Science.gov

Sample records for defense preparedness association

  1. Defense Preparedness: The Role of Vocational and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Highlights activities of the National Task Force on Defense Preparedness and Vocational and Adult Education and the Office of Vocational and Adult Education, designed to promote collaboration between the defense establishment and vocational and adult education programs for skilled technician training for the military and defense industrial base.…

  2. Vocational Education and Defense Preparedness Seminar Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, September 29-October 1, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    These proceedings provide an overview of the major areas covered at a seminar on the relationship between vocational education and defense preparedness. Discussed first are strategies for improving collaborative efforts by vocational education and the Department of Defense for the purpose of increasing defense preparedness. The next five sections…

  3. Teaching Activities for Defensive Living and Emergency Preparedness. Education Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Grit, Ed.; And Others

    Designed for teaching a generalized program in emergency preparedness education, the eight units of the manual can be used together or alone in any course that teaches human response to emergency preparedness or in physical education, recreation, health, biology, physiology, or science classes. The guide includes an introduction and seven major…

  4. Teaching Activities for Defensive Living and Emergency Preparedness. Education Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Grit, Ed.; And Others

    Designed for teaching a generalized program in emergency preparedness education, the eight units of the manual can be used together or alone in any course that teaches human response to emergency preparedness or in physical education, recreation, health, biology, physiology, or science classes. The guide includes an introduction and seven major…

  5. 48 CFR 52.211-14 - Notice of Priority Rating for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. 52.211-14 Section 52.211-14... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. As prescribed in 11.604(a..., and Energy Program Use (APR 2008) Any contract awarded as a result of this solicitation will be...

  6. 48 CFR 52.211-14 - Notice of Priority Rating for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. 52.211-14 Section 52.211-14... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. As prescribed in 11.604(a..., and Energy Program Use (APR 2008) Any contract awarded as a result of this solicitation will be...

  7. 48 CFR 52.211-14 - Notice of Priority Rating for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. 52.211-14 Section 52.211-14... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. As prescribed in 11.604(a..., and Energy Program Use (APR 2008) Any contract awarded as a result of this solicitation will be...

  8. 48 CFR 52.211-14 - Notice of Priority Rating for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. 52.211-14 Section 52.211-14... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. As prescribed in 11.604(a..., and Energy Program Use (APR 2008) Any contract awarded as a result of this solicitation will be...

  9. 48 CFR 52.211-14 - Notice of Priority Rating for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. 52.211-14 Section 52.211-14... for National Defense, Emergency Preparedness, and Energy Program Use. As prescribed in 11.604(a..., and Energy Program Use (APR 2008) Any contract awarded as a result of this solicitation will be...

  10. Pandemic influenza preparedness and response in Israel: a unique model of civilian-defense collaboration.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Sivan; Barnett, Daniel J; Leventhal, Alex; Reznikovich, Shmuel; Oren, Meir; Laor, Danny; Grotto, Itamar; Balicer, Ran D

    2010-07-01

    In April 2009, the World Health Organization announced the emergence of a novel influenza A(H1N1-09) virus and in June 2009 declared the outbreak a pandemic. The value of military structures in responding to pandemic influenza has become widely acknowledged in recent years. In 2005, the Israeli Government appointed the Ministry of Defense to be in charge of national preparedness and response for a severe pandemic influenza scenario. The Israeli case offers a unique example of civilian-defense partnership where the interface between the governmental, military and civilian spheres has formed a distinctive structure. The Israeli pandemic preparedness protocols represent an example of a collaboration in which aspects of an inherently medical problem can be managed by the defense sector. Although distinctive concepts of the model are not applicable to all countries, it offers a unique forum for governments and international agencies to evaluate this interface within the context of pandemic influenza.

  11. Military Preparedness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    are all the right capabilities on hand for X?” Even if all current capabilities are on hand and fully mission capable, this still may not be enough...then be reviewed separately as practiced in the current U.S. Department of Defense. B. Collins’ Nine Principles of Preparedness As preparedness is...U.S. planners, programmers, and budgeters fashion ready, sustainable armed forces, at reasonable costs ”4. As Collins wrote these shortly after the

  12. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintain or restore essential postal service in a national emergency, natural disaster, or disruptive... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3...

  13. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintain or restore essential postal service in a national emergency, natural disaster, or disruptive... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3...

  14. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintain or restore essential postal service in a national emergency, natural disaster, or disruptive... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3...

  15. Is there an association between risk perception and disaster preparedness in rural US hospitals?

    PubMed

    Cliff, Barbara J; Morlock, Laura; Curtis, Amy B

    2009-01-01

    This study examined disaster preparedness, risk perception, and their association in rural hospitals in the United States. The focus of disaster preparedness largely has been centered on urban areas, in part because of the perception that more concentrated areas have an increased risk of a disastrous event. Therefore, it was hypothesized that risk perception may be a contributing factor for adequate preparedness in rural areas. This research was a component of a larger study of rural hospital preparedness. The objective of this study was to describe the perceived risk of disaster events and the status of disaster preparedness in rural hospitals. It was hypothesized that there is a positive association between risk perception and preparedness. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Study of Rural Hospitals (2006-2007) from Johns Hopkins University. The study, based on a regionally stratified, random sample of rural hospitals, consisted of a mailed questionnaire and a follow-up telephone interview with each hospital's Chief Executive Officer (n = 134). A model of disaster preparedness was utilized to examine seven elements of preparedness. Risk perception was examined through seven perceived risk threats. The results indicated that rural hospitals were moderately prepared, overall, (78% prepared on average), with higher preparedness in education/training (89%) and isolation/decontamination (91%); moderate preparedness in administration/planning (80%), communication/notification (83%), staffing/support (66%, and supplies/pharmaceuticals/laboratory support (70%); and lower preparedness in surge capacity (64%). The respondents reported greater perceived risk from disasters due to natural hazards (79% reported moderate to high risk) and vehicular accidents (77%) than from humanmade disasters (23%). Results obtained from logistic regression models indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in the odds of a hospital being prepared

  16. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is to... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness;...

  17. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is to... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness;...

  18. Disaster preparedness--formalizing a comparative advantage for the Department of Defense in U.S. global health and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Licina, Derek

    2011-11-01

    Disaster preparedness is a comparative advantage of the Department of Defense (DoD) in the global health arena. It is in line with the domestic interest of sustaining foreign natural disaster assistance and the foreign policy interest of maintaining national security. The DoD humanitarian assistance policy guidance published in 2009 states Disaster Preparedness should be considered as a key priority in humanitarian assistance engagement. Unfortunately, a whole of government disaster preparedness program framework does not exist to facilitate effective and efficient implementation. Leveraging the United Nations Hyogo Framework for Action agreed upon by 168 nations to take action and reduce disaster risk by 2015, the DoD could synchronize disaster preparedness efforts with other interagency and international partners. Increased civilian-military cooperation in disaster risk reduction supports the whole of government approach to work in a more coherent manner in pursuit of shared foreign policy goals. It also maximizes the ability to deliver critical national capacity in the health sector and beyond. Disaster preparedness is an essential element of U.S. global health and foreign policy, and the DoD must be a critical partner in a whole of government approach.

  19. 3 CFR 13603 - Executive Order 13603 of March 16, 2012. National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nations, military use of civil transportation, stockpiles managed by the Department of Defense, space, and... President under section 303(a)(1)(B) of the Act, 50 U.S.C. App. 2093(a)(1)(B), to encourage the exploration... Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and (17) The Administrator of General...

  20. Guide for the design and development of a local radiological defense support system. Civil preparedness guide

    SciTech Connect

    Grow, R.

    1981-06-01

    This publication was developed to provide guidance to local director/coordinators, and Radiological Defense (RADEF) staff, for designing and developing local RADEF support systems. In some communities, the application of this guidance may require only the realignment or improvement of already existing capabilities. In others, the design, development and implementation of additional capabilities may be necessary. The guide is designed to be a working tool. It contains guides, checklists, and worksheets to help in the development of the local RADEF support system. First, it should be read in total to provide a complete picture of the RADEF program. However, it is developed in sections which can stand alone and be used separately. This may result in minor repetition of some points. Most importantly, the guide is written from the point of view that a person need not be an expert in nuclear physics or fully understand the biological effects of radiation to help implement a local RADEF support system. If properly used, it will assist any community to develop a more reliable RADEF program.

  1. Emergency Preparedness Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Robert, Ed.; LaValla, Patrick, Ed.

    The book is a collection of emergency preparedness instruction materials. It starts with the first chapter of "Living Life's Emergencies" by Robert Stoffel and Patrick LaValla which introduces emergency preparedness education, focusing on six major components (human body management, defensive living, time lag, disaster and civil…

  2. Emergency Preparedness Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Robert, Ed.; LaValla, Patrick, Ed.

    The book is a collection of emergency preparedness instruction materials. It starts with the first chapter of "Living Life's Emergencies" by Robert Stoffel and Patrick LaValla which introduces emergency preparedness education, focusing on six major components (human body management, defensive living, time lag, disaster and civil…

  3. Mood States Associated with Induced Defensiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaderlund, Natasha Slesnick; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects of neutral and defensive mood induction in 70 students reporting conflicted versus nonconflicted families for presence of hostility, aggression, fear, anxiety, and sadness. Found that defensive students from high-conflict families reported stronger negative emotions than did neutral high-conflict and defensive low-conflict…

  4. Preparedness and health risks associated with Moulay Abdellah Amghar moussem, Morocco, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Youbi, M; Dghoughi, N; Akrim, M; Essolbi, A; Barkia, A; Azami, A I; Fleischauer, A T; Schneider, D; Maaroufi, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the risks and human health outcomes associated with attendance at the Moulay Abdellah Amghar moussem (a pre-planned mass gathering attracting more than 360 000 participants) for the purposes of public health prevention, planning, preparedness and response. We performed an environmental health risk assessment and retrospectively reviewed local health centre records before, during and after the event. In addition, standardized interviews with key stakeholders were performed to qualitatively evaluate local public health preparedness and response capacities. During the event, average daily health centre visits increased 5-fold. The sex ratio of health-care visits changed significantly from an average of 1.8:1 female:male visits per day to 1.2:1. The proportion of injuries varied from an average of 3.7% pre- and post-event to 14.8% (P < 0.01) during the event. A significant increase in digestive diseases was also observed during the event. Recommendations include increasing accessibility to free sanitation and hygiene facilities and improving health communications concerning hand washing and food and water safety.

  5. Defense Mechanisms Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Weingeroff, Jolie L.; Frankenburg, Frances R.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the defensive functioning of 290 criteria-defined borderline patients and compared it to that of 72 patients with other forms of axis II psychopathology. The Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure with demonstrated criterion validity and internal consistency, was administered to 362 axis II inpatients diagnosed using semistructured interviews of proven reliability. Borderline patients had significantly higher scores than axis II comparison subjects on three of the four defense styles assessed by the DSQ: self-sacrificing, maladaptive action, and image-distorting defenses. They also had significantly higher scores than axis II comparison subjects on eight of the 19 defense mechanisms studied. More specifically, borderline patients had significantly higher scores on one neurotic-level defense (undoing), four immature defenses (acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, passive aggression, and projection), and two image- distorting/borderline defenses (projective identification and splitting). In contrast, axis II comparison subjects had a significantly higher score than borderline patients on one mature defense (suppression). When all significant defenses were considered together, three were found to be significant predictors of a borderline diagnosis: acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and undoing. This model has both good sensitivity (.95) and positive predictive power (.86). Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the defensive profile of borderline patients is distinct from that of patients with other forms of axis II pathology. They also suggest that the defensive triad of acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and undoing may serve as a useful clinical marker for the borderline diagnosis, particularly in settings where the base rate of the disorder is high. PMID:19379090

  6. Association of Community Health Nursing Educators: disaster preparedness white paper for community/public health nursing educators.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Sandra W; Frable, Pamela; Qureshi, Kristine; Strong, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    The Association of Community Health Nursing Educators (ACHNE) has developed a number of documents designed to delineate the scope and function of community/public health nursing educators, researchers, and practitioners. In response to societal issues, increased emphasis on disaster preparedness in nursing and public health, and requests from partner organizations to contribute to curriculum development endeavors regarding disaster preparedness, the ACHNE Disaster Preparedness Task Force was appointed in spring 2007 for the purpose of developing this document. Task Force members developed a draft of the document in summer and fall 2007, input was solicited and received from ACHNE members in fall 2007, and the document was approved and published in January 2008. The members of ACHNE extend their appreciation to the members of the Emergency Preparedness Task Force for their efforts: Pam Frable, N.D., R.N.; Sandra Kuntz, Ph.D., C.N.S.-B.C. (Chair); Kristine Qureshi, D.N.Sc., C.E.N., R.N.; Linda Strong, Ed.D., R.N. This white paper is aimed at meeting the needs of community/public health nursing educators and clarifying issues for the nursing and public health communities. ACHNE is committed to promotion of the public's health through ensuring leadership and excellence in community and public health nursing education, research, and practice.

  7. Associations between mass media exposure and birth preparedness among women in southwestern Uganda: a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Gustav; Pettersson, Karen Odberg; Sandberg, Jacob; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to mass media provides increased awareness and knowledge, as well as changes in attitudes, social norms and behaviors that may lead to positive public health outcomes. Birth preparedness (i.e. the preparations for childbirth made by pregnant women, their families, and communities) increases the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and hence reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association between media exposure and birth preparedness in rural Uganda. Method A total of 765 recently delivered women from 120 villages in the Mbarara District of southwest Uganda were selected for a community-based survey using two-stage cluster sampling. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with generalized linear mixed models using SPSS 21. Results We found that 88.6% of the women surveyed listened to the radio and 33.9% read newspapers. Birth preparedness actions included were money saved (87.8%), identified SBA (64.3%), identified transport (60.1%), and purchased childbirth materials (20.7%). Women who had taken three or more actions were coded as well birth prepared (53.9%). Women who read newspapers were more likely to be birth prepared (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–3.2). High media exposure, i.e. regular exposure to radio, newspaper, or television, showed no significant association with birth preparedness (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9–2.0). Conclusion Our results indicate that increased reading of newspapers can enhance birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance. Apart from general literacy skills, this requires newspapers to be accessible in terms of language, dissemination, and cost. PMID:24433945

  8. Disaster Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Constance

    Most librarians know the importance of disaster preparedness. Many disasters could have been prevented altogether or have had reduced impact if institutions had been better prepared. This resource guide suggests how disaster preparedness can be achieved at cultural institutions. Twenty-three basic resource articles are presented to introduce…

  9. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Practice and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) plan in resource limited settings to decrease maternal mortality. Therefore, this study was done to assess the status of BPCR and associated factors among pregnant women in South Wollo, Northwest Ethiopia, by involving 819 pregnant women from March to April, 2014. Data were collected by using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.00. Results. Pregnant women who were prepared for at least three elements of BPCR were 24.1%. Pregnant women knowing at least three key danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period were 23.2%, 22.6%, and 9.6%, respectively. Women having secondary education and higher were 6.20 (95% CI = [1.36, 28.120]) times more likely to be prepared than illiterates. Women having a lifetime history of stillbirth [5.80 (1.13, 29.63)], attending ANC for last child pregnancy [5.44 (2.07, 14.27)], participating in community BPCR group discussion [4.36 (1.17, 16.26)], and having their male partner involved in BPCR counseling during ANC follow-up [4.45 (1.95, 10.16)] were more likely to be prepared. Conclusions. BPCR was very low and should be strengthened through health communication by involving partner in BPCR counseling. PMID:27722201

  10. Psychological Correlates of Civilian Preparedness for Conflicts.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Moran; Siman-Tov, Maya; Kreitler, Shulamith; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-08-01

    Preparedness for emergencies and disasters is imperative for public resilience. Previous studies have revealed low levels of civilian preparedness for conflicts. Classic behavioral models prove inapt in describing preparedness patterns in victimized populations chronically exposed to this threat. In an effort to expand this perspective, we hypothesized that other psychological constructs are correlated with preparedness. A cross-sectional, Internet-based study was performed in Israel in early 2016. A sociodemographically diverse sample included 385 participants, Jews and Arabs. The tools included a preparedness index, sense of preparedness questionnaire, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Life Orientation Test, Behavioral Inhibition & Activation System scales, and ego defenses. The results suggested that optimistic and rational individuals reported significantly higher levels of preparedness, whereas those who scored highly on the trait anxiety scale and those with a tendency to use denial coping mechanisms reported significantly lower levels of preparedness. The findings suggest that additional constructs, other than classic threat perception components, might play a key role in governing preparedness behavior. In particular, psychological manipulation of dispositional optimism or optimistic thinking might be effective in motivating preparedness behavior. Future research should explore such innovative ways to promoting preparedness. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:451-459).

  11. Atmospheric release advisory capability pilot project at two nuclear power plants and associated state offices of emergency preparedness. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    A project to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) limited service with commercial nuclear power plants and their associated state offices of emergency preparedness is discussed. Preliminary planning, installation and testing of the ARAC site facilities at Indian Point Nucler Power Station, New York State; at New York State Office of Emergency Preparedness, Albany, New York; at Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, California; and at the State of California Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, California, are summarized. ARAC participation in the Robert E. Ginna nuclear generating plant accident in New York on January 25, 1982, is discussed. The ARAC system is evaluated with emphasis on communications, the suite of models contained within the ARAC system, and the staff. The implications of this project in designing the next-generation ARAC system to service federal and state needs are assessed.

  12. Emergency Preparedness Safety Climate and Other Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among World Trade Center Disaster Evacuees.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Martin F; Gershon, Robyn R; Riley, Halley E M; Zhi, Qi; Magda, Lori A; Peyrot, Mark

    2017-06-01

    We examined psychological outcomes in a sample of participants who evacuated from the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2011. This study aimed to identify risk factors for psychological injury that might be amenable to change, thereby reducing adverse impacts associated with emergency high-rise evacuation. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2 years after the attacks to classify 789 evacuees into 3 self-reported psychological outcome categories: long-term psychological disorder diagnosed by a physician, short-term psychological disorder and/or memory problems, and no known psychological disorder. After nonmodifiable risk factors were controlled for, diagnosed psychological disorder was more likely for evacuees who reported lower "emergency preparedness safety climate" scores, more evacuation challenges (during exit from the towers), and evacuation-related physical injuries. Other variables associated with increased risk of psychological disorder outcome included gender (female), lower levels of education, preexisting physical disability, preexisting psychological disorder, greater distance to final exit, and more information sources during egress. Improving the "emergency preparedness safety climate" of high-rise business occupancies and reducing the number of egress challenges are potential strategies for reducing the risk of adverse psychological outcomes of high-rise evacuations. Focused safety training for individuals with physical disabilities is also warranted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:326-336).

  13. Emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Yanev, P.I.; Hom, S.; Kircher, C.A.; Bailey, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    These lecture notes include the following subject areas: (1) earthquake mitigation planning - general approach and in-house program; (2) seismic protection of equipment and non-structural systems; and (3) disaster preparedness and self help program. (ACR)

  14. Death preparedness: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    McLeod-Sordjan, Renee

    2014-05-01

    To report analysis of the concept death preparedness in the context of end-of-life shared decisions and communication. Forty percent of older people require decision-making and communication in the final days of life. Elaborate defence mechanisms have yielded a public consciousness that no longer passively views death acceptance, but instead has a defensive orientation of preparedness. The term 'death preparedness' depicts this death attitude. Concept analysis. Data were collected over 3 months in 2013. A series of searches of scholarly peer-reviewed literature published in English were conducted of multiple databases. Specific keywords included such phrases as: death acceptance, death avoidance, death rejection, death preparedness, resolution of life, breaking bad news and readiness to die. Walker and Avant's method was chosen as a deductive method to distinguish between the defining attributes of death preparedness and its relevant attributes. Death preparedness involves a transition of facilitated communication with a healthcare provider that leads to awareness and/or acceptance of end of life, as evidenced by an implementation of a plan. An appraisal of attitudes towards death and one's mortality precedes the concept, followed by an improved quality of death and dignity at end of life. The concept of death preparedness in the process of dying should be the focus of research to explore areas to improve advanced directive planning and acceptance of palliation for chronic health conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Christine F; Long, Carol O

    2006-01-01

    The Boy Scout motto is "be prepared," but can your home health agency abide by this standard? The post-9/11 days of 2001 and the natural disasters that have threatened people and plagued our home and countries abroad illustrate the heightened level of awareness and preparedness home healthcare agencies must achieve to satisfactorily meet emergency preparedness standards. Community-based nurses often are on the front line of response to a man-made, biological, or naturally occurring event. You may have been assigned to work on a plan for your agency's response or have had questions asked about preparedness by your clients and family members. Here are six Web sites to get you started on the answers to those questions and concerns.

  16. Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Achora, Susan; Kamanyire, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in undergraduate nursing curricula is minimal in most countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current state of nursing education and training in disaster management, both generally and in Oman. The significance of disaster preparedness training and recommendations for its inclusion in nursing practice and education are also discussed. PMID:26909207

  17. Plant defense associations in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littler, Mark M.; Taylor, Phillip R.; Littler, Diane S.

    1986-10-01

    In contrast to terrestrial systems, few positive plant-plant associations have been recorded in tropical reef environments. This study, conducted at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize during 28 March 10 April 1984, provides the first documentation of herbivore escapes for natural combinations of palatable and unpalatable marine plants. For example, there was a highly significant association of several macrophyte taxa ( Laurencia poitei, Dictyota spp., Amphiroa fragilissima, Cladophoropsis macromeres, Galaxaura cylindrica, rhodophycean turf) within a 2.0-cm radius of the herbivore-resistant brown alga Stypopodium zonale. Almost twice as many taxa occurred within 10 cm of S. zonale as within 10 cm of an equal number of random Stypopodium-free points, and there were no algal species negatively associated with S. zonale. The association of A. tribulus, L. poitei, Digenia simplex, rhodophycean turf, and Jania adherens with S. zonale provided them a fourfold greater survivorship per 48 h in the presence of grazing activity by fishes (mainly Acanthuridae and Scaridae). Reduced herbivory by fishes on macroalgae associated with S. zonale was not solely a consequence of its structural aspect. Losses of the palatable alga Acanthophora spicifera were significantly greater for thalli spatially remote (30 and 60 cm) from either a real or simulated Stypopodium; however, losses of A. spicifera adjacent to actual Stypopodium plants were significantly less than the losses next to models. The inter-relationships studied here, where an abundant and well-defended plant provides a significant refuge habitat for at least five relatively edible macroalgae, clearly facilitates the survival of certain taxa in the reef system and concomitantly enhances the within habitat diversity. Our findings also suggest an interaction counter to the process of competitive exclusion, since the single predominant plant has a positive rather than negative net effect on the abundances of other species that utilize the

  18. Household flood preparedness and associated factors in the flood-prone community of Dembia district, Amhara National Regional State, northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ashenefe, Baye; Wubshet, Mamo; Shimeka, Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Background Flood preparedness empowers the community to respond effectively to related hazards. However, there was no research done in the country concerning household flood preparedness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess household flood preparedness and associated factors in the flood-prone community of Dembia district, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2014 in the Dembia district. A two-stage sampling technique was used. The study was conducted using 806 flood-prone participants. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The collected data were entered using Epi info version 3.5.1 and transported into SPSS version 16 for further analysis. Descriptive and analytic statistics were computed. Variables having association with the outcome variable were reported using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). Model fitness was checked by Hosmer and Lemeshew chi-square test. Results Household flood preparedness was found to be 24.4%. The age group of ≥ 46 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.62; 95% CI: 1.12, 6.00) above, monthly household income >893 Ethiopian Birr, (AOR=6.72; 95% CI: 2.2 7, 19.88) attending primary level education (AOR=22.08; 95% CI: 8.16, 59.74), warning system in household (AOR=5.41; 95% CI: 2.38, 12.32), knowledge of flood prevention, (AOR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.43, 5.57) were positively associated with household flood preparedness. Conclusion and recommendation This study has demonstrated that household flood preparedness was found to be low in the study area. Household flood preparedness was significantly associated with the older age group, attending primary level education, having a higher monthly income, receive household level warning messages, having knowledge on preparedness, prior exposure to a flood, and length of flood >6 days. Strengthening household flood preparedness in advance is important in order to prevent flood and its related

  19. Soviet Civil Defense Agricultural Preparedness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    at the capital’s William Soler children’s hospital. "EGF is a substance with magnificent qualities that stimulate the cicatrization process , and its...resulted in an extremely expensive and complex process , particularly as concerns obtainment of the raw material, however odd that may seem. "We do not...EGF by a recombinant method in yeast. This process followed studies performed by Cuban researchers to define the structure of EGF. Once they knew the

  20. Antimicrobial peptide defenses against pathogens associated with global amphibian declines.

    PubMed

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Doersam, Jennifer K; Longcore, Joyce E; Taylor, Sharon K; Shamblin, Jessica C; Carey, Cynthia; Zasloff, Michael A

    2002-01-01

    Global declines of amphibian populations are a source of great concern. Several pathogens that can infect the skin have been implicated in the declines. The pathogen most frequently associated with recent die-offs is a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. A second fungus, Basidiobolus ranarum, was isolated from declining populations of Wyoming toads. A third pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila, is an opportunistic bacterium found in healthy frogs, but capable of inducing disease. Among the immune defense mechanisms used by amphibians is the production of antimicrobial peptides in granular glands in the skin. These packets of natural antibiotics can be emptied onto the skin when the amphibian is injured. To determine whether antimicrobial skin peptides defend against these amphibian pathogens, six peptides (magainin I, magainin II, PGLa, CPF, ranalexin, and dermaseptin), from three species, and representing three structurally different families of peptides, were tested in growth inhibition assays. We show here that the peptides can kill or inhibit growth of both fungi but not Aeromonas. Although each peptide varied in its effectiveness, at least one from each species was effective against both fungi at a concentration of about 10-20 microM. This is the first direct evidence that antimicrobial peptides in the skin can operate as a first line of defense against the organisms associated with global amphibian declines. It suggests that this innate defense mechanism may play a role in preventing or limiting infection by these organisms.

  1. Fall Armyworm-Associated Gut Bacteria Modulate Plant Defense Responses.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Flor E; Peiffer, Michelle; Tan, Ching-Wen; Stanley, Bruce A; Stanley, Anne; Wang, Jie; Jones, Asher G; Hoover, Kelli; Rosa, Cristina; Luthe, Dawn; Felton, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical damage caused by insect feeding along with components present in insect saliva and oral secretions are known to induce jasmonic acid-mediated defense responses in plants. This study investigated the effects of bacteria from oral secretions of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda on herbivore-induced defenses in tomato and maize plants. Using culture-dependent methods, we identified seven different bacterial isolates belonging to the family Enterobacteriacea from the oral secretions of field-collected caterpillars. Two isolates, Pantoea ananatis and Enterobacteriaceae-1, downregulated the activity of the plant defensive proteins polyphenol oxidase and trypsin proteinase inhibitors (trypsin PI) but upregulated peroxidase (POX) activity in tomato. A Raoultella sp. and a Klebsiella sp. downregulated POX but upregulated trypsin PI in this plant species. Conversely, all of these bacterial isolates upregulated the expression of the herbivore-induced maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene in maize. Plant treatment with P. ananatis and Enterobacteriaceae-1 enhanced caterpillar growth on tomato but diminished their growth on maize plants. Our results highlight the importance of herbivore-associated microbes and their ability to mediate insect plant interactions differently in host plants fed on by the same herbivore.

  2. Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G.; Toner, Eric S.; Roxland, Beth E.; Penn, Matthew S.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Powell, Tia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Significant legal challenges arise when health-care resources become scarce and population-based approaches to care are implemented during severe disasters and pandemics. Recent emergencies highlight the serious legal, economic, and health impacts that can be associated with responding in austere conditions and the critical importance of comprehensive, collaborative health response system planning. This article discusses legal suggestions developed by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Task Force for Mass Critical Care to support planning and response efforts for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS Following the CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology, the Legal Panel developed 35 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted. The literature in this field is not suitable to provide support for evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process resulting in seven final suggestions. RESULTS Acceptance is widespread for the health-care community’s duty to appropriately plan for and respond to severe disasters and pandemics. Hospitals, public health entities, and clinicians have an obligation to develop comprehensive, vetted plans for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. Such plans should address processes for evacuation and limited appeals and reviews of care decisions. To legitimize responses, deter independent actions, and trigger liability protections, mass critical care (MCC) plans should be formally activated when facilities and practitioners shift to providing MCC. Adherence to official MCC plans should

  3. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  4. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disaster preparedness..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of...

  5. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disaster preparedness..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of...

  6. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disaster preparedness..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of...

  7. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disaster preparedness..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of...

  8. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster preparedness..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of...

  9. Rural Hospital Preparedness for Neonatal Resuscitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…

  10. Rural Hospital Preparedness for Neonatal Resuscitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…

  11. Emergency Preparedness and Management at the University of L’aquila (Central Italy) and the Role of Students’ Associations in the April 6th 2009 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Michele; Fraboni, Rita; Marincioni, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: On April 6th 2009 an earthquake of Mw=6.3 hit the historical downtown of L’Aquila and its hinterland causing more than 300 fatalities and severe damage to private and public buildings. At the time, the University of L’Aquila represented a major source of employment and income for the city. The earthquake impacted both the facilities and the administrative, financial and patrimonial activities of the university, bringing into the open the tendency – widespread in Italy – to rely on adaptive tactics rather than on strategic pre-disaster plans. This paper investigates the university’s emergency preparedness and response capability and  the strategies adopted to restore the education activities as well as avoid students migration to other universities. In addition, emphasis is placed on the role played by Student Associations in pre and post-disaster phases, and how students perceived the activities performed by these associations. Methods: To achieve this goal, it was undertaken: i) qualitative evaluation to assess the impact of earthquake on services and facilities of the university, the emergency preparedness and the measures adopted to face the emergency, ii) survey on the role played by Student Associations, both in emergency preparedness and response, according to students’ perception; iii) quantitative analysis to measure changes in the enrollment trend after the earthquake, and how university policies could curb students’ migration. Results: The policies adopted by the University allowed to diminish students’ migration; however, the measures taken by the university were based on an ad hoc plan as no emergency and continuity plans were prepared in advance. Similarly Student Associations got involved more in restoration activities than in emergency preparedness and risk awareness promotion. Discussion: Greater awareness and involvement are essential at each level (administrators, faculties, students) to plan in advance for an

  12. Birth Preparedness and Its Association with Skilled Birth Attendance and Postpartum Checkups among Mothers in Gibe Wereda, Hadiya Zone, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Fasil; Hailu, Chernet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Birth preparedness program was designed to enhance skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups of women in a developing country to reduce the three delays that lead women and neonates to death and disability. However, the relationship between birth preparedness with skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups among mothers is not well studied. Therefore this study is intended to assess the association between birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2014. Eight out of 22 Kebeles were selected using probability proportional to size sampling method. Seven hundred and forty-five mothers were selected randomly from the sampling frame, generated from family folders obtained from health posts. Data was collected using pretested questionnaire by face-to-face interview. Data was entered into EpiData version 3.1 database and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Result. Out of 745 sampled mothers 728 (97.7%) participated in the study. One hundred and twelve (15.4%) and 128 (17.6%) mothers got skilled birth attendance and received postpartum checkups for their last child, respectively. Birth preparedness, educational status of women and their husbands, and antenatal care visits of mothers were found to be predictor of skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups. Mothers well prepared for child birth were 6.7 times more likely to attend skilled birth attendance [AOR = 6.7 (2.7–16.4)] and 3 times more likely to follow postpartum checkups [AOR = 3.0 (1.5–5.9)] than poorly prepared mothers, respectively. Travel time to reach the nearest health facility was found as predictor for postpartum checkups of mothers; mothers who travel ≤ 2 hours were three times more likely to follow postpartum checkups than mothers who travel > 2 hours (AOR (95% CI) = 3.4 (1.5–7.9)). Conclusion and Recommendation. Skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups

  13. Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant defense responses

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.; Chandran, Divya; Gulevich, Alexander G.; Okrent, Rachel A.; Durkin, Kathleen A.; Sarpong, Richmond; Bunnelle, Eric M.; Wildermuth, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides control crop pests based on their action as agonists at the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which accepts chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-analogs almost equally well. In some cases, these compounds have also been reported to enhance plant vigor and (a)biotic stress tolerance, independent of their insecticidal function. However, this mode of action has not been defined. Using Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the neonicotinoid compounds, imidacloprid (IMI) and clothianidin (CLO), via their 6-chloropyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid and 2-chlorothiazolyl-5-carboxylic acid metabolites, respectively, induce salicylic acid (SA)-associated plant responses. SA is a phytohormone best known for its role in plant defense against pathogens and as an inducer of systemic acquired resistance; however, it can also modulate abiotic stress responses. These neonicotinoids effect a similar global transcriptional response to that of SA, including genes involved in (a)biotic stress response. Furthermore, similar to SA, IMI and CLO induce systemic acquired resistance, resulting in reduced growth of a powdery mildew pathogen. The action of CLO induces the endogenous synthesis of SA via the SA biosynthetic enzyme ICS1, with ICS1 required for CLO-induced accumulation of SA, expression of the SA marker PR1, and fully enhanced resistance to powdery mildew. In contrast, the action of IMI does not induce endogenous synthesis of SA. Instead, IMI is further bioactivated to 6-chloro-2-hydroxypyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid, which is shown here to be a potent inducer of PR1 and inhibitor of SA-sensitive enzymes. Thus, via different mechanisms, these chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-neonicotinoids induce SA responses associated with enhanced stress tolerance. PMID:20876120

  14. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sharon L.; Schroder, Hans S.; Moran, Tim P.; Durbin, C. Emily; Moser, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes – the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) – measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes – startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry – in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years. PMID:26386550

  15. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sharon L; Schroder, Hans S; Moran, Tim P; Durbin, C Emily; Moser, Jason S

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes--the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe)--measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes--startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry--in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years.

  16. Improving the Chemical Biological Defense Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-13

    nuclear (CBRN) defense preparedness, to reduce risks to the Warfighter, and to field the appropriate capabilities for sustained military operations with...radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) defense preparedness, to reduce risks to the Warfighter, and to field the appropriate capabilities for sustained military...at unnecessary risk of not being able to accomplish our national military strategy. The Chemical, Biological, Defense Program (CBDP) supports a

  17. Hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide signals in potato elicit signalling associated with defense against insects and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Ramcharan; Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Negi, Manisha; Pearce, Gregory; Ryan, Clarence A

    2013-06-01

    HypSys peptides are 18-20 amino acids glycopeptide defense signal first discovered in tobacco and tomato that activate expression of defensive genes against insect-herbivores. Discovery of their orthologs in other Solanaceaous and nonsolanaceous plants demonstrated their possible ubiquitous nature and species specific functional diversity. In our continued search to establish the paradigm of defense signalling by HypSys peptides, we isolated a cDNA from potato leaves encoding putative analogs of tomato HypSys peptides flanked by conserved proteolytic cleavage sites. The gene encoding the cDNA was a member of a gene family in the tetraploid genome of potato and its expression was transcriptionally activated by wounding and methyl jasmonate. The deduced precursor protein contained a leader peptidase splice site and three putative HypSys peptides with conserved N- and C-termini along with central proline-rich motifs. In defense signalling, the three HypSys peptides elicit H₂O₂ generation in vivo and activate several antioxidant defensive enzymes in young potato leaves. Similar to potato systemin, the HypSys peptides activate the expression of octadecanoid pathway genes and protease inhibitors for insect defense. In addition, the HypSys peptides also activate the essential genes of the innate pathogen defense response in young potato leaves, acting as common elicitors of signalling associated with anti-herbivore and anti-pathogen defense in potato.

  18. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between defense mechanisms and psychiatric symptoms in North Korean Refugees.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Lee, So-Hee; Yoo, So Young; Song, Jungeun; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-01

    Defense mechanism may contribute to psychiatric symptoms. Refugees are vulnerable to various psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, somatization, and those associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), due to their traumatic or stressful experiences. We aimed to investigate the mediating role of each defense mechanism in the occurrence of specific psychiatric symptoms in North Korean refugees. Among 213 North Korean refugees initially recruited, 201 completed the following questionnaires: the Defense Style Questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S), the somatization subscale of Symptom Check-List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the defense mechanisms more predominantly associated with specific psychiatric symptoms after controlling for age, sex, number of traumatic experiences, and other psychiatric symptoms (depressive symptoms and/or anxiety). Higher levels of depression were independently predicted by greater use of resignation. More use of acting out and less use of humor and sublimation independently predicted higher levels of anxiety. Somatization was independently predicted by more use of inhibition. PTSD symptoms were independently predicted by more use of undoing and isolation. Specific psychiatric symptoms were associated with specific defense mechanisms in North Korean refugees. Our findings suggest that the manifest psychiatric symptoms of refugees may be mediated by their dominant defense mechanism. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Inter-Association Task Force Recommendations on Emergency Preparedness and Management of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in High School and College Athletic Programs: A Consensus Statement

    PubMed Central

    Drezner, Jonathan A; Courson, Ron W; Roberts, William O; Mosesso, Vincent N; Link, Mark S; Maron, Barry J

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assist high school and college athletic programs prepare for and respond to a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). This consensus statement summarizes our current understanding of SCA in young athletes, defines the necessary elements for emergency preparedness, and establishes uniform treatment protocols for the management of SCA. Background: Sudden cardiac arrest is the leading cause of death in young athletes. The increasing presence of and timely access to automated external defibrillators (AEDs) at sporting events provides a means of early defibrillation and the potential for effective secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. An Inter-Association Task Force was sponsored by the National Athletic Trainers' Association to develop consensus recommendations on emergency preparedness and management of SCA in athletes. Recommendations: Comprehensive emergency planning is needed for high school and college athletic programs to ensure an efficient and structured response to SCA. Essential elements of an emergency action plan include establishment of an effective communication system, training of anticipated responders in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and AED use, access to an AED for early defibrillation, acquisition of necessary emergency equipment, coordination and integration of on-site responder and AED programs with the local emergency medical services system, and practice and review of the response plan. Prompt recognition of SCA, early activation of the emergency medical services system, the presence of a trained rescuer to initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and access to early defibrillation are critical in the management of SCA. In any collapsed and unresponsive athlete, SCA should be suspected and an AED applied as soon as possible for rhythm analysis and defibrillation if indicated. PMID:17597956

  1. Vested interest, disaster preparedness, and strategic campaign message design.

    PubMed

    Adame, Bradley J; Miller, Claude H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the United States has recognized an increasing need for individual-level disaster preparedness, with federal, state, and local government agencies finding only limited success in instituting campaign-based disaster preparedness programs. Extant research indicates Americans generally remain poorly informed and badly unprepared for imminent disasters. Vested interest theory (Crano, 1997) is presented as a framework for designing and testing the effectiveness of television-based disaster preparedness campaign messages. High- and low-vested versions of an extant control message are compared to assess message efficacy as indicated by behavioral intentions, message acceptance, and preparedness related attitudes. Results indicate television-based video public service announcements manipulated with subtle message variations can be effective at influencing critical preparedness-related attitudes. The high-vested condition performed significantly better than the low-vested and control conditions for both behavioral intentions and perceptions of self-efficacy, two vitally important outcome variables associated with disaster preparedness.

  2. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  3. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  4. Allocation Costs Associated with Induced Defense in Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae): the Effects of Nutrient Availability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yan; Ou, Linjian; He, Xuejia; Chen, Da

    2015-01-01

    Colony enlargement in Phaeocystis globosa has been considered as an induced defense strategy that reduces its susceptibility to grazers, but allocation costs inflicted by this plastic morphological defense are poorly understood. We conducted experiments in which P. globosa cultures were exposed to chemical cues from copepods, ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, respectively, under nutrient sufficient and deficient conditions to evaluate allocation costs associated with induced defense. Phaeocystis globosa responded to chemical cues from grazers by increasing colony diameter irrespective of nutrient conditions. We did not find trade-offs between induced defense and growth rate under nutrient sufficient conditions. Instead, induced defensive P. globosa had higher growth rates than non-induced P. globosa. When nutrient became limited, P. globosa exposed to grazing cues from copepods and dinoflagellates had significantly decreased growth rates when compared with non-induced P. globosa. We suggested that the decreased growth revealed allocation costs associated with induced defense that may influence on the trophic interactions between Phaeocystis and consumers. PMID:26040243

  5. Allocation Costs Associated with Induced Defense in Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae): the Effects of Nutrient Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yan; Ou, Linjian; He, Xuejia; Chen, Da

    2015-06-01

    Colony enlargement in Phaeocystis globosa has been considered as an induced defense strategy that reduces its susceptibility to grazers, but allocation costs inflicted by this plastic morphological defense are poorly understood. We conducted experiments in which P. globosa cultures were exposed to chemical cues from copepods, ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, respectively, under nutrient sufficient and deficient conditions to evaluate allocation costs associated with induced defense. Phaeocystis globosa responded to chemical cues from grazers by increasing colony diameter irrespective of nutrient conditions. We did not find trade-offs between induced defense and growth rate under nutrient sufficient conditions. Instead, induced defensive P. globosa had higher growth rates than non-induced P. globosa. When nutrient became limited, P. globosa exposed to grazing cues from copepods and dinoflagellates had significantly decreased growth rates when compared with non-induced P. globosa. We suggested that the decreased growth revealed allocation costs associated with induced defense that may influence on the trophic interactions between Phaeocystis and consumers.

  6. Preparedness 101: Zombie Pandemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... way that people of all ages will enjoy. Readers follow Todd, Julie, and their dog Max as ... the novel is a Preparedness Checklist so that readers can get their family, workplace, or school ready ...

  7. 77 FR 16651 - National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... commercial fertilizer; (2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms of energy; (3) the Secretary of... for market use of food resources. (d) ``Fertilizer'' means any product or combination of products that..., and for the domestic distribution of farm equipment and fertilizer (excluding transportation...

  8. The Soviet Civil Defense Medical Preparedness Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    emergency ambulance service staffed by physicians. In addition, there is a network of hygiene- epidemological stations with their own physicians. In the... Epidemological Stations (SES) at republic, oblast, and city levels and also at institutes of epidemiology, microbiology, and hygiene. The mission of these... epidemological control in host areas and in shelters. o Planning for and preparation of the evacuation of urban CDMS formations and health institutions, their

  9. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Corporate communication Education and training Corporate Leadership In the corporations which were the most successful in preparedness, lead- ership...nications must work together in this process that encompasses three phases: pre-event, event and post-event. Corporate Communication Oft en...medical and EAP), human resources Practice regular preparedness, e.g., fl u shots, evacuation drills Post event: return to work vs. stay at home Corporate

  10. 44 CFR 351.27 - The Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Department of Defense..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.27 The Department of Defense. (a) Determine appropriate planning bases for Department of...

  11. 44 CFR 351.27 - The Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Department of Defense..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.27 The Department of Defense. (a) Determine appropriate planning bases for Department of...

  12. 17. Introduction to preparedness.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Preparedness is the aggregate of all measures and policies adopted before an event occurs that promotes mitigation of the damage caused by an event and minimises the dysfunction that could result from the damage. More specifically, it includes all planning and resources that are devoted to preventing deaths and morbidity and, thus, to the alleviation of human (individual and collective) suffering during and after the event has taken place. It consists of measures that individuals, a family, a community, locale, country, region, institution, and states maintain, at a particular time, to combat the potential deleterious effects of hazards. Preparedness includes the absorbing, buffering, and response capacities; it also has been called the resilience of the society at risk, to a hazard(s). As the level of preparedness increases, the vulnerability of the community at risk decreases. Preparedness is difficult to measure. The impact of preparedness measures cannot be realised until the next event occurs or it has been shown to be of benefit during disaster drills and exercises. Hence, investments in preparedness have been relatively meager worldwide.

  13. 47 CFR 0.381 - Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defense Commissioner. 0.381 Section 0.381... National Security and Emergency Preparedness Delegations § 0.381 Defense Commissioner. The authority delegated to the Commission under Executive Orders 12472 and 12656 is redelegated to the Defense...

  14. 47 CFR 0.381 - Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defense Commissioner. 0.381 Section 0.381... National Security and Emergency Preparedness Delegations § 0.381 Defense Commissioner. The authority delegated to the Commission under Executive Orders 12472 and 12656 is redelegated to the Defense...

  15. Computational identification of genetic subnetwork modules associated with maize defense response to Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Maize, a crop of global significance, is vulnerable to a variety of biotic stresses resulting in economic losses. Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is one of the key fungal pathogens of maize, causing ear rots and stalk rots. To better understand the genetic mechanisms involved in maize defense as well as F. verticillioides virulence, a systematic investigation of the host-pathogen interaction is needed. The aim of this study was to computationally identify potential maize subnetwork modules associated with its defense response against F. verticillioides. Results We obtained time-course RNA-seq data from B73 maize inoculated with wild type F. verticillioides and a loss-of-virulence mutant, and subsequently established a computational pipeline for network-based comparative analysis. Specifically, we first analyzed the RNA-seq data by a cointegration-correlation-expression approach, where maize genes were jointly analyzed with known F. verticillioides virulence genes to find candidate maize genes likely associated with the defense mechanism. We predicted maize co-expression networks around the selected maize candidate genes based on partial correlation, and subsequently searched for subnetwork modules that were differentially activated when inoculated with two different fungal strains. Based on our analysis pipeline, we identified four potential maize defense subnetwork modules. Two were directly associated with maize defense response and were associated with significant GO terms such as GO:0009817 (defense response to fungus) and GO:0009620 (response to fungus). The other two predicted modules were indirectly involved in the defense response, where the most significant GO terms associated with these modules were GO:0046914 (transition metal ion binding) and GO:0046686 (response to cadmium ion). Conclusion Through our RNA-seq data analysis, we have shown that a network-based approach can enhance our understanding of the

  16. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Academic-community partnerships for sustainable preparedness and response systems.

    PubMed

    Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally.

  18. Emergency Preparedness: Issues for the Year 2000 and Beyond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Defense Subcommittee Policy Coordinating Committees on Emergency Preparedness and Mobilization Planning. 29. Ibid. 30. George H. Orrell, "Current...Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. Basin Books, NY, 1988, p. 10. 33. Ibid, p. 216. 34. Ibid, p. 392. 35. Ibid, p. 392. 36. Alvin Toffler, Powershift. Danton Books, New York, 1990, p. 172. 31

  19. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology.

  20. Hyperleptinemia is associated with impaired pulmonary host defense

    PubMed Central

    Ubags, Niki D.J.; Stapleton, Renee D.; Vernooy, Juanita H.J.; Burg, Elianne; Bement, Jenna; Hayes, Catherine M.; Ventrone, Sebastian; Tavernier, Jan; Poynter, Matthew E.; Parsons, Polly E.; Dixon, Anne E.; Wargo, Matthew J.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that obesity attenuates pulmonary inflammation in both patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in mouse models of the disease. We hypothesized that obesity-associated hyperleptinemia, and not body mass per se, drives attenuation of the pulmonary inflammatory response and that this effect could also impair the host response to pneumonia. We examined the correlation between circulating leptin levels and risk, severity, and outcome of pneumonia in 2 patient cohorts (NHANES III and ARDSNet-ALVEOLI) and in mouse models of diet-induced obesity and lean hyperleptinemia. Plasma leptin levels in ambulatory subjects (NHANES) correlated positively with annual risk of respiratory infection independent of BMI. In patients with severe pneumonia resulting in ARDS (ARDSNet-ALVEOLI), plasma leptin levels were found to correlate positively with subsequent mortality. In obese mice with pneumonia, plasma leptin levels were associated with pneumonia severity, and in obese mice with sterile lung injury, leptin levels were inversely related to bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia, as well as to plasma IL-6 and G-CSF levels. These results were recapitulated in lean mice with experimentally induced hyperleptinemia. Our findings suggest that the association between obesity and elevated risk of pulmonary infection may be driven by hyperleptinemia. PMID:27347561

  1. A survey assessment of the level of preparedness for domestic terrorism and mass casualty incidents among Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma members.

    PubMed

    Ciraulo, David L; Frykberg, Eric R; Feliciano, David V; Knuth, Thomas E; Richart, Charles M; Westmoreland, Christy D; Williams, Kathryn A

    2004-05-01

    The goal of this survey was to establish a benchmark for trauma surgeons' level of operational understanding of the command structure for a pre-hospital incident, a mass casualty incident (MCI), and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The survey was distributed before the World Trade Center destruction on September 11, 2001. The survey was developed by the authors and reviewed by a statistician for clarity and performance. The survey was sent to the membership of the 2000 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma spring mailing, with two subsequent mailings and a final sampling at the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma 2001 meeting. Of 723 surveys mailed, 243 were returned and statistically analyzed (significance indicated by p < 0.05). No statistical difference existed between level of designation of a trauma center (state or American College of Surgeons) and a facility's level of pre-paredness for MCIs or WMD. Physicians in communities with chemical plants, railways, and waterway traffic were statistically more likely to work at facilities with internal disaster plans addressing chemical and biological threats. Across all variables, physicians with military training were significantly better prepared for response to catastrophic events. With the exception of cyanide (50%), less than 30% of the membership was prepared to manage exposure to a nerve agent, less than 50% was prepared to manage illness from intentional biological exposure, and only 73% understood and were prepared to manage blast injury. Mobile medical response teams were present in 46% of the respondents' facilities, but only 30% of those teams deployed a trauma surgeon. Approximately 70% of the membership had been involved in an MCI, although only 60% understood the command structure for a prehospital incident. Only 33% of the membership had training regarding hazardous materials. Of interest, 76% and 65%, respectively, felt that education about MCIs and WMD should be included in

  2. Investigating the Association between Flowering Time and Defense in the Arabidopsis thaliana-Fusarium oxysporum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Rebecca; Rusu, Anca; Stiller, Jiri; Powell, Jonathan; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens either by investing more resources into immunity which is costly to development, or by accelerating reproductive processes such as flowering time to ensure reproduction occurs before the plant succumbs to disease. In this study we explored the link between flowering time and pathogen defense using the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the root infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. We report that F. oxysporum infection accelerates flowering time and regulates transcription of a number of floral integrator genes, including FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and GIGANTEA (GI). Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between late flowering and resistance to F. oxysporum in A. thaliana natural ecotypes. Late-flowering gi and autonomous pathway mutants also exhibited enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum, supporting the association between flowering time and defense. However, epistasis analysis showed that accelerating flowering time by deletion of FLC in fve-3 or fpa-7 mutants did not alter disease resistance, suggesting that the effect of autonomous pathway on disease resistance occurs independently from flowering time. Indeed, RNA-seq analyses suggest that fve-3 mediated resistance to F. oxysporum is most likely a result of altered defense-associated gene transcription. Together, our results indicate that the association between flowering time and pathogen defense is complex and can involve both pleiotropic and direct effects.

  3. Investigating the Association between Flowering Time and Defense in the Arabidopsis thaliana-Fusarium oxysporum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Rebecca; Rusu, Anca; Stiller, Jiri; Powell, Jonathan; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens either by investing more resources into immunity which is costly to development, or by accelerating reproductive processes such as flowering time to ensure reproduction occurs before the plant succumbs to disease. In this study we explored the link between flowering time and pathogen defense using the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the root infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. We report that F. oxysporum infection accelerates flowering time and regulates transcription of a number of floral integrator genes, including FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and GIGANTEA (GI). Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between late flowering and resistance to F. oxysporum in A. thaliana natural ecotypes. Late-flowering gi and autonomous pathway mutants also exhibited enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum, supporting the association between flowering time and defense. However, epistasis analysis showed that accelerating flowering time by deletion of FLC in fve-3 or fpa-7 mutants did not alter disease resistance, suggesting that the effect of autonomous pathway on disease resistance occurs independently from flowering time. Indeed, RNA-seq analyses suggest that fve-3 mediated resistance to F. oxysporum is most likely a result of altered defense-associated gene transcription. Together, our results indicate that the association between flowering time and pathogen defense is complex and can involve both pleiotropic and direct effects. PMID:26034991

  4. NARCISSISTIC DEFENSES IN THE DISTORTION OF FREE ASSOCIATION AND THEIR UNDERLYING ANXIETIES.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, Otto F

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines particular distortions in the process of free association characteristics of patients with narcissistic personality disorders. The author proposes that the dominant narcissistic transference developments typical of the early and middle phases of the analytic treatment of these patients are reflected in these distortions of free association. This paper gathers the various patterns that these defensive distortions present, along with technical interventions geared to deal with them.

  5. Missouri nurses' bioterrorism preparedness.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri; Mohr, Lisa Buettner

    2008-09-01

    Nurses are the largest group of healthcare providers and will be at the forefront during a response to a bioterrorism attack in the U.S. However, nurses' bioterrorism risk perceptions and their participation in bioterrorism preparedness activities, such as bioterrorism-related exercises or drills, have not been evaluated. We mailed a survey to all members of the Missouri Nurses Association in July 2006, consisting of 1,528 registered nurses. The instrument measured risk perception, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, bioterrorism education received, participation in exercises/drills, and personal response plan thoroughness. The response rate was 31% (474/1,528). Most respondents believe that a bioterrorism attack will occur in the U.S. (82.3%; n = 390), but few (21.3%; n = 101) believe that one will occur in their community. The majority of nurses reported that they believe that a bioterrorism attack would have serious consequences (96.1%, n = 448), including having a serious impact on U.S. citizens' safety (90.7%, n = 446) and on their own safety (84.3%, n = 379). Most (60%, n = 284) reported that they had not received any bioterrorism-related education nor participated in any drills/exercises (82.7%, n = 392). Of those who had received education, most had participated in 3 or fewer programs and in only 1 drill. Few nurses (3.6%, n = 15) reported having all aspects of a personal bioterrorism response plan; approximately 20% (19.4%, n = 81) did not have any components of a plan. Most of the registered nurses in Missouri who were surveyed are not receiving bioterrorism education, participating in bioterrorism exercises, or developing thorough personal response plans. Nurses need to be aware of and encouraged to participate in the many education and training opportunities on bioterrorism and infectious disease disasters.

  6. State of emergency preparedness for US health insurance plans.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Raina M; Finne, Kristen; Lardy, Barbara; Veselovskiy, German; Korba, Caey; Margolis, Gregg S; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance plans serve a critical role in public health emergencies, yet little has been published about their collective emergency preparedness practices and policies. We evaluated, on a national scale, the state of health insurance plans' emergency preparedness and policies. A survey of health insurance plans. We queried members of America's Health Insurance Plans, the national trade association representing the health insurance industry, about issues related to emergency preparedness issues: infrastructure, adaptability, connectedness, and best practices. Of 137 health insurance plans queried, 63% responded, representing 190.6 million members and 81% of US plan enrollment. All respondents had emergency plans for business continuity, and most (85%) had infrastructure for emergency teams. Some health plans also have established benchmarks for preparedness (eg, response time). Regarding adaptability, 85% had protocols to extend claim filing time and 71% could temporarily suspend prior medical authorization rules. Regarding connectedness, many plans shared their contingency plans with health officials, but often cited challenges in identifying regulatory agency contacts. Some health insurance plans had specific policies for assisting individuals dependent on durable medical equipment or home healthcare. Many plans (60%) expressed interest in sharing best practices. Health insurance plans are prioritizing emergency preparedness. We identified 6 policy modifications that health insurance plans could undertake to potentially improve healthcare system preparedness: establishing metrics and benchmarks for emergency preparedness; identifying disaster-specific policy modifications, enhancing stakeholder connectedness, considering digital strategies to enhance communication, improving support and access for special-needs individuals, and developing regular forums for knowledge exchange about emergency preparedness.

  7. Affective temperaments and ego defense mechanisms associated with somatic symptom severity in a large sample.

    PubMed

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Taunay, Tauily C; Macedo, Danielle S; Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio G; Bisol, Luísa W; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Lara, Diogo R; Carvalho, André F

    2013-09-05

    Several complex mechanisms including biological, psychological and social factors may contribute to the development of bodily symptoms. Affective temperaments may represent heritable subclinical manifestations of mood disorders, and the concept of ego defense mechanisms has also provided a model for the comprehension of psychopathology. The relationship between affective temperaments, defensive functioning and somatic symptom severity remains unknown. We obtained data from a subsample of the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP). Participants completed the Affective and Emotional Temperament Composite Scale (AFECTS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). SCL-90-R Somatization scale was used as outcome variable. Among 9937 participants (4472 male; 45%), individuals with dysphoric, cyclothymic and depressive temperaments and those who adopted displacement, somatisation and passive aggression as their predominant defense mechanisms presented high somatic symptom severity. Participants with dysphoric temperament and those with higher displacement scores were more likely to endorse numerous bodily symptoms after controlling for age, gender, education and depressive symptoms. Moderator analysis showed that the relationship of dysphoric temperament with somatic symptom severity was much more powerful in people who adopted displacement as their predominant defense. The data was collected from a convenience web-based sample. The study was cross-sectional. There was no information on the presence of established physical illness. Affective temperaments and defense mechanisms are associated with somatic symptom severity independently of depressive symptoms. These two personality theories provide distinct but interacting views for comprehension of somatic symptom formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Working Together for Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Daniel W. Sutherland, Officer for Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Department of Homeland Security, to discuss some of the Department's future goals related to emergency preparedness for people with special needs and to find out how citizens can help in that quest. This article also focuses on topics such as:…

  9. Working Together for Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Daniel W. Sutherland, Officer for Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Department of Homeland Security, to discuss some of the Department's future goals related to emergency preparedness for people with special needs and to find out how citizens can help in that quest. This article also focuses on topics such as:…

  10. Tornado Preparedness Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    This pamphlet contains a set of guidelines for community leaders interested in developing preparedness plans for tornadoes and severe thunderstorms. Included in the guide is a list of the types of officials and agencies which should be involved in planning meetings. A set of suggestions for developing a community communications network and…

  11. Association of the Metabolic Syndrome with Antioxidant Defense and Outstanding Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Mexican Subjects.

    PubMed

    Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; De Jésus, Karina Luna; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; González-Mejía, M Elba; Porchia, Leonardo; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is considered a public health problem worldwide. Recently, oxidative stress (OS) has been proposed as a factor related with the genesis of MetS. Different studies have reported decreased antioxidant defense, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, and, on the other hand, an increase in nitrotyrosine concentration in MetS patients. However, it is not known whether there is a direct association of antioxidant defense with MetS in a Mexican population. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between antioxidant defense and MetS in Mexican subjects. The subjects were Mexican mestizos, who were anthropometrically, biochemically, and clinically characterized. MetS was diagnosed by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III)-modified criteria. Antioxidant defense was determined by activity of SOD, GPx, GRed, and GSH concentrations; as a marker of OS, nitrotyrosine concentration was determined. The study included 376 subjects, among whom 152 subjects had MetS and 224 were assigned to the non-MetS group. Statistical association was found between MetS and SOD activity (Odds ratio: 167.1; P < 0.01; adjusted by age, gender, and waist circumference). It is noteworthy that a significant correlation between antioxidant defense (SOD and GPx activities, and GSH) and different MetS components was found and between MetS and nitrotyrosine concentration (P < 0.05). The results indicate that SOD activity is associated with MetS in Mexican subjects, allowing us to suggest that this enzyme plays an important role in the pathophysiology of MetS.

  12. Disaster preparedness among medically vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Foreman, Amber N; Burke, Sloane C

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable populations such as those with poor health, disabilities, and chronic diseases are at an increased risk of adverse health outcomes resulting from natural disasters. The objective of this study was to examine the association of general health status, disability status, and chronic disease status, respectively, with disaster preparedness, among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. BRFSS data were obtained for six states that implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2008. Three dependent variables were analyzed, including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, radio); emergency evacuation plan; and 3-day supply of medication. Primary independent variables included perceived health status, disability status, and number of chronic diseases. Data were analyzed in 2010 and accounted for BRFSS complex sampling design. Respondents with fair/poor perceived health (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.65, 0.89); a disability (activity limitation; OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.73, 0.90); and three or more chronic diseases (OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.58, 1.02) were less likely to have all four preparedness items than their healthier counterparts. However, all these groups were more likely to have a 3-day supply of medication than their healthier counterparts. Results varied for presence of an emergency evacuation plan. Vulnerable populations were generally less likely to have household preparedness items but more likely to have medication supplies than their counterparts. Public health officials should target these groups to increase levels of disaster preparedness. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 56740 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Delete Outdated FAR Reference to the DoD Industrial Preparedness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... to the DoD Industrial Preparedness Program AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... references to the obsolete ``DoD Industrial Preparedness Program''. DATES: Effective Date: October 15, 2012.... Background DoD, GSA, and NASA are issuing a final rule to delete references to the obsolete ``DoD Industrial...

  14. Disability status, disease parameters, defense styles, and ego strength associated with psychiatric complications of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Christou, Konstantinos; Kontoudaki, Stavroula; Mantas, Christos; Papamichael, George; Goulia, Panagiota; Konitsiotis, Spyros; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify disease parameters, defensive styles and ego strength measurements associated with various forms of psychiatric complications in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Seventy-nine patients with MS participated in the study and 158 healthy subjects matched for age and sex served as controls. A wide range of clinical information was collected and the following self-report instruments were used: General Health Questionnaire, Symptom Distress Check List, Defense Style Questionnaire, MMPI Ego Strength Scale and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire. The odds of being assessed with a psychiatric diagnosis upon interview were 6.7 times greater among patients compared to controls and 9.3 times greater among patients with recent-onset MS compared to patients with long-term disease. Psychiatric complications of MS were closely associated with age of the disease onset and the degree of disability due to MS. Additionally, higher rates of introverted hostility, adoption of maladaptive ego defenses and weakened ego strength were also closely associated with several forms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms. MS patients experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms, which are most closely associated with disease parameters. However, the crucial role of various personality traits such as ego defenses and hostility features in the psychiatric symptom formation also appear to contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Clinicians involved in the clinical management of patients with MS should identify and modify treatment if these specific personality markers that indicate the exhaustion of the patient's resources to cope with the physical and psychological stress of the illness are present.

  15. The pediatrician and disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Markenson, David; Reynolds, Sally

    2006-02-01

    For decades, emergency planning for natural disasters, public health emergencies, workplace accidents, and other calamities has been the responsibility of government agencies on all levels and certain nongovernment organizations such as the American Red Cross. In the case of terrorism, however, entirely new approaches to emergency planning are under development for a variety of reasons. Terrorism preparedness is a highly specific component of general emergency preparedness. In addition to the unique pediatric issues involved in general emergency preparedness, terrorism preparedness must consider several additional issues, including the unique vulnerabilities of children to various agents as well as the limited availability of age- and weight-appropriate antidotes and treatments. Although children may respond more rapidly to therapeutic intervention, they are at the same time more susceptible to various agents and conditions and more likely to deteriorate if they are not monitored carefully. This article is designed to provide an overview of key issues for the pediatrician with respect to disaster, terrorism, and public health emergency preparedness. It is not intended to be a complete compendium of didactic content but rather offers an approach to what pediatricians need to know and how pediatricians must lend their expertise to enhance preparedness in every community. To become fully and optimally prepared, pediatricians need to become familiar with these key areas of emergency preparedness: unique aspects of children related to terrorism and other disasters; terrorism preparedness; mental health vulnerabilities and development of resiliency; managing family concerns about terrorism and disaster preparedness; office-based preparedness; hospital preparedness; community, government, and public health preparedness; and advocating for children and families in preparedness planning.

  16. The Role of Victimization in Shaping Households' Preparedness for Armed Conflicts in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Moran; Siman-Tov, Maya; Kreitler, Shulamith; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-07-27

    One of the most prominent threats to the Israeli population is the risk from armed conflicts. Yet, promoting preparedness behavior proves to be highly difficult. Arguably, this is partially due to the chronic exposure of the Israeli public to this threat, a.k.a. "Victimization." The purpose of this study was to examine whether victimization plays a prominent role in shaping preparedness behavior toward armed conflicts in Israel. An online survey of 502 participants representing the adult Jewish population in Israel was carried out. A set of questionnaires designed to assess public perception of preparedness-affecting factors was used. The list of preparedness-affecting factors was conceptualized by an expert panel before the survey. The results suggest that low prioritization and ignoring of civil-defense instructions during routine times are leading causes for non-compliance with preparedness recommendations. Ignoring instructions is also negatively correlated with reported preparedness. Misunderstanding the threat and fearing it also seem to be important factors. The results of this study support the hypothesis that victimization plays an important role in shaping preparedness behavior toward armed conflicts among Jews in Israel. The findings demonstrate the complexity of the socio-psychological perspective of preparedness behavior in victimized populations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 9).

  17. Family emergency preparedness plans in severe tornadoes.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan; Luo, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes, with warnings usually issued just minutes before their touchdowns, pose great threats to properties and people's physical and mental health. Few studies have empirically investigated the association of family emergency preparedness planning and observed protective behaviors in the context of tornadoes. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for the action of taking shelter at the time of tornadoes. Specifically, this study investigated whether having a family emergency preparedness plan was associated with higher likelihood of taking shelter upon receiving tornado warnings. This study also examined the effects of socioeconomic status and functional limitations on taking such actions. A telephone survey based on random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO. Each city experienced considerable damages, injuries, and casualties after severe tornadoes (EF-4 and EF-5) in 2011. The working sample included 892 respondents. Analysis was conducted in early 2013. Logistic regression identified emergency preparedness planning as the only shared factor that increased the likelihood of taking shelter in both cities and the only significant factor in Joplin. In Tuscaloosa, being female and white also increased the likelihood of taking shelter. Disability was not found to have an effect. This study provided empirical evidence on the importance of having a family emergency preparedness plan in mitigating the risk of tornadoes. The findings could be applied to other rapid-onset disasters. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of the April 2011 tornado outbreak on personal preparedness in Jefferson County, Alabama.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Lisa C; Pevear, Jesse; Rucks, Andrew C; Ginter, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a tornado disaster on the personal preparedness of local residents to determine (1) to what extent the tornado outbreak experience had altered preparedness awareness, willingness to act, and levels of personal preparedness of residents as measured by possession of a preparedness kit; and (2) what effect this experience had on the variables associated with having a complete disaster preparedness kit. Two random digit-dialed surveys were completed following the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System protocols. The pre-tornado survey was conducted between October and December 2010 and the post-tornado survey was conducted between January and March 2012. After the April 2011 tornado outbreak, 86.08% of the respondents (n = 1364) reported that they had thought more about personal or family preparedness and 59.65% (n = 907) reported that they had taken actions to increase their level of preparedness. Overall, general awareness of preparedness media campaigns increased significantly (almost 24%; P < .0001), as did the percentage of those having a complete disaster preparedness kit (a 66% increase, not quite doubled from 2010 to 2012; P < .0001). Findings of the study indicate that the disaster had a significant impact on the local residents' (1) awareness of preparedness campaigns, (2) awareness of the need to be prepared, (3) willingness to become better prepared, and (4) possession of a disaster and emergency preparedness kit and its associated items.

  19. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk Management Plans (SRMP), a wide variety of training and guidance materials, inventories and readiness/O&M status of equipment and response personnel. Some of the data available to EPA for this emergency preparedness includes industry trade secret information.A major component of this data asset is information compiled in the Compendium of Environmental Testing Laboratories. This information allows OEM to direct samples recovered from emergency incidents to the appropriate laboratory certified to analyze the substances in question.Also included here are all types of field readiness information, training logs, and personnel contact information.

  20. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future.

  1. Hawaii physician and nurse bioterrorism preparedness survey.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alan R; Nekorchuk, Dawn M; Holck, Peter S; Hendrickson, Lisa A; Imrie, Allison A; Effler, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    Physicians and nurses are integral components of the public health bioterrorism surveillance system. However, most published bioterrorism preparedness surveys focus on gathering information related to self-assessed knowledge or perceived needs and abilities. A survey of physicians and nurses in Hawaii was conducted to assess objective knowledge regarding bioterrorism agents and diseases and perceived response readiness for a bioterrorism event. During June and July 2004, an anonymous survey was mailed up to three times to a random sample of all licensed physicians and nurses residing in Hawaii. The response rate was 45% (115 of 255) for physicians and 53% (146 of 278) for nurses. Previous bioterrorism preparedness training associated significantly with knowledge-based test performance in both groups. Only 20% of physicians or nurses had had previous training in bioterrorism preparedness, and < 15% felt able to respond effectively to a bioterrorism event. But, > 70% expressed willingness to assist the state in the event of a bioterrorist attack. Additional bioterrorism preparedness training should be made available through continuing education and also should become a component of both medical and nursing school curricula. It is important to provide the knowledge necessary for physicians and nurses to improve their ability to perform in the event of a bioterrorist attack.

  2. 47 CFR 0.381 - Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defense Commissioner. 0.381 Section 0.381... National Security and Emergency Preparedness Delegations § 0.381 Defense Commissioner. The authority delegated to the Commission under Executive Orders 12472 and 12656 is redelegated to the...

  3. 47 CFR 0.381 - Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defense Commissioner. 0.381 Section 0.381... National Security and Emergency Preparedness Delegations § 0.381 Defense Commissioner. The authority delegated to the Commission under Executive Orders 12472 and 12656 is redelegated to the...

  4. 47 CFR 0.381 - Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defense Commissioner. 0.381 Section 0.381... National Security and Emergency Preparedness Delegations § 0.381 Defense Commissioner. The authority delegated to the Commission under Executive Orders 12472 and 12656 is redelegated to the...

  5. Psychoticism, Immature Defense Mechanisms and a Fearful Attachment Style are Associated with a Higher Homophobic Attitude.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Tuziak, Bogdan; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Capuano, Nicolina; Martini, Alessia; Carosa, Eleonora; Fisher, Alessandra D; Maggi, Mario; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    Homophobic behavior and a negative attitude toward homosexuals are prevalent among the population. Despite this, few researches have investigated the psychologic aspects associated with homophobia, as psychopathologic symptoms, the defensive system, and attachment styles. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic factors mentioned earlier and their correlation with homophobia. Five hundred fifty-one university students recruited, aged 18-30, were asked to complete several psychometric evaluation. In particular, Homophobia Scale (HS) was used to assess homophobia levels, the Symptoms Check List Revised (SCL-90-R) for the identification of psychopathologic symptoms, the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) for the evaluation of defense mechanisms and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) for attachment styles. After a regression analysis, we found a significant predictive value of psychoticism (β = 0.142; P = 0.04) and of immature defense mechanisms (β = 0.257; P < 0.0001) for homophobia, while neurotic defense mechanisms (β = -0.123; P = 0.02) and depressive symptoms (β = -0.152; P = 0.04) have an opposite role. Moreover, categorical constructs of the RQ revealed a significant difference between secure and fearful attachments styles in levels of homophobia (secure = 22.09 ± 17.22 vs. fearful = 31.07 ± 25.09; P < 0.05). Finally, a gender difference to HS scores and a significant influence of male sex was found (β = 0.213; P < 0.0001). We demonstrated the involvement of psychoticism and immature defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes, while a contrasting role is played by neurotic defense mechanisms and depressive symptoms. Moreover, secure attachment is an indicator of low levels of homophobia compared with the subjects demonstrating a fearful style of attachment. Hence, in the assessment of homophobia and in the relevant programs of prevention, it is necessary to consider the

  6. A Pulmonary Perspective on GASPIDs: Granule-Associated Serine Peptidases of Immune Defense

    PubMed Central

    Caughey, George H.

    2008-01-01

    Airways are protected from pathogens by forces allied with innate and adaptive immunity. Recent investigations establish critical defensive roles for leukocyte and mast cell serine-class peptidases garrisoned in membrane-bound organelles-here termed Granule-Associated Serine Peptidases of Immune Defense, or GASPIDs. Some better characterized GASPIDs include neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G (which defend against bacteria), proteinase-3 (targeted by antineutrophil antibodies in Wegener’s vasculitis), mast cell β-tryptase and chymase (which promote allergic inflammation), granzymes A and B (which launch apoptosis pathways in infected host cells), and factor D (which activates complement’s alternative pathway). GASPIDs can defend against pathogens but can harm host cells in the process, and therefore become targets for pharmaceutical inhibition. They vary widely in specificity, yet are phylogenetically similar. Mammalian speciation supported a remarkable flowering of these enzymes as they co-evolved with specialized immune cells, including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, cytolytic T-cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Many GASPIDs continue to evolve rapidly, providing some of the most conspicuous examples of divergent protein evolution. Consequently, students of GASPIDs are rewarded not only with insights into their roles in lung immune defense but also with clues to the origins of cellular specialization in vertebrate immunity. PMID:18516248

  7. Several wall-associated kinases participate positively and negatively in basal defense against rice blast fungus.

    PubMed

    Delteil, Amandine; Gobbato, Enrico; Cayrol, Bastien; Estevan, Joan; Michel-Romiti, Corinne; Dievart, Anne; Kroj, Thomas; Morel, J-B

    2016-01-16

    Receptor-like kinases are well-known to play key roles in disease resistance. Among them, the Wall-associated kinases (WAKs) have been shown to be positive regulators of fungal disease resistance in several plant species. WAK genes are often transcriptionally regulated during infection but the pathways involved in this regulation are not known. In rice, the OsWAK gene family is significantly amplified compared to Arabidopsis. The possibility that several WAKs participate in different ways to basal defense has not been addressed. Moreover, the direct requirement of rice OSWAK genes in regulating defense has not been explored. Here we show using rice (Oryza sativa) loss-of-function mutants of four selected OsWAK genes, that individual OsWAKs are required for quantitative resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. While OsWAK14, OsWAK91 and OsWAK92 positively regulate quantitative resistance, OsWAK112d is a negative regulator of blast resistance. In addition, we show that the very early transcriptional regulation of the rice OsWAK genes is triggered by chitin and is partially under the control of the chitin receptor CEBiP. Finally, we show that OsWAK91 is required for H2O2 production and sufficient to enhance defense gene expression during infection. We conclude that the rice OsWAK genes studied are part of basal defense response, potentially mediated by chitin from fungal cell walls. This work also shows that some OsWAKs, like OsWAK112d, may act as negative regulators of disease resistance.

  8. Health Departments’ Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.; Newell, Bobbie; Whitworth, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs’ informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved emergency preparedness. Methods: We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs study to perform Poisson regression of emergency preparedness activities. Results: Only 38.3% of LHDs participated in full-scale exercises or drills for an emergency in the 12 months period prior to the survey, but a much larger proportion provided emergency preparedness training to staff (84.3%), and/or participated in tabletop exercises (76.4%). Our multivariable analysis showed that after adjusting for several resource-related LHD characteristics, LHDs with more of the 6 information systems still tend to have slightly more preparedness activities. In addition, having a designated emergency preparedness coordinator, and having one or more emergency preparedness staff were among the most significant factors associated with LHDs performing more emergency preparedness activities. Conclusion: LHDs might want to utilize better health information systems and information technology tools to improve their activity level in emergency preparedness, through improved information dissemination, and evidence collection. PMID:27694648

  9. Health Departments' Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gulzar H; Newell, Bobbie; Whitworth, Ruth E

    2016-04-30

    Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs' informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved emergency preparedness. We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs study to perform Poisson regression of emergency preparedness activities. Only 38.3% of LHDs participated in full-scale exercises or drills for an emergency in the 12 months period prior to the survey, but a much larger proportion provided emergency preparedness training to staff (84.3%), and/or participated in tabletop exercises (76.4%). Our multivariable analysis showed that after adjusting for several resource-related LHD characteristics, LHDs with more of the 6 information systems still tend to have slightly more preparedness activities. In addition, having a designated emergency preparedness coordinator, and having one or more emergency preparedness staff were among the most significant factors associated with LHDs performing more emergency preparedness activities. LHDs might want to utilize better health information systems and information technology tools to improve their activity level in emergency preparedness, through improved information dissemination, and evidence collection.

  10. Perceived coping & concern predict terrorism preparedness in Australia.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Garry; Agho, Kingsley; Taylor, Melanie; Jones, Alison L; Barr, Margo; Raphael, Beverley

    2012-12-27

    In the aftermath of major terrorist incidents research shows population shifts towards protective behaviours, including specific preparedness and avoidance responses. Less is known about individual preparedness in populations with high assumed threat but limited direct exposure, such as Australia. In this study we aimed to determine whether individuals with high perceived coping and higher concern would show greater preparedness to respond to terrorism threats. Adults in New South Wales (NSW) completed terrorism perception and response questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in 2010 (N=2038). Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between personal coping/concern factors and terrorism-related preparedness and avoidance behaviours, and to control for potential confounders such as socio-demographic and threat perception factors. Increased vigilance for suspicious behaviours was the most commonly reported behavioural response to perceived terrorism threat. Multivariate analyses showed that the factor combination of high perceived coping and higher concern was the most consistent predictor of terrorism preparedness behaviours and evacuation intentions, including increased vigilance (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR)=2.07, p=0.001) learning evacuation plans (AOR=1.61, p=0.05), establishing emergency contact plans (AOR=2.73, p<0.001), willingness to evacuate homes (AOR=2.20, p=0.039), and willingness to evacuate workplaces or public facilities (AOR=6.19, p=0.015) during potential future incidents. The findings of this study suggest that terrorism preparedness behaviours are strongly associated with perceived high coping but that this relationship is also mediated by personal concerns relating to this threat. Cognitive variables such as coping self-efficacy are increasingly targeted as part of natural hazard preparedness and are a viable intervention target for

  11. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared,…

  12. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... designated by the Commission. The Defense Commissioner directs the homeland security, national security and... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization Homeland Security...

  13. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... designated by the Commission. The Defense Commissioner directs the homeland security, national security and... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization Homeland Security...

  14. Prevalence of PTSD and Depression, and Associated Sexual Risk Factors, among Male Rwanda Defense Forces Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Naval Health Research Center Prevalence of PTSD and Depression , And Associated Sexual Risk Factors, Among Male Rwanda Defense Forces Military...human subjects in research. Naval Health Research Center 140 Sylvester Road San Diego, California 92106-3521 Prevalence of PTSD and depression ...Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract objectives To assess depression and PTSD prevalence among the Rwanda Defense

  15. A common fungal associate of the spruce bark beetle metabolizes the stilbene defenses of Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Hammerbacher, Almuth; Schmidt, Axel; Wadke, Namita; Wright, Louwrance P; Schneider, Bernd; Bohlmann, Joerg; Brand, Willi A; Fenning, Trevor M; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Paetz, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests suffer periodic fatal attacks by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Ceratocystis polonica. Norway spruce protects itself against fungal and bark beetle invasion by the production of terpenoid resins, but it is unclear whether resins or other defenses are effective against the fungus. We investigated stilbenes, a group of phenolic compounds found in Norway spruce bark with a diaryl-ethene skeleton with known antifungal properties. During C. polonica infection, stilbene biosynthesis was up-regulated, as evidenced by elevated transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. However, stilbene concentrations actually declined during infection, and this was due to fungal metabolism. C. polonica converted stilbenes to ring-opened, deglycosylated, and dimeric products. Chromatographic separation of C. polonica protein extracts confirmed that these metabolites arose from specific fungal enzyme activities. Comparison of C. polonica strains showed that rapid conversion of host phenolics is associated with higher virulence. C. polonica is so well adapted to its host's chemical defenses that it is even able to use host phenolic compounds as its sole carbon source.

  16. Plant defense genes associated with quantitative resistance to potato late blight in Solanum phureja x dihaploid S. tuberosum hybrids.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Friederike; Manosalva, Patricia; Gysin, Rene; Niñio-Liu, David; Simon, Reinhard; del Herrera, Ma Rosario; Trognitz, Bodo; Ghislain, Marc; Nelson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    Markers corresponding to 27 plant defense genes were tested for linkage disequilibrium with quantitative resistance to late blight in a diploid potato population that had been used for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for late blight resistance. Markers were detected by using (i) hybridization probes for plant defense genes, (ii) primer pairs amplifying conserved domains of resistance (R) genes, (iii) primers for defense genes and genes encoding transcriptional regulatory factors, and (iv) primers allowing amplification of sequences flanking plant defense genes by the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Markers were initially screened by using the most resistant and susceptible individuals of the population, and those markers showing different allele frequencies between the two groups were mapped. Among the 308 segregating bands detected, 24 loci (8%) corresponding to six defense gene families were associated with resistance at chi2 > or = 13, the threshold established using the permutation test at P = 0.05. Loci corresponding to genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonium lyase [PAL], chalcone isomerase [CHI], and chalcone synthase [CHS]), loci related to WRKY regulatory genes, and other -defense genes (osmotin and a Phytophthora infestans-induced cytochrome P450) were significantly associated with quantitative disease resistance. A subset of markers was tested on the mapping population of 94 individuals. Ten defense-related markers were clustered at a QTL on chromosome III, and three defense-related markers were located at a broad QTL on chromosome XII. The association of candidate genes with QTLs is a step toward understanding the molecular basis of quantitative resistance to an important plant disease.

  17. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-09-30

     Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual's personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students.  This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants' most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression.  A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P < .05) and low levels of depression (P < .05) were associated with higher academic performance.  There was a significant association between academic

  18. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual’s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants’ most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P < .05) and low levels of depression (P < .05) were associated with higher academic performance. Conclusion: There was a

  19. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: implications for social work.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-04-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to produce the "Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases" to promote the exceptional competence and diligence required when the consequence is life or death. This article summarizes the "Supplementary Guidelines," with implications for social work practice--that is, professional responsibility, competence, interviewing skill, knowledge of behavioral and mental impairment, records review, life history compilation, data interpretation, witness support, law-related knowledge, and testimony. The social work, which is scrutinized in a court of law, requires cultural competence, diverse oral and written communication skills, diligence, and the highest ethical standards.

  20. Mass fatality preparedness in the death care sector.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Magda, Lori A; Riley, Halley E M; Merrill, Jacqueline A

    2011-10-01

    To characterize mass fatality preparedness of the death care sector (ie, funeral industry organizations) and to determine the workforce's ability and willingness to report to duty during a hypothetical high fatality pandemic event. Anonymous, Web-based, cross-sectional survey of a national funeral industry sample. Preparedness was characterized using descriptive statistics. Factors significantly associated with ability and willingness were identified using chi-squared bivariate analysis. Respondents (N = 492) generally rated their organizational preparedness planning as suboptimal; only six of thirteen preparedness checklist items were typically in place. In contrast, response intentions were uniformly high; more than 80% of the respondents were willing to report to work, although high prevalence of secondary obligations might hinder this. Preparedness strategies that address interorganizational, surge capacity, and personal emergency planning are likely to be most efficacious. STATEMENT OF CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Occupational medicine plays an important role in emergency preparedness and response. Funeral industry organizations could benefit from skills and resources of occupational medicine, including training, fit testing, development of plans, and coordination and hosting of planning exercises.

  1. Emergency preparedness and community coalitions: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Emily; Yee, Tracy; Cross, Dori; Samuel, Divya

    2012-11-01

    Being prepared for a natural disaster, infectious disease outbreak or other emergency where many injured or ill people need medical care while maintaining ongoing operations is a significant challenge for local health systems. Emergency preparedness requires coordination of diverse entities at the local, regional and national levels. Given the diversity of stakeholders, fragmentation of local health care systems and limited resources, developing and sustaining broad community coalitions focused on emergency preparedness is difficult. While some stakeholders, such as hospitals and local emergency medical services, consistently work together, other important groups--for example, primary care clinicians and nursing homes--typically do not participate in emergency-preparedness coalitions, according to a new qualitative study of 10 U.S. communities by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Challenges to developing and sustaining community coalitions may reflect the structure of preparedness activities, which are typically administered by designated staff in hospitals or large medical practices. There are two general approaches policy makers could consider to broaden participation in emergency-preparedness coalitions: providing incentives for more stakeholders to join existing coalitions or building preparedness into activities providers already are pursuing. Moreover, rather than defining and measuring processes associated with collaboration--such as coalition membership or development of certain planning documents--policy makers might consider defining the outcomes expected of a successful collaboration in the event of a disaster, without regard to the specific form that collaboration takes.

  2. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication.

  3. Laboratory Surge Capacity Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Carney, Christopher P. [D-PA-10

    2009-02-24

    House - 03/02/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    House - 01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. First Responder Anthrax Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-2

    2014-09-18

    House - 10/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Response and Communications. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Laboratory Surge Capacity Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Carney, Christopher P. [D-PA-10

    2009-02-24

    03/02/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Laboratory Surge Capacity Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Carney, Christopher P. [D-PA-10

    2009-02-24

    03/02/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Derrick R; Shellito, Judd E; Maffei, Vincent J; Tague, Eric D; Campagna, Shawn R; Blanchard, Eugene E; Luo, Meng; Taylor, Christopher M; Ronis, Martin J J; Molina, Patricia E; Welsh, David A

    2017-06-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole) via daily gavage for two weeks. A separate group of animals was fed a chronic alcohol (or isocaloric dextrose pair-fed controls) liquid diet for 10 days. Microbiota-depleted mice were recolonized with intestinal microbiota from alcohol-fed or pair-fed (control) animals. Following recolonization groups of mice were sacrificed prior to and 48 hrs. post respiratory infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Klebsiella lung burden, lung immunology and inflammation, as well as intestinal immunology, inflammation, and barrier damage were examined. Results showed that alcohol-associated susceptibility to K. pneumoniae is, in part, mediated by gut dysbiosis, as alcohol-naïve animals recolonized with a microbiota isolated from alcohol-fed mice had an increased respiratory burden of K. pneumoniae compared to mice recolonized with a control microbiota. The increased susceptibility in alcohol-dysbiosis recolonized animals was associated with an increase in pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, and a decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung following Klebsiella infection but an increase in T-cell counts in the intestinal tract following Klebsiella infection, suggesting intestinal T-cell sequestration as a factor in impaired lung host defense. Mice recolonized with an alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota also had increased intestinal damage as measured by increased levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein. Collectively, these

  11. Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Campagna, Shawn R.; Blanchard, Eugene E.; Ronis, Martin J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole) via daily gavage for two weeks. A separate group of animals was fed a chronic alcohol (or isocaloric dextrose pair-fed controls) liquid diet for 10 days. Microbiota-depleted mice were recolonized with intestinal microbiota from alcohol-fed or pair-fed (control) animals. Following recolonization groups of mice were sacrificed prior to and 48 hrs. post respiratory infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Klebsiella lung burden, lung immunology and inflammation, as well as intestinal immunology, inflammation, and barrier damage were examined. Results showed that alcohol-associated susceptibility to K. pneumoniae is, in part, mediated by gut dysbiosis, as alcohol-naïve animals recolonized with a microbiota isolated from alcohol-fed mice had an increased respiratory burden of K. pneumoniae compared to mice recolonized with a control microbiota. The increased susceptibility in alcohol-dysbiosis recolonized animals was associated with an increase in pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, and a decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung following Klebsiella infection but an increase in T-cell counts in the intestinal tract following Klebsiella infection, suggesting intestinal T-cell sequestration as a factor in impaired lung host defense. Mice recolonized with an alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota also had increased intestinal damage as measured by increased levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein. Collectively, these

  12. The lipopolysaccharide of Sinorhizobium meliloti suppresses defense-associated gene expression in cell cultures of the host plant Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Tellström, Verena; Usadel, Björn; Thimm, Oliver; Stitt, Mark; Küster, Helge; Niehaus, Karsten

    2007-02-01

    In the establishment of symbiosis between Medicago truncatula and the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the microsymbiont plays an important role as a signal molecule. It has been shown in cell cultures that the LPS is able to suppress an elicitor-induced oxidative burst. To investigate the effect of S. meliloti LPS on defense-associated gene expression, a microarray experiment was performed. For evaluation of the M. truncatula microarray datasets, the software tool MapMan, which was initially developed for the visualization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) datasets, was adapted by assigning Medicago genes to the ontology originally created for Arabidopsis. This allowed functional visualization of gene expression of M. truncatula suspension-cultured cells treated with invertase as an elicitor. A gene expression pattern characteristic of a defense response was observed. Concomitant treatment of M. truncatula suspension-cultured cells with invertase and S. meliloti LPS leads to a lower level of induction of defense-associated genes compared to induction rates in cells treated with invertase alone. This suppression of defense-associated transcriptional rearrangement affects genes induced as well as repressed by elicitation and acts on transcripts connected to virtually all kinds of cellular processes. This indicates that LPS of the symbiont not only suppresses fast defense responses as the oxidative burst, but also exerts long-term influences, including transcriptional adjustment to pathogen attack. These data indicate a role for LPS during infection of the plant by its symbiotic partner.

  13. Selected Proceedings ADPA (American Defense Preparedness Association) Conference: Industrial Base Planning Issues ’Industrial Preparedness Initiatives in the New Budget Scenario’ Held at Washington, DC on March 15-16 1984,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-16

    and then following up how these are carried out. Where does the Administration stand? It is betwixt and between. It wants to strengthen the Act but, in...AIMED AT ENCOURAGING INDUSTRY TO MAKE PRODUC- TIVITY ENHANCING CAPITAL INVESTMENTS. THE MAJOR INCENTIVES BEING TESTED ARE SHARED SAVINGS REWARDS AND...CONTRACTOR INVESTMENT PROTECTION. SHARED SAVINGS REWARDS PROVIDE AN ADDITIONAL FINANCIAL INCENTIVE. CONTRACTOR INVESTMENT PROTECTION INVOLVES THE

  14. MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS FOR DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Justin J.

    1959-01-01

    The Federal Civil Defense Administration has been consolidated under the President's Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 with the Office of Defense Mobilization. The new organization, the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, should be able to deal more efficiently with the problem of mobilization and management of all resources and production of the nation in time of disaster. As preparation for possible enemy attack, organized plans entailing training, supplies, equipment and communications for use in major peacetime disasters—floods, earthquakes, tornado damage—should be carried forward vigorously. Apathy must be overcome. From the local to the highest level all civil defense and disaster plans must be developed and kept flexible enough to be operable during any kind of emergency. Physicians must learn as much as they can about the mass care of casualties, how to survive under the most trying of circumstances. Drills in dealing with simulated disaster are of utmost importance for finding out ahead of time what must be done and the personnel and supplies needed for doing it. PMID:13651962

  15. Flash flood preparedness in Golestan province of Iran: a community intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Zanganeh, Ali-Mohamad; Keshtkar, Abbas-Ali; Honarvar, Mohamad-Reza; Kabir, Mohamad-Javad

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of a community-based preparedness program for flash floods. A controlled community intervention trial with preassessment and postassessment. Fifteen intervention villages and 16 control villages in Golestan province of Iran. People more than six years of age. Intervention program consisted assembling Village Disaster Taskforces (VDTs), training of VDTs and community, evacuation drill, and program monitoring. Individual participation in household preparedness actions including, preparedness meeting, risk mapping, preparation of emergency supplies, assisting vulnerable people, and evacuation drill. Our intervention improved preparedness of local community for flash floods in term of all interested outcome measures. For instance, adjusted odds ratio for participation in an evacuation drill in intervention area in postassessment compared with preassessment was 29.05 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.77-38.76), whereas in control area it was 2.69 (95% CI: 1.96-3.70). Difference in these odds ratios was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Participation in a family preparedness meeting and risk mapping were helpful in motivating individuals to take other preparedness actions. Women were found prepared as much as the men. Younger people showed lower participation in preparation of family emergency supplies but higher attendance in evacuation drills. Participation in evacuation drills decreased with increasing age. It was a positive association between risk perception and taking all preparedness actions. Flood preparedness programs should focus on participatory risk assessment and preparedness techniques, strive to improve risk perception and female capabilities, and ensure providing assistance to the older people during evacuation.

  16. How does the foraging behavior of large herbivores cause different associational plant defenses?

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Zeng, De-Hui; Liu, Chen

    2016-02-05

    The attractant-decoy hypothesis predicts that focal plants can defend against herbivory by neighboring with preferred plant species when herbivores make decisions at the plant species scale. The repellent-plant hypothesis assumes that focal plants will gain protection by associating with nonpreferred neighbors when herbivores are selective at the patch scale. However, herbivores usually make foraging decisions at these scales simultaneously. The net outcomes of the focal plant vulnerability could depend on the spatial scale at which the magnitude of selectivity by the herbivores is stronger. We quantified and compared the within- and between-patch overall selectivity index (OSI) of sheep to examine the relationships between associational plant effects and herbivore foraging selectivity. We found that the sheep OSI was stronger at the within- than the between-patch scale, but focal plant vulnerability followed both hypotheses. Focal plants defended herbivory with preferred neighbors when the OSI difference between the two scales was large. Focal plants gained protection with nonpreferred neighbors when the OSI difference was narrowed. Therefore, the difference in selectivity by the herbivores between the relevant scales results in different associational plant defenses. Our study suggests important implications for understanding plant-herbivore interactions and grassland management.

  17. Enhanced defense against mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide attenuates age-associated cognition decline.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liuji; Na, Ren; Ran, Qitao

    2014-11-01

    Increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is associated with Alzheimer's disease and brain aging. Peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3) is the key mitochondrial antioxidant defense enzyme in detoxifying H2O2. To investigate the importance of mitochondrial H2O2 in age-associated cognitive decline, we compared cognition between aged (17-19 months) APP transgenic mice and APP/Prdx3 double transgenic mice (dTG) and between old (24 months) wild-type mice and Prdx3 transgenic mice (TG). Compared with aged APP mice, aged dTG mice showed improved cognition that was correlated with reduced brain amyloid beta levels and decreased amyloid beta production. Old TG mice also showed significantly increased cognitive ability compared with old wild-type mice. Both aged dTG mice and old TG mice had reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial function. Moreover, CREB signaling, a signaling pathway important for cognition was enhanced in both aged dTG mice and old TG mice. Thus, our results indicate that mitochondrial H2O2 is a key culprit of age-associated cognitive impairment, and that a reduction of mitochondrial H2O2 could improve cognition by maintaining mitochondrial health and enhancing CREB signaling. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A.; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E.; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis. PMID:27462337

  19. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis.

  20. Impact of an Education Intervention on Missouri K-12 School Disaster and Biological Event Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebmann, Terri; Elliott, Michael B.; Artman, Deborah; VanNatta, Matthew; Wakefield, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background:A 2011 nationwide school pandemic preparedness study found schools to be deficient. We examined the impact of a school nurse educational intervention aimed at improving K-12 school biological event preparedness. Mehods: Missouri Association of School Nurses (MASN) members were e-mailed a survey link in fall 2013 (ie, preintervention),…

  1. Natural Hazard Preparedness in an Auckland Community: Child and Community Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patricia; Dirks, Kim; Neuwelt, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement in natural hazard preparedness is crucial to ensure sustainable initiatives. Children are important members of communities, and can actively contribute to community preparedness. This article presents research undertaken with 11- to 12-year-old students from a school in Auckland, New Zealand, and leaders associated with the…

  2. Natural Hazard Preparedness in an Auckland Community: Child and Community Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patricia; Dirks, Kim; Neuwelt, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement in natural hazard preparedness is crucial to ensure sustainable initiatives. Children are important members of communities, and can actively contribute to community preparedness. This article presents research undertaken with 11- to 12-year-old students from a school in Auckland, New Zealand, and leaders associated with the…

  3. Impact of an Education Intervention on Missouri K-12 School Disaster and Biological Event Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebmann, Terri; Elliott, Michael B.; Artman, Deborah; VanNatta, Matthew; Wakefield, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background:A 2011 nationwide school pandemic preparedness study found schools to be deficient. We examined the impact of a school nurse educational intervention aimed at improving K-12 school biological event preparedness. Mehods: Missouri Association of School Nurses (MASN) members were e-mailed a survey link in fall 2013 (ie, preintervention),…

  4. Proceedings of the American Defense Preparedness Association on Milcon III, Military Computers and Software Held at Washington, DC on January 25-26, 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    comprehensive and current expression of problems and plans in the area of military computers and software and their technologies, it is, therefore...whether or not we are bringing our tremendous technology heritage and current thrust to our national security interest. The differences between the U.S...functionality in a modern weapon system, and with software costs continuing to skyrocket, there are some opportunities to reap greater benefits. Let us

  5. Proceedings of Annual Symposium ’Energy Research and Develompent’ (5th) on 13-14 March 1974, Sponsored by the American Defense Preparedness Association,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Bioconversion of solar energy-photosynthesis; Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; Coal liquefaction and gasification; Beneficial uses of waste heat from steam electric power plants; Energy systems analysis.

  6. Annual Meeting of the Pyrotechnics and Explosives Applications Section on the American Defense Preparedness Association at Fort Worth, Texas, 27-29 September 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-29

    Reproducibility of Experimental Results Bridge Bridge MNX Loading Function Function Dian Length Density Current Time (M) (M (g/.,3) (A), (ms) 0.051...advice of the Research Center staff, most part- icularly Mr. L. J. Tyler, Mr. J. Blaine and Mr. R. Fossey . It is our pleasure to record our appreciation

  7. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Trauma Associations/Pediatric Orthopaedic Association Disaster Response and Preparedness Course.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony E; Gerlinger, Tad L; Born, Christopher T

    2015-10-01

    A disaster is a catastrophic event that disrupts normal infrastructure to such a degree that normal response mechanisms and capabilities cannot manage what is required to respond appropriately to the event. Launched after the largest urban disaster in modern history--the 2010 Haiti Earthquake--the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Trauma Association/Pediatric Orthopaedic Association of North America (AAOS/SOMOS/OTA/POSNA) Disaster Response Course (DRC) is designed to prepare orthopaedic surgeons for service in disaster response and humanitarian assistance efforts in both the acute phases as well as in the recovery and reconstructions phases. To date, 395 orthopaedic surgeons have completed the DRC and 286 (72.4%) have opted to become registered disaster responders.

  8. Disaster Preparedness Among Active Duty Navy, Retirees, Veterans, and Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Annis, Heather; Jacoby, Irving; DeMers, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Background With the increase in natural and manmade disasters, preparedness remains a vital area of concern. Despite attempts by government and non-government agencies to stress the importance of preparedness, national levels of preparedness remain unacceptably low. A goal of commands and installations is to ensure that US Navy beneficiaries are well prepared for disasters. This is especially critical in active service members to meet mission readiness requirements in crisis settings. Objective To evaluate active duty personnel, dependents, veterans, and retirees regarding disaster preparedness status. Methods The authors conducted an anonymous 29-question survey for US Navy active duty, dependents, veterans and retirees of the Greater San Diego Region evaluating actual basic disaster readiness as determined by FEMA standards of 3-day minimum supply of emergency stores and equipment. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyze data. Results 1150 surveys were returned and analyzed. 983 were sufficiently complete for logistic regression analysis with 394 responding “Yes” to having a 72-hour disaster kit (40.1%) while 589 had “No” as a response (59.9%). Conclusion The surveyed population is no more prepared than the general public though surveyed beneficiaries overall are at upper range of preparedness. Lower income and levels of education were associated with lack of preparedness, whereas training in disaster preparedness or having been affected by disasters increased the likelihood of being adequately prepared. Unlike results seen in the general public, those with chronic healthcare needs in our surveyed population were more, rather than less likely to be prepared and those with minor children were less likely, rather than more likely to be prepared. Duty status was assessed and only veterans were significantly more likely than most to be prepared. PMID:26903142

  9. Disaster Preparedness among Active Duty Personnel, Retirees, Veterans, and Dependents.

    PubMed

    Annis, Heather; Jacoby, Irving; DeMers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    With the increase in natural and manmade disasters, preparedness remains a vital area of concern. Despite attempts by government and non-government agencies to stress the importance of preparedness, national levels of preparedness remain unacceptably low. A goal of commands and installations is to ensure that US Navy beneficiaries are well prepared for disasters. This especially is critical in active service members to meet mission readiness requirements in crisis settings. To evaluate active duty Navy personnel, dependents, veterans, and retirees regarding disaster preparedness status. The authors conducted an anonymous 29-question survey for US Navy active duty, dependents, veterans, and retirees of the Greater San Diego Region (California, USA) evaluating actual basic disaster readiness as determined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) standards of 3-day minimum supply of emergency stores and equipment. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyze data. One thousand one hundred and fifty surveys were returned and analyzed. Nine hundred and eight-three were sufficiently complete for logistic regression analysis with 394 responding "Yes" to having a 72-hour disaster kit (40.1%) while 589 had "No" as a response (59.9%). The surveyed population is no more prepared than the general public, though surveyed beneficiaries overall are at an upper range of preparedness. Lower income and levels of education were associated with lack of preparedness, whereas training in disaster preparedness or having been affected by disasters increased the likelihood of being adequately prepared. Unlike results seen in the general public, those with chronic health care needs in the surveyed population were more, rather than less, likely to be prepared and those with minor children were less likely, rather than more likely, to be prepared. Duty status was assessed and only veterans were emphatically more probable than most to be prepared.

  10. Dynamics of single unit activity in the association cortex of waking cats during defensive conditioning.

    PubMed

    Shevko, G N; Bakanova, N F

    1981-01-01

    Responses of neurons in association area 5 during defensive conditioning to acoustic stimulation were studied in chronic experiments on cats. As a rule the neurons responded by excitation to presentation of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. During the conditioned reflex unit responses usually appeared in the first 50 msec after the beginning of acoustic stimulation, i.e., they were connected with the action of the conditioned stimulus and not with manifestations of conditioned-reflex motion. The most significant changes in responses of cortical association units were observed in the initial period of conditioning. During stabilization of the conditioned reflex, responses of some neurons became stabilized, whereas in other neurons the spontaneous activity and intensity of responses increased, and in a third group the response to one of the stimuli disappeared. This last result indicated a switch during conditioning from polysensory unit responses to monosensory specialized responses. Extinctive inhibition was found to consist of a gradual decrease in the level of the spike discharge and its approximation to spontaneous activity, i.e., to be passive in character.

  11. Oxidative Stress Is Associated with an Increased Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Subjects: A Multilevel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Results Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance = 1013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population. PMID:25269026

  12. Oxidative stress is associated with an increased antioxidant defense in elderly subjects: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance =  013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population.

  13. Situating Preparedness Education within Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2017-01-01

    Both "disaster preparedness" and "public pedagogy" have been broadly defined and diversely utilised. Preparedness has been dealt with in disciplines such as civil engineering, the sociology of disasters, public health and psychology, rather than education. Recently, inquiries into the learning and teaching of preparedness have…

  14. Situating Preparedness Education within Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2017-01-01

    Both "disaster preparedness" and "public pedagogy" have been broadly defined and diversely utilised. Preparedness has been dealt with in disciplines such as civil engineering, the sociology of disasters, public health and psychology, rather than education. Recently, inquiries into the learning and teaching of preparedness have…

  15. 76 FR 54917 - National Preparedness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... September 2, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8700--National Preparedness Month, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Preparedness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Whenever our Nation... a vital role in securing our country. The National Preparedness Month Coalition gives everyone...

  16. Helicoverpa zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly induce defenses in tomato by triggering a salivary elicitor(s).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Peiffer, Michelle; Hoover, Kelli; Rosa, Cristina; Zeng, Rensen; Felton, Gary W

    2017-05-01

    Insect gut-associated microbes modulating plant defenses have been observed in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, but the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in regulating plant induced defenses has not been adequately examined. We identified bacteria from the regurgitant of field-collected Helicoverpa zea larvae using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A combination of biochemical, molecular, and confocal electron microscopy methods were used to determine the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in mediating defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Laboratory-reared H. zea inoculated with one of the bacteria identified in field-collected H. zea, Enterobacter ludwigii, induced expression of the tomato defense-related enzyme polyphenol oxidase and genes regulated by jasmonic acid (JA), whereas the salicylic acid (SA)-responsive pathogenesis-related gene was suppressed. Additionally, saliva and its main component glucose oxidase from inoculated caterpillars played an important role in elevating tomato anti-herbivore defenses. However, there were only low detectable amounts of regurgitant or bacteria on H. zea-damaged tomato leaves. Our results suggest that H. zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly mediate plant-insect interactions by triggering salivary elicitors. These findings provide a proof of concept that introducing gut bacteria to a herbivore may provide a novel approach to pest management through indirect induction of plant resistance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Design of the national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Uzun Jacobson, Evin; Inglesby, Tom; Khan, Ali S; Rajotte, James C; Burhans, Robert L; Slemp, Catherine C; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health security in the United States has been highlighted by recent emergencies such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, Superstorm Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing. The nation's health security remains a high priority today, with federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector, engaging in activities that prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from health threats. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), led an effort to create an annual measure of health security preparedness at the national level. The collaborative released the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI(™)) in December 2013 and provided composite results for the 50 states and for the nation as a whole. The Index results represent current levels of health security preparedness in a consistent format and provide actionable information to drive decision making for continuous improvement of the nation's health security. The overall 2013 National Index result was 7.2 on the reported base-10 scale, with areas of greater strength in the domains of health surveillance, incident and information management, and countermeasure management. The strength of the Index relies on the interdependencies of the many elements in health security preparedness, making the sum greater than its parts. Moving forward, additional health security-related disciplines and measures will be included alongside continued validation efforts.

  18. Brief report: self-harm is associated with immature defense mechanisms but not substance use in a nonclinical Scottish adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Carson, Carron Maryjane

    2012-06-01

    It has been unclear whether adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) is more associated with substance use or with characterological impairments. Multivariate determination of (N = 114 Scottish adolescents) ever engaging in DSH (Youth Risk Behavior Survey) from alcohol use, other substance use, and immature defense mechanism use (Defense Style Questionnaire; DSQ-40) revealed that a history of DSH was associated with more use of immature defense mechanisms by not with substance use or recent alcohol use. More research and clinical attention might be given to immature defense mechanisms in cases of DSH. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    PubMed

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community.

  20. Perceived coping & concern predict terrorism preparedness in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of major terrorist incidents research shows population shifts towards protective behaviours, including specific preparedness and avoidance responses. Less is known about individual preparedness in populations with high assumed threat but limited direct exposure, such as Australia. In this study we aimed to determine whether individuals with high perceived coping and higher concern would show greater preparedness to respond to terrorism threats. Methods Adults in New South Wales (NSW) completed terrorism perception and response questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in 2010 (N=2038). Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between personal coping/concern factors and terrorism-related preparedness and avoidance behaviours, and to control for potential confounders such as socio-demographic and threat perception factors. Results Increased vigilance for suspicious behaviours was the most commonly reported behavioural response to perceived terrorism threat. Multivariate analyses showed that the factor combination of high perceived coping and higher concern was the most consistent predictor of terrorism preparedness behaviours and evacuation intentions, including increased vigilance (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR)=2.07, p=0.001) learning evacuation plans (AOR=1.61, p=0.05), establishing emergency contact plans (AOR=2.73, p<0.001), willingness to evacuate homes (AOR=2.20, p=0.039), and willingness to evacuate workplaces or public facilities (AOR=6.19, p=0.015) during potential future incidents. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that terrorism preparedness behaviours are strongly associated with perceived high coping but that this relationship is also mediated by personal concerns relating to this threat. Cognitive variables such as coping self-efficacy are increasingly targeted as part of natural hazard preparedness

  1. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T.; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata’s OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature. PMID:27581373

  2. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata's OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature.

  3. Preventing intentional food contamination: a survey to assess restaurant preparedness.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Qu, Haiyan; Smith, Lillian U; Patterson, Nathaniel J; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    In the age of preparedness, public health agencies are concerned with intentional acts of food contamination in restaurants, in addition to food safety. Food safety consists of applying standard norms of practice and infrastructure, which, if violated, cause food-borne illness. In contrast, food defense requires an institutionalized mindset of informed alertness to unusual variations from the norms, combined with preemptive practices best suited to each restaurant. Therefore, while food safety lends itself to regulation to ensure standard practices, food defense is best served by advisory guidelines for autonomous application, preserving the restaurant industry's core values of hospitality and customer service. To address this challenge, public health agencies need survey tools that can yield action-relevant data on the knowledge and practice gaps in food defense preparedness and on educational messages and support services to be developed for maximum impact potential. This article presents a mail survey instrument, developed using qualitative research to ensure content and face validity. Instrument development involved drafting the survey on the basis of expert consultations, validating its content by using focus groups (representing all restaurant categories and geographic regions), and ensuring face validity through cognitive interviews. The resulting survey remains sensitive to the hospitality industry while encompassing all vulnerable points.

  4. Private Industry Support to Defense Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-19

    Board Study completed in 1976 provides the views of the financial comunity with respect to problems facing subcontractors: Subcontractors to the major...willing to invest to achieve it. 4 National policy in support of defense preparedness, both written and verbalized by the country’s leaders through

  5. Adequacy of US Hospital Security Preparedness for Mass Casualty Incidents: Critical Lessons From the Israeli Experience.

    PubMed

    Golabek-Goldman, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Due to Israel's threat environment, Israeli hospitals have developed effective and innovative security preparations for responding to all-hazards incidents. Although Israeli hospital preparedness has been the subject of international praise and attention, there has been a dearth of research focused specifically on applying Israeli hospital security measures to the US hospital setting to augment emergency planning. This study examined practical and cost-effective lessons from the Israeli experience for improving US hospital security preparedness for a wide range of mass casualty incidents, both natural and man-made. Sixty semi-structured interviews were conducted with officials throughout Israel's and America's health, defense, and emergency response communities. Hospital preparedness was examined and disaster drills were evaluated in both countries, with San Francisco hospitals analyzed as a case study. Qualitative analysis was conducted and recommendations were made on the basis of an all-hazards approach to emergency preparedness. US hospitals examined in this study had not undertaken crucial preparations for managing the security consequences of a large-scale disaster. Recommendations from Israel included installing permanent emergency signage, improving security perimeter protocols and training, increasing defense against primary and secondary attacks, enhancing coordination with law enforcement, the National Guard, and other outside security agencies, and conducting more frequent and realistic lockdown exercises. A number of US hospitals have overlooked the important role of security in emergency preparedness. This study analyzed practical and cost-effective security recommendations from Israel to remedy this dangerous deficiency in some US hospitals' disaster planning.

  6. Principles of Emergency Preparedness Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, R. Eugene, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Steps and considerations in developing an institutional plan for emergency preparedness are discussed, including delineation of internal and external responsibilities, warning systems, a means for activating the plan, a command headquarters, medical facilities, housing and food, internal and external communications, transportation, and testing and…

  7. Assessing School Emergency Care Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Charles; Varnes, Jill

    A study assessed the emergency health care preparedness of a north central Florida public school district in light of seven criteria: (1) school policies regarding delivery of emergency health care; (2) identification of school personnel responsible for rendering emergency care; (3) training levels of emergency health care providers (first aid and…

  8. Principles of Emergency Preparedness Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, R. Eugene, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Steps and considerations in developing an institutional plan for emergency preparedness are discussed, including delineation of internal and external responsibilities, warning systems, a means for activating the plan, a command headquarters, medical facilities, housing and food, internal and external communications, transportation, and testing and…

  9. Emergency Preparedness: Are You Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Most Americans who consider emergency preparedness think of someone or another country attacking the United States. Most newspaper and televised accounts involve community leaders and policymakers preparing for a terrorist attack. However, anyone who operates a child care center, family child care home, or has children of her own, knows that…

  10. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  11. Emergency Preparedness: Are You Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Most Americans who consider emergency preparedness think of someone or another country attacking the United States. Most newspaper and televised accounts involve community leaders and policymakers preparing for a terrorist attack. However, anyone who operates a child care center, family child care home, or has children of her own, knows that…

  12. State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism: Selected Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-19

    Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Disease ( USAMRIID ), which offers response training to public health...Association NLC National League of Cities ODP Office for Domestic Preparedness OHS Office of Homeland Security USAMRIID U.S. Army Medical Research ... Institute of Infectious Disease WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction 1For the purposes of this report, first responders include local, and sometimes state,

  13. Nurse Educators' Preceptions of Preparedness to Guide Clinical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Cameron, Stella L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine nurse educators' (NEs) perceptions of their level of preparedness to guide learning in clinical rotations of associate degree pre-licensure nursing programs of a South Atlantic state. The study also sought to determine the relationship between clinical experience, formal education, and teaching experience to…

  14. Nurse Educators' Preceptions of Preparedness to Guide Clinical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Cameron, Stella L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine nurse educators' (NEs) perceptions of their level of preparedness to guide learning in clinical rotations of associate degree pre-licensure nursing programs of a South Atlantic state. The study also sought to determine the relationship between clinical experience, formal education, and teaching experience to…

  15. Brief Report: Self-Harm Is Associated with Immature Defense Mechanisms but Not Substance Use in a Nonclinical Scottish Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Stuart; Carson, Carron Maryjane

    2012-01-01

    It has been unclear whether adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) is more associated with substance use or with characterological impairments. Multivariate determination of (N = 114 Scottish adolescents) ever engaging in DSH (Youth Risk Behavior Survey) from alcohol use, other substance use, and immature defense mechanism use (Defense Style…

  16. Brief Report: Self-Harm Is Associated with Immature Defense Mechanisms but Not Substance Use in a Nonclinical Scottish Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Stuart; Carson, Carron Maryjane

    2012-01-01

    It has been unclear whether adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) is more associated with substance use or with characterological impairments. Multivariate determination of (N = 114 Scottish adolescents) ever engaging in DSH (Youth Risk Behavior Survey) from alcohol use, other substance use, and immature defense mechanism use (Defense Style…

  17. Evidence of a Role for the Lateral Hypothalamic Area Juxtadorsomedial Region (LHAjd) in Defensive Behaviors Associated with Social Defeat.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Miguel J; Baldo, Marcus V C; Canteras, Newton S; Hahn, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd) in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior). Male rats received bilateral cytotoxic lesions targeted to the LHAjd. A resident-intruder paradigm was then employed to investigate the effect of these lesions on defensive behavioral responses. Behavioral data were collected during three phases of testing: (1) pre-encounter habituation to testing context; (2) encounter with a dominant conspecific in the testing context; and (3) post-encounter context. Statistical analysis of behavioral measures revealed a significant decrease in risk assessment behaviors during post-encounter context testing in lesioned intruders compared to sham-lesioned and intact rats. However, changes in defensive behavioral measures during the habituation, or during resident-intruder encounters, did not reach significance. We discuss these data in relation to LHAjd (and neighboring LHA region) neural connections, and in relation to current advances in understanding of the neural control of defensive behaviors. A refined model for the neural circuits that are central to the control of socially-relevant defensive behaviors is outlined. We also consider possible broader implications of these data for disorders of behavioral control.

  18. Evidence of a Role for the Lateral Hypothalamic Area Juxtadorsomedial Region (LHAjd) in Defensive Behaviors Associated with Social Defeat

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Miguel J.; Baldo, Marcus V. C.; Canteras, Newton S.; Hahn, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd) in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior). Male rats received bilateral cytotoxic lesions targeted to the LHAjd. A resident-intruder paradigm was then employed to investigate the effect of these lesions on defensive behavioral responses. Behavioral data were collected during three phases of testing: (1) pre-encounter habituation to testing context; (2) encounter with a dominant conspecific in the testing context; and (3) post-encounter context. Statistical analysis of behavioral measures revealed a significant decrease in risk assessment behaviors during post-encounter context testing in lesioned intruders compared to sham-lesioned and intact rats. However, changes in defensive behavioral measures during the habituation, or during resident-intruder encounters, did not reach significance. We discuss these data in relation to LHAjd (and neighboring LHA region) neural connections, and in relation to current advances in understanding of the neural control of defensive behaviors. A refined model for the neural circuits that are central to the control of socially-relevant defensive behaviors is outlined. We also consider possible broader implications of these data for disorders of behavioral control. PMID:27895561

  19. Identification of defense-related genes newly-associated with tomato flower abscission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current abscission model suggests the formation of a post-abscission trans-differentiation of a protective layer as the last step of the process. The present report expands the repertoire of genes activated in the tomato flower abscission zone (AZ), which are likely to be involved in defense res...

  20. Arthropod-associated plant effectors (AAPEs):elicitors and suppressors of crop defense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In response to insect attack, many plants undergo a suite of rapid biochemical changes that serve to directly reduce subsequent feeding damage and also promote the attraction of predators and parasitoids, the natural enemies of crop pests. In many cases, these insect-induced plant defense responses ...

  1. Choose your weapon: defensive behavior is associated with morphology and performance in scorpions.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Arie; Lobo Coelho, Pedro; Sousa, Pedro; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Morphology can be adaptive through its effect on performance of an organism. The effect of performance may, however, be modulated by behavior; an organism may choose a behavioral option that does not fully utilize its maximum performance. Behavior may therefore be decoupled from morphology and performance. To gain insight into the relationships between these levels of organization, we combined morphological data on defensive structures with measures of defensive performance, and their utilization in defensive behavior. Scorpion species show significant variation in the morphology and performance of their main defensive structures; their chelae (pincers) and the metasoma ("tail") carrying the stinger. Our data show that size-corrected pinch force varies to almost two orders of magnitude among species, and is correlated with chela morphology. Chela and metasoma morphology are also correlated to the LD50 of the venom, corroborating the anecdotal rule that dangerously venomous scorpions can be recognized by their chelae and metasoma. Analyses of phylogenetic independent contrasts show that correlations between several aspects of chela and metasoma morphology, performance and behavior are present. These correlations suggest co-evolution of behavior with morphology and performance. Path analysis found a performance variable (pinch force) to partially mediate the relationship between morphology (chela aspect ratio) and behavior (defensive stinger usage). We also found a correlation between two aspects of morphology: pincer finger length correlates with the relative "thickness" (aspect ratio) of the metasoma. This suggests scorpions show a trade-off between their two main weapon complexes: the metasoma carrying the stinger, and the pedipalps carrying the chelae.

  2. Choose Your Weapon: Defensive Behavior Is Associated with Morphology and Performance in Scorpions

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, Arie; Lobo Coelho, Pedro; Sousa, Pedro; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Morphology can be adaptive through its effect on performance of an organism. The effect of performance may, however, be modulated by behavior; an organism may choose a behavioral option that does not fully utilize its maximum performance. Behavior may therefore be decoupled from morphology and performance. To gain insight into the relationships between these levels of organization, we combined morphological data on defensive structures with measures of defensive performance, and their utilization in defensive behavior. Scorpion species show significant variation in the morphology and performance of their main defensive structures; their chelae (pincers) and the metasoma (“tail”) carrying the stinger. Our data show that size-corrected pinch force varies to almost two orders of magnitude among species, and is correlated with chela morphology. Chela and metasoma morphology are also correlated to the LD50 of the venom, corroborating the anecdotal rule that dangerously venomous scorpions can be recognized by their chelae and metasoma. Analyses of phylogenetic independent contrasts show that correlations between several aspects of chela and metasoma morphology, performance and behavior are present. These correlations suggest co-evolution of behavior with morphology and performance. Path analysis found a performance variable (pinch force) to partially mediate the relationship between morphology (chela aspect ratio) and behavior (defensive stinger usage). We also found a correlation between two aspects of morphology: pincer finger length correlates with the relative “thickness” (aspect ratio) of the metasoma. This suggests scorpions show a trade-off between their two main weapon complexes: the metasoma carrying the stinger, and the pedipalps carrying the chelae. PMID:24236075

  3. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 3. Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    The effects of natural disasters and the implications which those effects have for community emergency preparedness are discussed. Major topics include: (1) Similarities and differences in types of responses required by a nuclear and natural disasters, (2) The civil defense function in natural disasters, (3) Vulnerability analysis, (4) Warning…

  4. Postpartum Hemorrhage Preparedness Elements Vary Among Hospitals in New Jersey and Georgia.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Debra; Scheich, Benjamin; Byfield, Renée; Wilson, Barbara; Bateman, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    To identify the presence or absence of 38 postpartum hemorrhage preparedness elements in hospitals in New Jersey and Georgia as a component of the Postpartum Hemorrhage Project of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Quality improvement baseline assessment survey. Hospitals (N = 95) in New Jersey and Georgia. Key informants were clinicians who were members of their hospitals' obstetric teams and were recognized as knowledgeable about their hospitals' postpartum hemorrhage policies. An electronic survey was sent by e-mail to each identified hospital's key informant. The mean number of elements present was 23.1 (SD = 5.2; range = 12-34). Volume of births, students, magnet status, and other hospital characteristics did not predict preparedness. None of the hospitals had all of the 38 preparedness elements available. Less than 50% of the hospitals had massive hemorrhage protocols, performed risk assessments and drills, or measured blood loss. For every 10% increase in the total percentage of African American women who gave birth, there was a decrease of one preparedness element. Objective measures of preparedness are needed, because perceptions of preparedness were inconsistent with the number of preparedness elements reported. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tsunami Preparedness in Oregon (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

  6. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  7. Transmission of plant-pathogenic bacteria by nonhost seeds without induction of an associated defense reaction at emergence.

    PubMed

    Darrasse, Armelle; Darsonval, Arnaud; Boureau, Tristan; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle; Durand, Karine; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    2010-10-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the different steps of bacterial disease epidemiology is essential to develop new control strategies. Seeds are the passive carriers of a diversified microbial cohort likely to affect seedling physiology. Among seed-borne plant-pathogenic bacteria, seed carriage in compatible situations is well evidenced. The aims of our work are to determine the efficiency of pathogen transmission to seeds of a nonhost plant and to evaluate bacterial and plant behaviors at emergence. Bacterial transmission from flowers to seeds and from seeds to seedlings was measured for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in incompatible interactions with bean. Transmissions from seeds to seedlings were compared for X. campestris pv. campestris, for Xanthomonas citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans in compatible interactions with bean, and for Escherichia coli, a human pathogen, in null interactions with bean. The induction of defense responses was monitored by using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of genes representing the main signaling pathways and assaying defense-related enzymatic activities. Flower inoculations resulted in a high level of bean seed contamination by X. campestris pv. campestris, which transmitted efficiently to seedlings. Whatever the type of interaction tested, dynamics of bacterial population sizes were similar on seedlings, and no defense responses were induced evidencing bacterial colonization of seedlings without any associated defense response induction. Bacteria associated with the spermosphere multiply in this rich environment, suggesting that the colonization of seedlings relies mostly on commensalism. The transmission of plant-pathogenic bacteria to and by nonhost seeds suggests a probable role of seeds of nonhost plants as an inoculum source.

  8. Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    strain, there is an increased likelihood that the virus will be expressed as a much more severe form of the disease , dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHS...Emerging Infectious Diseases B-3: Presentation: The Global Resurgence of Epidemic Dengue / Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever B-4: Presentation: Joint Clinical... Diseases ", BioTerrorism Preparedness: Clinical Trials in Infectious Disease , June 15-18, 2004, Bangkok, Thailand. (See Appendix B-2) 15 APPENDIX A THE DENGUE

  9. Hurricane Preparedness and Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This plan establishes policy and sets forth guidance, responsibilities and procedures utilized by Federal Electric Corp., communications department in support of the KSC Emergency Preparedness Plan, Annex A, Hurricane Control Plan (GP-355) dated 27 May 1971. This plan covers all FEC communications department personnel, facilities, and equipment situated at the Kennedy Space Center that are the responsibility of FEC contract NAS 10-4967.

  10. Pandemic influenza preparedness: a survey of businesses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip W; Hansen, Keith; Spanbauer, Lori; Shell, Duane F

    2007-09-01

    Several Omaha businesses were surveyed on pandemic influenza preparedness and general disaster preparedness. Most businesses had started pandemic influenza planning, but few had exercised the plan or used it to educate employees. Responses provided insight into the status of business planning. The survey uncovered a need for providing assistance to businesses in pandemic preparedness as well as training in infection control in the workplace, which should be a niche for infection control professionals.

  11. HIV Seroprevalence, Associated Risk Behavior, and Alcohol Use Among Male Rwanda Defense Forces Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    su vida , o que hayan resultado positivos en el tamizaje de problemas de alcoholismo (en base a la Prueba de Identificación de Trastornos Debidos al...the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP) and HIV/AIDS Program... plan for AIDS relief. Alcohol, HIV risk behaviors and transmission in Africa: devel- oping programs for the President’s emergency plan for AIDS relief

  12. NPP1, a Phytophthora-associated trigger of plant defense in parsley and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fellbrich, Guido; Romanski, Annette; Varet, Anne; Blume, Beatrix; Brunner, Frédéric; Engelhardt, Stefan; Felix, Georg; Kemmerling, Birgit; Krzymowska, Magdalena; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2002-11-01

    Activation of non-cultivar-specific plant defense against attempted microbial infection is mediated through the recognition of pathogen-derived elicitors. Previously, we have identified a peptide fragment (Pep-13) within a 42-kDa cell wall transglutaminase from various Phytophthora species that triggers a multifacetted defense response in parsley cells. Many of these oomycete species have now been shown to possess another cell wall protein (24 kDa), that evoked the same pattern of responses in parsley as Pep-13. Unlike Pep-13, necrosis-inducing Phytophthora protein 1 (NPP1) purified from P. parasitica also induced hypersensitive cell death-like lesions in parsley. NPP1 structural homologs were found in oomycetes, fungi, and bacteria, but not in plants. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed the intact protein as well as two cysteine residues to be essential for elicitor activity. NPP1-mediated activation of pathogen defense in parsley does not employ the Pep-13 receptor. However, early induced cellular responses implicated in elicitor signal transmission (increased levels of cytoplasmic calcium, production of reactive oxygen species, MAP kinase activation) were stimulated by either elicitor, suggesting the existence of converging signaling pathways in parsley. Infiltration of NPP1 into leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants resulted in transcript accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, production of ROS and ethylene, callose apposition, and HR-like cell death. NPP1-mediated induction of the PR1 gene is salicylic acid-dependent, and, unlike the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000(avrRpm1)-induced PR1 gene expression, requires both functional NDR1 and PAD4. In summary, Arabidopsis plants infiltrated with NPP1 constitute an experimental system that is amenable to forward genetic approaches aiming at the dissection of signaling pathways implicated in the activation of non-cultivar-specific plant defense.

  13. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DOD for computer network defense and computer network attack. As such, it is the trigger-puller for this new branch of warfare. It is the pathfinder ...Forces CNA Capabilit ies CINC & Unif ied Command Support JTF-CNO is the pathfinder organization for new warfare area Tailored CINC Support Teams... Lisa Hoffman, “A Surprise: Fewer Cyber-Attacks after 9-11,” Scripps Howard News Service available at URL: <www.knowstudio.com/shns/story.cfm?pk

  14. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings.

  15. Emergency preparedness needs assessment of centralized school foodservice and warehousing operations.

    PubMed

    Story, Cyndie; Sneed, Jeannie; Oakley, Charlotte B; Stretch, Theresa

    2007-12-01

    Managers of onsite retail foodservice operations, particularly those in centralized school foodservice operations, are called on to provide meals during emergencies, yet there is a paucity of research on their readiness to handle emergencies. Qualitative research and a cross-sectional survey design were used to conduct a needs assessment for emergency preparedness (emergency readiness, food recalls, and food defense) in centralized school foodservice operations, including warehousing. An open-ended written questionnaire was mailed to eight foodservice directors, and responses were used to develop a written questionnaire that was mailed to school foodservice directors in 200 districts identified as having centralized food production and warehousing. Directors from 78 districts responded (39% response rate). Most districts (n=72) had an emergency response team, and foodservice was included as part of 63 of those teams. Not all districts had written procedures for food recalls (47 of 73), natural disasters (37 of 74), or food defense (30 of 74). Barriers to implementing emergency preparedness policies and procedures included limited money, emergency equipment, and time. Most current training related to food safety with little training related to emergency preparedness. Training on the emergency preparedness plan was done in 61 of 78 districts. Training on emergency procedures was done by less than half of the districts during the previous year. This study identified best practices related to emergency preparedness that can be implemented in onsite retail foodservice operations. Results indicate a need to emphasize emergency preparedness, develop written standard operating procedures, and train employees to be prepared to respond to emergencies.

  16. Bacillus cereus AR156-Induced Resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum Is Associated with Priming of Defense Responses in Loquat Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Liu, Hongxia; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a biocontrol agent Bacillus cereus AR156 for control of anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in harvested loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms of its action have been investigated. Treatment of fruit with B. cereus AR156 resulted in lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters compared with that of untreated fruit. The treatment enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes including chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity were also increased by treatment. Transcripts of three defense-related genes were enhanced only in fruit undergoing both B. cereus AR156 treatment and C. acutatum inoculation compared with those receiving either intervention alone. These results suggest that the disease resistance against C. acutatum in loquat fruit is enhanced by B. cereus AR156 and that the induced resistance is associated with induction and priming of defense responses in the fruit. PMID:25386680

  17. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M-deficient mice demonstrate an improved host defense during Gram-negative pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hoogerwerf, Jacobien J; van der Windt, Gerritje J W; Blok, Dana C; Hoogendijk, Arie J; De Vos, Alex F; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Kobayashi, Koichi S; Flavell, Richard A; van der Poll, Tom

    2012-09-25

    Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the most frequent source of sepsis. Bacteria that try to invade normally sterile body sites are recognized by innate immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, among which toll-like receptors (TLRs) feature prominently. Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a proximal inhibitor of TLR signaling expressed by epithelial cells and macrophages in the lung. To determine the role of IRAK-M in host defense against bacterial pneumonia, IRAK-M-deficient (IRAK-M(-/-)) and normal wild-type (WT) mice were infected intranasally with Klebsiella pneumoniae. IRAK-M mRNA was upregulated in lungs of WT mice with Klebsiella pneumonia, and the absence of IRAK-M resulted in a strongly improved host defense as reflected by reduced bacterial growth in the lungs, diminished dissemination to distant body sites, less peripheral tissue injury and better survival rates. Although IRAK-M(-/-) alveolar macrophages displayed enhanced responsiveness toward intact K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, IRAK-M(-/-) mice did not show increased cytokine or chemokine levels in their lungs after infection in vivo. The extent of lung inflammation was increased in IRAK-M(-/-) mice shortly after K. pneumoniae infection, as determined by semiquantitative scoring of specific components of the inflammatory response in lung tissue slides. These data indicate that IRAK-M impairs host defense during pneumonia caused by a common gram-negative respiratory pathogen.

  18. A survey of oysters Crassostrea virginica from Tampa Bay, Florida: associations of internal defense measurements with contaminant burdens.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W S; Oliver, L M; Winstead, J T; Long, E R

    2000-11-01

    Oysters from 16 sites in Tampa Bay, Florida, were collected during a 6-week period in winter 1993 and analyzed for both biological characteristics and tissue chemical concentrations. Using previous sediment contamination and toxicity data, oyster tissues from the selected sites were expected to exhibit a wide range in both quantity and type of chemicals. Chemical analysis showed tissue concentrations at some of these sites to be greater than national averages, as reported by the National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, for total PAH, total PCB, total chlordanes, DDT, Cu, Pb and Zn. Measures of oyster internal defense, including hemocyte density, rate of locomotion and superoxide generation, varied significantly among sites and were generally higher at sites with higher tissue concentrations of xenobiotic chemicals. Potential associations between oyster defense characteristics and accumulated chemical contaminants, either singly or in chemical classes, were explored using correlation analysis and a composited ranking procedure. Positive relationships were found for hemocyte characteristics with certain trace metal (Cu, Sn and Zn) and PAH analytes, whereas negative relationships were found with certain PCB and pesticide analytes. Heightened defenses in contaminated conditions may reflect a hemocyte process for sequestration and detoxification of environmental contaminants. Oysters from four of the 16 sites were additionally collected in June and September 1993 and site-related differences did not closely parallel those obtained in winter. Seasonal environmental factors may have altered contaminant-related differences among sites.

  19. The importance of establishing a national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, John R; Miller, Yoon K; Inglesby, Tom; Links, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Angela T; Slemp, Catherine C; Burhans, Robert L; Blumenstock, James; Khan, Ali S

    2013-03-01

    Natural disasters, infectious disease epidemics, terrorism, and major events like the nuclear incident at Fukushima all pose major potential challenges to public health and security. Events such as the anthrax letters of 2001, Hurricanes Katrina, Irene, and Sandy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and West Nile virus outbreaks, and the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic have demonstrated that public health, emergency management, and national security efforts are interconnected. These and other events have increased the national resolve and the resources committed to improving the national health security infrastructure. However, as fiscal pressures force federal, state, and local governments to examine spending, there is a growing need to demonstrate both what the investment in public health preparedness has bought and where gaps remain in our nation's health security. To address these needs, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR), is creating an annual measure of health security and preparedness at the national and state levels: the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI).

  20. Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based Organizations.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Gershon, Robyn R

    2017-07-04

    Introduction Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary

  1. Plant defense syndromes.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Fishbein, Mark

    2006-07-01

    Given that a plant's defensive strategy against herbivory is never likely to be a single trait, we develop the concept of plant defense syndromes, where association with specific ecological interactions can result in convergence on suites of covarying defensive traits. Defense syndromes can be studied within communities of diverse plant species as well as within clades of closely related species. In either case, theory predicts that plant defense traits can consistently covary across species, due to shared evolutionary ancestry or due to adaptive convergence. We examined potential defense syndromes in 24 species of milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) in a field experiment. Employing phylogenetically independent contrasts, we found few correlations between seven defensive traits, no bivariate trade-offs, and notable positive correlations between trichome density and latex production, and between C:N ratio and leaf toughness. We then used a hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a phenogram of defense trait similarity among the 24 species. This analysis revealed three distinct clusters of species. The defense syndromes of these species clusters are associated with either low nutritional quality or a balance of higher nutritional quality coupled with physical or chemical defenses. The phenogram based on defense traits was not congruent, however, with a molecular phylogeny of the group, suggesting convergence on defense syndromes. Finally, we examined the performance of monarch butterfly caterpillars on the 24 milkweed species in the field; monarch growth and survival did not differ on plants in the three syndromes, although multiple regression revealed that leaf trichomes and toughness significantly reduced caterpillar growth. The discovery of convergent plant defense syndromes can be used as a framework to ask questions about how abiotic environments, communities of herbivores, and biogeography are associated with particular defense strategies of plants.

  2. Disparity in disaster preparedness between racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics.

  3. Disparity in disaster preparedness between racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics. PMID:28228993

  4. Ebola: Emergency preparedness and perceived response of Malaysian health care providers.

    PubMed

    Rajiah, Kingston; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Binti Samsudin, Sarah Zakiah; Tan, Choo Lin; Tan Yen Pei, Adeline; Wong San Ying, Audrey

    2016-12-01

    We studied the emergency preparedness and perceived response for Ebola virus disease among various health care providers in Malaysia using a self-report questionnaire. Most of the health care providers felt that they were able to respond to Ebola virus disease and were aware of the level of preparedness needed during emergency. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  6. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  7. 33 CFR 101.300 - Preparedness communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparedness communications. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Communication (Port-Facility-Vessel) § 101.300 Preparedness communications. (a) Notification of MARSEC Level change. The COTP will communicate any changes in the MARSEC...

  8. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  9. 77 FR 55097 - National Preparedness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8854 of August 31, 2012 National Preparedness Month, 2012 By the President of..., emergencies and natural disasters have tested the fabric of our country. During National Preparedness Month... family. This month, let us honor that spirit by standing with all those affected by recent severe...

  10. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  11. Hydroxychloroquine-Inhibited Dengue Virus Is Associated with Host Defense Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Fong; Lin, You-Sheng; Huang, Nan-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Yi; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Jih-Jung; Kubota, Toru; Matsuoka, Mayumi; Chen, Siang-Ru; Yang, Chih-Shiang; Lu, Ruo-Wei; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug also used in treating autoimmune diseases. Its antiviral activity was demonstrated in restricting HIV infection in vitro; however, the clinical implications remain controversial. Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is a global public health problem, and we lack an antiviral drug for DENV. Here, we evaluated the anti-DENV potential of treatment with HCQ. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that HCQ could inhibit DENV serotype 1–4 infection in vitro. RT-qPCR analysis of HCQ-treated cells showed induced expression of interferon (IFN)-related antiviral proteins and certain inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistic study suggested that HCQ activated the innate immune signaling pathways of IFN-β, AP-1, and NFκB. Knocking down mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), inhibiting TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/inhibitor-κB kinase ɛ (IKKɛ), and blocking type I IFN receptor reduced the efficiency of HCQ against DENV-2 infection. Furthermore, HCQ significantly induced cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was involved in the host defense system. Suppression of ROS production attenuated the innate immune activation and anti-DENV-2 effect of HCQ. In summary, HCQ triggers the host defense machinery by inducing ROS- and MAVS-mediated innate immune activation against DENV infection and may be a candidate drug for DENV infection. PMID:25321315

  12. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  13. Social Justice in Pandemic Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies. PMID:22397337

  14. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  15. Characterization of stored defense production spent nulcear fuel and associated materials at Hanford Site, Richland Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    There are about 2,100 tonnes (2,300 tons) of defense production spent nuclear fuel stored in the 100-K Area Basins located along the south shore of the Columbia River in the northern part of the Hanford Site. Some of the fuel which has been in storage for a number of years is in poor condition and continues to deteriorate. The basins also contain fuel fragments and radioactively contaminated sludge. The DOE needs to characterize defense production spent nuclear fuel and associated materials stored on the Hanford Site. In order to satisfy that need, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to select, collect and transport samples of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to the 327 Building for characterization. As a result of that characterization, modes of interim storage can be determined that would be compatible with the material in its present state and alternative treatment processes could be developed to permit a broader selection of storage modes. Environmental impacts of the proposed action were determined to be limited principally to radiation exposure of workers, which, however, were found to be small. No health effects among workers or the general public would be expected under routine operations. Implementation of the proposed action would not result in any impacts on cultural resources, threatened, endangered and candidate species, air or water quality, socioeconomic conditions, or waste management.

  16. Cross-cultural comparisons between the earthquake preparedness models of Taiwan and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jang, Li-Ju; Wang, Jieh-Jiuh; Paton, Douglas; Tsai, Ning-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan and New Zealand are both located in the Pacific Rim where 81 per cent of the world's largest earthquakes occur. Effective programmes for increasing people's preparedness for these hazards are essential. This paper tests the applicability of the community engagement theory of hazard preparedness in two distinct cultural contexts. Structural equation modelling analysis provides support for this theory. The paper suggests that the close fit between theory and data that is achieved by excluding trust supports the theoretical prediction that familiarity with a hazard negates the need to trust external sources. The results demonstrate that the hazard preparedness theory is applicable to communities that have previously experienced earthquakes and are therefore familiar with the associated hazards and the need for earthquake preparedness. The paper also argues that cross-cultural comparisons provide opportunities for collaborative research and learning as well as access to a wider range of potential earthquake risk management strategies.

  17. Tsunami Preparedness in California (videos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. These videos about tsunami preparedness in California distinguish between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of each region. They offer guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. These videos were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E).

  18. Interleukin-1 Receptor–Associated Kinase M–Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Improved Host Defense during Gram-negative Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hoogerwerf, Jacobien J; van der Windt, Gerritje JW; Blok, Dana C; Hoogendijk, Arie J; de Vos, Alex F; van ‘t Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Kobayashi, Koichi S; Flavell, Richard A; van der Poll, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the most frequent source of sepsis. Bacteria that try to invade normally sterile body sites are recognized by innate immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, among which toll-like receptors (TLRs) feature prominently. Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)–associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a proximal inhibitor of TLR signaling expressed by epithelial cells and macrophages in the lung. To determine the role of IRAK-M in host defense against bacterial pneumonia, IRAK-M-deficient (IRAK-M−/−) and normal wild-type (WT) mice were infected intranasally with Klebsiella pneumoniae. IRAK-M mRNA was upregulated in lungs of WT mice with Klebsiella pneumonia, and the absence of IRAK-M resulted in a strongly improved host defense as reflected by reduced bacterial growth in the lungs, diminished dissemination to distant body sites, less peripheral tissue injury and better survival rates. Although IRAK-M−/− alveolar macrophages displayed enhanced responsiveness toward intact K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, IRAK-M−/− mice did not show increased cytokine or chemokine levels in their lungs after infection in vivo. The extent of lung inflammation was increased in IRAK-M−/− mice shortly after K. pneumoniae infection, as determined by semiquantitative scoring of specific components of the inflammatory response in lung tissue slides. These data indicate that IRAK-M impairs host defense during pneumonia caused by a common gram-negative respiratory pathogen. PMID:22729155

  19. Mass fatality preparedness among medical examiners/coroners in the United States: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Orr, Mark G; Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Chen, Daniel Y; Riley, Halley E M; Sherman, Martin F

    2014-12-15

    In the United States (US), Medical Examiners and Coroners (ME/Cs) have the legal authority for the management of mass fatality incidents (MFI). Yet, preparedness and operational capabilities in this sector remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold; first, to identify appropriate measures of preparedness, and second, to assess preparedness levels and factors significantly associated with preparedness. Three separate checklists were developed to measure different aspects of preparedness: MFI Plan Elements, Operational Capabilities, and Pre-existing Resource Networks. Using a cross-sectional study design, data on these and other variables of interest were collected in 2014 from a national convenience sample of ME/C using an internet-based, anonymous survey. Preparedness levels were determined and compared across Federal Regions and in relation to the number of Presidential Disaster Declarations, also by Federal Region. Bivariate logistic and multivariable models estimated the associations between organizational characteristics and relative preparedness. A large proportion (42%) of respondents reported that less than 25 additional fatalities over a 48-hour period would exceed their response capacities. The preparedness constructs measured three related, yet distinct, aspects of preparedness, with scores highly variable and generally suboptimal. Median scores for the three preparedness measures also varied across Federal Regions and as compared to the number of Presidential Declared Disasters, also by Federal Region. Capacity was especially limited for activating missing persons call centers, launching public communications, especially via social media, and identifying temporary interment sites. The provision of staff training was the only factor studied that was significantly (positively) associated (p < .05) with all three preparedness measures. Although ME/Cs ranked local partners, such as Offices of Emergency Management, first responders, and

  20. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N.; Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  1. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  2. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account.

  3. 44 CFR 208.22 - Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... special circumstances, the period of performance for Preparedness Cooperative Agreements will be 1 year... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparedness Cooperative... SYSTEM Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.22 Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process....

  4. A survey of pharmacists' preparedness for provider status implementation.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Erica M; Al Jumali, Ali Azeez Ali; Catney, Christine M; McDonough, Randal P; Veach, Stevie; Doucette, William R

    1) To measure pharmacists' preparedness for the implementation of provider status; and 2) to measure pharmacists' perceived stakeholder readiness for provider status implementation. An anonymous 24-item electronic survey was sent to a convenience sample of approximately 1500 licensed Iowa pharmacists. They were contacted by means of their membership in the Iowa Pharmacists Association, 1 of 6 regional associations; Drake University and University of Iowa faculty listservs; and the University of Iowa alumni office. Pharmacists received initial contact through e-mail, private groups on social media, or respective organizations' websites requesting participation. Respondents' confidence to provide clinical skills and perceived preparedness for provider status implementation were measured. One hundred thirty-two pharmacists completed the survey. Participants perceived high confidence in themselves to serve as providers and low confidence in the preparedness of payers to support pharmacist provider status. Participants reported feeling most confident in obtaining a medication history and past medical history and least confident in obtaining vital signs and providing point-of-care testing. If provider status for pharmacists becomes law, Iowa pharmacists should expand on initiatives in collaboration with stakeholders to make a smoother transition into provider status. Iowa pharmacists may benefit from educational programming focused on delivering components of clinical services, such as measuring vital signs and point-of-care testing. Future research can be conducted to explain pharmacists' confidence levels as well as intentions to implement provider status services. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CRISPR-Cas Defense System and Potential Prophages in Cyanobacteria Associated with the Coral Black Band Disease.

    PubMed

    Buerger, Patrick; Wood-Charlson, Elisha M; Weynberg, Karen D; Willis, Bette L; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how pathogens maintain their virulence is critical to developing tools to mitigate disease in animal populations. We sequenced and assembled the first draft genome of Roseofilum reptotaenium AO1, the dominant cyanobacterium underlying pathogenicity of the virulent coral black band disease (BBD), and analyzed parts of the BBD-associated Geitlerinema sp. BBD_1991 genome in silico. Both cyanobacteria are equipped with an adaptive, heritable clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas defense system type I-D and have potential virulence genes located within several prophage regions. The defense system helps to prevent infection by viruses and mobile genetic elements via identification of short fingerprints of the intruding DNA, which are stored as templates in the bacterial genome, in so-called "CRISPRs." Analysis of CRISPR target sequences (protospacers) revealed an unusually high number of self-targeting spacers in R. reptotaenium AO1 and extraordinary long CRIPSR arrays of up to 260 spacers in Geitlerinema sp. BBD_1991. The self-targeting spacers are unlikely to be a form of autoimmunity; instead these target an incomplete lysogenic bacteriophage. Lysogenic virus induction experiments with mitomycin C and UV light did not reveal an actively replicating virus population in R. reptotaenium AO1 cultures, suggesting that phage functionality is compromised or excision could be blocked by the CRISPR-Cas system. Potential prophages were identified in three regions of R. reptotaenium AO1 and five regions of Geitlerinema sp. BBD_1991, containing putative BBD relevant virulence genes, such as an NAD-dependent epimerase/dehydratase (a homolog in terms of functionality to the third and fourth most expressed gene in BBD), lysozyme/metalloendopeptidases and other lipopolysaccharide modification genes. To date, viruses have not been considered to be a component of the BBD consortium or a contributor to the virulence of R. reptotaenium AO1

  6. CRISPR-Cas Defense System and Potential Prophages in Cyanobacteria Associated with the Coral Black Band Disease

    PubMed Central

    Buerger, Patrick; Wood-Charlson, Elisha M.; Weynberg, Karen D.; Willis, Bette L.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how pathogens maintain their virulence is critical to developing tools to mitigate disease in animal populations. We sequenced and assembled the first draft genome of Roseofilum reptotaenium AO1, the dominant cyanobacterium underlying pathogenicity of the virulent coral black band disease (BBD), and analyzed parts of the BBD-associated Geitlerinema sp. BBD_1991 genome in silico. Both cyanobacteria are equipped with an adaptive, heritable clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas defense system type I-D and have potential virulence genes located within several prophage regions. The defense system helps to prevent infection by viruses and mobile genetic elements via identification of short fingerprints of the intruding DNA, which are stored as templates in the bacterial genome, in so-called “CRISPRs.” Analysis of CRISPR target sequences (protospacers) revealed an unusually high number of self-targeting spacers in R. reptotaenium AO1 and extraordinary long CRIPSR arrays of up to 260 spacers in Geitlerinema sp. BBD_1991. The self-targeting spacers are unlikely to be a form of autoimmunity; instead these target an incomplete lysogenic bacteriophage. Lysogenic virus induction experiments with mitomycin C and UV light did not reveal an actively replicating virus population in R. reptotaenium AO1 cultures, suggesting that phage functionality is compromised or excision could be blocked by the CRISPR-Cas system. Potential prophages were identified in three regions of R. reptotaenium AO1 and five regions of Geitlerinema sp. BBD_1991, containing putative BBD relevant virulence genes, such as an NAD-dependent epimerase/dehydratase (a homolog in terms of functionality to the third and fourth most expressed gene in BBD), lysozyme/metalloendopeptidases and other lipopolysaccharide modification genes. To date, viruses have not been considered to be a component of the BBD consortium or a contributor to the virulence of R. reptotaenium

  7. Preparedness for a CBRNE Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    protection against fire in case of attack. Although OCD was disbanded at the conclusion of the war, the Federal Civil Defense Administration ( FCDA ...was established in 1950, partially in response to the Soviet Union’s development of the atomic bomb. The FCDA was wholly a civilian organization...readiness was maintained by the FCDA . The civil defense system was developed in response to the threat of nuclear war, perceived to be the primary

  8. Induction of Jasmonic Acid-Associated Defenses by Thrips Alters Host Suitability for Conspecifics and Correlates with Increased Trichome Densities in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.; Leiss, Kirsten A.

    2017-01-01

    Plant defenses inducible by herbivorous arthropods can determine performance of subsequent feeding herbivores. We investigated how infestation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) alters host plant suitability and foraging decisions of their conspecifics. We explored the role of delayed-induced jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated plant defense responses in thrips preference by using the tomato mutant def-1, impaired in JA biosynthesis. In particular, we investigated the effect of thrips infestation on trichome-associated tomato defenses. The results showed that when offered a choice, thrips preferred non-infested plants over infested wild-type plants, while no differences were observed in def-1. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate restored the repellency effect in def-1. Gene expression analysis showed induction of the JA defense signaling pathway in wild-type plants, while activating the ethylene signaling pathway in both genotypes. Activation of JA defenses led to increases in type-VI leaf glandular trichome densities in the wild type, augmenting the production of trichome-associated volatiles, i.e. terpenes. Our study revealed that plant-mediated intraspecific interactions between thrips are determined by JA-mediated defenses in tomato. We report that insects can alter not only trichome densities but also the allelochemicals produced therein, and that this response might depend on the magnitude and/or type of the induction. PMID:28158865

  9. Induction of Jasmonic Acid-Associated Defenses by Thrips Alters Host Suitability for Conspecifics and Correlates with Increased Trichome Densities in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Leiss, Kirsten A

    2017-03-01

    Plant defenses inducible by herbivorous arthropods can determine performance of subsequent feeding herbivores. We investigated how infestation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) alters host plant suitability and foraging decisions of their conspecifics. We explored the role of delayed-induced jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated plant defense responses in thrips preference by using the tomato mutant def-1, impaired in JA biosynthesis. In particular, we investigated the effect of thrips infestation on trichome-associated tomato defenses. The results showed that when offered a choice, thrips preferred non-infested plants over infested wild-type plants, while no differences were observed in def-1. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate restored the repellency effect in def-1. Gene expression analysis showed induction of the JA defense signaling pathway in wild-type plants, while activating the ethylene signaling pathway in both genotypes. Activation of JA defenses led to increases in type-VI leaf glandular trichome densities in the wild type, augmenting the production of trichome-associated volatiles, i.e. terpenes. Our study revealed that plant-mediated intraspecific interactions between thrips are determined by JA-mediated defenses in tomato. We report that insects can alter not only trichome densities but also the allelochemicals produced therein, and that this response might depend on the magnitude and/or type of the induction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  10. Defining bioterrorism preparedness for nurses: concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports a concept analysis to define the concept of nursing bioterrorism preparedness. Nursing bioterrorism preparedness is necessary, yet no theoretical or operational definition exists. The concept is often misinterpreted as being synonymous with organizational preparedness or confused with the bioterrorism preparedness needs of other professions, such as medicine. There is no standardized definition of the concept that is specific to the profession of nursing. A concept analysis was conducted using a systematic literature review; the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Psych Info and Medline databases for years 1966-2005 were used. One hundred and eighteen references were identified, 41 of which were deemed relevant. Data from the 41 relevant articles were analysed and synthesized to develop a theoretical definition, defining attributes, antecedents, consequences and related concepts. Nursing bioterrorism preparedness is the continual process of nurses becoming better prepared to recognize and respond to a bioterrorism attack. Nurses, regardless of their level of education, areas of expertise or practice settings must participate in at least one educational session and one exercise each year to meet the minimum requirements of engaging in the bioterrorism preparedness process. The antecedents are acceptance and readiness to change. Defining attributes include gaining knowledge, planning, practising response behaviours and evaluating knowledge level and content of response plan. Consequences include recognition of an event and implementation of appropriate response actions. Nursing bioterrorism preparedness is essential. To assess nurses' level of preparedness, a definition is needed of what bioterrorism preparedness means to the profession. The theoretical definition developed in this paper needs to be further refined and operationalized.

  11. Agroterrorism workshop: engaging community preparedness.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeffrey; Gilmore, Karen; Nalbone, Torey; Shepherd, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Agroterrorism is the deliberate tampering with and/or contamination of the food supply with the intent of adversely affecting the social, economic, physical, and psychological well-being of society. Testimony before the Government Affairs Committee of the U.S. Senate has suggested that agriculture is an area that has received comparatively little attention with regard to terrorism. In February of 2004, the NIOSH Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention, and Education developed a workshop on agroterrorism designed to engage local community leaders in a process to prepare for and respond to a terrorist event involving the food supply. The workshop was an effective collaboration between NIOSH Ag Centers, the state department of health (Texas), a school of public health, and the Texas Agricultural Research and Extension Centers in five urban and rural locations with substantial agricultural production. In order to reach a diverse and geographically widespread audience, the workshop was conducted by synchronous two-way interactive televideo (9 geographic sites). The audience of 155 participants was comprised of numerous stakeholders. The workshop format involved separate modules addressing food and fiber, livestock and poultry, food distribution, and emergency preparedness, with participants developing priorities for future consideration within their communities to address all phases of an event from preparedness to follow-up debriefing. There were 13 additional individuals (for a total of 168) who participated in the workshop subsequently through use of a video. Workshop evaluation components included pre- and post-workshop objective assessment of factual information presented (tests), and follow-up for implementation of priorities developed by conference participants. Statistically significant improvement was noted in knowledge acquisition. The six-month follow-up demonstrated implementation of preparedness planning priorities. This is an effective

  12. Specific polyphenols and tannins are associated with defense against insect herbivores in the tropical oak Quercus oleoides.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma, Coral; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Heil, Martin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Oyama, Ken

    2014-05-01

    The role of plant polyphenols as defenses against insect herbivores is controversial. We combined correlative field studies across three geographic regions (Northern Mexico, Southern Mexico, and Costa Rica) with induction experiments under controlled conditions to search for candidate compounds that might play a defensive role in the foliage of the tropical oak, Quercus oleoides. We quantified leaf damage caused by four herbivore guilds (chewers, skeletonizers, leaf miners, and gall forming insects) and analyzed the content of 18 polyphenols (including hydrolyzable tannins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonol glycosides) in the same set of leaves using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Foliar damage ranged from two to eight percent per region, and nearly 90% of all the damage was caused by chewing herbivores. Damage due to chewing herbivores was positively correlated with acutissimin B, catechin, and catechin dimer, and damage by mining herbivores was positively correlated with mongolinin A. By contrast, gall presence was negatively correlated with vescalagin and acutissimin B. By using redundancy analysis, we searched for the combinations of polyphenols that were associated to natural herbivory: the combination of mongolinin A and acutissimin B had the highest association to herbivory. In a common garden experiment with oak saplings, artificial damage increased the content of acutissimin B, mongolinin A, and vescalagin, whereas the content of catechin decreased. Specific polyphenols, either individually or in combination, rather than total polyphenols, were associated with standing leaf damage in this tropical oak. Future studies aimed at understanding the ecological role of polyphenols can use similar correlative studies to identify candidate compounds that could be used individually and in biologically meaningful combinations in tests with herbivores and pathogens.

  13. A genome-wide association study of the maize hypersensitive defense response identifies genes that cluster in related pathways.

    PubMed

    Olukolu, Bode A; Wang, Guan-Feng; Vontimitta, Vijay; Venkata, Bala P; Marla, Sandeep; Ji, Jiabing; Gachomo, Emma; Chu, Kevin; Negeri, Adisu; Benson, Jacqueline; Nelson, Rebecca; Bradbury, Peter; Nielsen, Dahlia; Holland, James B; Balint-Kurti, Peter J; Johal, Gurmukh

    2014-08-01

    Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR), a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R-) genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21), were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants.

  14. Hospital strategic preparedness planning: the new imperative.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Peter M; Duncan, W Jack; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

    2007-01-01

    Strategic preparedness planning is an important new imperative for many hospitals. Strategic preparedness planning goes beyond traditional product/market strategic planning by focusing on disaster prevention, containment, and response roles. Hospitals, because of their unique mission, size, complexity, the types of materials they handle, and the types of patients they encounter, are especially vulnerable to natural and human-initiated disasters. In addition, when disasters occur, hospitals must develop well-conceived first responder (receiver) strategies. This paper argues the case for strategic preparedness planning for hospitals and proposes a process for this relatively new and much needed type of planning.

  15. The Role of Scientific Collections in Scientific Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Building on the findings and recommendations of the Interagency Working Group on Scientific Collections, Scientific Collections International (SciColl) aims to improve the rapid access to science collections across disciplines within the federal government and globally, between government agencies and private research institutions. SciColl offered a novel opportunity for the US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, to explore the value of scientific research collections under the science preparedness initiative and integrate it as a research resource at each stage in the emergence of the infectious diseases cycle. Under the leadership of SciColl’s executive secretariat at the Smithsonian Institution, and with multiple federal and international partners, a workshop during October 2014 fully explored the intersections of the infectious disease cycle and the role scientific collections could play as an evidentiary scientific resource to mitigate risks associated with emerging infectious diseases. PMID:26380390

  16. WHAT PEOPLE CAN DO ABOUT RURAL CIVIL DEFENSE, NOTES FOR SPEAKERS AND WRITERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    CIVIL DEFENSE PREPAREDNESS IS A FACTOR RURAL PEOPLE NEED TO CONSIDER IN ALL THEIR FARM, HOME, AND BUSINESS PLANNING. NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF NUCLEAR ATTACK ARE FACTS THAT AMERICANS CANNOT IGNORE. THIS DOCUMENT PRESENTS THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF A CIVIL DEFENSE PROGRAM FOR PEOPLE IN RURAL AREAS WHICH INCLUDE--(1) THE DANGERS OF FALLOUT,…

  17. Pediatric disaster preparedness and response and the nation's children's hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Kristin C; Milton, Jerrod; Fagbuyi, Daniel; LeFort, Roxanna; Sirbaugh, Paul; Gonzalez, Jacqueline; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Carmack, Tim; Anderson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Children account for 30 percent of the US population; as a result, many victims of disaster events are children. The most critically injured pediatric victims would be best cared for in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. The Children's Hospital Association (CHA) undertook a survey of its members to determine their level of readiness to respond to a mass casualty disaster. The Disaster Response Task Force constructed survey questions in October 2011. The survey was distributed via e-mail to the person listed as an "emergency manager/disaster contact" at each association member hospital and was designed to take less than 15 minutes to complete. The survey sought to determine how children's hospitals address disaster preparedness, how prepared they feel for disaster events, and how CHA could support their efforts in preparedness. One hundred seventy-nine surveys were distributed with a 36 percent return rate. Seventy percent of respondent hospitals have a structure in place to plan for disaster response. There was a stronger level of confidence for hospitals in responding to local casualty events than for those responding to large-scale regional, national, and international events. Few hospitals appear to interact with nonmedical facilities with a high concentration of children such as schools or daycares. Little commonality exists among children's hospitals in approaches to disaster preparedness and response. Universally, respondents can identify a disaster response plan and routinely participate in drills, but the scale and scope of these plans and drills vary substantially.

  18. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:26313052

  19. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:24432877

  20. Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  1. [Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survery].

    PubMed

    Al-rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1 304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1 304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  2. Preparedness in robotically assisted interventions.

    PubMed

    Coste-Manière, Eve; Adhami, Louaï; Antiphon, Patrick; Abbou, Clément-Claude

    2003-04-01

    For many years, robots have been used in manufacturing to perform a variety of delicate tasks. Their use is now being generalized to other fields, such as biology, domestic applications, and especially medicine, in which they are poised to make a significant contribution. This evolution comes from the progress made in the field of robotics and from recent changes in medical and surgical techniques, namely, developments in medical imaging and a new desire for minimally invasive interventions. This emerging combination of high-precision robotic manipulators, new medical diagnostic techniques, and efficient minimally invasive surgery has not yet been perfected. After a brief discussion of state-of-the-art robotic systems used in urology, this article discusses new challenges presented by robotic minimally invasive surgery. A computer-integrated approach aimed at increasing the efficiency of such interventions through better preparedness is presented. This approach is illustrated by a case study in human nephrectomy and a cardiac animal experiment.

  3. Lead toxicity, defense strategies and associated indicative biomarkers in Talinum triangulare grown hydroponically.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhay; Prasad, M N V; Sytar, Oksana

    2012-11-01

    Talinum species have been used to investigate a variety of environmental problems for e.g. determination of metal pollution index and total petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils, stabilization and reclamation of heavy metals (HMs) in dump sites, removal of HMs from storm water-runoff and green roof leachates. Species of Talinum are popular leaf vegetables having nutrient antinutrient properties. In this study, Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd (Ceylon spinach) grown hydroponically were exposed to different concentrations of lead (Pb) (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mM) to investigate the biomarkers of toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, cell death, photosynthetic pigments, sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and elemental analysis have been investigated. The results showed that Pb in roots and shoots gradually increased as the function of Pb exposure; however Pb concentration in leaves was below detectable level. Chlorophylls and SQDG contents increased at 0.25 mM of Pb treatment in comparison to control at all treated durations, thereafter decreased. Levels of carotenoid, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, and lipid peroxidation increased in Pb treated plants compared to control. Water content, cells death and elemental analysis suggested the damage of transport system interfering with nutrient transport causing cell death. The present study also explained that Pb imposed indirect oxidative stress in leaves is characterized by decreases in GSH/GSSG ratio with increased doses of Pb treatment. Lead-induced oxidative stress was alleviated by carotenoids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and glutathione suggesting that these defense responses as potential biomarkers for detecting Pb toxicity.

  4. Domestic preparedness: the grand illusion.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M

    2001-04-01

    The problems posed by terrorism to not only the emergency response community, but to national security at large can be overwhelming. Adoption of what would be considered prudent and effective business practices by implementing a disciplined and effectively structured central strategy cannot be overencouraged. The emerging strategy must take into account the existing emergency response infrastructures and build upon existing capacity in an effort to achieve greater readiness. This technique is no different than the training and issuance of radiological response equipment to emergency responders in the 1950s by the then Civil Defense Agency. The training that is offered, especially to EMS providers, needs to be institutionalized to ensure that our peers, on a regular basis, revisit curriculum content. Incorporating a training module within the existing DOT NHTSA initial and refresher EMT and paramedic educational curricula could easily achieve this goal. Implementing fiscal support to the local emergency response agencies in a sustainable manner is a must. The costs associated with training, equipping and servicing the equipment and medication stores are budget-busters. This is a threat to national security and, as such, the federal government needs to rise to the challenge of supporting the local response organizations that will meet this threat head-on during the aftermath of an attack. As previously mentioned, when the U.S. faced its last large national security threat (Soviet nuclear missiles), we witnessed the materialization of a comprehensive agenda that provided most of the attributes we desire with the contemporary problem of terrorism. There is no single solution to the problem of terrorism. In fact, it will take many individuals and functional areas to come together and stop viewing the threat as a "cash cow." The improved response capacity for acts of terrorism will have an inevitable "spillover benefit" of better trained and equipped emergency responders

  5. The Bark-Beetle-Associated Fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica, Utilizes the Phenolic Defense Compounds of Its Host as a Carbon Source.

    PubMed

    Wadke, Namita; Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Vogel, Heiko; Lah, Ljerka; Wingfield, Brenda D; Paetz, Christian; Wright, Louwrance P; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-06-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is periodically attacked by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Endoconidiophora polonica, whose infection is thought to be required for successful beetle attack. Norway spruce produces terpenoid resins and phenolics in response to fungal and bark beetle invasion. However, how the fungal associate copes with these chemical defenses is still unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the phenolic content of Norway spruce bark upon E. polonica infection and the biochemical factors mediating these changes. Although genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes in Norway spruce stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis were actively transcribed during fungal infection, there was a significant time-dependent decline of the corresponding metabolites in fungal lesions. In vitro feeding experiments with pure phenolics revealed that E. polonica transforms both stilbenes and flavonoids to muconoid-type ring-cleavage products, which are likely the first steps in the degradation of spruce defenses to substrates that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Four genes were identified in E. polonica that encode catechol dioxygenases carrying out these reactions. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of phenolic rings with a vicinal dihydroxyl group to muconoid products accepting a wide range of Norway spruce-produced phenolics as substrates. The expression of these genes and E. polonica utilization of the most abundant spruce phenolics as carbon sources both correlated positively with fungal virulence in several strains. Thus, the pathways for the degradation of phenolic compounds in E. polonica, initiated by catechol dioxygenase action, are important to the infection, growth, and survival of this bark beetle-vectored fungus and may play a major role in the ability of I. typographus to colonize spruce trees.

  6. Host Defense Peptide Resistance Contributes to Colonization and Maximal Intestinal Pathology by Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Joseph B.; Small, Cherrie L.; Reid-Yu, Sarah A.; Brannon, John R.; Le Moual, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Host defense peptides secreted by colonocytes and Paneth cells play a key role in innate host defenses in the gut. In Crohn's disease, the burden of tissue-associated Escherichia coli commonly increases at epithelial surfaces where host defense peptides concentrate, suggesting that this bacterial population might actively resist this mechanism of bacterial killing. Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) is associated with Crohn's disease; however, the colonization determinants of AIEC in the inflamed gut are undefined. Here, we establish that host defense peptide resistance contributes to host colonization by Crohn's-associated AIEC. We identified a plasmid-encoded genomic island (called PI-6) in AIEC strain NRG857c that confers high-level resistance to α-helical cationic peptides and α- and β-defensins. Deletion of PI-6 sensitized strain NRG857c to these host defense molecules, reduced its competitive fitness in a mouse model of infection, and attenuated its ability to induce cecal pathology. This phenotype is due to two genes in PI-6, arlA, which encodes a Mig-14 family protein implicated in defensin resistance, and arlC, an OmpT family outer membrane protease. Implicit in these findings are new bacterial targets whose inhibition might limit AIEC burden and disease in the gut. PMID:24866805

  7. Vested Interest theory and disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claude H; Adame, Bradley J; Moore, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Three studies were designed to extend a combination of vested interest theory (VI) and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals (EPPM) to provide formative research for creating more effective disaster preparedness social action campaigns. The aim was to develop an effective VI scale for assessing individual awareness and 'vestedness' relevant to disaster preparedness. Typical preparedness behaviours are discussed with emphasis on earthquakes and tornados in particular. Brief overviews of VI and the EPPM are offered, and findings are presented from three studies (one dealing with earthquakes, and two with tornados) conducted to determine the factor structure of the key VI components involved, and to develop and test subscales derived from the two theories. The paper finishes with a discussion of future research needs and suggestions on how the new subscales may be applied in the design and execution of more effective disaster preparedness campaigns. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  8. Fostering Coordination in Federal Preparedness Grants Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Richardson, Laura [D-CA-37

    2012-05-18

    House - 06/06/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Response and Communications. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere.

  10. 78 FR 54743 - National Preparedness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9009 of August 30, 2013 National Preparedness Month, 2013 By the President of... part to build a more resilient America. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States...

  11. WMD Prevention and Preparedness Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Pascrell, Bill, Jr. [D-NJ-9

    2014-02-11

    House - 02/27/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Response and Communications. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Bioterrorism and disaster preparedness among medical specialties.

    PubMed

    Lane, Joshua E; Dimick, Jacob; Syrax, Michael; Bhandary, Madhusudan; Rudy, Bruce S

    2012-01-01

    A core priority of all medical specialties includes information for members regarding inherent priorities and principles. The authors sought to investigate the priority and contribution of various medical specialties to the fields of bioterrorism, terrorism, disaster preparedness, and emergency preparedness. A mixed study design (quantitative and qualitative) was used to identify pertinent characteristics of various medical specialties. A scored survey analysis of resources available from the representative organizations and/or societies of the primary medical specialties and select subspecialties was examined and scored based on availability, ease of accessibility, updated status, and content. A MEDLINE search completed through PubMed using the medical subject headings bioterrorism, terrorism, disaster preparedness, and emergency preparedness coupled with specific medical specialties was conducted to assess the involvement and contribution of each to the medical literature. The primary study outcome was to evaluate the priority of and existing resources available to members for bioterrorism/terrorism and disaster/emergency preparedness among various medical specialties as reflected by their representative organizations and scientific publication. The search of individual medical specialties and of the medical literature (2000-2010) revealed that these topics (via keywords bioterrorism, terrorism, disaster preparedness, and emergency preparedness) are indeed a priority topic for the majority of medical specialties. A number of specialties with expectant priority in these topics were confirmed. All seven primary care specialties demonstrated a core priority of these topics and offered resources. The MEDLINE (PubMed) search yielded 7,228 articles published from 2000 to 2010. Bioterrorism/terrorism and disaster/ emergency preparedness are priority topics of most medical specialties. This core priority is demonstrated by both the medical specialty resources in addition

  13. Preparedness for Resident Death in Long-Term Care: The Experience of Front-Line Staff

    PubMed Central

    van Riesenbeck, Isabelle; Boerner, Kathrin; Barooah, Adrita; Burack, Orah R.

    2015-01-01

    Context Although resident death is a common occurrence in long-term care, little attention has focused on how prepared certified nursing assistants (CNAs), who provide most of residents' daily care, are for this experience. Objectives To identify characteristics of the resident, CNA, and care context associated with CNAs' preparedness for resident death, and to determine differential patterns for emotional versus informational preparedness. Methods One hundred forty CNAs completed semi-structured in-person interviews concerning their experiences around resident death. The associations of CNA characteristics (e.g., personal end-of-life [EOL] care preferences), CNAs' perceptions of resident status (e.g., knowledge of resident's condition), and the caregiving context (e.g., coworker support and hospice involvement) with emotional and informational preparedness were examined using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results CNAs who reported that their resident was “aware of dying” or “in pain” expressed higher levels of both emotional and informational preparedness. CNAs who endorsed an EOL care preference of wanting all possible treatments regardless of chances for recovery were likely to report lower emotional preparedness. More senior CNAs, both in regard to age and tenure, reported higher preparedness levels. Greater support from coworkers and hospice involvement also were associated with higher levels of both facets of preparedness, the latter in particular when hospice care was viewed positively by the CNA. Conclusion Having more information about resident status and more exchange opportunities within the care team around EOL-related challenges may help CNAs feel more prepared for resident death and strengthen their ability to provide good EOL care. PMID:25701690

  14. Building a system for preparedness: the NYCEPCE NEST experience.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Kristine M; Horn, Leslie; McCollum, Mike; O'Hara, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    The New York Consortium for Emergency Preparedness Continuing Education grew from clinician-oriented, Web-based continuing education developed with and primarily for clinicians associated with the New York Presbyterian Healthcare System. As the consortium expanded to reach all of New York State (and beyond, via the Web), courses originally developed at Columbia were transferred to a widely advertised Web site, and the content expanded. The National Education Strategy Team supplemental funds allowed New York Consortium for Emergency Preparedness Continuing Education to consider how to overcome one of the major challenges in emergency preparation, connectivity across all sectors, and levels of the public health community. We chose to use community health centers as paradigmatic of the challenge: the clinician needs emergency preparedness competencies, but if the site at which practice takes place has no plan, those skills will not be best used; if the practice site is not connected to the community-wide plan, capacity may be duplicated or unused. If clinician, practice and community all plan, train, and practice in a common framework, the community should be much more resilient in the face of emergencies of any dimension.

  15. Tsunami Preparedness, Response, Mitigation, and Recovery Planning in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.; Johnson, L. A.; Mccrink, T. P.; Schaffer, E.; Bower, D.; Davis, M.

    2016-12-01

    In California officials of state, federal, and local governments have coordinated to implement a Tsunami Preparedness and Mitigation Program. Building upon past preparedness efforts carried out year-round this group has leveraged government support at all levels. A primary goal is for everyone who lives at or visits the coast to understand basic life-safety measures when responding to official tsunami alerts or natural warnings. Preparedness actions include: observation of National Tsunami Preparedness Week, local "tsunami walk" drills, scenario-based exercises, testing of notification systems for public alert messaging, outreach materials, workshops, presentations, and media events.Program partners have worked together to develop emergency operations, evacuation plans, and tsunami annexes to plans for counties, cities, communities, and harbors in 20 counties along the coast. Working with the state and federal partner agencies, coastal communities have begun to incorporate sophisticated tsunami "Playbook" scenario information into their planning. These innovative tsunami evacuation and response tools provide detailed evacuation maps and associated real-time response information for identifying areas where flooding could occur. This is critical information for evacuating populations on land, near the shoreline.Acting on recommendations from the recent USGS-led, multi-discipline Science Application for Risk Reduction Tsunami Scenario report on impacts to California and American Society of Civil Engineering adoption proposals to the International Building Code, the state has begun to develop a strategy to incorporate probabilistic tsunami findings into state level policy recommendations for addressing building code adoption, as well as approach land use planning and building code implementation in local jurisdictions. Additional efforts, in the context of sustained community resiliency, include developing recovery planning guidance for local communities.

  16. Development and Validation of a Bilingual Stroke Preparedness Assessment Instrument.

    PubMed

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Mazor, Kathleen M; Sánchez, Brisa N; Dome, Mackenzie; Biller, José; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2017-04-01

    Stroke preparedness interventions are limited by the lack of psychometrically sound intermediate end points. We sought to develop and assess the reliability and validity of the video-Stroke Action Test (video-STAT) an English and a Spanish video-based test to assess people's ability to recognize and react to stroke signs. Video-STAT development and testing was divided into 4 phases: (1) video development and community-generated response options, (2) pilot testing in community health centers, (3) administration in a national sample, bilingual sample, and neurologist sample, and (4) administration before and after a stroke preparedness intervention. The final version of the video-STAT included 8 videos: 4 acute stroke/emergency, 2 prior stroke/nonemergency, 1 nonstroke/emergency, and 1 nonstroke/nonemergency. Acute stroke recognition and action response were queried after each vignette. Video-STAT scoring was based on the acute stroke vignettes only (score range 0-12 best). The national sample consisted of 598 participants, 438 who took the video-STAT in English and 160 who took the video-STAT in Spanish. There was adequate internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.72). The average video-STAT score was 5.6 (SD=3.6), whereas the average neurologist score was 11.4 (SD=1.3). There was no difference in video-STAT scores between the 116 bilingual video-STAT participants who took the video-STAT in English or Spanish. Compared with baseline scores, the video-STAT scores increased after a stroke preparedness intervention (6.2 versus 8.9, P<0.01) among a sample of 101 black adults and youth. The video-STAT yields reliable scores that seem to be valid measures of stroke preparedness. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Defense Industrial Base Policy: Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    In an era of decreasing defense budgets and enemy threats, problems associated with maintaining a healthy defense industrial base have become...and politicians have put forth a number of options to address the defense industrial base problem. The commercialization options include investments

  18. Lack of hospital preparedness for chemical terrorism in a major US city: 1996-2000.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E; Pesik, Nicki; Twum-Danso, Nana A Y

    2003-01-01

    The [US] Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Act (the WMD Act of 1996) heralded a new wave of spending by the federal government on counter-terrorism efforts. Between 1996 and 2000, the United States of America (US) federal government allocated large sums of funding to the States for bioterrorism preparedness. Distribution of these funds between institutions involved in first-responder care (e.g., fire and safety departments) and hospitals was uneven. It is unknown whether these additional funds had an impact on the level of hospital preparedness for managing mass casualties involving hazardous materials at the local level, including potential terrorist attacks with chemical agents. (1) To compare 1996 and 2000 measures of preparedness among hospitals of a major US metropolitan area for dealing with hazardous material casualties, including terrorism that involved the use of weapons of mass destruction; and (2) To provide guidance for the improvement of emergency preparedness and response in US hospitals. In July 1996 and again in July 2000,21 hospitals in one major US city were surveyed by questionnaire. A survey was used to assess the amounts of antidote stocks held available for treatment of casualties caused by toxic chemical agents and institutional response capabilities including the number of showers for decontaminating patients, the level of worker protection, and the number of staff trained to decontaminate patients. Hospital preparedness for treating and decontaminating patients exposed to toxic chemical agents was inadequate in 1996 and in 2000. From 1996 to 2000, there was no statistically significant change in the lack of hospital preparedness for stocking of nerve agent and cyanide antidotes. Capacity for decontamination of patients, which included appropriate hazardous material infrastructure and trained staff, generally was unimproved from 1996 to 2000 with the exception of an increase of nearly 30% in hospitals with

  19. Social Capital and Disaster Preparedness Among Low Income Mexican Americans in a Disaster Prone Area

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Lee, MinJae; Chen, Zhongxue; Raja, Sartaj Alam; Pope, Jennifer; Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Examination of social capital and its relationship to disaster preparedness has grown in prominence partially due to world-wide need to effectively respond to terrorist attacks, viral epidemics, or natural disasters. Recent studies suggested that social capital may be related to a community’s ability to plan for and respond to such disasters. Few studies, however, have examined social capital constructs among low income populations living in disaster prone areas and accounted for the influence of social capital at the individual and community level. We examined social capital as measured by perceived fairness, perceived civic trust, perceived reciprocity and group membership. We undertook a multistage random cluster survey in three coastal counties in Texas (U.S.) noted for their high levels of poverty. Individuals from 3088 households provided data on social capital, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and self-reported level of preparedness for a hurricane. We used multivariable logistic regression to test potential associations between social capital measures and disaster preparedness. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, education, employment, household income, acculturation, self-reported health, special needs persons in household, household size, and distance to the shore we found a higher prevalence of preparedness among individuals who reported the highest perception of fairness [AOR=3.12, 95% CI: (1.86, 5.21)] compared to those individuals who reported lowest perceptions of fairness. We also found a higher prevalence of preparedness [AOR= 2.06; 95% CI: (1.17, 3.62)] among individuals who reported highest perceptions of trust compared to individuals who reported lowest perceptions of trust. Perceived reciprocity and group membership were not associated with preparedness. These results extend previous findings on social capital and disaster preparedness and further characterize social capital’s presence among a low

  20. Social capital and disaster preparedness among low income Mexican Americans in a disaster prone area.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Belinda M; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Lee, Minjae; Chen, Zhongxue; Alam, Sartaj R; Pope, Jennifer; Adams, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Examination of social capital and its relationship to disaster preparedness has grown in prominence partially due to world-wide need to effectively respond to terrorist attacks, viral epidemics, or natural disasters. Recent studies suggested that social capital may be related to a community's ability to plan for and respond to such disasters. Few studies, however, have examined social capital constructs among low income populations living in disaster prone areas and accounted for the influence of social capital at the individual and community level. We examined social capital as measured by perceived fairness, perceived civic trust, perceived reciprocity and group membership. We undertook a multistage random cluster survey in three coastal counties in Texas (U.S.) noted for their high levels of poverty. Individuals from 3088 households provided data on social capital, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and self-reported level of preparedness for a hurricane. We used multivariable logistic regression to test potential associations between social capital measures and disaster preparedness. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, education, employment, household income, acculturation, self-reported health, special needs persons in household, household size, and distance to the shore we found a higher prevalence of preparedness among individuals who reported the highest perception of fairness [AOR = 3.12, 95% CI: (1.86, 5.21)] compared to those individuals who reported lowest perceptions of fairness. We also found a higher prevalence of preparedness [AOR = 2.06; 95% CI: (1.17, 3.62)] among individuals who reported highest perceptions of trust compared to individuals who reported lowest perceptions of trust. Perceived reciprocity and group membership were not associated with preparedness. These results extend previous findings on social capital and disaster preparedness and further characterize social capital's presence among a low

  1. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  2. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  3. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  4. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  5. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  6. DNA methylation-associated colonic mucosal immune and defense responses in treatment-naïve pediatric ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Harris, R Alan; Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Mir, Sabina A V; Frank, Eibe; Szigeti, Reka; Kaplan, Jess L; Bronsky, Jiri; Opekun, Antone; Ferry, George D; Winter, Harland; Kellermayer, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are emerging globally, indicating that environmental factors may be important in their pathogenesis. Colonic mucosal epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, can occur in response to the environment and have been implicated in IBD pathology. However, mucosal DNA methylation has not been examined in treatment-naïve patients. We studied DNA methylation in untreated, left sided colonic biopsy specimens using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. We analyzed 22 control (C) patients, 15 untreated Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and 9 untreated ulcerative colitis (UC) patients from two cohorts. Samples obtained at the time of clinical remission from two of the treatment-naïve UC patients were also included into the analysis. UC-specific gene expression was interrogated in a subset of adjacent samples (5 C and 5 UC) using the Affymetrix GeneChip PrimeView Human Gene Expression Arrays. Only treatment-naïve UC separated from control. One-hundred-and-twenty genes with significant expression change in UC (> 2-fold, P<0.05) were associated with differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Epigenetically associated gene expression changes (including gene expression changes in the IFITM1, ITGB2, S100A9, SLPI, SAA1, and STAT3 genes) were linked to colonic mucosal immune and defense responses. These findings underscore the relationship between epigenetic changes and inflammation in pediatric treatment-naïve UC and may have potential etiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic relevance for IBD.

  7. Neutrophil antimicrobial defense against Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by phagolysosomal but not extracellular trap-associated cathelicidin

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Naja J.; Schmaler, Mathias; Kristian, Sascha A.; Radek, Katherine A.; Gallo, Richard L.; Nizet, Victor; Peschel, Andreas; Landmann, Regine

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils kill invading pathogens by AMPs, including cathelicidins, ROS, and NETs. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus exhibits enhanced resistance to neutrophil AMPs, including the murine cathelicidin CRAMP, in part, as a result of alanylation of teichoic acids by the dlt operon. In this study, we took advantage of the hypersusceptible phenotype of S. aureus ΔdltA against cationic AMPs to study the impact of the murine cathelicidin CRAMP on staphylococcal killing and to identify its key site of action in murine neutrophils. We demonstrate that CRAMP remained intracellular during PMN exudation from blood and was secreted upon PMA stimulation. We show first evidence that CRAMP was recruited to phagolysosomes in infected neutrophils and exhibited intracellular activity against S. aureus. Later in infection, neutrophils produced NETs, and immunofluorescence revealed association of CRAMP with S. aureus in NETs, which similarly killed S. aureus wt and ΔdltA, indicating that CRAMP activity was reduced when associated with NETs. Indeed, the presence of DNA reduced the antimicrobial activity of CRAMP, and CRAMP localization in response to S. aureus was independent of the NADPH oxidase, whereas killing was partially dependent on a functional NADPH oxidase. Our study indicates that neutrophils use CRAMP in a timed and locally coordinated manner in defense against S. aureus. PMID:19638500

  8. Preparedness and response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R C; Lightfoot, N F

    2001-08-01

    As we enter the 21st century the threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism (so called asymmetric threats) appear to be more real than ever before. Historical evidence suggests that biological weapons have been used, with varying degrees of success, for many centuries. Despite the international agreements to ban such weapons, namely the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, there is no effective international mechanism for challenging either the development of biological weapons or their use. Advances in technology and the rise of fundamentalist terror groups combine to present a significant threat to western democracies. A timely and definitive response to this threat will require co-operation between governments on a scale never seen before. There is a need for proper planning, good communication between various health, home office, defence and intelligence agencies and sufficient financial support for a realistic state of preparedness. The Department of Health has produced guidelines for responding to real or suspected incidents and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) has produced detailed protocols to inform the actions required by microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control. These protocols will be published on the Department of Health and PHLS web sites.

  9. TAP CBRN preparedness: knowledge, training and networks.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, Irene; de Cock, Johan S; Bierens, Joost J L M; Christiaanse, Jan C

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this targeted agenda program (TAP) was the establishment of an international network that would be able to advise on how to improve education and training for chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN)) responders. By combining the members of the TAP group, the CBRN Task Force of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) and the European network of the Hesculaep Group, an enthusiastic and determined group has been established to achieve the defined goal. It was acknowledged that the bottlenecks for education and training for CBRN responders are mainly awareness and preparedness. For this reason, even basic education and training on CBRN is lacking. It was advised that the focus for the future should be on the development of internationally standardized protocols and standards. The face-to-face discussions of the TAP will be continued at future Hesculaep expert meetings. The intention is that during the 16WCDEM, the achievements of the established network will be presented.

  10. Hawaii veterinarians' bioterrorism preparedness needs assessment survey.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alan R; Nekorchuk, Dawn M; Holck, Peter S; Hendrickson, Lisa A; Imrie, Allison A; Effler, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the objective bioterrorism-related knowledge base and the perceived response readiness of veterinarians in Hawaii to a bioterrorism event, and also to identify variables associated with knowledge-based test performance. An anonymous survey instrument was mailed to all licensed veterinarians residing in Hawaii (N = 229) up to three times during June and July 2004, using numeric identifiers to track non-respondents. The response rate for deliverable surveys was 59% (125 of 212). Only 12% (15 of 123) of respondents reported having had prior training on bioterrorism. Forty-four percent (55 of 125) reported being able to identify a bioterrorism event in animal populations; however, only 17% (21 of 125) felt able to recognize a bioterrorism event in human populations. Only 16% (20 of 123) felt they were able to respond effectively to a bioterrorist attack. Over 90% (106 of 116) expressed their willingness to provide assistance to the state in its response to a bioterrorist event. Veterinarians scored a mean of 70% correct (5.6 out of 8 questions) on the objective knowledge-based questions. Additional bioterrorism preparedness training should be made available, both in the form of continuing educational offerings for practicing veterinarians and as a component of the curriculum in veterinary schools.

  11. Ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients' preference of treatment modality independent of psychological distress in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Katsoudas, Spiros; Voudiclari, Sonia

    2010-03-24

    Several parameters mediate the selection of treatment modality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The nephrology community suggests that patient preference should be the prime determinant of modality choice. We aimed to test whether ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients' treatment modality preferences, independent of psychological distress. In 58 eligible ESRD patients who had themselves chosen their treatment modality, we administered the Symptom Distress Checklist-90-R and the Defense Style Questionnaire. Thirty-seven patients (53.4%) had chosen hemodialysis and 21 (46.6%) peritoneal dialysis. Patients who preferred peritoneal dialysis were younger (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.804-0.988), had received more education (OR, 8.84; 95% CI: 1.301-60.161), and were twice as likely to adopt an adaptive defense style as compared to patients who preferred hemodialysis (57.1% vs 27.0%, respectively; P < 0.033). On the contrary, the latter were more likely to adopt an image-distorting defense style (35.1% vs 14.3%; P = 0.038) and passive-aggressive defenses (OR, 0.73: 95% CI: 0.504-1.006). These results were independent of psychological distress. Our findings indicate that the patient's personality should be taken into account, if we are to better define which modalities are best suited to which patients. Also, physicians should bear in mind passive-aggressive behaviors that warrant attention and intervention in patients who preferred hemodialysis.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Varroa-Specific Defense Behavior in Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Spötter, Andreas; Gupta, Pooja; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees are exposed to many damaging pathogens and parasites. The most devastating is Varroa destructor, which mainly affects the brood. A promising approach for preventing its spread is to breed Varroa-resistant honey bees. One trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behavior, which is a behavioral response of honeybee workers to brood diseases in general. Here, we report the use of an Affymetrix 44K SNP array to analyze SNPs associated with detection and uncapping of Varroa-parasitized brood by individual worker bees (Apis mellifera). For this study, 22 000 individually labeled bees were video-monitored and a sample of 122 cases and 122 controls was collected and analyzed to determine the dependence/independence of SNP genotypes from hygienic and nonhygienic behavior on a genome-wide scale. After false-discovery rate correction of the P values, 6 SNP markers had highly significant associations with the trait investigated (α < 0.01). Inspection of the genomic regions around these SNPs led to the discovery of putative candidate genes. PMID:26774061

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Varroa-Specific Defense Behavior in Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Spötter, Andreas; Gupta, Pooja; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-05-01

    Honey bees are exposed to many damaging pathogens and parasites. The most devastating is Varroa destructor, which mainly affects the brood. A promising approach for preventing its spread is to breed Varroa-resistant honey bees. One trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behavior, which is a behavioral response of honeybee workers to brood diseases in general. Here, we report the use of an Affymetrix 44K SNP array to analyze SNPs associated with detection and uncapping of Varroa-parasitized brood by individual worker bees (Apis mellifera). For this study, 22 000 individually labeled bees were video-monitored and a sample of 122 cases and 122 controls was collected and analyzed to determine the dependence/independence of SNP genotypes from hygienic and nonhygienic behavior on a genome-wide scale. After false-discovery rate correction of the P values, 6 SNP markers had highly significant associations with the trait investigated (α < 0.01). Inspection of the genomic regions around these SNPs led to the discovery of putative candidate genes.

  14. Community preparedness for emergency: a cross-sectional survey of residents in Heilongjiang of China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weilan; Hao, Yanhua; Wu, Qunhong; Ning, Ning; You, Jia; Liu, Chaojie; Jiao, Mingli; Gao, Lijun; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Sun, Hong; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Han, Xiaonan; Fang, Xin; Zhao, Xiyan; Hu, Man; Ding, Ding; Gao, Hao; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article aims to identify factors that shape the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of community residents in China's Heilongjiang province towards emergency preparedness. Findings of such a study may provide evidence to support the development of effective public risk communication strategies and education campaigns. Design A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Heilongjiang province in 2014. A stratified cluster sampling strategy was employed to select study participants. The questionnaires were administered using face-to-face interviews. 2800 questionnaires were completed, among which 2686 (95.9%) were considered valid for data analyses. A multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to identify the extent to which the independent variables were associated with emergency preparedness. Results Fewer than 5% respondents were well prepared for emergency. Over half (52%) of poorly prepared respondents did not know what to do in emergency; women (OR=1.691), higher household income (OR ranging from 1.666 to 2.117), previous experience with emergency (OR=1.552), higher levels of knowledge about emergency (OR=2.192), risk awareness (OR=1.531), self-efficacy (OR=1.796), as well as positive attitudes towards emergency preparedness (OR=2.265) were significant predictors for emergency preparedness. Neither educational attainment nor exposure to awareness-raising entered into the logic regression model as a significant predictor for emergency preparedness. Conclusions The level of emergency preparedness in Heilongjiang residents is very low, which is linked with poor knowledge and attitudes of the residents towards emergency preparedness. Future emergency awareness campaigns should be more focused and tailored to the needs of intended audience, taking into consideration of their usual source of information and knowledge in relation to emergency. PMID:26553829

  15. Distinct carbohydrate and lipid-based molecular patterns within lipopolysaccharides from Burkholderia cepacia contribute to defense-associated differential gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Madala, Ntakadzeni E; Molinaro, Antonio; Dubery, Ian A

    2012-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharides are structural components within the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPSs as microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules can trigger defense-related responses involved in MAMP-triggered immunity and basal resistance in plants, presumably from an initial perception event. LPS from Burkholderia cepacia as well as two fragments, the glycolipid, lipid A and the polysaccharide (OPS-core) chain, were used to treat Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to evaluate the eliciting activities of the individual LPS sub-domains by means of Annealing Control Primer-based Differential Display transcript profiling. Genes found to be up-regulated encode for proteins involved in signal perception and transduction, transcriptional regulation and defense - and stress responses. Furthermore, genes encoding proteins involved in chaperoning, secretion, protein-protein interactions and protein degradation were differentially expressed. It is concluded that intact LPS, as well as the two sub-components, induced the expression of a broad range of genes associated with perception and defense as well as metabolic reprogramming of cellular activities in support of immunity and basal resistance. Whilst the lipid A and OPS moieties were able to up-regulate sub-sets of defense-associated genes over the same spectrum of categories as intact LPS, the up-regulation observed with intact LPS was the more comprehensive, suggesting that the lipid A and glycan molecular patterns of the molecule act as partial agonists, but that the intact LPS structure is required for full agonist activity.

  16. Emergency preparedness of veterans and nonveterans.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Joseph F Iii

    This study examined statistical differences in levels of disaster preparedness between former members of the US Armed Forces (veterans) and civilians (nonveterans). It was hypothesized that veterans would exhibit a higher degree of disaster preparedness as compared to their nonveteran counterparts as a consequence of their training and life experience. Furthermore, if this were proven to be valid, the finding would identify this cohort as an ideal target audience for emergency and disaster preparedness education efforts. A four-page survey consisting principally of closed-ended questions about emergency preparedness was written to measure these differences. Most of the questions required respondents to rank their answers according to a five-step Likert Scale. The survey could be completed either in hard copy or online from September 2014 to January 2015. Ultimately, 113 surveys were returned for evaluation. Of those respondents, 62 were veterans and 51 were nonveterans. The responses were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance tests for statistical significance using the 95 percent confidence standard for each tested value. The results support that veterans are more prepared for domestic emergencies than nonveterans. In addition, veterans were more willing to provide leadership and direction to others in an effort to assist emergency managers in responding to domestic disasters. It is for these reasons that emergency managers should consider targeting veterans for disaster preparedness training to help ensure effective and efficient responses to emergencies.

  17. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... Hazardous Liquid and Gas Pipeline Systems. Subject: Emergency Preparedness Communications. Advisory: To... preparedness communications between pipeline operators and emergency responders. To ensure a prompt,...

  18. Proceedings of the National Study Tours on Military Preparedness (Seattle, Washington, February 22-23, 1984 and Fayetteville, North Carolina, March 14-15, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Scot; Parker, Gerald M.

    Under the general title of "Vocational Education's Role in Military Preparedness," two study tours examined existing relationships between vocational education organizations and elements of the defense establishment. Emphasis was placed on the benefits that could result from collaboration between the vocational education and military…

  19. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Abdul Karim, Norwahidah

    2017-01-01

    During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF) and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC)). Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts. PMID:28243354

  20. The 1987 defense budget

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Brookings annual analysis of the defense budget is designed to identify critical national security issues facing the country, to clarify choices that must be made in allocating resources, and to encourage informed public debate. This volume examines the Reagan administration's 1987 budget and associated multi-year plan for defense. It is also part of a long-range effort at Brookings to use dynamic campaign analysis to address more explicitly and in greater detail the full scope of force planning and defense budgeting issues.

  1. The 1988 defense budget

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Brookings annual analysis of the defense budget is designed to identify critical national security issues facing the country, to clarify choices that must be made in allocating resources, and to encourage informed public debate. Like its predecessors, this volume critically examines the Reagan administration's 1988 budget and associated multi-year plan for defense. It is part of a long-range effort at Brookings to use dynamic campaign analysis to address more explicitly and in greater detail the full scope of force planning and defense budgeting issues.

  2. Terrorism preparedness training for occupational health professionals.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Gemson, Donald H; Qureshi, Kristine; McCollum, Michael C

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess occupational health professionals' terrorism preparedness and perceptions of worksite readiness. Questionnaire data were collected at the conclusion of an educational workshop on disaster response. Participants reported increased confidence in clinical skills and the ability to avoid exposure while providing care to victims of terrorist attacks as a result of the workshop. Fewer than one third (32%) of participants reported that their employer was prepared for a bioterrorism attack, and a large percentage (75%) reported feeling unprepared to provide mental health counseling after a terrorist attack. Relatively brief training in terrorism preparedness can increase the confidence of occupational health professionals in their ability to respond to terrorism. Adequate preparedness for the broad range of potential terrorist events may require much more intensive training than is currently being provided to occupational health professionals.

  3. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV) (a...

  4. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness... participation: Disaster preparedness. The organization has a written plan, periodically rehearsed, with... of their employment orientation, in all aspects of preparedness for any disaster. The disaster...

  5. 44 CFR 208.22 - Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparedness Cooperative... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.22 Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process. (a...

  6. Cellulose-Derived Oligomers Act as Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns and Trigger Defense-Like Responses.

    PubMed

    Souza, Clarice de Azevedo; Li, Shundai; Lin, Andrew Z; Boutrot, Freddy; Grossmann, Guido; Zipfel, Cyril; Somerville, Shauna C

    2017-04-01

    The plant cell wall, often the site of initial encounters between plants and their microbial pathogens, is composed of a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin polysaccharides as well as proteins. The concept of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) was proposed to describe plant elicitors like oligogalacturonides (OGs), which can be derived by the breakdown of the pectin homogalacturon by pectinases. OGs act via many of the same signaling steps as pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to elicit defenses and provide protection against pathogens. Given both the complexity of the plant cell wall and the fact that many pathogens secrete a wide range of cell wall-degrading enzymes, we reasoned that the breakdown products of other cell wall polymers may be similarly biologically active as elicitors and may help to reinforce the perception of danger by plant cells. Our results indicate that oligomers derived from cellulose are perceived as signal molecules in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), triggering a signaling cascade that shares some similarities to responses to well-known elicitors such as chitooligomers and OGs. However, in contrast to other known PAMPs/DAMPs, cellobiose stimulates neither detectable reactive oxygen species production nor callose deposition. Confirming our idea that both PAMPs and DAMPs are likely to cooccur at infection sites, cotreatments of cellobiose with flg22 or chitooligomers led to synergistic increases in gene expression. Thus, the perception of cellulose-derived oligomers may participate in cell wall integrity surveillance and represents an additional layer of signaling following plant cell wall breakdown during cell wall remodeling or pathogen attack.

  7. Reducing losses from earthquakes through personal preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kockelman, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A prerequisite to personal preparedness is familiarity with and concern about the other hazard-reduction phases. Strengthening the structure of the home, storing water, and showing family members how to shut off utility-supply lines are only a part of personal preparedness. Equally important are other phases such as picking up children from an evacuated school, securing heavy objects at the work palce as well as in the home, and retrofitting the commuter-highway overpasses needed to reunite a family. 

  8. Undergraduate educational environment, perceived preparedness for postgraduate clinical training, and pass rate on the National Medical Licensure Examination in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Goto, Eiji; Otaki, Junji; Jacobs, Joshua; Omata, Fumio; Obara, Haruo; Shapiro, Mina; Soejima, Kumiko; Ishida, Yasushi; Ohde, Sachiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2010-05-20

    We investigated the views of newly graduating physicians on their preparedness for postgraduate clinical training, and evaluated the relationship of preparedness with the educational environment and the pass rate on the National Medical Licensure Examination (NMLE). Data were obtained from 2429 PGY-1 physicians-in-training (response rate, 36%) using a mailed cross-sectional survey. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory was used to assess the learning environment at 80 Japanese medical schools. Preparedness was assessed based on 6 clinical areas related to the Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaire. Only 17% of the physicians-in-training felt prepared in the area of general clinical skills, 29% in basic knowledge of diagnosis and management of common conditions, 48% in communication skills, 19% in skills associated with evidence-based medicine, 54% in professionalism, and 37% in basic skills required for a physical examination. There were substantial differences among the medical schools in the perceived preparedness of their graduates. Significant positive correlations were found between preparedness for all clinical areas and a better educational environment (all p < 0.01), but there were no significant associations between the pass rate on the NMLE and perceived preparedness for any clinical area, as well as pass rate and educational environment (all p > 0.05). Different educational environments among universities may be partly responsible for the differences in perceived preparedness of medical students for postgraduate clinical training. This study also highlights the poor correlation between self-assessed preparedness for practice and the NMLE.

  9. Undergraduate educational environment, perceived preparedness for postgraduate clinical training, and pass rate on the National Medical Licensure Examination in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the views of newly graduating physicians on their preparedness for postgraduate clinical training, and evaluated the relationship of preparedness with the educational environment and the pass rate on the National Medical Licensure Examination (NMLE). Methods Data were obtained from 2429 PGY-1 physicians-in-training (response rate, 36%) using a mailed cross-sectional survey. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory was used to assess the learning environment at 80 Japanese medical schools. Preparedness was assessed based on 6 clinical areas related to the Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaire. Results Only 17% of the physicians-in-training felt prepared in the area of general clinical skills, 29% in basic knowledge of diagnosis and management of common conditions, 48% in communication skills, 19% in skills associated with evidence-based medicine, 54% in professionalism, and 37% in basic skills required for a physical examination. There were substantial differences among the medical schools in the perceived preparedness of their graduates. Significant positive correlations were found between preparedness for all clinical areas and a better educational environment (all p < 0.01), but there were no significant associations between the pass rate on the NMLE and perceived preparedness for any clinical area, as well as pass rate and educational environment (all p > 0.05). Conclusion Different educational environments among universities may be partly responsible for the differences in perceived preparedness of medical students for postgraduate clinical training. This study also highlights the poor correlation between self-assessed preparedness for practice and the NMLE. PMID:20487536

  10. Developing the academic institution's role in response to bioterrorism: the Iowa Center for Public Health Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Atchison, Christopher G; Uden-Holman, Tanya; Greene, Barry R; Prybil, Lawrence D

    2003-01-01

    The terrorist acts during the fall of 2001 triggered renewed concern about the capacity of the nation's public health system to deal with crisis. A critical element of the response ability of the public health system is a prepared workforce. Based on a pre-existing concern about emerging infectious disease, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), working with the Association of Schools of Public Health, had established a network of university-based Centers for Public Health Preparedness. The events of September 11 accelerated, expanded, and focused this effort. This article discusses this national program, details the activities of the based Center for Public Health Preparedness located at the University of Iowa, and suggests preparedness issues deserving future development.

  11. Hospitals respond to water loss during the Midwest floods of 1993: preparedness and improvisation.

    PubMed

    Peters, M S

    1996-01-01

    The Midwest floods of 1993 presented multiple emergency preparedness challenges to the six metropolitan medical centers in Des Moines, Iowa. As floodwaters overcame the Des Moines Water Treatment Plant, medical centers were faced with the task of responding to imminent water loss and its associated impact on patient care services and facility operations. Many clinical services were cancelled or diverted to alternate facilities. Ancillary resources were identified and implemented to maintain essential operations. Through effective emergency preparedness and creative improvisation, medical centers were able to overcome the initial crisis, sustain primary services, and ensure continued quality patient care. The article describes how sudden and prolonged water loss affected Des Moines hospitals. It also discusses aspects of hospital emergency preparedness that contributed to successful response.

  12. Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

  13. Learning Environment, Preparedness and Satisfaction in Osteopathy in Europe: The PreSS Study

    PubMed Central

    Luciani, Emanuele; van Dun, Patrick L. S.; Esteves, Jorge Eduardo; Lunghi, Christian; Petracca, Marco; Papa, Liria; Merdy, Olivier; Jäkel, Anne; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective 1) to assess the preparedness to practice and satisfaction in learning environment amongst new graduates from European osteopathic institutions; 2) to compare the results of preparedness to practice and satisfaction in learning environment between and within countries where osteopathy is regulated and where regulation is still to be achieved; 3) to identify possible correlations between learning environment and preparedness to practice. Method Osteopathic education providers of full-time education located in Europe were enrolled, and their final year students were contacted to complete a survey. Measures used were: Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and a demographic questionnaire. Scores were compared across institutions using one-way ANOVA and generalised linear model. Results Nine European osteopathic education institutions participated in the study (4 located in Italy, 2 in the UK, 1 in France, 1 in Belgium and 1 in the Netherlands) and 243 (77%) of their final-year students completed the survey. The DREEM total score mean was 121.4 (SEM: 1.66) whilst the AAMC was 17.58 (SEM:0.35). A generalised linear model found a significant association between not-regulated countries and total score as well as subscales DREEM scores (p<0.001). Learning environment and preparedness to practice were significantly positively correlated (r=0.76; p<0.01). Discussion A perceived higher level of preparedness and satisfaction was found amongst students from osteopathic institutions located in countries without regulation compared to those located in countries where osteopathy is regulated; however, all institutions obtained a ‘more positive than negative’ result. Moreover, in general, cohorts with fewer than 20 students scored significantly higher compared to larger student cohorts. Finally, an overall positive correlation between students’ preparedness and satisfaction were found across all

  14. Emergency Preparedness: Balancing Electrical Supply and Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    Integrating technology learning goals and activities with recent experiences created by natural disasters is a valuable motivational strategy. The newfound appreciation that exists for personal emergency preparedness generates unique and sustained interest in alternative energy technologies and conservation. As described in this article, an ice…

  15. High priority preparedness research and its support.

    PubMed

    Coller-Monarez, Susan; Groseclose, Samuel L; Kurilla, Michael G; Berg, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    The US Federal Government has considerable interest in supporting research into preparedness. Because of the diverse nature of possible threats and the responsibilities of different agencies, a number of different programs have been developed. Perspectives from representatives from 3 of the leading agencies; the Department of Homeland Security, the Centers from Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institutes of Health, are described herein.

  16. Examining Preservice Teachers' Preparedness for Teaching Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter; Hudson, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government's call for another teacher education inquiry aims to investigate preservice teacher preparedness for teaching. Art education was selected for this study as the teaching of art education in primary schools occurs in less than ideal conditions and may often be avoided by generalist primary teachers (Russell-Bowie,…

  17. Introducing Emergency Preparedness in Childbirth Education Classes

    PubMed Central

    DeWald, Lauren; Fountain, Lily

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of recent natural and man-made disasters and emergency situations, pregnant women are especially vulnerable. The authors of this column encourage childbirth educators to include disaster preparedness instruction and emergency childbirth techniques in their class content. PMID:17322945

  18. Emergency Health Preparedness: Expectations for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelman, Jack L.

    Specific issues relevant to the emergency health preparedness of schools and the key roles and expectations applicable to teachers are outlined. It is noted that, while issues of legal liability relevant to teachers are complex, teachers are expected to: (1) anticipate possible risk or harm involved in activities; (2) give adequate warning of…

  19. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  20. Meeting the Standards? Exploring Preparedness for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swabey, Karen; Castleton, Geraldine; Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the perceptions of pre-service and beginning health and physical education (HPE) teachers in relation to their preparedness for teaching. A questionnaire was designed to engage with teacher professional standards addressing (i), professional knowledge; (ii), professional relationships and (iii), professional practice.…

  1. Emergency Preparedness: Balancing Electrical Supply and Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    Integrating technology learning goals and activities with recent experiences created by natural disasters is a valuable motivational strategy. The newfound appreciation that exists for personal emergency preparedness generates unique and sustained interest in alternative energy technologies and conservation. As described in this article, an ice…

  2. Disaster Preparedness and the Cooperative Extension Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This past decade has recorded an increase in catastrophic events that have led to dramatic changes for Americans. The wake of these disasters has resulted in many lessons being learned. These lessons have been captured by Homeland Security in the First Edition of the National Preparedness Goal. Extension is uniquely positioned to assist with…

  3. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  4. Teaching Disaster Preparedness in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Sven; Stone, Lee D.; Casey, Melinda C.; Curtis, Mary D.; Doyle, Amber L.; Earle, Brian D.; Jones, Douglas D.; Rodriguez, Philip; Schermerhorn, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme natural and human-made disasters can affect the lives of thousands of citizens. The only way we can prepare ourselves for such situations is to learn and establish basic survival strategies within our families and communities. This article explores how K-12 teachers could help educating children about disaster preparedness by utilizing…

  5. 75 FR 53563 - National Preparedness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ..., including natural disasters, cyber attacks, pandemic disease, and acts of terrorism. This year marks the fifth anniversary of Hurricane Katrina, one of the most tragic and destructive disasters in American.... My Administration has made emergency and disaster preparedness a top priority, and is dedicated to...

  6. An Enrichment of CRISPR and Other Defense-Related Features in Marine Sponge-Associated Microbial Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Hannes; Slaby, Beate M.; Jahn, Martin T.; Bayer, Kristina; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Förster, Frank; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. This study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont. PMID:27877161

  7. Transforming Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    or agency each week?” 47 By way of just one example, Madrid’s La Razon reported on September 13 , 2004, that Spain would lose U.S. bases to Portugal...public release, distribution unlimited 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...DEFENSE 7 responsibilities. The homeland security JOC envisions a layered and comprehensive defense requiring geographical and functional integra- tion. 13

  8. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  9. Perceptions of High-School Principals' Preparedness for Their Financial Resposibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoskopf, Jack E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined high-school principals' perceptions of their preparedness for their financial responsibilities. The participants were high-school principals from the state of Wisconsin. Surveys were sent to 150 high-school principals who were members of the Association of Wisconsin School Administrators (AWSA), Wisconsin's professional…

  10. Perceptions of High-School Principals' Preparedness for Their Financial Resposibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoskopf, Jack E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined high-school principals' perceptions of their preparedness for their financial responsibilities. The participants were high-school principals from the state of Wisconsin. Surveys were sent to 150 high-school principals who were members of the Association of Wisconsin School Administrators (AWSA), Wisconsin's professional…

  11. Emergency Preparedness--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagginello, Joan B.; Clark, Sandra; Compton, Linda; Davis, Catherine; Healy, Marilyn; Hoffmann, Susan; Tuck, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that school nurses provide leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and management and are a vital part of the school team that develops emergency response procedures for the school setting, using an all-hazards approach. The school nurse is a vital school…

  12. Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown. Methods We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships. Results We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness. Conclusions How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional

  13. Ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients’ preference of treatment modality independent of psychological distress in end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Katsoudas, Spiros; Voudiclari, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Several parameters mediate the selection of treatment modality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The nephrology community suggests that patient preference should be the prime determinant of modality choice. We aimed to test whether ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients’ treatment modality preferences, independent of psychological distress. In 58 eligible ESRD patients who had themselves chosen their treatment modality, we administered the Symptom Distress Checklist-90-R and the Defense Style Questionnaire. Thirty-seven patients (53.4%) had chosen hemodialysis and 21 (46.6%) peritoneal dialysis. Patients who preferred peritoneal dialysis were younger (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.804–0.988), had received more education (OR, 8.84; 95% CI: 1.301–60.161), and were twice as likely to adopt an adaptive defense style as compared to patients who preferred hemodialysis (57.1% vs 27.0%, respectively; P < 0.033). On the contrary, the latter were more likely to adopt an image-distorting defense style (35.1% vs 14.3%; P = 0.038) and passive–aggressive defenses (OR, 0.73: 95% CI: 0.504–1.006). These results were independent of psychological distress. Our findings indicate that the patient’s personality should be taken into account, if we are to better define which modalities are best suited to which patients. Also, physicians should bear in mind passive–aggressive behaviors that warrant attention and intervention in patients who preferred hemodialysis. PMID:20361063

  14. Development of a community pharmacy disaster preparedness manual.

    PubMed

    Noe, Brooke; Smith, April

    2013-01-01

    To share an independent pharmacy's experience creating a practical manual for disaster preparedness that incorporates applicable pharmacy regulations, provides a plan to prepare a community pharmacy for disasters, and addresses the pharmacy's duty to the community during disasters. A literature search was performed to determine if such a manual or a guide had been published previously. The search returned examples of expectations of hospitals during disasters, but few results were specific to community pharmacy. An Internet search for pharmacy contingency planning returned only a few checklists and descriptive reports of pharmacist involvement in past disasters. Public resources available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Environmental Protection Agency, Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Public Health, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Community Pharmacists Association, and American Pharmacists Association were explored. The Iowa State Board of Pharmacy also was contacted. Information was compiled to create a useful guide that addressed disaster planning, risk assessment, and public need during a disaster and that prioritized the needs of the pharmacy and community. Every community pharmacy should have a detailed disaster preparedness manual that is readily accessible and easy to follow. The manual created for Valley Drug focused on continuing pharmacy operations while minimizing disruptions in patient care during a disaster. Our manual included only necessary information required to prepare for, operate during, or recover from a disaster.

  15. Differences Between US and UK Adults in Stroke Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Gary A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Mackintosh, Joan E.; Gellert, Paul; Skolarus, Lesli E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Although time-dependent treatment is available, most people delay contacting emergency medical services for stroke. Given differences in the healthcare system and public health campaigns, exploring between-country differences in stroke preparedness may identify novel ways to increase acute stroke treatment. Methods— A survey was mailed to population-based samples in Ingham County, Michigan, US (n=2500), and Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (n=2500). Surveys included stroke perceptions and stroke/nonstroke scenarios to assess recognition and response to stroke. Between-country differences and associations with stroke preparedness were examined using t tests and linear mixed models. Results— Overall response rate was 27.4%. The mean age of participants was 55 years, and 58% were female. US participants were better in recognizing stroke (70% versus 63%, d=0.27) and were more likely to call emergency medical services (55% versus 52%, d=0.11). After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, US participants remained more likely to recognize stroke but were not more likely to respond appropriately. A greater belief that medical treatment can help with stroke and understanding of stroke was associated with improved stroke recognition and response. Conclusions— Overall, stroke recognition and response were moderate. US participants were modestly better at recognizing stroke, although there was little difference in response to stroke. Future stroke awareness interventions could focus more on stroke outcome expectations and developing a greater understanding of stroke among the public. PMID:26419968

  16. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs and birth preparedness practices among women in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kabakyenga, Jerome K; Östergren, Per-Olof; Turyakira, Eleanor; Pettersson, Karen O

    2011-11-16

    Improving knowledge of obstetric danger signs and promoting birth preparedness practices are strategies aimed at enhancing utilization of skilled care in low-income countries. The aim of the study was to explore the association between knowledge of obstetric danger signs and birth preparedness among recently delivered women in south-western Uganda. The study included 764 recently delivered women from 112 villages in Mbarara district. Community survey methods were used and 764 recently delivered women from 112 villages in Mbarara district were included in study. Interviewer administered questionnaire were used to collect data. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between knowledge of key danger signs and birth preparedness. Fifty two percent of women knew at least one key danger sign during pregnancy, 72% during delivery and 72% during postpartum. Only 19% had knowledge of 3 or more key danger signs during the three periods. Of the four birth preparedness practices; 91% had saved money, 71% had bought birth materials, 61% identified a health professional and 61% identified means of transport. Overall 35% of the respondents were birth prepared. The relationship between knowledge of at least one key danger sign during pregnancy or during postpartum and birth preparedness showed statistical significance which persisted after adjusting for probable confounders (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6) and (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0) respectively. Young age and high levels of education had synergistic effect on the relationship between knowledge and birth preparedness. The associations between knowledge of at least one key danger sign during childbirth or knowledge that prolonged labour was a key danger sign and birth preparedness were not statistically significant. The prevalence of recently delivered women who had knowledge of key danger signs or those who were birth prepared was very low. Since the majority of women attend antenatal care sessions, the

  17. A systematic approach to very important person preparedness for a trauma center.

    PubMed

    Bulson, Julie; Mattice, Connie; Bulson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals across the United States are more involved in disaster/rapid response planning than ever. This collaboration is often driven by continuing federal and state preparedness and all-hazards planning efforts that provide cooperative agreement and/or grant support. These efforts currently include programs administered by the US assistant secretary for preparedness and response, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Department of Defense, and the US Department of Homeland Security. Beyond legislated support or mandates, key emergency management regulations governing hospital-specific disaster planning and response activities are required of hospitals by The Joint Commission, the largest national hospital accrediting body. Despite this ongoing, heightened awareness and inclusion of health care in local and regional emergency response planning, there is 1 partnership to yet strengthen: the relationship between community trauma centers and US Secret Service staff responsible for White House travel and health care contingency plans. One Michigan hospital system designed a program that has made preevent communications and preparedness for rapid very important person response with the Secret Service as important as other local all-hazards planning; the evolution of this partnership is the focus of this article.

  18. Implementing a Disaster Preparedness Curriculum for Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Edward H; Wanner, Gregory K; Berg, Dale; Berg, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    Training in disaster medicine and preparedness is minimal or absent in the curricula of many medical schools in the United States. Despite a 2003 joint recommendation by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, few medical schools require disaster training for medical students. The challenges of including disaster training in an already rigorous medical school curriculum are significant. We evaluated medical students' experiences with mandatory disaster training during a 2-year period in a medical university setting. Disaster training has been mandatory at Thomas Jefferson University since 2002 and requires all first-year medical students to attend lectures, undergo practical skills simulation training, and participate in the hospital's interdisciplinary disaster exercise. Medical students were encouraged to complete a survey after each component of the required training. Twenty-three survey questions focused on assessing students' experiences and opinions of the training, including evaluation of the disaster exercise. Students provided ratings on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = strongly agree, 1 = strongly disagree). A total of 503 medical students participated in the disaster preparedness curriculum during the course of 2 years. Survey response rates were high for each portion of the training: lectures (91%), skills sessions (84%), and disaster exercise (100%). Students believed that disaster preparedness should remain part of the medical school curriculum (rating 4.58/5). The disaster lectures were considered valuable (rating 4.26/5) and practical skills sessions should continue to be part of the first-year curriculum (4.97/5). Students also believed that participation in the disaster exercise allowed them to better understand the difficulties faced in a real disaster situation (4.2/5). Our mandatory disaster preparedness training course was successfully integrated into the first-year curriculum >10 years ago

  19. Elicitation of resistance and associated defense responses in Trichoderma hamatum induced protection against pearl millet downy mildew pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Siddaiah, Chandra Nayaka; Satyanarayana, Niranjan Raj; Mudili, Venkataramana; Kumar Gupta, Vijai; Gurunathan, Selvakumar; Rangappa, Shobith; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum UoM 13 isolated from pearl millet roots was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress downy mildew disease. Under laboratory conditions, T. hamatum seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination and seedling vigor. T. hamatum seed treatment resulted in systemic and durable immunity against pearl millet downy mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. T. hamatum treated seedlings responded to downy mildew infection with high lignification and callose deposition. Analysis of defense enzymes showed that T. hamatum treatment significantly enhanced the activities of glucanase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase in comparison to untreated control. RT-PCR analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of the defense enzymes and PR-proteins in treated, untreated, and checks, wherein PR-1, PR-5, and cell wall defense HRGPs were significantly over expressed in treated seedlings as against their lower expression in controls. T. hamatum treatment significantly stimulated endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and significantly upregulated important SA biosynthesis gene isochorismate synthase. The results indicated that T. hamatum UoM13 treatment induces resistance corresponding to significant over expression of endogenous SA, important defense enzymes, PR-proteins, and HRGPs, suggesting that SA biosynthetic pathway is involved in pearl millet for mounting systemic immunity against downy mildew pathogen. PMID:28322224

  20. Elicitation of resistance and associated defense responses in Trichoderma hamatum induced protection against pearl millet downy mildew pathogen.

    PubMed

    Siddaiah, Chandra Nayaka; Satyanarayana, Niranjan Raj; Mudili, Venkataramana; Kumar Gupta, Vijai; Gurunathan, Selvakumar; Rangappa, Shobith; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-03-21

    Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum UoM 13 isolated from pearl millet roots was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress downy mildew disease. Under laboratory conditions, T. hamatum seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination and seedling vigor. T. hamatum seed treatment resulted in systemic and durable immunity against pearl millet downy mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. T. hamatum treated seedlings responded to downy mildew infection with high lignification and callose deposition. Analysis of defense enzymes showed that T. hamatum treatment significantly enhanced the activities of glucanase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase in comparison to untreated control. RT-PCR analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of the defense enzymes and PR-proteins in treated, untreated, and checks, wherein PR-1, PR-5, and cell wall defense HRGPs were significantly over expressed in treated seedlings as against their lower expression in controls. T. hamatum treatment significantly stimulated endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and significantly upregulated important SA biosynthesis gene isochorismate synthase. The results indicated that T. hamatum UoM13 treatment induces resistance corresponding to significant over expression of endogenous SA, important defense enzymes, PR-proteins, and HRGPs, suggesting that SA biosynthetic pathway is involved in pearl millet for mounting systemic immunity against downy mildew pathogen.

  1. State of Virtual Reality Based Disaster Preparedness and Response Training

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Edbert B.; Li, Yang; Bayram, Jamil D.; Levinson, David; Yang, Samuel; Monahan, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technologically-based approaches to disaster response training through Virtual Reality (VR) environments appears promising in its ability to bridge the gaps of other commonly established training formats. Specifically, the immersive and participatory nature of VR training offers a unique realistic quality that is not generally present in classroom-based or web-based training, yet retains considerable cost advantages over large-scale real-life exercises and other modalities and is gaining increasing acceptance. Currently, numerous government departments and agencies including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as academic institutions are exploring the unique advantages of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response. Growing implementation of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response, conducted either independently or combined with other training formats, is anticipated. This paper reviews several applications of VR-based training in the United States, and reveals advantages as well as potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the implementation of such training platform. PMID:23653102

  2. Barriers to Disaster Preparedness among Medical Special Needs Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Leslie; Vatcheva, Kristina; Castellanos, Stephanie; Reininger, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    A medical special needs (MSN) assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%), Hispanic (92.9%), aged >45 years (51%), not insured for health (59.2%), and with an MSN (33.2%). Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild) to level 4 (most severe). Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32)]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness. PMID:26389107

  3. Using social networks to recruit an HIV vaccine preparedness cohort.

    PubMed

    Valente, Thomas W; Zogg, Jennifer B; Christensen, Shawna; Richardson, Jean; Kovacs, Andrea; Operskalski, Eva

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate a social network approach to develop an adolescent cohort for HIV vaccine preparedness and investigate characteristics that influence recruitment. We summarize baseline data from a prospective cohort study that included 4 sessions over 6 months. Fifty-nine HIV-infected adolescent and adult patients of a family-based HIV clinic named significant others and indicated willingness to involve them in this study. Sixty-two adolescent and adult significant others not known to be HIV infected were enrolled. Logistic regression was used to estimate factors associated with willingness. Participants identified 624 social network members including 276 adolescents (44%). Network member's awareness of the index's HIV positivity (P < 0.01) and older age (P = 0.05) affected willingness. Respondents were less willing to invite drug-risk alters (P = 0.006). Adolescents were willing to invite more adolescents than were adults (P < 0.0001). Adolescents younger than 18 years old reported fewer sexual and drug-using risk behaviors than expected. HIV-infected patients are willing to recruit their social networks, provided concerns about disclosure of HIV status are addressed. Using social networks to identify and recruit adolescent populations is appropriate and feasible for vaccine preparedness activities, future vaccine trials, and other prevention programs, but procedures are needed to selectively identify and retain high-risk youth.

  4. Disaster management among pediatric surgeons: preparedness, training and involvement.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Nikunj K; Behar, Solomon; Nager, Alan L; Dorey, Fred; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary events in the United States (eg, September 2001, school shootings), Europe (eg, Madrid train bombings), and the Middle East have raised awareness of mass casualty events and the need for a capable disaster response. Recent natural disasters have highlighted the poor preparation and infrastructure in place to respond to mass casualty events. In response, public health policy makers and emergency planners developed plans and prepared emergency response systems. Emergency response providers include first responders, a subset of emergency professionals, including firemen, law enforcement, paramedics, who respond to the incident scene and first receivers, a set of healthcare workers who receive the disaster victims at hospital facilities. The role of pediatric surgeons in mass casualty emergency response plans remains undefined. The authors hypothesize that pediatric surgeons' training and experience will predict their willingness and ability to be activated first receivers. The objective of our study was to determine the baseline experience, preparedness, willingness, and availability of pediatric surgeons to participate as activated first receivers. After institutional review board approval, the authors conducted an anonymous online survey of members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association in 2007. The authors explored four domains in this survey: (1) demographics, (2) disaster experience and perceived preparedness, (3) attitudes regarding responsibility and willingness to participate in a disaster response, and (4) availability to participate in a disaster response. The authors performed univariate and bivariate analyses to determine significance. Finally, the authors conducted a logistic regression to determine whether experience or preparedness factors affected the respondent's availability or willingness to respond to a disaster as a first receiver The authors sent 725 invitations and received 265 (36.6 percent) completed surveys. Overall, the

  5. Quarterly report on Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 for the period ending December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Forbes, C.J.

    1993-03-01

    This is the seventh quarterly report on the progress of activities addressing safety issues associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide compounds. In the presence of oxidizing materials, such as nitrates or nitrites, ferrocyanide can be made to explode in the laboratory by heating it to high temperatures [above 285{degrees}C (545{degrees}F)]. In the mid 1950s approximately 140 metric tons of ferrocyanide were added to 24 underground high-level radioactive waste tanks. An implementation plan (Cash 1991) responding to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 (FR 1990) was issued in March 1991 describing the activities that were planned and underway to address each of the six parts of Recommendation 90-7. A revision to the original plan was transmitted to US Department of Energy by Westinghouse Hanford Company in December 1992. Milestones completed this quarter are described in this report. Contents of this report include: Introduction; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Implementation Plan Task Activities (Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation for enhanced temperature measurement, Recommendation for continuous temperature monitoring, Recommendation for cover gas monitoring, Recommendation for ferrocyanide waste characterization, Recommendation for chemical reaction studies, and Recommendation for emergency response planning); Schedules; and References. All actions recommended by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board for emergency planning by Hanford Site emergency preparedness organizations have been completed.

  6. Some ecological contexts of attitudes concerning issues of civil defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nehnevajsa, J.

    1983-03-01

    The examination of six clusters of major issues bearing public credibility and acceptance of national civil defense preparedness are examined in terms of the geo-ecological context of the residential area. They include public perception of threat, survivability, civil defense costs, the implementation of crisis relocation programs, general attitudes toward crisis relocation, and claims regarding willingness to act. The key differences among respondents from counties characterized as more and less well-to-do may be summarized as: Less well-to-do counties estimate the likelihood of war, the chances of survival both in fallout and blast shelters, the current and desirable investment in civil defense, the intention to evacuate spontaneously and relocate upon recommendation by the President, and compliance with instructions where to go at higher levels than do more well-to-do counties. On the other hand, more well-to-do counties find the target and fallout danger, likelihood of Presidential decision to relocate and the associated increment to spontaneous evacuation, and likelihood of adaptive spontaneous evacuation higher than those respondents in less well-to-do counties. Residents of high risk areas (TR-82) tend to recognize this as they perceive the target danger at higher levels than do residents of low risk areas.

  7. South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network: an emerging partner in preparedness training.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Beth; Carson, Deborah Stier; Garr, David

    2009-03-01

    The South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC AHEC) was funded in 2003 to train healthcare professionals in disaster preparedness and response. During the 5 years of funding, its Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network evolved from disaster awareness training to competency-based instruction and performance assessment. With funding from the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), a project with implications for national dissemination was developed to evaluate 2 aspects of preparedness training for community-based healthcare professionals. The SC AHEC designed disaster preparedness curricula and lesson plans, using a consensus-building technique, and then (1) distributed sample curricula and resources through the national Area Health Education Center system to assess an approach for providing preparedness training and (2) delivered a standardized preparedness curriculum to key influential thought leaders from 4 states to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the curriculum. As a result of this project, the SC AHEC recommends that preparedness training for community-based practitioners needs to be concise and professionally relevant. It should be integrated into existing healthcare professions education programs and continuing education offerings. The project also demonstrated that although AHECs may be interested and well suited to incorporate preparedness training as part of their mission, more work needs to be done if they are to assume a prominent role in disaster preparedness training.

  8. Preparedness: medical ethics versus public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Swain, Geoffrey R; Burns, Kelly A; Etkind, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Medical ethics generally applies to individual interactions between physicians and patients. Conversely, public health ethics typically applies to interactions between an agency or institution and a community or population. Four main principles underlie medical ethics: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. By contrast, public health ethical principles address issues such as interdependence, community trust, fundamentality, and justice. In large part because of the significant community-level effects of public health issues, medical ethics are suboptimal for assessing community-level public health interventions or plans-especially in the area of emergency preparedness. To be effective, as well as ethical, public health preparedness efforts must address all of the core principles of public health ethics.

  9. Emergency preparedness for home healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Shirley

    2012-06-01

    Unfortunately, disasters occur. We cannot always know the effects ahead of time, but we do know that lives can be lost, property damaged, and public health and home care agencies may not be able to provide the normal standard of care. Studies have shown that disaster preparedness content is limited in U.S. nursing programs (). Given the magnitude of recent natural disasters, such as the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in 2011, these findings are alarming. The increasing demands on healthcare providers in response to emergencies force home healthcare clinicians to identify their roles and responsibilities in emergency preparedness. This article discusses 1 model of disaster response and the role of the home healthcare provider at each stage. It further guides home healthcare nurses in creating a personal and professional plan, enabling them to understand how to minimize the impact of disasters and address the needs of their patients and those close to them.

  10. Flood Preparedness Planning: Metropolitan Phoenix Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    County Flood Control District also assists in forecasts for the Salt, Gila, and Agua Fria Rivers. The River Forecast Center (RFC) at Salt Lake City, Utah...The County Emergency Plan provides for the Sheriff’s office to be responsible for evacuation of unincorporated areas which are threatened by flooding ...Mitigation Measures. Formal County and City preparedness plans do not address individual or small grouped property losses due to floods . No provisions or

  11. Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake appropriate actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to a better understanding the factors influencing flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard areas in Zurich. The questionnaire comprised items measuring respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, kind of property owned, attachment to the property, trust in local authorities, and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but our results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main factors influencing the respondents' intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which they evaluated the information material positively and their risk awareness. Those who had never taken any interest in floods previously were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication of relevant information tailored to the needs of the target population.

  12. Preparedness for radiological emergency situations in Austria.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the Austrian system of emergency preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency situations. It demonstrates, in particular, the legal basis, the roles and competencies of the competent authorities, international and bilateral conventions on early notification of nuclear accidents, the Austrian emergency plans, the Austrian radiation monitoring system, the operated prognosis and decision support systems and the results of an estimation of possible impacts of nuclear power plant disasters on Austria.

  13. Medical and Disaster Preparedness of US Marathons.

    PubMed

    Glick, Joshua; Rixe, Jeffrey; Spurkeland, Nancy; Brady, Jodi; Silvis, Matthew; Olympia, Robert P

    2015-08-01

    Despite the events that occurred at the 2013 Boston Marathon (Boston, Massachusetts USA), there are currently no evidence-based guidelines or published data regarding medical and disaster preparedness of marathon races in the United States. Purpose To determine the current state of medical disaster preparedness of marathons in the US and to identify potential areas for improvement. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from January through May of 2014. The questionnaire was distributed to race directors of US road and trail marathons, as identified by a comprehensive internet database. One hundred twenty-three questionnaires were available for analysis (19% usable response rate). Marathon races from all major regions of the US were represented. Runner medical information was not listed on race bibs in 53% of races. Only 45% of races held group training and planning sessions prior to race day. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were immediately available on 50% of courses, and medications such as albuterol (30%), oxygen (33%), and IV fluids (34%) were available less frequently. Regarding medical emergencies, 55% of races did not have protocols for the assessment of dehydration, asthma, chest pain, syncope, or exercise-induced cramping. With regard to disaster preparedness, 50% of races did not have protocols for the management of disasters, and 21% did not provide security personnel at start/finish lines, aid stations, road crossings, and drop bag locations. Areas for improvement in the preparedness of US marathons were identified, such as including printed medical information on race bibs, increasing pre-race training and planning sessions for volunteers, ensuring the immediate availability of certain emergency equipment and medications, and developing written protocols for specific emergencies and disasters.

  14. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  15. Changing realities in school safety and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Hull, Bob

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigates new realities in emergency preparedness and safety for schools and other educational facilities in a budgetary climate where the sector is being asked to do more with fewer resources. The paper provides a guide to overcoming issues connected with staffing levels and apathy, incorporating principles of emergency management in schools, collaboration with other agencies, communications, training and exercises, and the needs of children during emergencies in order to deliver a cohesive emergency management and safety programme.

  16. Manipulation of plant defense responses by the tomato psyllid (Bactericerca cockerelli) and its associated endosymbiont Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Hansen, Allison K; Walling, Linda L; Paine, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Some plant pathogens form obligate relationships with their insect vector and are vertically transmitted via eggs analogous to insect endosymbionts. Whether insect endosymbionts manipulate plant defenses to benefit their insect host remains unclear. The tomato psyllid, Bactericerca cockerelli (Sulc), vectors the endosymbiont "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous" (Lps) during feeding on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Lps titer in psyllids varied relative to the psyllid developmental stage with younger psyllids harboring smaller Lps populations compared to older psyllids. In the present study, feeding by different life stages of B. cockerelli infected with Lps, resulted in distinct tomato transcript profiles. Feeding by young psyllid nymphs, with lower Lps levels, induced tomato genes regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) (Allene oxide synthase, Proteinase inhibitor 2, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 5, Pathogenesis-related protein 1) compared to feeding by older nymphs and adults, where higher Lps titers were found. In addition, inoculation of Lps without insect hosts suppressed accumulation of these defense transcripts. Collectively, these data suggest that the endosymbiont-like pathogen Lps manipulates plant signaling and defensive responses to benefit themselves and the success of their obligate insect vector on their host plant.

  17. An Enrichment of CRISPR and Other Defense-Related Features in Marine Sponge-Associated Microbial Metagenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Hannes; Slaby, Beate M.; Jahn, Martin T.; Bayer, Kristina; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Forster, Frank; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-11-08

    Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. Furthermore, this study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.

  18. Demography and Public Health Emergency Preparedness: Making the Connection

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The tools and techniques of population sciences are extremely relevant to the discipline of public health emergency preparedness: protecting and securing the population’s health requires information about that population. While related fields such as security studies have successfully integrated demographic tools into their research and literature, the theoretical and practical connection between the methods of demography and the practice of public health emergency preparedness is weak. This article suggests the need to further the interdisciplinary use of demography by examining the need for a systematic use of population science techniques in public health emergency preparedness. Ultimately, we demonstrate how public health emergency preparedness can incorporate demography to develop more effective preparedness plans. Important policy implications emerge: demographers and preparedness experts need to collaborate more formally in order to facilitate community resilience and mitigate the consequences of public health emergencies. PMID:20694030

  19. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters.

  20. Data for Preparedness Metrics: Legal, Economic, and Operational

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Margaret A.; Houck, Olivia C.; Miner, Kathleen; Shoaf, Kimberley

    2013-01-01

    Tracking progress toward the goal of preparedness for public health emergencies requires a foundation in evidence derived both from scientific inquiry and from preparedness officials and professionals. Proposed in this article is a conceptual model for this task from the perspective of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers. The necessary data capture the areas of responsibility of not only preparedness professionals but also legislative and executive branch officials. It meets the criteria of geographic specificity, availability in standardized and reliable measures, parameterization as quantitative values or qualitative distinction, and content validity. The technical challenges inherent in preparedness tracking are best resolved through consultation with the jurisdictions and communities whose preparedness is at issue. PMID:23903389

  1. Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DAPA Project Officer” BeCKeR, gRACe CHuNg , Associate Deputy General Counsel, Office of the Secretary of Defense – “Legal view of the Processes...FiguRes Jordan, Dr. Leland G. “Systemic Fiscal Optimism in Defense Planning.” Acquisition Review Quarterly Winter 2000: 47-62. Joyce, Michael and Bettina

  2. Predoctoral dental school curriculum for catastrophe preparedness.

    PubMed

    More, Frederick G; Phelan, Joan; Boylan, Robert; Glotzer, David; Psoter, Walter; Robbins, Miriam; Rekow, E Dianne; Alfano, Michael C

    2004-08-01

    Preparing for catastrophic events, both human-made and natural, is in the national interest and has become a priority since catastrophic events in Oklahoma City, Washington, DC, and New York City. Dentists are a large source of non-physician health manpower that could contribute to the public welfare during catastrophic events that require additional public health human resources. Dentists, by virtue of their education, understand biomedical concepts and have patient care skills that can be directly applied during a catastrophic event. Dentists also can provide training for other types of health care workers and can supervise these individuals. In this article, we propose that dentistry can make a significant contribution as part of a national response before, during, and after a catastrophic event or at the time of a public health emergency. We describe the potential collaboration among a dental school, city and state health departments, law enforcement, the military, and others to develop a curriculum in catastrophe preparedness. Then we describe one dental school's effort to build a catastrophe preparedness curriculum for our students. The competencies, goals and objectives, and sources of content for this catastrophe preparedness curriculum are described as well as suggestions for sequencing instruction.

  3. Exposure to trauma-relevant pictures is associated with tachycardia in victims who had experienced an intense peritraumatic defensive response: the tonic immobility

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rita de Cassia S.; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Fernandes Jr, Orlando; Mocaiber, Izabela; Souza, Gabriela G. L.; David, Isabel de Paula A.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2014-01-01

    Tonic immobility is an involuntary, last-ditch defensive reaction characterized by physical inactivity in a context of inescapable threat that has been described in many species, including humans. The occurrence of this defensive response is a predictor of the severity of psychiatric disorders and may be considered as an index of an intense reaction to a traumatic event. Here, we investigated whether the retrospective reports of peritraumatic tonic immobility reaction in participants exposed to a traumatic event would modify their cardiac responses to pictures related to their trauma. Using a questionnaire of life-threating events, we selected students who experienced violent crime as their most intense trauma and students who had never experienced a violent crime trauma, but experienced other traumatic events. All participants completed a questionnaire that estimated the intensity of tonic immobility during their most intense trauma. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected during exposure to pictures. Participants viewed emotional pictures (human attack with guns) and neutral pictures. These emotional stimuli were selected to be trauma-relevant to the violent crime group and non trauma-relevant to the no violent crime trauma group. Violent crime group showed a positive correlation between heart rate changes after viewing trauma-related pictures and tonic immobility scores. We observed that low tonic immobility scores were associated with bradycardia and high scores with tachycardia in response to trauma-relevant pictures. For the no violent crime group, no significant correlation was detected. These results suggest that the relevance of the stimuli and the magnitude of the defensive response during a previous trauma event were important factors triggering more intense defensive responses. PMID:25566169

  4. Exposure to trauma-relevant pictures is associated with tachycardia in victims who had experienced an intense peritraumatic defensive response: the tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rita de Cassia S; Portugal, Liana C L; Fernandes, Orlando; Mocaiber, Izabela; Souza, Gabriela G L; David, Isabel de Paula A; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G

    2014-01-01

    Tonic immobility is an involuntary, last-ditch defensive reaction characterized by physical inactivity in a context of inescapable threat that has been described in many species, including humans. The occurrence of this defensive response is a predictor of the severity of psychiatric disorders and may be considered as an index of an intense reaction to a traumatic event. Here, we investigated whether the retrospective reports of peritraumatic tonic immobility reaction in participants exposed to a traumatic event would modify their cardiac responses to pictures related to their trauma. Using a questionnaire of life-threating events, we selected students who experienced violent crime as their most intense trauma and students who had never experienced a violent crime trauma, but experienced other traumatic events. All participants completed a questionnaire that estimated the intensity of tonic immobility during their most intense trauma. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected during exposure to pictures. Participants viewed emotional pictures (human attack with guns) and neutral pictures. These emotional stimuli were selected to be trauma-relevant to the violent crime group and non trauma-relevant to the no violent crime trauma group. Violent crime group showed a positive correlation between heart rate changes after viewing trauma-related pictures and tonic immobility scores. We observed that low tonic immobility scores were associated with bradycardia and high scores with tachycardia in response to trauma-relevant pictures. For the no violent crime group, no significant correlation was detected. These results suggest that the relevance of the stimuli and the magnitude of the defensive response during a previous trauma event were important factors triggering more intense defensive responses.

  5. Revisiting public health preparedness: Incorporating social justice principles into pandemic preparedness planning for influenza.

    PubMed

    Kayman, Harvey; Ablorh-Odjidja, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Public health professionals are responsible for ensuring the health of the nation, which requires that planners for public health emergencies recognize that not including protection for underserved or marginalized communities poses a risk to the entire population. To assure the protection of these populations in the event of a pandemic outbreak, preparedness planning will benefit from the application of several principles of social justice in assuring the protection of all individuals. This article will review the history between public health and social justice, provide a brief review of pandemic preparedness planning efforts, discuss the importance of and make recommendations for the incorporation of principles of social justice in the development of pandemic preparedness plans, and highlight some of the challenges faced by public health in effectively and equitably meeting its charge to protect the nation's health.

  6. Emergency Preparedness Education for Nurses: Core Competency Familiarity Measured Utilizing an Adapted Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Georgino, Madeline M; Kress, Terri; Alexander, Sheila; Beach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to measure trauma nurse improvement in familiarity with emergency preparedness and disaster response core competencies as originally defined by the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire after a focused educational program. An adapted version of the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire was utilized to measure familiarity of nurses with core competencies pertinent to first responder capabilities. This project utilized a pre- and postsurvey descriptive design and integrated education sessions into the preexisting, mandatory "Trauma Nurse Course" at large, level I trauma center. A total of 63 nurses completed the intervention during May and September 2014 sessions. Overall, all 8 competencies demonstrated significant (P < .001; 98% confidence interval) improvements in familiarity. In conclusion, this pilot quality improvement project demonstrated a unique approach to educating nurses to be more ready and comfortable when treating victims of a disaster.

  7. Science preparedness and science response: perspectives on the dynamics of preparedness conference.

    PubMed

    Lant, Timothy; Lurie, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the scientific modeling community to meaningfully contribute to postevent response activities during public health emergencies was the direct result of a discrete set of preparedness activities as well as advances in theory and technology. Scientists and decision-makers have recognized the value of developing scientific tools (e.g. models, data sets, communities of practice) to prepare them to be able to respond quickly--in a manner similar to preparedness activities by first-responders and emergency managers. Computational models have matured in their ability to better inform response plans by modeling human behaviors and complex systems. We advocate for further development of science preparedness activities as deliberate actions taken in advance of an unpredicted event (or an event with unknown consequences) to increase the scientific tools and evidence-base available to decision makers and the whole-of-community to limit adverse outcomes.

  8. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Technical Documentation Division of the American Defense Preparedness Association (25th Annual) Held at Fort Monroe, Hampton, Virginia, 23-27 May 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-27

    belief that this could be reduced to approxi- mately 87 specifications, containing less than 30,000 pages in a very cost effective fashion . Many of the...DER’s) and designated manufacturing inspection representatives (DMIR’s) in a fashion similar to that used on commercial aircraft programs. The Federal...cancellation charges ? Paying a premium for short lead time? If it does the decision must be passed on to the Buyer. A number of conditions influence how fast

  9. Proceedings of the 1983 Spring Meeting of the Packaging, Handling and Transportability Division of the American Defense Preparedness Association Held at Port Hueneme, California on April 26-28, 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    DAVID IAMBIOITE, PIEGM4 MAGE, ADVANE BASES PIEGRAM, WEL 1045 OSD SPEAKER - COL. J.W. PATTY, tSA, DfITARY TRAFFIC MANG,1ENT C4AWND, IOTERN AIMA, OA•MN...TRANSPOREATION CEI’IFICATION - 13 . DAVID R. VoLZ, A •W%.E• DIVI-ION, ELIN AFB, FLORIDA 1630 HUSTS DEPAIP FOR H=.. 1830 PI•EPrF.IO- H= 1930 rQUET -I=- Page 1...1 117-50 LOGISTICAL SUPPORT TO ADVANCED BASES by David J. Lambiotte Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. My name is Dave Lambiotte and I am the

  10. Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.

    PubMed

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies.

  11. Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    ), Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theories were most commonly applied to influenza (H1N1 and H5N1), floods, and earthquake hazards. Studies were predominantly conducted in USA (13 studies). In Asia, where the annual number of disasters and victims exceeds those in other continents, only three studies were identified. Overall, the main constructs of HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers), EPPM (higher threat and higher efficacy), TPB (attitude and subjective norm), and the majority of the constructs utilized in Social Cognitive Theories were associated with preparedness for diverse hazards. However, while all the theories described above describe the relationships between constituent variables, with the exception of research on Social Cognitive Theories, few studies of other theories and models used path analysis to identify the interdependence relationships between the constructs described in the respective theories/models. Similarly, few identified how other mediating  variables could influence disaster and emergency preparedness.  Conclusions: The existing evidence on the application of behavioral theories and models to disaster and emergency preparedness is chiefly from developed countries. This raises issues regarding their utility in countries, particularly in Asisa and the Middle East, where cultural characteristics are very different to those prevailing in the Western countries in which theories have been developed and tested. The theories and models discussed here have been applied predominantly to disease outbreaks and natural hazards, and information on their utility as guides to preparedness for man-made hazards is lacking. Hence, future studies related to behavioral theories and models addressing preparedness need to target developing countries where disaster risk  and the consequent need for preparedness is high. A need for additional work on demonstrating the

  12. Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas

    2015-07-01

    (EPPM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theories were most commonly applied to influenza (H1N1 and H5N1), floods, and earthquake hazards. Studies were predominantly conducted in USA (13 studies). In Asia, where the annual number of disasters and victims exceeds those in other continents, only three studies were identified. Overall, the main constructs of HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers), EPPM (higher threat and higher efficacy), TPB (attitude and subjective norm), and the majority of the constructs utilized in Social Cognitive Theories were associated with preparedness for diverse hazards. However, while all the theories described above describe the relationships between constituent variables, with the exception of research on Social Cognitive Theories, few studies of other theories and models used path analysis to identify the interdependence relationships between the constructs described in the respective theories/models. Similarly, few identified how other mediating  variables could influence disaster and emergency preparedness.  The existing evidence on the application of behavioral theories and models to disaster and emergency preparedness is chiefly from developed countries. This raises issues regarding their utility in countries, particularly in Asisa and the Middle East, where cultural characteristics are very different to those prevailing in the Western countries in which theories have been developed and tested. The theories and models discussed here have been applied predominantly to disease outbreaks and natural hazards, and information on their utility as guides to preparedness for man-made hazards is lacking. Hence, future studies related to behavioral theories and models addressing preparedness need to target developing countries where disaster risk  and the consequent need for preparedness is high. A need for additional work on demonstrating the relationships of variables and constructs, including

  13. 76 FR 30491 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... President Proclamation 8679--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011 Proclamation 8680--National Safe Boating Week, 2011 Proclamation 8681--Armed Forces Day, 2011 Proclamation 8682--To Modify the Rules of...

  14. Medical students' preparedness for professional activities in early clerkships.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Josefin; Maaz, Asja; Hitzblech, Tanja; Holzhausen, Ylva; Peters, Harm

    2017-08-22

    Sufficient preparedness is important for transitions to workplace participation and learning in clinical settings. This study aims to analyse medical students' preparedness for early clerkships using a three-dimensional, socio-cognitive, theory-based model of preparedness anchored in specific professional activities and their supervision level. Medical students from a competency-based undergraduate curriculum were surveyed about preparedness for 21 professional activities and level of perceived supervision during their early clerkships via an online questionnaire. Preparedness was operationalized by the three dimensions of confidence to carry out clerkship activities, being prepared through university teaching and coping with failure by seeking support. Factors influencing preparedness and perceived stress as outcomes were analysed through step-wise regression. Professional activities carried out by the students (n = 147; 19.0%) and their supervision levels varied. While most students reported high confidence to perform the tasks, the activity-specific analysis revealed important gaps in preparation through university teaching. Students regularly searched for support in case of difficulty. One quarter of the variance of each preparedness dimension was explained by self-efficacy, supervision quality, amount of prior clerkship experience and nature of professional activities. Preparedness contributed to predicting perceived stress. The applied three-dimensional concept of preparedness and the task-specific approach provided a detailed and meaningful view on medical students' workplace participation and experiences in early clerkships.

  15. Hospital infectious disease emergency preparedness: a 2007 survey of infection control professionals.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri; Wilson, Rita; LaPointe, Sue; Russell, Barbara; Moroz, Dianne

    2009-02-01

    Hospital preparedness for infectious disease emergencies is imperative. A 40-item hospital preparedness survey was administered to Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, members. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate the relationship between hospital size and emergency preparedness in relation to various surge capacity measures. Significant findings were followed by Mann-Whitney U post hoc tests. Most hospitals have an infection control professional on their disaster committee, 24/7 infection control support, a health care worker prioritization plan for vaccine or antivirals, and nonhealth care facility surge beds but lack health care worker, laboratory, linen, and negative-pressure room surge capacity. Many hospitals participated in a disaster exercise recently and are stockpiling N95 respirators and medications. Few are stockpiling ventilators, surgical masks, or patient linens; those that are have preparedness issues, or developed policies/procedures for altered standards of care during disasters. Approximately half of all hospitals' plans include staff work incentives. The smallest hospitals (

  16. Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin (EDN/RNase 2) and the Mouse Eosinophil-Associated RNases (mEars): Expanding Roles in Promoting Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2015-01-01

    The eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN/RNase2) and its divergent orthologs, the mouse eosinophil-associated RNases (mEars), are prominent secretory proteins of eosinophilic leukocytes and are all members of the larger family of RNase A-type ribonucleases. While EDN has broad antiviral activity, targeting RNA viruses via mechanisms that may require enzymatic activity, more recent studies have elucidated how these RNases may generate host defense via roles in promoting leukocyte activation, maturation, and chemotaxis. This review provides an update on recent discoveries, and highlights the versatility of this family in promoting innate immunity. PMID:26184157

  17. Contrasting Regulation of NO and ROS in Potato Defense-Associated Metabolism in Response to Pathogens of Different Lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Our research provides new insights into how the low and steady-state levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in potato leaves are altered after the challenge with the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans or the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, with the subsequent rapid and invader-dependent modification of defense responses with opposite effects. Mainly in the avirulent (avr) P. infestans–potato system, NO well balanced with the superoxide level was tuned with a battery of SA-dependent defense genes, leading to the establishment of the hypersensitive response (HR) successfully arresting the pathogen. Relatively high levels of S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitrosothiols concentrated in the main vein of potato leaves indicated the mobile function of these compounds as a reservoir of NO bioactivity. In contrast, low-level production of NO and ROS during virulent (vr) P. infestans-potato interactions might be crucial in the delayed up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3 genes and compromised resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen. In turn, B. cinerea triggered huge NO overproduction and governed inhibition of superoxide production by blunting NADPH oxidase. Nevertheless, a relatively high level of H2O2 was found owing to the germin-like activity in cooperation with NO-mediated HR-like cell death in potato genotypes favorable to the necrotrophic pathogen. Moreover, B. cinerea not only provoked cell death, but also modulated the host redox milieu by boosting protein nitration, which attenuated SA production but not SA-dependent defense gene expression. Finally, based on obtained data the organismal cost of having machinery for HR in plant resistance to biotrophs is also discussed, while emphasizing new efforts to identify other components of the NO/ROS cell death pathway and improve plant protection against pathogens of different lifestyles. PMID:27695047

  18. Contrasting Regulation of NO and ROS in Potato Defense-Associated Metabolism in Response to Pathogens of Different Lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Our research provides new insights into how the low and steady-state levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in potato leaves are altered after the challenge with the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans or the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, with the subsequent rapid and invader-dependent modification of defense responses with opposite effects. Mainly in the avirulent (avr) P. infestans-potato system, NO well balanced with the superoxide level was tuned with a battery of SA-dependent defense genes, leading to the establishment of the hypersensitive response (HR) successfully arresting the pathogen. Relatively high levels of S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitrosothiols concentrated in the main vein of potato leaves indicated the mobile function of these compounds as a reservoir of NO bioactivity. In contrast, low-level production of NO and ROS during virulent (vr) P. infestans-potato interactions might be crucial in the delayed up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3 genes and compromised resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen. In turn, B. cinerea triggered huge NO overproduction and governed inhibition of superoxide production by blunting NADPH oxidase. Nevertheless, a relatively high level of H2O2 was found owing to the germin-like activity in cooperation with NO-mediated HR-like cell death in potato genotypes favorable to the necrotrophic pathogen. Moreover, B. cinerea not only provoked cell death, but also modulated the host redox milieu by boosting protein nitration, which attenuated SA production but not SA-dependent defense gene expression. Finally, based on obtained data the organismal cost of having machinery for HR in plant resistance to biotrophs is also discussed, while emphasizing new efforts to identify other components of the NO/ROS cell death pathway and improve plant protection against pathogens of different lifestyles.

  19. Dealing with Natural Disasters: Preparedness versus Post-Event Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitar, N.

    2015-12-01

    Management or mitigation of natural disasters is comprised of two distinct elements: disaster preparedness and disaster response. Fundamentally disasters fall into two categories: 1) those whose timing can be predicted and evaluated in advance, such as hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, or even sea level rise; and 2) those that can be anticipated based on analysis, but their exact timing is unknown, such as earthquakes and landslides. Consequently, the type of response and options available for scientific and engineering consultation are fundamentally different. The common aspects of all natural disasters is that there is evidence of past events either historical or geologic, or both. Thus, given past evidence, scientists and engineers have an opportunity to recommend and guide development and implementation of long term or permanent mitigation measures, such as improving the resiliency of the infrastructure and emergency preparedness. However, the appropriate mitigation measures are very much a function of the type of event. Severe atmospheric events, such as hurricanes, typically can be predicted several days in advance and scientists and engineers have a role in guiding preparation of specific additional, temporary, mitigation measures and selective evacuation, as appropriate. In contrast, while earthquake potential of a given region may be well recognized, the actual timing of the event is an unknown and, consequently, the primary defense is in developing sufficiently resilient infrastructure which can be enhanced with early warning systems. Similarly, the type of damage caused by flooding, e.g. hurricane and tsunami, is significantly different from the type of damage caused by an earthquake in that flooding damage is pervasive affecting large contiguous areas wiping out all infrastructure whereas earthquake or landslide damage tends to be clustered with many elements of infrastructure remaining fully or somewhat operable. This distinction is very important when it

  20. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response; Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice... Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Department...

  1. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    Korea Defense Industry Association (KDIA). (2007). Annual management review of Korean Defense Industry. Seoul: Author. Lee, D.O. (2000...COMPETITIVENESS OF THE KOREAN NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRY Published: 23 April 2008 by Dr. Dae Ok Lee 5th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the...International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  2. A ripening associated peroxidase from papaya having a role in defense and lignification: heterologous expression and in-silico and in-vitro experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-25

    Fruit ripening associated full length cDNA of a peroxidase from papaya was cloned and heterologously expressed. The expressed peroxidase was activated by in-vitro re-folding in the presence of hemin and calcium. The purified recombinant peroxidase exhibited broad substrate affinity in the order of o-dianisidine>pyrogallol>guaiacol and was found to be a homotetramer of 155kDa with each subunit having a size of 38kDa. The basis of the distinctive preferences for various substrates was investigated through in-silico molecular modeling approaches. Thus, when the modeled papaya peroxidase-heme complex was docked with these substrates, the in-silico binding efficiency was found to be in agreement with those of wet lab results with the involvement of Arg37, Phe40, His41, Pro137, Asn138, His139, His167, and Phe239 as the common interacting residues in all the cases. However, the binding of the different substrates were found to be associated with conformational changes in the peroxidase. Thus, in the case of o-dianisidine (the most efficient substrate), the protein was folded in the most compact fashion when compared to guaiacol (the least efficient substrate). Protein function annotation analyses revealed that the papaya peroxidase may have biological roles in oxidation-reduction processes, stresses, defense responses etc. In order to further validate its role in lignifications, the papaya peroxidase was compared with a lignin biosynthetic peroxidase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume. Thus, based on 3D structure superimposition and docking, both peroxidases exhibited a great extent of similarity suggesting the papaya peroxidase having a role in lignification (defense response) too. The predicted functions of papaya peroxidase in defense response and lignification were further validated experimentally using qRT-PCR analyses and measurement of oxidation of coniferyl alcohol.

  3. Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait Rejection Sensitivity (RS)—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and Rejection Detection Capability (RDC) on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1) and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2). We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1) and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP), but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170) toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective. PMID:26483750

  4. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Associated with Defense Responses to Phytophthora capsici in Pepper Line "PI 201234".

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingyong; Liu, Xiaodan; Guo, Jinju; Liu, Chen; Fu, Nan; Shen, Huolin

    2015-05-18

    Phytophthora capsici (Leonian), classified as an oomycete, seriously threatens the production of pepper (Capsicum annuum). Current understanding of the defense responses in pepper to P. capsici is limited. In this study, RNA-sequencing analysis was utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in the resistant line "PI 201234", with 1220 differentially expressed genes detected. Of those genes, 480 were up-regulated and 740 were down-regulated, with 211 candidate genes found to be involved in defense responses based on the gene annotations. Furthermore, the expression patterns of 12 candidate genes were further validated via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). These genes were found to be significantly up-regulated at different time points post-inoculation (6 hpi, 24 hpi, and 5 dpi) in the resistant line "PI 201234" and susceptible line "Qiemen". Seven genes were found to be involved in cell wall modification, phytoalexin biosynthesis, symptom development, and phytohormone signaling pathways, thus possibly playing important roles in combating exogenous pathogens. The genes identified herein will provide a basis for further gene cloning and functional verification studies and will aid in an understanding of the regulatory mechanism of pepper resistance to P. capsici.

  5. Coenzyme Q regulates the expression of essential genes of the pathogen- and xenobiotic-associated defense pathway in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is necessary for mitochondrial energy production and modulates the expression of genes that are important for inflammatory processes, growth and detoxification reactions. A cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses (cSADDs) pathway has been recently identified in C. elegans. The down-regulation of the components of the cSADDs pathway initiates an aversion behavior of the nematode. Here we hypothesized that CoQ regulates genes of the cSADDs pathway. To verify this we generated CoQ-deficient worms (“CoQ-free”) and performed whole-genome expression profiling. We found about 30% (120 genes) of the cSADDs pathway genes were differentially regulated under CoQ-deficient condition. Remarkably, 83% of these genes were down-regulated. The majority of the CoQ-sensitive cSADDs pathway genes encode for proteins involved in larval development (enrichment score (ES) = 38.0, p = 5.0E−37), aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, proteasome function (ES 8.2, p = 5.9E−31) and mitochondria function (ES 3.4, p = 1.7E−5). 67% (80 genes) of these genes are categorized as lethal. Thus it is shown for the first time that CoQ regulates a substantial number of essential genes that function in the evolutionary conserved cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses pathway in C. elegans. PMID:26566301

  6. An Enrichment of CRISPR and Other Defense-Related Features in Marine Sponge-Associated Microbial Metagenomes

    DOE PAGES

    Horn, Hannes; Slaby, Beate M.; Jahn, Martin T.; ...

    2016-11-08

    Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defensemore » is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. Furthermore, this study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.« less

  7. Perceptions of preparedness for the first medical clerkship: a systematic review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Surmon, Laura; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Hu, Wendy

    2016-03-12

    The transition from university-based to clerkship-based education can be challenging. Medical schools have introduced strategies to ease the transition, but there has been no systematic review synthesizing the evidence on the perceptions of preparedness of medical students for their first clerkship to support these interventions. This study therefore aimed to (1) identify and synthesize the published evidence on medical students' perceptions of preparedness for their first clerkship, and (2) identify factors that may impact on preparedness for clerkship, to better inform interventions aimed at easing this transition. Electronic databases (Medline, Journals@Ovid, CINAHL, ERIC, Web of Science, Embase) were searched without restriction and secondary searching of reference lists of included studies was also conducted. Included studies used quantitative or qualitative methodologies, involved medical students and addressed student/supervisor perceptions of preparedness for first clerkship. The first clerkship was defined as the first truly immersive educational experience during which the majority of learning was vocational and self-directed, as per the MeSH term 'clinical clerkship' and associated definition. Using an inductive thematic synthesis approach, 2 researchers independently extracted data, coded text (from results and discussion sections), and identified themes related to preparedness. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion and findings were then narratively synthesized. The initial search identified 1214 papers. After removing duplicates and assessing abstracts and full articles against the inclusion criteria, 8 articles were included in the review. In general, the body of evidence was of sound methodological quality. Ten themes relating to perceptions of preparedness of medical students for their first clerkship were identified; competence, disconnection, links to the future, uncertainty, part of the team, time/workload, adjustment, curriculum, prior

  8. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Osogbo Metropolis, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun; Sabageh, Donatus; Adejimi, Adebola Afolake

    2017-01-01

    High maternal mortality is a major problem in Nigeria. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness will ensure that women can have professional delivery thus reducing obstetric complications. This study assessed the birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Osogbo metropolis, a south western community in Nigeria. A community based descriptive cross sectional survey was used. A total of 180 women were selected using multistage sampling technique. Pretested semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaires were used to elicit information about previous obstetric history, knowledge of the danger signs of pregnancy and level of birth preparedness. Composite score and mean were computed. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. P-value was set at < 0.05. The mean age was 26.11 ± 3.63 years. A total of 51.1% were carrying their 2(nd) or 3(rd)pregnancies. A total of 70.8% were aware of danger signs in pregnancy and the commonest danger sign mentioned was bleeding per vagina. In all, 82.1% were well prepared for birth. Being in the younger age group (p = 0.026), being more educated (p < 0.0001) and being aware of danger signs in pregnancy (p < 0.0001) was more significantly associated with being well prepared. The respondents were well prepared for birth with the younger women, educated ones and those knowledgeable of danger signs being better prepared. Continuous education about the Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness should be sustained in order to maintain and improve women's preparedness.

  9. The World Health Organization Network for Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance (REMPAN).

    PubMed Central

    Souchkevitch, G

    1997-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a system of collaborating centers known as the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN) to promote radiation emergency medical preparedness, assistance, and advice to countries in cases of overexposure of populations from any source of radiation. This network consists of 13 specialized institutions located in 10 countries. Within the REMPAN there are three separate but linked activities. The first is aimed at strengthening radiation emergency medical preparedness and assistance to treat and monitor acutely exposed individuals. The second activity is directed toward improving public health advice to mitigate long-term effects of exposure to low and protracted doses that might accrue in populations living in the affected territories. This involves giving advice on protecting public health, e.g., iodine prophylaxis, psychosocial risks associated with countermeasures, and public information strategies. In addition, the REMPAN develops activities aimed at improving long-term follow-up studies and preparedness for epidemiologic investigations in territories contaminated by radionuclides from a nuclear accident. The WHO's response in a radiation emergency depends on the type of accident and its time phase. This includes a wide range of actions from studying the situation to providing medical and public health assistance through the network of collaborating centers and relevant institutions within the REMPAN. The process of creating a reliable international system for radiation emergency medical preparedness and assistance has not yet been completed. Deficiencies in this system are outlined in this paper to attract the attention of specialists in the field of radiation protection and potential donors of the WHO program. PMID:9467087

  10. Self-reported preparedness of New Zealand acute care providers to mass emergencies before the Canterbury Earthquakes: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    Disasters occur more frequently. Acute care providers are the first to respond to mass emergencies from the healthcare sector. The preparedness of acute care providers in New Zealand to respond to mass emergencies has not been previously studied. To assess the self-reported training and experience of New Zealand acute care providers to respond to mass emergencies and the factors associated with strong preparedness. A cross-sectional national survey of 1500 acute care providers in New Zealand carried out between 2009 and 2010. The survey assessed experience, training and self-reported preparedness. It also determined the factors associated with strong perceived preparedness. The response rate to this survey was 60.7%. Nurses had a higher response rate than doctors or paramedics. Only 29.2% of acute care providers reported responding to a previous mass emergency event. There were 53.5% of acute care providers who reported having formal training in how to deal with mass emergencies, whereas 58.1% of participants reported that they were aware of their role during a healthcare mass emergency response. The factors associated with self-reported strong preparedness to deal with mass emergencies included: being a paramedic, previous training, participation in a drill, willingness to report to work during an infection or man-made emergency, ability to triage and general awareness of the role during a mass emergency. Almost half of New Zealand acute healthcare providers have no training in dealing with mass emergency events. Training and general awareness of the role during a mass emergency response were the main factors associated with strong self-reported preparedness of acute care providers. The apparent efficacy of training allied to lack of availability means that it should be a national priority. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. Improving Latino disaster preparedness using social networks.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David P; Glik, Deborah; Gonzalez, Lupe; Maranon, Richard; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M

    2009-12-01

    Culturally targeted, informal social networking approaches to improving disaster preparedness have not been empirically tested. In partnership with community health promoters and the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, this study tested a disaster preparedness program for Latino households. This study had a community-based, randomized, longitudinal cohort design with two groups and was conducted during February-October 2007. Assessments were made at baseline and 3 months. Analyses were carried out January-October 2008. Community-based study of 231 Latinos living in Los Angeles County. Participants were randomly assigned to attending platicas (small-group discussions led by a health promoter/promotora de salud) or receiving "media" (a culturally tailored mailer). A total of 187 (81.0%) completed the 3-month follow-up. A self-reported disaster preparedness checklist was used. Among participants who did not have emergency water pre-intervention, 93.3% of those in the platica arm had it at follow-up, compared to 66.7% in the media arm (p=0.003). Among participants who did not have food pre-intervention, 91.7% in the platica arm reported it at follow-up, compared to 60.6% in the media arm (p=0.013). Finally, among participants who did not have a family communication plan pre-intervention, 70.4% in the platica arm reported one at follow-up, compared to 42.3% in the media arm (p=0.002). Although both arms improved in stockpiling water and food and creating a communication plan, the platica arm showed greater improvement than the media group.

  12. Public health preparedness: a systems‐level approach

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Spencer; Mawji, Al; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Public health and emergency preparedness have become central concepts in the current restructuring of various regional‐, national‐ and global‐level public health and emergency management agencies and systems. In this article, a glossary of the most important terms and concepts currently pertaining to public health preparedness is provided with a focus on systems‐level and organisational issues. PMID:17372286

  13. 78 FR 32535 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... May 30, 2013 Part II The President Proclamation 8986--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013... 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8986 of May 24, 2013 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013... out for their neighbors and leaving nobody behind. This week, we reaffirm that it is never too early...

  14. BAREPP: Earthquake preparedness for the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    The threat of major and damaging earthquakes in California is a fact. How people respond to that threat is a concern shared by many local, state, federal, volunteer and private sector organizations. The Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project (BAREPP) promotes comprehensive earthquake preparedness actions by these organizations and provides technical and planning assistance for a variety of programs.

  15. Working with community leadership to promote wildfire preparedness

    Treesearch

    Erika A. Lang; Kristen C. Nelson; Pamela Jakes

    2006-01-01

    This study provides insights into the role of local leaders in wildfire preparedness, specifically, how leaders motivate residents to work together. We found that community leaders become involved in wildfire preparedness for a number of reasons and bring important skills with them from past experiences. The majority of leaders were involved in multiple leadership...

  16. Presidential Perspectives of Crisis Preparedness at Christian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Stacy M.; Heiselt, April K.

    2012-01-01

    Crises, whether human or natural, occur on all college campuses. Extensive research has been conducted on crisis preparedness at four-year, nondenominational institutions. This study examined crisis preparedness at Christian institutions of higher education. The study examined the perspectives of presidents of Christian institutions of higher…

  17. Making Connections: A Network Approach to University Disaster Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Catherine H.; Vickio, Craig J.; Fogo, Wendy R.; Abraham, Kristen M.

    2007-01-01

    A network approach to disaster preparedness in university settings is described. Basic network concepts relevant for disaster preparedness and methods for analyzing network data without complex mathematics are presented. A case study of campus mental health and academic units at a midwestern university is presented to illustrate the practical…

  18. Towards Coordination Preparedness of Soft-Target Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    In this paper, we introduce a network enabled coordination model to examine the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations such as common public access areas including transit hubs, schools, parks, and sports areas. It is apparent that little attention is given in recent research focusing on the use of network analysis as a way to explore coordination preparedness for this type of organisation. In this study, we emphasise this type of soft-target organisation and propose a model to examine the coordination preparedness to any disasters by testing hypothesis related to network relationship and coordination preparedness. We analyse the dataset entitled Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004, which contains a total of 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls. The following questions form the basis of this study: What do soft-target organisations need to be better prepared to respond to disaster? How does network relationship between soft-target organisation and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisation for disaster recovery? Which degree of centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse the coordination preparedness? Result shows that soft-target organisation with high level of network relationship with other emergency agencies are better prepared to disaster response. Using this result, the preparedness of a soft-target organisation might be judged for successfully participation in an actual emergency.

  19. Educator Preparedness to Teach Health Education in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Sandra; Zhou, Mingming

    2007-01-01

    Background: To date, few studies have been conducted to investigate the preparedness of health educators in Canadian school systems. Purpose: This study assessed practicing and pre-service teachers' self-perceptions of preparedness to teach health education in British Columbia K-12 classrooms. It also investigated factors related to their…

  20. State health policy for terrorism preparedness.

    PubMed

    Ziskin, Leah Z; Harris, Drew A

    2007-09-01

    State health policy for terrorism preparedness began before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but was accelerated after that day. In a crisis atmosphere after September 11, the states found their policies changing rapidly, greatly influenced by federal policies and federal dollars. In the 5 years since September 11, these state health policies have been refined. This refinement has included a restatement of the goals and objectives of state programs, the modernization of emergency powers statutes, the education and training of the public health workforce, and a preparation of the health care system to better care for victims of disasters, including acts of terrorism.

  1. Preparedness 3.0: Addressing the Future.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Georges C

    2015-12-01

    The last 14 years has taught us that that we are facing a new reality; a reality in which public health emergencies are a common occurrence. Today, we live in a world with dangerous people without state sponsorship who are an enormous threat to our safety; one where emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are waiting to break out; a world where the benefits of globalization in trade, transportation, and social media brings threats to our communities faster and with a greater risk than ever before. Even climate change has entered into the preparedness equation, bringing with it the forces of nature in the form of extreme weather and its complications.

  2. An Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by centrally-located operations staff is well established in the area of emergency response, utilization by first responders in the field is uneven. Cost, complexity, and connectivity are often the deciding factors preventing wider adoption. For the past several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing a mobile GIS solution using free and open-source software targeting the needs of front-line personnel. Termed IMPACT, for Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit, this ORNL application can complement existing GIS infrastructure and extend its power and capabilities to responders first on the scene of a natural or man-made disaster.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories approach to emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Galegar, F.H.; Yourick, P.D.; Ross, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is located on Kirtland AFB on Albuquerque, NM. The Air Force Base proper covers about 74 square miles in which SNL maintains 5 technical areas and the Coyote Test Field. These SNL areas add up to about 18,000 acres. However, SNL has other locations where we conduct corporate emergency planning: Kauai Test Facility (at Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii), and the Tonopah Test Range (Nevada). SNL/California located in Livermore has an independent emergency preparedness organization for their emergency planning activities.

  4. Disaster preparedness: is your unit ready?

    PubMed

    Counts, C S

    2001-10-01

    This article brings attention to the need for disaster preparedness by individual dialysis facilities. It is recommended that each facility develop a specific plan for each type of disaster that might occur in the particular geographic location. It is also recommended that the community's disaster plan(s) be reviewed and incorporated in the planning process. This article addresses all aspects related to a natural disaster, including planning, drills, basic services, personnel, and the aftermath. Adequate preparation may lessen the destruction and negative consequences of a natural disaster.

  5. How Health Department Contextual Factors Affect Public Health Preparedness (PHP) and Perceptions of the 15 PHP Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Horney, Jennifer A; Carbone, Eric G; Lynch, Molly; Wang, Z Joan; Jones, Terrance; Rose, Dale A

    2017-09-01

    To assess how health department contextual factors influence perceptions of the 15 Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide guidance on organizing preparedness activities. We conducted an online survey and focus group between September 2015 and May 2016 with directors of preparedness programs in state, metropolitan, and territorial jurisdictions funded by CDC's Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) cooperative agreement. The survey collected demographic information and data on contextual factors including leadership, partnerships, organizational structure, resources and structural capacity, and data and evaluation. Seventy-seven percent (48 of 62) of PHEP directors completed the survey and 8 participated in the focus group. Respondents were experienced directors (mean = 10.6 years), and 58% led 7 or more emergency responses. Leadership, partnerships, and access to fiscal and human resources were associated with perception and use of the capabilities. Despite some deficiencies, PHEP awardees believe the capabilities provide useful guidance and a flexible framework for organizing their work. Contextual factors affect perceptions of the capabilities and possibly the effectiveness of their use. Public Health Implications. The capabilities can be used to address challenges in preparedness, including identifying evidence-based practices, developing performance measures, and improving responses.

  6. How Health Department Contextual Factors Affect Public Health Preparedness (PHP) and Perceptions of the 15 PHP Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Eric G.; Lynch, Molly; Wang, Z. Joan; Jones, Terrance; Rose, Dale A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To assess how health department contextual factors influence perceptions of the 15 Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide guidance on organizing preparedness activities. Methods. We conducted an online survey and focus group between September 2015 and May 2016 with directors of preparedness programs in state, metropolitan, and territorial jurisdictions funded by CDC’s Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) cooperative agreement. The survey collected demographic information and data on contextual factors including leadership, partnerships, organizational structure, resources and structural capacity, and data and evaluation. Results. Seventy-seven percent (48 of 62) of PHEP directors completed the survey and 8 participated in the focus group. Respondents were experienced directors (mean = 10.6 years), and 58% led 7 or more emergency responses. Leadership, partnerships, and access to fiscal and human resources were associated with perception and use of the capabilities. Conclusions. Despite some deficiencies, PHEP awardees believe the capabilities provide useful guidance and a flexible framework for organizing their work. Contextual factors affect perceptions of the capabilities and possibly the effectiveness of their use. Public Health Implications. The capabilities can be used to address challenges in preparedness, including identifying evidence-based practices, developing performance measures, and improving responses. PMID:28892447

  7. Segregated Anatomical Input to Sub-Regions of the Rodent Superior Colliculus Associated with Approach and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Comoli, Eliane; Das Neves Favaro, Plínio; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Leriche, Mariana; Overton, Paul G.; Redgrave, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is responsible for sensorimotor transformations required to direct gaze toward or away from unexpected, biologically salient events. Significant changes in the external world are signaled to SC through primary multisensory afferents, spatially organized according to a retinotopic topography. For animals, where an unexpected event could indicate the presence of either predator or prey, early decisions to approach or avoid are particularly important. Rodents’ ecology dictates predators are most often detected initially as movements in upper visual field (mapped in medial SC), while appetitive stimuli are normally found in lower visual field (mapped in lateral SC). Our purpose was to exploit this functional segregation to reveal neural sites that can bias or modulate initial approach or avoidance responses. Small injections of Fluoro-Gold were made into medial or lateral sub-regions of intermediate and deep layers of SC (SCm/SCl). A remarkable segregation of input to these two functionally defined areas was found. (i) There were structures that projected only to SCm (e.g., specific cortical areas, lateral geniculate and suprageniculate thalamic nuclei, ventromedial and premammillary hypothalamic nuclei, and several brainstem areas) or SCl (e.g., primary somatosensory cortex representing upper body parts and vibrissae and parvicellular reticular nucleus in the brainstem). (ii) Other structures projected to both SCm and SCl but from topographically segregated populations of neurons (e.g., zona incerta and substantia nigra pars reticulata). (iii) There were a few brainstem areas in which retrogradely labeled neurons were spatially overlapping (e.g., pedunculopontine nucleus and locus coeruleus). These results indicate significantly more structures across the rat neuraxis are in a position to modulate defense responses evoked from SCm, and that neural mechanisms modulating SC-mediated defense or appetitive behavior are almost entirely

  8. Clinical defense response to cold and noise in preterm neonates after intrauterine conditions associated with chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Van Reempts, P J; Wouters, A; De Cock, W; Van Acker, K J

    1996-07-01

    Threatening stimuli may trigger abnormal reaction patterns in animals and infants. We investigated whether chronic intrauterine stress influenced these reactions. The autonomic defense response to cold and noise in 21 preterm newborns who had suffered from chronic intrauterine stress, such as maternal smoking, maternal hypertension, and intrauterine growth retardation (STR-group) was compared with the response in 30 preterm newborns without such condition (C-group). An ice cube was applied to the forehead and a 90 dB bleeptone was presented to the ears. After the cold test the heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure increased in both groups, but to a lesser extent in the STR-group: the heart rate increased more at 2 minutes in the C-group (p = 0.009), and the systolic blood pressure was higher in the C-group at 30 seconds (p = 0.007). The respiratory rate decreased in both groups. After the auditory stimulus, no significant difference in response between the two groups was seen for any of the parameters. The number of arousals between the two groups was similar for both tests; they uniformly resulted in increased heart and respiratory rates. The classic passive defense response was not observed in either group of preterm newborns. The observed reaction could be defined as a combination of a sympathetic, active fight-or-flight reaction and a parasympathetic passive freezing, or paralysis, reaction. The latter was less pronounced in the C-group. This may point to a change in the maturation of the autonomic nervous system after chronic intrauterine stress. It is speculated that this could make these infants more vulnerable in stressful situations.

  9. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  10. Framing post-pandemic preparedness: Comparing eight European plans.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Martin; Lundgren, Britta

    2016-03-07

    Framing has previously been studied in the field of pandemic preparedness and global health governance and influenza pandemics have usually been framed in terms of security and evidence-based medicine on a global scale. This paper is based on the pandemic preparedness plans, published after 2009, from eight European countries. We study how pandemic preparedness is framed and how pandemic influenza in general is narrated in the plans. All plans contain references to 'uncertainty', 'pandemic phases', 'risk management', 'vulnerability' and 'surveillance'. These themes were all framed differently in the studied plans. The preparedness plans in the member states diverge in ways that will challenge the ambition of the European Union to make the pandemic preparedness plans interoperable and to co-ordinate the member states during future pandemics.

  11. Community resilience elements and community preparedness at Bukit Antarabangsa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan, Ahmad Azan; Kadir, Mohd Juraimy Hj; Yaacob, Safar; Oktari, Rina Suryani; Zainol, Noor Azmi Mohd; Zain, Mazura Mat

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to measure the relationship between community resilience elements (community education, community engagement, community leadership) and community preparedness using questionnaires gathered from 318 samples of the Bukit Antarabangsa community at Ampang Jaya Municipal in Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed three important findings: firstly, community education significantly correlated with community preparedness. Second, community engagement significantly correlated with community preparedness. Third, community leadership significantly correlated with community preparedness. Statistically, this result confirms that the implementation of community resilience elements such as community education, community engagement, and community leadership act as an important determinant of community preparedness towards disasters in the studied community area sample. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are elaborated.

  12. Exposure to the World Trade Center Disaster and 9/11-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Household Disaster Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Gargano, Lisa M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Sisco, Sarah; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D

    2015-12-01

    In a population with prior exposure to the World Trade Center disaster, this study sought to determine the subsequent level of preparedness for a new disaster and how preparedness varied with population characteristics that are both disaster-related and non-disaster-related. The sample included 4496 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed the Wave 3 (2011-2012) and Hurricane Sandy (2013) surveys. Participants were considered prepared if they reported possessing at least 7 of 8 standard preparedness items. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between preparedness and demographic and medical factors, 9/11-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed at Wave 3, 9/11 exposure, and social support. Over one-third (37.5%) of participants were prepared with 18.8% possessing all 8 items. The item most often missing was an evacuation plan (69.8%). Higher levels of social support were associated with being prepared. High levels of 9/11 exposure were associated with being prepared in both the PTSD and non-PTSD subgroups. Our findings indicate that prior 9/11 exposure favorably impacted Hurricane Sandy preparedness. Future preparedness messaging should target people with low social support networks. Communications should include information on evacuation zones and where to find information about how to evacuate.

  13. Identification and analysis of obstacles in bioterrorism preparedness and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincavage, Suzanne Michele

    The focus of this study was to identify and analyze the obstacles to bioterrorism preparedness and response facing emergency management agencies and public authorities. In order to establish the limits of this discussion, the obstacles will examine a combined conceptual framework of public health, environmental security and social response. The interdisciplinary characteristics of this framework are ideal for addressing the issue of bioterrorism because of its simultaneous impact, which encompasses the complex interrelationships that pertain to public health and national security and social response. Based on a review of literature, the obstacles presented range from the absence of an effective surveillance system for biological terrorism related diseases to the inadequate training of first responders in bioterrorism preparedness and the difficult challenges of a mass casualty situation and the intense pressures associated with the crisis response. Furthermore, the impending reality of bioterrorism will further illustrate a close examination of the characteristics and management of three major biowarfare agents---anthrax, plague and smallpox. Finally, to provide a realistic understanding of the impact of bioterrorism, three case studies of actual events and two hypothetical scenarios will be discussed. Specifically, the discussion will provide the following three unconventional terrorist attacks: the recent anthrax attacks of 2001, the Aum Shinrikyo's attack of the Tokyo subway in 1995, and the Rajneeshees' use of salmonella poisoning in 1994. The inclusion of the hypothetical scenarios of two massive outbreaks of smallpox and anthrax will be presented to illuminate the seriousness and magnitude of the threat of bioterrorism and the probable consequences of failing to overcome the obstacles presented in this study. The importance of this research cannot be overemphasized, the threat is undeniably serious, and the potential for biological agents to cause devastating

  14. Among friends: the role of academic-preparedness diversity in individual performance within a small-group STEM learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students differently. We use data from 5367 university students nested within 1141 science, engineering, and mathematics learning groups and use a regression analysis to estimate the effect of group diversity, measured in two ways, on course performance. Our results indicate that academic-preparedness diversity is generally associated with positive learning outcomes, that academically less-prepared students derive greater benefit, and that less-prepared students fare best when they are not alone in a group of highly prepared students. Implications for teaching and small-group facilitation are addressed.

  15. Preparedness for AIDS vaccine trials in India.

    PubMed

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Kochhar, Sonali; Kapoor, Sushma; Das, Sweta; Bahri, Jyoti; Ghosh, Meenakshi Datta; Ganguly, N K; Nayyar, Anjali; Chataway, Mark

    2008-06-01

    India bears a heavy disease burden of HIV/AIDS infected and affected people. A safe, effective and accessible preventive AIDS vaccine, used along with other preventive interventions, is urgently needed to stem the epidemic. This review highlights the extensive preparedness activities undertaken from 2002 by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), its Indian government and non government partners with the Indian scientific, political, media and community stakeholders and the capacity building process, before the conduct of the first ever AIDS vaccine trials in India in early 2005. Issues addressed included mistrust of clinical research due to past history of some unethical trials, transparency, community involvement, stigma and discrimination, provision for care and treatment of participants, informed consent, gender considerations, approval process, and operational aspects. The strong political support along with preparedness activities led to the successful conduct of AIDS vaccine trials enrolling equitably healthy women and men from all sections of society. This has paved the way for future vaccine trials in the country.

  16. Bioterrorism – Health emergency preparedness and response

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Douglas W

    2003-01-01

    Health emergency planning for preparedness and response against acts of terrorism, including the malfeasant threat or actual release of biological agents designed to harm others, has assumed a higher level of concern for most western nations, including Canada, following the explosive attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001. These terrorist attacks were followed by an outbreak of anthrax infections. The Bacillus anthracis spores in these attacks were dispersed by using regular postal services in the United States. In addition to the unsettling sense of social vulnerability that resulted from these attacks, a greater appreciation that the integration of public health, emergency health and social services with security activities was required to fully address the need to protect the health and other interests of the citizens. Collaborative work among regional, provincial, territorial, federal and international authorities within these domains is emerging as an effective response to the risk management of bioterrorism. The following is a brief description of the health framework for preparedness and response, and the biological agents of major concern in terrorism. PMID:20019925

  17. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2015-01-01

    If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, "bad me" (self-blaming) paranoia and "poor me" (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia.

  18. Decreased emergence of emerald ash borer from ash treated with methyl jasmonate is associated with induction of general defense traits and the toxic phenolic compound verbascoside.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Rigsby, Chad; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is causing widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. To date, no mechanisms of host resistance have been identified against this pest. Methyl jasmonate was applied to susceptible North American and resistant Asian ash species to determine if it can elicit induced responses in bark that enhance resistance to EAB. In particular, phenolic compounds, lignin, and defense-related proteins were quantified, and compounds associated with resistance were subsequently tested directly against EAB larvae in bioassays with artificial diet. MeJA application decreased adult emergence in susceptible ash species, comparable to levels achieved by insecticide application. Concentration of the phenolic compound verbascoside sharply increased after MeJA application to green and white ash. When incorporated in an artificial diet, verbascoside decreased survival and growth of EAB neonates in a dose-dependent fashion. Lignin and trypsin inhibitors were also induced by MeJA, and analogs of both compounds reduced growth of EAB larvae in artificial diets. We conclude that the application of MeJA prior to EAB attack has the ability to enhance resistance of susceptible ash trees by inducing endogenous plant defenses, and report evidence that induction of verbascoside is a mechanism of resistance to EAB.

  19. Influence of Sensation Seeking on Response to Alcohol Versus Placebo: Implications for the Acquired Preparedness Model

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Caitlin; Corbin, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has identified several aspects of behavioral undercontrol that are associated with heavy drinking and problems. Further, research on the acquired preparedness model (Smith and Anderson, 2001) has identified biased learning as a potential mechanism of these effects. Traits like sensation seeking have been linked to stronger positive and weaker negative expectancies, which, in turn, contribute to increased risk for heavy drinking and problems. Although expectancies are thought to represent potentially biased expectations about drinking outcomes, they may also reflect individual differences in alcohol response. The present study examined the strength of associations between sensation seeking and both expectancies (response to placebo) and subjective response under alcohol. Method: Using a between-subjects design, young adult social drinkers (N = 236) were randomly assigned to receive alcohol (target breath alcohol concentration of .08%) or placebo, after which they reported on subjective experiences of stimulation and sedation. Results: Sensation seeking was significantly related to stimulant response, and the strength of this association did not differ by beverage condition (alcohol vs. placebo). Conclusions: The findings argue against a pharmacological explanation for results of prior studies of the acquired preparedness model and support a biased learning interpretation of relations between sensation seeking and positive expectancies. Results also extend the findings on the acquired preparedness model to an implicit measure of positive alcohol expectancies (subjective response to placebo). Future studies using additional measures of implicit expectancies (e.g., Implicit Association Test) would be helpful in determining the relative strength of implicit and explicit expectancies as mediators within the acquired preparedness model. PMID:24411805

  20. Institutional facilitators and barriers to local public health preparedness planning for vulnerable and at-risk populations.

    PubMed

    Bevc, Christine A; Simon, Matthew C; Montoya, Tanya A; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Numerous institutional facilitators and barriers to preparedness planning exist at the local level for vulnerable and at-risk populations. Findings of this evaluation study contribute to ongoing practice-based efforts to improve response services and address public health preparedness planning and training as they relate to vulnerable and at-risk populations. From January 2012 through June 2013, we conducted a multilevel, mixed-methods evaluation study of the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center's Vulnerable & At-Risk Populations Resource Guide, an online tool to aid local health departments' (LHDs') preparedness planning efforts. We examined planning practices across multiple local, regional, and state jurisdictions utilizing user data, follow-up surveys, and secondary data. To identify potential incongruities in planning, we compared respondents' reported populations of interest with corresponding census data to determine whether or not there were differences in planning priorities. We used data collected from evaluation surveys to identify key institutional facilitators and barriers associated with planning for at-risk populations, including challenges to conducting assessments and lack of resources. Results identified both barriers within institutional culture and disconnects between planning priorities and evidence-based identification of vulnerable and at-risk populations, including variation in the planning process, partnerships, and perceptions. Our results highlight the important role of LHDs in preparedness planning and the potential implications associated with organizational and bureaucratic impediments to planning implementation. A more in-depth understanding of the relationships among public institutions and the levels of preparedness that contribute to the conditions and processes that generate vulnerability is needed.

  1. Institutional Facilitators and Barriers to Local Public Health Preparedness Planning for Vulnerable and At-Risk Populations

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Matthew C.; Montoya, Tanya A.; Horney, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Numerous institutional facilitators and barriers to preparedness planning exist at the local level for vulnerable and at-risk populations. Findings of this evaluation study contribute to ongoing practice-based efforts to improve response services and address public health preparedness planning and training as they relate to vulnerable and at-risk populations. Methods From January 2012 through June 2013, we conducted a multilevel, mixed-methods evaluation study of the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center's Vulnerable & At-Risk Populations Resource Guide, an online tool to aid local health departments' (LHDs') preparedness planning efforts. We examined planning practices across multiple local, regional, and state jurisdictions utilizing user data, follow-up surveys, and secondary data. To identify potential incongruities in planning, we compared respondents' reported populations of interest with corresponding census data to determine whether or not there were differences in planning priorities. Results We used data collected from evaluation surveys to identify key institutional facilitators and barriers associated with planning for at-risk populations, including challenges to conducting assessments and lack of resources. Results identified both barriers within institutional culture and disconnects between planning priorities and evidence-based identification of vulnerable and at-risk populations, including variation in the planning process, partnerships, and perceptions. Conclusions Our results highlight the important role of LHDs in preparedness planning and the potential implications associated with organizational and bureaucratic impediments to planning implementation. A more in-depth understanding of the relationships among public institutions and the levels of preparedness that contribute to the conditions and processes that generate vulnerability is needed. PMID:25355973

  2. Surveillance for adverse events associated with anthrax vaccination--U.S. Department of Defense, 1998-2000.

    PubMed

    2000-04-28

    Concerns about the potential use of anthrax as a biologic weapon prompted the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to announce on December 15, 1997, anthrax vaccination of all U.S. military personnel. This effort is coordinated by the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP). AVIP plans a phased vaccination process to achieve total force protection against anthrax by 2004. The current phase of implementation includes vaccination of all service members and mission-essential DoD civilian employees assigned or deployed to high-threat areas. On the basis of program monitoring, as of April 12, 2000, 425,976 service members had received 1,620,793 doses of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (Bioport, Inc., Lansing, Michigan). Some service members have cited concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy in their decision to refuse vaccination, despite the possibility of administrative or disciplinary actions. To assess anthrax vaccination safety, DoD has conducted surveys of vaccinated personnel. This report describes three completed or ongoing surveys. The findings indicate that rates of local reactions were higher in women than men and that no patterns of unexpected local or systemic adverse events have been identified.

  3. Medical preparedness against chemical and biological incidents for the NATO Summit in Istanbul and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Karayilanoglu, Turan

    2006-01-01

    During the 2004 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, essential counter-measures, including medical preparedness, were taken to cope with any suspected terrorist case or events including the use of chemical or biological (CB) weapons. The Summit was held in Istanbul, a city that bridges two continents, and involved the participation of many Heads of State, Prime Ministers, and Defense Ministers from 26 NATO countries. First responders, including medical Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) teams, received special training. Essential equipment, including drugs, antidotes, detectors, etc., was provided and stock-piled. Medical authorities augmented the capacity for identifying and controlling the injuries and any emerging CB incident through the set-up of decontamination units and the procurement of medical devices, antidotes, drugs, and personal protective suits. Additionally, a small part of the recently established NATO-CBRN battalion was welcomed to the Summit and was prepared to perform detection and identification of the agent found in suspicious appearing samples. Although no CB incident was reported during the Summit, extensive experience was gained with respect to medical preparedness against CB terrorism. Sampling, detection, and analysis of toxic materials were taken into account in the medical management. Much laboratory-related work was conducted in the following time period. The laboratory work involved the standardization of sampling and transportation procedures, development of both mobile and reference laboratories, and performing research activities aimed to make the CB analysis more efficient. Although the training of the medical staff was advanced, training should be continuous and supported with educational programs, conferences, meetings, and tabletop and hospital medical exercises throughout the country. Multidisciplinary cooperation, training, and preparedness should be provided to basic medical care units and

  4. Salient beliefs about earthquake hazards and household preparedness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia S; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David M; Ronan, Kevin R

    2013-09-01

    Prior research has found little or no direct link between beliefs about earthquake risk and household preparedness. Furthermore, only limited work has been conducted on how people's beliefs influence the nature and number of preparedness measures adopted. To address this gap, 48 qualitative interviews were undertaken with residents in three urban locations in New Zealand subject to seismic risk. The study aimed to identify the diverse hazard and preparedness-related beliefs people hold and to articulate how these are influenced by public education to encourage preparedness. The study also explored how beliefs and competencies at personal, social, and environmental levels interact to influence people's risk management choices. Three main categories of beliefs were found: hazard beliefs; preparedness beliefs; and personal beliefs. Several salient beliefs found previously to influence the preparedness process were confirmed by this study, including beliefs related to earthquakes being an inevitable and imminent threat, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, personal responsibility, responsibility for others, and beliefs related to denial, fatalism, normalization bias, and optimistic bias. New salient beliefs were also identified (e.g., preparedness being a "way of life"), as well as insight into how some of these beliefs interact within the wider informational and societal context.

  5. General practice training environment and its impact on preparedness.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Bennison, Jenny; Smith, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The notion of preparedness for practice is poorly defined in medical education literature. It is unclear what preparedness means and how the training environment impacts on preparedness for practice. This paper aims to explore the meaning that GP trainees and newly qualified GPs attach to the notion of preparedness, and to examine the ways in which they perceive their training environment to impact on preparedness. We used a qualitative interpretive approach and conducted 27 in-depth semi-structured interviews with 15 newly qualified GPs and 12 GP trainees at the end of their training. Two central categories describing preparedness emerged; 'confidence' and 'adaptability'. Inclusive training practices, characterised by non-hierarchical relationships between the doctors, particularly vis-à-vis trainees, were reported to be more 'progressive' and were better at preparing trainees. The way the training practice can impact on preparedness can be explained drawing on Lave and Wenger's theory of 'situated learning'. The role of the trainer was also pivotal in preparing trainees. Supervision tailored to trainees' needs, and guided decision making enhanced confidence of trainees in their ability to work independently in the future. We suggest that for GP trainees to be better prepared it is not enough to extend GP training; rather it is important that GP trainees' time is spent in inclusive training environments.

  6. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  7. Ebola outbreak preparedness planning: a qualitative study of clinicians' experiences.

    PubMed

    Broom, J; Broom, A; Bowden, V

    2017-02-01

    The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the challenges many hospitals face when preparing for the potential emergence of highly contagious diseases. This study examined the experiences of frontline health care professionals in an Australian hospital during the outbreak, with a focus on participant views on information, training and preparedness, to inform future outbreak preparedness planning. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 healthcare professionals involved in Ebola preparedness planning, at a hospital in Australia. The data were systematically coded to discover key themes in participants' accounts of Ebola preparedness. Three key themes identified were: 1) the impact of high volumes of-often inconsistent-information, which shaped participants' trust in authority; 2) barriers to engagement in training, including the perceived relative risk Ebola presented; and finally, 3) practical and environmental impediments to preparedness. These clinicians' accounts of Ebola preparedness reveal a range of important factors which may influence the relative success of outbreak preparedness and provide guidance for future responses. In particular, they illustrate the critical importance of clear communication and guidelines for staff engagement with, and implementation of training. An important outcome of this study was how individual assessments of risk and trust are produced via, and overlap with, the dynamics of communication, training and environmental logistics. Consideration of the dynamic ways in which these issues intersect is crucial for fostering an environment that is suitable for managing an infectious threat such as Ebola. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  8. A national survey on health department capacity for community engagement in emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Schoch-Spana, Monica; Selck, Frederic W; Goldberg, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Limited systematic knowledge exists about how public health practitioners and policy makers can best strengthen community engagement in public health emergency preparedness ("CE-PHEP"), a top priority for US national health security. To investigate local health department (LHD) adoption of federally recommended participatory approaches to PHEP and to identify LHD organizational characteristics associated with more intense CE-PHEP. National survey in 2012 of LHDs using a self-administered Web-based questionnaire regarding LHD practices and resources for CE-PHEP ("The Community Engagement for Public Health Emergency Preparedness Survey"). Differences in survey responses were examined, and a multivariate analysis was used to test whether LHD organizational characteristics were associated with differences in CE-PHEP intensity. A randomized sample of 754 LHDs drawn from the 2565 LHDs that had been invited to participate in the 2010 National Profile of LHDs. Sample selection was stratified by the size of population served and geographic location. Emergency preparedness coordinators reporting on their respective LHDs. CE-PHEP intensity as measured with a scoring system that rated specific CE-PHEP practices by LHD according to the relative degrees of public participation and community capacity they represented. Survey response rate was 61%. The most common reported CE-PHEP activity was disseminating personal preparedness materials (90%); the least common was convening public forums on PHEP planning (22%). LHD characteristics most strongly associated with more intense CE-PHEP were having a formal CE-PHEP policy, allocating funds for CE-PHEP, having strong support from community-based organizations, and employing a coordinator with prior CE experience. Promising ways to engage community partners more fully in the PHEP enterprise are institutionalizing CE-PHEP objectives, employing sufficient and skilled staff, leveraging current community-based organization support, and

  9. The Common Ground Preparedness Framework: A Comprehensive Description of Public Health Emergency Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Theadore, Fred; Jellison, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) is not well defined. Discussions about public health preparedness often make little progress, for lack of a shared understanding of the topic. We present a concise yet comprehensive framework describing PHEP activities. The framework, which was refined for 3 years by state and local health departments, uses terms easily recognized by the public health workforce within an information flow consistent with the National Incident Management System. To assess the framework's completeness, strengths, and weaknesses, we compare it to 4 other frameworks: the RAND Corporation's PREPARE Pandemic Influenza Quality Improvement Toolkit, the National Response Framework's Public Health and Medical Services Functional Areas, the National Health Security Strategy Capabilities List, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's PHEP Capabilities. PMID:22397343

  10. Disaster Preparedness Utilization Field/Disaster Preparedness Career Ladder, AFSCs 05XX/242X0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    jobs. Structure Overview I. BRANCH AND DIVISION CHIEFS (N=176) II . DISASTER PREPAREDNESS SPECIALISTS (N=48) III. INDEPENDENT DISASTER PREPAREDNESS...la V. ) I-- 5- Ii UCI- 1 I- I I4 ICN% 2Z Sq-*W -414LJLe L . ~z2c 2- 00 C% Ci C144No 04 LaWLW ~W LJ Cj 9 1-0CD2 JCm~ L6f ccc0c0iLa s y c LuJ W La Lai%:N...IC.)aCa Wa~I .Z aZ EU WZ12EU LAJ) L. CD e (V C) 0cI- c-. OW<CD "in-~I-lw (5 - CD W- Li) CU Q I- t.4 o~ ( =Ij - LAS obD .L U) ’E Oru 4At Lf U ~ 03 40 CC

  11. The common ground preparedness framework: a comprehensive description of public health emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Gibson, P Joseph; Theadore, Fred; Jellison, James B

    2012-04-01

    Currently, public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) is not well defined. Discussions about public health preparedness often make little progress, for lack of a shared understanding of the topic. We present a concise yet comprehensive framework describing PHEP activities. The framework, which was refined for 3 years by state and local health departments, uses terms easily recognized by the public health workforce within an information flow consistent with the National Incident Management System. To assess the framework's completeness, strengths, and weaknesses, we compare it to 4 other frameworks: the RAND Corporation's PREPARE Pandemic Influenza Quality Improvement Toolkit, the National Response Framework's Public Health and Medical Services Functional Areas, the National Health Security Strategy Capabilities List, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's PHEP Capabilities.

  12. Emergency Preparedness and Response in the School Setting--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Christine M.; Haynie, Kathey; Davis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and response. School nurses are a vital part of the school team responsible for developing emergency response procedures for the…

  13. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence as Predictors of Adult Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-01

    Our study examines whether defense styles and separate defenses in depressed adolescent outpatients predict adult personality disorders (PDs). We obtained data from consecutive adolescent outpatients who participated in the Adolescent Depression Study at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up (N = 140). Defense styles were divided into mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature and a secondary set of analyses were made with separate defenses as predictors of a PD diagnosis. Neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles in adolescence were associated with adulthood PDs. Neurotic defense style associated with cluster B diagnosis and image-distorting defense style associated with cluster A diagnosis. Separate defenses of displacement, isolation, and reaction formation were independent predictors of adult PD diagnosis even after adjusting for PD diagnosis in adolescence. Defense styles and separate defenses predict later PDs and could be used in the focusing of treatment interventions for adolescents.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Resistant to Inclusion Ubiquitination and Associated Host Defense in Gamma Interferon-Primed Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Arun K.; Piro, Anthony S.; Finethy, Ryan; Espenschied, Scott T.; Brown, Hannah E.; Giebel, Amanda M.; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Nelson, David E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induces cell-autonomous immunity to combat infections with intracellular pathogens, such as the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The present study demonstrates that IFN-γ-primed human cells ubiquitinate and eliminate intracellular Chlamydia-containing vacuoles, so-called inclusions. We previously described how IFN-γ-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) employ ubiquitin systems to mark inclusions for destruction in mouse cells and, furthermore, showed that the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum blocks ubiquitination of its inclusions by interfering with mouse IRG function. Here, we report that ubiquitination of inclusions in human cells is independent of IRG and thus distinct from the murine pathway. We show that C. muridarum is susceptible to inclusion ubiquitination in human cells, while the closely related human pathogen C. trachomatis is resistant. C. muridarum, but not C. trachomatis, inclusions attract several markers of cell-autonomous immunity, including the ubiquitin-binding protein p62, the ubiquitin-like protein LC3, and guanylate-binding protein 1. Consequently, we find that IFN-γ priming of human epithelial cells triggers the elimination of C. muridarum, but not C. trachomatis, inclusions. This newly described defense pathway is independent of indole-2,3-dioxygenase, a known IFN-γ-inducible anti-Chlamydia resistance factor. Collectively, our observations indicate that C. trachomatis evolved mechanisms to avoid a human-specific, ubiquitin-mediated response as part of its unique adaptation to its human host. PMID:27965446

  15. Pharmacy executives: leadership issues and associated skills, knowledge, and abilities in the U.S. Department of Defense.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Andrew B; Finstuen, Kenn; Hudak, Ronald P

    2003-01-01

    To identify the issues or problems that current and aspiring U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) pharmacy executives will face in the future and to define the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) required to successfully address these issues. Delphi method for executive decision making. DoD. Ninety-three pharmacists serving in the military grades of lieutenant colonel/commander and colonel/captain, as well as pharmacists selected for promotion to those grades. iterations of the Delphi method for executive decision making separated by an expert panel content analysis. Round 1--participants identified five major issues believed to be of greatest importance to pharmacy executives and reported specific SKAs that might be needed to successfully manage those issues. An expert panel sorted these issues into meaningful domains, then provided an appropriate title for each domain. Round 2--on a 7-point scale, respondents rated the SKA items according to their assessment of how much a future DoD pharmacy executive would need each SKA. Response rates were 44.1% and 46.2% for Delphi rounds 1 and 2, respectively. The first round generated 62 unique issues facing pharmacy executives. The expert panel reviewed and sorted the issues into eight domains and selected an appropriate title for each domain. The domains identified by the panel were human resources, pharmacy operations/business practices, information management and technology, financial resources, formulary management, drug therapy management, pharmacy benefit management, and leadership. During round 2, 73.3% of the top 15 rated SKAs came from the drug therapy management, leadership, and formulary management domains. The three highest-rated SKAs were "ability to see the big picture," "ability to build strong relations with medical staffs," and "skills in both writing and verbal communication." The issues facing future DoD pharmacy executives will require them to expand their clinical abilities as well as their ability to

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Resistant to Inclusion Ubiquitination and Associated Host Defense in Gamma Interferon-Primed Human Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Arun K; Piro, Anthony S; Finethy, Ryan; Espenschied, Scott T; Brown, Hannah E; Giebel, Amanda M; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Nelson, David E; Coers, Jörn

    2016-12-13

    The cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induces cell-autonomous immunity to combat infections with intracellular pathogens, such as the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis The present study demonstrates that IFN-γ-primed human cells ubiquitinate and eliminate intracellular Chlamydia-containing vacuoles, so-called inclusions. We previously described how IFN-γ-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) employ ubiquitin systems to mark inclusions for destruction in mouse cells and, furthermore, showed that the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum blocks ubiquitination of its inclusions by interfering with mouse IRG function. Here, we report that ubiquitination of inclusions in human cells is independent of IRG and thus distinct from the murine pathway. We show that C. muridarum is susceptible to inclusion ubiquitination in human cells, while the closely related human pathogen C. trachomatis is resistant. C. muridarum, but not C. trachomatis, inclusions attract several markers of cell-autonomous immunity, including the ubiquitin-binding protein p62, the ubiquitin-like protein LC3, and guanylate-binding protein 1. Consequently, we find that IFN-γ priming of human epithelial cells triggers the elimination of C. muridarum, but not C. trachomatis, inclusions. This newly described defense pathway is independent of indole-2,3-dioxygenase, a known IFN-γ-inducible anti-Chlamydia resistance factor. Collectively, our observations indicate that C. trachomatis evolved mechanisms to avoid a human-specific, ubiquitin-mediated response as part of its unique adaptation to its human host.

  17. Theoretical perspectives on public communication preparedness for terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Wray, Ricardo J; Kreuter, Matthew W; Jacobsen, Heather; Clements, Bruce; Evans, R Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The experience of federal health authorities in responding to the mailed anthrax attacks in the Fall of 2001 sheds light on the challenges of public information dissemination in emergencies. Lessons learned from the Fall of 2001 have guided more recent efforts related to crisis communication and preparedness goals. This article applies theories and evidence from the field of communication to provide an orientation to how public health communication can best contribute to the preparedness effort. This theoretical orientation provides a framework to systematically assess current recommendations for preparedness communication.

  18. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  19. The Bark-Beetle-Associated Fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica, Utilizes the Phenolic Defense Compounds of Its Host as a Carbon Source1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wadke, Namita; Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Vogel, Heiko; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Paetz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is periodically attacked by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Endoconidiophora polonica, whose infection is thought to be required for successful beetle attack. Norway spruce produces terpenoid resins and phenolics in response to fungal and bark beetle invasion. However, how the fungal associate copes with these chemical defenses is still unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the phenolic content of Norway spruce bark upon E. polonica infection and the biochemical factors mediating these changes. Although genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes in Norway spruce stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis were actively transcribed during fungal infection, there was a significant time-dependent decline of the corresponding metabolites in fungal lesions. In vitro feeding experiments with pure phenolics revealed that E. polonica transforms both stilbenes and flavonoids to muconoid-type ring-cleavage products, which are likely the first steps in the degradation of spruce defenses to substrates that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Four genes were identified in E. polonica that encode catechol dioxygenases carrying out these reactions. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of phenolic rings with a vicinal dihydroxyl group to muconoid products accepting a wide range of Norway spruce-produced phenolics as substrates. The expression of these genes and E. polonica utilization of the most abundant spruce phenolics as carbon sources both correlated positively with fungal virulence in several strains. Thus, the pathways for the degradation of phenolic compounds in E. polonica, initiated by catechol dioxygenase action, are important to the infection, growth, and survival of this bark beetle-vectored fungus and may play a major role in the ability of I. typographus to colonize spruce trees. PMID:27208235

  20. The West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative: Strengthening National Capacities for All-Hazards Disaster Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Kelen, Gabor D; Bradstreet, Nicole A; Beadling, Charles W

    2017-08-01

    The Ebola outbreak demonstrated the need for improved disaster response throughout West Africa. The West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative was a training and assessment effort led by US Africa Command and partners to strengthen capacities among 12 West African partner nations (PNs). Series of 3-week training sessions with representatives from each PN were held from 13 July through 20 November 2015 at the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre in Accra, Ghana. A team conducted Disaster Management Capabilities Assessments (DMCAs) for each PN, including a review of key data, a survey for leaders, and in-person interviews of key informants. All 12 PNs generated a national Ebola Preparedness and Response Plan and Emergency Operations Center standard operating procedures. DMCA metrics were generated for each PN. Top performers included Ghana, with a plan rated good/excellent, and Benin and Burkina Faso, which both achieved a satisfactory rating for their plans. More than 800 people from 12 nations were trained. PNs have improved disaster management capabilities and awareness of their strengths and weaknesses. The Economic Community of West African States has increased its lead role in this and future planned initiatives. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:431-438).

  1. Public health-specific National Incident Management System trainings: building a system for preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Sivan; Barnett, Daniel J; Galastri, Costanza; Semon, Natalie L; Links, Jonathan M

    2010-01-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) are at the hub of the public health emergency preparedness system. Since the 2003 issuance of Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, LHDs have faced challenges to comply with a new set of all-hazards, 24/7 organizational response expectations, as well as the National Incident Management System (NIMS). To help local public health practitioners address these challenges, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness (JH-CPHP) created and implemented a face-to-face, public health-specific NIMS training series for LHDs. This article presents the development, evolution, and delivery of the JH-CPHP NIMS training program. In this context, the article also describes a case example of practice-academic collaboration between the National Association of County and City Health Officials and JH-CPHP to develop public health-oriented NIMS course content.

  2. Optimal defense theory explains deviations from latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kooyers, Nicholas J; Blackman, Benjamin K; Holeski, Liza M

    2017-04-01

    The latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis (LHDH) postulates that the prevalence of species interactions, including herbivory, is greater at lower latitudes, leading to selection for increased levels of plant defense. While latitudinal defense clines may be caused by spatial variation in herbivore pressure, optimal defense theory predicts that clines could also be caused by ecogeographic variation in the cost of defense. For instance, allocation of resources to defense may not increase plant fitness when growing seasons are short and plants must reproduce quickly. Here we use a common garden experiment to survey genetic variation for constitutive and induced phenylpropanoid glycoside (PPG) concentrations across 35 Mimulus guttatus populations over a ~13° latitudinal transect. Our sampling regime is unique among studies of the LHDH in that it allows us to disentangle the effects of growing season length from those of latitude, temperature, and elevation. For five of the seven PPGs surveyed, we find associations between latitude and plant defense that are robust to population structure. However, contrary to the LHDH, only two PPGs were found at higher levels in low latitude populations, and total PPG concentrations were higher at higher latitudes. PPG levels are strongly correlated with growing season length, with higher levels of PPGs in plants from areas with longer growing seasons. Further, flowering time is positively correlated with the concentration of nearly all PPGs, suggesting that there may be a strong trade-off between development time and defense production. Our results reveal that ecogeographic patterns in plant defense may reflect variation in the cost of producing defense compounds in addition to variation in herbivore pressure. Thus, the biogeographic pattern predicted by the LHDH may not be accurate because the underlying factors driving variation in defense, in this case, growing season length, are not always associated with latitude in the same

  3. Preparedness of institutions around the world for managing patients with Ebola virus disease: an infection control readiness checklist.

    PubMed

    Tartari, Ermira; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Ang, Brenda; Calleja, Neville; Collignon, Peter; Hopman, Joost; Lang, Lily; Lee, Lai Chee; Ling, Moi Lin; Mehtar, Shaheen; Tambyah, Paul A; Widmer, Andreas; Voss, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In response to global concerns about the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD), outbreak to-date in West Africa documented healthcare associated transmission and the risk of global spread, the International Society of Chemotherapy (ISC) Infection Control Working Group created an Ebola Infection Control Readiness Checklist to assess the preparedness of institutions around the globe. We report data from the electronic checklist that was disseminated to medical professionals from October to December 2014 and identify action needed towards better preparedness levels. Data from 192 medical professionals (one third from Africa) representing 125 hospitals in 45 countries around the globe were obtained through a specifically developed electronic survey. The survey contained 76 specific questions in 7 major sections: Administrative/operational support; Communications; Education and audit; Human resources, Supplies, Infection Prevention and Control practices and Clinical management of patients. The majority of respondents were infectious disease specialists/infection control consultants/clinical microbiologists (75; 39 %), followed by infection control professionals (59; 31 %) and medical doctors of other specialties (17; 9 %). Nearly all (149; 92 %) were directly involved in Ebola preparedness activities. Whilst, 54 % indicated that their hospital would need to handle suspected and proven Ebola cases, the others would subsequently transfer suspected cases to a specialized centre. The results from our survey reveal that the general preparedness levels for management of potentially suspected cases of Ebola virus disease is only partially adequate in hospitals. Hospitals designated for admitting EVD suspected and proven patients had more frequently implemented Infection Control preparedness activities than hospitals that would subsequently transfer potential EVD cases to other centres. Results from this first international survey provide a framework for future efforts to

  4. [LESSONS FROM PREPAREDNESS OF HOSPITALS TO SNOWSTORMS].

    PubMed

    Merin, Ofer; Goldberg, Sara; Peyser, Amos; Gros, Moshe; Weiss, Gali; Bitan, Aria; Zarka, Salman; Shapira, Kelin

    2015-11-01

    Snowstorms are not a usual scene in Israel, which normally enjoys relatively warm weather, even in the winter. In the last two years we faced three severe snowstorms that had a major impact on the routine daily life in Israel. Roads were blocked, people experienced long electricity power failures, and secondary to slippery conditions, there was more than a threefold increase of orthopedic injuries. These storms confronted hospitals with unique challenges, both medical and logistic. Hospitals must be prepared to cope with the challenge of maintaining continuation of care. We propose four phases of preparedness strategy: at the beginning of the winter, once there is a weather forecast warning, during the storm itself, and returning to norm. This manuscript deals with the lessons learned by two hospitals in Safed and Jerusalem dealing with snowstorms.

  5. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd

    2011-07-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency.

  6. Risk management of international trade: emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; David, M J; Bowman, Q P

    2002-12-01

    Emergency preparedness and management are among the most important and critical issues facing animal health in the world today. The goals of a country for an animal health emergency management (AHEM) system should include the following: --being prepared to detect and manage an outbreak of a foreign animal disease --preventing the introduction of foreign and emerging animal pathogens --having an appropriate response system for control and eradication of the disease --having a system for recovery from animal health emergencies, including natural disasters. An AHEM system can no longer be limited to a single organisation within a country. In the event of a serious threat to the animal agriculture of a country, broader and more comprehensive participation is required. If not properly planned for, animal health emergencies can rapidly become national disasters. Therefore, it is essential that the central government of a country work towards these goals through partnerships with other Federal and State/Provincial/District organisations, academic institutions and national animal industries.

  7. The Courts, Public Health, and Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Daniel D.; Nicks, Diane; Cowan, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The judicial branch’s key roles, as guardian of civil liberties and protector of the rule of law, can be acutely relevant during public health emergencies when courts may need to issue orders authorizing actions to protect public health or restraining public health actions that are determined to unduly interfere with civil rights. Legal preparedness for public health emergencies, therefore, necessitates an understanding of the court system and how courts are involved in public health issues. In this article we briefly describe the court system and then focus on what public health practitioners need to know about the judicial system in a public health emergency, including the courts’ roles and the consequent need to keep courts open during emergencies. PMID:17413084

  8. Emergency preparedness: school nurses leading the way.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    Nurses are trained to think in terms of the nursing process, which encompasses the five steps of assessment, diagnosis, outcomes/planning, implementation, and evaluation. Cities and towns have developed emergency plans based on the "all-hazards" approach. School district plans are also formulated based on the all-hazards approach of hazard mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, which mirrors the nursing process. Individual school efforts focus on thesefourprinciples to facilitate development of a comprehensive plan for each school. Utilizing the principles of education, collaboration, resource utilization, leadership, and advocacy throughout the evolution of an updated and functional plan allows for an inclusive and adaptable plan. Like the nursing process, these steps are not separate and distinct, but a continuous process.

  9. Disaster preparedness for nurses: a teaching guide.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Paula

    2011-09-01

    As one of the largest groups of health care providers in the United States, nurses are trained to attend to the physical, psychological, and spiritual needs of their patients, making them highly qualified to influence the outcomes of victims of an emergency situation. Unfortunately, nursing programs offer limited content on delivering care under extreme conditions, and few continuing education programs are available to practicing nurses. This article provides a brief educational presentation that can be used without an extensive time commitment or in-depth instructor knowledge of the subject. The course content has been presented to nurses at the American Red Cross, at local chapter meetings of professional nursing organizations, and to both graduate and undergraduate nursing students. This presentation is not designed to be a comprehensive study of disaster nursing, but serves as a starting point that might lead to further study and encourage active participation in preparedness education and planning.

  10. A taxonomy of state public health preparedness units: an empirical examination of organizational structure.

    PubMed

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Duncan, W Jack; Katholi, Charles R; Ginter, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    State public health preparedness units (SPHPUs) were developed in response to federal funding to improve response to disasters: a responsibility that had not traditionally been within the purview of public health. The SPHPUs were created within the existing public health organizational structure, and their placement may have implications for how the unit functions, how communication takes place, and ultimately how well the key responsibilities are performed. This study empirically identifies a taxonomy of similarly structured SPHPUs and examines whether this structure is associated with state geographic, demographic, and threat-vulnerability characteristics. Data representing each SPHPU were extracted from publically available sources, including organizational charts and emergency preparedness plans for 2009. A cross-sectional segmentation analysis was conducted of variables representing structural attributes. Fifty state public health departments. Variables representing "span of control" and "hierarchal levels" were extracted from organizational charts. Structural "complexity" and "centralization" were extracted from state emergency preparedness documents and other secondary sources. On average, 6.6 people report to the same manager as the SPHPU director; 2.1 levels separate the SPHPU director from the state health officer; and a mean of 13.5 agencies collaborate with SPHPU during a disaster. Despite considerable variability in how SPHPUs had been structured, results of the cluster and principal component analysis identified 7 similarly structured groups. Neither the taxonomic groups nor the individual variables representing structure were found to be associated with state characteristics, including threat vulnerabilities. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SPHPUs are seemingly inadvertently (eg, not strategically) organized. This taxonomy provides the basis for which future research can examine how SPHPU structure relates to performance measures and

  11. Business continuity and pandemic preparedness: US health care versus non-health care agencies.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri; Wang, Jing; Swick, Zachary; Reddick, David; delRosario, John Leon

    2013-04-01

    Only limited data are available on US business continuity activities related to biologic events. A questionnaire was administered to human resource professionals during May-July 2011 to assess business continuity related to biologic events, incentives businesses are providing to maximize worker surge capacity, and seasonal influenza vaccination policy. Linear regressions were used to describe factors associated with higher business continuity and pandemic preparedness scores. The χ(2) and Fisher exact tests compared health care versus non-health care businesses on preparedness indicators. Possible business continuity and pandemic preparedness scores ranged from 0.5 to 27 and 0 to 15, with average resulting scores among participants at 13.2 and 7.3, respectively. Determinants of business continuity and pandemic preparedness were (1) business size (larger businesses were more prepared), (2) type of business (health care more prepared), (3) having human resource professional as company disaster planning committee member, and (4) risk perception of a pandemic in the next year. Most businesses (63.3%, n = 298) encourage staff influenza vaccination; 2.1% (n = 10) mandate it. Only 10% of businesses (11.0%, n = 52) provide employee incentives, and fewer than half (41.0%, n = 193) stockpile personal protective equipment. Despite the recent H1N1 pandemic, many US businesses lack adequate pandemic plans. It is critical that businesses of all sizes and types become better prepared for a biologic event. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. States at Risk: America's Preparedness Report Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, R. M. S.; Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Bronzan, J.; Rodehorst, B.; Bhat, C.; Dix, B.; Savonis, M.; Wiles, R.

    2015-12-01

    Many states are already experiencing the costly impacts of extreme climate and weather events. The occurrence, frequency and intensity of these events may change under future climates. Preparing for these changes takes time, and state government agencies and communities need to recognize the risks they could potentially face and the response actions already undertaken. The States at Risk: America's Preparedness Report Card project is the first-ever study that quantifies five climate-change-driven hazards, and the relevant state government response actions in each of the 50 states. The changing characteristics of extreme heat, drought, wildfires, inland and coastal flooding were assessed for the baseline period (around year 2000) through the years 2030 and 2050 across all 50 states. Bias-corrected statistically-downscaled (BCSD) climate projections (Reclamation, 2013) and hydrology projections (Reclamation, 2014) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) under RCP8.5 were used. The climate change response action analysis covers five critical sectors: Transportation, Energy, Water, Human Health and Communities. It examined whether there is evidence that the state is taking action to (1) reduce current risks, (2) raise its awareness of future risks, (3) plan for adaptation to the future risks, and (4) implement specific actions to reduce future risks for each applicable hazards. Results from the two analyses were aggregated and translated into a rating system that standardizes assessments across states, which can be easily understood by both technical and non-technical audiences. The findings in this study not only serve as a screening tool for states to recognize the hazards they could potentially face as climate changes, but also serve as a roadmap for states to address the gaps in response actions, and to improve climate preparedness and resilience.

  13. The World Trade Center attack. Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?

    PubMed

    Mattox, K

    2001-12-01

    When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness.

  14. The World Trade Center Attack Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness. PMID:11737919

  15. Methyl jasmonate-induced defense responses are associated with elevation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Lycopersicon esculentum fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengmeng; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Aijun; Sheng, Jiping

    2011-10-15

    It has been known that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) interacts with ethylene to elicit resistance. In green mature tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun), 0.02mM MeJA increased the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), and consequently influenced the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. Fruits treated with a combination of 0.02 MeJA and 0.02 α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB, a competitive inhibitor of ACO) exhibited a lower ethylene production comparing to that by 0.02mM MeJA alone. The increased activities of defense enzymes and subsequent control of disease incidence caused by Botrytis cinerea with 0.2mM MeJA treatment was impaired by AIB as well. A close relationship (P<0.05) was found between the activity alterations of ACO and that of chitinase (CHI) and β-1,3-glucanase (GLU). In addition, this study further detected the changes of gene expressions and enzyme kinetics of ACO to different concentrations of MeJA. LeACO1 was found the principal member from the ACO gene family to respond to MeJA. Accumulation of LeACO1/3/4 transcripts followed the concentration pattern of MeJA treatments, where the largest elevations were reached by 0.2mM. For kinetic analysis, K(m) values of ACO stepped up during the experiment and reached the maximums at 0.2mM MeJA with ascending concentrations of treatments. V(max) exhibited a gradual increase from 3h to 24h, and the largest induction appeared with 1.0mM MeJA. The results suggested that ACO is involved in MeJA-induced resistance in tomato, and the concentration influence of MeJA on ACO was attributable to the variation of gene transcripts and enzymatic properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Sports-Related Emergency Preparedness in Oregon High Schools.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Samuel T; Norcross, Marc F; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Hoffman, Mark A; Chang, Eunwook; Koester, Michael C

    Best practice recommendations for sports-related emergency preparation include implementation of venue-specific emergency action plans (EAPs), access to early defibrillation, and first responders-specifically coaches-trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator (AED) use. The objective was to determine whether high schools had implemented these 3 recommendations and whether schools with a certified athletic trainer (AT) were more likely to have done so. Schools with an AT were more likely to have implemented the recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. All Oregon School Activities Association member school athletic directors were invited to complete a survey on sports-related emergency preparedness and AT availability at their school. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the associations between emergency preparedness and AT availability. In total, 108 respondents (37% response rate) completed the survey. Exactly half reported having an AT available. Only 11% (95% CI, 6%-19%) of the schools had implemented all 3 recommendations, 29% (95% CI, 21%-39%) had implemented 2, 32% (95% CI, 24%-42%) had implemented 1, and 27% (95% CI, 19%-36%) had not implemented any of the recommendations. AT availability was associated with implementation of the recommendations (χ(2) = 10.3, P = 0.02), and the proportion of schools with ATs increased with the number of recommendations implemented (χ(2) = 9.3, P < 0.01). Schools with an AT were more likely to implement venue-specific EAPs (52% vs 24%, P < 0.01) and have an AED available for early defibrillation (69% vs 44%, P = 0.02) but not more likely to require coach training (33% vs 28%, P = 0.68). Despite best practice recommendations, most schools were inadequately prepared for sports-related emergencies. Schools with an AT were more likely to implement some, but not all, of the recommendations. Policy changes may be needed to improve implementation. Most Oregon high

  17. Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Preparedness Planning Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Richardson, Laura [D-CA-37

    2010-03-21

    04/05/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

  19. The 1988 earthquake in soviet armenia: implications for earthquake preparedness.

    PubMed

    Noji, E K

    1989-09-01

    An earthquake registering 6.9 on the Richter scale hit the northern part of the Armenian Republic of the Soviet Union on 7 December 1988, resulting in thousands of deaths and injuries. The majority of these resulted from the collapse of inadequately designed and constructed buildings. Analysis of the effects of the Armenian earthquake on the population, as well as of the rescue and medical response, has strong implications for earthquake preparedness and response in other seismically vulnerable parts of the world. Specifically, this paper will recommend a number of important endeavours deemed necessary to improve medical planning, preparedness and response to earthquakes. Strengthening the self-reliance of the community in disaster preparedness is suggested as the best way to improve the effectiveness of relief operations. In earthquake-prone areas, training and education in basic first aid and methods of rescue should be an integral part of any community preparedness programme.

  20. Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Preparedness Planning Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Richardson, Laura [D-CA-37

    2010-03-21

    House - 04/05/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. 77 FR 32877 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ....gov . As we mark the beginning of hurricane season, let us recommit to ensuring the safety of our... Hurricane Preparedness Week. I call upon government agencies, private organizations, schools, media, and...

  2. Preparedness Coordination With Local Educational Agencies and School Districts Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Richardson, Laura [D-CA-37

    2012-05-17

    House - 05/24/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Response and Communications. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Improving hospital mass casualty preparedness through ongoing readiness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Adini, Bruria; Laor, Daniel; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipora; Schwartz, Dagan; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ongoing use of an evaluation tool on hospitals' emergency preparedness for mass casualty events (MCEs). Two cycles of evaluation of emergency preparedness were conducted based on measurable parameters. A significant increase was found in mean total scores between the 2 cycles (from 77.1 to 88.5). An increase was found in scores for standard operating procedures, training, and equipment, but the change was significant only in the training category. Relative increase was highest for hospitals that did not experience real MCEs. This study offers a structured and practical approach for ongoing improvement of emergency preparedness, based on validated, measurable benchmarks. Ongoing assessment of emergency preparedness motivates hospitals to improve capabilities and results in a more effective emergency response mechanism. Use of predetermined and measurable benchmarks allows the institutions being assessed to improve their level of performance in the areas evaluated.

  4. Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Preparedness Planning Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Richardson, Laura [D-CA-37

    2010-03-21

    04/05/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming) paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Methods Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. Conclusion These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia. PMID:25565849

  6. The Arabidopsis microtubule-associated protein MAP65-3 supports infection by filamentous biotrophic pathogens by down-regulating salicylic acid-dependent defenses.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Michaël; Baurès, Isabelle; Hoefle, Caroline; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Allasia, Valérie; Panabières, Franck; Abad, Pierre; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Keller, Harald; Favery, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    The oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and the ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum are obligate biotrophic pathogens causing downy mildew and powdery mildew, respectively, on Arabidopsis. Upon infection, the filamentous pathogens induce the formation of intracellular bulbous structures called haustoria, which are required for the biotrophic lifestyle. We previously showed that the microtubule-associated protein AtMAP65-3 plays a critical role in organizing cytoskeleton microtubule arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis. This renders the protein essential for the development of giant cells, which are the feeding sites induced by root knot nematodes. Here, we show that AtMAP65-3 expression is also induced in leaves upon infection by the downy mildew oomycete and the powdery mildew fungus. Loss of AtMAP65-3 function in the map65-3 mutant dramatically reduced infection by both pathogens, predominantly at the stages of leaf penetration. Whole-transcriptome analysis showed an over-represented, constitutive activation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, signaling, and defense execution in map65-3, whereas jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling was down-regulated. Preventing SA synthesis and accumulation in map65-3 rescued plant susceptibility to pathogens, but not the developmental phenotype caused by cytoskeleton defaults. AtMAP65-3 thus has a dual role. It positively regulates cytokinesis, thus plant growth and development, and negatively interferes with plant defense against filamentous biotrophs. Our data suggest that downy mildew and powdery mildew stimulate AtMAP65-3 expression to down-regulate SA signaling for infection.

  7. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhou; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Dandan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Peng, Yan; He, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Xinquan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Yan, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous polyamine (PA) may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm). Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2) were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:26528187

  8. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations of FPG, A1C and disease duration with protein markers of oxidative damage and antioxidative defense in type 2 diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V S; Agrawal, P; Sethi, S; Gupta, N; Garg, R; Madaan, H; Kumar, V

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of protein oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in relationship to hyperglycemia measured as fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (A1C), and duration of disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods This study recruited 23 non-diabetic subjects, 16 DM patients without any complications and 18 DR patients. The serum ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. The IMA results were corrected for serum albumin. Between-group differences were studied by analysis of variance and between-variable associations were studied by Spearman's and partial correlations. Results IMA and cIMA values were elevated, whereas GSH was decreased in both patient groups vs controls (P<0.05), and the increase in IMA formation is not related to serum albumin changes. DR patients have much severe oxidative stress (OS) status with high IMA and cIMA, and low GSH than in the DM group (P<0.05). Both FPG and A1C levels were positively associated with IMA in DM group, while in the DR group, duration of disease too had a positive association with IMA. The antioxidant GSH had negative correlations with FPG (r=−0.52, P=0.02) and IMA (r=−0.49, P=0.03) in the DR group. Partial correlation analyses predicted mutual or independent associations among parameters. Conclusions Severe OS in DR has been associated with increased FPG, A1C, and disease duration. Both hyperglycemia and elevated oxidative damage detected as IMA are collectively associated with depleted GSH status. Our study unravels the need for monitoring of OS in addition to standard glycemic management in DR. PMID:26381098

  10. Hospital preparedness for emergency response: United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    Niska, Richard W; Shimizu, Iris M

    2011-03-24

    This report is a summary of hospital preparedness for responding to public health emergencies, including mass casualties and epidemics of naturally occurring diseases such as influenza. Data are from an emergency response preparedness supplement to the 2008 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, which uses a national probability sample of nonfederal general and short-stay hospitals in the United States. Sample data were weighted to produce national estimates.

  11. Disaster preparedness: institutional capacity building in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, J L; de Ville de Goyet, C

    1996-01-01

    Latin American and Caribbean countries are prone to natural, technological and "complex" disasters. This vulnerability to catastrophic events led the region to undertake the long journey away from an ad hoc response towards institutional preparedness and, more recently, to disaster prevention and mitigation. This article attempts to outline the definitions and basic principles of institutional emergency preparedness, including reliance on the more effective use of existing resources, rather than establishment of special stockpiles and equipment; the critical importance of general participation and awareness; and the interrelationship of the health sector with others and the potential for leadership. How to assess the level of preparedness is discussed. Stress is placed on the fact that preparedness is traditionally confused with the existence of a written disaster plan. Preparedness should be seen as a never-ending, complex process that can only be assessed through an in-depth review of coordination, planning, training and logistic elements. There is also a fundamental distinction between preparedness, i.e., "getting ready to respond" and disaster prevention/mitigation, which aims to reduce the health impact. The latter calls for the collaboration of engineers, architects, planners and economists with the health sector. It is illustrated by the regional initiative in the Americas to reduce the physical vulnerability of hospitals to earthquakes and hurricanes. In spite of the encouraging achievements, much remains to be done. Weak areas include preparedness for technological disasters, and a true inter-country preventive approach to common disasters across borders. Electronic communications through the Internet will also help to suppress borders and boundaries, contributing to a truly collective approach to emergency preparedness and disaster relief coordination.

  12. Pandemic Influenza: Appropriations for Public Health Preparedness and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-23

    flu vaccine production capacity) address preparedness for both seasonal and pandemic flu, and may not be designated as pandemic spending, despite...preparedness, including efforts to expand seasonal flu vaccine production capacity and related activities. Amounts are discussed in subsequent sections of...in part to award a $10 million contract to a domestic manufacturer of injectable flu vaccine to assure a year-round supply of eggs for vaccine

  13. Tactile defensiveness and stereotyped behaviors.

    PubMed

    Baranek, G T; Foster, L G; Berkson, G

    1997-02-01

    This study explores the constructs of stereotyped behaviors (e.g., repetitive motor patterns, object manipulations, behavioral rigidities) and tactile defensiveness as relevant to occupational therapy theory and practice and attempts to test their purported relationships in children with developmental disabilities. Twenty-eight children with developmental disabilities and autism were assessed on eight factors of stereotyped behavior via a questionnaire and by four measures of tactile defensiveness. The subjects' scores from the questionnaire were correlated with their scores on the tactile defensiveness measures to see what, if any, relationship among these behaviors exists. Significant relationships emerged from the data, indicating that subjects with higher levels of tactile defensiveness were also more likely to evidence rigid or inflexible behaviors, repetitive verbalizations, visual stereotypes, and abnormal focused affections that are often associated with autism. No significant association was found between motor and object stereotypes and tactile defensiveness. These relationships could not be explained solely by maturational factors. The results suggest that clinicians should include observations of stereotyped behaviors, particularly behavioral rigidities, in conjunction with assessments of sensory defensiveness because these are related phenomena that may pose unique challenges for children with developmental disabilities and autism. Further study is needed to determine the causal mechanisms responsible for these relationships.

  14. Strengthening flood warning systems: the benefits of encouraging social preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Flood warning and response have normally been focused on the technical aspects and disregarded the connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social dimensions. An increasing body of research, however, points at the importance of considering socio-hydrological aspects to improve flood damage mitigation. One of the key factors is the preparedness of the public and first responders during flood situations, which is influenced by many behavioural traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or denial. In this study, we investigate the impact of social preparedness on the efficiency of flood early warning systems by using the recency of flood experience as a proxy for social preparedness. To this end, we developed a stylised model and a synthetic data-set to perform a hypothetical analysis. The main findings point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially when the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. More specifically, efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings from this study provide insights into the importance of considering social preparedness in decision-making for disaster risk reduction.

  15. The danger of declining funds: Public Health Preparedness in NYC.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Monica; Patel, Prachee; Raphael, Marisa; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin

    2009-09-01

    Since 2001, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) has built a strong public health preparedness foundation, made possible in large part by funding from the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While this funding has allowed NYC DOHMH to make great progress in areas such as all-hazards planning, risk communication, disease surveillance, and lab capacity, the erosion of federal preparedness dollars for all-hazards preparedness has the potential to reverse these gains. Since the initiation of the PHEP grant in 2002, PHEP funding has steadily declined nationwide. Specifically, the total federal allocation has decreased approximately 20%, from $862,777,000 in 2005 to $688,914,546 in 2009. With city and state budgets at an all-time low, federal funding cuts will have a significant impact on public health preparedness programs nationwide. In this time of strict budgetary constraints, the nation would be better served by strategically awarding federal preparedness funds to areas at greatest risk. The absence of risk-based funding in determining PHEP grant awards leaves the nation's highest-risk areas, like New York City, with insufficient resources to prepare for and respond to public health emergencies. This article examines the progress New York City has made and what is at stake as federal funding continues to wane.

  16. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrich K

    2007-05-01

    An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models. In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated with these defenses were reduced developmental rate, reduced growth, and reduced survival. At low resource availability, these costs predominately resulted in reduced survival, while at high resource availability the costs yielded a reduced developmental rate. Defensive traits responded strongly to predation risk, but did not respond to resource availability (with the exception of feeding activity), whereas traits construed as costs of defenses showed the opposite pattern. Therefore, defensive traits were highly sensitive to predation risk, while traits construed as costs of defense were highly sensitive to resource allocation tradeoffs. This difference in sensitivity between the two groups of traits may explain why the correlation between the expression of defensive traits and the expression of the associated defense costs was weak. Furthermore, my results indicate that genetic linkages and mechanistic integration of multiple defensive traits and their associated costs may constrain time and resource allocation in ways that are not addressed in existing models.

  17. Characterization of temperature and light effects on the defense response phenotypes associated with the maize Rp1-D21 gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rp1 is a complex locus of maize controlling race-specific resistance to the common rust fungus, Puccinia sorghi. The resistance response includes the “Hypersensitive response” (HR) – a rapid localized cell death at the point of pathogen penetration - and the induction of pathogenesis associated gene...

  18. What is Going to Move the Needle on Citizen Preparedness? Can America Create a Culture of Preparedness?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Myriad studies conducted over the past several years all arrive at the same general conclusion: Americans are woefully unprepared for disaster...clarity in defining and measuring preparedness. Research shows there is no consistent or generally accepted tool for measuring preparedness and no... general ideas for 10 effective campaigns. First and foremost is the need for consistency of message and a fusing of information and disciplines and

  19. (Geo)Ethics. Step 1: Preparedness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards have been defined in several ways in recent decades. Whatever your choice, it will be fine provided you consider that they are complex physical phenomena that expose a natural area to risk of loss of life, environmental degradation and property damages. In a time-line, one may divide the hazards, particularly those considered extremes, in a pre-event phase, the event itself and a post-event period. At this moment, I would like to promote an initial reflection by focusing in the geoethical behaviour scientists have to bear in mind accordingly to the particular characteristics of the pre-event phase, considering ethics as a way of systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. In an accelerated world, where the pressure of the every day life gives us little room to exercise our mind to think in such apparent démodé issues as ethics, society, nature, responsibilities and duties, I would like to invite you to stop few minutes and reflect on the ethical implications of being a geoscientists dealing with natural hazards in the XXI century. The most dangerous hazards are those extreme events with a rapid onset (earthquakes, tsunamis, etc.). Thus far, science has not found effective ways to predict and reduce most natural hazards. If we are not capable to forecast or minimize the effect of an extreme event, geosciences, and scientists, are responsible of in deep risk assessments for areas that might be subject to natural hazards also contributing to preparedness of society. However, we have been working on that issues, but it seems we are not being as efficient as needed. On the risk analysis, which includes forecast models, we use to be too Cartesians, taking too much time in arriving to conclusions when a non clear cause-effect chain can be identified. It is our ethical duty to evaluate when to stop searching for causes when dealing with complex systems. The search for a specific cause for a given extreme natural event

  20. Amino Acid Homeostasis Modulates Salicylic Acid–Associated Redox Status and Defense Responses in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guosheng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Bhuiyan, Nazmul H.; Pilot, Guillaume; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Zou, Jitao; Wei, Yangdou

    2010-01-01

    The tight association between nitrogen status and pathogenesis has been broadly documented in plant–pathogen interactions. However, the interface between primary metabolism and disease responses remains largely unclear. Here, we show that knockout of a single amino acid transporter, LYSINE HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER1 (LHT1), is sufficient for Arabidopsis thaliana plants to confer a broad spectrum of disease resistance in a salicylic acid–dependent manner. We found that redox fine-tuning in photosynthetic cells was causally linked to the lht1 mutant-associated phenotypes. Furthermore, the enhanced resistance in lht1 could be attributed to a specific deficiency of its main physiological substrate, Gln, and not to a general nitrogen deficiency. Thus, by enabling nitrogen metabolism to moderate the cellular redox status, a plant primary metabolite, Gln, plays a crucial role in plant disease resistance. PMID:21097712

  1. Leaf-mining by Phyllonorycter blancardella reprograms the host-leaf transcriptome to modulate phytohormones associated with nutrient mobilization and plant defense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Body, Mélanie; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Reichelt, Michael; Unsicker, Sybille; Bruneau, Maryline; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Huguet, Elisabeth; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones have long been hypothesized to play a key role in the interactions between plant-manipulating organisms and their host-plants such as insect-plant interactions that lead to gall or 'green-islands' induction. However, mechanistic understanding of how phytohormones operate in these plant reconfigurations is lacking due to limited information on the molecular and biochemical phytohormonal modulation following attack by plant-manipulating insects. In an attempt to fill this gap, the present study provides an extensive characterization of how the leaf-miner Phyllonorycter blancardella modulates the major phytohormones and the transcriptional activity of plant cells in leaves of Malus domestica. We show here, that cytokinins strongly accumulate in mined tissues despite a weak expression of plant cytokinin-related genes. Leaf-mining is also associated with enhanced biosynthesis of jasmonic acid precursors but not the active form, a weak alteration of the salicylic acid pathway and a clear inhibition of the abscisic acid pathway. Our study consolidates previous results suggesting that insects may produce and deliver cytokinins to the plant as a strategy to manipulate the physiology of the leaf to create a favorable nutritional environment. We also demonstrate that leaf-mining by P. blancardella leads to a strong reprogramming of the plant phytohormonal balance associated with increased nutrient mobilization, inhibition of leaf senescence and mitigation of plant direct and indirect defense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endosome-Associated CRT1 Functions Early in Resistance Gene–Mediated Defense Signaling in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong-Gu; Oh, Chang-Sik; Sato, Masanao; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Glazebrook, Jane; Takahashi, Hideki; Kachroo, Pradeep; Martin, Gregory B.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance gene–mediated immunity confers protection against pathogen infection in a wide range of plants. A genetic screen for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants compromised for recognition of turnip crinkle virus previously identified CRT1, a member of the GHKL ATPase/kinase superfamily. Here, we demonstrate that CRT1 interacts with various resistance proteins from different structural classes, and this interaction is disrupted when these resistance proteins are activated. The Arabidopsis mutant crt1-2 crh1-1, which lacks CRT1 and its closest homolog, displayed compromised resistance to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Additionally, resistance-associated hypersensitive cell death was suppressed in Nicotiana benthamiana silenced for expression of CRT1 homolog(s). Thus, CRT1 appears to be a general factor for resistance gene–mediated immunity. Since elevation of cytosolic calcium triggered by avirulent P. syringae was compromised in crt1-2 crh1-1 plants, but cell death triggered by Nt MEK2DD was unaffected in CRT1-silenced N. benthamiana, CRT1 likely functions at an early step in this pathway. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis led to identification of CRT1-Associated genes, many of which are associated with transport processes, responses to (a)biotic stress, and the endomembrane system. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation revealed that CRT1 localizes to endosome-like vesicles, suggesting a key process in resistance protein activation/signaling occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:20332379

  3. Endosome-associated CRT1 functions early in resistance gene-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hong-Gu; Oh, Chang-Sik; Sato, Masanao; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Glazebrook, Jane; Takahashi, Hideki; Kachroo, Pradeep; Martin, Gregory B; Klessig, Daniel F

    2010-03-01

    Resistance gene-mediated immunity confers protection against pathogen infection in a wide range of plants. A genetic screen for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants compromised for recognition of turnip crinkle virus previously identified CRT1, a member of the GHKL ATPase/kinase superfamily. Here, we demonstrate that CRT1 interacts with various resistance proteins from different structural classes, and this interaction is disrupted when these resistance proteins are activated. The Arabidopsis mutant crt1-2 crh1-1, which lacks CRT1 and its closest homolog, displayed compromised resistance to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Additionally, resistance-associated hypersensitive cell death was suppressed in Nicotiana benthamiana silenced for expression of CRT1 homolog(s). Thus, CRT1 appears to be a general factor for resistance gene-mediated immunity. Since elevation of cytosolic calcium triggered by avirulent P. syringae was compromised in crt1-2 crh1-1 plants, but cell death triggered by Nt MEK2(DD) was unaffected in CRT1-silenced N. benthamiana, CRT1 likely functions at an early step in this pathway. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis led to identification of CRT1-Associated genes, many of which are associated with transport processes, responses to (a)biotic stress, and the endomembrane system. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation revealed that CRT1 localizes to endosome-like vesicles, suggesting a key process in resistance protein activation/signaling occurs in this subcellular compartment.

  4. Achieving public health legal preparedness: how dissonant views on public health law threaten emergency preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Wu, Helen; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Peter D

    2011-09-01

    Effective management of modern public health emergencies requires the coordinated efforts of multiple agencies representing various disciplines. Organizational culture differences between public health (PH) and emergency management (EM) entities may hinder inter-agency collaboration. We examine how PH and EM differ in their approach to PH law and how such differences affect their collaboration towards PH preparedness. We conducted 144 semi-structured interviews with local and state PH and EM officials between April 2008 and November 2009. Thematic qualitative analysis in ATLAS.ti was used to extract characteristics of each agency's approach to PH legal preparedness. Two conflicting approaches to the law emerge. The PH approach is characterized by perceived uncertainty regarding legal authority over preparedness planning tasks; expectation for guidance on interpretation of existing laws; and concern about individual and organizational liability. The EM approach reveals perception of broad legal authority; flexible interpretation of existing laws; and ethical concerns over infringement of individual freedoms and privacy. Distinct interpretations of preparedness law impede effective collaboration for PH preparedness. Clarification of legal authority mandates, designation within laws of scope of preparedness activities and guidance on interpretation of current federal and state laws are needed.

  5. Preparedness and emergency response research centers: using a public health systems approach to improve all-hazards preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Leinhos, Mary; Qari, Shoukat H; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) in accredited U.S. schools of public health. The PERRCs conducted research in four IOM-recommended priority areas: (1) enhancing the usefulness of public health preparedness and response (PHPR) training, (2) creating and maintaining sustainable preparedness and response systems, (3) improving PHPR communications, and (4) identifying evaluation criteria and metrics to improve PHPR for all hazards. The PERRCs worked closely with state and local public health, community partners, and advisory committees to produce practice-relevant research findings. PERRC research has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and nearly 80 practice and policy tools and recommendations with the potential to significantly enhance our nation's PHPR to all hazards and that highlight the need for further improvements in public health systems.

  6. The Preparedness Web: Utilizing Regional Collaborative Networks for Homeland Security Preparedness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Anderson, “Complexity Theory,” 217. 45 Jeff Weiss and Johathan Hughes. ”Want Collaboration? Accept – and Actively Manage – Conflict,” Harvard Business Review Online...Wermuth, “Emergency Preparedness in California,” 6. 47 John P. Kotter, “Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail,” Harvard Business Review (March...for Change,” Harvard Business Review (March-April 1995): 112. 50 Donahue and Tuohy, “Lessons We Don’t Learn,” 6-7. 51 Jerome D. Hagen, “Interagency

  7. Men's Knowledge of Obstetric Danger Signs, Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B; Mpembeni, Rose; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Men's involvement in reproductive health is recommended. Their involvement in antenatal care service is identified as important in maternal health. Awareness of obstetric danger signs facilitates men in making a joint decision with their partners regarding accessing antenatal and delivery care. This study aims to assess the level of knowledge of obstetric complications among men in a rural community in Tanzania, and to determine their involvement in birth preparedness and complication readiness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted where 756 recent fathers were invited through a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of danger signs and steps taken on birth preparedness and complication readiness. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with being prepared, with statistically significant level at p<0.05. Among the invited men, 95.9% agreed to participate in the community survey. Fifty-three percent could mention at least one danger sign during pregnancy, 43.9% during delivery and 34.6% during the postpartum period. Regarding birth preparedness and complication readiness, 54.3% had bought birth kit, 47.2% saved money, 10.2% identified transport, 0.8% identified skilled attendant. In general, only 12% of men were prepared. Birth preparedness was associated with knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.8-2.6). It was less likely for men living in the rural area to be prepared (AOR=0.6, 95% CI; 0.5-0.8). There was a low level of knowledge of obstetric danger signs among men in a rural district in Tanzania. A very small proportion of men had prepared for childbirth and complication readiness. There was no effect of knowledge of danger signs during childbirth and postpartum period on being prepared. Innovative strategies that increase awareness of danger signs as well as birth preparedness

  8. Men’s Knowledge of Obstetric Danger Signs, Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B.; Mpembeni, Rose; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Men’s involvement in reproductive health is recommended. Their involvement in antenatal care service is identified as important in maternal health. Awareness of obstetric danger signs facilitates men in making a joint decision with their partners regarding accessing antenatal and delivery care. This study aims to assess the level of knowledge of obstetric complications among men in a rural community in Tanzania, and to determine their involvement in birth preparedness and complication readiness. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted where 756 recent fathers were invited through a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of danger signs and steps taken on birth preparedness and complication readiness. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with being prepared, with statistically significant level at p<0.05. Results Among the invited men, 95.9% agreed to participate in the community survey. Fifty-three percent could mention at least one danger sign during pregnancy, 43.9% during delivery and 34.6% during the postpartum period. Regarding birth preparedness and complication readiness, 54.3% had bought birth kit, 47.2% saved money, 10.2% identified transport, 0.8% identified skilled attendant. In general, only 12% of men were prepared. Birth preparedness was associated with knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.8-2.6). It was less likely for men living in the rural area to be prepared (AOR=0.6, 95% CI; 0.5-0.8). Conclusion There was a low level of knowledge of obstetric danger signs among men in a rural district in Tanzania. A very small proportion of men had prepared for childbirth and complication readiness. There was no effect of knowledge of danger signs during childbirth and postpartum period on being prepared. Innovative strategies that increase awareness of

  9. New graduates' perceptions of preparedness to provide speech-language therapy services in general and dysphagia services in particular.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shajila; Booth, Alannah; Choto, Fadziso; Gotlieb, Jessica; Robertson, Rebecca; Morris, Gabriella; Stockley, Nicola; Mauff, Katya

    2015-06-18

    Upon graduation, newly qualified speech-language therapists are expected to provide services independently. This study describes new graduates' perceptions of their preparedness to provide services across the scope of the profession and explores associations between perceptions of dysphagia theory and clinical learning curricula with preparedness for adult and paediatric dysphagia service delivery. New graduates of six South African universities were recruited to participate in a survey by completing an electronic questionnaire exploring their perceptions of the dysphagia curricula and their preparedness to practise across the scope of the profession of speech-language therapy. Eighty graduates participated in the study yielding a response rate of 63.49%. Participants perceived themselves to be well prepared in some areas (e.g. child language: 100%; articulation and phonology: 97.26%), but less prepared in other areas (e.g. adult dysphagia: 50.70%; paediatric dysarthria: 46.58%; paediatric dysphagia: 38.36%) and most unprepared to provide services requiring sign language (23.61%) and African languages (20.55%). There was a significant relationship between perceptions of adequate theory and clinical learning opportunities with assessment and management of dysphagia and perceptions of preparedness to provide dysphagia services. There is a need for review of existing curricula and consideration of developing a standard speech-language therapy curriculum across universities, particularly in service provision to a multilingual population, and in both the theory and clinical learning of the assessment and management of adult and paediatric dysphagia, to better equip graduates for practice.

  10. Household Emergency Preparedness by Housing Type from a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER), Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Murti, M; Bayleyegn, T; Stanbury, M; Bies, S; Flanders, WD; Yard, E; Nyaku, M; Schnall, A; Wolkin, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association between housing type and household emergency preparedness among households in Oakland County, Michigan. Methods We used interview data on household emergency preparedness from a cluster design survey in Oakland County, Michigan, in 2012. We compared survey-weighted frequencies of household demographics, medical conditions, and preparedness measures in single-detached homes versus multi-unit dwellings, and determined the unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and the income-level adjusted OR for each preparedness measure. Results Households had similar demographics and medical conditions between housing types. Unadjusted ORs were statistically significant for single-detached homes having a generator (11.1), back-up heat source (10.9), way to cook without utilities (5.8), carbon monoxide (CO) detector (3.8), copies of important documents (3.4), evacuation routes (3.1), and three-day supply of water (2.5). Income level adjusted ORs remained statistically significant except for owning a CO detector. Conclusions Households in multi-unit dwellings were less likely to have certain recommended emergency plans and supplies compared to those in single-detached homes. Further research is required to explore the feasibility, barriers, and alternatives for households in multi-unit dwellings in terms of complying with these measures. PMID:24524350

  11. Use of computer modeling for emergency preparedness functions by local and state health officials: a needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lisa A; Fox, Claude Earl; Kerr, Debora; Marziale, Erin; Cullum, Amy; Lota, Kanchan; Stewart, Jonathan; Thompson, Mary Zack

    2009-01-01

    The authors, collaborating from several public health institutes, present the methodology, results, and lessons learned from a multistate needs assessment of local and state public health and safety officials regarding their familiarity and use of formal computer modeling for preparedness activities. The study was undertaken to provide information to the newly formed Preparedness Modeling Unit within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The focus was on the use of sophisticated mathematical models associated with three public health threats: pandemic influenza, radiologic release, and severe heat waves. The use of computer modeling and scenario-based analyses can be used to better frame problems and opportunities, integrate data sources, expect outcomes, and improve multistakeholder decision making. The results of the eight state needs assessment demonstrated that preparedness officials are familiar with models and would use computer modeling as a tool, along with other tools and general experiences, depending upon the perceived quality and validity of the model and the assumptions, as well as the applicability, of the model to their particular setting and population. More needs to be done to improve awareness and dissemination of available models and share best practices in both knowledge and use of models. Use of preparedness modeling would enhance the planning for vulnerable and at-risk populations, all-hazard emergencies and infectious disease containment strategies, as well as for response functions including evacuation, sheltering, quarantine, and distribution of medications and supplies.

  12. Cultivar-specific high temperature stress responses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with physicochemical traits and defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Divya; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-04-15

    The increasing global temperature by 1°C is estimated to reduce the harvest index in a crop by 6%, and this would certainly have negative impact on overall plant metabolism. Wheat is one of the most important crops with global annual production of over 600million tonnes. We investigated an array of physicochemical and molecular indexes to unravel differential response of nine commercial wheat cultivars to high temperature stress (HTS). The reduced rate in relative water content, higher membrane stability, slow chlorophyll degradation and increased accumulation of proline and secondary metabolites ingrained higher thermotolerance in cv. Unnat Halna, among others. The altered expression of several stress-responsive genes, particularly the genes associated with photosynthesis, heat shock proteins and antioxidants impinge on the complexity of HTS-induced responses over different genetic backgrounds and connectivity of adaptive mechanisms. This may facilitate the targeted manipulation of metabolic routes in crops for agricultural and industrial exploitation.

  13. Emergency Nurses’ Requirements for Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Abbasi Dolatabadi, Zahra; Rajabifard, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters affect people, communities, and health systems. Nurses play a key role in the health system and must be prepared for appropriate response in disasters. Objectives: This study was done to assess the current knowledge of nurses in emergency departments for disaster preparedness. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 emergency nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the data were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Based on the findings, most of the participants (64.5%) were aged 30 - 39 years old. 84% of the cases were female and 97.3% had a bachelor’s degree. The average perceived knowledge of nurses was 2.43 ± 1.01. The nurses had the highest familiarity with triage and lowest knowledge in epidemiology and decision-making. Conclusions: Lack knowledge of nurses regarding response to disaster situations indicates inefficiencies in the current system. Therefore, it is recommended to organize more workshops, annual training courses, and maneuvers based on staff needs and formulate continuous education courses for nurses. PMID:26839868

  14. Facilitating disaster preparedness through local radio broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Romo-Murphy, Eila; James, Ross; Adams, Mike

    2011-10-01

    The 2008 Disaster Mitigation Preparedness (DMP) study took place in Aceh province, Indonesia. It sought to help develop radio programmes and messages to increase resilience to disasters. The role of radio was evaluated during and after the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster. The study team interviewed 984 tsunami survivors from nine sub-districts of Banda Aceh, and local nongovernmental organisations convened eight focus groups around the area of Aceh Besar. Six key informant interviews were held with government disaster management agencies. The DMP survey is the first of its kind to interview a representative random sample of Banda Aceh residents. It reveals the importance of community and social networks, during disaster situations, when essential communications are down. A disaster warning information system based on a multi-media approach needs to be developed. The wider community should be involved in the planning, education and training of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar residents to facilitate appropriate personal and community survival strategies. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  15. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  16. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  17. Improving Team Performance for Public Health Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Peck, Megan; Scullard, Mickey; Hedberg, Craig; Moilanen, Emily; Radi, Deborah; Riley, William; Bowen, Paige Anderson; Petersen-Kroeber, Cheryl; Stenberg, Louise; Olson, Debra K

    2017-02-01

    Between May 2010 and September 2011, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health partnered with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to assess the effect of exercises on team performance during public health emergency response. Participants were divided into 3 research teams exposed to various levels of intervention. Groups consisted of a control group that was given standard MDH training exercises, a didactic group exposed to team dynamics and communication training, and a treatment group that received the didactic training in addition to a post-exercise facilitated debriefing. To assess differences in team performance, teams engaged in 15 functional exercises. Differences in team performance across the 3 groups were identified, although there was no trend in team performance over time for any of the groups. Groups demonstrated fluctuation in team performance during the study period. Attitudinal surveys demonstrated an increase in workplace satisfaction and confidence in training among all groups throughout the study period. Findings from this research support that a critical link exists between training type and team performance during public health emergency response. This research supports that intentional teamwork training for emergency response workers is essential for effective public health emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:7-10).

  18. Disaster mental health preparedness plan in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, G Pandu; Viora, Eka

    2006-12-01

    The tsunami brought into focus many issues related to mental health and psychosocial distress. A prompt response to the disaster relies on existing disaster management plans so that appropriate interventions can be put in place in order to meet the needs of the affected populations. The response must involve both physical and psychological aspects of care. The Indonesian experience was unique in a number of ways and it allowed us to explore the lessons in order to develop strategies to maximize the resources in order to ensure that the whole affected population was cared for. Massive destruction of the physical structures and the work force made the task particularly difficult. Existing policies did not include psychosocial efforts in the plan. However, mental health and psychosocial relief efforts are now being integrated into the disaster preparedness plan of Indonesia. To further implement the plan, a strong community mental health system is being developed. This system will be able to deliver mental health and psychosocial interventions on a routine basis and could be scaled up in times of disasters.

  19. Trauma system: the backbone of disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Cryer, H Gill; Hiatt, Jonathan R

    2009-08-01

    To describe the Los Angeles County trauma system response to disasters. Review of trauma system structure and multicasualty events. The Los Angeles County trauma system is made up of 13 level I and II trauma centers with defined catchment areas that serve 10 million people in 88 cites over 4,000 square miles and receive more than 20,000 trauma activations annually. There is an organized disaster plan, which is orchestrated through the Medical Alert Center that coordinates the distribution of casualties from the scene of a multicasualty event, with the most critically injured patients going to level I centers by air, severe injuries to level I and II centers by ground and air and less severe injuries to local community hospitals by ground. The plan has been used in several multicasualty events over the last 25 years, the most recent of which occurred 6 hours after this paper was presented. The system allows for all critically injured patients to be distributed to several trauma centers, so that all can be cared for in a timely fashion without overwhelming any one trauma center and without critically injured patients being taken to nontrauma centers where they cannot receive optimal care. The answer to disaster preparedness in our country is to develop this kind of trauma system in every state. Doing so will improve access of our population to excellent care on a daily basis and will provide a network of trauma centers that can be mobilized to most effectively care for victims of multicasualty events.

  20. Weaving latino cultural concepts into Preparedness Core Competency training.

    PubMed

    Riley-Jacome, Mary; Parker, Blanca Angelica Gonzalez; Waltz, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    The New York • New Jersey Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (NY•NJ PERLC) is one of 14 Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designed to address the preparedness and response training and education needs of the public health workforce. One of the important niches, or focus areas for the Center, is training to improve the capacity of public health workers to respond with competence to the needs of vulnerable populations. During every phase of a disaster, racial and ethnic minorities, including Latinos, suffer worse outcomes than the general population. Communities with diverse cultural origins and limited English speakers often present more complex issues during public health emergencies. Training that incorporates cultural concepts into the Preparedness Core Competencies may improve the ability of public health workers to engage the Latino community in preparedness activities and ultimately improve outcomes during disasters. This article describes initiatives undertaken by the NY•NJ PERLC to improve the capacity of the public health workforce to respond competently to the needs of Latino populations. In 2012, the Center collaborated with national, state, and local partners to develop a nationwide broadcast founded on the Preparedness Core Competencies, Latinos During Emergencies: Cultural Considerations Impacting Disaster Preparedness. The widely viewed broadcast (497 sites in 47 states and 13 nations) highlighted the commonalities and differences within Latino culture that can impact emergency preparedness and response and outlined practical strategies to enhance participation. The success of the broadcast spurred a number of partner requests for training and technical assistance. Lessons learned from these experiences, including our "undercover" work at local Points of Dispensing, are incorporated into subsequent interactive trainings to improve the competency of public health workers. Participants recommended

  1. Bioterrorism preparedness. III: State and federal programs and response.

    PubMed

    Mothershead, Jerry L; Tonat, Kevin; Koenig, Kristi L

    2002-05-01

    Management of a bioterrorism event will begin with early detection and intervention at the local level. Any large-scale event will require rapid state and federal assistance. Federal initiatives targeting bioterrorism have increasingly become a complex web of executive and legislative actions, frequently initiated in reaction to specific events, and often unrelated to this threat. Multiple executive and legislative branch actions have resulted in a proliferation of federal programs, and coordination of these efforts remains a significant challenge. Still, great strides have been taken to improve our defensive posture against this emerging threat, and, at all levels, governmental authorities and agencies are much better prepared to respond to such events than they were a decade ago. The events of September 11, 2001 and subsequent events are clear indicators that the timeline for preparedness has been significantly compressed. Federal emergency operations, historically designed more for recovery than response, seemed up to the task in the wake of the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks, although there was criticism of federal responsiveness to the subsequent anthrax incidents [71,72], and the timeliness of federal resources in the event of a large-scale outbreak resulting from a bioterrorism attack has yet to be truly tested. The recent establishment of the Office of Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Council holds promise that some of these inefficiencies may be rectified and overall coordination of programs will improve. Continued improvements in the effectiveness of the federal government in meeting the challenges of this and other emerging threats to homeland security will require: Establishment of consensus standards, metrics, and measures of effectiveness for all aspects of disaster, epidemic, and terrorism management at the local, regional, state, and federal levels Delineation of expected, quantifiable state and local capabilities to mitigate

  2. Hurricane preparedness among elderly residents in South Florida.

    PubMed

    Kleier, Jo Ann; Krause, Deirdre; Ogilby, Terry

    2017-07-14

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors associated with hurricane preparation and to test a theoretical model of hurricane preparation decision process among a group of elderly residents living in a high-risk geographical area. This is a descriptive, correlational study. A convenience sample consisted of 188 English-speaking individuals who were aged 55 years or older. In addition to demographic information, two survey instruments were used. Theoretical constructs were operationalized through Moon's Hurricane Preparation Questionnaire. Hurricane preparedness was measured by self-reported responses to FEMA's inventory checklist, which addresses the recommended basic steps of preparation. The theoretical model of hurricane preparation decision process was supported. Main barriers to preparation are the need for cooperation from others and cost of preparation. Participants reported having taken many preparatory steps to shelter-in-place, but too few are prepared if their home were storm-damaged or they should have to evacuate. Findings are consistent with previous studies of samples drawn from similar populations. This report provides guidance as to how public health nurses can become involved with the population and develop interventions based on the constructs of the theoretical model. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

  4. Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development. PMID:10997211

  5. Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

  6. The association of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense parameters with inflammatory markers in patients with exudative form of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Čolak, Emina; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Radosavljević, Aleksandra; Žorić, Lepša

    2017-01-01

    There are evidence that oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of the age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant defense parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with exudative form of AMD (eAMD), their mutual correlations and association with the specific forms of AMD. The cross-sectional study, included 75 patients with the eAMD, 31 patients with the early form, and 87 aged-matched control subjects. Significantly lower SOD, TAS and albumin values and higher GR, CRP and IL-6 were found in the eAMD compared to the early form (p<0.05). Significant negative correlations were found between GPx and fibrinogen (r = –0.254), TAS and IL-6 (r = –0.999) and positive correlations between uric acid and CRP (r = 0.292), IL-6 and uric acid (r = 0.398) in the eAMD. A significant association of CRP (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03–1.32, p = 0.018), fibrinogen (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.14–4.85, p = 0.021), TAS (OR: 7.45, 95% CI: 3.97–14.35, p = 0.0001), albumin (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11–1.41, p = 0.0001) and uric acid (OR: 1.006, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02, p = 0.003) was found with the eAMD. In conclusion it may be suggested, there is a significant impairment of antioxidant and inflammatory parameter levels in eAMD patients. In addition, significant association exists between the tested inflammatory markers and antioxidant parameters with late-eAMD. PMID:28366988

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Stem Rust Resistance Factors in Barley Are Associated with Transcriptional Suppression of Defense Regulons

    PubMed Central

    Moscou, Matthew J.; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host–pathogen interaction with enhancement

  8. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    PubMed

    Moscou, Matthew J; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with enhancement

  9. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs.

  10. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G.; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs. PMID:26414376

  11. Structural and functional characterization of an archaeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated complex for antiviral defense (CASCADE).

    PubMed

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K; Graham, Shirley; Liu, Huanting; Naismith, James H; Sdano, Matthew; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Copié, Valérie; Young, Mark J; White, Malcolm F; Lawrence, C Martin

    2011-06-17

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA. The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2-Cas5a complex is sufficient to bind crRNA and complementary ssDNA. The structure of Csa2 reveals a crescent-shaped structure unexpectedly composed of a modified RNA-recognition motif and two additional domains present as insertions in the RNA-recognition motif. Conserved residues indicate potential crRNA- and target DNA-binding sites, and the H160A variant shows significantly reduced affinity for crRNA. We propose a general subunit architecture for CASCADE in other bacteria and Archaea.

  12. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Duguna Fango District, Wolayta Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebre, Merihun; Gebremariam, Abebe; Abebe, Tsedach Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care, especially during childbirth, based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduces delays in obtaining this care. This study was conducted to assess birth preparedness and complication readiness and its associated factors among pregnant woman in Duguna Fango District in Wolayta Zone, South Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 578 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 16.0. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least three steps was considered being well-prepared. Among 578 pregnant women only one tenth (10.7%) of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 103 (18.1%) arranged transportation to health facility. Two hundred forty eight (43.6%) identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. more than half (54.1%) of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. only few 17(3%) identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Two hundred sixty four (46.4%) of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and more than half (53.6) planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall less than one fifth 18.3% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (AOR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.62-5.37), being pregnant for the first time (AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.45-7.82), having knowledge of at least two danger signs during pregnancy (AOR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.69-4.67) and

  13. Measuring healthcare preparedness: an all-hazards approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In a paper appearing in this issue, Adini, et al. describe a struggle familiar to many emergency planners—the challenge of planning for all scenarios. The authors contend that all-hazards, or capabilities-based planning, in which a set of core capabilities applicable to numerous types of events is developed, is a more efficient way to achieve general health care system emergency preparedness than scenario-based planning. Essentially, the core of what is necessary to plan for and respond to one kind of disaster (e.g. a biologic event) is also necessary for planning and responding to other types of disasters, allowing for improvements in planning and maximizing efficiencies. While Adini, et al. have advanced the science of health care emergency preparedness through their consideration of 490 measures to assess preparedness, a shorter set of validated preparedness measures would support the dual goals of accountability and improved outcomes and could provide the basis for determining which actions in the name of preparedness really matter. PMID:23098101

  14. Disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    2011-07-01

    This paper introduces a network-enabled model to examine the disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations (STOs). Little attention is devoted to this matter in recent research. This study places emphasis on such organisations and the proposed model tests hypotheses related to network relation and coordination preparedness. It analyses the data set entitled 'Preparedness of large retail malls to prevent and respond to terrorist attack, 2004', which contains 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls in the United States.(1) The following questions form the basis of this study: 'What do STOs need to be better prepared to respond to a disaster?'; 'How does network relationship between STOs and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of STOs for disaster recovery?'; and 'Which centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse coordination preparedness?' The results show that STOs with a high level of connectedness and strong ties to other emergency agencies are better prepared for disaster response.

  15. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  16. Evaluation of a Tabletop Emergency Preparedness Exercise for Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Bratberg, Jeffrey P.; Robertson, Courtney; Smith, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation and effect of an emergency preparedness laboratory activity on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. Design. Second-year pharmacy students in the infectious disease module participated in a laboratory activity based on a basic disaster response tabletop exercise format. Three case-based scenarios involving infectious diseases were created by participating faculty members. Assessment. Surveys before and after the laboratory were used to assess the activity’s effect on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. In addition, the postsurvey assessed student perceptions of the activity’s success at accomplishing faculty-specified outcomes from Appendix B of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE) Standards. Conclusion. Implementation of an emergency response laboratory activity may improve overall students’ knowledge of, confidence in, and understanding of their role as pharmacists in an emergency response, while incorporating a variety of skills and knowledge outcomes. PMID:27170821

  17. Disaster preparedness: an investigation on motivation and barriers.

    PubMed

    Dorasamy, Magiswary; Raman, Murali; Marimuthu, Maran; Kaliannan, Maniam

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary investigation on the motivations for and the barriers that hinder preparedness toward disasters in a community. Survey questionnaires were distributed to local individuals in the nine districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. A total of 402 usable questionnaires were analyzed. The initial findings revealed that community members are motivated for disaster preparedness mainly for family safety reason. However, generally they do not know how to be prepared. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of knowledge and information in community preparedness. This research is limited to one state in Malaysia. However, the chosen state has a large effect on the Malaysian gross domestic product; hence, lack of preparedness poses a critical risk to its large population. This study on motivation and barriers for disaster preparedness is intended to increase the effectiveness of community readiness as a whole toward major disasters such as landslide and flood. The result of this study is valuable to the scientific community within the disaster management domain, the government agencies for policy and strategy formulations, and the local community to preempt, deal with, and ultimately survive disasters. This research aims to ensure that the community is continuously prepared and able to meet the evolving needs of the individual citizen as the nation strives toward promoting a knowledgeable society.

  18. Disaster preparedness of linguistically isolated populations: practical issues for planners.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Vishnu; Banerjee, Deborah; Perry, Mark; Scott, Deborah

    2012-03-01

    In the absence of culturally and linguistically appropriate disaster preparedness plans, several linguistically isolated and culturally diverse population groups are disproportionately disadvantaged in the United States. The communication gap poses challenges to emergency preparedness planners and response personnel in predisaster communication and postdisaster response efforts. Houston Department of Health and Human Services aimed to develop practical recommendations for local emergency response personnel so as to improve dissemination of emergency information and equitable delivery of services to linguistically isolated communities in the greater Houston area. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted among linguistically isolated immigrant populations living in the greater Houston metropolitan area who primarily spoke one of the Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Somali languages. Our questions focused on general knowledge and understanding of disasters and explored experiences during Houston's most recent disaster, Hurricane Ike. We found that (a) understanding of disaster and preparedness is contextual, (b) awareness of preparedness needs and actual plans among LIPs is inadequate, and (c) word of mouth is the preferred information source for linguistically isolated groups. Disaster preparedness plans of a given jurisdiction should reflect the culturally and linguistically appropriate components addressing the needs, concerns, context-based knowledge or awareness, and perceptions of linguistically isolated populations.

  19. Measuring healthcare preparedness: an all-hazards approach.

    PubMed

    Marcozzi, David E; Lurie, Nicole

    2012-10-25

    In a paper appearing in this issue, Adini, et al. describe a struggle familiar to many emergency planners-the challenge of planning for all scenarios. The authors contend that all-hazards, or capabilities-based planning, in which a set of core capabilities applicable to numerous types of events is developed, is a more efficient way to achieve general health care system emergency preparedness than scenario-based planning. Essentially, the core of what is necessary to plan for and respond to one kind of disaster (e.g. a biologic event) is also necessary for planning and responding to other types of disasters, allowing for improvements in planning and maximizing efficiencies. While Adini, et al. have advanced the science of health care emergency preparedness through their consideration of 490 measures to assess preparedness, a shorter set of validated preparedness measures would support the dual goals of accountability and improved outcomes and could provide the basis for determining which actions in the name of preparedness really matter.

  20. Preparedness of dental graduates for foundation training: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ali, K; Tredwin, C; Kay, E J; Slade, A; Pooler, J

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to articulate the concept of preparedness of dental graduates for foundation training programme in the United Kingdom and identify the essential attributes of preparedness. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used to explore the concept of preparedness. The study was carried out in the South West region of England. Participants were recruited from a range of stakeholders in dental education and foundation training using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited using email through appropriate professional channels. Stakeholders included dental students (DS), dental academics (DA), foundation dental practitioners (FDP), foundation trainers (FT), general dental practitioners (GDP) and a postgraduate dental deanery representative (DDR). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were imported into NVivo 9 and analysed thematically. Sixteen interviews were carried out with representation from all stakeholder groups. Participants expressed their views on a range of issues related to the preparedness of dental graduates. This study provides useful insights into the concept of preparedness as perceived by the stakeholders. The findings of this study may offer clarity on the essential attributes required by dental graduates upon entry into foundation training.