exists with respect to the violation, including the following: (1) The covered...

  6. 45 CFR 160.410 - Affirmative defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative defenses. 160.410 Section 160.410... defenses. (a) For violations occurring prior to February 18, 2009, the Secretary may not impose a civil... defense exists with respect to the violations, including the following: (1) The violation is an...

  7. 45 CFR 160.410 - Affirmative defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Affirmative defenses. 160.410 Section 160.410... defenses. (a) The Secretary may not: (1) Prior to February 18, 2011, impose a civil money penalty on a... affirmative defense exists with respect to the violation, including the following: (1) The covered...

  8. Mechanisms of defense: development and research perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, P F

    1994-01-01

    The author offers a selective overview of defense mechanisms. With an eye to clarifying the definition of defense mechanisms and the use of this concept in treatment, she traces the evolution of the concept since its initial formulation, examines the developmental aspects of defenses and the implications for psychopathology, and discusses various recent research studies.

  9. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  10. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  11. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  12. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  13. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  14. Radiological Defense. Planning and Operations Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This guide is a reprint of published and draft materials from the Federal Civil Defense Guide. This guide is intended to assist the student in planning, developing, implementing and operating a local, county, or state radiological defense (RADEF) system. The state and local radiological defense program objectives are to create an effective and…

  15. Forecasting Workload for Defense Logistics Agency Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT FORECASTING WORKLOAD FOR DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY...DATE December 2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORECASTING WORKLOAD FOR DEFENSE LOGISTICS ...maximum 200 words) The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) predicts issue and receipt workload for its distribution agency in order to maintain

  16. Defense Procurement Strategy for a Globalized Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    QDR,” DefenseNews, 8 November 2004, p. 4. 3 Vago Muradain, “Finalizing Transformation,” DefenseNews, 8 November 2004, p. 34. 4 Hugo Posey and Ben...Interavia, Summer 2004, 34-36. Munton, Bob, and Brinley Salzmann. “U.K.’s Growing Contols.” DefenseNews, 25 October 2004, 96. Muradain, Vago

  17. PRESTO Digital Computer Code User’s Guide. Volume I. System Overview. Revision A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-31

    RELEASE; I DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. I f THIS WORK SPONSORED BY THE DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY UNDER RDT&E RMVSS CODES 8363080464 099QAXCE50201 H25900D7j...is no longer needed. Do not return to sender. PLEASE NOTIFY THE DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY, ATTN: STTI, WASHINGTON, D.C. 20305, IF YOUR ADDRESS IS...Defense Nuclear Agency 1 NUM berO18E Washington, D.C. 20305 34 74. -MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(I different from Controlling Office) IS

  18. 22 CFR 120.2 - Designation of defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Designation of defense articles and defense services. 120.2 Section 120.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.2 Designation of defense articles and defense services. The...

  19. 22 CFR 120.2 - Designation of defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designation of defense articles and defense services. 120.2 Section 120.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.2 Designation of defense articles and defense services. The...

  20. 22 CFR 120.2 - Designation of defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation of defense articles and defense services. 120.2 Section 120.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.2 Designation of defense articles and defense services. The...