Science.gov

Sample records for defense technology area

  1. Technologies for distributed defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  2. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  3. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  4. Defense needs for science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Since World War 2 the defense of our country has depended on a strong science and technology (S and T) base. Now that our world is rapidly changing with such historic events as the elimination of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989; the reunification of the two Germanys on October 2, 1990; the democratization of many Eastern European countries; and the restructuring of the Soviet Union; we have ample reason to pause and evaluate how these changes may affect areas within our S and T base. Discussion of this base is the main subject of this paper, with particular emphasis on nuclear data measurement, theory, and evaluation.

  5. Research and technology for strategic defense

    SciTech Connect

    Rankine, R.R. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    In response to President Reagan's speech related to the objective for putting an end to the threat of nuclear ballistic missiles, an intensive study was conducted by the Dept. of Defense regarding the technologies applicable to ballistic-missile defense. It was concluded that emerging technologies do hold substantial promise for achieving the President's long-term ballistic-missile defense goal. The committee recommended a long-term program to bring the new technologies to a point of readiness where a decision could be made whether to enter full-scale development. Based on the results of the study, DOD has established a new program for the President's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Details regarding the SDI program are discussed. Surveillance, acquisition, tracking, and kill assessment (SATKA) programs will culminate in technical demonstrations. Attention is given to directed energy weapons, battle management, and survivable defenses.

  6. Emerging technologies for bioweapons defense.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sinh; Rosen, Joseph M; Koop, C Everett

    2005-01-01

    The Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) has changed the way we think about national security. The tragic events of Sept.11 have shown us that world of the 21(st) century is clearly a dangerous place. Terrorism, more than ever, affects the very lives of each and every citizens of our country. Al Qaida has proven that it is able to use simple rudimentary methods to invoke strategic economic losses to our society with our own domestic resources as its weapons. The dawn of the new century has brought forth a new kind of asymmetric war where guerilla fighters are armed not with rifles but with technology at the touch of a keyboard. Warfare as we know it has changed and just as the military has its "transformation", medicine so too must have its own transformation in order to protect our citizen against the ever changing threat of bioterrorism. Virtual Reality and its applications can play a vital role in developing new countermeasures to minimize the catastrophic effects of a potential bioterror attack. PMID:15718759

  7. Emerging technologies for bioweapons defense.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sinh; Rosen, Joseph M; Koop, C Everett

    2005-01-01

    The Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) has changed the way we think about national security. The tragic events of Sept.11 have shown us that world of the 21(st) century is clearly a dangerous place. Terrorism, more than ever, affects the very lives of each and every citizens of our country. Al Qaida has proven that it is able to use simple rudimentary methods to invoke strategic economic losses to our society with our own domestic resources as its weapons. The dawn of the new century has brought forth a new kind of asymmetric war where guerilla fighters are armed not with rifles but with technology at the touch of a keyboard. Warfare as we know it has changed and just as the military has its "transformation", medicine so too must have its own transformation in order to protect our citizen against the ever changing threat of bioterrorism. Virtual Reality and its applications can play a vital role in developing new countermeasures to minimize the catastrophic effects of a potential bioterror attack.

  8. Display science and technology for defense and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-02-01

    The defense display science and technology (S&T) program must address problems facing warfighters that the commercial world will not. These problems require the creation of revolutionary display materials and devices, and the invention of visual system technologies. Breakthroughs needed in display technology for defense and security personnel may be organized into the following technical challenge areas: ultraresolution 25 megapixel devices and 300 megapixel systems (wall display systems at monitor pixel density), flexible plastic rollup displays (ultra-compact form factor when not in use), sparse data true-3D monitors (phosphors embedded in special polymer host matrices), virtual image and head mounted systems, wireless wearable video displays with ultra low weight and volume (including batteries), and intelligent displays with embedded chips providing integrated computing and communications functionalities. Organic photonics and electronics are central to the progress in these S&T challenge areas: significant materials progress is required to enable the display device capabilities required. These challenges and the results of a Department of Defense (DoD) Special Technology Area Review (STAR) on Displays are reviewed. A top-level roadmap is provided to summarize the defense and security S&T strategy.

  9. DOE weapons laboratories' contributions to the nation's defense technology base

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    The question of how the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons laboratories can contribute to a stronger defense technology base is addressed in testimony before the Subcommittee on Defense Industry and Technology of the Senate Armed Services Committee. The importance of the defense technology base is described, the DOE technology base is also described, and some technology base management and institutional issues are discussed. Suggestions are given for promoting a more stable, long-term relationship between the DOE weapons laboratories and the Department of Defense. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  11. Robust, multifunctional flood defenses in the Dutch rural riverine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reviews the possible functions as well as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for robust flood defenses in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands on the basis of the recent literature and case studies at five locations in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is planned. For each of the case studies semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders were conducted. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of a robust, multifunctional dike in comparison to a traditional dike appeared to be the more efficient space use due to the combination of different functions, a longer-term focus and greater safety.

  12. Science and Technology for Bioterrorism Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J P

    2004-05-04

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology, and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field systems that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons.

  13. Nonproliferation Challenges in Space Defense Technology - PANEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) almost always "helps" space fission systems. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and high power fission electric systems appear able to use < 20% enriched uranium with minimal / acceptable performance impacts. However, lower power, "entry level" systems may be needed for space fission technology to be developed and utilized. Low power (i.e. approx.1 kWe) fission systems may have an unacceptable performance penalty if LEU is used instead of HEU. Are there Ways to Support Non-Proliferation Objectives While Simultaneously Helping Enable the Development and Utilization of Modern Space Fission Power and Propulsion Systems?

  14. Automatic speech recognition technology development at ITT Defense Communications Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, George M.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the applications of automatic speech recognition to defense communication systems is presented. Future research efforts include investigations into the following areas: (1) dynamic programming; (2) recognition of speech degraded by noise; (3) speaker independent recognition; (4) large vocabulary recognition; (5) word spotting and continuous speech recognition; and (6) isolated word recognition.

  15. Defense Acquisitions: Factors Affecting Outcomes of Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Since the ACTD (Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations) program was started in 1994, a wide range of products have been tested by technology experts and military operators in realistic settings-from unmanned aerial vehicles, to friend-or-foe detection systems, to biological agent detection systems, to advanced simulation technology designed to enhance joint training. Many of these have successfully delivered new technologies to users. Though the majority of the projects that were examined, transitioned technologies to users, there are factors that hamper the ACTD process. For example: Technology has been too immature to be tested in a realistic setting, leading to cancellation of the demonstration. Military services and defense agencies have been reluctant to fund acquisition of ACTD-proven technologies, especially those focusing on joint requirements, because of competing priorities. ACTD's military utility may not have been assessed consistently. Some of the barriers identified can be addressed through efforts DOD (Department of Defense) now has underway, including an evaluation of how the ACTD process can be improved; adoption of criteria to be used to ensure technology is sufficiently mature; and placing of more attention on the end phase of the ACTD process. Other barriers, however, will be much more difficult to address in view of cultural resistance to joint initiatives and the requirements of DOD's planning and funding process.

  16. Active, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Homeland Defense

    SciTech Connect

    James L. Jones

    2003-06-01

    Active, non-intrusive inspection or interrogation technologies have been used for 100 years - with the primary focus being radiographic imaging. During the last 50 years, various active interrogation systems have been investigated and most have revealed many unique and interesting capabilities and advantages that have already benefited the general public. Unfortunately, except for medical and specific industrial applications, these unique capabilities have not been widely adopted, largely due to the complexity of the technology, the overconfident reliance on passive detection systems to handle most challenges, and the unrealistic public concerns regarding radiation safety issues for a given active inspection deployment. The unique homeland security challenges facing the United States today are inviting more "out-of-the-box" solutions and are demanding the effective technological solutions that only active interrogation systems can provide. While revolutionary new solutions are always desired, these technology advancements are rare, and when found, usually take a long time to fully understand and implement for a given application. What's becoming more evident is that focusing on under-developed, but well-understood, active inspection technologies can provide many of the needed "out-of-the-box" solutions. This paper presents a brief historical overview of active interrogation. It identifies some of the major homeland defense challenges being confronted and the commercial and research technologies presently available and being pursued. Finally, the paper addresses the role of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and its partner, the Idaho Accelerator Center at Idaho State University, in promoting and developing active inspection technologies for homeland defense.

  17. Technology, doctrine, and politics of US coast defenses, 1880-1945: a case study in US defense planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hamburger, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    This study examined the technology of fortifications and armaments available for coast defense in the United States and Europe during each period of change between 1880 and 1945, and analyzed the internal and external political developments, which influenced legislation on coast defenses in the United States. Primary sources included congressional and military archival files, popular and service publications, and technical papers concerning weapons. With respect to defense planning after 1970, primary sources were reports of defense-related commissions, investigations, and hearings Secondary sources included books, articles, and monographs on defense matters since 1880. The study concludes that military professionals of the Army and the Navy tended to follow parochial service interests in recommending how the coasts should be defended. Congressmen usually made decisions on coast defenses based on the perceived benefits of proposed legislation to their constitutents, rather than the national need for coastal defense. As new technology became available for coast defense, the nation never conducted a reappraisal of the need for an integrated force of diverse weapons to perform the mission. Fortifications were retained long beyond obsolescence, and the weapons were never properly integrated into their potential roles.

  18. KSC Technology Area 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Tracking, Timing, Communications and Navigation are critical to all NASA missions. Accurate weather prediction is critical to KSC launch activities. KSC is involved with and in several cases leading research and development in many exciting areas and with partners. We welcome new partners in all of these areas!

  19. Application of quality function deployment in defense technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, Estrella De Maria Forster

    1998-12-01

    program management concerns. The Q-PMM provided an improvement in defining the MOPs that would best describe the overall system MOEs. Both, MOP-MOE associations and a basis of comparison between the two ensembles were elucidated. Conclusion. The findings demonstrated QFD to be an effective approach to defense technology development.

  20. 78 FR 22841 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Encouragement of Science, Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Register at 78 FR 13604-13606. Manuel Quinones, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. BILLING... Regulation Supplement: Encouragement of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Programs... contractors to develop science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs. FOR...

  1. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  2. 77 FR 38731 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Updates to Wide Area WorkFlow (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 218, 232 and 252 RIN Number 0750-AH40 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Updates to Wide Area WorkFlow (DFARS Case 2011-D027) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is issuing...

  3. How To Organize Technology Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Highlights three ways a college or university can organize its technology areas to maximize comfort and save space. Examples are provided on controlling equipment sprawl through thoughtful workstation development, designing computer rooms for flexibility and effective cable management, and emulating business setups that are work-flow efficient and…

  4. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  5. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-05-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  6. The Potential of Interactive Videodisc Technology for Defense Training and Education. Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.

    This study was performed in response to the 1989 Department of Defense Appropriations Bill, which directed the Department of Defense to conduct a study on the use of interactive videodisk technology in education and training as it pertains to effectiveness, cost effectiveness, time on task, retention, and overall applicability to current and…

  7. Creation and transition of digital light processing technology to defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2005-05-01

    A key challenge to defense science and technology programs is the identification of areas ripe for focused government investment so as to make impossible things possible on an accelerated schedule. The creation, transfer to commercial products, and transition to operational military systems of the Texas Instruments (TI) digital micromirror device (DMD) projection display technology from 1987-2005 is a case study in how DoD seeks invest in S&T for warfighting advantage while renewing the civil economy and enabling domestic production of key electronic components. The DoD investment in DMD reduced the risk enough to merit TI productization and resulted in the first VGA single ship color wheel prototype in 1992 (introduced as first commercial product in 1996) and in the first 2.36 Mpx 3-chip color demonstration system in 1995 (a resolution that is only now being introduced as a mass production product). The 1995 demonstrator was the world"s first 100% digital display system. The tenth anniversary of this 2005 achievement presents an appropriate occasion to review and document the success of this prior Air Force and DARPA investment as measured by the subsequent adoption in a wide range of civil and, especially, defense applications.

  8. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  9. NASA Technology Area 1: Launch Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnaughey, Paul; Femminineo, Mark; Koelfgen, Syri; Lepsch, Roger; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology advancements plans for the NASA Technology Area 1, Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA). The draft roadmap reviews various propulsion system technologies that will be developed during the next 25 + years. This roadmap will be reviewed by the National Research Council which will issue a final report, that will include findings and recommendations.

  10. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Soler, Juan J.

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  11. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  12. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  13. Emerging electro-optical technologies for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Ser, W.; Er, Meng H.; Chan, Philip

    1999-11-01

    Technological breakthroughs in the field of imaging and non- imaging sensor sand the related signal processors helped the military users to achieve 'force multiplication'. Present day 'smart-weapon systems' are being converted to 'brilliant-weapon systems' to bridge the gap until the most potent new 'fourth generation systems' come on line based on nanotechnology. The recent military tactics have evolved to take advantage of ever improving technologies to improve the quality and performance over time. The drive behind these technologies is to get a first-pass-mission-success against the target with negligible collateral damage, protecting property and the lives of non-combatants. These technologies revolve around getting target information, detection, designation, guidance, aim-point selection, and mission accomplishment. The effectiveness of these technologies is amply demonstrated during recent wars. This paper brings out the emerging trends in visible/IR/radar smart-sensors and the related signal processing technologies that lead to brilliant guided weapon systems. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview to the readers about futuristic systems. This paper also addresses various system configurations including sensor-fusion.

  14. Using Science Driven Technologies for the Defense and Security Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Zukor, Dorthy; Ambrose, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    For the past three decades, Earth science remote sensing technologies have been providing enormous amounts of useful data and information in broadening our understanding of our home planet as a system. This research, as it has expanded our learning process, has also generated additional questions. This has further resulted in establishing new science requirements, which have culminated in defining and pushing the state-of-the-art technology needs. NASA s Earth science program has deployed 18 highly complex satellites, with a total of 80 sensors, so far and is in a process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in the next decade. Due to the heightened security alert of the nation, researchers and technologists are paying serious attention to the use of these science driven technologies for dual use. In other words, how such sophisticated observing and measuring systems can be used in detecting multiple types of security concerns with a substantial lead time so that the appropriate law enforcement agencies can take adequate steps to defuse any potential risky scenarios. This paper examines numerous NASA technologies such as laser/lidar systems, microwave and millimeter wave technologies, optical observing systems, high performance computational techniques for rapid analyses, and imaging products that can have a tremendous pay off for security applications.

  15. Translating civilian and defense technologies for pediatric critical care and rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicholas J; Quatrano, Louis A; Nicholson, Carol E

    2006-01-01

    A conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) titled "Translating Civilian and Defense Technologies for Pediatric Critical Care and Rehabilitation Research" was held on May 16th and 17th, 2005 in Rockville, Maryland. A summary of presentations from the conference is provided. Topics presented addressed: advances in monitoring and imaging devices used in the pediatric intensive care unit, regulatory issues and recent technological developments relating to medical devices for children, the new role that virtual reality is playing in rehabilitation medicine, and the evolving future of assistive devices for rehabilitation.

  16. Oak Ridge defense conversion -- Translating technology into economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.H.

    1994-11-14

    In 1992 there were over 6,000 employees involved in defense related activities at the Y-12 Plant. By late 1994 the plant had undergone a dramatic change in operations including a reduction of the work force to less than 4,000 employees. That this major downsizing was accomplished without a layoff is a tribute to the combined efforts of the Y-12 employees, union leadership, the DOE, Martin Marietta and local and state governments. The keys to the success are: (1) the end of the Cold War and the potential impact was recognized early and a plan of action was developed and implemented, the plan was based on a total reorientation of the historical role and mode of operation of the plant; (2) everyone who had an interest in the outcome was invited to join in the planning; (3) the plan was developed and implemented as if no barriers to success existed; (4) opening about one-third of the classified portion of the Y-12 Plant as the initial activity was critical to the success of the plan. The historical opening of the gates was a major factor in convincing employees and a skeptical public that change could and would occur. As the debate on the future of the DOE weapons complex evolves it is clear that the Y-12 Plant will be a major contributor to improving productivity and the competitiveness of current and future industry in Tennessee and the country while continuing to provide unique expertise to support the nation`s nuclear weapons program.

  17. Scientific Self-Defense: Transforming Dewey's Idea of Technological Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, David I.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, David Waddington provides a basic outline of John Dewey's often-overlooked views on technology education and explores how these ideas could be updated productively for use in contemporary contexts. Some of the shortcomings of Dewey's ideas are also examined--his faith in the scientific method may have been excessive, and some…

  18. Cryogenics Testbed Technology Focus Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Our mission is to bring together the mutual elements of research, industry, and training in the field of cryogenics to advance technology development for the spaceports of the future. Successful technology and productive collaboration comes from these three ingredients working together in a triangle of interaction.

  19. Commercializing Defense Technologies and Helping Defense Firms Succeed in Commercial Markets: A Report on the Objectives, Activities, and Accomplishments of the TAP-IN Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Technology Access for Product Innovation (TAP-IN), the largest technology deployment project funded by TRP, was competitively selected through a national solicitation for proposals. TAP-IN was created to help companies access and apply defense technologies and help defense-dependent companies enter new commercial markets. Defense technologies included technologies developed by DoD, DOE, NASA, and their contractors. TAP-IN was structured to provide region-based technology access services that were able to draw on technology resources nationwide. TAP-IN provided expert assistance in all stages of the commercialization process from concept through prototype design to capital sourcing and marketing strategy. TAP-IN helped companies locate new technology, identify business partners, secure financing, develop ideas for new products, identify new markets, license technology, solve technical problems, and develop company-specific applications of federal technology. TAP-IN leveraged NASA's existing commercial technology network to create an integrated national network of organizations that assisted companies in every state. In addition to NASA's six regional technology transfer centers (RTTCs), TAP-IN included business and technology development organizations in every state, the Industrial Designers Society of America, and the Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC).

  20. Review of the National Defense Intelligence College's Master's Degree in Science and Technology Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) was asked by the National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) to convene a committee to review the curriculum and syllabi for their proposed master of science degree in science and technology intelligence. The NRC was asked to review the material provided by the NDIC and offer advice and recommendations…

  1. Comparison of the radiation hardness of various VLSI technologies for defense applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    In this review the radiation hardness of various potential very large scale (VLSI) IC technologies is evaluated. IC scaling produces several countervailing trends. Reducing vertical dimensions tends to increase total dose hardness, while reducing lateral feature sizes may increase susceptibility to transient radiation effects. It is concluded that during the next decade at least, silicon complimentary MOS (CMOS), perhaps on an insulating substrate (SOI) will be the technology of choice for VLSI in defense systems.

  2. Technology Area Roadmap for In Space Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Mike; Coote, David; Goebel, Dan; Palaszewski, Bryan; White, Sonny

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology area (TA) roadmap to develop propulsion technologies that will be used to enable further exploration of the solar system, and beyond. It is hoped that development of the technologies within this TA will result in technical solutions that will improve thrust levels, specific impulse, power, specific mass, volume, system mass, system complexity, operational complexity, commonality with other spacecraft systems, manufacturability and durability. Some of the propulsion technologies that are reviewed include: chemical and non-chemical propulsion, and advanced propulsion (i.e., those with a Technology Readiness level of less than 3). Examples of these advanced technologies include: Beamed Energy, Electric Sail, Fusion, High Energy Density Materials, Antimatter, Advanced Fission and Breakthrough propulsion technologies. Timeframes for development of some of these propulsion technologies are reviewed, and top technical challenges are reviewed. This roadmap describes a portfolio of in-space propulsion technologies that can meet future space science and exploration needs.

  3. Antioxidative defense and oxidative stress in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from differently polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, Mirella; Routti, Heli; Tamuz, Yael; Nyman, Madeleine; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2012-06-15

    High contaminant levels detected in Baltic seals have been associated with various health effects. In this study several parameters related to antioxidative defense and oxidative stress (concentrations of reduced and oxidised glutathione, lipid hydroperoxide and vitamin E, activities of glutathione reductase, peroxidase and S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and superoxidedismutase) were measured in the livers of ringed seals from the Baltic Sea and from a less contaminated reference area, Svalbard, Norway. Seals were caught during two different time periods 1996-1997 and 2002-2007, which represent different levels of contamination. No signs of oxidative damage were found in the Baltic seals. However, glutathione metabolism was enhanced in the ringed seals from the Baltic Sea compared to the seals from Svalbard. The adaptation to dive where repetitive ischemia/reperfusion occurs naturally may contribute to the resistance of oxidative stress and to the capacity to increase enzymatic antioxidant defense in phocid seals. This could explain the similarities in oxidative stress levels despite the differences in antioxidant responses between the ringed seals from the Baltic Sea and Svalbard.

  4. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for fiscal year 1993. Appendix II research laboratories and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    This document contains summaries of the research facilities that support the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for FY 1993. The nine program elements are aggregated into three program clusters as follows: (1) Advanced materials sciences and technologies; chemistry and materials, explosives, special nuclear materials (SNM), and tritium. (2) Design sciences and advanced computation; physics, conceptual design and assessment, and computation and modeling. (3) Advanced manufacturing technologies and capabilities; system engineering science and technology, and electronics, photonics, sensors, and mechanical components. Section I gives a brief summary of 23 major defense program (DP) research and technology facilities and shows how these major facilities are organized by program elements. Section II gives a more detailed breakdown of the over 200 research and technology facilities being used at the Laboratories to support the Defense Programs mission.

  5. Lessons learned from U.S. Department of Defense 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations.

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, T.; Gasper, W.; Lacher, L.; Newsom, D.; Yantosik, G.

    1999-07-06

    The US Department of Defense (DoD), in cooperation with other federal agencies, has taken many initiatives to improve its ability to support civilian response to a domestic biological terrorism incident. This paper discusses one initiative, the 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs), conducted by the Office of the Secretary of Defense during 1997 to better understand: (1) the capability of newly developed chemical and biological collection and identification technologies in a field environment; (2) the ability of specialized DoD response teams to use these new technologies within the structure of cooperating DoD and civilian consequence management organizations; and (3) the adequacy of current modeling tools for predicting the dispersal of biological hazards. This paper discusses the experience of the ACTDs from the civilian community support perspective. The 911-Bio ACTD project provided a valuable opportunity for DoD and civilian officials to learn how they should use their combined capabilities to manage the aftermath of a domestic biological terrorism incident.

  6. NASA's Spaceliner Investment Area Technology Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to significantly reduce cost and improve safety over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations, and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through both ground and flight system testing. The Spaceliner Investment Area plans to mature vehicle technologies to reduce the implementation risks for future commercially developed reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The plan is to substantially increase the design and operating margins of the third generation RLV (the Space Shuttle is the first generation) by incorporating advanced technologies in propulsion, materials, structures, thermal protection systems, avionics, and power. Advancements in design tools and better characterization of the operational environment will allow improvements in design margins. Improvements in operational efficiencies will be provided through use of advanced integrated health management, operations, and range technologies. The increase in margins will allow components to operate well below their design points resulting in improved component operating life, reliability, and safety which in turn reduces both maintenance and refurbishment costs. These technologies have the potential of enabling horizontal takeoff by reducing the takeoff weight and achieving the goal of airline-like operation. These factors in conjunction with increased flight rates from an expanding market will result in significant improvements in safety

  7. DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) canister impact testing and analyses for the Transportation Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Mishima, J.

    1988-12-01

    A legal weight truck cask design has been developed for the US Department of Energy by GA Technologies, Inc. The cask will be used to transport defense high-level waste canisters produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The development of the cask required the collection of impact data for the DWPF canisters. The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) performed this work under the guidance of the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. Two full-scale DWPF canisters filled with nonradioactive borosilicate glass were impacted under ''normal'' and ''hypothetical'' accident conditions. Two canisters, supplied by the DWPF, were tested. Each canister was vertically dropped on the bottom end from a height of either 0.3 m or 9.1 m (for normal or hypothetical accident conditions, respectively). The structural integrity of each canister was then examined using helium leak and dye penetrant testing. The canisters' diameters and heights, which had been previously measured, were then remeasured to determine how the canister dimensions had changed. Following structural integrity testing, the canisters were flaw leak tested. For transportation flaw leak testing, four holes were fabricated into the shell of canister A-27 (0.3 m drop height). The canister was then transported a total distance of 2069 miles. During transport, the waste form material that fell from each flaw was collected to determine the amount of size distribution of each flaw release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. NASA's Spaceliner 100 Investment Area Technology Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner100 Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), launch systems, and operations and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through ground system testing. Flight testing where required, will be advocated on a case by case basis.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Sarma V. Pisupati; Chunshan Song; Ronald S. Wasco; Ronald T. Wincek; Xiaochun Xu; Alan W. Scaroni; Richard Hogg; Subhash Chander; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Mark S. Klima; Peter T. Luckie; Adam Rose; Richard L. Gordon; Jeffrey Lazo; A. Michael Schaal

    2004-01-30

    The third phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for US Department of Defense (DOD) facilities was completed. The objectives of the project were to: decrease DOD's dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase III activities were focused on evaluating deeply-cleaned coals as fuels for industrial boilers and investigating emissions control strategies for providing ultra-low emissions when firing coal-based fuels. This was addressed by performing coal beneficiation and preparation studies, and bench- to demonstration-scale emissions reduction studies. In addition, economic studies were conducted focused on determining cost and market penetration, selection of incentives, and regional economic impacts of coal-based technologies.

  10. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  11. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  12. Self-defense or undermining the self? Exploring the possibilities and limitations of a novel anti-rape technology.

    PubMed

    White, Deborah; Rees, Gethin

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of feminist-inspired law reforms, rape remains highly prevalent. While many continue to fight for broad cultural and institutional changes, some argue that more immediate interventions are required. Self-defense techniques represent a key strategy of resistance to rape, and empirical evidence suggests that women's active resistance may hold a number of positive benefits. In this essay, we compare the aims and objectives of a novel anti-rape technology, known as the Rape-aXe, with traditional self-defense techniques, focusing upon the potential for both to resist individual acts of sexual aggression and, more broadly, end gendered sexual violence.

  13. The evolution of advanced mechanical defenses and potential technological applications of diatom shells.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christian E

    2005-01-01

    Diatoms are unicellular algae with silicified cell walls, which exhibit a high degree of symmetry and complexity. Their diversity is extraordinarily high; estimates suggest that about 10(5) marine and limnic species may exist. Recently, it was shown that diatom frustules are mechanically resilient, statically sophisticated structures made of a tough glass-like composite. Consequently, to break the frustules, predators have to generate large forces and invest large amounts of energy. In addition, they need feeding tools (e.g., mandibles or gastric mills) which are hard, tough, and resilient enough to resist high stress and wear, which are bound to occur when they feed on biomineralized objects such as diatoms or other biomineralized protists. Indeed, many copepods feeding on diatoms possess, in analogy to the enamelcoated teeth of mammals, amazingly complex, silica-laced mandibles. The highly developed adaptations both to protect and to break diatoms indicate that selection pressure is high to optimize material properties and the geometry of the shells to achieve mechanical strength of the overall structure. This paper discusses the mechanical challenges which force the development of mechanical defenses, and the structural components of the diatom frustules which indicate that evolutionary optimization has led to mechanically sophisticated structures. Understanding the diatom frustule from the nanometer scale up to the whole shell will provide new insights to advanced combinations of nanostructured composite ceramic materials and lightweight architecture for technological applications.

  14. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  15. An Intelligent Gateway for the Department of Defense. The Technology Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Gladys A.

    Charged with facilitating access to scientific and technical information (STI) databases, online services, and networks relevant to the conduct and management of research and engineering programs, the Defense Technical Information Center was designated as the Department of Defense (DoD) focal point for the development of an intelligent gateway…

  16. Lean Principles and Defense Information Technology Acquisition: An Investigation of the Determinants of Successful Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules…

  17. Differential nest-defense to perceived danger in urban and rural areas by female Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of wildlife to humans is known to differ with surroundings. In urban environments that provide suitable habitats for breeding birds, animals adapt to humans and their response is accordingly altered. This study examined the nest defense behavior of female Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) during the breeding season in urban and rural areas of Prague. The females showed four different types of reaction to humans that approached the nest and differed significantly between the two study areas. Contrary to expectations, urban nesting females were more aggressive than rural conspecifics. The intensity of response increased as the season progressed, and females defended their broods to a much greater degree than their clutches in both urban and rural habitats, suggesting a differential effort as a function of their relative investment in the breeding attempt conforming with the parental investment hypothesis. PMID:27441105

  18. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  19. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

  20. Lean principles and defense information technology acquisition: An investigation of the determinants of successful application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules reductions. Additionally, the study set out to determine what potential critical success factors (CSF's) were documented in the secondary data captured for each release, and extracted the variables used in the decision making for acceptability of fielding. In evaluating lean applicability to the high variability environment of USAF IT acquisitions, the research was conducted using non-experimental quantitative methods of archival secondary data. The sample for this case study was compiled from a USAF office that had implemented these techniques in pre-development, development and testing, and fielding phases. Based on the research data, acquisitionists and lean practitioners are inherently interconnected. Therefore, an understanding that critical success factors (CSFs) are integral to successful lean application in DoD IT acquisitions is crucial. Through a combination of synergistic alignments, plyometric CSFs were discovered to maximize the effects of each single CSF to produce rapid results in defense IT acquisitions. These include: (1) Enterprise Incorporation, (2) Team Trust, (3) Transformational Leadership, (4) Recursive Improvement, (5) Integrated Synergy, (6) Customer-Centric Culture and (7) Heuristic Communication.

  1. The Potential for High Technology Manufacturing in Nonmetropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, David L.; And Others

    This paper asks whether manufacturers of high technology are locating production facilities in nonmetropolitan areas and, if so, which industries and geographical areas are affected. It identifies high-technology manufacturers and estimates national employment trends for the sector from 1975 to 1982. National and regional employment data for…

  2. MSFC institutional area network and ATM technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1994-01-01

    The New Institutional Area Network (NEWIAN) at Marshall supports over 5000 end users with access to 26 file servers providing work presentation services. It is comprised of some 150 Ethernet LAN's interconnected by bridges/routers which are in turn connected to servers over two dual FDDI rings. The network supports various higher level protocols such as IP, IPX, AppleTalk (AT), and DECNet. At present IPX and AT protocols packets are routed, and IP protocol packets are bridged; however, work is in progress to route all IP packets. The impact of routing IP packets on network operation is examined. Broadband Integrated Services Data Network (BISDN), presently at various stages of development, is intended to provide voice, video, and data transfer services over a single network. BISDN will use asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) as a data transfer technique which provides for transmission, multiplexing, switching, and relaying of small size data units called cells. Limited ATM Wide Area Network (WAN) services are offered by Wiltel, AT&T, Sprint, and others. NASA is testing a pilot ATM WAN with a view to provide Program Support Communication Network services using ATM. ATM supports wide range of data rates and quality of service requirements. It is expected that ATM switches will penetrate campus networks as well. However, presently products in these areas are at various stages of development and standards are not yet complete. We examine development of ATM to help assess its role in the evolution of NEWIAN.

  3. Technology Area Roadmap for In-Space Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Michael; Palaszewski, Bryan; Coote, David; Goebel, Dan; White, Harold

    2012-01-01

    The exponential increase of launch system size.and cost.with delta-V makes missions that require large total impulse cost prohibitive. Led by NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center, a team from government, industry, and academia has developed a flight demonstration mission concept of an integrated electrodynamic (ED) tethered satellite system called PROPEL: \\Propulsion using Electrodynamics.. The PROPEL Mission is focused on demonstrating a versatile configuration of an ED tether to overcome the limitations of the rocket equation, enable new classes of missions currently unaffordable or infeasible, and significantly advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to an operational level. We are also focused on establishing a far deeper understanding of critical processes and technologies to be able to scale and improve tether systems in the future. Here, we provide an overview of the proposed PROPEL mission. One of the critical processes for efficient ED tether operation is the ability to inject current to and collect current from the ionosphere. Because the PROPEL mission is planned to have both boost and deboost capability using a single tether, the tether current must be capable of flowing in both directions and at levels well over 1 A. Given the greater mobility of electrons over that of ions, this generally requires that both ends of the ED tether system can both collect and emit electrons. For example, hollow cathode plasma contactors (HCPCs) generally are viewed as state-of-the-art and high TRL devices; however, for ED tether applications important questions remain of how efficiently they can operate as both electron collectors and emitters. Other technologies will be highlighted that are being investigated as possible alternatives to the HCPC such as Solex that generates a plasma cloud from a solid material (Teflon) and electron emission (only) technologies such as cold-cathode electron field emission or photo-electron beam generation (PEBG) techniques

  4. Engineering Research, Development and Technology, FY95: Thrust area report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through their collaboration with US industry in pursuit of the most cost-effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where they can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance their capabilities and establish themselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts, technology thrust areas are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1995. The report provides timely summaries of objectives methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: computational electronics and electromagnetics; computational mechanics; microtechnology; manufacturing technology; materials science and engineering; power conversion technologies; nondestructive evaluation; and information engineering.

  5. Intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Research manuscript series 172

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    An intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete (200-Z) area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina was conducted. The purpose was to locate, describe and assess the archeological resources within the proposed construction area and to provide the Department of Energy with the recommendations as to the significance of the resources. This report presents a summary of the background, methods, results and recommendations resulting from the Saltcrete area intensive survey.

  6. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for fiscal year 1993. Appendix materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    The pages that follow contain summaries of the nine R&TD Program Element Plans for Fiscal Year 1993 that were completed in the Spring of 1993. The nine program elements are aggregated into three program clusters as follows: Design Sciences and Advanced Computation; Advanced Manufacturing Technologies and Capabilities; and Advanced Materials Sciences and Technology.

  7. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  8. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    This documents presents a programmatic overview and program element plan summaries for conceptual design and assessment; physics; computation and modeling; system engineering science and technology; electronics, photonics, sensors, and mechanical components; chemistry and materials; special nuclear materials, tritium, and explosives.

  9. Collaborative Information Technology Center (CITC) for Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, Dean; Driskill, David A.

    The digital divide remains a formidable issue in rural areas where the only broadband access to the Internet may be at public schools or city governments. As the only locations in rural areas with adequate technological resources, schools, libraries, health facilities, and agricultural extension facilities can be places where citizens learn about…

  10. Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonometti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Flight Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, postdeflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  11. Counterproliferation strategy: The influence of technology, budget, and arms control on theater missile defenses. Strategic research project

    SciTech Connect

    Parlier, G.H.

    1996-05-20

    This paper describes the historical evolution of the theater missile threat during World War II and the Persian Gulf War, and analyzes current technological challenges, budgetary pressures, and arms control restraints which constrain the development and deployment of effective theater missile defenses. The impact of these trends on strategic concepts as outlined in the National Military Strategy and their implications for attaining national policy objectives is assessed. A systems approach is used to described analyze, and evaluate the effectiveness of emerging counterproliferation strategy within the framework of an ends-ways-means strategy formulation paradigm. I conclude that current trends will lead to a self-deterring strategy: resources are inadequate to support the ways we intend to achieve our national objectives. Recommendations are made to eliminate unacceptable risk and enhance the concept of `extended conventional deterrence` consistent with U.S. national values and security interests for our role in a new world order.

  12. Thrust Area Report, Engineering Research, Development and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Langland, R. T.

    1997-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through our collaboration with U.S. industry in pursuit of the most cost- effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where we can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance our capabilities and establish ourselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts technology {ital thrust areas} are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1996. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Microtechnology; Manufacturing Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Information Engineering. Readers desiring more information are encouraged to contact the individual thrust area leaders or authors. 198 refs., 206 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Information Literacy Education on College of Technology at Kyushu Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozono, Kazutake; Ikeda, Naomitsu; Irie, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Yoichi; Oshima, Shunsuke; Murayama, Koichi; Taguchi, Hirotsugu

    Recently, the importance of an engineering education increases by the development of the information technology (IT) . Development of the information literacy education is important to deal with new IT in the education on college of technology. Our group investigated the current state of information literacy education on college of technology at Kyushu area and the secondary education. In addition, we investigated about the talent whom the industrial world requested. From these investigation results, this paper proposed cooperation with the elementary and secondary education, enhancement of intellectual property education, introduction of information ethics education, introduction of career education and enhancement of PBL to information literacy education on college of technology.

  14. N-1: Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Tour Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2012-05-09

    Group N-1 develops and provides training on nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies intended for nuclear material accounting and control to fulfill both international and domestic obligations. The N-1 group is located at Technical Area (TA)-35 in Buildings 2 and 27. Visitors to the area can observe developed and fielded NDA technologies, as well as the latest research efforts to develop the next generation of NDA technologies. Several areas are used for NDA training. The N-1 School House area typically is used for basic training on neutron- and gamma-ray-based NDA techniques. This area contains an assortment of gamma-ray detector systems, including sodium iodide and high-purity germanium and the associated measurement components. Many types of neutron assay systems are located here, including both standard coincidence and multiplicity counters. The N-1 School House area is also used for holdup training; located here are the mock holdup assemblies and associated holdup measurement tools. Other laboratory areas in the N-1 space are used for specialized training, such as waste NDA, calorimetry, and advanced gamma-ray NDA. Also, many research laboratories in the N-1 space are used to develop new NDA technologies. The calorimetry laboratory is used to develop and evaluate new technologies and techniques that measure the heat signature from nuclear material to determine mass. The micro calorimetry laboratory is being used to develop advanced technologies that can measure gamma rays with extremely high resolution. This technique has been proven in the laboratory setting, and the team is now working to cultivate a field-capable system. The N-1 group also develops remote and unattended systems for the tracking and control of nuclear material. A demonstration of this technology is located within one of the laboratory spaces. The source tracker software was developed by N-1 to monitor the locations and quantities of nuclear materials. This software is currently used to track

  15. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  16. Using today's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) technologies to accomplish tomorrow's low cost space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Dean A.

    1992-08-01

    The various core technologies developed from the SDI programs are described and the cost and weight reductions that have resulted from the systematic exploitation of today's aerospace expertise are characterized. Avionics, sensors, and on-orbit propulsion systems can be utilized in developing small, low-cost devices for space exploration with significant performance capabilities. It is shown how the resulting core technologies can be employed in constructing three specific types of miniaturized spacecraft: a 16 kg planetary rover, a 200 kg lunar lander, and a 45 kg space vehicle repair and rescue craft.

  17. Department of Defense counterdrug technology development of non-intrusive inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennella, John J.

    1997-02-01

    The Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division serves as the executive agent for the DoD's Contraband Detection and Cargo Container Inspection Technology Development Program. The goal of the DoD non-intrusive inspection (NII) program is to develop prototype equipment that can be used to inspect containers and vehicles, quickly and in large numbers without unnecessary delays in the movement of legitimate cargo. This paper summaries the past accomplishments of the program, current status, and future plans.

  18. Better a shield than a sword: Perspectives on defense and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1987-01-01

    The author offers an appraisal of his role in the development of the atomic and hydrogen bombs, his role in the Oppenheimer controversy, and his stance on arms control and nuclear policy. He also describes his relationship to President Truman, Ernest Lawrence and the Livermore Laboratories, and Ronald Reagan. He concludes with a reiteration of his views on nuclear technology, science and the military, and nuclear ethics.

  19. Defense Workforce Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; And Others

    This report discusses the amount and kinds of Department of Defense (DoD) interactive courseware (ICW) programs that are candidates for transfer to the private sector. Candidates for transfer were identified through an analysis of the Defense Instructional Technology Information System (DITIS). Out of 4,644 ICW programs that have been reported to…

  20. Summary of the proceedings of the Defense Nuclear Agency Conference on Arms Control and Verification Technology (ACT), 1--4 June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.

    1992-12-01

    The first Defense Nuclear Agency Conference on Arms Control and Verification Technology provided an international forum for over 200 individuals from the arms control verification technology and national security communities for discussion on the future of arms control verification and technology developments. Papers were presented in the following sessions: Future Arms Control Initiatives, Interface between Intelligence and Arms Control, Lessons Learned, Proliferation in a Changing World Technologies -- Roles and Applications, and Economics of Arms Control. Plenary sessions for general presentations on the future role of verification technology and negotiating and implementing verification measures. The conference papers will be published separately.

  1. Engineering research, development and technology. Thrust area report, FY93

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff, tools, and facilities needed to support current and future LLNL programs. The efforts are guided by a dual-benefit research and development strategy that supports Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence and economic competitiveness through partnerships with U.S. industry. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes the activities for the fiscal year 1993. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and results from nine thrust areas for this fiscal year: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering; and Emerging Technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 47 papers in this report.

  2. Diapering, diaper technology, and diaper area skin health.

    PubMed

    Odio, Mauricio; Thaman, Lauren

    2014-11-01

    Disposable diapers are the most common diaper care practice in Western societies today, and their use continues to increase globally. Improvements in disposable diaper technology have helped to reduce the prevalence and severity of diaper dermatitis (DD) over the course of the last few decades. This article reviews how changes in disposable diaper technology interact with the various etiological factors in DD, thus helping to improve overall diaper area skin health for children around the world.

  3. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  4. Supercritical water oxidation technology for DWPF. [Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.; Gentilucci, J.A.

    1992-02-07

    At the request of Mr. H.L. Brandt and others in the Savannah River Field Office High Level Waste Division office, DWPF, and SRL personnel have reviewed two potential applications for supercritical water oxidation technology in DWPF. The first application would replace the current hydrolysis process by destroying the organic fractions of the precipitated cesium / potassium tetraphenylborate slurry. The second application pertains to liquid benzene destruction. After a thorough evaluation the first application is not recommended. The second is ready to be tested if needed.

  5. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs.

  6. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  7. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  8. Developing technologies for rainwater utilization in urbanized area.

    PubMed

    Kim, R H; Lee, S; Lee, J H; Kim, Y M; Suh, J Y

    2005-04-01

    Rainwater utilization has potential to recover the hydrological cycle, to buffer extreme run-off situations in the watercourses, and to reduce the costs for water supply in urban areas. However, relatively few works have been done for developing technologies to improve the water quality during rainwater utilization in large cities where the contamination of rainwater is anticipated. Therefore, this study focused on developing technologies for rainwater utilization subsystems including catchment, storage, treatment, infiltration, and use for buildings in urban areas. The rainwater samples collected from roof and roof garden were compared with wet deposition to analyze and identify the major components that may cause problems in rainwater utilization. Based on these results, novel techniques utilizing TiO2, sunlight, and bauxsol to minimize the contamination level by particles, microorganisms, and nutrients were developed for rainwater subsystems and applied to explore their suitability.

  9. Dynamic defense workshop :

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  10. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  11. Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

  12. 75 FR 52732 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense... notice that it is renewing the charter for the Missile Defense Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to... Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology & Logistics and the Director, Missile Defense...

  13. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE`s Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina.

  14. Technological forecasting and research inputs in the area of birth control technology.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, K; Bowonder, B; Rohatgi, P K

    1974-12-01

    Technological forecasting, defined as quantified probabilistic prediction of timings and degree of change in the technological parameters, capabilities desirability or needs at different times in the future, is applied to birth control technology (BCT) as a means of revealing the paths of most promising research through identifying the necessary points for breakthroughs. The present status of BCT in the areas of pills and the IUD, male contraceptives, immumological approaches, post-coital pills, abortion, sterilization, luteolytic agents, laser technologies, and control of the sex of the child, are each summarized and evaluated in turn. Fine mapping is done to identify the most potentially promising areas of BCT. These include efforts to make oral contraception easier, improvement of the design of the IUD, clinical evaluation of the male contraceptive danazol, the effecting of biochemical changes in the seminal fluid, and researching of immunological approaches and the effects of other new drugs such as prostaglandins. The areas that require immediate and large research inputs are oral contraception and the IUD. On the basis of population and technological forecasts, it is deduced that research efforts could most effectively aid countries like India through the immediate production of an oral contraceptive pill or IUD with long-lasting effects. Development of a pill for males or an immunization against pre gnancy would also have a significant impact. However, the major impediment to birth control programs to date is attitudes, which must be changed through education.

  15. 77 FR 782 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... governance. The Board shall report to the Secretary of Defense or the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the... (b) a wealth of top-level, global business experience in the areas of executive management, corporate governance, audit and finance, human resources, economics, technology and healthcare. Board members shall...

  16. Information Technology Certifier Perspectives on Areas Affecting Certification Assessments: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Steven Russell

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) certifiers evaluate risk and develop mitigations ensuring IT infrastructures remain protected within acceptable levels of operation, which if not properly maintained can potentially result in loss of life within Department of Defense (DoD) and federal environments. This qualitative phenomenological exploratory study…

  17. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  18. Remote-area health care delivery through space technology - STARPAHC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belasco, N.; Johnston, R. S.; Stonesifer, J. C.; Pool, S. L.

    1977-01-01

    A joint NASA/HEW project called Space Technology Applied to Rural Papage Advanced Health Care (STARPAHC) has been developed to deliver quality health care to inhabitants of remote geographical areas. The system consists of a hospital-based support control center, a fixed clinic, a mobile clinic, and a referral center with access to specialists via television links to the control center. A strategically located relay station routes television, voice, and data transmissions between system elements. A model system has been installed on the Papage Indian Reservation in Arizona, and is undergoing a 2-year evaluation. The system has been shown to be both effective and cost-efficient, and applications of the concept are planned for future manned spacecraft flights.

  19. Cooled variable-area radial turbine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Large, G. D.; Meyer, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was a conceptual evaluation and design analyses of a cooled variable-area radial turbine capable of maintaining nearly constant high efficiency when operated at a constant speed and pressure ratio over a range of flows corresponding to 50- to 100-percent maximum engine power. The results showed that a 1589K (2400 F) turbine was feasible that would satisfy a 4000-hour duty cycle life goal. The final design feasibility is based on 1988 material technology goals. A peak aerodynamic stage total efficiency of 0.88 was predicted at 100 percent power. Two candidate stators were identified: an articulated trailing-edge and a locally movable sidewall. Both concepts must be experimentally evaluated to determine the optimum configuration. A follow-on test program is proposed for this evaluation.

  20. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1994--September 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Morrison, J.L.

    1995-04-14

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. Activities this reporting period included performing coal beneficiation/preparation studies, conducting combustion performance evaluations, preparing retrofit engineering designs, determining retrofit economics, and installing a micronized coal-water mixture (MCWM) circuit.

  1. Is the flavin-deficient red blood cell common in Maremma, Italy, an important defense against malaria in this area?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B. B.; Scattoni, M.; Perry, G. M.; Galvan, P.; Giuberti, M.; Buonocore, G.; Vullo, C.

    1994-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of a familial flavin-deficient red blood cell in Ferrara province in the Po delta in northern Italy, believed to have been selected for by malaria which was endemic from the 12th century. In the present study, activities of FAD-dependent red-cell glutathione reductase (EGR) in the Grosseto area of Maremma on the west coast of Italy where malaria was endemic from 300 B.C. are compared both with activities in the Ferrara area and with activities where there was no history of endemic malaria--in the Florence area and in London in people of Anglo-Saxon origin. EGR activities were similar in Grosseto and Ferrara and were significantly lower than in Florence and London. As previously found in Ferrara, low EGR activity in Grosseto was shown to be unrelated to low dietary riboflavin intake. These findings in Grosseto, suggesting selection by malaria, are particularly interesting because, unlike the situation in Ferrara and most other malarial areas, the prevalence of thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is very low, and they do not appear to have been selected for in Maremma. It is possible that a flavin-deficient red cell, known to inhibit growth of the malaria parasite, was an important protecting factor in the population of this area over the centuries. PMID:7977361

  2. 76 FR 71928 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Updates to Wide Area WorkFlow (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Applicable''.) (3) Document Routing. The Contractor shall use the information in the Routing Data Table below... System. Routing Data Table * Field name in WAWF Data to be entered in WAWF Pay Office DoDAAC Issue By Do... payment requests and receiving reports through Wide Area WorkFlow (WAWF) and TRICARE Encounter Data...

  3. CMC Participation in the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) Workshop: Defense, Technology and Cooperative Security in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Biringer, K.L.; Olsen, J.

    1998-11-01

    As an ongoing part of the collaborative efforts between the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories, the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), staff from the CMC served as faculty in conducting a workshop in Shanghai, China. Sponsor of the workshop was the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) based in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The workshop included participants from throughout South Asia and China. The CMC presented four sessions related to the role of monitoring technologies in promoting regional security and building confidence among nations. Participation in these workshops supports U.S. efforts to further regional cooperation and promote arms control, nonproliferation and other cooperative securily measures and supplements efforts funded by DOE and ACDA over the past four years. The RCSS Shanghai meeting permitted a continued CMC involvement in regionally conducted training for anew generation of leaders in government, the military, and academia throughout South Asia and China. Nuclear issues are clearly a dominant South Asian concern since the nuclear tests of May 1998. However, there remains a strong interest in identifying opportunities for increased trade and reduced tensions in other areas. The RCSS and other regional organizations are enthusiastic about continued CMC involvement in future regional courses.

  4. Situated Professional Development and Technology Integration: The Capital Area Technology and Inquiry in Education (CATIE) Mentoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Karen; Holmes, Aliya; Vargas, Juan D.; Jennings, Sybillyn; Meier, Ellen; Rubenfeld, Lester

    2002-01-01

    Explores the theoretical basis for a mentoring model of professional development addressing technology integration into classroom teaching and learning. Describes the Capital Area Technology and Inquiry in Education (CATIE) Program for elementary schools and discusses situative theories of knowledge and learning, technology planning, access to…

  5. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O. ); Weir, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  6. Assuring the U.S. Department of Defense a Strong Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The ability of the nation's military to prevail during future conflicts, and to fulfill its humanitarian and other missions, depends on continued advances in the nation's technology base. A workforce with robust Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) capabilities is critical to sustaining U.S. preeminence. Today, however, the STEM…

  7. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1992--March 27, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.

    1993-05-13

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (MC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash and high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase I are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil- designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or MC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  8. Planning for airport access: An analysis of the San Francisco Bay area. Technological options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Current transportation technology and expected technological trends are reviewed. These technologies are assessed within the framework of the airport access system in the San Francisco Bay area. Four types of technological options are considered: (1) automotive systems, (2) commuter air systems, (3) automated guideways, and (4) water systems.

  9. Strategic Defense Initiative - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A general framework for developing the concept and implementing options for strategic ballistic missile defense systems is emerging. The objective of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program is to conduct research on those technologies for defensive system which could intercept ballistic missiles after they have been launched and prevent them from hitting their targets. Its goal is to acquire the technical knowledge as a basis for a later decision on deployment, not a program for deployment or star wars. Abrahamson reviews the basic technological questions facing researchers, outlines the multi-layered defense possibilities and summarizes the status of technology to date. He argues for a continuity of resources to conduct the program. 4 figures.

  10. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O.; Weir, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  11. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L.

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  12. Technology selection for MSW treatment in Altiplano areas using FMDM.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianguo; Lou, Zhiying; Hg, Siio; Duo, Ji; Li, Zhong

    2009-10-01

    There are special requirements for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment caused by lower oxygen content and atmospheric pressure on the Altiplano. The intention of this paper was to analyse the applicability of various technologies to MSW treatment in the Altiplano and select the best one based on the current MSW collection modes and technical levels, using the Fuzzy Mathematical Decision Method (FMDM). Technologies including landfill, incineration, composting, and anaerobic digestion (AD) were compared. The results of the studies showed that AD technology is a new technology which is attractive in economic terms and helpful for environmental harmony. AD can solve the difficulties caused by a high content of organic matter in the MSW, lower atmospheric pressure and oxygen content on the Altiplano. Moreover, it can achieve reduction and recycling of the waste, thereby saving space for treatment and disposal. Using this technology, renewable energy can be recovered to save conventional fuel consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases can be reduced to improve the conservation of the local ecosystem. Putting AD into practice in the Altiplano may be the preferred method of MSW treatment.

  13. Technology selection for MSW treatment in Altiplano areas using FMDM.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianguo; Lou, Zhiying; Hg, Siio; Duo, Ji; Li, Zhong

    2009-10-01

    There are special requirements for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment caused by lower oxygen content and atmospheric pressure on the Altiplano. The intention of this paper was to analyse the applicability of various technologies to MSW treatment in the Altiplano and select the best one based on the current MSW collection modes and technical levels, using the Fuzzy Mathematical Decision Method (FMDM). Technologies including landfill, incineration, composting, and anaerobic digestion (AD) were compared. The results of the studies showed that AD technology is a new technology which is attractive in economic terms and helpful for environmental harmony. AD can solve the difficulties caused by a high content of organic matter in the MSW, lower atmospheric pressure and oxygen content on the Altiplano. Moreover, it can achieve reduction and recycling of the waste, thereby saving space for treatment and disposal. Using this technology, renewable energy can be recovered to save conventional fuel consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases can be reduced to improve the conservation of the local ecosystem. Putting AD into practice in the Altiplano may be the preferred method of MSW treatment. PMID:19470531

  14. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES FOR CHROMIUM IN THE 100 AREAS

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Primary Objective: Protect the Columbia River - Focus is control and treatment of contamination at or near the shoreline, which is influenced by bank storage {sm_bullet} Secondary Objective: Reduce hexavalent chromium to <48 parts per billion (ppb) in aquifer (drinking water standard) - Large plumes with isolated areas of high chromium concentrations (> 40,000 ppb), - Unknown source location(s); probably originating in reactor operation areas

  15. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S.

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  16. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1995--September 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Hatcher, P.; Knicker, H.

    1996-10-21

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through the Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Mixture Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, preparation of the Phase I final report continued. Work on Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included initiating a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work started on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filter device will be used to demonstrate a more compact and efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Coal preparation and utilization activities, and the economic analysis were completed and work focused on preparing the final report. Work on Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on selecting incentives for commercialization of coal using technologies, community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  17. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L.

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  18. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semi-annual report, March 28, 1996--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scarone, A.W.

    1996-12-13

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work on Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included continuing bench-scale tests to identify an NO{sub x} reduction catalyst which is appropriate for industrial boiler applications. In addition, installation of a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler started. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was procured for installation on the demonstration boiler. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations,surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  19. Area Array Technology Evaluations for Space and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1996-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently assessing the use of Area Array Packaging (AAP) for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spaceflight applications. this work is being funded through NASA Headquarters, Code Q. The paper discusses background of AAP, objectives, and uses of AAP.

  20. Enhancing technology acceptance: The role of the subsurface contaminants focus area external integration team

    SciTech Connect

    Kirwan-Taylor, H.; McCabe, G.H.; Lesperance, A.; Kauffman, J.; Serie, P.; Dressen, L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is developing and deploying innovative technologies for cleaning up its contaminated facilities using a market-oriented approach. This report describes the activities of the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area`s (SCFA) External Integration Team (EIT) in supporting DOE`s technology development program. The SCFA program for technology development is market-oriented, driven by the needs of end users. The purpose of EIT is to understand the technology needs of the DOE sites and identify technology acceptance criteria from users and other stakeholders to enhance deployment of innovative technologies. Stakeholders include regulators, technology users, Native Americans, and environmental and other interest groups. The success of this national program requires close coordination and communication among technology developers and stakeholders to work through all of the various phases of planning and implementation. Staff involved must be willing to commit significant amounts of time to extended discussions with the various stakeholders.

  1. Fusion of current technologies with real-time 3D MEMS ladar for novel security and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siepmann, James P.

    2006-05-01

    Through the utilization of scanning MEMS mirrors in ladar devices, a whole new range of potential military, Homeland Security, law enforcement, and civilian applications is now possible. Currently, ladar devices are typically large (>15,000 cc), heavy (>15 kg), and expensive (>$100,000) while current MEMS ladar designs are more than a magnitude less, opening up a myriad of potential new applications. One such application with current technology is a GPS integrated MEMS ladar unit, which could be used for real-time border monitoring or the creation of virtual 3D battlefields after being dropped or propelled into hostile territory. Another current technology that can be integrated into a MEMS ladar unit is digital video that can give high resolution and true color to a picture that is then enhanced with range information in a real-time display format that is easier for the user to understand and assimilate than typical gray-scale or false color images. The problem with using 2-axis MEMS mirrors in ladar devices is that in order to have a resonance frequency capable of practical real-time scanning, they must either be quite small and/or have a low maximum tilt angle. Typically, this value has been less than (< or = to 10 mg-mm2-kHz2)-degrees. We have been able to solve this problem by using angle amplification techniques that utilize a series of MEMS mirrors and/or a specialized set of optics to achieve a broad field of view. These techniques and some of their novel applications mentioned will be explained and discussed herein.

  2. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the "layered" defense…

  3. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  4. Engineering Research and Development and Technology thrust area report FY92

    SciTech Connect

    Langland, R.T.; Minichino, C.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) to conduct high-quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year 1992. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results. The nine thrust areas for this fiscal year are: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Emerging Technologies; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Microwave and Pulsed Power; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Remote Sensing and Imaging, and Signal Engineering.

  5. Militarily Critical Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, J.; Wick, R.; Sellers, P.

    The Militarily Critical Technology Program (MCTP) creates two technology lists: Militarily Critical Technology List (MCTL), which is focused on protecting US technology, and Developing Science and Technology List (DSTL). There are 20 different technology areas; two in particular are discussed in this poster paper, Space Systems Technologies and Lasers & Optics Technologies. The authors are the Technology Working Group chairs for Space Systems (Jim Doherty) and Lasers & Optics (Ray Wick), both from Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), and also IDAs task leader for the MCTP (Paul Sellers).

  6. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  7. Technology Used for Realization of the Reform in Informal Areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qirko, K.

    2008-12-01

    ORGANIZATION OF STRUCTURE AND ADMINISTRATION OF ALUIZNI Law no. 9482, date 03.03.2006 " On legalization, urban planning and integration of unauthorized buildings", entered into force on May 15, 2006. The Council of Ministers, with its decision no.289, date 17.05.2006, established the Agency for the Legalization, Urbanization, and Integration of the Informal Zones/Buildings (ALUIZNI), with its twelve local bodies. ALUIZNI began its activity in reliance to Law no. 9482, date 03.03.2006 " On legalization, urban planning and integration of unauthorized buildings", in July 2006. The administration of this agency was completed during this period and it is composed of; General Directory and twelve regional directories. As of today, this institution has 300 employees. The administrative structure of ALUIZNI is organized to achieve the objectives of the reform and to solve the problems arising during its completion. The following sectors have been established to achieve the objectives: Sector of compensation of owners; sector of cartography, sector of geographic system data elaboration (GIS) and Information Technology; sector of urban planning; sector of registration of legalized properties and Human resource sector. Following this vision, digital air photography of the Republic of Albania is in process of realization, from which we will receive, for the first time, orthophoto and digital map, unique for the entire territory of our country. This cartographic product, will serve to all government institutions and private ones. All other systems, such as; system of territory management; system of property registration ; system of population registration; system of addresses; urban planning studies and systems; definition of boundaries of administrative and touristic zones will be established based on this cartographic system. The cartographic product will be of parameters mentioned below, divided in lots:(2.3 MEuro) 1.Lot I: It includes the urban zone, 1200 km2. It will have

  8. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  9. Space-Based Chemical Lasers in strategic defense

    SciTech Connect

    Wildt, D. )

    1992-07-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) has made significant progress in developing Space-Based chemical Laser (SBL) technologies and in studying the SBLs global defense capability. In this mission, a constellation of several orbiting laser platforms provides continuous global defense by intercepting threatening missiles in their boost phase, including short range ballistic missiles (SRBMs). An optional smaller constellation provides defense against launches from the low and midlatitude regions. In addition, SBLs have utility in other important related missions such as surveillance, air defense and discrimination. The hardware necessary to build such a system has been developed to the point where it is mature and ready for demonstration in space. Advances have been made in each of the following major areas of the SBL: laser device; optics/beam control; beam pointing; ATP (acquisition, tracking and pointing); uncooled optics; and laser lethality. Integration of the key laser and beam control technologies is now occurring in the ground-based ALI experiment, and a space demonstration experiment, Star LITE, is in the planning and concept development phase.

  10. The Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Innovation Capacity and Learning of Information and Communication Technology: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Transport Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2010-01-01

    Organisational defensive patterns, including skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork, are considered to be a hindrance to effective learning and innovation capacity building in all organisations. The purpose of this research is to investigate: 1) the perceptions of the influence of organisational defensive…

  11. Appropriate deflouridation technology for use in flourotic areas in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjengera, H.; Mkongo, G.

    High fluoride in drinking water is a problem found in both ground and surface water in various parts of Tanzania. Several defluoridation methods have been tested and detailed studies have been carried on bone-char method, alum/lime method and the combination of the two methods. In bone char method, the bones are charred in special kilns fuelled by wood charcoal. Different sizes of the kiln have been fabricated and tested. Crushing and sieving devices have been developed. The effectiveness of bone char particles sizes in fluoride removal has been studied and the results favoured small particle sizes. However, experimental conditions discouraged the use of very fine particles sizes of bone char due easy clogging. Household and institutional levels bone char defluoridation systems have been developed and tested. Filter columns packed with heat-activated bones are found to be more effective than fill and draw bucket type defluoridator. The bone char media used has the capability of producing water with a residual fluoride concentration of less than 0.1 mg/l from an initial fluoride of 12.0 mg/l. Use of alum and lime in fluoride removal from waters with excessive fluoride has been experimented upon. A plant with an automatic chemical dosing and mixing system for use at institutional levels has been developed and tested. The method was able to treat water with an initial fluoride concentration of 12 mg/l to a residual fluoride concentration ranging from 2 to 3 mg/l. During the study it was established, that the bone char method is appropriate for use in rural areas of Tanzania due its simplicity, local availability of materials and the possibility of processing the material locally.

  12. A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Southern Sector Remediation Technology Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Phifer, M.A.

    1994-06-30

    Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs.

  13. In-space assembly and construction technology project summary: Infrastructure operations area of the operations technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs describing the in-space assembly and construction technology project of the infrastructure operations area of the operation technology program are presented. Th objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate an in-space assembly and construction capability for large and/or massive spacecraft. The in-space assembly and construction technology program will support the need to build, in orbit, the full range of spacecraft required for the missions to and from planet Earth, including: earth-orbiting platforms, lunar transfer vehicles, and Mars transfer vehicles.

  14. Advanced Technology Used to Monitor Ground Water in a Restricted Access Area of Fort Riley, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breedlove, J.D.; Finnegan, P.J.; Myers, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe how advanced communication technology is being used to overcome difficulties in collecting reliable ground-water data in areas with restricted access, such as at Fort Riley in northeast Kansas.

  15. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense.

    PubMed

    Field, G; Spergel, D

    1986-03-21

    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems. PMID:17748077

  16. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense.

    PubMed

    Field, G; Spergel, D

    1986-03-21

    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  17. An Investigation of Five Middle School Library Collections in the Areas of Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titer, Beth E.

    The mean and median age of science and technology materials in the five middle school library collections located in the Springfield (Ohio) City School District were calculated. The percentage of books 10 years old or older was calculated. Science and technology were chosen due to the rapid amount of change in these areas. Three broad Dewey…

  18. Some advances in U. S. space defense systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rongrui, W.

    1991-12-10

    This article, by way of a simple summary, introduces certain aspects of the U.S. Star Wars program which have undergone developments recently as well as experimentation planned in the future. In 1984, the U.S. Defense Department set up a Strategic Defense authority in order to carry out the Star Wars Program and put vigorous effort into the development of directed energy weapon, kinetic energy weapons, as well as research on a set of technologies such as early warning, aiming, tracking, and target recognition. This article, on the basis of openly published U.S. sources, takes a comprehensive look at the status of several areas of development in U.S. space defense systems.

  19. Defense use and defense understanding in children.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P; Brilliant, M A

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the relation between children's use of defense mechanisms and their understanding of those defenses. We hypothesized that, once a child understands how a particular defense functions, the use of that defense will no longer be successful and will be replaced by another defense mechanism that is not yet understood. Defense use was assessed from the Thematic Appreception Test (TAT) stories told by 122 children; defense understanding was determined from the children's understanding of stories portraying defenses. The results indicated that younger children (mean age = 7-8) used the defense of denial more than the older children (mean age = 9-11). Older children understood the functioning of denial and projection better than the younger children. A comparison of children who did and did not understand a defense showed that younger children who understood the functioning of denial were less likely to themselves use denial. Likewise, older children who understood the functioning of projection were less likely to use this defense.

  20. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  1. Identification of Occupational Areas for Indiana's Future. Final Report of the Technology Forecasting Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission on Vocational and Technical Education, Indianapolis.

    A task force representing the Indiana private sector was convened for two purposes: to (1) identify the impact of technology on required worker skills, the labor market, and the vocational education, training, and employment system; and (2) identify occupational areas that should be future growth areas for the state. Task force members reviewed…

  2. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth`s interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges.

  3. Structures technology project summary: Earth orbiting platforms program area of the space platforms technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the structures technology for the Earth orbiting platforms program. The objective of the work is to develop component and system level structural concepts and design methods to enable in-space construction and deployment of large platform structures in low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous orbit (GEO) including primary platform structures, reflectors and antenna, and habitat and storage modules.

  4. Technical assessment of Engineering`s Manufacturing Technology Thrust Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1995-07-27

    This document investigates the connection between the Manufacturing Technology Thrust Area and its market and concludes that the connection should include the programs internal to LLNL and customers outside of LLNL. The thrust area`s existing mission is reviewed and while it remains relevant to the future, it is too broad for the assigned resources. The scope of the thrust area`s mission is therefore narrowed to more specifically address precision in manufacturing. The course to pursue the new focus is plotted, and the projects for FY95 are briefly discussed.

  5. [Brazilian technological output in the area of nursing: advances and challenges].

    PubMed

    Koerich, Micheline Henrique Araujo da Luz; Vieira, Raquel Heloisa Guedes; Silva, Daniela Eda; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Meirelles, Betina Horner Shlindwein

    2011-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the patents registered in the nursing area, since these patents may be used as an indicator of the technological development in the area. It presents and discusses national technological productions, tracked through the "nursing" keyword, patented in the period from 1990-2009. This is a retrospective documental research, using, as a source, data from the National Industrial Property Institute (INPI). The information gathered is discussed in relation to the appropriation of the technologies, the incentive to develop them and register them as a source of knowledge in the nursing field, aiming the practice of care. Light and light hard technology productions are increasing in the nursing field. However, these are not registered and patented. The technological advance in the nursing field is emergent and needs policies for its development.

  6. Terminal area operations with enhanced and synthetic vision: experience in the Boeing technology demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Timothy T.; Imrich, Thomas; Etherington, Timothy J.; Theunissen, Erik

    2003-09-01

    Several emerging technologies were recently demonstrated in a Boeing 737-900 as part of Boeing's Technology Demonstrator program. Among these technologies were two enhanced vision systems and a synthetic vision system, including synthetic displays to support surface operations. This project gained operational experience with enhanced and synthetic vision systems operating in a context that included Required Navigation Performance (RNP) terminal area operations, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) approach and landing, and Integrated Area Navigation (IAN). The technologies were demonstrated to a broad mix of constituents involved in research, regulation, and acquisition in the transport category environment. This paper describes the systems demonstrated, the context in which they were used, and perceived benefits of integrating them in an operational environment. Lessons learned in the implementation of these technologies throughout the program are described and subjective data from participants are summarized.

  7. An Approach to Establishing System Benefits for Technologies In NASA's Spaceliner Investment Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Pannell, Bill; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to significantly reduce cost and improve safety over current systems. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued. The Spaceliner Investment Area's primary objective is to mature vehicle technologies to enable substantial increases in the design and operating margins of third generation RLVs (current Space Shuttle is considered the first generation RLV) by incorporating advanced propulsion systems, materials, structures, thermal protection systems, power, and avionics technologies. Advancements in design tools and better characterization of the operational environment will result in reduced design and operational variabilities leading to improvements in margins. Improvements in operational efficiencies will be obtained through the introduction of integrated vehicle health management, operations and range technologies. Investments in these technologies will enable the reduction in the high operational costs associated with today's vehicles by allowing components to operate well below their design points resulting in improved component operating life, reliability, and safety which in turn reduces both maintenance and refurbishment costs. The introduction of advanced technologies may enable horizontal takeoff by significantly reducing the takeoff weight and allowing use of existing infrastructure. This would be a major step toward the goal of airline-like operation. These factors in conjunction with increased flight rates, resulting from reductions in transportation costs, will result in significant improvements of future vehicles. The

  8. Science and Technology of Food Storage and Preservation. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, V. V.; And Others

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. This module deals…

  9. Science and Technology of Rural Transport System. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraj, D. N.; Satheesh, H. L.

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1…

  10. Science and Technology of Water Lifting Devices. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, P. Ramachandra; Rao, N. R. Nagaraja

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1 of this…

  11. 78 FR 70294 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Administrative Matters AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of... technology. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved this information collection under...

  12. Theater missile defense programs: Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.

    1994-09-01

    The Clinton administration now calls the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) the ballistic missile defense program. But the names have simply been changed to protect the guilty - the new program exhibits substantial continuity with the old in technology and goals. While acronyms have been changed, many of the programs continued by the Clinton administration date from the Reagan or Bush eras. And most strikingly, the Clinton administrations` ambitions for a virtually perfect defense against theater ballistic missiles harken to the unattainable goals for strategic defense initially set by President Reagan over a decade ago.

  13. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  14. An Approach to Establishing System Benefits for Technology in NASA's Hypersonics Investment Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Pannell, Bill; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to significantly reduce cost and improve safety over current systems. The Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) Office at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonics Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued. The Hypersonics Investment Area's primary objective is to mature vehicle technologies to enable substantial increases in the design and operating margins of third generation RLVs (current Space Shuttle is considered the first generation RLV) by incorporating advanced propulsion systems, materials, structures, thermal protection systems, power, and avionics technologies. The paper describes the system process, tools and concepts used to determine the technology benefits. Preliminary results will be presented along with the current technology investments that are being made by ASTP's Hypersonics Investment Area.

  15. 32 CFR 37.1030 - What information must I report to the Defense Technical Information Center?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must I report to the Defense Technical Information Center? 37.1030 Section 37.1030 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing...

  16. 32 CFR 37.1030 - What information must I report to the Defense Technical Information Center?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What information must I report to the Defense Technical Information Center? 37.1030 Section 37.1030 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing...

  17. 32 CFR 37.1030 - What information must I report to the Defense Technical Information Center?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What information must I report to the Defense Technical Information Center? 37.1030 Section 37.1030 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing...

  18. A Framework for Managing Inter-Site Storage Area Networks using Grid Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben; McCall, Fritz; Smorul, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies are studying mechanisms for installing and managing Storage Area Networks (SANs) that span multiple independent collaborating institutions using Storage Area Network Routers (SAN Routers). We present a framework for managing inter-site distributed SANs that uses Grid Technologies to balance the competing needs to control local resources, share information, delegate administrative access, and manage the complex trust relationships between the participating sites.

  19. Preliminary assessment report for Wayland Army National Guard Armory (former Boston Defense Area Nike Battery 73), Installation 23295, Wayland, Massachusetts. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Flaim, S.; Krokosz, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Massachusetts Army National Guard property near Wayland, Massachusetts. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in respond to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining sites activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Wayland Army National Guard Army property, Phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  20. Area Consortium on Training. "Training for Technology" Project, 1982-1983. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moock, Lynn D.

    The Area Consortium on Training initiated the Training for Technology Project to fill industry needs for skilled personnel and job needs for economically disadvantaged persons. Major accomplishments included establishment of a training team for economic development and for development of training programs; contacting of more than 100 employers;…

  1. Brokerage and SME Innovation: An Analysis of the Technology Transfer Service at Area Science Park, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattapan, Paolo; Passarelli, Mariacarmela; Petrone, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on innovation brokerage by analysing the effects of brokerage activities on the innovation and growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The authors provide a detailed description of the Technology Transfer Service (TTS), credited as a European best-practice innovation broker, at Area Science…

  2. A Project for Everyone: English Language Learners and Technology in Content-Area Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of student participation in classroom projects when learning English as a second language highlights conditions that support language and content learning; approaches that can facilitate language and content learning; and what technology and other resources support English language learners in content-area classrooms. Uses a project on…

  3. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 2: Research and technology recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Terminal Area Compatibility (TAC) study is briefly summarized for background information. The most important research items for the areas of noise congestion, and emissions are identified. Other key research areas are also discussed. The 50 recommended research items are categorized by flight phase, technology, and compatibility benefits. The relationship of the TAC recommendations to the previous ATT recommendations is discussed. The bulk of the document contains the 50 recommended research items. For each item, the potential payoff, state of readiness, recommended action and estimated cost and schedule are given.

  4. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  5. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification,...

  6. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contractor Defense. 25.8 Section 25.8...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for... applicability of the government contractor defense. In determining whether to issue such Certification,...

  7. Issues in national missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-01

    Strategic missiles and weapons are proliferating rapidly; thus, the US and its Allies are likely to face both capable bilateral threats and multilateral configurations with complex coalitions for which defenses could be essential for stability. Current hit-to-kill interceptor and radar and infrared detection, track, and discrimination technology should suffice for limited threats, but it is necessary to meet those threats in time while maintaining growth potential for the more sophisticated threats likely to follow. National Missile Defense faces a confusing array of threats, programs, and alternatives, but the technologies in development are clearly an appropriate first step towards any of them. They are likely to succeed in the near term; the challenge is to retain flexibility to provide needed options in the mid and long terms.

  8. Department of Defense Helps "Fight" Poverty Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opportunity, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Begun in April, 1969, the Department of Defense Domestic Action Program's activities include: loan of equipment to Community Action Agencies; use of DOD facilities for training and recreation; assistance in technical areas; and, general aid. (JM)

  9. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  10. Application of military uncooled infrared sensors to homeland defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornberger, Chris

    2002-08-01

    During the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging technology began a journey from Government and corporate laboratories to practical application in addressing military, Government, and commercial customer needs. Today, that transition could arguably be considered complete, punctuated by BAE SYSTEMS' delivery of the 10,000th microbolometer camera on 12 February 2002. While microbolometer developmental research continues to advance the state-of-the-art at an ever increasing pace, uncooled infrared cameras are widely deployed serving society in meaningful ways; from preventative maintenance and process inspection to law enforcement and rescue operations. Following last years terrorist attacks in New York and Virginia, President Bush appointed Governor Ridge to lead federal coordination efforts for defense of the homeland. While uncooled microbolometer sensors served in Homeland Security long before September 2001, it is certain that new applications will be identified for surveillance, security, law enforcement and protection needs. In this paper we will describe advances in military uncooled infrared sensor technology and how these sensors can serve in the role of Homeland Defense. Developments in uncooled sensors that will be described include the rugged performance validation of a thermal weapon sight and head-mounted imager. We will look at those areas of Homeland Defense that are most likely to benefit from the application of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology. These include: a) search & rescue camera systems, b) handheld surveillance systems and c) hands-free camera systems.

  11. Multi-core fiber technology for highly reliable optical network in access areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Lee, Yong; Nomoto, Etsuko; Arimoto, Hideo; Sugawara, Toshiki

    2015-03-01

    A failure recovery system utilizing a multi-core fiber (MCF) link with field programmable gate array-based optical switch units was developed to achieve high capacity and highly reliable optical networks in access areas. We describe the novel MCF link based on a multi-ring structure and a protection scheme to prevent link failures. Fan-in/ -out devices and connectors are also presented to demonstrate the development status of the MCF connection technology for the link. We demonstrated path recovery by switching operation within a sufficiently short time, which is required by ITU-T. The selection of a protecting path as a failure working path was also optimized as the minimum passage of units for low loss transmission. The results we obtained indicate that our proposed link has potential for the network design of highly reliable network topologies in access areas such as data centers, systems in business areas, and fiber to the home systems in residential areas.

  12. Novel fabrication technology for three-dimensional high surface area pyrolized structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vinh; Shimada, Mark; Szeto, David; Mukherjee, Partha P.; Kang, Qinjun; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc J.

    2010-04-01

    High specific surface area structures are used in a variety of applications including production of highly sensitive biosensors, fabrication of separation membranes, manufacturing of high throughput catalytic microreactors, and development of efficient electrodes for batteries and fuel cells. In many electrochemical applications (i.e. sensors and batteries) it's also critical to have good conductive properties of the fabricated high surface area structures. For energy harvesting technologies such as batteries and fuel cells, careful design of surface-to-volume ratio of the electrode surface is important, because while high specific surface area facilitates electrochemical reaction rates, it also increases overall electrode resistance. Thus, it is desirable to construct electrodes with a range of hierarchical features (for example with fractal structures). We invented a novel fabrication technology for creating three-dimensional conductive high surface area structures based on the deposition and subsequent processing of the electroactive polymers (EAP). The proposed fabrication technique is capable of fast and inexpensive production of high surface area structures with the designed geometry, porosity, and conductivity.

  13. Multi-service terminal adapter based on IP technology applications in rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Xupeng

    Take advantage of ample modern existing telecom network resources to rural areas may achieve it's information society gradually. This includes the establishment of integrated rural information service platform, modern remote education center and electronic administration management platform for rural areas. The geographical and economic constraints must be overcome for structuring the rural service support system, in order to provide technical support, information products and information services to modern rural information service system. It is important that development an access platform based IP technology, which supports multi-service access in order to implement a variety of types of mobile terminal equipment adapter access and to reduce restrictions on mobile terminal equipment.

  14. Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements FY96 technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD&E) activities are part of the Retrieval and Closure Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. The purposes of RPD&E are to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on those processes, so that end users have the requisite technical basis to make retrieval decisions. Work has been initiated to support the need for multiple retrieval technologies across the DOE complex. Technologies addressed during FY96 focused on enhancements to sluicing, borehole mining, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, the lightweight scarifier, and pulsed air mixing. Furthermore, a decision tool and database have been initiated to link retrieval processes with tank closure to assist end users in making retrieval decisions.

  15. Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

  16. Toward a defense-dominated world

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.

    1993-08-01

    Maintaining the large-scale peace in a defense-dominated world necessarily will require not only passive but also active defenses against large-scale aggression that are technically feasible, practical and easy to employ -- and robust against perversion into support of aggression. Such peace maintenance tool-sets will feature means for effectively rebuking aggression as well as providing timely and very widely available seaming of aggression underway anywhere. This report discusses the technology base which currently exists to provide world-wide, high-quality imagery at moderate (5--10 meter) spatial resolution or imagery of 1% of the Earth`s land surface at high ({le} 1 meter) resolution no less frequently than daily, at a total cost of the order of $1 B, with operational capability in the later `90s. Such systems could provide timely warning of aggressive actions anywhere. Similarly, space-based means of defeating aggression conducted with even quite short-range ballistic missiles anywhere in the world could be brought into existence by the end of the `90s for a total cost of about $10 B, and small high-altitude, long flight-duration robotic aircraft carrying high-performance sensors and interceptor missilery could provide both seaming and active defenses against attacks conducted with very short range ballistic missiles, as well as attacks launched with air-breathing threats such as bombers and cruise missiles, for a cost per defended area of the order of $10/km{sup 2}. It appears that all of the associated sensors can find apt dual-use as high-performance systems for monitoring physical aspects of the human environment.

  17. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique.

  18. Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

    2008-08-01

    Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned.

  19. The military insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the military insanity defense. The success of the litigated insanity defense is explored through the number of insanity acquittals over a 28-month period. A questionnaire distributed to all United States Army psychiatrists provided information on the number of forensic evaluations performed, the number of not criminally responsible (NCR) opinions made, and the disposition of noncontested NCR opinions. The questionnaire also tested the Army psychiatrists' knowledge about recent changes in the military insanity defense. This pilot study raises interesting questions about the military insanity defense that further research can address.

  20. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  1. Design the developed bus parking area management solution based on fusion technology of things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ying-long

    2013-07-01

    Taking advantage of the fusion technology of things this paper constructed a combination of hardware and software application, hardware's major function was to collect the bus behavior data of system needed, including basic data of driver and fare bag stored in moving passive RFID tag, and the information of running status of bus on each stage perceived by all kinds of sensors in the parking area. The information which was handled by the middleware was sent to data center. The program solved the problem on the monitoring of the behavior of the bus in the parking area, meanwhile, achieved the data sharing, so as to tackle the defects of the traditional bus parking area management system's non-automated data collection, non-real-time data presenting and poor data sharing.

  2. Origins of the Strategic Defense Initiative: Ballistic Missile Defense, 1944-1983. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baucom, D.R.

    1989-12-01

    America's ballistic missile defense program may be said to have its roots in the V-2 attacks on London in 1944. This document traces the development of antiballistic missile defense policy from the V-2 attacks up to President Reagan's 1983 speech announcing the new strategic defense initiative. The history follows the policy debates from the NIKE-X, SALT I and SALT II, the ABM Treaty, and SAFEGUARD through research and development innovations in the areas of computers, optical sensors, interceptors, and directed energy weapons. The emergence of political organizations and individuals who either opposed or championed ballistic missile defense is also included.

  3. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  4. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  5. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  6. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  7. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  8. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  9. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  10. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  11. Towards improved healthcare performance: examining technological possibilities and patient satisfaction with wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Fensli, Rune; Dale, Jan Gunnar; O'Reilly, Philip; O'Donoghue, John; Sammon, David; Gundersen, Torstein

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates the benefits of using less intrusive wireless technologies for heart monitoring. By replacing well established heart monitoring devices (i.e. Holter) with wireless ECG based Body Area Networks (BAN), improved healthcare performance can be achieved, reflected in (1) high quality ECG recordings during physical activities and (2) increased patient satisfaction. A small scale clinical trial was conducted to compare both technologies and the results illustrate that the wireless ECG monitor was able to detect ECG signals intended for arrhythmia diagnostics. Furthermore, from a patient's perspective, both technologies were evaluated using three dimensions, namely; hygienic aspects, physical activity, and skin reactions. Results demonstrate that the wireless ECG BAN showed better performance, especially regarding the hygienic aspects. It was also favourable for use during physical activities, and the signal quality of the wireless sensor system demonstrated good performance regarding signal noise and artefact disturbances. This paper concludes that wireless cardiac monitoring systems have significant benefits from a patient's perspective, and further clinical trials should be conducted to further evaluate the new ECG based BAN system, to identify the possibility of widespread adoption and utilisation of wireless technology for arrhythmia diagnostics. PMID:20703932

  12. Directed energy planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Bible, Johanna; Bublitz, Jesse; Arriola, Josh; Motta, Caio; Suen, Jon; Johansson, Isabella; Riley, Jordan; Sarvian, Nilou; Clayton-Warwick, Deborah; Wu, Jane; Milich, Andrew; Oleson, Mitch; Pryor, Mark; Krogen, Peter; Kangas, Miikka

    2013-09-01

    Asteroids and comets that cross Earth's orbit pose a credible risk of impact, with potentially severe disturbances to Earth and society. Numerous risk mitigation strategies have been described, most involving dedicated missions to a threatening object. We propose an orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the vaporization point as a feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. We call the system DE-STAR for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. DE-STAR is a modular phased array of kilowatt class lasers powered by photovoltaic's. Modular design allows for incremental development, test, and initial deployment, lowering cost, minimizing risk, and allowing for technological co-development, leading eventually to an orbiting structure that would be developed in stages with both technological and target milestones. The main objective of DE-STAR is to use the focused directed energy to raise the surface spot temperature to ~3,000K, allowing direct vaporization of all known substances. In the process of heating the surface ejecting evaporated material a large reaction force would alter the asteroid's orbit. The baseline system is a DE-STAR 3 or 4 (1-10km array) depending on the degree of protection desired. A DE-STAR 4 allows for asteroid engagement starting beyond 1AU with a spot temperature sufficient to completely evaporate up to 500-m diameter asteroids in one year. Small asteroids and comets can be diverted/evaporated with a DESTAR 2 (100m) while space debris is vaporized with a DE-STAR 1 (10m).

  13. 75 FR 43943 - Defense Science Board; Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meetings. SUMMARY: The Defense... Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology & Logistics on scientific and technical matters as they... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  14. Model of areas for identifying risks influencing the compliance of technological processes and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, A.; Belu, N.

    2016-08-01

    Operation of every company is associated with the risk of interfering with proper performance of its fundamental processes. This risk is associated with various internal areas of the company, as well as the environment in which it operates. From the point of view of ensuring compliance of the course of specific technological processes and, consequently, product conformity with requirements, it is important to identify these threats and eliminate or reduce the risk of their occurrence. The purpose of this article is to present a model of areas of identifying risk affecting the compliance of processes and products, which is based on multiregional targeted monitoring of typical places of interference and risk management methods. The model is based on the verification of risk analyses carried out in small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in various industries..

  15. Potential impacts of advanced technologies on the ATC capacity of high-density terminal areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.; Odoni, A. R.; Salas-Roche, F.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced technologies for airborne systems (automatic flight control, flight displays, navigation) and for ground ATC systems (digital communications, improved surveillance and tracking, automated decision-making) create the possibility of advanced ATC operations and procedures which can bring increased capacity for runway systems. A systematic analysis is carried out to identify certain such advanced ATC operations, and then to evaluate the potential benefits occurring over time at typical US high-density airports (Denver and Boston). The study is divided into three parts: (1) A Critical Examination of Factors Which Determine Operational Capacity of Runway Systems at Major Airports, is an intensive review of current US separation criteria and terminal area ATC operations. It identifies 11 new methods to increase the capacity of landings and takeoffs for runway systems; (2) Development of Risk Based Separation Criteria is the development of a rational structure for establishing reduced ATC separation criteria which meet a consistent Target Level of Safety using advanced technology and operational procedures; and (3) Estimation of Capacity Benefits from Advanced Terminal Area Operations - Denver and Boston, provides an estimate of the overall annual improvement in runway capacity which might be expected at Denver and Boston from using some of the advanced ATC procedures developed in Part 1. Whereas Boston achieved a substantial 37% increase, Denver only achieved a 4.7% increase in its overall annual capacity.

  16. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique. PMID:23421665

  17. Innovative technologies for decentralised water-, wastewater and biowaste management in urban and peri-urban areas.

    PubMed

    Otterpohl, R; Braun, U; Oldenburg, M

    2003-01-01

    Avoiding the comingling of water flows coming from different sources and thus obtaining flows with a very low dilution factor is the first and major step key to technical solutions for adequate treatment of household wastewaters. Through their decentral structure and effective recovery of water, energy and fertiliser these systems can be highly cost efficient. Fresh water consumption can be reduced by up to 80% while nutrients can be recovered to a large extent. Source control is also advantageous for hygienic reasons: low volumes are far easier to sanitise. Source separation technology in municipal waste water treatment does often lead decentralised or semicentral systems. The first essential step is the separate collection and treatment of toilet waste in households, which contains almost all pathogens and nutrients. New toilet systems with very low dilution factors, ranging from vacuum- through urine sorting to dry toilets, have been introduced in several projects and proven feasible. New ideas such as the black- and greywater cycle systems are presently under research at the Technical University Hamburg Harburg. Such modular, integrated and small scale systems are only possible through recent advances in membrane technology and, due to their small scale, do have the potential to be installed in densely populated regions. These technologies are options for following the principles of ecological sanitation, to contain, to sanitise and to reuse also in urban areas (EcoSanRes, 2003).

  18. Ship Compliance in Emission Control Areas: Technology Costs and Policy Instruments.

    PubMed

    Carr, Edward W; Corbett, James J

    2015-08-18

    This paper explores whether a Panama Canal Authority pollution tax could be an effective economic instrument to achieve Emission Control Area (ECA)-like reductions in emissions from ships transiting the Panama Canal. This tariff-based policy action, whereby vessels in compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ECA standards pay a lower transit tariff than noncompliant vessels, could be a feasible alternative to petitioning for a Panamanian ECA through the IMO. A $4.06/container fuel tax could incentivize ECA-compliant emissions reductions for nearly two-thirds of Panama Canal container vessels, mainly through fuel switching; if the vessel(s) also operate in IMO-defined ECAs, exhaust-gas treatment technologies may be cost-effective. The RATES model presented here compares current abatement technologies based on hours of operation within an ECA, computing costs for a container vessel to comply with ECA standards in addition to computing the Canal tax that would reduce emissions in Panama. Retrofitted open-loop scrubbers are cost-effective only for vessels operating within an ECA for more than 4500 h annually. Fuel switching is the least-cost option to industry for vessels that operate mostly outside of ECA regions, whereas vessels operating entirely within an ECA region could reduce compliance cost with exhaust-gas treatment technology (scrubbers).

  19. Ship Compliance in Emission Control Areas: Technology Costs and Policy Instruments.

    PubMed

    Carr, Edward W; Corbett, James J

    2015-08-18

    This paper explores whether a Panama Canal Authority pollution tax could be an effective economic instrument to achieve Emission Control Area (ECA)-like reductions in emissions from ships transiting the Panama Canal. This tariff-based policy action, whereby vessels in compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ECA standards pay a lower transit tariff than noncompliant vessels, could be a feasible alternative to petitioning for a Panamanian ECA through the IMO. A $4.06/container fuel tax could incentivize ECA-compliant emissions reductions for nearly two-thirds of Panama Canal container vessels, mainly through fuel switching; if the vessel(s) also operate in IMO-defined ECAs, exhaust-gas treatment technologies may be cost-effective. The RATES model presented here compares current abatement technologies based on hours of operation within an ECA, computing costs for a container vessel to comply with ECA standards in addition to computing the Canal tax that would reduce emissions in Panama. Retrofitted open-loop scrubbers are cost-effective only for vessels operating within an ECA for more than 4500 h annually. Fuel switching is the least-cost option to industry for vessels that operate mostly outside of ECA regions, whereas vessels operating entirely within an ECA region could reduce compliance cost with exhaust-gas treatment technology (scrubbers). PMID:26258438

  20. Defense mechanisms in adolescent conduct disorder and adjustment reaction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2004-02-01

    The use of defense mechanisms by male and female adolescents with a diagnosis of conduct disorder was compared with the defense use of adolescents with a diagnosis of adjustment reaction. Because conduct disorder has been shown to be associated with a developmental lag in several areas of psychological functioning, we expected that these adolescents would show immaturity in the use of defenses. This expectation was confirmed. As compared with adjustment reaction, conduct disordered youths were more likely to use the immature defense of denial and less likely to use the mature defense of identification.

  1. April 25, 2003, FY2003 Progress Summary and FY2002 Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers,and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Bibeau, C

    2005-10-25

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, synergistic effort to develop inertial fusion energy (IFE). This program is building a physics and technology base to complement the laser-fusion science being pursued by DOE Defense programs in support of Stockpile Stewardship. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The current LLNL proposal is a companion document to the one submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. The NRL and LLNL proposals also jointly pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, target physics, materials and power plant economics. This proposal requests continued funding in FY03 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1 kW, 100 J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser, as well as research into high gain fusion target design, fusion chamber issues, and survivability of the final optic element. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments. The HAPL Program pursues technologies needed for laser-driven IFE. System level considerations indicate that a rep-rated laser technology will be needed, operating at 5-10 Hz. Since a total energy of {approx}2 MJ will ultimately be required to achieve suitable target gain with direct drive targets, the architecture must be scaleable. The Mercury Laser is intended to offer such an architecture. Mercury is a solid state laser that incorporates diodes, crystals and gas cooling technologies.

  2. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  3. Identifying Areas of Tension in the Field of Technology-Enhanced Learning: Results of an International Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plesch, Christine; Kaendler, Celia; Rummel, Nikol; Wiedmann, Michael; Spada, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Despite steady progress in research in technology-enhanced learning (TEL), the translation of research findings and technology into educational practices falls short of expectations. We present five Areas of Tension which were identified and evaluated in an international Delphi study on TEL. These tensions might impede a more comprehensive…

  4. Job Satisfaction among Information Technology Professionals in the Washington DC Area: An Analysis Based on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diala, Ify S.

    2010-01-01

    Information technology (IT) has in the recent times dominated all aspect of the business world, and, for this reason, today's business environment is more challenging and more dynamic than in previous years. Therefore, this study focused on examining job satisfaction of Information Technology professionals in the D.C. area, paying particular…

  5. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. G.; Dahmann, J. S.

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  6. Self-defense training for college women.

    PubMed

    Cummings, N

    1992-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of self-defense training for college women. Advocates of self-defense training believe these courses will not only provide women with the physical survival techniques necessary to repel attacks effectively, but that this kind of training will also help to prevent future violence by developing traits such as assertiveness and confidence in individuals. There is evidence that women who convey such characteristics are less likely to be victimized. Opponents argue that self-defense training does not properly prepare women for an attack, does not adequately address acquaintance rape threats, and can provide a dangerous false sense of security to students. This article reviews the relevant literature, outlines practical suggestions for initiatives in this area, and describes a model self-defense course at one university. Guidelines for evaluation and implications for university policy and program decisions that address violence against women on college campuses are included. PMID:1583240

  7. Problems of mapping natural hazard impact on technological systems and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, S.; Petrova, E. G.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays the GIS analysis plays a very important role in natural hazard management and can be widely used in different fields of researching natural hazard impacts on the technosphere and society. However all the data for GIS analysis should be georeferenced. The large-scale mapping can be done easily, but we always face the problem of precision when dealing with medium and small scales. We have to place on the map the exact location of each event using its precise geographic coordinates, if we are going to investigate space distribution of natural disasters and technological accidents triggered by them. We can map the real place of their occurrences using the large scale. However the small- and medium-scale mapping usually deals with "dots" or "points"; so it doesn't show the exact location where disaster happened, but only indicates a region of occurrence. In urban areas, where the population density as well as a concentration of industrial and infrastructure facilities is especially high, the number of accidents triggered by various natural hazards is bigger than in sparsely populated areas. Thereby, there will be high concentration of "dots" that mark these accidents and an overlapping is inevitable. This is a real mapping problem not only because of deformed visualization, but also for different possibilities of GIS analyses. It is also very important to show in the mapping area of natural disaster different kinds of linear objects (such as roads, railways, power lines, pipelines, etc.) as well as other social and economic objects, which can be affected by natural hazards. There are some ways of solving that kind of problems; for example, different types of natural events can be shown differently, depending on their severity, but in general the strict rules of georeferencing natural disasters in medium and small scales should be invented depending on the nature of phenomena, their influence on the area and needs of the maps' user.

  8. Final technology report for D-Area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test, environmental restoration support

    SciTech Connect

    Radway, J.C.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-01-24

    One method proposed for the cleanup of the D-Area Oil Seepage Basin was in situ bioremediation (bioventing), involving the introduction of air and gaseous nutrients to stimulate contaminant degradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. To test the feasibility of this approach, a bioventing system was installed at the site for use in optimization testing by the Environmental Biotechnology Section of the Savannah River Technology Center. During the interim action, two horizontal wells for a bioventing remediation system were installed eight feet below average basin grade. Nine piezometers were also installed. In September of 1996, a generator, regenerative blower, gas cylinder station, and associated piping and nutrient injection equipment were installed at the site and testing was begun. After baseline characterization of microbial activity and contaminant degradation at the site was completed, four injection campaigns were carried out. These consisted of (1) air alone, (2) air plus triethylphosphate (TEP), (3) air plus nitrous oxide, and (4) air plus methane. This report describes results of these tests, together with conclusions and recommendations for further remediation of the site. Natural biodegradation rates are high. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and methane levels in soil gas indicate substantial levels of baseline microbial activity. Oxygen is used by indigenous microbes for biodegradation of organics via respiration and hence is depleted in the soil gas and water from areas with high contamination. Carbon dioxide is elevated in contaminated areas. High concentrations of methane, which is produced by microbes via fermentation once the oxygen has been depleted, are found at the most contaminated areas of this site. Groundwater measurements also indicated that substantial levels of natural contaminant biodegradation occurred prior to air injection.

  9. Eutrophication assessment of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by available data and GIS technologies.

    PubMed

    Ranft, Susanne; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Boedeker, Dieter; Paulomäki, Hanna; Fagerli, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Concerning increased degradation of marine ecosystems, there is a great political and institutional demand for an array of different tools to restore a good environmental status. Thereby, eutrophication is acknowledged as one of the major human induced stressors which has to be monitored and reduced. The present study concentrates on an assessment of the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by use of available data and GIS technologies. Two geodata layers were used for analysis: (1) a map on the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea generated by the Helsinki Commission applying the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT), and (2) modelled data on atmospheric nitrogen deposition made available by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The results yielded comprehensive and conclusive data indicating that most of the BSPAs may be classified as being 'affected by eutrophication' and underlining the need to decrease the overall emissions of nutrients. PMID:21683967

  10. Polyimide microfluidic devices with integrated nanoporous filtration areas manufactured by micromachining and ion track technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, S.; Trautmann, C.; Bertsch, A.; Renaud, Ph

    2004-03-01

    This paper reports on polyimide microfluidic devices fabricated by photolithography and a layer transfer lamination technology. The microchannels are sealed by laminating an uncured polyimide film on a partially cured layer and subsequent imidization. Selected areas of the microchannels were irradiated with heavy ions of several hundred MeV and the generated ion tracks are chemically etched to submicron pores of high aspect ratio. The ion beam parameters and the track etching conditions define density, length, diameter and shape of the pores. Membrane permeability and separation performance is demonstrated in cross-flow filtration experiments. The devices can be used for selective delivery or probing of fluids to biological tissue, e.g. drug delivery or microdialysis. For chip-based devices the filters can be used as a sample pre-treatment unit for filtration or concentration of particles or molecules.

  11. Eutrophication assessment of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by available data and GIS technologies.

    PubMed

    Ranft, Susanne; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Boedeker, Dieter; Paulomäki, Hanna; Fagerli, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Concerning increased degradation of marine ecosystems, there is a great political and institutional demand for an array of different tools to restore a good environmental status. Thereby, eutrophication is acknowledged as one of the major human induced stressors which has to be monitored and reduced. The present study concentrates on an assessment of the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by use of available data and GIS technologies. Two geodata layers were used for analysis: (1) a map on the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea generated by the Helsinki Commission applying the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT), and (2) modelled data on atmospheric nitrogen deposition made available by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The results yielded comprehensive and conclusive data indicating that most of the BSPAs may be classified as being 'affected by eutrophication' and underlining the need to decrease the overall emissions of nutrients.

  12. Various horizontal technologies used to develop shallow gas sands in the Eugene Island area

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.; Mathis, D.E.; Hughes, B.

    1996-12-31

    In early 1996, Vastar Resources completed a three-well project in the Eugene Island area. These wells were drilled using various horizontal technologies to develop three thin (10-22 ft) shallow gas sands. (Target TVD for one well was only 1,060 ft.) One was an {open_quotes}extended reach{close_quotes} well with a vertical section of 7,450 ft. Economics of the project were optimized by {open_quotes}batch drilling{close_quotes}, that is, drilling to target depth on all wells prior to any horizontal drilling. Accurate geosteering was accomplished using near-bit MWD sensors integrated with a directional drilling motor. Before drilling, MWD resistivity models were created; these models were compared with real-time data to help identify proximity to the edges of the targets during horizontal drilling. To minimize risk, the wells were drilled to targets defined by offset well control, pilot holes, and seismic amplitude anomalies.

  13. Solar efficient technologies for valorising an archaeological site in the rural area Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tǎmǎşan, Maria; Mǎrǎcineanu, Cristian; Bica, Smaranda Maria

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study is finding viable methods of rehabilitation and re-use of the cultural heritage in rural areas by efficient contemporary technological and architectural solutions. In this respect, this paper describes the phases of an environmental-friendly intervention on an archaeological site near the village Şiria, Arad County, as case study, the expected results and the steps which must be taken in order to implement the proposal. The final aim is to create a complex and sustainable tourist attraction through musealisation, integrated in the already known, but poorly promoted tourist itinerary, known as The Wine Path - Şiria is in a wine-growing region first documented in the 9th century. The proposed design reflects our sustainable approach by combining local materials with non-invasive structural solutions and efficient solar technologies. The purpose of this approach is to reduce the building's maintenance costs nearly to 0 and to extend the visiting time of the archaeological site during the entire year, whatever the weather or season. The proposals are to be submitted to the County Council, having issued the Strategy for Tourist Development for Arad County, elaborated in 2011 by The Analysis for Institutional Development Centre - Bucharest.

  14. EM-50 Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements. FY97 technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Alberts, D.G.

    1997-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD and E) activities are part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area, Retrieval and Closure program. The purpose of RPD and E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on these processes, so that end users have requisite technical bases to make retrieval decisions. Technologies addressed during FY97 include enhancements to sluicing, the use of pulsed air to assist mixing, mixer pumps, innovative mixing techniques, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, borehole mining, light weight scarification, and testing of Russian-developed retrieval equipment. Furthermore, the Retrieval Analysis Tool was initiated to link retrieval processes with tank waste farms and tank geometric to assist end users by providing a consolidation of data and technical information that can be easily assessed. The main technical accomplishments are summarized under the following headings: Oak Ridge site-gunite and associated tanks treatability study; pulsed air mixing; Oak Ridge site-Old Hydrofracture Facility; hydraulic testbed relocation; cooling coil cleaning end effector; light weight scarifier; innovative tank mixing; advanced design mixer pump; enhanced sluicing; Russian retrieval equipment testing; retrieval data analysis and correlation; simulant development; and retrieval analysis tool (RAT).

  15. Secondary content area teachers speak about literacy and technology: Tensions, complexities, conceptualizations, and practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Elizabeth Joy Petroelje

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to share the details, complexities, contradictions, parallels, conceptualizations, and practices of secondary content area teachers' use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to enhance literacy practices and learning. Specifically, the research questions were: How do English, Science, and Social Studies teachers conceptualize the impacts ICTs have on literacy practices and learning? What is the relationship between English, Science, and Social Studies teachers' conceptualizations and their use of ICTs in their everyday pedagogical practices to enhance literacy practices and learning? I used the notions of literacy as a social practice to frame the study and writing as a method of inquiry to analyze the teachers' conceptualizations and practices. Through observations and interviews, I learned the teachers' stories. Within these stories, four tensions emerged in regard to how the teachers negotiate between their conceptualizations and classroom practices: (1) access to ICTs adequate for the task; (2) sufficient levels of ICT knowledge for the task; (3) fear of the unknown; and (4) identification of who benefits form the ICTs and how these benefits can be determined. The conclusions, or major themes highlighted in the teachers' stories, are that: (a) technology seems to be an add-on to support well-established practices, (b) teachers cling to traditional literacy practices, (c) teachers take up and use ICTs and literacy for unique purposes based on their individual classroom contexts, and (d) teachers' tensions limit their ability to envision beyond what they currently see and do in regards to ICTs and literacy.

  16. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  17. Assisting a College's Service Area in the Transition to the New Technology Society through Strategic Planning and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    North Central Technical College's (NCTC's) strategic planning and human resource development model is described in this paper in terms of its role in assisting the college's service area in adapting to new technologies. First, background information is presented on NCTC's planning process with respect to the strategic goal areas of: (1)…

  18. Technology Programs in Region 5, the Kokomo, Indiana Area. An Update Manpower Report. Manpower Report 84-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

    To assess the need for technology programs in the Kokomo, Indiana area, such background data (population projections for the region, the educational level of adults living in the region, and the number and size of firms located in the area) concerning Kokomo and the counties surrounding it were compiled. The researchers formulated projected…

  19. Investigation of the effect of laundering the ground crew chemical defense overgarment on toxic-free-area vapor transfer during shelter entry by initially contaminated personnel. Interim report, Oct 87-Jan 88

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.E.

    1990-12-01

    A study by the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, Texas, has compared the shelter processing transfer of chemical warfare agent simulant vapor for subjects wearing unwashed and laundered ground-crew chemical defense overgarments. Twice laundered and four times laundered protective garments were included in the assessment. Test subjects, wearing the unwashed and laundered protective garments were initially sprayed with liquid simulant (methyl salicylate) to a target density of 5 g m-2. They were then sequentially processed into and through the USAFSAM Collective Protection Shelter (SCPS-2B) test facility. Immediately upon entry to the Toxic-Free Area, the subjects were confined in individual off gassing booths for 2 h while offgassed simulant vapor concentration in the booths was recorded. The resulting mean maximum vapor concentrations recorded in the booths for subjects who had worn unwashed and laundered overgarments prior to booth entry were not statistically different at the .05 significance level. However, the 4-times laundered garment subjects (3 out of 4 subjects) showed an average 40% increase in booth vapor concentration compared with subjects wearing unwashed garments.

  20. Chemical-biological defense remote sensing: what's happening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrico, John P.

    1998-08-01

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) continues to be a serious threat to the security of the US. Proliferation of chemical and biological (CB) weapons is particularly disturbing, and the threats posed can be devastating. Critical elements of the US efforts to reduce and counter WMD proliferation include: (1) the location and characterization of WMD facilities and capabilities worldwide; (2) the ability to rapidly detect and identify the use of CB weapons for expeditious warning and reporting on the battlefield; and (3) the capability to mitigate deleterious consequences of a CB incident through effective protective and medical treatment measures. Remote sensing has been touted as a key technology in these efforts. Historically, the role of remote sensing in CB defense has been to provide early warning of an attack from an extended distance. However, additional roles for remote sensing in CB defense, as well as applications in related missions, are possible and should be pursued. This paper examines what has been happening in remote sensing over the past decade to address needs in this area. Accomplishments, emerging technologies, programmatic issues, and opportunities for the future are covered. The Department of Defence chemical- biological, the Department of Energy's Chemical Analysis by Laser Interrogation of Proliferation Effluents, and other agency related programs are examined. Also, the status of remote sensing in the commercial market arena for environmental monitoring, its relevance to the WMD counterproliferation program, and opportunities for technology transfer are discussed. A course of action for the future is recommended.

  1. Technology and economics assessment of developing an Arctic offshore petroleum area in Alaska (Chukchi Sea)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This assessment begins with three lines of investigation: petroleum geology, environmental conditions affecting engineering and siting, and available technologies for Arctic offshore oil and gas development. These results were integrated for economic analysis into scenarios that reflect reasonable variations in operators' strategies. Construction costs and schedules are estimated, and then examined using an economic model (a basic discounted cash flow scheme yielding internal real rates of return (ROR) and disaggregated equivalent amortized costs). The scenarios are realistic, but optimistic for oil and gas development. The harsh arctic environment specific to this OCS planning area was evaluated for engineering and cost estimating: multi-year sea ice, storms, short open-water season, 15-40 meter (50-120 foot) water depths, seafloor materials, harborless coastline, low seismicity, biological and social considerations. Sea ice is the dominating design parameter, impacting the surface facilities and gouging the seafloor. Offshore production concepts evaluated were gravel islands, cassion-retained islands, monocones and APLA (Artic production and loading atoll). Oil transportation systems were nearly equivalent in costs. Shipping requires dedicated ice-breaking tankers serving a transshipment terminal. Pipeline connects across the North Slope to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. The decision between these might hinge more on political and environmental issues than on economics. Natural gas is decidedly uneconomic based on this analysis. Transportation of natural gas from the Chukchi Sea area would be via ice-breaking LNG tankers; it is primarily the LNG transport system that pushes gas economics beyond viability.

  2. Landscape monitoring of post-industrial areas using LiDAR and GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, Piotr; Szostak, Marta; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Pająk, Marek; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szwed, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Ratajczak, Michał

    2015-06-01

    The quarrying industry is changing the local landscape, forming deep open pits and spoil heaps in close proximity to them, especially lignite mines. The impact can include toxic soil material (low pH, heavy metals, oxidations etc.) which is the basis for further reclamation and afforestation. Forests that stand on spoil heaps have very different growth conditions because of the relief (slope, aspect, wind and rainfall shadows, supply of solar energy, etc.) and type of soil that is deposited. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology deliver point clouds (XYZ) and derivatives as raster height models (DTM, DSM, nDSM=CHM) which allow the reception of selected 2D and 3D forest parameters (e.g. height, base of the crown, cover, density, volume, biomass, etc). The automation of ALS point cloud processing and integrating the results into GIS helps forest managers to take appropriate decisions on silvicultural treatments in areas with failed plantations (toxic soil, droughts on south-facing slopes; landslides, etc.) or as regular maintenance. The ISOK country-wide project ongoing in Poland will soon deliver ALS point cloud data which can be successfully used for the monitoring and management of many thousands of hectares of destroyed post-industrial areas which according to the law, have to be afforested and transferred back to the State Forest.

  3. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1993--September 27, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.

    1993-12-17

    The US DOD, through an Interagency Agreement with the US DOE, has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. A team of researchers has been assembled from Penn State, ABB Combustion Engineering Systems (CE), AMAX Research and Development Center (AMAX), and Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). These four organizations are the current members of the Consortium. Phase 1 activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase 2 research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase 3 activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase 1 are described in this report. The objective of Phase 1 is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program of the following tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package. Miscellaneous activities are reported. Activities planned for the next semiannual period are listed. The project schedule, with a description of milestones, is included.

  4. Moscow's defense intellectuals

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    This essay was originally written two decades ago as a seminar paper. A substantial portion of it addresses what were then only the first steps toward the establishment of a community of professional civilian defense analysts in the Soviet Union. Throughout most of the intervening period, that community found itself mired in immobilism as jurisdiction over such key Soviet national security inputs as military doctrine, force requirements, resource needs, and to a considerable degree, arms negotiating positions remained an exclusive prerogative of the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. Today, this former military monopoly has come to be challenged with increasing success by a host of newcomers to the Soviet defense scene, including the Foreign Ministry, the Supreme Soviet, and an ambitious cadre of civilian analysts attached to the social science research institutes of the Academy of Sciences. These individuals are making a determined bid for greater influence over Soviet defense policy, with the express encouragement of President Gorbachev and his supporters. The result has been an unprecedented infusion of pluralism into Soviet defense politics and a significant change in the content and goals of Soviet military policy.

  5. Philosophical Scrutiny of the Strategic Defense Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonsheck, Jonathan

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes three Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) proposals, and argues that only the least technologically feasible variant (the AstroAtmosOceanDome conception) can be judged morally superior to old-fashioned "we'll kill you if you kill us" deterrence ideas. (JDH)

  6. 77 FR 16651 - National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    .... Additional Authorities. (a) To create, maintain, protect, expand, or restore domestic industrial base... expand the productive capacities of domestic sources for critical components, critical technology items... or controlled by the Department of Defense, use of petroleum and gas pipelines, and coal...

  7. Schools Enlisting Defense Industry to Boost STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Defense contractors Northrop Grumman Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. are joining forces in an innovative partnership to develop high-tech simulations to boost STEM--or science, technology, engineering, and mathematics--education in the Baltimore County schools. The Baltimore County partnership includes the local operations of two major military…

  8. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P.

    1996-10-15

    This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.

  9. Defense display market assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  10. Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology program summary. Earth orbiting platforms program area of the space platforms technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Jerry R.

    1991-01-01

    Control-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology embraces the understanding of the interaction between the spacecraft structure and the control system, and the creation and validation of concepts, techniques, and tools, for enabling the interdisciplinary design of an integrated structure and control system, rather than the integration of a structural design and a control system design. The goal of this program is to develop validated CSI technology for integrated design/analysis and qualification of large flexible space systems and precision space structures. A description of the CSI technology program is presented.

  11. FY2002 Progress Summary Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A; Bibeau, C; Beach, R; Behrendt, B; Ebbers, C; Latkowski, J; Meier, W; Payne, S; Perkins, J; Schaffers, K; Skulina, K; Ditmire, T; Kelly, J; Waxer, L; Rudi, P; Randles, M; Witter, D; Meissner, H; Merissner, O

    2001-12-13

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, coordinated effort to develop a high-energy, repetitively pulsed laser system for Inertial Fusion Energy and other DOE and DOD applications. This program is building a laser-fusion energy base to complement the laser-fusion science developed by DOE Defense programs over the past 25 years. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and LLNL. The current LLNL proposal is a companion proposal to that submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. Aside from the driver development aspect, the NRL and LLNL companion proposals pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, materials and power plant economics. This report requests continued funding in FY02 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1kW, 100J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser. In addition, research in high gain laser target design, fusion chamber issues and survivability of the final optic element will be pursued. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments.

  12. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  13. Electromagnetic packable technology (EMPACT) for detection and characterization of ordnance in post-conflict areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory; Miller, Jonathan; Keranen, Joe

    2013-06-01

    Land reclamation efforts in post-conflict regions are often hampered by the presence of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or other Explosive Remnants of War (ERW). Surface geophysical methods, such as Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) and magnetometry, are typically applied to screen rehabilitation areas for UXO prior to excavation; however, the prevalence of innocuous magnetic clutter related to indigenous scrap, fragmentation, or geology can severely impede the progress and efficiency of these remediation efforts. Additionally, the variability in surface conditions and local topography necessitates the development of sensor technologies that can be applied to a range of sites including those that prohibit the use of vehicle-mounted or large array systems. We present a man-portable EMI sensor known as the Electromagnetic Packable Technology (EMPACT) system that features a multi-axis sensor configuration in a compact form factor. The system is designed for operation in challenging site conditions and can be used in low ground-standoff modes to detect small and low-metal content objects. The EMPACT acquires high spatial density, multi-axis data that enable high resolution of small objects. This high density data can also be used to provide characterization of target physical features, such as size, material content, and shape. We summarize the development of this system for humanitarian demining operations and present results from preliminary system evaluations against a range of target types. Specifically, we assess the general detection capabilities of the EMPACT system and we evaluate the potential for target classification based on analysis of data and target model features.

  14. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Leavitt, M.; Moss, D.

    1997-03-01

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II (this volume) describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Specific INEL problem areas/contaminants are identified along with technology solutions, the status of the technologies, precise science and technology needs, and implementation requirements. Volume III provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are referenced by a TEDS codenumber in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II.

  16. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  17. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  18. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  19. In Defense of Rubrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandel, Vicki

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author expresses her views in defense of writing rubrics. She explains that when rubrics are thoughtfully crafted and used with discretion and understanding, they can be among the most useful instructional tools that teachers have. A rubric captures the essence of performance at various levels. Because rubric demands…

  20. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  1. Traditional Science and Technology in the Socio-Cultural Context of Rural Areas. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi (India).

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. This 22-hour…

  2. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

  3. Nanoinformatics: an emerging area of information technology at the intersection of bioinformatics, computational chemistry and nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    González-Nilo, Fernando; Pérez-Acle, Tomás; Guínez-Molinos, Sergio; Geraldo, Daniela A; Sandoval, Claudia; Yévenes, Alejandro; Santos, Leonardo S; Laurie, V Felipe; Mendoza, Hegaly; Cachau, Raúl E

    2011-01-01

    After the progress made during the genomics era, bioinformatics was tasked with supporting the flow of information generated by nanobiotechnology efforts. This challenge requires adapting classical bioinformatic and computational chemistry tools to store, standardize, analyze, and visualize nanobiotechnological information. Thus, old and new bioinformatic and computational chemistry tools have been merged into a new sub-discipline: nanoinformatics. This review takes a second look at the development of this new and exciting area as seen from the perspective of the evolution of nanobiotechnology applied to the life sciences. The knowledge obtained at the nano-scale level implies answers to new questions and the development of new concepts in different fields. The rapid convergence of technologies around nanobiotechnologies has spun off collaborative networks and web platforms created for sharing and discussing the knowledge generated in nanobiotechnology. The implementation of new database schemes suitable for storage, processing and integrating physical, chemical, and biological properties of nanoparticles will be a key element in achieving the promises in this convergent field. In this work, we will review some applications of nanobiotechnology to life sciences in generating new requirements for diverse scientific fields, such as bioinformatics and computational chemistry.

  4. The potential of Biochar technology in combating rocky desertification in the Karst area of south China*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, X.; Xing, Y.; Fang, B.; Zhang, L.; Yang, F.; Zhou, H.

    2012-04-01

    field experiments using the Biochar technology. Here we report the results. As a province with the dominating agriculture, Guizhou produces 10~30 million tons of crop stalks annually, of which roughly 10% were used as fodder of domestic animals or in some other ways while most were subject to the notorious field combustion. The provincial government has issued policies calling for the exploitation of this renewable resource, no breakthrough, however, has been made toward this goal due to the low economic benefit of the current straw use technologies. Should the straws be used in the biochar way, based on our data of field experiments in Guizhou province, the biomass could yield 300~900 thousand tons of charcoal, which would sequester the atmospheric CO2 by 10~30 million tons. Meanwhile the application of the biochar in the basic farmland would enhance the production of corn and rapeseed by about 30%, and the total production of crop by 300 thousand tons. The increased benefit from these two sources is equivalent to a total of 6600 million RMB, or 244 Yuan per capita of farmers per year in the whole province. This income would enable 850 thousand hectares of hill slopes to be relieved from cultivation without impairing the food security. This area accounts for 25% of the total rocky desertification of the province, or 65% of its medium ~severe desertified hillsides. *This research was financially supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDA05070400), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41021062, 40872212) and the Key Technologies R & D Project in Agriculture of Guizhou Province (No.[2011]3079).

  5. Metropolitian area network services comprised of virtual local area networks running over hybrid fiber-coax and asynchronous transfer mode technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedron, William S.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1990 there has been a rapid increase in the demand for communication services, especially local and wide area network (LAN/WAN) oriented services. With the introduction of the DFB laser transmitter, hybrid-fiber-coax (HFC) cable plant designs, ATM transport technologies and rf modems, new LAN/WAN services can now be defined and marketed to residential and business customers over existing cable TV systems. The term metropolitan area network (MAN) can be used to describe this overall network. This paper discusses the technical components needed to provision these services as well as provides some perspectives on integration issues. Architecture at the headend and in the backbone is discussed, as well as specific service definitions and the technology issues associated with each. The TCP/IP protocol is suggested as a primary protocol to be used throughout the MAN.

  6. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  7. IT-Adventures: A Program to Spark IT Interest in High School Students Using Inquiry-Based Learning with Cyber Defense, Game Design, and Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rursch, Julie A.; Luse, Andy; Jacobson, Doug

    2010-01-01

    The IT-Adventures program is dedicated to increasing interest in and awareness of information technology among high school students using inquiry-based learning focused on three content areas: cyber defense, game design programming, and robotics. The program combines secondary, post-secondary, and industry partnerships in educational programming,…

  8. NASA's Current Directions in the CETDP Micro-Technology Thrust Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocky, J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's program in micro-technologies seeks to develop the advanced technologies needed to reduce the mass of Earth-orbiting and deep-space spacecraft by several orders of magnitude over the next decade.

  9. FBIS report. Science and technology: China, July 10, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-10

    The publication contains reports in the following areas: Science and Technology Policy; Advanced Materials and Superconductivity; Aerospace; Computers; Defense Technology; Factory Automation and Robotics; Laser, Sensors, Optics; Microelectronics; Telecommunications; National Energy Developments; Power Network; Hydropower; Coal; Oil and Gas; Nuclear Power; and Alternative Energy.

  10. Missile Defense and International Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Y.

    2002-01-01

    By the withdrawal from Anti Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 by the United States of America, there will emerge the age of no concrete legal restrictions for ballistic missiles defense in the outer space.On the other hand, because the proliferation of ballistic missile technology has been the problem to be solved as soon as possible, we have to build new regulations for the adequate missile defense and other related activities including the use of outer space.In this paper, the implication of ABM Treaty in the Cold War era will be reviewed and the present and future situation and ideal legal scheme for missile defense and outer space usage will be considered.

  11. Hanford defense mission: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.F.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes the origin of Hanford, and its role in the Manhattan Project, its current role, and what is seen for Hanford in the future. Emphasis is on Hanford's defense mission. However, Hanford is a national resource in a number of areas and some of these are mentioned as well.

  12. Multi-service briefing on radioisotope systems for defense applications, briefing notes and supporting information

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrett, J.H.; Tingey, G.L.

    1990-05-01

    A briefing on isotope systems technology and applications was held at the Pentagon on 9 May 1990, cosponsored by the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy. The objective was to provide isotope systems information to interested individuals and offices from the DOD and the Services, and then to discuss potential uses of this technology within the defense community. Presentations were given on the useful characteristics of radioactive decay, isotope sources, properties of specific isotopes, and details of isotope systems that have been deployed for terrestrial and space applications. Application areas covered included: electrical, thermal and mechanical energy conversion systems; radiation applications; and radioluminescent lights. Talks were also given on system licensing and approvals, and conclusions from the 1986 workshop on isotope systems applications. This document contains the meeting agenda, copies of the vu-graphs used in the presentations, face sheets given to meeting attendees, a list of attendees, and supplementary information requested during the meeting.

  13. Manufacturing process applications team (MATEAM). [technology transfer in the areas of machine tools and robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The transfer of NASA technology to the industrial sector is reported. Presentations to the machine tool and robot industries and direct technology transfers of the Adams Manipulator arm, a-c motor control, and the bolt tension monitor are discussed. A listing of proposed RTOP programs with strong potential is included. A detailed description of the rotor technology available to industry is given.

  14. Civil defense home shelters: A viable defense strategy for the 1990s. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, V.J.

    1990-09-01

    This study investigated the question 'Why are fallout shelters not a part of U.S. national defense strategy and policy ' Initial research determined that the U.S. has the technology to design and build shelters, they are effective protection from radioactive fallout, and nuclear agression against the U.S. remains a potential national threat. The research examined the physical threats posed by nuclear weapons, followed by a brief description of fallout shelters and their ability to shield against fallout radiation in terms of the ration of time in shelter to amount of exposure. Several opposing arguments from opponents and proponents of a national fallout shelter program were categorized and expressed within U.S. National Security Strategy, military, economic, and political terms. The principal argument against a national fallout shelter program, including home fallout shelters, is the momentum of over 30 years of successful deterrence. On the other hand, the relatively simple technology, the affordability, and the potential for saving millions of lives in low-risk areas that would otherwise be lost should deterrence fail, argue strongly in favor of a national home fallout shelter system.

  15. 6 CFR 25.8 - Government contractor Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.8 Government contractor Defense. (a) Criteria for Certification. The Under Secretary may issue a Certification for a Qualified Anti-Terrorism Technology as an... and information regarding such Qualified Anti-Terrorism Technology to the Department in...

  16. 76 FR 35424 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Information Technology AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... technology. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved this information collection requirement... Supplement (DFARS) Part 239, Acquisition of Information Technology, and the associated clauses at DFARS...

  17. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de León, Francisco J García

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  18. 75 FR 32635 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for Commercial Information Technology... Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the exemption from the Balance of... implement in the clauses at 252.225-7044, Balance of Payments Program--Construction Material, and...

  19. A Review of Technology Choice for Teaching Language Skills and Areas in the CALL Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    The use of technology in language teaching and learning has been the focus of a number of recent research review studies, including developments in technology and CALL research (Zhao, 2003), CALL as an academic discipline (Debski, 2003), ICT effectiveness (Felix, 2005), and subject characteristics in CALL research (Hubbard, 2005), to name a few.…

  20. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  1. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  2. Toward an Integrative Theory of Psychological Defense.

    PubMed

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to theories of "psychological defense," humans are motivated to protect themselves against various types of psychological threat, including death awareness, uncertainty, and other inherently anxiety-provoking experiences. Protective mechanisms include strengthening close relationships; maintaining appraisals of self-worth, accomplishment, and agency; and cultivating meaningful views of the world. Thus, defensiveness theories incorporate research from many areas of psychology (e.g., information-processing biases, attitudes, and interpersonal and intergroup relations), to help explain why people think, feel, and act in the diverse ways that they do. Currently, the study of psychological defense is hindered by contradictory empirical results and a proliferation of theories that make very similar predictions. This article examines a cross-section of defensiveness theories and research, highlighting conclusions that can be drawn and areas where conceptual and research problems linger. It suggests that the field needs methodological innovation (e.g., more reliable and valid manipulations and measures of unconscious constructs, more diverse methodological approaches), a more complete and reliable body of data, and some fresh new ideas from psychological scientists across disciplines. PMID:26173238

  3. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  4. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  5. Southwest Research Institute assistance to NASA in biomedical areas of the technology utilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Applications of aerospace technology to biomedical science are described. Recent research and development of specific techniques, services, and equipment adopted by physicians to help combat disease and disability are reviewed.

  6. Southwest Research Institute assistance to NASA in biomedical areas of the technology utilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culclasure, D. F.; Sigmon, J. L.; Carter, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The activities are reported of the NASA Biomedical Applications Team at Southwest Research Institute between 25 August, 1972 and 15 November, 1973. The program background and methodology are discussed along with the technology applications, and biomedical community impacts.

  7. Ethical considerations of clinical photography in an area of emerging technology and smartphones.

    PubMed

    Van der Rijt, Rhys; Hoffman, Stuart

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in digital technology including internet, email and smartphones has revolutionised clinical photography and medical record data storage. The use of smartphones is becoming ubiquitous among medical professionals and the use of clinical photography has become an integral component of the management of patients in a variety of visually orientated specialties. Although clinical photography has its benefits, with this evolving technology also emerge new ethical, legal and social issues, which clinicians must be aware of.

  8. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Volume III (this volume) provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are reference by a TEDS code number in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II. Data sheets are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each sheet.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  10. Applications of the Strategic Defense Initiative's compact accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montanarelli, Nick; Lynch, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative's (SDI) investment in particle accelerator technology for its directed energy weapons program has produced breakthroughs in the size and power of new accelerators. These accelerators, in turn, have produced spinoffs in several areas: the radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator (RFQ linac) was recently incorporated into the design of a cancer therapy unit at the Loma Linda University Medical Center, an SDI-sponsored compact induction linear accelerator may replace Cobalt-60 radiation and hazardous ethylene-oxide as a method for sterilizing medical products, and other SDIO-funded accelerators may be used to produce the radioactive isotopes oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 for positron emission tomography (PET). Other applications of these accelerators include bomb detection, non-destructive inspection, decomposing toxic substances in contaminated ground water, and eliminating nuclear waste.

  11. Applications of the Strategic Defense Initiative's compact accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarelli, Nick; Lynch, Ted

    1991-12-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative's (SDI) investment in particle accelerator technology for its directed energy weapons program has produced breakthroughs in the size and power of new accelerators. These accelerators, in turn, have produced spinoffs in several areas: the radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator (RFQ linac) was recently incorporated into the design of a cancer therapy unit at the Loma Linda University Medical Center, an SDI-sponsored compact induction linear accelerator may replace Cobalt-60 radiation and hazardous ethylene-oxide as a method for sterilizing medical products, and other SDIO-funded accelerators may be used to produce the radioactive isotopes oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 for positron emission tomography (PET). Other applications of these accelerators include bomb detection, non-destructive inspection, decomposing toxic substances in contaminated ground water, and eliminating nuclear waste.

  12. Thermoregulatory defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sessler, Daniel I

    2009-07-01

    Core body temperature is normally tightly regulated by an effective thermoregulatory system. Thermoregulatory control is sometimes impaired by serious illness, but more typically remains intact. The primary autonomic defenses against heat are sweating and active precapillary vasodilation; the primary autonomic defenses against cold are arteriovenous shunt vasoconstriction and shivering. The core temperature triggering each response defines its activation threshold. Temperatures between the sweating and vasoconstriction thresholds define the inter-threshold range. The shivering threshold is usually a full 1 degrees C below the vasoconstriction threshold and is therefore a "last resort" response. Both vasoconstriction and shivering are associated with autonomic and hemodynamic activation; and each response is effective, thus impeding induction of therapeutic hypothermia. It is thus helpful to accompany core cooling with drugs that pharmacologically induce a degree of thermal tolerance. No perfect drug or drug combination has been identified. Anesthetics, for example, induce considerable tolerance, but are rarely suitable. Meperidine-especially in combination with buspirone-is especially effective while provoking only modest toxicity. The combination of buspirone and dexmedetomidine is comparably effective while avoiding the respiratory depression association with opioid administration.

  13. Environmental Technology Transfer Needs of Bay Area Business and Environmental Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Robin M.; And Others

    In 1995, Merritt College, in Oakland, California, conducted telephone interviews with 23 hazardous waste generating businesses and 30 environmental professionals in the San Francisco Bay Area to determine interest in receiving training from the college related to waste management and areas of training needed. An analysis of responses revealed the…

  14. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razza, Stefano; Castro-Hermosa, Sergio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M.

    2016-09-01

    To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating), as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  15. Hydrogen storage for vehicular applications: Technology status and key development areas

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.L.; Handrock, J.L.

    1994-04-01

    The state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage technology is reviewed, including gaseous, liquid, hydride, surface adsorbed media, glass microsphere, chemical reaction, and liquid chemical technologies. The review of each technology includes a discussion of advantages, disadvantages, likelihood of success, and key research and development activities. A preferred technological path for the development of effective near-term hydrogen storage includes both cur-rent DOT qualified and advanced compressed storage for down-sized highly efficient but moderate range vehicles, and liquid storage for fleet vehicle applications. Adsorbate media are also suitable for fleet applications but not for intermittent uses. Volume-optimized transition metal hydride beds are also viable for short range applications. Long-term development of coated nanoparticulate or metal matrix high conductivity magnesium alloy, is recommended. In addition, a room temperature adsorbate medium should be developed to avoid cryogenic storage requirements. Chemical storage and oxidative schemes present serious obstacles which must be addressed for these technologies to have a future role.

  16. A Sandia weapon review bulletin : defense programs, Autumn 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Topics in this issue: (1) Focal Point and STEP. Sandia National Laboratories has always focused its advanced weapon development not only on future weapon needs, but also on the engineering and manufacturing sciences needed to meet them. Both areas are changing dramatically. As the nation dismantles many of its warheads, it becomes essential that those that remain are increasingly reliable, secure, capable, and safe. And as development resources diminish, it becomes vital that they are applied to the most critical technologies in a disciplined manner. The mission of the Focal Point program and the Stockpile Transition Enabling Program (STEP) is to develop processes for meeting these challenges. Focal Point offers a decision-making process for allocating Sandia's resources to meets its defense programs strategic goals. (2) Defense Programs news in brief. (3) Dismantling the nuclear stockpile. (4) W88/MK5: Arming, Fuzing, and Firing system meets all requirements and goals. (5) The Common Radar Fuze. (6) Insertable-explosive arming of firing sets. (7) Preparing for fewer underground tests.

  17. Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modeling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, L. C.; Fleskens, L.; Reed, M. S.; de Vente, J.; Zengin, M.

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste area groups 1--7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Technology Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternatives for environmental restoration projects at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The diagram (three volumes) documents suggested solutions to the characterization, retrieval, and treatment phases of cleanup activities at contaminated sites within 8 of the laboratory`s 10 waste area groups. Contaminated sites at the laboratory`s Naval Reactor Facility and Argonne National Laboratory-West are not included in this diagram.

  19. The Research on The Fusion Technology of Wireless LANs and Personal Area Networks for Emergency Secure in Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiyuan, Li

    The author has provided craft brother with predictive wireless communication modality and imaginative solutions, and discussed the applied mode of amalgamation technology of wireless LANs and personal area networks for emergency secure in coal mine. The fire protection jobs of emergency secure will become more scientific, more efficient and more flexible in this circumstance. The study can supply bailout team with the situation of a disaster and the location of miner, enhance the efficiency of emergency secure in coal mine.

  20. Matching study areas using Google Street View: A new application for an emerging technology.

    PubMed

    Less, Elyse Levine; McKee, Patricia; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben; Erickson, Darin; Xiong, Serena; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2015-12-01

    Google Street View (GSV) can be used as an effective tool to conduct virtual neighborhood audits. We expand on this research by exploring the utility of a GSV-based neighborhood audit to measure and match target and comparison study areas. We developed a GSV-based inventory to measure characteristics of retail alcohol stores and their surrounding neighborhoods. We assessed its reliability and assessed the utility of GSV-based audits for matching target and comparison study areas. We found that GSV-based neighborhood audits can be a useful, reliable, and cost-effective tool for matching target and comparison study areas when archival data are insufficient and primary data collection is prohibitive. We suggest that researchers focus on characteristics that are easily visible on GSV and are relatively stable over time when creating future GSV-based measuring and matching tools. Dividing the study area into small segments may also provide more accurate measurements and more precise matching.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM: Stormwater Source Area Treatment Device - Arkal Pressurized Stormwater Filtration System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance verification testing of the Arkal Pressurized Stormwater Filtration System was conducted under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program on a 5.5-acre parking lot and grounds of St. Mary's Hospital in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The system consists of a water sto...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE: STORMWATER MANAGEMENT INC., STORMSCREEN� TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification Testing of the Stormwater Management, Inc. StormScreen treatment technology was performed during a 12-month period starting in May, 2003. The system was previously installed in a city-owned right-of-way near downtown Griffin, GA., and is a device for removing trash,...

  3. Planning the Technology Area: Its Inflexibility by Weight of Mechanical Servicing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockman, Carl E.

    The problems of planning and designing educational facilities are outlined with regard to the ever-changing educational programs, teaching methods and technological facility needs. Problems of flexibility are concerned with how much flexibility is required and how much flexibility can be economically justified. Requirements for flexible school…

  4. Science and Technology Librarians: User Engagement and Outreach Activities in the Area of Scholarly Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lutishoor; Speer, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the findings of a survey completed by ACRL/STS [Association of College and Research Libraries/Science and Technology Section] members on scholarly communication issues. In particular it identifies the percentage of their daily activities that are spent in support of scholarly communication activities; extent of change of job…

  5. Wide area detection system: Conceptual design study. [using television and microelectronic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Carl, C.; Goss, W.; Hansen, G. R.; Olsasky, M. J.; Johnston, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated sensor for traffic surveillance on mainline sections of urban freeways is described. Applicable imaging and processor technology is surveyed and the functional requirements for the sensors and the conceptual design of the breadboard sensors are given. Parameters measured by the sensors include lane density, speed, and volume. The freeway image is also used for incident diagnosis.

  6. Information Technology Applications on Human Resources Management Functions in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawafy, Qais Abdulkadum Kahalf

    2013-01-01

    The existing bond between human resources (HR) that team up in a business enterprise and the "real medium" information technology (IT) itself appears in the moment that the relationship is generated independently of the kind of enterprise and the relationship established between them. In today's competitive business world, companies who…

  7. The Adoption and Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Areas: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ranjit; Lichter, Michael I.; Danzo, Andrew; Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Context: Health information technology (HIT) is a national policy priority. Knowledge about the special needs, if any, of rural health care providers should be taken into account as policy is put into action. Little is known, however, about rural-urban differences in HIT adoption at the national level. Purpose: To conduct the first national…

  8. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

  9. Integration of educational and scientific-technological areas during the process of education of aerospace engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorova, Vera

    2011-09-01

    National priorities, defined by modern state of high-tech industries, demand adequate problem solving of training professionals possessing required modern qualifications. Modern tendencies of the development of aerospace technologies, harsh competition in the market of space services and expansion of international cooperation for implementation of space projects, demand sharp increase of the scientific/technical level and competitiveness of the developed projects. Especially important is to be able to solve technological problems, which in turn define the cost and quality attributes of the designed item, as well as the ability to utilize the most modern design principles. Training of highly efficient, creative professionals who are capable of generating and implementing new ideas is a very important factor driving not only the development of national economy and industry, but also enriching the human capital of the country. Moscow State Technical University named after N.E. Bauman developed and successfully implemented the project-oriented technology of professional training for aerospace industry. It assumes a multitude of forms, methodologies and organizational events, which allow preparing the specialists - on the basis of integration of scientific/technological and educational environment - who are adapted to the conditions of the intellectual market. The Youth Space Center of the University is the base where graduate and post-graduate students attend unique lectures as a part of the facultative course "Applied Cosmonautics", participate in annual International Youth Science School "Space Development: Theory and Practice" and develop innovative technical projects aimed at creation of real-life space hardware. Microsatellite technologies are being developed in Bauman University through various projects, which are implemented in a coordinated manner by way of accomplishing the following steps: development of small-size satellites by universities, using them as

  10. Defense acquisition programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The continuing instability in the overall defense budget and the recent changes in Eastern Europe are forcing DOD and the military services to reexamine the need, priority, and annual funding levels for many weapon system acquisition programs. GAO reviewed six weapon system acquisition programs that DOD was scheduled to make an acquisition milestone decision on during fiscal year 1991. Under milestone authorization, up to five years funding can be approved to cover the entire acquisition phase for either full-scale development or full-rate production. This report examines the Non-Line-of-Sight Missile, the Light Helicopter, the MK-50 Torpedo, the Sensor Fuzed Weapon, the Advanced Tactical Fighter, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Class 2 Terminals.

  11. A content validity study of the defense mechanism inventory.

    PubMed

    Blacha, M D; Fancher, R E

    1977-08-01

    The content validity of the Defense Mechanism Inventory was tested by 20 raters who evaluated each item in terms of which 15 defenses and three ego threats it represented. Items purportedly measuring the global defense categories of principalization, turning against self, and reversal, achieved relatively high rater agreement (over 70%) while projection and turning against Object fared poorly (29% and 39% respectively). Differential content validity was found in the levels and areas of the Inventory, indicating that the context in which items appear affect their representativeness of defensive behaviors. The individual defense mechanisms were disproportionately represented by the Inventory. Ratings suggested that aggressiveness was the major ego threat being measured by the items. Most of the problems appear correctable through rewriting many of the items.

  12. A geometric model of defensive peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Bufacchi, R J; Liang, M; Griffin, L D; Iannetti, G D

    2016-01-01

    Potentially harmful stimuli occurring within the defensive peripersonal space (DPPS), a protective area surrounding the body, elicit stronger defensive reactions. The spatial features of the DPPS are poorly defined and limited to descriptive estimates of its extent along a single dimension. Here we postulated a family of geometric models of the DPPS, to address two important questions with respect to its spatial features: What is its fine-grained topography? How does the nervous system represent the body area to be defended? As a measure of the DPPS, we used the strength of the defensive blink reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the hand (hand-blink reflex, HBR), which is reliably modulated by the position of the stimulated hand in egocentric coordinates. We tested the goodness of fit of the postulated models to HBR data from six experiments in which we systematically explored the HBR modulation by hand position in both head-centered and body-centered coordinates. The best-fitting model indicated that 1) the nervous system's representation of the body area defended by the HBR can be approximated by a half-ellipsoid centered on the face and 2) the DPPS extending from this area has the shape of a bubble elongated along the vertical axis. Finally, the empirical observation that the HBR is modulated by hand position in head-centered coordinates indicates that the DPPS is anchored to the face. The modeling approach described in this article can be generalized to describe the spatial modulation of any defensive response. PMID:26510762

  13. Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense

    DOE PAGES

    Antolak, Arlyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Particle accelerators play a key role in a broad set of defense and security applications including war-fighter and asset protection, cargo inspection, nonproliferation, materials characterization and stockpile stewardship. Accelerators can replace the high activity radioactive sources that pose a security threat for developing a radiological dispersal device and be used to produce isotopes for medical, industrial, and re-search purposes. Lastly, we present an overview of current and emerging accelerator technologies relevant to addressing the needs of defense and security.

  14. Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.

    Particle accelerators play a key role in a broad set of defense and security applications, including war-fighter and asset protection, cargo inspection, nonproliferation, materials characterization, and stockpile stewardship. Accelerators can replace the high activity radioactive sources that pose a security threat to developing a radiological dispersal device, and, can be used to produce isotopes for medical, industrial, and research purposes. An overview of current and emerging accelerator technologies relevant to addressing the needs of defense and security is presented.

  15. CERCLA's innocent landowner defense -- Consultants beware

    SciTech Connect

    Nijman, J.T. )

    1994-05-01

    Consultant liability is an area of the innocent landowner defense under CERCLA that is not often discussed. The only reasonable way to protect consultants hired by innocent purchasers'' is for Congress or state legislatures to establish standardized, regulated audit guidelines. However, even standardized guidelines do not protect consultants completely, because standards cannot specify all activity necessary to perform a particular task. Each project has unique circumstances, and standards arguably can become per se determinants of liability. CERCLA provides three defenses to its basic strict, joint and several liability provisions -- an act of God, an act of war, and an act or omission of a third party not in a contractual relationship with the current owner. Congress amended the third-party not in a contractual relationship with the current owner. Congress amended the third-party defense in SARA by redefining contractual relationship'' to exclude from liability owners who acquired the real property following disposal or placement of hazardous material, and established satisfactorily that the owner at the time of purchase neither knew nor had reason to know hazardous substances were disposed on the property -- the innocent landowner defense.

  16. Design of the low area monotonic trim DAC in 40 nm CMOS technology for pixel readout chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, A.; Szczygiel, R.; Maj, P.; Satlawa, T.; Grybos, P.

    2014-12-01

    The recent research in hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode focuses on nanometer or 3D technologies which allow making pixels smaller and implementing more complex solutions in each of the pixels. Usually single pixel in readout electronics for X-ray detection comprises of charge amplifier, shaper and discriminator that allow classification of events occurring at the detector as true or false hits by comparing amplitude of the signal obtained with threshold voltage, which minimizes the influence of noise effects. However, making the pixel size smaller often causes problems with pixel to pixel uniformity and additional effects like charge sharing become more visible. To improve channel-to-channel uniformity or implement an algorithm for charge sharing effect minimization, small area trimming DACs working in each pixel independently are necessary. However, meeting the requirement of small area often results in poor linearity and even non-monotonicity. In this paper we present a novel low-area thermometer coded 6-bit DAC implemented in 40 nm CMOS technology. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on the described design proving that under all conditions designed DAC is inherently monotonic. Presented DAC was implemented in the prototype readout chip with 432 pixels working in single photon counting mode, with two trimming DACs in each pixel. Each DAC occupies the area of 8 μm × 18.5 μm. Measurements and chips' tests were performed to obtain reliable statistical results.

  17. [Research on monitoring land subsidence in Beijing plain area using PS-InSAR technology].

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhao-Qin; Gong, Hui-Li; Zhang, You-Quan; Lu, Xue-Hui; Wang, Sa; Wang, Rong; Liu, Huan-Huan

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper, the authors use permanent scatterers synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PS-InSAR) technique and 29 acquisitions by Envisat during 2003 to 2009 to monitor and analyze the spatial-temporal distribution and mechanism characterize of land subsidence in Beijing plain area. The results show that subsidence bowls have been bounded together in Beijing plain area, which covers Chaoyang, Changping, Shunyi and Tongzhou area, and the range of subsidence has an eastward trend. The most serious regional subsidence is mainly distributed by the quaternary depression in Beijing plain area. PS-Insar results also show a new subsidence bowl in Pinggu. What's more, the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation is controlled mainly by faults, such as Liangxiang-Shunyi fault, Huangzhuang-Gaoliying fault, and Nankou-Sunhe fault. The subsidence and level of groundwater in study area shows a good correlation, and the subsidence shows seasonal ups trend during November to March and seasonal downs trend during March to June along with changes in groundwater levels. The contribution of land subsidence is also influenced by stress-strain behavior of aquitards. The compaction of aquitards shows an elastic, plastic, viscoelastic pattern. PMID:25269304

  18. [Research on monitoring land subsidence in Beijing plain area using PS-InSAR technology].

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhao-Qin; Gong, Hui-Li; Zhang, You-Quan; Lu, Xue-Hui; Wang, Sa; Wang, Rong; Liu, Huan-Huan

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper, the authors use permanent scatterers synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PS-InSAR) technique and 29 acquisitions by Envisat during 2003 to 2009 to monitor and analyze the spatial-temporal distribution and mechanism characterize of land subsidence in Beijing plain area. The results show that subsidence bowls have been bounded together in Beijing plain area, which covers Chaoyang, Changping, Shunyi and Tongzhou area, and the range of subsidence has an eastward trend. The most serious regional subsidence is mainly distributed by the quaternary depression in Beijing plain area. PS-Insar results also show a new subsidence bowl in Pinggu. What's more, the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation is controlled mainly by faults, such as Liangxiang-Shunyi fault, Huangzhuang-Gaoliying fault, and Nankou-Sunhe fault. The subsidence and level of groundwater in study area shows a good correlation, and the subsidence shows seasonal ups trend during November to March and seasonal downs trend during March to June along with changes in groundwater levels. The contribution of land subsidence is also influenced by stress-strain behavior of aquitards. The compaction of aquitards shows an elastic, plastic, viscoelastic pattern.

  19. 32 CFR 1605.60 - Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area. 1605.60 Section 1605.60 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.60 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall...

  20. 32 CFR 1605.60 - Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Area. 1605.60 Section 1605.60 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.60 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall...

  1. 32 CFR 1605.60 - Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Area. 1605.60 Section 1605.60 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.60 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall...

  2. 32 CFR 1605.60 - Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Area. 1605.60 Section 1605.60 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.60 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall...

  3. 32 CFR 1605.60 - Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Area. 1605.60 Section 1605.60 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.60 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall...

  4. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  5. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  6. Moraine Area Career System (MACS). Technology Preparation Final Report for 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

    The Moraine Area Career System (MACS) Tech Prep Applied Academics Core project was undertaken to develop a written replicable model core of applied academics for selected vocational-technical programs that would emphasize Illinois goals for learning and technical content (including critical and computer literacy). A tech prep advisory council…

  7. Evolution of Ada technology in the flight dynamics area: Implementation/testing phase analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quimby, Kelvin L.; Esker, Linda; Miller, John; Smith, Laurie; Stark, Mike; Mcgarry, Frank

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the software engineering issues related to the use of Ada for the implementation and system testing phases of four Ada projects developed in the flight dynamics area. These projects reflect an evolving understanding of more effective use of Ada features. In addition, the testing methodology used on these projects has changed substantially from that used on previous FORTRAN projects.

  8. Remote Areas Development Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint No. R-36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This manual, developed for use by Peace Corps volunteers, attempts to help development counselors to understand the needs of remote-area groups and to provide for those needs through effective self-help projects. The projects covered are those that can solve most effectively, on the village level, the most pressing problems. The manual is written…

  9. Toward directed energy planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Bible, Johanna; Bublitz, Jesse; Arriola, Josh; Motta, Caio; Suen, Jon; Johansson, Isabella; Riley, Jordan; Sarvian, Nilou; Clayton-Warwick, Deborah; Wu, Jane; Milich, Andrew; Oleson, Mitch; Pryor, Mark; Krogen, Peter; Kangas, Miikka; O'Neill, Hugh

    2014-02-01

    Asteroids and comets that cross Earth's orbit pose a credible risk of impact, with potentially severe disturbances to Earth and society. We propose an orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the vaporization point as a feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. We call the system DE-STAR, for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. The DE-STAR is a modular-phased array of kilowatt class lasers powered by photovoltaic's. Modular design allows for incremental development, minimizing risk, and allowing for technological codevelopment. An orbiting structure would be developed in stages. The main objective of the DE-STAR is to use focused directed energy to raise the surface spot temperature to ˜3000 K, sufficient to vaporize all known substances. Ejection of evaporated material creates a large reaction force that would alter an asteroid's orbit. The baseline system is a DE-STAR 3 or 4 (1- to 10-km array) depending on the degree of protection desired. A DE-STAR 4 allows initial engagement beyond 1 AU with a spot temperature sufficient to completely evaporate up to 500-m diameter asteroids in 1 year. Small objects can be diverted with a DE-STAR 2 (100 m) while space debris is vaporized with a DE-STAR 1 (10 m).

  10. Intelligent systems for strategic power infrastructure defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ju-Hwan

    A fault or disturbance in a power system can be severe due to the sources of vulnerability such as human errors, protection and control system failures, a failure of communication networks to deliver critical control signals, and market and load uncertainties. There have been several catastrophic failures resulting from disturbances involving the sources of vulnerability while power systems are designed to withstand disturbances or faults. To avoid catastrophic failures or minimize the impact of a disturbance(s), the state of the power system has to be analyzed correctly and preventive or corrective self-healing control actions have to be deployed. This dissertation addresses two aspects of power systems: Defense system and diagnosis, both concerned with the power system analysis and operation during events involving faults or disturbances. This study is intended to develop a defense system that is able to assess power system vulnerability and to perform self-healing control actions based on the system-wide analysis. In order to meet the requirements of the system-wide analysis, the defense system is designed with multi-agent system technologies. Since power systems are dynamic and uncertain the self-healing control actions need to be adaptive. This study applies the reinforcement learning technique to provide a theoretical basis for adaptation. One of the important issues in adaptation is the convergence of the learning algorithm. An appropriate convergence criterion is derived and an application with a load-shedding scheme is demonstrated in this study. This dissertation also demonstrates the feasibility of the defense system and self-healing control actions through multi-agent system technologies. The other subject of this research is to investigate the methodology for on-line fault diagnosis using the information from Sequence-of-Events Recorders (SER). The proposed multiple-hypothesis analysis generates one or more hypothetical fault scenarios to interpret the

  11. Adolescent Suicide and Defensive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between ego defense mechanisms, diagnoses, and suicidality among 200 adolescent psychiatric patients classified as suicide attempters, suicidal ideators, and nonsuicidal patients. Using Defense Mechanisms Inventory, found the suicidal adolescents score higher on turning-against-self and lower on reversal, as compared to…

  12. PM sources in a highly industrialised area in the process of implementing PM abatement technology. Quantification and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Monfort, Eliseo; Vicente Miró, José

    2007-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with a multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) was applied to PM(10) speciation data series (2002-2005) from four sampling sites in a highly industrialised area (ceramic production) in the process of implementing emission abatement technology. Five common factors with similar chemical profiles were identified at all the sites: mineral, regional background (influenced by the industrial estate located on the coast: an oil refinery and a power plant), sea spray, industrial 1 (manufacture and use of glaze components, including frit fusion) and road traffic. The contribution of the regional background differs slightly from site to site. The mineral factor, attributed to the sum of several sources (mainly the ceramic industry, but also with minor contributions from soil resuspension and African dust outbreaks) contributes between 9 and 11 microg m(-3) at all the sites. Source industrial 1 entails an increase in PM(10) levels between 4 and 5 microg m(-3) at the urban sites and 2 microg m(-3) at the suburban background site. However, after 2004, this source contributed less than 2 microg m(-3) at most sites, whereas the remaining sources did not show an upward or downward trend along the study period. This gradual decrease in the contribution of source industrial 1 coincides with the implementation of PM abatement technology in the frit fusion kilns of the area. This relationship enables us to assess the efficiency of the implementation of environmental technologies in terms of their impact on air quality.

  13. PM sources in a highly industrialised area in the process of implementing PM abatement technology. Quantification and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Monfort, Eliseo; Vicente Miró, José

    2007-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with a multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) was applied to PM(10) speciation data series (2002-2005) from four sampling sites in a highly industrialised area (ceramic production) in the process of implementing emission abatement technology. Five common factors with similar chemical profiles were identified at all the sites: mineral, regional background (influenced by the industrial estate located on the coast: an oil refinery and a power plant), sea spray, industrial 1 (manufacture and use of glaze components, including frit fusion) and road traffic. The contribution of the regional background differs slightly from site to site. The mineral factor, attributed to the sum of several sources (mainly the ceramic industry, but also with minor contributions from soil resuspension and African dust outbreaks) contributes between 9 and 11 microg m(-3) at all the sites. Source industrial 1 entails an increase in PM(10) levels between 4 and 5 microg m(-3) at the urban sites and 2 microg m(-3) at the suburban background site. However, after 2004, this source contributed less than 2 microg m(-3) at most sites, whereas the remaining sources did not show an upward or downward trend along the study period. This gradual decrease in the contribution of source industrial 1 coincides with the implementation of PM abatement technology in the frit fusion kilns of the area. This relationship enables us to assess the efficiency of the implementation of environmental technologies in terms of their impact on air quality. PMID:17909641

  14. Assistance to NASA in biomedical areas of the technology utilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culclasure, D. F.; Eckhardt, L.

    1972-01-01

    The applications of aerospace technology to biomedical research are reported. The medical institutions participating in the Biomedical Applications Program are listed along with the institutions currently utilizing the services of the Southwest Research Institute Biomedical Applications Team. Significant accomplishments during this period include: ultra-low bandpass amplifier for gastro-intestinal electric potentials; non-encumbering EEG electrode assembly suitable for long term sleep research; accurate cardiac telemetry system for active subjects; warning system for the deaf; tracking cane for the blind; and an improved control mechanism to expand the self-sufficiency of quadriplegics.

  15. 77 FR 3739 - Executive-led Aerospace and Defense Industry Trade Mission to Turkey-Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... technologies, radars, electronic warfare and intelligence systems and defense systems technologies Turkish... ship vetting MIKES: Electronic warfare, radar warning receivers, electronic counter measure systems, chaff flare dispensing systems, electronic support measures, software solutions, avionics...

  16. RESULTS FROM RECENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS TARGETING CHROMIUM IN THE 100D AREA HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW; THOMPSON KM; TONKIN MJ

    2009-12-03

    Sodium dichromate was used in Hanford's 100D Area during the reactor operations period of 1950 to 1964 to retard corrosion in the reactor cooling systems. Some of the sodium dichromate was released to the environment by spills and/or leaks from pipelines used to deliver the chemical to water treatment plants in the area. As a result, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has migrated through the vadose zone to the groundwater and contaminated nearly 1 km{sup 2} of groundwater to above the drinking water standard of 48 {micro}g/L. Three technology tests have recently been completed in this area to characterize the source area of the plumes and evaluate alternative methods to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. These are (1) refine the source area of the southern plume; (2) test electrocoagulation as an alternative groundwater treatment technology; and (3) test the ability to repair a permeable reactive barrier by injecting micron or nanometer-size zero-valent iron (ZVI). The projects were funded by the US Department of Energy as part of a program to interject new technologies and accelerate active cleanup. Groundwater monitoring over the past 10 years has shown that Cr(VI) concentrations in the southern plume have not significantly diminished, strongly indicating a continuing source. Eleven groundwater wells were installed in 2007 and 2008 near a suspected source area and monitored for Cr(VI) and groundwater levels. Interpretation of these data has led to refinement of the source area location to an area of less than 1 hectare (ha, 2.5 acres). Vadose zone soil samples collected during drilling did not discover significant concentrations of Cr(VI), indicating the source is localized, with a narrow wetted path from the surface to the water table. Electrocoagulation was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. Over 8 million liters of groundwater were treated to Cr(VI) concentrations of {le}20 {micro}g/L. The test determined that this technology has the potential to treat

  17. Improved parameters metropolitan area network supported with all-optical network's technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradkowska, Magdalena; Kalita, Mariusz

    2006-03-01

    The advantages of all-optical network's technics make them one of main elements of the metropolitan area networks. They enable different applications in high quality mulitimedia services and guarantee a constant and reliable access to the Internet. As the growing expansion of the Internet continues in an unpredictable direction, many new solutions are expected. The major challenge is the increasing demand for flexible, transparent and customised bandwidth services for both private and business customers.

  18. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  19. HDR (Hot Dry Rock) technology transfer activities in the Clear Lake Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.; Potter, R.

    1990-01-01

    A large Hot Dry Rock resource has been recognized in northern California. It underlies the region extending NE of The Geysers to N of the City of Clearlake. The long-range productive potential is thousands of megawatts. The geothermal resource is heterogeneous. There are two mechanisms of heat flow occurring together. One is fluid transport, up natural zones of permeability, to outflows as surface springs. The other is conductive heat flow through impermeable rock. The temperature isotherms are thought to be nearly level surfaces, for example, the 300{degree}C isotherm is at about 8000 ft depth, with spikes'' or ridges'' occurring around narrow zones of fluid flow. While there is accessible heat at shallow depth in the naturally permeable rocks, the really substantial resource is in the impermeable rock. This is the HDR resource. The potential reservoir rocks are Franciscan greywackes and greenstones. Recorded drilling problems appear to be mainly due to intersection with serpentinites or to the effects of stimulation, so are potentially avoidable. Greywacke is favoured as a reservoir rock, and is expected to fail by brittle fracture. The water shortages in Northern California appear to be surmountable. Leakoff rates are expected to be low. Sewerage water may be available for fill and makeup. There is a possibility of combining HDR heat power production with sewerage disposal. To establish the first HDR producer in Northern California offers challenges in technology transfer. Two significant challenges will be creation of dispersed permeability in a greywacke reservoir, and pressure management in the vicinity of naturally permeable zones. A successful demonstration of HDR production technology will improve the long-term prospects for the geothermal power industry in California. 29 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MILITARY TRAINING RESEARCH--THE STATE OF TRAINING TECHNOLOGY AND STUDIES OF MOTIVATION AND ATTITUDES IN LEARNING (IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN NATIONAL DEFENSE TODAY, EDITED BY J.E. UHLANER, PAGES 48-94).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAWFORD, MEREDITH P.; ECKSTRAND, GORDON

    PART OF A LARGER REVIEW OF RECENT PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH RELATING TO NATIONAL DEFENSE, THIS SECTION COVERS STUDIES ON TRAINING FOR LEADERSHIP, COMMAND, AND TEAM FUNCTIONS, AND ON THE EFFECTS OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS ON MILITARY PERFORMANCE. STUDIES IN THE FIRST CHAPTER OF THIS SECTION ARE DIVIDED BETWEEN INTERPERSONAL ASPECTS (LEADERSHIP)…

  1. Technology demonstration: geostatistical and hydrologic analysis of salt areas. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, P.G.; Oberlander, P.L.; Rice, W.A.; Devary, J.L.; Nelson, R.W.; Tucker, P.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to: (1) use geostatistical analyses to evaluate the adequacy of hydrologic data from three salt regions, each of which contains a potential nuclear waste repository site; and (2) demonstrate a methodology that allows quantification of the value of additional data collection. The three regions examined are the Paradox Basin in Utah, the Permian Basin in Texas, and the Mississippi Study Area. Additional and new data became available to ONWI during and following these analyses; therefore, this report must be considered a methodology demonstration here would apply as illustrated had the complete data sets been available. A combination of geostatistical and hydrologic analyses was used for this demonstration. Geostatistical analyses provided an optimal estimate of the potentiometric surface from the available data, a measure of the uncertainty of that estimate, and a means for selecting and evaluating the location of future data. The hydrologic analyses included the calculation of transmissivities, flow paths, travel times, and ground-water flow rates from hypothetical repository sites. Simulation techniques were used to evaluate the effect of optimally located future data on the potentiometric surface, flow lines, travel times, and flow rates. Data availability, quality, quantity, and conformance with model assumptions differed in each of the salt areas. Report highlights for the three locations are given.

  2. Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ultanir, M.O.

    1983-12-01

    Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical power in agricultural mechanization; general energy consumption of rural sector; cultural energy consumption by agricultural inputs which are fertilizer, pesticides, indirect energy in machinery, irrigation equipments, buildings and other services; direct energy consumption in agricultural mechanization which are fuel and electricity etc. In general, energy input in the rural areas is classified as direct and indirect. Direct energy input reflects demands for mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. Indirect energy consists of inputs which have been produced by industrial sector and introduced into rural sector. Although conventional energy sources, especially petroleum products are used in meeting direct energy input requirements, alternative energy sources may be used as well in this respect. Especially emphasis is being given to new and renewable alternative sources for heat and electrical energy requirements.

  3. DEPLOYING TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS FOR CHARACTERIZING THE VADOSE ZONE IN SINGLE-SHELL TANK WASTE MANAGEMENT AREAS

    SciTech Connect

    EBERLEIN SJ; SYDNOR HA; DA MYERS

    2010-01-14

    As much as one million gallons of waste is believed to have leaked from tanks, pipelines or other equipment in the single-shell tank farm waste management areas (WMAs) within the 200 East and West areas of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although some contamination has reached groundwater, most contamination still resides in the vadose zone. The magnitude ofthis problem requires new approaches for soil characterization if we are to understand the nature and extent of the contamination and take action to protect the enviromnent. Because of the complexity and expense of drilling traditional boreholes in contaminated soil, direct push characterization using a hydraulic hammer has been extensively employed. Direct push probe holes <3-inch diameter have been pushed to a maximum depth of 240 feet below ground surface in 200 East area. Previously gross gamma and moisture logging of these narrow probe holes was perfonned to identify the location of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) (which has limited mobility in Hanford soil) and moisture peaks. Recently a bismuth germinate detector has been deployed for detecting and quantifying the spectrum of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) (a more mobile contaminant), which provides additional information. The direct push system is configured to allow the collection ofmultiple soil core samples throughout the depth ofthe probe hole. The direct push unit has been used to place individual electrodes at a variety of depths as the probe hole is being decommissioned. These deep electrodes enable the use of soil resistivity measurement methods between surface and deep electrodes as-well-as between sets of deep electrodes. Initial testing of surface-to-deep electrode resistivity measurements in WMA C demonstrated significant improvement in defining the three dimensional extent of a contamination plume. A multiple-electrode string is presently being developed to further enhance the resolution of resistivity data. The

  4. Insanity defenses: contested or conceded?

    PubMed

    Rogers, J L; Bloom, J D; Manson, S M

    1984-07-01

    The authors examined 316 Oregon criminal cases in which the accused successfully pleaded the insanity defense. Prosecutors agreed to the insanity verdict in more than four out of five cases. In most cases all examining experts diagnosed the defendant as psychotic. The smaller number of defendants who were diagnosed by the state hospital staff as displaying only personality disorders accounted for a disproportionately large percentage of the contested trials. Observing that Oregon's insanity defense system is run by consensus, the authors suggest a reorientation of the insanity defense debate.

  5. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections.

  6. Pipe Crawler{reg_sign} internal piping characterization system - deactivation and decommissioning focus area. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Pipe Crawler{reg_sign} is a pipe surveying system for performing radiological characterization and/or free release surveys of piping systems. The technology employs a family of manually advanced, wheeled platforms, or crawlers, fitted with one or more arrays of thin Geiger Mueller (GM) detectors operated from an external power supply and data processing unit. Survey readings are taken in a step-wise fashion. A video camera and tape recording system are used for video surveys of pipe interiors prior to and during radiological surveys. Pipe Crawler{reg_sign} has potential advantages over the baseline and other technologies in areas of cost, durability, waste minimization, and intrusiveness. Advantages include potentially reduced cost, potential reuse of the pipe system, reduced waste volume, and the ability to manage pipes in place with minimal disturbance to facility operations. Advantages over competing technologies include potentially reduced costs and the ability to perform beta-gamma surveys that are capable of passing regulatory scrutiny for free release of piping systems.

  7. Defenseive Structuring and Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J.

    1970-01-01

    This essay explores a kind of adaptation, referred to as defenseive structuring, that recurs with great regularity among groups that perceive themselves as exposed to environmental stress of long duration with which they cannot cope directly and aggressively." (Author)

  8. 32 CFR 1602.4 - Area office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Area office. 1602.4 Section 1602.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.4 Area office. The Selective Service Office which is responsible for all administrative and operational...

  9. 32 CFR 1602.4 - Area office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Area office. 1602.4 Section 1602.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.4 Area office. The Selective Service Office which is responsible for all administrative and operational...

  10. 32 CFR 1602.4 - Area office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Area office. 1602.4 Section 1602.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.4 Area office. The Selective Service Office which is responsible for all administrative and operational...

  11. 32 CFR 1602.4 - Area office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area office. 1602.4 Section 1602.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.4 Area office. The Selective Service Office which is responsible for all administrative and operational...

  12. 32 CFR 1602.4 - Area office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Area office. 1602.4 Section 1602.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.4 Area office. The Selective Service Office which is responsible for all administrative and operational...

  13. The insanity defense on trial.

    PubMed

    Stone, A A

    1982-08-01

    What was once a great romance between law and psychiatry has ended in disenchantment on both sides. Legal rulings during the 1950s intended to increase the psychiatric presence in the courtroom have been repudiated, and there is now a mood to abolish the traditional insanity defense. Abolitionists charge that the insanity defense has been successfully employed by large numbers of dangerous criminals to avoid punishment, that psychiatrists are dishonest because they serve as expert witnesses for both sides, and that the existence of the defense is evidence of a permissive society that coddles violent criminals. Each of these charges is rebutted by the author, who contends that until recently the insanity defense was a profound hypocrisy: the courts found the defendants not guilty by reason of insanity and then relied on psychiatry to confine them for the rest of their lives. But legal reforms and changes in psychiatric practice during the past 20 years have made it more difficult to confine such persons, and thus the insanity defense has real meaning for the first time. The author believes that despite the loss of protection to society, there are important legal and moral barriers to abolishing the insanity defense.

  14. The large area crop inventory experiment: An experiment to demonstrate how space-age technology can contribute to solving critical problems here on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The large area crop inventory experiment is being developed to predict crop production through satellite photographs. This experiment demonstrates how space age technology can contribute to solving practical problems of agriculture management.

  15. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  16. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3. PMID:26606089

  17. Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

  18. Scientific Futures. Selected Areas of Opportunity for the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Science Foundation, and Selected Federal Departments and Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy request to identify promising areas for U.S. research investment in science and technology, this report contains briefings by outstanding researchers in several fields of science. This volume is the fifth in a series of briefings which are used to anticipate important new…

  19. Updated defense display market assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  20. The neuroecology of chemical defenses.

    PubMed

    Derby, Charles D; Aggio, Juan F

    2011-11-01

    Chemicals are a frequent means whereby organisms defend themselves against predators, competitors, parasites, microbes, and other potentially harmful organisms. Much progress has been made in understanding how a phylogenetic diversity of organisms living in a variety of environments uses chemical defenses. Chief among these advances is determining the molecular identity of defensive chemicals and the roles they play in shaping interactions between individuals. Some progress has been made in deciphering the molecular, cellular, and systems level mechanisms underlying these interactions, as well as how these interactions can lead to structuring of communities and even ecosystems. The neuroecological approach unifies practices and principles from these diverse disciplines and at all scales as it attempts to explain in a single conceptual framework the abundances of organisms and the distributions of species within natural habitats. This article explores the neuroecology of chemical defenses with a focus on aquatic organisms and environments. We review the concept of molecules of keystone significance, including examples of how saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin can shape the organization and dynamics of marine and riparian communities, respectively. We also describe the current status and future directions of a topic of interest to our research group-the use of ink by marine molluscs, especially sea hares, in their defense. We describe a diversity of molecules and mechanisms mediating the protective effects of sea hares' ink, including use as chemical defenses against predators and as alarm cues toward conspecifics, and postulate that some defensive molecules may function as molecules of keystone significance. Finally, we propose future directions for studying the neuroecology of the chemical defenses of sea hares and their molluscan relatives, the cephalopods.

  1. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  2. The african origin of complex projectile technology: an analysis using tip cross-sectional area and perimeter.

    PubMed

    Sisk, Matthew L; Shea, John J

    2011-01-01

    Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Perimeter, a more accurate proxy of the force needed to penetrate a target to a lethal depth. The current study discusses this measure and uses it to analyze a collection of measurements from African Middle Stone Age pointed stone artifacts. Several point types that were rejected in previous studies are statistically indistinguishable from ethnographic projectile points using this new measure. The ramifications of this finding for a Middle Stone Age origin of complex projectile technology is discussed.

  3. The African Origin of Complex Projectile Technology: An Analysis Using Tip Cross-Sectional Area and Perimeter

    PubMed Central

    Sisk, Matthew L.; Shea, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Perimeter, a more accurate proxy of the force needed to penetrate a target to a lethal depth. The current study discusses this measure and uses it to analyze a collection of measurements from African Middle Stone Age pointed stone artifacts. Several point types that were rejected in previous studies are statistically indistinguishable from ethnographic projectile points using this new measure. The ramifications of this finding for a Middle Stone Age origin of complex projectile technology is discussed. PMID:21755048

  4. Application of remote geologic analysis to gas exploration in Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E.; Mroz, T.H. )

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system uses a unique, automated pattern-recognition approach to identify potential fracture zones (of any dip from vertical to < 40{degree}) by coplanar analysis of their geomorphic expression in digital models of topography. For its first oil and gas-related field trial, the authors applied the RGA system to the fracture characterization of Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1 in the Big Sandy gas field in southwestern West Virginia. They selected this site to blind test their technology because of the characterization data available from well drilling, gas production, and seismic surveys. The Morgantown staff used these data and performed a geologic analysis of the region coincidentally but separately from their fracture analysis to ensure that they did not introduce bias into their interpretations. Their structure and isopach maps show significant trends in the faulting and folding of the producing formations that control production volumes, which correlate well with the principal interpreted fracture sets from their results. Three fracture sets for the Big Creek, West Virginia, 1:24,000 quadrangle parallel major geologic structures that are associated with basement faulting (steep dip, northeast trend) and thrust faulting (60{degree} dip, northwest trend). These structures appear, in combination with anticlinal folding, to enhance gas production. To date, only the most prominent fracture planes from their analyses have been correlated with the large-scale structural features (basement faulting) in the study area. The next step in this field trial will be to determine if lesser planar features from their analyses correlate with the detailed structural geology and regional geomorphology of the rocks exposed at the surface.

  5. Deterrence enhanced by SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, P.T.

    1987-03-23

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is an investigation by scientists, military leaders, and technologists of the feasibility of strategic defenses against ballistic missiles. Whether strategic defense is the way to go in the future remains to be seen. Although the capability of the envisioned layered, ground, and space-based defensive systems is not specifically addressed, the SDI research program's affect on national-security strategy and its formulation is examined. If found to be feasible and cost-effective, SDI will require a drastic change in our military strategy. This essay reviews how that strategy was formulated in the past in terms of a model and how strategic-defense strategy would be used in the future. More importantly, a discussion of how the SDI impacts on present US national strategy and enhances deterrence is presented. Its influence on technology, conventional defense, and arms controls are offered on this evolving strategic concept and the renewed vigor and interest it has provided in strategy formulation.

  6. A remote optical system for port and harbor defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Fletcher A.; Antonelli, Lynn T.; Kalinowski, Anthony

    2005-05-01

    A remote, aerial, laser-based sonar method for detecting and locating underwater targets from the air is discussed. The aerial sonar system combines two independent laser technologies. First, a high power laser is used to remotely generate underwater sound from the air by converting the optical energy into an acoustic pressure wave at the water surface. Second, a low power laser monitors water surface vibrations to detect and localize underwater sound. The aerial (opto-acoustic) generation and (acousto-optic) detection of underwater sound provides a non-contact means for active and passive sonar that does not currently exist. The laser systems could be mounted on an in-air or an above surface platform to search an area to provide intelligence information about the presence and location of underwater objects. Such data could be used for targeting for air-dropped munitions, port defense by monitoring friendly waters, or for area clearance for fleet operations in foreign ports. This transformational capability offers a covert, rapidly deployable, highly distributed, sensor field along the water surface.

  7. Developing a concept of social-ecological-technological systems to characterize resilience of urban areas and infrastructure to extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, M.; Grimm, N. B.; Redman, C.; Miller, T.; McPherson, T.; Munoz-Erickson, T.; Chandler, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is widely considered one of the greatest challenges to global sustainability, with extreme events being the most immediate way that people experience this phenomenon. Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to these events given their location, concentration of people, and increasingly complex and interdependent infrastructure. We are developing a conceptual framework for urban social-ecological-technological systems (SETS) that will allow researchers and practitioners to assess how infrastructure can be resilient, provide ecosystem services, improve social well being, and exploit new technologies in ways that benefit urban populations. The framework integrates the three domains of social and equity issues, environmental quality and protection, and technical/engineering aspects, to form a concept of infrastructure that occurs at the intersection of the domains. Examples show how the more common socioecological systems and socially sensitive engineering approaches that fail to incorporate the third dimension may elevate vulnerability to climate-related disaster. The SETS conceptual framework bridges currently siloed social science, environmental science, and engineering approaches to significantly advance research into the structure, function, and emergent properties of SETS. Extreme events like heat waves in Phoenix; coastal and urban flooding in the wake of superstorm Sandy and following hurricanes in Miami, FL; drought in Mexico; and urban flooding in Baltimore, Portland, San Juan PR, Syracuse, and Valdivia, Chile provide examples of the impacts of and vulnerability to extreme events that demand a new approach. The infrastructure of the future must be resilient, leverage ecosystem services, improve social well being, and exploit new technologies in ways that benefit all segments of urban populations and are appropriate to the particular urban contexts. These contexts are defined not only by the biophysical environment but also by culture and

  8. Is the insanity defense "unconscionable"?

    PubMed

    Perr, I N

    1975-01-01

    The debate over the meaningfulness and utility of the insanity defense has continued unabated ober the years. President Nixon has referred to the "unconscionably abuse" of the defense. This paper, presented as part of a panel on the subject, has propounded the view that the defense is unconscionable, using that aspect of the definition dealing with unreasonableness. The historical antecedents and the religious and social philosophy of the concept of responsibility and nonresponsibility have been reviewed. In addition to the inapplicability of the concept to current social problems, and the difficulties of applying current psychiatric knowledge to effect a rational delineation between the two legal entities encompassed under the rubric of responsibility and nonresponsibility, the potential problems and the potential opportunities which may result from the abolition of the plea are presented. With these factors in mind, as well as the obvious failure of the legal-social-penal system in handling the problems of the behaviorally deviant, I believe that the use of the current system has hampered the development of possibly more reasonable alternative systems and that, therefore, the maintenance of the insanity defense is unreasonable and harmful to our society. The insanity defense, as currently constituted and institutionalized, has evolved into a rigid and archaic vestige of the legal system of an earlier era and therefore its use has, in the sense defined, indeed become "unconscionable" and lacking in social meaningfulness.

  9. Inverse ultravelocity slings for boost-phase defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-04-01

    Existing booster technology, brilliant pebble interceptors, survivable platforms, and developed warning, command, control, and communication could provide boost-phase defensives with the capability and flexibility required to significantly reduce the effectiveness of submarine and theater attacks. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Defense technique takes guesswork out of tight reservoir fracturing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-05-01

    Enserch exploration and the Los Alamos National Laboratory are using a highly sensitive defense technology to map fractures in an East Texas field. A process known as nuclear test verification, using highly sophisticated detectors can actually map fractures as they occur.

  11. Emergy-based comparative analysis on industrial clusters: economic and technological development zone of Shenyang area, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zuoxi

    2014-09-01

    In China, local governments of many areas prefer to give priority to the development of heavy industrial clusters in pursuit of high value of gross domestic production (GDP) growth to get political achievements, which usually results in higher costs from ecological degradation and environmental pollution. Therefore, effective methods and reasonable evaluation system are urgently needed to evaluate the overall efficiency of industrial clusters. Emergy methods links economic and ecological systems together, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. This method has been successfully applied in many case studies of ecosystem but seldom in industrial clusters. This study applied the methodology of emergy analysis to perform the efficiency of industrial clusters through a series of emergy-based indices as well as the proposed indicators. A case study of Shenyang Economic Technological Development Area (SETDA) was investigated to show the emergy method's practical potential to evaluate industrial clusters to inform environmental policy making. The results of our study showed that the industrial cluster of electric equipment and electronic manufacturing produced the most economic value and had the highest efficiency of energy utilization among the four industrial clusters. However, the sustainability index of the industrial cluster of food and beverage processing was better than the other industrial clusters.

  12. Bulgy tadpoles: inducible defense morph.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2004-08-01

    Predator induced morphological defenses are marked morphological shifts induced directly by cues associated with a predator. Generally, remote cues, i.e., chemical substances emitted from predators or injured conspecifics, are considered to be ideal signals to induce morphological change in aquatic environments rather than close cues, i.e., close chemical or tactile cues, since chemical substances that can propagate over relatively long distances and persist for a long period may allow organisms to keep safe and to deliberately change their morph. In fact, most organisms adopting an inducible morphological defense utilize remote chemical cues to detect predation risk and to produce morphological defenses. In this paper, we report a unique and functionally well designed inducible morphological defense strategy where the induction process requires close cues from a predator. The tadpoles of Rana pirica exhibited a bulgy bodied morphology when threatened with predation by larval salamanders, Hynobius retardatus, in close proximity. Predation trials and a function experiment showed that the induced bulgy morph is an adaptive defense phenotype against the gape-limited predator larval H. retardatus. Furthermore, R. pirica tadpoles use two adaptive strategies in terms of cost saving, i.e., adjustment of the extent of bulginess according to predation risk and reversibility by actual shrink of bulgy body after removing the predation threat. In general, R. pirica hatch earlier than H. retardatus. In natural ponds, during the early developmental stage R. pirica tadpoles live in close proximity to young H. retardatus larvae. As they grow, the salamanders gradually become serious predators and the predator-prey interaction becomes intimate. After a while, predation, cannibalism and metamorphosis decrease the number of salamanders in the ponds, and the predator-prey interaction weakens. Such a phenology in the predator-prey interaction allows the evolution of a close

  13. Bulgy tadpoles: inducible defense morph.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2004-08-01

    Predator induced morphological defenses are marked morphological shifts induced directly by cues associated with a predator. Generally, remote cues, i.e., chemical substances emitted from predators or injured conspecifics, are considered to be ideal signals to induce morphological change in aquatic environments rather than close cues, i.e., close chemical or tactile cues, since chemical substances that can propagate over relatively long distances and persist for a long period may allow organisms to keep safe and to deliberately change their morph. In fact, most organisms adopting an inducible morphological defense utilize remote chemical cues to detect predation risk and to produce morphological defenses. In this paper, we report a unique and functionally well designed inducible morphological defense strategy where the induction process requires close cues from a predator. The tadpoles of Rana pirica exhibited a bulgy bodied morphology when threatened with predation by larval salamanders, Hynobius retardatus, in close proximity. Predation trials and a function experiment showed that the induced bulgy morph is an adaptive defense phenotype against the gape-limited predator larval H. retardatus. Furthermore, R. pirica tadpoles use two adaptive strategies in terms of cost saving, i.e., adjustment of the extent of bulginess according to predation risk and reversibility by actual shrink of bulgy body after removing the predation threat. In general, R. pirica hatch earlier than H. retardatus. In natural ponds, during the early developmental stage R. pirica tadpoles live in close proximity to young H. retardatus larvae. As they grow, the salamanders gradually become serious predators and the predator-prey interaction becomes intimate. After a while, predation, cannibalism and metamorphosis decrease the number of salamanders in the ponds, and the predator-prey interaction weakens. Such a phenology in the predator-prey interaction allows the evolution of a close

  14. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG25 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is adopting...

  15. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG81 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Interim rule with request for...

  16. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the revised Defense Logistics... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense....

  17. Passive automatic anti-piracy defense system of ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.; Ciurapiński, W.; Karol, M.; Kastek, M.; Stachowiak, R.; Markowski, P.

    2013-10-01

    The article describes the technological solution for ship self-defense against pirate attacks. The paper presents the design solutions in the field of direct physical protection. All the solutions are connected with the latest optoelectronic and microwave systems and sensors to detect, recognize and the threat posed by pirates. In particular, tests of effectiveness and the detection-range of technology demonstrator developed by a team of authors were carried out.

  18. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Pedra, Joao H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes. PMID:22315529

  19. Violence and the epilepsy defense.

    PubMed

    Treiman, D M

    1999-05-01

    The essence of the epilepsy defense is the argument that a crime was committed as a result of the perpetrator having epilepsy, and thus that he or she should not be held responsible for a violent crime. Neurologists are frequently asked to pass judgment regarding whether an alleged act may have been the result of an epileptic condition; therefore, neurologists should be informed as to what criteria should be used to decide if a given act was, or could have been, the result of an epileptic seizure. This article discusses three cases where epilepsy is used as the defense argument. In addition, this article reviews types of epileptic seizures, syncopal events, and pseudoseizures.

  20. RNase 7 in Cutaneous Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    RNase 7 belongs to the RNase A superfamily and exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. RNase 7 is expressed in human skin, and expression in keratinocytes can be induced by cytokines and microbes. These properties suggest that RNase 7 participates in innate cutaneous defense. In this review, we provide an overview about the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense with focus on the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, the regulation of RNase 7 expression, and the role of RNase 7 in skin diseases. PMID:27089327

  1. [Spatiotemporal expansion of urban and rural built-up areas in Shenyang City: an analysis based on remote sensing and GIS technology].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-Hui; Hu, Yuan-Man; Xi, Feng-Ming; Shan, Tao; He, Hong-Shi; Liu, Miao; Wang, Jin-Nian

    2009-10-01

    By using 1985, 1995, 1997, 2000 and 2004 satellite images and GIS technology, three indices including built-up area density, expansion intensity index, and fractal dimension were chosen to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics, spatial differentiation, and morphological changes of urban and rural built-up areas in Shenyang City in 1985-2004, with the main driving factors discussed. In the study period, the high-density area of urban built-up area in the City increased year by year, and that of rural built-up area changed slightly before 1997 but increased gradually thereafter. The increased area, expansion speed, and expansion intensity of built-up area were evidently greater in urban than in rural area. An obvious spatial differentiation was observed in the expansion of built-up area between urban and rural areas, with the high-speed expansion mainly concentrated in urban area. The fractal dimension in urban area increased gradually, which meant that the integrated configuration of urban area became more and more complex, while that in rural area changed irregularly, because of the lack of reasonable planning and construction. Economic development, population growth, transportation, natural environment, policy-guiding, and urban planning were the main driving forces of the expansion of built-up areas in Shenyang City.

  2. The joint DoD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Repa, J.V. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The joint Department of Defense (DoD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Munitions Technology Development Program is a cooperative, jointly funded effort of research and development to improve nonnuclear munitions technology across all service mission areas. This program is enabled under a Memorandum of Understanding, approved in 1985 between the DoD and the DOE, that tasks the nuclear weapons laboratories of the DOE to solve problems in conventional defense. The selection of the technical areas to be investigated is based on their importance to the military services, the needs that are common to the conventional and nuclear weapons programs, the expertise of the performing organization, and the perceived benefit to the overall national defense efforts. The research benefits both DoD and DOE programs; therefore, funding, planning, and monitoring are joint activities. Technology Coordination Groups (TCGs), organized by topical areas, serve as technology liaisons between the DoD and DOE for the exchange of information. The members of the TCGs are technical experts who meet semiannually in an informal workshop format to coordinate multiagency requirements, establish project plans, monitor technical activity, and develop classification guidance. A technical advisory committee of senior DoD and DOE managers administers the program and provides guidance on policy and strategy. The abstracts in this volume were collected from the technical progress report for fiscal year 1993. The annual report is organized by major technology areas. Telephone and fax numbers for the principal contacts are provided with each abstract.

  3. A defense of sociobiology.

    PubMed

    Foster, K R

    2009-01-01

    To counter recent claims that sociobiology is in disarray or requires reformulation, I discuss the semantics, theory, and data that underlie the field. A historical perspective is used to identify the cause of current debates. I argue that semantic precision is required in discussing terms such as kin selection, group selection, and altruism, but once care is taken, the objections to the unity of theoretical sociobiology largely evaporate. More work is required, however, to understand group adaptation, which might be taken to be the process of optimizing phenotypes that is driven by group, rather than individual, context. From the empirical perspective, the eusocial insects with their fixed division between work and reproduction are often a sounding board in discussions. Here, one finds clear evidence for the role of kin selection and relatedness in both the origin of eusociality and its maintenance. Data from other systems including the social vertebrates, microorganisms, and even plants also support the role of relatedness and particularly family life in the evolution of cooperation and altruism. These data, however, in no way invalidate the claim that group selection is also a central process in social evolution and I discuss the empirical evidence for group selection. The foundations of sociobiology are solid and the future should build on these foundations. Exciting new areas include the importance of community and species-level selection in evolution and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie social traits. PMID:20375319

  4. Emerging aerospace technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Milov, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The United States Government has a long history of promoting the advancement of technology to strengthen the economy and national defense. An example is NASA, which was formed in 1958 to establish and maintain U.S. space technology leadership. This leadership has resulted in technological benefits to many fields and the establishment of new commercial industries, such as satellite communications. Currently, NASA's leading technology development at Ames Research Center includes the Tilt Rotor XV-15, which provides the versatility of a helicopter with the speed of a turboprop aircraft; the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator, which is pushing the state of the art in advanced computational mathematics and computer simulation; and the Advanced Automation and Robotics programs, which will improve all areas of space development as well as life on Earth. Private industry is involved in maintaining technological leadership through NASA's Commercial Use of Space Program, which provides for synergistic relationships among government, industry, and academia. The plan for a space station by 1992 has framed much of NASA's future goals and has provided new areas of opportunity for both domestic space technology and leadership improvement of life on Earth.

  5. Strategic Defense Initiative, 1989. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-13

    This report serves as a summary of the SDI legacy of President Reagan, who launched the initiative with his historic speech of March 23, 1983. The report describes in detail current assessment of the best program for resolution of remaining technical issues, validation of technologies, and demonstration of our ability to integrate them. The program of research, development, and testing would, if adequately funded, support a fully informed decision by the President and Congress in the future on whether to deploy a strategic defense of the United States. Such defenses could enhance deterrence and increase stability.

  6. Directed energy missions for planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Eskenazi, Mike; Kosmo, Kelly; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Pryor, Mark; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Riley, Jordan; Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin; Melis, Carl; Kangas, Miikka; Motta, Caio; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploration, is an orbiting stand-off system, which has been described in other papers. This paper describes a smaller, stand-on system known as DE-STARLITE as a reduced-scale version of DE-STAR. Both share the same basic heritage of a directed energy array that heats the surface of the target to the point of high surface vapor pressure that causes significant mass ejection thus forming an ejection plume of material from the target that acts as a rocket to deflect the object. This is generally classified as laser ablation. DE-STARLITE uses conventional propellant for launch to LEO and then ion engines to propel the spacecraft from LEO to the near-Earth asteroid (NEA). During laser ablation, the asteroid itself provides the propellant source material; thus a very modest spacecraft can deflect an asteroid much larger than would be possible with a system of similar mission mass using ion beam deflection (IBD) or a gravity tractor. DE-STARLITE is capable of deflecting an Apophis-class (325 m diameter) asteroid with a 1- to 15-year targeting time (laser on time) depending on the system design. The mission fits within the rough mission parameters of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) program in terms of mass and size. DE-STARLITE also has much greater capability for planetary defense than current proposals and is readily scalable to match the threat. It can deflect all known threats with sufficient warning.

  7. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  8. Directions for Defense Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes directions, challenges, and objectives of the information management program of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The program envisions the rigor and organization normally associated with a research library to be virtually rendered and extended in the networked world of distributed information. (AEF)

  9. Radiological Defense Officer. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This student workbook includes the necessary administrative materials, briefs, exercises and answer sheets for the quizzes and final course examination as needed by the students during the conduct of the Radiological Defense Officer course. Among the briefs included are the following: (1) Reporting Forms; (2) Forecasting Dose Rates; (3) Dose…

  10. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  11. In Defense of the Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, G. Brockett

    1975-01-01

    The problems that are encountered when cooperation breaks down between the industrial source operator and the pollution control equipment vendor are examined. The focal point of this examination is the study of defenses available to the equipment vendor when industrial source operators refuse to cooperate. (Author/BT)

  12. An Overview of Future NASA Missions, Concepts, and Technologies Related to Imaging of the World's Land Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1999-01-01

    In the near term NASA is entering into the peak activity period of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS AM-1 /"Terra" spacecraft is nearing launch and operation to be followed soon by the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing (EO-1) mission. Other missions related to land imaging and studies include EOS PM-1 mission, the Earth System Sciences Program (ESSP) Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, the EOS/IceSat mission. These missions involve clear advances in technologies and observational capability including improvements in multispectral imaging and other observing strategies, for example, "formation flying". Plans are underway to define the next era of EOS missions, commonly called "EOS Follow-on" or EOS II. The programmatic planning includes concepts that represent advances over the present Landsat-7 mission that concomitantly recognize the advances being made in land imaging within the private sector. The National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite Series (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) is an effort that will help to transition EOS medium resolution (herein meaning spatial resolutions near 500 meters), multispectral measurement capabilities such as represented by the EOS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into the NPOESS operational series of satellites. Developments in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and passive microwave land observing capabilities are also proceeding. Beyond these efforts the Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy is embarking efforts to advance technologies in several basic areas: instruments, flight systems and operational capability, and information systems. In the case of instruments architectures will be examined that offer significant reductions in mass, volume, power and observational flexibility. For flight systems and operational capability, formation flying including calibration and data fusion, systems operation autonomy, and mechanical and electronic innovations that can reduce

  13. Identification of remediation needs and technology development focus areas for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M.D.; Valdez, J.M.; Khan, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project has been tasked with the characterization, assessment, remediation and long-term monitoring of contaminated waste sites at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). Many of these sites will require remediation which will involve the use of baseline technologies, innovative technologies that are currently under development, and new methods which will be developed in the near future. The Technology Applications Program (TAP) supports the ER Project and is responsible for development of new technologies for use at the contaminated waste sites, including technologies that will be used for remediation and restoration of these sites. The purpose of this report is to define the remediation needs of the ER Project and to identify those remediation needs for which the baseline technologies and the current development efforts are inadequate. The area between the remediation needs and the existing baseline/innovative technology base represents a technology gap which must be filled in order to remediate contaminated waste sites at SNL/NM economically and efficiently. In the first part of this report, the remediation needs of the ER Project are defined by both the ER Project task leaders and by TAP personnel. The next section outlines the baseline technologies, including EPA defined Best Demonstrated Available Technologies (BDATs), that are applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. This is followed by recommendations of innovative technologies that are currently being developed that may also be applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. Finally, the gap between the existing baseline/innovative technology base and the remediation needs is identified. This technology gap will help define the future direction of technology development for the ER Project.

  14. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  15. Quantification of moving target cyber defenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Cybenko, George

    2015-05-01

    Current network and information systems are static, making it simple for attackers to maintain an advantage. Adaptive defenses, such as Moving Target Defenses (MTD) have been developed as potential "game-changers" in an effort to increase the attacker's workload. With many new methods being developed, it is difficult to accurately quantify and compare their overall costs and effectiveness. This paper compares the tradeoffs between current approaches to the quantification of MTDs. We present results from an expert opinion survey on quantifying the overall effectiveness, upfront and operating costs of a select set of MTD techniques. We find that gathering informed scientific opinions can be advantageous for evaluating such new technologies as it offers a more comprehensive assessment. We end by presenting a coarse ordering of a set of MTD techniques from most to least dominant. We found that seven out of 23 methods rank as the more dominant techniques. Five of which are techniques of either address space layout randomization or instruction set randomization. The remaining two techniques are applicable to software and computer platforms. Among the techniques that performed the worst are those primarily aimed at network randomization.

  16. Health physics monitoring at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.; Priester, H.P.

    1994-06-01

    Remote radiation monitoring has been designed into the Vitrification portion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Local alarms and remote readings are provided for area radiation levels, door alarms, airborne radioactivity, effluent air activity and liquid (process system) activity.

  17. Student Drivers Will Find This Defensive Course Difficult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Map and description of 40-acre defensive driving range being built for secondary school driver education programs in the Burke County Public Schools of North Carolina. Features include a beginner course, streets, driveways, expressway, gravel road, a driver education building, and an emergency skid area. (Author/DN)

  18. Defense of Europe: a European perception. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Vlis, A.K.

    1984-04-01

    Since its foundation in 1949 NATO has achieved remarkable success: the prevention of war with the Warsaw Pact. However, the continuation of relative peace in Europe is not assured. One of the present, disturbing developments is the decline of the cohesiveness of the Alliance. Different perspectives on the defense of Europe in the United States in the European countries are the main cause for this decline and are not well understood. This essay describes the European perception of NATO as a whole and the European perspectives on the nuclear and conventional aspects of the defense of Europe. The distinction between nuclear and conventional defense demonstrates the European perspective. Important aspects of the role of Europe in NATO in relation to the position and interests of the United States are discussed. Misunderstandings exist in this relationship on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, which in turn render limitations upon Europe in its efforts to reinforce the European pillar of NATO. The essay concludes with a short and long term outlook on the future of NATO. Three subjects directly related to the future of the defense of Europe and of NATO are presented. These are: (1) Alternatives to the defense of Europe; (2) Implications of new technological developments; (3) Improvement of conventional capabilities.

  19. Report to the Congress on the Strategic Defense Initiative, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-13

    This report summarizes the SDI legacy of President Reagan, who launched the initiative with his speech of March 23, 1983. It describes in detail that current assessment of the best program for the resolution of remain technical issues, the validation of technologies, and the demonstration of the ability to integrate them. This program of research, development and testing would, if adequately funded, support a fully informed decision by the President and Congress in the future on whether to deploy a strategic defense of the United States. Such defenses could enhance deterrence and increase stability. In an effort to reduce the overall costs of a first-phase Strategic Defense System, the DOD recently completed an intensive review of the modifications made to date toward this end. The projected cost of the first phase of a Strategic Defense system has been reduced dramatically from the earlier estimate of $115 billion to $69 billion while maintaining the capability to contribute to deterrence. The review also confirmed that SDI is proceeding in the right direction toward development of a comprehensive space and ground-based Strategic Defense System.

  20. Mobile Technology and the Challenge to Promote a Communicative City in Indonesia. Case Study Bandung Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutriadi, Ridwan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the role of mobile technology to promote a communicative city in Indonesia. The focus is on mobile technologies as symbols of the latest information and communication technology (ICT). Communication influences the capacity building of the governmental planning employees to conduct better planning…

  1. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  2. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  3. WHAT PEOPLE CAN DO ABOUT RURAL CIVIL DEFENSE, NOTES FOR SPEAKERS AND WRITERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    CIVIL DEFENSE PREPAREDNESS IS A FACTOR RURAL PEOPLE NEED TO CONSIDER IN ALL THEIR FARM, HOME, AND BUSINESS PLANNING. NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF NUCLEAR ATTACK ARE FACTS THAT AMERICANS CANNOT IGNORE. THIS DOCUMENT PRESENTS THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF A CIVIL DEFENSE PROGRAM FOR PEOPLE IN RURAL AREAS WHICH INCLUDE--(1) THE DANGERS OF FALLOUT,…

  4. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  5. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Recent Studies and Technology Developments in the Area of SSA/Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Hovater, Mary; Kos, Larry

    2012-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has been investigating the various aspects of the growing orbital debris problem since early 2009. Data shows that debris ranging in size from 5 mm to 10 cm presents the greatest threat to operational spacecraft today. Therefore, MSFC has focused its efforts on small orbital debris. Using off-the-shelf analysis packages, like the ESA MASTER software, analysts at MSFC have begun to characterize the small debris environment in LEO to support several spacecraft concept studies and hardware test programs addressing the characterization, mitigation, and ultimate removal, if necessary, of small debris. The Small Orbital Debris Active Removal (SODAR) architectural study investigated the overall effectiveness of removing small orbital debris from LEO using a low power, space-based laser. The Small Orbital Debris Detection, Acquisition, and Tracking (SODDAT) conceptual technology demonstration spacecraft was developed to address the challenges of in-situ small orbital debris environment classification including debris observability and instrument requirements for small debris observation. Work is underway at MSFC in the areas of hardware and testing. By combining off the shelf digital video technology, telescope lenses, and advanced video image FPGA processing, MSFC is building a breadboard of a space based, passive orbital tracking camera that can detect and track faint objects (including small debris, satellites, rocket bodies, and NEOs) at ranges of tens to hundreds of kilometers and speeds in excess of 15 km/sec,. MSFC is also sponsoring the development of a one-of-a-kind Dynamic Star Field Simulator with a high resolution large monochrome display and a custom collimator capable of projecting realistic star images with simple orbital debris spots (down to star magnitude 11-12) into a passive orbital detection and tracking system with simulated real-time angular motions of the vehicle mounted sensor. The dynamic star field simulator can be expanded for multiple

  6. An empirical investigation of insanity defense attitudes: exploring factors related to bias.

    PubMed

    Bloechl, Angela L; Vitacco, Michael J; Neumann, Craig S; Erickson, Steven E

    2007-01-01

    This study's primary aim was to evaluate factors that influence attitudes toward the insanity defense in a sample of 578 college undergraduates. In addition to a comprehensive demographics survey, participants completed the Insanity Defense Attitude Scale-Revised (IDAS-R) and the Attitude Toward the Death Penalty (ATDP) Scale. Favorable attitude toward capital punishment and misperceptions about overuse of the insanity defense were related to negative attitudes toward the insanity defense. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that possessing a favorable attitude toward capital punishment was the most robust predictor of a negative attitude toward the insanity defense. These findings provide valuable information about factors that create and maintain biases against the insanity defense and suggest areas of inquiry that could aid attorneys in selecting unbiased jurors.

  7. Defense bill: Earmarking as usual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earmarked funds in the $268 billion defense appropriations bill for fiscal year 1991 stirred congressional debate in late October. Senator Sam Nunn (D-Ga.), chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, charged that the defense bill contains questionable projects totaling tens of millions of dollars. AGU opposes legislative earmarking of money for particular institutions, maintaining that the practice prevents the best use of federal funding by circumventing competitive review. Nunn noted on the Senate floor that the appropriations bill provided specific funds for cited institutions—contravening a federal law promoting competition. “ If these programs have merit, they will succeed in a fair and competent review in competition,” Nunn said. “If no other institution in the country is able to compete, there should be no fear whatever of competition… But no one else in the world is allowed to compete to work on these projects.”

  8. The insanity defense to suicide.

    PubMed

    Massello, W

    1986-07-01

    The certification of suicide as the manner of death can result in either the complete loss or a significant reduction in life insurance benefits to the victim's survivors. It is, thus, not uncommon for these beneficiaries to contest suicide as the manner of death. Insanity is a recognized defense in law against suicide. It is recognized in law that, in some cases, an insane man cannot intentionally destroy himself. However, it is also recognized that life insurers can exclude suicide by an insane man from coverage. This article discusses the common law doctrines upon which the insanity defense to suicide is based, with references to judicial opinions from cases which involve contested suicides and the issue of insanity.

  9. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  10. Second line of defense program

    SciTech Connect

    Cantut, L; Thomas, L L

    1999-07-15

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the prospect of nuclear materials entering the world market has become an ever-increasing threat. The Second Line of Defense (SLD) program was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43) to assist the Russian Federation State Customs Committee (RFSCC) in strengthening its capability to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials across Russia's borders. The SLD program is a natural complement to the Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC and A) program, which represents a first line of defense against the theft and diversion of nuclear materials. The SLD program is the first U.S.-Russian cooperative program to combat the illicit trafficking of nuclear and nuclear-related materials to would-be proliferators across Russia's borders.

  11. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  12. Technical issues in theater missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This note discusses technical issues in theater missile defenses in the terminal, midcourse, and boost phases. The first two are familiar and developed, but face fundamental countermeasures. Boost phase intercepts engage missiles when they are most vulnerable, but have been studied less for theater defense because the engagement times are short. Overall, theater missile defenses resemble strategic defenses, complicated by the tenfold shorter boost phase. 12 refs.

  13. Defense of a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  14. Problems of National Missile Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, John

    2000-04-01

    The currently-proposed national missile defense (NMD) is supposed to counter accidental Russian or Chinese launches of intercontinental nuclear-armed missiles, or rogue nation launches of similar nuclear missiles or of missiles armed with biological weapons, by using mid-course hit-to-kill vehicles guided by IR and radar. But it seems very likely that any nation capable of building (or buying) such a missile offense can build (or buy) effective countermeasures to NMD. These include anti-simulation decoys made of multi-layer insulation (MLI), with warheads covered in MLI sheaths so their signatures resemble those of the decoys. MLI can be effective against both passive IR and radar detection/discrimination. Biological warheads can counter any mid-course defense by releasing a great number of submunitions early in flight. Both nuclear and biological weapons can be deployed by other means, including covert ships in port; trucks; and cruise missiles. The best defense against Russian/Chinese accidental launches is assistance to these countries in improving their launch control systems.

  15. Quantum cascade lasers for defense and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Timothy; Pushkarsky, Michael; Caffey, Dave; Cecchetti, Kristen; Arp, Ron; Whitmore, Alex; Henson, Michael; Takeuchi, Eric B.

    2013-10-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) systems are mature and at the vanguard of a new generation of products that support military applications such as Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) and targeting. The demanding product requirements for aircraft platforms that include reduced size, weight, power consumption and cost (SWaP-C) extends to portable, battery powered handheld products. QCL technology operates throughout the mid-wave (MWIR) and long-wave (LWIR) infrared to provide new capabilities that leverage existing thermal imaging cameras. In addition to their suitability for aircraft platforms, QCL products are a natural fit to meet operator demands for small, lightweight pointer and beacon capabilities. Field-testing of high power, lightweight, battery operated devices has demonstrated their utility across a range of air and ground applications. This talk will present an overview of QCL technology and the Defense and Security products and capabilities that are enabled by it. This talk will also provide an overview of the extensive environmental and performance testing associated with products based on QCL technology.

  16. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  17. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  18. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  19. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  20. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  1. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9...

  2. Radiological Defense. Planning and Operations Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This guide is a reprint of published and draft materials from the Federal Civil Defense Guide. This guide is intended to assist the student in planning, developing, implementing and operating a local, county, or state radiological defense (RADEF) system. The state and local radiological defense program objectives are to create an effective and…

  3. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire.

  4. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire. PMID:27558828

  5. MTBE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NRMRL, in collaboration with the State of California, and Department of Defense research program (ESTCP) is hosting a field-scale evaluation of cleanup technologies at the Department of Defense National Environmental Technology Test Site at Port Hueneme California. EPA has ...

  6. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA), as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes. PMID:27196303

  7. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA), as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes. PMID:27196303

  8. The rat exposure test: a model of mouse defensive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Augustsson, Hanna; Markham, Chris M; Hubbard, David T; Webster, Dylan; Wall, Phillip M; Blanchard, Robert J; Blanchard, D Caroline

    2004-05-01

    In order to facilitate behavioral, and potentially pharmacological, analyses of risk assessment behaviors in mice, a rat exposure test (RET) was devised and evaluated. This test provides a home chamber connected via a tunnel to a rat (predator) exposure area. Familiar substrate is provided to permit burying, and mouse subjects are habituated to the apparatus prior to exposure to an amphetamine-activated rat. In comparison to toy-rat-exposed controls, rat-exposed BALB/c mice showed significantly more risk assessment [stretch attend posture (SAP) and stretch approach], freezing, and avoidance (time in the home chamber), and less time in contact with the wire mesh screen between itself and the threat stimulus. When BALB/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, and Swiss-Webster mice were compared in this test, the two inbred strains (BALB/c and C57BL/6) tended to show more extreme values of particular defensive behaviors, compared to the two outbred strains (Swiss-Webster and CD-1). C57BL/6 mice showed more avoidance and higher levels of SAP, freezing, and burying than BALB/c and more than one or both outbred strains as well. BALB/c mice showed little defensive burying, both in comparison to toy-exposed controls (Experiment 1), and in comparison to the three other strains in Experiment 2. These findings are somewhat at variance with characterizations of anxiety in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, based on tests utilizing novel areas and noxious stimuli, suggesting strain differences in defensiveness to such stimuli, compared to antipredator defense levels. Nonetheless, with the exception of burying in BALB/c mice, all strains showed all defensive behaviors measured to the rat stimulus. In particular, SAP levels were substantial in all strains tested, suggesting the usefulness of this test in assessment of the role of risk assessment in defense.

  9. 78 FR 78163 - Eligibility of the Gulf Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ..., Washington, December 16, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-30984 Filed 12-23-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 4710-10 ... Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961... that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Gulf Cooperation Council...

  10. 76 FR 71467 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Department of Defense Mentor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of Department of Defense Mentor-Prot g Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2011-D050) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

  11. 77 FR 11367 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Department of Defense Mentor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Department of Defense Mentor-Prot g Pilot Program (DFARS Case 2012-D024) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

  12. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal...

  13. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... (DLA) published a Notice of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION:...

  14. 32 CFR 1605.51 - Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Area. 1605.51 Section 1605.51 National Defense... ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.51 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall divide each State into local board areas and establish local boards. There shall be at least one local board in each...

  15. Environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system technology demonstration plan for use at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Gruebel, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drillbit data during drilling operations. This demonstration plan presents information on the EMWD-GRS technology, demonstration design, Cs-137 contamination at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin, responsibilities of demonstration participants, and the policies and procedures for the demonstration to be conducted at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration will consist of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes will pass near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels are known. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling will be compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  16. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation's defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE's capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  17. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation`s defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE`s capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  18. Army (MANTECH) thrust area concept: Optics thrust area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopacz, Stanley P.

    1992-04-01

    With the shrinking of the U.S. Army's material needs and the compression of defense requirements, the Army Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program has the opportunity to advance the manufacturing state-of-the-art and solve near term production problems of the U.S. industrial base. To exploit this opportunity, the Army restructured its MANTECH efforts in FY 90 based on a thrust area concept. Each of the ten current thrusts, directed by a thrust area manager, has a broad technical objective selected to improve specific manufacturing processes. The manager is charged with setting objectives, selecting tasks, monitoring execution, leveraging external resources, and establishing microfactories to promote technology transfer. The Optics Manufacturing Thrust is an example of the concept. It is currently directed at revitalizing the domestic precision optics manufacturing base, now characterized by high labor costs and 1940's technology, through introduction of revolutionary machines, new processes, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) principles. Leveraging of MANTECH dollars with those of industry, academia, and state governments led to the establishment of the center for Optics Manufacturing and plans for regional centers. Recognition of the U.S. as a world leader in precision optics manufacturing and a dramatic reduction of both manufacturing time and cost should accrue from thrust area efforts.

  19. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwon; Felton, Gary W

    2013-06-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction. A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses, both biotic and abiotic, and upon the following stimulus, induce defenses more quickly and strongly. For instance, some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding. Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently, but significant advances were made in the past three years, including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming, epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming, and others. It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plant-insect interactions.

  20. Sandia technology engineering and science accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Sandia is a DOE multiprogram engineering and science laboratory with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California, and a test range near Tonapah, Nevada. We have major research and development responsibilities for nuclear weapons, arms control, energy, the environment, economic competitiveness, and other areas of importance to the needs of the nation. Our principal mission is to support national defense policies by ensuring that the nuclear weapon stockpile meets the highest standards of safety, reliability, security, use control, and military performance. Selected unclassified technical activities and accomplishments are reported here. Topics include advanced manufacturing technologies, intelligent machines, computational simulation, sensors and instrumentation, information management, energy and environment, and weapons technology.

  1. Department of Defense/Department of Energy joint demilitarization technology demonstration program-executive summary of phase I demonstrations-detonation of conventional weapons: 155-mm high-explosive M107 projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    Four experiments were executed from December 1996 through March 1997 within X-tunnel--the contained underground facility at the Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site (NTS). These are the first large-scale detonation experiments performed in a contained environment with sampling of the effluents. These experiments, conducted under the direction of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center in Savanna, Illinois, determined the detonation products from 155-mm, high-explosive (HE) M107 projectiles, destroying 6, 24, 24, and 60 projectiles, respectively. These tests were the first phase of a series designed to examine the environmental effects of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD). The tests included performing continuous sampling with online analysis of chamber gas and discrete sampling with offline analysis of bulk gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), metals, and particulates. In addition to these routine measurements, the application of a tunable diode laser (TDL) for measuring bulk gases and a real-time particle analysis instrument was demonstrated in the underground chamber. A series of three rocket motor burn experiments immediately followed these experiments (see the companion to this report, ``Executive Summary of Phase II Demonstrations: The Low-Pressure Rocket Motor Burns in X-Tunnel``). As the first in a series, the data presented here should be considered preliminary. However, several tentative conclusions may be drawn from these detonation experiments: (1) The emissions of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulated materials were found only in trace levels. (2) In general, metals detected in the residue and particulate samples were dominated by metals already present in the chamber and concrete. (3) There were no releases of metals that exceeded current regulatory limits.

  2. 32 CFR 1602.5 - Area office staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Area office staff. 1602.5 Section 1602.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.5 Area office staff. The compensated employees, civilian and military, of the Selective...

  3. 32 CFR 1602.5 - Area office staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Area office staff. 1602.5 Section 1602.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.5 Area office staff. The compensated employees, civilian and military, of the Selective...

  4. 32 CFR 1602.5 - Area office staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Area office staff. 1602.5 Section 1602.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.5 Area office staff. The compensated employees, civilian and military, of the Selective...

  5. 32 CFR 1602.5 - Area office staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Area office staff. 1602.5 Section 1602.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.5 Area office staff. The compensated employees, civilian and military, of the Selective...

  6. 32 CFR 1602.5 - Area office staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area office staff. 1602.5 Section 1602.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.5 Area office staff. The compensated employees, civilian and military, of the Selective...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.53 - Open storage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open storage areas. 2001.53 Section 2001.53 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.53 Open storage areas. This section...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.53 - Open storage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open storage areas. 2001.53 Section 2001.53 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.53 Open storage areas. This section...

  9. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  10. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  11. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  12. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  13. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency preparedness, disaster management..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is... emergency preparedness, and defense activities of the Commission and has the following duties...

  14. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  15. Asteroid, Lunar and Planetary Regolith Management A Layered Engineering Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    During missions on asteroid and lunar and planetary surfaces, space systems and crew health may be degraded by exposure to dust and dirt. Furthermore, for missions outside the Earth-Moon system, planetary protection must be considered in efforts to minimize forward and backward contamination. This paper presents an end-to-end approach to ensure system reliability, crew health, and planetary protection in regolith environments. It also recommends technology investments that would be required to implement this layered engineering defense.

  16. The theater missile defense threat to US security

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    The Clinton administration has embraced a major program to develop a family of theater missile defense (TMD) systems to protect US forces and allies overseas. The large scale of the undertaking is reflected in Congressional Budget Office estimates that currently planned development and procurement alone will cost around $50 billion through the year 2010. This figure could easily double if the proposed advanced-capability systems are actually deployed and the historical pattern of cost escalation of high-technology programs prevails.

  17. Active-passive bistatic surveillance for long range air defense

    SciTech Connect

    Wardrop, B.; Molyneux-Berry, M.R.B. )

    1992-06-01

    A hypothetical mobile support receiver capable of working within existing and future air defense networks as a means to maintain essential surveillance functions is considered. It is shown how multibeam receiver architecture supported by digital signal processing can substantially improve surveillance performance against chaff and jamming threats. A dual-mode support receiver concept is proposed which is based on the state-of-the-art phased-array technology, modular processing in industry standard hardware and existing networks. 20 refs.

  18. Strategic defense initiatives at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwood, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    This presentation reviews the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory, noting especially the needs for and applications of optics and optical technologies. Table I lists the various activities at Los Alamos contributing to SDI programs. The principal, nonnuclear SDI programs are: (1) the free-electron laser, and (2) neutral particle beams. Both should be considered as potential long-range-kill systems, but still in the futuristic category.

  19. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  20. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM Evaluation of Soil Amendment Technologies at the Crooksville/RosevillePottery Area of Concern Rocky Mountain Remediation ServicesEnvirobond™ Process

    EPA Science Inventory

    RMRS developed the Envirobond™ process to treat heavy metals in soil.This phosphate-based technology consists of a proprietary powder and solution that binds with metals in contaminated waste. RMRS claims that the Envirobond™ process converts metal contaminants from their leach...

  1. Legal interfaces in telemedicine technology.

    PubMed

    Lott, C M

    1996-05-01

    Telemedicine, an emerging technology which seeks to use advanced telecommunications equipment to enhance medical care, is progressing rapidly in the Department of Defense health care delivery system. This paper recommends that a cautious, preventive law approach be simultaneously initiated to ensure that the technology does not abridge patients' rights to confidentiality or security of medical records, and that agreement on practice parameters be developed. Seven interfaces, in the areas of informed consent, physician liability, non-physician liability, costs, practice parameters, physician-patient relationships, and ergonomics, are discussed in the context of telemedicine. The author recommends that telemedicine pioneers include the legal community's early input in the application of telemedicine technology to help avoid needless litigation.

  2. Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies until 2040

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Nurdan; Cifci, Hasan; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Being advanced in science and technology is inevitable reality in order to be able to have a voice in the globalized world. Therefore, for the countries, making policies in consistent with their societies' intellectual, economic and political infrastructure and attributing them to the vision having been embraced by all parties of the society is quite crucial for the success. The generated policies are supposed to ensure the usage of countries' resources in the most effective and fastest way, determine the priorities and needs of society and set their goals and related roadmaps. In this sense, technology foresight studies based on justified forecasting in science and technology have critical roles in the process of developing policies. In this article, Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies, which is turned out to be the important part of community life and fundamental background of most technologies, up to 2040 is presented. Turkey got late in space technology studies. Hence, for being fast and efficient to use its national resources in a cost effective way and within national and international collaboration, it should be directed to its pre-set goals. By taking all these factors into consideration, the technology foresight model of Turkey's Defense Industry's Space Studies was presented in the study. In the model, the present condition of space studies in the World and Turkey was analyzed; literature survey and PEST analysis were made. PEST analysis will be the inputs of SWOT analysis and Delphi questionnaire will be used in the study. A two-round Delphi survey will be applied to the participants from universities, public and private organizations operating in space studies at Defense Industry. Critical space technologies will be distinguished according to critical technology measures determined by expert survey; space technology fields and goals will be established according to their importance and feasibility indexes. Finally, for the

  3. Wide-area technologies and services in the Trans-Pacific High Data Rate (HDR) satellite communications experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, E.; Hung, C.; Kadowaki, N.; Yoshimura, N.; Takahashi, T.; Shopbell, P.; Walker, G.; Wellnitz, D.; Gary, P.; Clark, G.; Yoshikawa, M.; desJardins, R.; Gill, M.; Tatsumi, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the technologies and services used in the experiments and demonstrations using the Trans-Pacific high data rate satellite communications infrastructure, and how the environment tasked protocol adaptability, scalability, efficiency, interoperability, and robustness.

  4. SITE EVALUATION OF SOIL AMENDMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT THE CROOKSVILLE/ROSEVILLE POTTERY AREA OF CONCERN - STAR ORGANICS SOIL RESCUE CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report briefly summarizes Star Organics treatment technology demonstration of a soil amendment process for lead contaminated soil at Roseville, OH. The evaluation included leaching, bioavailability, geotechnical, and geochemical testing methods.

  5. The US commercial space launch program and the Department of Defense dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, William G.

    1994-08-01

    A scenario by which the United States might regain its lost advantage in launching commercial satellites is developed using the Ariane space commercial launch company as a benchmark. Ariane's advantages are identified and low-cost recommendations for countering them are presented The four areas selected for analysis inidentifying an American strategy are launch vehicle: (1) payload characteristics; (2) delivery costs; (3) selection process; and (4) technology. Several of the recommendations require Department of Defense funding even though the primary beneficiary appears to be the commercial space sector. But this will ensure that the military has affordable access to space and it is part of a dual purpose strategy whereby government spending benefits both the public and private sector. There is also a brief discussion of other foreign launch vehicle competition.

  6. Neural substrates of defensive reactivity in two subtypes of specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Lueken, Ulrike; Hilbert, Kevin; Stolyar, Veronika; Maslowski, Nina I; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Depending on threat proximity, different defensive behaviours are mediated by a descending neural network involving forebrain (distal threat) vs midbrain areas (proximal threat). Compared to healthy subjects, it can be assumed that phobics are characterized by shortened defensive distances on a behavioural and neural level. This study aimed at characterizing defensive reactivity in two subtypes of specific phobia [snake (SP) and dental phobics (DP)]. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), n = 39 subjects (13 healthy controls, HC; 13 SP; 13 DP) underwent an event-related fMRI task employing an anticipation (5-10 s) and immediate perception phase (phobic pictures and matched neutral stimuli; 1250 ms) to modulate defensive distance. Although no differential brain activity in any comparisons was observed in DP, areas associated with defensive behaviours (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain) were activated in SP. Decreasing defensive distance in SP was characterized by a shift to midbrain activity. Present findings substantiate differences between phobia types in their physiological and neural organization that can be expanded to early stages of defensive behaviours. Findings may contribute to a better understanding of the dynamic organization of defensive reactivity in different types of phobic fear.

  7. Neural substrates of defensive reactivity in two subtypes of specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Lueken, Ulrike; Hilbert, Kevin; Stolyar, Veronika; Maslowski, Nina I; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Depending on threat proximity, different defensive behaviours are mediated by a descending neural network involving forebrain (distal threat) vs midbrain areas (proximal threat). Compared to healthy subjects, it can be assumed that phobics are characterized by shortened defensive distances on a behavioural and neural level. This study aimed at characterizing defensive reactivity in two subtypes of specific phobia [snake (SP) and dental phobics (DP)]. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), n = 39 subjects (13 healthy controls, HC; 13 SP; 13 DP) underwent an event-related fMRI task employing an anticipation (5-10 s) and immediate perception phase (phobic pictures and matched neutral stimuli; 1250 ms) to modulate defensive distance. Although no differential brain activity in any comparisons was observed in DP, areas associated with defensive behaviours (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain) were activated in SP. Decreasing defensive distance in SP was characterized by a shift to midbrain activity. Present findings substantiate differences between phobia types in their physiological and neural organization that can be expanded to early stages of defensive behaviours. Findings may contribute to a better understanding of the dynamic organization of defensive reactivity in different types of phobic fear. PMID:24174207

  8. Grumman and SDI-related technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.

    1985-01-01

    The application of Grumman Corporation's aerospace and nuclear fusion technology to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program has taken place in at least five major areas. These include infrared boost surveillance and tracking to detect intercontinental ballistic missiles just after launch, space-based radar, neutral particle beam platforms, nuclear electric power and propulsion units in space, and battle management systems. The author summarizes developments in each of these areas to illustrate how Grumman has responded to the request that the scientific and industrial communities pursue innovative, high-risk concepts involving materials, structures, space power, space physics, and kinetic energy weapon concepts. 3 figures.

  9. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    PubMed

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems.

  10. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    PubMed

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  12. Biogeography of a defensive symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Stubblefield, J. William; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic microorganisms play important roles in nutrition, reproduction and defense of many insects, yet the factors contributing to their maintenance and dispersal remain unknown in most cases. Theory suggests that collaboration can be maintained by repeated interaction of the same partners (partner fidelity) or by selective discrimination against non-cooperative partners (partner choice). In the defensive mutualism between solitary beewolf wasps and their antibiotic-producing Streptomyces bacteria, partner choice by host control of vertical symbiont transmission reinforces partner fidelity and has helped to maintain this highly specific association since it originated in the late Cretaceous. However, co-phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses suggest that there has also been considerable horizontal transmission of the symbionts. While the beewolves clearly have a paleotropic or palearctic origin, with later colonization of the nearctic and neotropics via Beringia and the Aves ridge, respectively, the bacteria show only weak geographical clustering, implying global dispersal or vicariance within the confines of an otherwise apparently exclusive symbiotic relationship. We discuss several hypotheses that may explain these patterns. Future studies investigating the occurrence of beewolf symbionts in the environment could yield broadly applicable insights into the relative impact of animal-vectored and free-living dispersal on the distribution of microorganisms in nature. PMID:26479018

  13. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  14. Defensive anality and anal narcissism.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1985-01-01

    This paper aims at demonstrating a currently beleaguered assumption: the central importance, the continuing vitality, and the appropriate complexity of Freud's theory of the drives and of his idea of the primacy of the body ego. It is not enough to consider man a thinking machine or a social being; his animal nature must be given a central place in psychology. The paper postulates that 'anal or sphincter defensiveness' is one of the precursors of the repression barrier. Anality has been comparatively neglected in recent psychoanalytic literature, and so has its explorer, Karl Abraham. The paper's thesis is that there is a special defensive importance to anal erogeneity and libido, and to those aspects of ego and superego that are functionally operative (as the 'sadistic-anal organization' (Freud, 1917)) during the so-called 'sadistic-anal' developmental phase. Any of the psychic danger situations can evoke regression to manifestations of 'anal narcissim'--an attempt to master overwhelming feeling by a kind of emotional sphincter action, narrowing down the world to the controllable and the predictable. The basic assumption here is Fliess's idea that the attainment of anal sphincter control functions--with, as-it-were, 'psychic resonance'--as a means to master primal (murderous, cannibalistic) affect. For optimal psychic development, a proper balance must be attained between anal control of, and anal expression of, instinctual derivatives--especially of affect laden with aggression.

  15. The Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Part 3: A systematic approach to the practical application of remote-sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. D.; Dideriksen, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing technology by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is examined. The activities of the USDA Remote-Sensing User Requirement Task Force which include cataloging USDA requirements for earth resources data, determining those requirements that would return maximum benefits by using remote sensing technology and developing a plan for acquiring, processing, analyzing, and distributing data to satisfy those requirements are described. Emphasis is placed on the large area crop inventory experiment and its relationship to the task force.

  16. Fortifications and underground nuclear defense shelters for NATO troops

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in NATO's conventional, chemical, and nuclear defenses are clearly needed; but constraints on changing NATO's forces are severe. Better NATO defenses must be achieved at a low economic cost, without changing NATO strategy, without adding more active duty troops or TNW, and without threatening the Soviets. Simple forms of field fortifications would improve the defensive strength of NATO forces without violating these constraints. PGMs are extremely powerful weapons that are much more effective when their operators enjoy the protection fortifications offer. Because the mission of defending fortifications and firing PGMs is simple relative to fighting a mobile war with armored vehicles, greater reliance could be placed on cheaper and more numerous West European reserves and militia forces. A simple corrugated pipe shelter buried seven feet underground would protect men against TNW as large as 100 KT striking as close as 600 meters. Since underground shelters seal air-tight they provide protection from chemical and biological weapons. A fixed defense program would be very affordable, costing around $2 billion. In addition to being much less expensive, shelters and fortifications are also attractive because they do not suffer from problems of poor reliability associated with most new high technology weapons.

  17. Where Does the Formula Come from? Students Investigating Total Surface Areas of a Pyramid and Cone Using Models and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obara, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Spatial reasoning is a skill that needs to be developed in students as it is important in geometry for determining total surface areas and volumes of 3-dimensional shapes (Liedtke, 1995). Simply teaching children the formulae, in this case for finding total surface areas, can limit them in understanding mathematics conceptually (Bonotto, 2003).…

  18. Secured network sensor-based defense system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sixiao; Shen, Dan; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Network sensor-based defense (NSD) systems have been widely used to defend against cyber threats. Nonetheless, if the adversary finds ways to identify the location of monitor sensors, the effectiveness of NSD systems can be reduced. In this paper, we propose both temporal and spatial perturbation based defense mechanisms to secure NSD systems and make the monitor sensor invisible to the adversary. The temporal-perturbation based defense manipulates the timing information of published data so that the probability of successfully recognizing monitor sensors can be reduced. The spatial-perturbation based defense dynamically redeploys monitor sensors in the network so that the adversary cannot obtain the complete information to recognize all of the monitor sensors. We carried out experiments using real-world traffic traces to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed defense mechanisms. Our data shows that our proposed defense mechanisms can reduce the attack accuracy of recognizing detection sensors.

  19. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    PubMed

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim.

  20. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    PubMed

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim. PMID:26568089

  1. Using Remote Sensing Technology on the Delimitation of the Conservation Area for the Jianan Irrigation System Cultural Landsccape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. H.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years the cultural landscape has become an important issue for cultural heritages throughout the world. It represents the "combined works of nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention. When a landscape has a cultural heritage value, important features should be marked and mapped through the delimitation of a conservation area, which may be essential for further conservation work. However, a cultural landscape's spatial area is usually wider than the ordinary architectural type of cultural heritage, since various elements and impact factors, forming the cultural landscape's character, lie within a wide geographic area. It is argued that the conservation of a cultural landscape may be influenced by the delimitation of the conservation area, the corresponding land management measures, the limits and encouragements. The Jianan Irrigation System, an historical cultural landscape in southern Taiwan, was registered as a living cultural heritage site in 2009. However, the system's conservation should not be limited to just only the reservoir or canals, but expanded to irrigated areas where farmland may be the most relevant. Through the analysis process, only approximately 42,000 hectares was defined as a conservation area, but closely related to agricultural plantations and irrigated by the system. This is only half of the 1977 irrigated area due to urban sprawl and continuous industrial expansion.

  2. Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, J.P.; Tucker, D.M.; Moore, G.

    1993-05-01

    A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders were successfully recharged without contamination in the presence of chemical agent simulant in the compressor area as well as in the cylinder filling area. Inexperienced personnel easily learned and successfully followed the recharging procedures even though they were burdened by protective clothing and equipment. Chemical agents, SCBA, Firefighting, Self-contained breathing apparatus.

  3. Flexible defense strategies: competition modifies investment in behavioral vs. morphological defenses.

    PubMed

    Teplitsky, Céline; Laurila, Anssi

    2007-07-01

    Competition is predicted to affect the expression of inducible defenses, but because costs of behavioral and morphological antipredator defenses differ along resource gradients, its effects on defenses may depend on the traits considered. We tested the predictions from different defense models in tadpoles of the common frog Rana temporaria, which exhibit both types of defenses. In an outdoor experiment, we exposed the tadpoles to nonlethal predators (Aeshna dragonfly larvae) and to a gradient of intraspecific competition. Morphological responses did not follow any of the expected patterns, since investment in defense was not affected by resource level. Instead, tail depth decreased in the absence of predators. Behavioral defenses followed a state-dependent model. Overall, the defense strategy of the tadpoles revealed a shift from morphological and behavioral defenses at low tadpole density to morphological defense only at high density. This difference probably reflects the different efficiency of the defenses. Hiding is an effective means of defense, but it is unsustainable when resources are scarce. Morphological responses become more important with increasing density to compensate for the increase in behavioral risk-taking. Our results indicate that competition can strongly affect reaction norms of inducible defenses and highlight the importance of integrating ecological parameters that affect the cost-benefit balance of phenotypic plasticity.

  4. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups. PMID:27086223

  5. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups.

  6. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Carles; Pamer, Eric G

    2012-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiota contributes to the development and differentiation of the mammalian immune system. The composition of the microbiota affects immune responses and affects susceptibility to infection by intestinal pathogens and development of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities and decreases host resistance to antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we review recent advances that begin to define the interactions between complex intestinal microbial populations and the mammalian immune system and how this relation is perturbed by antibiotic administration. We further discuss how antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota and immune homeostasis can lead to disease and we review strategies to restore immune defenses during antibiotic administration.

  7. Unmanned and Unattended Response Capability for Homeland Defense

    SciTech Connect

    BENNETT, PHIL C.

    2002-11-01

    An analysis was conducted of the potential for unmanned and unattended robotic technologies for forward-based, immediate response capabilities that enables access and controlled task performance. The authors analyze high-impact response scenarios in conjunction with homeland security organizations, such as the NNSA Office of Emergency Response, the FBI, the National Guard, and the Army Technical Escort Unit, to cover a range of radiological, chemical and biological threats. They conducted an analysis of the potential of forward-based, unmanned and unattended robotic technologies to accelerate and enhance emergency and crisis response by Homeland Defense organizations. Response systems concepts were developed utilizing new technologies supported by existing emerging threats base technologies to meet the defined response scenarios. These systems will pre-position robotic and remote sensing capabilities stationed close to multiple sites for immediate action. Analysis of assembled systems included experimental activities to determine potential efficacy in the response scenarios, and iteration on systems concepts and remote sensing and robotic technologies, creating new immediate response capabilities for Homeland Defense.

  8. Hybrid network defense model based on fuzzy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2014-01-01

    With sustained and rapid developments in the field of information technology, the issue of network security has become increasingly prominent. The theme of this study is network data security, with the test subject being a classified and sensitive network laboratory that belongs to the academic network. The analysis is based on the deficiencies and potential risks of the network's existing defense technology, characteristics of cyber attacks, and network security technologies. Subsequently, a distributed network security architecture using the technology of an intrusion prevention system is designed and implemented. In this paper, first, the overall design approach is presented. This design is used as the basis to establish a network defense model, an improvement over the traditional single-technology model that addresses the latter's inadequacies. Next, a distributed network security architecture is implemented, comprising a hybrid firewall, intrusion detection, virtual honeynet projects, and connectivity and interactivity between these three components. Finally, the proposed security system is tested. A statistical analysis of the test results verifies the feasibility and reliability of the proposed architecture. The findings of this study will potentially provide new ideas and stimuli for future designs of network security architecture. PMID:24574870

  9. Hybrid network defense model based on fuzzy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2014-01-01

    With sustained and rapid developments in the field of information technology, the issue of network security has become increasingly prominent. The theme of this study is network data security, with the test subject being a classified and sensitive network laboratory that belongs to the academic network. The analysis is based on the deficiencies and potential risks of the network's existing defense technology, characteristics of cyber attacks, and network security technologies. Subsequently, a distributed network security architecture using the technology of an intrusion prevention system is designed and implemented. In this paper, first, the overall design approach is presented. This design is used as the basis to establish a network defense model, an improvement over the traditional single-technology model that addresses the latter's inadequacies. Next, a distributed network security architecture is implemented, comprising a hybrid firewall, intrusion detection, virtual honeynet projects, and connectivity and interactivity between these three components. Finally, the proposed security system is tested. A statistical analysis of the test results verifies the feasibility and reliability of the proposed architecture. The findings of this study will potentially provide new ideas and stimuli for future designs of network security architecture.

  10. Hybrid Network Defense Model Based on Fuzzy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With sustained and rapid developments in the field of information technology, the issue of network security has become increasingly prominent. The theme of this study is network data security, with the test subject being a classified and sensitive network laboratory that belongs to the academic network. The analysis is based on the deficiencies and potential risks of the network's existing defense technology, characteristics of cyber attacks, and network security technologies. Subsequently, a distributed network security architecture using the technology of an intrusion prevention system is designed and implemented. In this paper, first, the overall design approach is presented. This design is used as the basis to establish a network defense model, an improvement over the traditional single-technology model that addresses the latter's inadequacies. Next, a distributed network security architecture is implemented, comprising a hybrid firewall, intrusion detection, virtual honeynet projects, and connectivity and interactivity between these three components. Finally, the proposed security system is tested. A statistical analysis of the test results verifies the feasibility and reliability of the proposed architecture. The findings of this study will potentially provide new ideas and stimuli for future designs of network security architecture. PMID:24574870

  11. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  12. Strategic implications of civil defense. Strategic issues research memo

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.M.

    1983-05-05

    This memorandum explores the relationship between civil defense, national vulnerabilities and the deterrence of nuclear warfare between the Soviet Union and the United States. The author examines the problems and effectiveness of the major elements of Soviet civil defenses (leadership and population protection; industrial protection; and postattack recovery) to determine whether, and to what extent, the Soviet capabilities undermine crisis stability and deterrence. The proposals of the Carter (PD-41) and Reagan (NSDD-26) administrations to strengthen deterrence and to reduce national destruction should deterrence fail are evaluated to determine whether the United States should augment and modernize its civil defenses. Americans will evacuate high risk areas in the event of a crisis, and it remains the responsibility of government to minimize the chaos and moderate the effects with some prior planning. The costs of such plans, relative to competing strategic military systems and programs, are rather modest. The author is skeptical, however, about the utility and cost-effectiveness of the extensive blast shelter program advocated by some civil defense proponents in the United States.

  13. Science and Technology Educators' Enacted Curriculum: Areas of Possible Collaboration for an Integrative STEM Approach in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josh; Brown, Ryan; Merrill, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) teachers teach multiple concepts that lend themselves to possible collaboration on a daily basis. Much like Metz's (2009) insightful discussion about the importance of science educators creating partnerships in the community "outside the school walls," integrative STEM teaching also requires…

  14. An Empirical Investigation of Defense Interpretation Depth, Defensive Functioning, and Alliance Strength in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Bhatia, Maneet; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Drapeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between depth of defense interpretations by therapists, and patient defensive functioning, on the therapeutic alliance in a sample of 36 patients undergoing short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Defense interpretation depth was defined as the degree to which therapist interpretations contained information regarding the motivation for patient defenses and historical origins of the defensive processes (Greensen, 1967). Mean depth of interpretation was compared between sessions that were identified beforehand as either high-alliance or low-alliance sessions using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II: Luborsky et al., 1996). Results indicated that defensive functioning was correlated to defense interpretation depth in low-alliance sessions. Moreover, mean depth of interpretation was also higher in low-alliance sessions, pointing to the possible "destabilizing" effects that these interpretations may have on both defensive functioning and the therapeutic alliance. These results are discussed within the context of previous studies of therapeutic technique in dynamic psychotherapy.

  15. 77 FR 26747 - Defense Science Board; Notice of Advisory Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Acquisition, Technology & Logistics on scientific and technical matters as they affect the perceived needs of... resulting from ongoing Task Force activities. The Board will also discuss plans for future consideration of... the public. Specifically, the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics),...

  16. Locating radiation hazards and sources within contaminated areas by implementing a reverse ray tracing technique in the RadBall™ technology.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Stanley, Steven; Holmes, Christopher; Lennox, Kathryn; Oldham, Mark; Clift, Corey; Thomas, Andrew; Adamovics, John

    2012-02-01

    RadBall™ is a novel technology that can locate unknown radioactive hazards within contaminated areas, hot cells, and gloveboxes. The device consists of a colander-like outer tungsten collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer semisphere. The collimator has a number of small holes; as a result, specific areas of the polymer are exposed to radiation, becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer semisphere is imaged in an optical computed tomography scanner that produces a high resolution three-dimensional map of optical attenuation coefficients. A subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data, using a reverse ray tracing technique, provides information on the spatial distribution of gamma-ray sources in a given area, forming a three-dimensional characterization of the area of interest. The RadBall™ technology and its reverse ray tracing technique were investigated using known radiation sources at the Savannah River Site's Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory and unknown sources at the Savannah River National Laboratory's Shielded Cells facility.

  17. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  18. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment. PMID:22744011

  19. National cyber defense high performance computing and analysis : concepts, planning and roadmap.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.

    2010-09-01

    There is a national cyber dilemma that threatens the very fabric of government, commercial and private use operations worldwide. Much is written about 'what' the problem is, and though the basis for this paper is an assessment of the problem space, we target the 'how' solution space of the wide-area national information infrastructure through the advancement of science, technology, evaluation and analysis with actionable results intended to produce a more secure national information infrastructure and a comprehensive national cyber defense capability. This cybersecurity High Performance Computing (HPC) analysis concepts, planning and roadmap activity was conducted as an assessment of cybersecurity analysis as a fertile area of research and investment for high value cybersecurity wide-area solutions. This report and a related SAND2010-4765 Assessment of Current Cybersecurity Practices in the Public Domain: Cyber Indications and Warnings Domain report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  20. 75 FR 13093 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Acquisition University Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... University Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... amended), and 41 CFR 102-3.50(c), the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Acquisition University Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the Board)....

  1. 75 FR 15695 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of Visitors National Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Board of Visitors National Defense University (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Committee... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of...

  2. Defense Economic Impact Modeling System (DEIMS). A New Concept in Economic Forecasting for Defense Expenditures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, David L.

    The Defense Economic Impact Modeling System (DEIMS) analyzes the economic effect of defense expenditures on the United States economy by using a consistent, reliable framework of economic models and government policy assumptions. Planning information on defense requirements is also provided to private sector firms. The DEIMS allows the Department…

  3. FY2005 Progress Summary and FY2006 Program Plan Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C

    2006-03-24

    The primary focus this year was to operate the system with two amplifiers populated with and pumped by eight high power diode arrays. The system was operated for extended run periods which enabled average power testing of components, diagnostics, and controls. These tests were highly successful, with a demonstrated energy level of over 55 joules for 4 cumulative hours at a repetition rate of 10 Hz (average power 0.55 kW). In addition, high average power second harmonic generation was demonstrated, achieving 227 W of 523.5 nm light (22.7 J, 10 Hz, 15 ns, 30 minutes) Plans to achieve higher energy levels and average powers are in progress. The dual amplifier system utilizes a 4-pass optical arrangement. The Yb:S-FAP slabs were mounted in aerodynamic aluminum vane structures to allow turbulent helium gas flow across the faces. Diagnostic packages that monitored beam performance were deployed during operation. The laser experiments involved injecting a seed beam from the front end into the system and making four passes through both amplifiers. Beam performance diagnostics monitored the beam on each pass to assess system parameters such as gain and nearfield intensity profiles. This year, an active mirror and wavefront sensor were procured and demonstrated in an off-line facility. The active mirror technology can correct for low order phase distortions at user specified operating conditions (such as repetition rates different than 10 Hz) and is a complementary technology to the static phase plates used in the system for higher order distortions. A picture of the laser system with amplifier No.2 (foreground) and amplifier No.1 (background) is shown in Fig. 1.0.1.1. The control system and diagnostics were recently enhanced for faster processing and allow remote operation of the system. The growth and fabrication of the Yb:S-FAP slabs constituted another major element of our program objectives. Our goal was to produce at least fourteen 4x6 cm2 crystalline slabs. These

  4. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization adaptive structures program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obal, Michael; Sater, Janet M.

    In the currently envisioned architecture none of the Strategic Defense System (SDS) elements to be deployed will receive scheduled maintenance. Assessments of performance capability due to changes caused by the uncertain effects of environments will be difficult, at best. In addition, the system will have limited ability to adjust in order to maintain its required performance levels. The Materials and Structures Office of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) has begun to address solutions to these potential difficulties via an adaptive structures technology program that combines health and environment monitoring with static and dynamic structural control. Conceivable system benefits include improved target tracking and hit-to-kill performance, on-orbit system health monitoring and reporting, and threat attack warning and assessment.

  5. Combinatorially selected defense peptides protect plant roots from pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhiwei David; Laskey, James G.; Huang, Shaoxing; Bilyeu, Kristin D.; Morris, Roy O.; Schmidt, Francis J.; English, James T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural productivity and sustainability are continually challenged by emerging and indigenous pathogens. Currently, many pathogens can be combated only with biocides or environmentally dangerous fumigants. Here, we report a rapid and pathogen-specific strategy to reduce infection by organisms that target plant roots. Combinatorially selected defense peptides, previously shown to effect premature encystment of Phytophthora capsici zoospores, were fused to maize cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase as a display scaffold. When expressed in tomato roots, the peptide-scaffold constructs were secreted and accumulated to sufficient concentrations in the rhizosphere to induce zoospore encystment and thereby deter taxis to the root surface. Pathogen infection was significantly inhibited in roots expressing bioactive peptides fused to the maize cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase scaffold. This peptide-delivery technology is broadly applicable for rapid development of plant defense attributes against plant pathogens. PMID:17030803

  6. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks.

    PubMed

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  7. Visualization techniques for computer network defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Steed, Chad A.; Patton, Robert M.; Cui, Xiaohui; Schultz, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Effective visual analysis of computer network defense (CND) information is challenging due to the volume and complexity of both the raw and analyzed network data. A typical CND is comprised of multiple niche intrusion detection tools, each of which performs network data analysis and produces a unique alerting output. The state-of-the-practice in the situational awareness of CND data is the prevalent use of custom-developed scripts by Information Technology (IT) professionals to retrieve, organize, and understand potential threat events. We propose a new visual analytics framework, called the Oak Ridge Cyber Analytics (ORCA) system, for CND data that allows an operator to interact with all detection tool outputs simultaneously. Aggregated alert events are presented in multiple coordinated views with timeline, cluster, and swarm model analysis displays. These displays are complemented with both supervised and semi-supervised machine learning classifiers. The intent of the visual analytics framework is to improve CND situational awareness, to enable an analyst to quickly navigate and analyze thousands of detected events, and to combine sophisticated data analysis techniques with interactive visualization such that patterns of anomalous activities may be more easily identified and investigated.

  8. Visualization Techniques for Computer Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Steed, Chad A; Patton, Robert M; Cui, Xiaohui; Schultz, Matthew A

    2011-01-01

    Effective visual analysis of computer network defense (CND) information is challenging due to the volume and complexity of both the raw and analyzed network data. A typical CND is comprised of multiple niche intrusion detection tools, each of which performs network data analysis and produces a unique alerting output. The state-of-the-practice in the situational awareness of CND data is the prevalent use of custom-developed scripts by Information Technology (IT) professionals to retrieve, organize, and understand potential threat events. We propose a new visual analytics framework, called the Oak Ridge Cyber Analytics (ORCA) system, for CND data that allows an operator to interact with all detection tool outputs simultaneously. Aggregated alert events are presented in multiple coordinated views with timeline, cluster, and swarm model analysis displays. These displays are complemented with both supervised and semi-supervised machine learning classifiers. The intent of the visual analytics framework is to improve CND situational awareness, to enable an analyst to quickly navigate and analyze thousands of detected events, and to combine sophisticated data analysis techniques with interactive visualization such that patterns of anomalous activities may be more easily identified and investigated.

  9. Decision support system for theater missile defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul; Burge, Janet; Popp, Ben

    2003-08-01

    Military services require C4I systems that support a full spectrum of operations. This is specifically relevant to the theatre missile defense (TMD) mission planning and analysis community where there have been several recent concept changes; advancements in information technology, sensors, and weapons; and expansion in the diversity and capabilities of potential adversaries. To fully support campaign development and analysis in this new environment, there is a need for systems and tools that enhance understanding of adversarial behavior, assess potential threat capabilities and vulnerabilities, perform C4I system trades, and provide methods to identify macro-level novel or emergent combat tactics and behavior derived from simpler micro-level rules. Such systems must also be interactive, collaborative, and semi-autonomous, providing the INTEL analyst with the means for exploration and potential exploitation of novel enemy behavior patterns. To address these issues we have developed an Intelligent Threat Assessment Processor (ITAP) to provide prediction and interpretation of enemy courses of actions (eCOAs) for the TMD domain. This system uses a combination of genetic algorithm-based optimization in tandem with the spatial analysis and visualization capabilities of a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) geographic information system to generate and evaluate potential eCOAs.

  10. Department of Defense Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... American Act. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 06/00/10 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes... DoD oversight of contractor business systems. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 01/15/10 75 FR 2457... Part V Department of Defense Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD)...

  11. Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Phebe

    2006-01-01

    Integrating theory, research, and practical applications, this book provides a comprehensive examination of defense mechanisms and their role in both normal development and psychopathology. The author describes how children and adults mobilize specific kinds of defenses to maintain their psychological equilibrium and preserve self-esteem,…

  12. Density-dependent adjustment of inducible defenses

    PubMed Central

    Tollrian, Ralph; Duggen, Sonja; Weiss, Linda C.; Laforsch, Christian; Kopp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a major factor driving evolution, and organisms have evolved adaptations increasing their survival chances. However, most defenses incur trade-offs between benefits and costs. Many organisms save costs by employing inducible defenses as responses to fluctuating predation risk. The level of defense often increases with predator densities. However, individual predation risk should not only depend on predator density but also on the density of conspecifics. If the predator has a saturating functional response one would predict a negative correlation between prey density and individual predation risk and hence defense expression. Here, we tested this hypothesis using six model systems, covering a taxonomic range from protozoa to rotifers and crustaceans. In all six systems, we found that the level of defense expression increased with predator density but decreased with prey density. In one of our systems, i.e. in Daphnia, we further show that the response to prey density is triggered by a chemical cue released by conspecifics and congeners. Our results indicate that organisms adjust the degree of defense to the acute predation risk, rather than merely to predators’ densities. Our study suggests that density-dependent defense expression reflects accurate predation-risk assessment and is a general principle in many inducible-defense systems. PMID:26235428

  13. The Defense Mechanisms of Coronary Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peglar, Marian; Borgen, Fred H.

    1984-01-01

    Tested 73 male inpatients with coronary heart disease on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a perception of health measure. Subjects were followed for five years. Principalization was discovered to be the most successful and projection the least successful defense. (JAC)

  14. The National Aerospace Initiative (NAI): Technologies For Responsive Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, Andrew; Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2003-01-01

    The Secretary of Defense has set new goals for the Department of Defense (DOD) to transform our nation's military forces. The Director for Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) has responded to this challenge by defining and sponsoring a transformational initiative in Science and Technology (S&T) - the National Aerospace Initiative (NAI) - which will have a fundamental impact on our nation's military capabilities and on the aerospace industry in general. The NAI is planned as a joint effort among the tri-services, DOD agencies and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is comprised of three major focus areas or pillars: 1) High Speed Hypersonics (HSH), 2) Space Access (SA), and 3) Space Technology (ST). This paper addresses the Space Access pillar. The NAI-SA team has employed a unique approach to identifying critical technologies and demonstrations for satisfying both military and civilian space access capabilities needed in the future. For planning and implementation purposes the NAI-SA is divided into five technology subsystem areas: Airframe, Propulsion, Flight Subsystems, Operations and Payloads. Detailed technology roadmaps were developed under each subsystem area using a time-phased, goal oriented approach that provides critical space access capabilities in a timely manner and involves subsystem ground and flight demonstrations. This S&T plan addresses near-term (2009), mid-term (2016), and long-term (2025) goals and objectives for space access. In addition, system engineering and integration approach was used to make sure that the plan addresses the requirements of the end users. This paper describes in some detail the technologies in NAI-Space Access pillar. Some areas of emphasis are: high temperature materials, thermal protection systems, long life, lightweight, highly efficient airframes, metallic and composite cryotanks, advanced liquid rocket engines, integrated vehicle health monitoring and management, highly operable systems and

  15. The Nuclear Material Focus Area Roadmapping Process Utilizing Environmental Management Complex-Wide Nuclear Material Disposition Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, D. R.; Furhman, P.; Smith, J. D.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the process that the Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) has developed and utilizes in working with individual Department of Energy (DOE) sites to identify, address, and prioritize research and development efforts in the stabilization, disposition, and storage of nuclear materials. By associating site technology needs with nuclear disposition pathways and integrating those with site schedules, the NMFA is developing a complex wide roadmap for nuclear material technology development. This approach will leverage technology needs and opportunities at multiple sites and assist the NMFA in building a defensible research and development program to address the nuclear material technology needs across the complex.

  16. Appropriate technology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Sardinsky, R.

    1981-12-01

    The technology of China (based on a visit to China in 1980) is described. The human labor intensity, particularly in the rural areas, is emphasized. Most tasks are accomplished using simple tools. Plowing, using water buffalo or single-piston diesel tractors, is discussed as well as the methods of nutrient recycling. All organic wastes are considered precious resources to be recycled (including human wastes). Biogas digesters, producing fuel (methane) and fertilizer, are described briefly. Livestock (pigs, geese, ducks, chickens), gardens, and ponds in rural China are discussed as well as the transportation system, which is primarily the bicycle. Primary energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydroelectric power) are used in the urban areas and by industry. The considerable interest in renewable energy sources is discussed with particular emphasis on the biogas digesters in the rural areas. Interest in applications of solar energy is high. The goals of China are to speed development and mechanization of their agriculture, industry, science, technology and defense. It is concluded that there is much to learn from China, as it has much to learn and perhaps the ideal would be a middle ground. (MJJ)

  17. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    PubMed

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  18. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  19. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process. PMID:7429737

  20. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrich K

    2007-05-01

    An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models. In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated with these defenses were reduced developmental rate, reduced growth, and reduced survival. At low resource availability, these costs predominately resulted in reduced survival, while at high resource availability the costs yielded a reduced developmental rate. Defensive traits responded strongly to predation risk, but did not respond to resource availability (with the exception of feeding activity), whereas traits construed as costs of defenses showed the opposite pattern. Therefore, defensive traits were highly sensitive to predation risk, while traits construed as costs of defense were highly sensitive to resource allocation tradeoffs. This difference in sensitivity between the two groups of traits may explain why the correlation between the expression of defensive traits and the expression of the associated defense costs was weak. Furthermore, my results indicate that genetic linkages and mechanistic integration of multiple defensive traits and their associated costs may constrain time and resource allocation in ways that are not addressed in existing models.