Science.gov

Sample records for deficiency impairs pericyte

  1. N-cadherin deficiency impairs pericyte recruitment, and not endothelial differentiation or sprouting, in embryonic stem cell-derived angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tillet, Emmanuelle . E-mail: emmanuelle.tillet@cea.fr; Vittet, Daniel; Feraud, Olivier; Moore, Robert; Kemler, Rolf; Huber, Philippe

    2005-11-01

    Endothelial cells express two classical cadherins, VE-cadherin and N-cadherin. VE-cadherin is absolutely required for vascular morphogenesis, but N-cadherin is thought to participate in vessel stabilization by interacting with periendothelial cells during vessel formation. However, recent data suggest a more critical role for N-cadherin in endothelium that would regulate angiogenesis, in part by controlling VE-cadherin expression. In this study, we have assessed N-cadherin function in vascular development using an in vitro model derived from embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. We show that pluripotent ES cells genetically null for N-cadherin can differentiate normally into endothelial cells. In addition, sprouting angiogenesis was unaltered, suggesting that N-cadherin is not essential for the early events of angiogenesis. However, the lack of N-cadherin led to an impairment in pericyte covering of endothelial outgrowths. We conclude that N-cadherin is necessary neither for vasculogenesis nor proliferation and migration of endothelial cells but is required for the subsequent maturation of endothelial sprouts by interacting with pericytes.

  2. Pericyte-specific expression of PDGF beta receptor in mouse models with normal and deficient PDGF beta receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Ethan A; Bell, Robert D; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2010-08-25

    Pericytes are integral members of the neurovascular unit. Using mouse models lacking endothelial-secreted platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) or platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) on pericytes, it has been demonstrated that PDGF-B/PDGFRβ interactions mediate pericyte recruitment to the vessel wall in the embryonic brain regulating the development of the cerebral microcirculation and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Relatively little is known, however, about the roles of PDGF-B/PDGFRβ interactions and pericytes in the adult brain in part due to a lack of adequate and/or properly characterized experimental models. To address whether genetic disruption of PDGFRβ signaling would result in a pericyte-specific insult in adult mice, we studied the pattern and cellular distribution of PDGFRβ expression in the brain in adult control mice and F7 mice that express two hypomorphic Pdgfrβ alleles containing seven point mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of PDGFRβ that impair downstream PDGFRβ receptor signaling. Using dual fluorescent in situ hybridization, immunofluorescent staining for different cell types in the neurovascular unit, and a fluorescent in situ proximity ligation assay to visualize molecular PDGF-B/PDGFRβ interactions on brain tissue sections, we show for the first time that PDGFRβ is exclusively expressed in pericytes, and not in neurons, astrocytes or endothelial cells, in the adult brain of control 129S1/SvlmJ mice. PDGFRβ co-localized only with well-established pericyte markers such as Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan NG2 and the xLacZ4 transgenic reporter. We next confirm pericyte-specific PDGFRβ expression in the brains of F7 mutants and show that these mice are viable in spite of substantial 40-60% reductions in regional pericyte coverage of brain capillaries. Our data show that PDGFRβ is exclusively expressed in pericytes in the adult 129S1/Sv1mJ and F7 mouse brain. Moreover, our findings suggest that genetic

  3. Pericyte-specific expression of PDGF beta receptor in mouse models with normal and deficient PDGF beta receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pericytes are integral members of the neurovascular unit. Using mouse models lacking endothelial-secreted platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) or platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) on pericytes, it has been demonstrated that PDGF-B/PDGFRβ interactions mediate pericyte recruitment to the vessel wall in the embryonic brain regulating the development of the cerebral microcirculation and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Relatively little is known, however, about the roles of PDGF-B/PDGFRβ interactions and pericytes in the adult brain in part due to a lack of adequate and/or properly characterized experimental models. To address whether genetic disruption of PDGFRβ signaling would result in a pericyte-specific insult in adult mice, we studied the pattern and cellular distribution of PDGFRβ expression in the brain in adult control mice and F7 mice that express two hypomorphic Pdgfrβ alleles containing seven point mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of PDGFRβ that impair downstream PDGFRβ receptor signaling. Results Using dual fluorescent in situ hybridization, immunofluorescent staining for different cell types in the neurovascular unit, and a fluorescent in situ proximity ligation assay to visualize molecular PDGF-B/PDGFRβ interactions on brain tissue sections, we show for the first time that PDGFRβ is exclusively expressed in pericytes, and not in neurons, astrocytes or endothelial cells, in the adult brain of control 129S1/SvlmJ mice. PDGFRβ co-localized only with well-established pericyte markers such as Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan NG2 and the xLacZ4 transgenic reporter. We next confirm pericyte-specific PDGFRβ expression in the brains of F7 mutants and show that these mice are viable in spite of substantial 40-60% reductions in regional pericyte coverage of brain capillaries. Conclusions Our data show that PDGFRβ is exclusively expressed in pericytes in the adult 129S1/Sv1mJ and F7 mouse brain. Moreover, our

  4. Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidases Impairs Migration and Angiogenic Properties of Tumor-Associated Pericytes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Aline Lopes; Kaid, Carolini; Silva, Patrícia B G; Cortez, Beatriz A; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2017-01-01

    Pericytes are important cellular components of the tumor microenviroment with established roles in angiogenesis and metastasis. These two cancer hallmarks are modulated by enzymes of the LOX family, but thus far, information about LOX relevance in tumor-associated pericytes is lacking. Here, we performed a comparative characterization of normal and tumoral pericytes and report for the first time the modulatory effects of LOX enzymes on activated pericyte properties. Tumoral pericytes isolated from childhood ependymoma and neuroblastoma specimens displayed angiogenic properties in vitro and expressed typical markers, including CD146, NG2, and PDGFRβ. Expression of all LOX family members could be detected in both normal and tumor-associated pericytes. In most pericyte samples, LOXL3 was the family member displaying the highest transcript levels. Inhibition of LOX/LOXL activity with the inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile (βAPN) significantly reduced migration of pericytes, while proliferation rates were kept unaltered. Formation of tube-like structures in vitro by pericytes was also significantly impaired upon inhibition of LOX/LOXL activity with βAPN, which induced more prominent effects in tumor-associated pericytes. These findings reveal a novel involvement of the LOX family of enzymes in migration and angiogenic properties of pericytes, with implications in tumor development and in therapeutic targeting tumor microenvironment constituents.

  5. Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidases Impairs Migration and Angiogenic Properties of Tumor-Associated Pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Kaid, Carolini; Silva, Patrícia B. G.; Cortez, Beatriz A.

    2017-01-01

    Pericytes are important cellular components of the tumor microenviroment with established roles in angiogenesis and metastasis. These two cancer hallmarks are modulated by enzymes of the LOX family, but thus far, information about LOX relevance in tumor-associated pericytes is lacking. Here, we performed a comparative characterization of normal and tumoral pericytes and report for the first time the modulatory effects of LOX enzymes on activated pericyte properties. Tumoral pericytes isolated from childhood ependymoma and neuroblastoma specimens displayed angiogenic properties in vitro and expressed typical markers, including CD146, NG2, and PDGFRβ. Expression of all LOX family members could be detected in both normal and tumor-associated pericytes. In most pericyte samples, LOXL3 was the family member displaying the highest transcript levels. Inhibition of LOX/LOXL activity with the inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile (βAPN) significantly reduced migration of pericytes, while proliferation rates were kept unaltered. Formation of tube-like structures in vitro by pericytes was also significantly impaired upon inhibition of LOX/LOXL activity with βAPN, which induced more prominent effects in tumor-associated pericytes. These findings reveal a novel involvement of the LOX family of enzymes in migration and angiogenic properties of pericytes, with implications in tumor development and in therapeutic targeting tumor microenvironment constituents. PMID:28553358

  6. Combined deficiency of Notch1 and Notch3 causes pericyte dysfunction, models CADASIL, and results in arteriovenous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Natalie M.; Cuervo, Henar; Uh, Minji K.; Murtomäki, Aino; Kitajewski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes regulate vessel stability and pericyte dysfunction contributes to retinopathies, stroke, and cancer. Here we define Notch as a key regulator of pericyte function during angiogenesis. In Notch1+/−; Notch3−/− mice, combined deficiency of Notch1 and Notch3 altered pericyte interaction with the endothelium and reduced pericyte coverage of the retinal vasculature. Notch1 and Notch3 were shown to cooperate to promote proper vascular basement membrane formation and contribute to endothelial cell quiescence. Accordingly, loss of pericyte function due to Notch deficiency exacerbates endothelial cell activation caused by Notch1 haploinsufficiency. Mice mutant for Notch1 and Notch3 develop arteriovenous malformations and display hallmarks of the ischemic stroke disease CADASIL. Thus, Notch deficiency compromises pericyte function and contributes to vascular pathologies. PMID:26563570

  7. Blood-spinal cord barrier breakdown and pericyte deficiency in peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Reine-Solange; Kirchner, Juliane; Yang, Shaobing; Hu, Liu; Leinders, Mathias; Sommer, Claudia; Brack, Alexander; Rittner, Heike L

    2017-10-01

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) prevents leakage of molecules, such as pronociceptive mediators, into the spinal cord, but its role in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is not completely understood. Rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) develop mechanical allodynia, thermal hypersensitivity, and reduced motor performance (Rota-Rod test) compared with sham-injured mice-similar to mice with spared nerve injury (SNI). The BSCB becomes permeable for small and large tracers 1 day after nerve ligation. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs) occludin, claudin-1, claudin-5, claudin-19, tricellulin, and ZO-1 significantly declines 7-14 days after CCI or SNI. ZO-1 and occludin are reduced in the cell membrane. In capillaries isolated from the spinal cord, immunoreactivity of claudin-5 and ZO-1 is fainter. In parallel, the number of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGF-β)(+) and CD13(+) pericytes in the spinal cord drops. Reduced levels of cytosolic transcription factors like β-catenin, but not SMAD4 and SLUG, could account for reduced TJP mRNA. In summary, neuropathy-induced allodynia/hypersensitivity is accompanied by a loss of pericytes in the spinal cord and a leaky BSCB. A better understanding of these pathways and mechanisms in neuropathic pain might foster the design of novel treatments to maintain spinal cord homeostasis. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Pericytes control key neurovascular functions and neuronal phenotype in the adult brain and during brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert D.; Winkler, Ethan A.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Singh, Itender; LaRue, Barb; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pericytes play a key role in the development of cerebral microcirculation. The exact role of pericytes in the neurovascular unit in the adult brain and during brain aging remains, however, elusive. Using adult viable pericyte-deficient mice, we show that pericyte loss leads to brain vascular damage by two parallel pathways: (1) reduction in brain microcirculation causing diminished brain capillary perfusion, cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood flow responses to brain activation which ultimately mediates chronic perfusion stress and hypoxia, and (2) blood-brain barrier breakdown associated with brain accumulation of serum proteins and several vasculotoxic and/or neurotoxic macromolecules ultimately leading to secondary neuronal degenerative changes. We show that age-dependent vascular damage in pericyte-deficient mice precedes neuronal degenerative changes, learning and memory impairment and the neuroinflammatory response. Thus, pericytes control key neurovascular functions that are necessary for proper neuronal structure and function, and pericytes loss results in a progressive age-dependent vascular-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21040844

  9. Magnesium deficiency impairs fear conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Bardgett, Mark E; Schultheis, Patrick J; McGill, Diana L; Richmond, Raymond E; Wagge, Jordan R

    2005-03-15

    Magnesium (Mg2+) is one of the most abundant cations found in the body. In the central nervous system, Mg2+ plays an important role in the function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, which are centrally involved in memory processing. Despite the relatively large concentration of Mg2+ in the CNS, little is known about the behavioral consequences of Mg2+ deficiency. The purpose of this study was to address this issue by assessing fear conditioning and related behaviors in mice maintained on normal or Mg(2+)-deficient diets. Young adult male C57Bl/6J mice were placed on a control or Mg(2+)-deficient diet, and testing was conducted between 10 and 21 days later. Magnesium-deficient mice exhibited impairments in contextual and cued fear conditioning. These impairments could not be attributed to changes in locomotor activity, exploration, or pain sensitivity. Furthermore, Mg(2+)-deficient mice were more sensitive to the convulsant effects of a peripheral injection of NMDA (100 mg/kg, IP). The results suggest that magnesium deficiency can lead to specific impairments in emotional memory. Such impairments may be related to hypersensitivity of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in Mg(2+)-deficient mice.

  10. Role of pericytes in skeletal muscle regeneration and fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-08-15

    Stem cells ensure tissue regeneration, while overgrowth of adipogenic cells may compromise organ recovery and impair function. In myopathies and muscle atrophy associated with aging, fat accumulation increases dysfunction, and after chronic injury, the process of fatty degeneration, in which muscle is replaced by white adipocytes, further compromises tissue function and environment. Some studies suggest that pericytes may contribute to muscle regeneration as well as fat formation. This work reports the presence of two pericyte subpopulations in the skeletal muscle and characterizes their specific roles. Skeletal muscle from Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mice show two types of pericytes, Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ (type-1) and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ (type-2), in close proximity to endothelial cells. We also found that both Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ cells colocalize with staining of two pericyte markers, PDGFRβ and CD146, but only type-1 pericyte express the adipogenic progenitor marker PDGFRα. Type-2 pericytes participate in muscle regeneration, while type-1 contribute to fat accumulation. Transplantation studies indicate that type-1 pericytes do not form muscle in vivo, but contribute to fat deposition in the skeletal muscle, while type-2 pericytes contribute only to the new muscle formation after injury, but not to the fat accumulation. Our results suggest that type-1 and type-2 pericytes contribute to successful muscle regeneration which results from a balance of myogenic and nonmyogenic cells activation.

  11. Pericytes in sarcomas of bone.

    PubMed

    Chang, Le; Nguyen, Vi; Nguyen, Alan; Scott, Michelle A; James, Aaron W

    2015-07-01

    Pericytes are mesenchymal cells that closely enwrap small blood vessels, lying in intimate association with the endothelium. Pericytes have recently gained attention as an important mediator of vascular biology and angiogenesis in cancer. Although better studied in carcinoma, pericytes have known interaction with sarcomas of bone, including Ewing's sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. Best studied is Ewing's sarcoma (ES), which displays a prominent perivascular growth pattern. Signaling pathways of known importance in intratumoral pericytes in ES include Notch, PDGF/PDGFR-β, and VEGF signaling. In summary, pericytes serve important functions in the tumor microenvironment. Improved understanding of pericyte biology may hold significant implications for the development of new therapies in sarcoma.

  12. Central nervous system pericytes in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2014-01-01

    Pericytes are uniquely positioned within the neurovascular unit to serve as vital integrators, coordinators and effectors of many neurovascular functions, including angiogenesis, blood-brain barrier (BBB) formation and maintenance, vascular stability and angioarchitecture, regulation of capillary blood flow and clearance of toxic cellular byproducts necessary for proper CNS homeostasis and neuronal function. New studies have revealed that pericyte deficiency in the CNS leads to BBB breakdown and brain hypoperfusion resulting in secondary neurodegenerative changes. Here we review recent progress in understanding the biology of CNS pericytes and their role in health and disease. PMID:22030551

  13. Brain and Retinal Pericytes: Origin, Function and Role

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Andrea; Lange, Simona; Schroedl, Falk; Bruckner, Daniela; Motloch, Karolina A.; Bogner, Barbara; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Strohmaier, Clemens; Runge, Christian; Aigner, Ludwig; Rivera, Francisco J.; Reitsamer, Herbert A.

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes are specialized mural cells located at the abluminal surface of capillary blood vessels, embedded within the basement membrane. In the vascular network these multifunctional cells fulfil diverse functions, which are indispensable for proper homoeostasis. They serve as microvascular stabilizers, are potential regulators of microvascular blood flow and have a central role in angiogenesis, as they for example regulate endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, pericytes, as part of the neurovascular unit, are a major component of the blood-retina/brain barrier. CNS pericytes are a heterogenic cell population derived from mesodermal and neuro-ectodermal germ layers acting as modulators of stromal and niche environmental properties. In addition, they display multipotent differentiation potential making them an intriguing target for regenerative therapies. Pericyte-deficiencies can be cause or consequence of many kinds of diseases. In diabetes, for instance, pericyte-loss is a severe pathological process in diabetic retinopathy (DR) with detrimental consequences for eye sight in millions of patients. In this review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of CNS pericyte origin and function, with a special focus on the retina in the healthy and diseased. Finally, we highlight the role of pericytes in de- and regenerative processes. PMID:26869887

  14. Role of Pericytes in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N.; Mintz, Akiva

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells ensure tissue regeneration, while overgrowth of adipogenic cells may compromise organ recovery and impair function. In myopathies and muscle atrophy associated with aging, fat accumulation increases dysfunction, and after chronic injury, the process of fatty degeneration, in which muscle is replaced by white adipocytes, further compromises tissue function and environment. Some studies suggest that pericytes may contribute to muscle regeneration as well as fat formation. This work reports the presence of two pericyte subpopulations in the skeletal muscle and characterizes their specific roles. Skeletal muscle from Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mice show two types of pericytes, Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ (type-1) and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ (type-2), in close proximity to endothelial cells. We also found that both Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ cells colocalize with staining of two pericyte markers, PDGFRβ and CD146, but only type-1 pericyte express the adipogenic progenitor marker PDGFRα. Type-2 pericytes participate in muscle regeneration, while type-1 contribute to fat accumulation. Transplantation studies indicate that type-1 pericytes do not form muscle in vivo, but contribute to fat deposition in the skeletal muscle, while type-2 pericytes contribute only to the new muscle formation after injury, but not to the fat accumulation. Our results suggest that type-1 and type-2 pericytes contribute to successful muscle regeneration which results from a balance of myogenic and nonmyogenic cells activation. PMID:23517218

  15. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning.

    PubMed

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania; Shafir, Sharoni

    2015-12-22

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3-poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3-rich diets, or omega-3-rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal.

  16. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    PubMed Central

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  17. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hagmeyer, Simone; Haderspeck, Jasmin Carmen; Grabrucker, Andreas Martin

    2015-01-01

    Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies. PMID:25610379

  18. ProNGF, a cytokine induced after myocardial infarction in humans, targets pericytes to promote microvascular damage and activation

    PubMed Central

    Siao, Chia-Jen; Lorentz, Christina U.; Kermani, Pouneh; Marinic, Tina; Carter, John; McGrath, Kelly; Padow, Victoria A.; Mark, Willie; Falcone, Domenick J.; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Parrish, Diana C.; Habecker, Beth A.; Nykjaer, Anders; Ellenson, Lora H.; Tessarollo, Lino

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of acute cardiac ischemia focuses on reestablishment of blood flow in coronary arteries. However, impaired microvascular perfusion damages peri-infarct tissue, despite arterial patency. Identification of cytokines that induce microvascular dysfunction would provide new targets to limit microvascular damage. Pro–nerve growth factor (NGF), the precursor of NGF, is a well characterized cytokine in the brain induced by injury. ProNGF activates p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and sortilin receptors to mediate proapoptotic responses. We describe induction of proNGF by cardiomyocytes, and p75NTR in human arterioles after fatal myocardial infarction, but not with unrelated pathologies. After mouse cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, rapid up-regulation of proNGF by cardiomyocytes and p75NTR by microvascular pericytes is observed. To identify proNGF actions, we generated a mouse expressing a mutant Ngf allele with impaired processing of proNGF to mature NGF. The proNGF-expressing mouse exhibits cardiac microvascular endothelial activation, a decrease in pericyte process length, and increased vascular permeability, leading to lethal cardiomyopathy in adulthood. Deletion of p75NTR in proNGF-expressing mice rescues the phenotype, confirming the importance of p75NTR-expressing pericytes in the development of microvascular injury. Furthermore, deficiency in p75NTR limits infarct size after I-R. These studies identify novel, nonneuronal actions for proNGF and suggest that proNGF represents a new target to limit microvascular dysfunction. PMID:23091165

  19. ProNGF, a cytokine induced after myocardial infarction in humans, targets pericytes to promote microvascular damage and activation.

    PubMed

    Siao, Chia-Jen; Lorentz, Christina U; Kermani, Pouneh; Marinic, Tina; Carter, John; McGrath, Kelly; Padow, Victoria A; Mark, Willie; Falcone, Domenick J; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Parrish, Diana C; Habecker, Beth A; Nykjaer, Anders; Ellenson, Lora H; Tessarollo, Lino; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2012-11-19

    Treatment of acute cardiac ischemia focuses on reestablishment of blood flow in coronary arteries. However, impaired microvascular perfusion damages peri-infarct tissue, despite arterial patency. Identification of cytokines that induce microvascular dysfunction would provide new targets to limit microvascular damage. Pro-nerve growth factor (NGF), the precursor of NGF, is a well characterized cytokine in the brain induced by injury. ProNGF activates p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and sortilin receptors to mediate proapoptotic responses. We describe induction of proNGF by cardiomyocytes, and p75(NTR) in human arterioles after fatal myocardial infarction, but not with unrelated pathologies. After mouse cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, rapid up-regulation of proNGF by cardiomyocytes and p75(NTR) by microvascular pericytes is observed. To identify proNGF actions, we generated a mouse expressing a mutant Ngf allele with impaired processing of proNGF to mature NGF. The proNGF-expressing mouse exhibits cardiac microvascular endothelial activation, a decrease in pericyte process length, and increased vascular permeability, leading to lethal cardiomyopathy in adulthood. Deletion of p75(NTR) in proNGF-expressing mice rescues the phenotype, confirming the importance of p75(NTR)-expressing pericytes in the development of microvascular injury. Furthermore, deficiency in p75(NTR) limits infarct size after I-R. These studies identify novel, nonneuronal actions for proNGF and suggest that proNGF represents a new target to limit microvascular dysfunction.

  20. Reduced mural cell coverage and impaired vessel integrity after angiogenic stimulation in the Alk1-deficient brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqiu; Guo, Yi; Walker, Espen J.; Shen, Fanxia; Jun, Kristine; Oh, S. Paul; Degos, Vincent; Lawton, Michael T.; Tihan, Tarik; Davalos, Dimitrios; Akassoglou, Katerina; Nelson, Jeffrey; Pile-Spellman, John; Su, Hua; Young, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vessels in brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are prone to rupture. The underlying pathogenesis is not clear. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2) patients with activin receptor-like kinase 1 (Alk1) mutation have a higher incidence of bAVM than the general population. We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) impairs vascular integrity in the Alk1-deficient brain through reduction of mural cell-coverage. Methods and Results Adult Alk11f/2f mice (loxP sites flanking exons 4-6) and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with 2×107 PFU Ad-Cre and 2×109 genome copies of AAV-VEGF to induce focal homozygous Alk1 deletion (in Alk11f/2f mice) and angiogenesis. Brain vessels were analyzed eight weeks later. Compared to WT mice, the Alk1-deficient brain had more fibrin (99±30×103 pixels/mm2 vs. 40±13×103, P=0.001), iron deposition (508±506 pixels/mm2 vs. 6 ±49, P=0.04), and Iba1+ microglia/macrophage infiltration (888±420 Iba1+ cells/mm2 vs. 240±104 Iba1+, P=0.001) after VEGF stimulation. In the angiogenic foci, the Alk1-deficient brain had more α-SMA- vessels (52±9% vs. 12±7%, P<0.001), fewer vascular associated pericytes (503±179/mm2 vs. 931±115, P<0.001), and reduced PDGFR-β expression (26±9%, P<0.001). Conclusion Reduction of mural cell coverage in response to VEGF stimulation is a potential mechanism for the impairment of vessel wall integrity in HHT2-associated bAVM. PMID:23241407

  1. Impaired energy metabolism of the taurine‑deficient heart.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Shimada-Takaura, Kayoko; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is a β-amino acid found in high concentrations in excitable tissues, including the heart. A significant reduction in myocardial taurine content leads to the development of a unique dilated, atrophic cardiomyopathy. One of the major functions of taurine in the heart is the regulation of the respiratory chain. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that taurine deficiency-mediated defects in respiratory chain function lead to impaired energy metabolism and reduced ATP generation. We found that while the rate of glycolysis was significantly enhanced in the taurine-deficient heart, glucose oxidation was diminished. The major site of reduced glucose oxidation was pyruvate dehydrogenase, an enzyme whose activity is reduced by the increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio and by decreased availability of pyruvate for oxidation to acetyl CoA and changes in [Mg2+]i. Also diminished in the taurine-deficient heart was the oxidation of two other precursors of acetyl CoA, endogenous fatty acids and exogenous acetate. In the taurine-deficient heart, impaired citric acid cycle activity decreased both acetate oxidation and endogenous fatty acid oxidation, but reductions in the activity of the mitochondrial transporter, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, appeared to also contribute to the reduction in fatty acid oxidation. These changes diminished the rate of ATP production, causing a decline in the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio, a sign of reduced energy status. The findings support the hypothesis that the taurine-deficient heart is energy starved primarily because of impaired respiratory chain function, an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio and diminished long chain fatty acid uptake by the mitochondria. The results suggest that improved energy metabolism contributes to the beneficial effect of taurine therapy in patients suffering from heart failure.

  2. Pericytes at the intersection between tissue regeneration and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Perivascular multipotent cells, pericytes, contribute to the generation and repair of various tissues in response to injury. They are heterogeneous in their morphology, distribution, origin and markers, and elucidating their molecular and cellular differences may inform novel treatments for disorders in which tissue regeneration is either impaired or excessive. Moreover, these discoveries offer novel cellular targets for therapeutic approaches to many diseases. This review discusses recent studies that support the concept that pericyte subtypes play a distinctive role in myogenesis, neurogenesis, adipogenesis, fibrogenesis and angiogenesis. PMID:25236972

  3. Pericytes at the intersection between tissue regeneration and pathology.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular multipotent cells, pericytes, contribute to the generation and repair of various tissues in response to injury. They are heterogeneous in their morphology, distribution, origin and markers, and elucidating their molecular and cellular differences may inform novel treatments for disorders in which tissue regeneration is either impaired or excessive. Moreover, these discoveries offer novel cellular targets for therapeutic approaches to many diseases. This review discusses recent studies that support the concept that pericyte subtypes play a distinctive role in myogenesis, neurogenesis, adipogenesis, fibrogenesis and angiogenesis.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency impairs neurobehavioral development in male mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Chen, Xue; Xu, Shen; Yu, Zhen; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent especially in pregnant women and children. Several studies found that vitamin D status was negatively correlated with risk of senile neurobehavioral abnormality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D deficiency on neurobehavioral development in mice. In vitamin D deficiency group, dams and their male pups were fed with vitamin D deficient (VDD) diet, in which vitamin D was depleted. Anxiety-related behavior, depressive-like behavior, spatial learning and memory were measured. As expected, serum 25(OH)D level was reduced in VDD diet-fed mice. An anhedonia state, a key depressive-like behavior, was observed in VDD diet-fed mice. In open-field test, peripheral time was decreased and internal time was increased in VDD diet-fed mice. In elevated plus maze, the latency of the first entry into open arms was increased and the number of crossing in open arms was elevated in VDD diet-fed mice. Morris Water Maze showed that VDD-fed mice showed longer escape latency in the first six days. On the seventh day, escape latency was increased in VDD diet-fed mice. These results provide evidence that vitamin D deficiency impairs neurobehavioral development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RASGRP1 deficiency causes immunodeficiency with impaired cytoskeletal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Elisabeth; Cagdas, Deniz; Hons, Miroslav; Mace, Emily M; Garncarz, Wojciech; Petronczki, Özlem Yüce; Platzer, René; Pfajfer, Laurène; Bilic, Ivan; Ban, Sol A; Willmann, Katharina L; Mukherjee, Malini; Supper, Verena; Hsu, Hsiang Ting; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Sinha, Papiya; McClanahan, Fabienne; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Pickl, Winfried F; Gribben, John G; Stockinger, Hannes; Bennett, Keiryn L; Huppa, Johannes B; Dupré, Loïc; Sanal, Özden; Jäger, Ulrich; Sixt, Michael; Tezcan, Ilhan; Orange, Jordan S; Boztug, Kaan

    2016-12-01

    RASGRP1 is an important guanine nucleotide exchange factor and activator of the RAS-MAPK pathway following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. The consequences of RASGRP1 mutations in humans are unknown. In a patient with recurrent bacterial and viral infections, born to healthy consanguineous parents, we used homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing to identify a biallelic stop-gain variant in RASGRP1. This variant segregated perfectly with the disease and has not been reported in genetic databases. RASGRP1 deficiency was associated in T cells and B cells with decreased phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal-regulated serine kinase ERK, which was restored following expression of wild-type RASGRP1. RASGRP1 deficiency also resulted in defective proliferation, activation and motility of T cells and B cells. RASGRP1-deficient natural killer (NK) cells exhibited impaired cytotoxicity with defective granule convergence and actin accumulation. Interaction proteomics identified the dynein light chain DYNLL1 as interacting with RASGRP1, which links RASGRP1 to cytoskeletal dynamics. RASGRP1-deficient cells showed decreased activation of the GTPase RhoA. Treatment with lenalidomide increased RhoA activity and reversed the migration and activation defects of RASGRP1-deficient lymphocytes.

  6. Plastic roles of pericytes in the blood–retinal barrier

    PubMed Central

    Park, Do Young; Lee, Junyeop; Kim, Jaeryung; Kim, Kangsan; Hong, Seonpyo; Han, Sangyeul; Kubota, Yoshiaki; Augustin, Hellmut G.; Ding, Lei; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Hail; He, Yulong; Adams, Ralf H.; Koh, Gou Young

    2017-01-01

    The blood–retinal barrier (BRB) consists of tightly interconnected capillary endothelial cells covered with pericytes and glia, but the role of the pericytes in BRB regulation is not fully understood. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B/PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signalling is critical in formation and maturation of BRB through active recruitment of pericytes onto growing retinal vessels. Impaired pericyte recruitment to the vessels shows multiple vascular hallmarks of diabetic retinopathy (DR) due to BRB disruption. However, PDGF-B/PDGFRβ signalling is expendable for maintaining BRB integrity in adult mice. Although selective pericyte loss in stable adult retinal vessels surprisingly does not cause BRB disintegration, it sensitizes retinal vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to VEGF-A, leading to upregulation of angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in ECs through FOXO1 activation and triggering a positive feedback that resembles the pathogenesis of DR. Accordingly, either blocking Ang2 or activating Tie2 greatly attenuates BRB breakdown, suggesting potential therapeutic approaches to reduce retinal damages upon DR progression. PMID:28508859

  7. Tissue Myeloid Progenitors Differentiate into Pericytes through TGF-β Signaling in Developing Skin Vasculature.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomoko; Nalbandian, Ani; Uchida, Yutaka; Li, Wenling; Arnold, Thomas D; Kubota, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Seiji; Ema, Masatsugu; Mukouyama, Yoh-Suke

    2017-03-21

    Mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells) are essential for the regulation of vascular networks and maintenance of vascular integrity, but their origins are diverse in different tissues and not known in the organs that arise from the ectoderm, such as skin. Here, we show that tissue-localized myeloid progenitors contribute to pericyte development in embryonic skin vasculature. A series of in vivo fate-mapping experiments indicates that tissue myeloid progenitors differentiate into pericytes. Furthermore, depletion of tissue myeloid cells and their progenitors in PU.1 (also known as Spi1) mutants results in defective pericyte development. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-isolated myeloid cells and their progenitors from embryonic skin differentiate into pericytes in culture. At the molecular level, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces pericyte differentiation in culture. Furthermore, type 2 TGF-β receptor (Tgfbr2) mutants exhibit deficient pericyte development in skin vasculature. Combined, these data suggest that pericytes differentiate from tissue myeloid progenitors in the skin vasculature through TGF-β signaling.

  8. Impaired degradation of leukotrienes in patients with peroxisome deficiency disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Mayatepek, E; Lehmann, W D; Fauler, J; Tsikas, D; Frölich, J C; Schutgens, R B; Wanders, R J; Keppler, D

    1993-01-01

    The degradation of leukotrienes by beta-oxidation from the omega-end proceeds in peroxisomes (Jedlitschky et al. J. Biol. Chem. 1991. 266:24763-24772). Peroxisomal degradation of leukotrienes was studied in humans by analyses of endogenous leukotrienes in urines from eight patients with biochemically established peroxisome deficiency disorder and eight age- and sex-matched healthy infant controls. Leukotriene metabolites were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography, quantified by radioimmunoassays, and identified as well as quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and N-acetyl-LTE4 excretions, relative to creatinine, were increased > 10-fold in the patients in comparison to healthy infants. The beta-oxidation product omega-carboxy-tetranor-LTE3 averaged 0.05 mumol/mol creatinine in the controls but was not detectable in the patients. However, omega-carboxy-LTE4 (median 13.6 mumol/mol creatinine) was significantly increased in the patients' urine, whereas LTB4 (median 0.07 mumol/mol creatinine) and omega-carboxy-LTB4 were detected exclusively in the urines of the patients. These data indicate an impairment of the inactivation and degradation of both LTE4 and LTB4 in patients with peroxisomal deficiency. The increased levels of the biologically active, proinflammatory mediators LTE4 and LTB4 might be of pathophysiological significance in peroxisome deficiency disorders. This is the first and so far only condition with a pronounced urinary excretion of omega-carboxy-LTE4, omega-carboxy-LTB4, and LTB4. This impaired catabolism of leukotrienes and the altered pattern of metabolites may be of diagnostic value. These findings underline the essential role of peroxisomes in the catabolism of leukotrienes in humans. PMID:8450067

  9. Pericyte Antigens in Perivascular Soft Tissue Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Asatrian, Greg; Mravic, Marco; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Dry, Sarah M.; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear line of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from pericytes or modified perivascular cells. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor (previously termed hemangiopericytoma) was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation. Methods Here, we systematically examine pericyte immunohistochemical markers among glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, angioleiomyoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantification was performed using well-defined pericyte antigens, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Results Glomus tumor and myopericytoma demonstrate diffuse staining for all pericyte markers, including immunohistochemical reactivity for αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Malignant glomus tumors all showed some degree of pericyte marker immunoreactivity, although it was significantly reduced. Angioleiomyoma shared a similar αSMA + CD146 + PDGFRβ+ immunophenotype; however, this was predominantly seen in the areas of perivascular tumor growth. Solitary fibrous tumors showed patchy PDGFRβ immunoreactivity only. Discussion In summary, pericyte marker expression is a ubiquitous finding in glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Malignant glomus tumor shows a comparative reduction in pericyte marker expression, which may represent partial loss of pericytic differentiation. Pericyte markers are essentially not seen in solitary fibrous tumor. The combination of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ immunohistochemical stainings may be of utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26085647

  10. Impaired cardiac hypertrophic response in Calcineurin Aβ-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Orlando F.; Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Tymitz, Kevin M.; Glascock, Betty J.; Kimball, Thomas F.; Lorenz, John N.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2002-01-01

    Calcineurin is a calcium–calmodulin-regulated, serine–threonine phosphatase that functions as a key inducer of stress responsive gene expression in multiple cell types through a direct activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells and myocyte enhancer factor 2 transcription factors. In cardiomyocytes, calcineurin signaling has been implicated in the regulation of the hypertrophic response caused by pressure overload or neuroendocrine stimulation. Three separate genes encode the catalytic subunit of calcineurin in mammalian cells, CnAα, CnAβ, and CnAγ. To evaluate the necessary function of calcineurin as a hypertrophic regulatory factor, the CnAβ gene was disrupted in the mouse. CnAβ-deficient mice were viable, fertile, and overtly normal well into adulthood, but displayed a 80% decrease in calcineurin enzymatic activity in the heart that was associated with a 12% reduction in basal heart size. CnAβ-deficient mice were dramatically impaired in their ability to mount a productive hypertrophic response induced by pressure overload, angiotensin II infusion, or isoproterenol infusion. Analysis of marker genes associated with the hypertrophic response revealed a partial defect in the molecular program of hypertrophy. Collectively, these data solidify the hypothesis that calcineurin functions as a central regulator of the cardiac hypertrophic growth response in vivo. PMID:11904392

  11. PINK1 deficiency impairs mitochondrial homeostasis and promotes lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Marta; Lai, Yen-Chun; Romero, Yair; Brands, Judith; St. Croix, Claudette M.; Kamga, Christelle; Corey, Catherine; Herazo-Maya, Jose D.; Sembrat, John; Lee, Janet S.; Duncan, Steve R.; Rojas, Mauricio; Shiva, Sruti; Chu, Charleen T.; Mora, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    Although aging is a known risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the effects of advancing age remain largely unexplained. Some age-related neurodegenerative diseases have an etiology that is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we found that alveolar type II cells (AECIIs) in the lungs of IPF patients exhibit marked accumulation of dysmorphic and dysfunctional mitochondria. These mitochondrial abnormalities in AECIIs of IPF lungs were associated with upregulation of ER stress markers and were recapitulated in normal mice with advancing age in response to stimulation of ER stress. We found that impaired mitochondria in IPF and aging lungs were associated with low expression of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Knockdown of PINK1 expression in lung epithelial cells resulted in mitochondria depolarization and expression of profibrotic factors. Moreover, young PINK1-deficient mice developed similarly dysmorphic, dysfunctional mitochondria in the AECIIs and were vulnerable to apoptosis and development of lung fibrosis. Our data indicate that PINK1 deficiency results in swollen, dysfunctional mitochondria and defective mitophagy, and promotes fibrosis in the aging lung. PMID:25562319

  12. Thiamine and benfotiamine prevent apoptosis induced by high glucose-conditioned extracellular matrix in human retinal pericytes.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Elena; Nizheradze, Konstantin; Berrone, Elena; Tarallo, Sonia; Porta, Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Early and selective loss of pericytes and thickening of the basement membrane are hallmarks of diabetic retinopathy. We reported reduced adhesion, but no changes in apoptosis, of bovine retinal pericytes cultured on extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by endothelial cells in high glucose (HG). Since human and bovine pericytes may behave differently in conditions mimicking the diabetic milieu, we verified the behaviour of human retinal pericytes cultured on HG-conditioned ECM. Pericytes were cultured in physiological/HG on ECM produced by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in physiological/HG, alone or in the presence of thiamine and benfotiamine. Adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, p53 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio (mRNA levels and protein concentrations) were measured in wild-type and immortalized human pericytes. Both types of pericytes adhered less to HG-conditioned ECM and plastic than to physiological glucose-conditioned ECM. DNA synthesis was impaired in pericytes cultured in HG on the three different surfaces but there were no differences in proliferation. DNA fragmentation and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were greatly enhanced by HG-conditioned ECM in pericytes kept in both physiological and HG. Addition of thiamine and benfotiamine to HG during ECM production completely prevented these damaging effects. Apoptosis is strongly increased in pericytes cultured on ECM produced by endothelium in HG, probably due to impairment of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Thiamine and benfotiamine completely revert this effect. This behaviour is therefore completely different from that of bovine pericytes, underlining the importance of establishing species-specific cell models to study the mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Dysfunction of brain pericytes in chronic neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Persidsky, Yuri; Hill, Jeremy; Zhang, Ming; Dykstra, Holly; Winfield, Malika; Reichenbach, Nancy L; Potula, Raghava; Mukherjee, Abir; Ramirez, Servio H; Rom, Slava

    2016-04-01

    Brain pericytes are uniquely positioned within the neurovascular unit to provide support to blood brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. Neurologic conditions, such as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder, are associated with BBB compromise due to chronic inflammation. Little is known about pericyte dysfunction during HIV-1 infection. We found decreased expression of pericyte markers in human brains from HIV-1-infected patients (even those on antiretroviral therapy). Using primary human brain pericytes, we assessed expression of pericyte markers (α1-integrin, α-smooth muscle actin, platelet-derived growth factor-B receptor β, CX-43) and found their downregulation after treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or interleukin-1 β (IL-1β). Pericyte exposure to virus or cytokines resulted in decreased secretion of factors promoting BBB formation (angiopoietin-1, transforming growth factor-β1) and mRNA for basement membrane components. TNFα and IL-1β enhanced expression of adhesion molecules in pericytes paralleling increased monocyte adhesion to pericytes. Monocyte migration across BBB models composed of human brain endothelial cells and pericytes demonstrated a diminished rate in baseline migration compared to constructs composed only of brain endothelial cells. However, exposure to the relevant chemokine, CCL2, enhanced the magnitude of monocyte migration when compared to BBB models composed of brain endothelial cells only. These data suggest an important role of pericytes in BBB regulation in neuroinflammation.

  14. Glioblastoma: A Pathogenic Crosstalk between Tumor Cells and Pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Garcia, Carolina; Martinez, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Cancers likely originate in progenitor zones containing stem cells and perivascular stromal cells. Much evidence suggests stromal cells play a central role in tumor initiation and progression. Brain perivascular cells (pericytes) are contractile and function normally to regulate vessel tone and morphology, have stem cell properties, are interconvertible with macrophages and are involved in new vessel formation during angiogenesis. Nevertheless, how pericytes contribute to brain tumor infiltration is not known. In this study we have investigated the underlying mechanism by which the most lethal brain cancer, Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) interacts with pre-existing blood vessels (co-option) to promote tumor initiation and progression. Here, using mouse xenografts and laminin-coated silicone substrates, we show that GBM malignancy proceeds via specific and previously unknown interactions of tumor cells with brain pericytes. Two-photon and confocal live imaging revealed that GBM cells employ novel, Cdc42-dependent and actin-based cytoplasmic extensions, that we call flectopodia, to modify the normal contractile activity of pericytes. This results in the co-option of modified pre-existing blood vessels that support the expansion of the tumor margin. Furthermore, our data provide evidence for GBM cell/pericyte fusion-hybrids, some of which are located on abnormally constricted vessels ahead of the tumor and linked to tumor-promoting hypoxia. Remarkably, inhibiting Cdc42 function impairs vessel co-option and converts pericytes to a phagocytic/macrophage-like phenotype, thus favoring an innate immune response against the tumor. Our work, therefore, identifies for the first time a key GBM contact-dependent interaction that switches pericyte function from tumor-suppressor to tumor-promoter, indicating that GBM may harbor the seeds of its own destruction. These data support the development of therapeutic strategies directed against co-option (preventing incorporation and

  15. Kidney Pericytes: Roles in Regeneration and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kramann, Rafael; Humphreys, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Renal pericytes have been neglected for many years, but recently they have become an intensively studied cell population in renal biology and pathophysiology. Pericytes are stromal cells that support vasculature, and a subset of pericytes are mesenchymal stem cells. In kidney, pericytes have been reported to play critical roles in angiogenesis, regulation of renal medullary and cortical blood flow, and serve as progenitors of interstitial myofibroblasts in renal fibrogenesis. They interact with endothelial cells through distinct signaling pathways and their activation and detachment from capillaries after acute or chronic kidney injury may be critical for driving chronic kidney disease progression. By contrast, during kidney homeostasis it is likely that pericytes serve as a local stem cell population that replenishes differentiated interstitial and vascular cells lost during aging. This review describes both the regenerative properties of pericytes as well as involvement in pathophysiologic conditions such as fibrogenesis. PMID:25217266

  16. Ferroportin deficiency impairs manganese metabolism in flatiron mice

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Ah; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    We examined the physiologic role of ferroportin (Fpn) in manganese (Mn) export using flatiron (ffe/+) mice, a genetic model of Fpn deficiency. Blood (0.0123 vs. 0.0107 mg/kg; P = 0.0003), hepatic (1.06 vs. 0.96 mg/kg; P = 0.0125), and bile Mn levels (79 vs. 38 mg/kg; P = 0.0204) were reduced in ffe/+ mice compared to +/+ controls. Erythrocyte Mn–superoxide dismutase was also reduced at 6 (0.154 vs. 0.096, P = 0.0101), 9 (0.131 vs. 0.089, P = 0.0162), and 16 weeks of age (0.170 vs. 0.090 units/mg protein/min; P < 0.0001). 54Mn uptake after intragastric gavage was markedly reduced in ffe/+ mice (0.0187 vs. 0.0066% dose; P = 0.0243), while clearance of injected isotope was similar in ffe/+ and +/+ mice. These values were compared to intestinal absorption of 59Fe, which was significantly reduced in ffe/+ mice (8.751 vs. 3.978% dose; P = 0.0458). The influence of the ffe mutation was examined in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and human embryonic HEK293T cells. While expression of wild-type Fpn reversed Mn-induced cytotoxicity, ffe mutant H32R failed to confer protection. These combined results demonstrate that Fpn plays a central role in Mn transport and that flatiron mice provide an excellent genetic model to explore the role of this exporter in Mn homeostasis.—Seo, Y. A., Wessling-Resnick, M. Ferroportin deficiency impairs manganese metabolism in flatiron mice. PMID:25782988

  17. Notch Signaling Functions in Retinal Pericyte Survival

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda-Velasquez, Joseph F.; Primo, Vincent; Graham, Mark; James, Alexandra; Manent, Jan; D'Amore, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Pericytes, the vascular cells that constitute the outer layer of capillaries, have been shown to have a crucial role in vascular development and stability. Loss of pericytes precedes endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular degeneration in small-vessel diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Despite their clinical relevance, the cellular pathways controlling survival of retinal pericytes remain largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we investigated the role of Notch signaling, a master regulator of cell fate decisions, in retinal pericyte survival. Methods. A coculture system of ligand-dependent Notch signaling was developed using primary cultured retinal pericytes and a mesenchymal cell line derived from an inducible mouse model expressing the Delta-like 1 Notch ligand. This model was used to examine the effect of Notch activity on pericyte survival using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a light-induced cell death assay. The effect of Notch gain- and loss-of-function was analyzed in monocultures of retinal pericytes using antibody arrays to interrogate the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Results. Primary cultured retinal pericytes differentially expressed key molecules of the Notch pathway and displayed strong expression of canonical Notch/RBPJK (recombination signal-binding protein 1 for J-kappa) downstream targets. A gene expression screen using gain- and loss-of-function approaches identified genes relevant to cell survival as downstream targets of Notch activity in retinal pericytes. Ligand-mediated Notch activity protected retinal pericytes from light-induced cell death. Conclusions. Our results have identified signature genes downstream of Notch activity in retinal pericytes and suggest that tight regulation of Notch signaling is crucial for pericyte survival. PMID:25015359

  18. Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Qian; Sun, Li-Li; Xiang, Fen-Fen; Gao, Li; Jia, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Tao, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Wen-Jie

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Crybb2 deletion impaired female fertility. • Crybb2 deletion dramatically affected the production of reproduction-related hormones and hormone response. • Crybb2 deletion impaired follicular development and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. • Crybb2 deletion promoted follicular atresia and apoptosis in granulosa cells. - Abstract: Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2{sup −/−}) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2{sup −/−} female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells.

  19. Brain pericytes from stress-susceptible pigs increase blood-brain barrier permeability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The function of pericytes remains questionable but with improved cultured technique and the use of genetically modified animals, it has become increasingly clear that pericytes are an integral part of blood–brain barrier (BBB) function, and the involvement of pericyte dysfunction in certain cerebrovascular diseases is now emerging. The porcine stress syndrome (PSS) is the only confirmed, homologous model of malignant hyperthermia (MH) in veterinary medicine. Affected animals can experience upon slaughter a range of symptoms, including skeletal muscle rigidity, metabolic acidosis, tachycardia and fever, similar to the human syndrome. Symptoms are due to an enhanced calcium release from intracellular stores. These conditions are associated with a point mutation in ryr1/hal gene, encoding the ryanodine receptor, a calcium channel. Important blood vessel wall muscle modifications have been described in PSS, but potential brain vessel changes have never been documented in this syndrome. Methods In the present work, histological and ultrastructural analyses of brain capillaries from wild type and ryr1 mutated pigs were conducted to investigate the potential impairment of pericytes, in this pathology. In addition, brain pericytes were isolated from the three porcine genotypes (wild-type NN pigs; Nn and nn pigs, bearing one or two (n) mutant ryr1/hal alleles, respectively), and tested in vitro for their influence on the permeability of BBB endothelial monolayers. Results Enlarged perivascular spaces were observed in ryr1-mutant samples, corresponding to a partial or total detachment of the astrocytic endfeet. These spaces were electron lucent and sometimes filled with lipid deposits and swollen astrocytic feet. At the ultrastructural level, brain pericytes did not seem to be affected because they showed regular morphology and characteristics, so we aimed to check their ability to maintain BBB properties in vitro. Our results indicated that pericytes from the

  20. Impaired pancreatic development in Hif2-alpha deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiping; Houshmand, Golbahar; Mishra, Sanjay; Fong, Guo-Hua; Gittes, George K; Esni, Farzad

    2010-08-27

    Accumulating data suggest the existence of a link between hypoxia and maintenance of the undifferentiated cell state, but little is known about the cellular signaling mechanisms underlying this process. Recent reports reveal a direct link between components of the hypoxia signaling pathway and Notch pathway in maintaining precursor cells in an undifferentiated state. Here, we report that in the developing mouse pancreas, Hif2-alpha is expressed in pancreatic progenitor cells, but its expression is lost in committed endocrine progenitors as well as in differentiated endocrine and exocrine cells. In an attempt to analyze the function of HIF2-alpha in the developing pancreas, we studied Hif2-alpha(-/-) pancreas. Our analyses revealed that in addition to the decreased size and branching, the Hif2-alpha deficient pancreas also displayed impaired notch signaling and cell differentiation. Finally, we found that HIF2-alpha binds directly to Notch-IC and that the responsible site for this interaction is within the RAM domain of Notch protein. These results suggest that HIF2-alpha is required for normal mouse pancreatic development.

  1. Nrf2 deficiency impairs fracture healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Lippross, Sebastian; Beckmann, Rainer; Streubesand, Nadine; Ayub, Ferda; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Campbell, Graeme; Kan, Yuet Wai; Horst, Fischer; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Varoga, Deike; Lichte, Philipp; Jahr, Holger; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in wound healing but data relating oxidative stress to fracture healing are scarce. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the major transcription factor that controls the cellular defence essential to combat oxidative stress by regulating the expression of antioxidative enzymes. This study examined the impact of Nrf2 on fracture healing using a standard closed femoral shaft fracture model in wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO)-mice. Healing was evaluated by histology, real-time RT-PCR, µCT and biomechanical measurements. We showed that Nrf2 expression is activated during fracture healing. Bone healing and remodelling were retarded in the Nrf2-KO compared to the WT-mice. Nrf2-KO-mice developed significantly less callus tissue compared to WT-mice. In addition, biomechanical testing demonstrated lower strength against shear stress in the Nrf2-KO-group compared to WT. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteocalcin is reduced during fracture healing in Nrf2-KO-mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Nrf2 deficiency in mice results in impaired fracture healing suggesting that Nrf2 plays an essential role in bone regeneration. Pharmacological activation of Nrf2 may have therapeutic potential for the enhancement of fracture healing.

  2. IGF-1 deficiency impairs neurovascular coupling in mice: implications for cerebromicrovascular aging.

    PubMed

    Toth, Peter; Tarantini, Stefano; Ashpole, Nicole M; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Milne, Ginger L; Valcarcel-Ares, Noa M; Menyhart, Akos; Farkas, Eszter; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    Aging is associated with marked deficiency in circulating IGF-1, which has been shown to contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Impairment of moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neurovascular coupling is thought to play a critical role in the genesis of age-related cognitive impairment. To establish the link between IGF-1 deficiency and cerebromicrovascular impairment, neurovascular coupling mechanisms were studied in a novel mouse model of IGF-1 deficiency (Igf1(f/f) -TBG-Cre-AAV8) and accelerated vascular aging. We found that IGF-1-deficient mice exhibit neurovascular uncoupling and show a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory test, mimicking the aging phenotype. IGF-1 deficiency significantly impaired cerebromicrovascular endothelial function decreasing NO mediation of neurovascular coupling. IGF-1 deficiency also impaired glutamate-mediated CBF responses, likely due to dysregulation of astrocytic expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors and impairing mediation of CBF responses by eicosanoid gliotransmitters. Collectively, we demonstrate that IGF-1 deficiency promotes cerebromicrovascular dysfunction and neurovascular uncoupling mimicking the aging phenotype, which are likely to contribute to cognitive impairment.

  3. Sirtuin-6 deficiency exacerbates diabetes induced impairment of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Babu, Sahana Suresh; Jeyabal, Prince; Verma, Suresh K; Mackie, Alexander R; Khan, Mohsin; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kishore, Raj; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Delayed wound healing is one of the major complications in diabetes and is characterized by chronic proinflammatory response, and abnormalities in angiogenesis and collagen deposition. Sirtuin family proteins regulate numerous pathophysiological processes, including those involved in promotion of longevity, DNA repair, glycolysis and inflammation. However the role of sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a NAD+-dependent nuclear deacetylase, in wound healing specifically under diabetic condition remains unclear. To analyze the role of SIRT6 in cutaneous wound healing, paired 6 mm stented wound were created in diabetic db/db mice and injected siRNA against SIRT6 in the wound margins (transfection agent alone and non-sensed siRNA served as controls). Wound time to closure was assessed by digital planimetry, and wounds were harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. SIRT6-siRNA treated diabetic wound showed impaired healing, which was associated with reduced capillary density (CD31 staining vessels) when compared to control treatment. Interestingly, SIRT6 deficiency decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and proliferation markers in the wounds. Furthermore, SIRT6 ablation in diabetic wound promotes nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activation resulting in increased expression of proinflammatory markers (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and increased oxidative stress. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that loss of SIRT6 in cutaneous wound aggravates proinflammatory response by increasing NF-kB activation, oxidative stress and decrease in angiogenesis in the diabetic mice. Based on these findings, we speculate that activation of SIRT6 signaling might be a potential therapeutic approach for promoting wound healing in diabetics. PMID:26010430

  4. Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

    2015-04-01

    The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Impaired synaptic vesicle recycling contributes to presynaptic dysfunction in lipoprotein lipase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Zhang, B; Yang, H; Wang, H; Liu, Y; Huang, A; Liu, T; Tian, X; Tong, Y; Zhou, T; Zhang, T; Xing, G; Xiao, W; Guo, X; Fan, D; Han, X; Liu, G; Zhou, Z; Chui, D

    2014-11-07

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is expressed at high levels in hippocampal neurons, although its function is unclear. We previously reported that LPL-deficient mice have learning and memory impairment and fewer synaptic vesicles in hippocampal neurons, but properties of synaptic activity in LPL-deficient neurons remain unexplored. In this study, we found reduced frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and readily releasable pool (RRP) size in LPL-deficient neurons, which led to presynaptic dysfunction and plasticity impairment without altering postsynaptic activity. We demonstrated that synaptic vesicle recycling, which is known to play an important role in maintaining the RRP size in active synapses, is impaired in LPL-deficient neurons. Moreover, lipid assay revealed deficient docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in the hippocampus of LPL-deficient mice; exogenous DHA or AA supplement partially restored synaptic vesicle recycling capability. These results suggest that impaired synaptic vesicle recycling results from deficient DHA and AA and contributes to the presynaptic dysfunction and plasticity impairment in LPL-deficient neurons.

  6. Wfs1-deficient mice display impaired behavioural adaptation in stressful environment.

    PubMed

    Luuk, Hendrik; Plaas, Mario; Raud, Sirli; Innos, Jürgen; Sütt, Silva; Lasner, Helena; Abramov, Urho; Kurrikoff, Kaido; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero

    2009-03-17

    Wfs1-deficient mice were generated by disrupting the 8th exon of Wfs1 gene. Reproduction rates of homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice were slightly below the expected values, they displayed intolerance to glucose and overall lower body weight. The present behavioural study was performed in female Wfs1-deficient mice due to their milder metabolic disturbances. Non-fasting blood glucose levels did not differ between homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice and wild-type littermates. While there was no difference in baseline plasma corticosterone, exposure to stress induced a nearly three-fold elevation of corticosterone in Wfs1-deficient mice in relation to wild-type littermates. Wfs1-deficient mice did not display obvious shortcomings in sensory and motor functioning as exemplified by intact responses in conditioned learning paradigms and rota-rod test. Locomotor activity of Wfs1-deficient mice was significantly lower only in brightly lit environment. Short-term isolation had a significant anxiogenic-like effect on the behaviour of Wfs1-deficient mice in dark/light exploration test. Lower exploratory activity of Wfs1-deficient mice in the plus-maze was antagonised by pre-treatment with diazepam (1 mg/kg), a GABA(A) receptor agonist. Wfs1-deficient mice displayed increased anxiety-like behaviour in hyponeophagia test. The locomotor stimulatory effects of amphetamine (2.5-7.5 mg/kg) and apomorphine (3 mg/kg) were significantly attenuated and facilitated, respectively, in Wfs1-deficient mice. There were no differences between Wfs1-deficient mice and wild-types in forced swimming behaviour and conditioned fear responses. Subtle impairments in reversal learning were apparent in Wfs1-deficient mice in the Morris water maze. Altogether, the present study demonstrates impaired behavioural adaptation of Wfs1-deficient mice in stress-inducing situations. It is likely that Wfs1 protein plays a major role in the behavioural adaptation mechanisms to novel and stressful environments.

  7. Brain Pericytes As Mediators of Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Rustenhoven, Justin; Jansson, Deidre; Smyth, Leon C; Dragunow, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Brain pericytes are perivascular cells that regulate capillary function, and this localization puts them in a pivotal position for the regulation of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory responses at the neurovascular unit. Neuroinflammation, driven by microglia and astrocytes or resulting from peripheral leukocyte infiltration, has both homeostatic and detrimental consequences for brain function and is present in nearly every neurological disorder. More recently, brain pericytes have been shown to have many properties of immune regulating cells, including responding to and expressing a plethora of inflammatory molecules, presenting antigen, and displaying phagocytic ability. In this review we highlight the emerging role of pericytes in neuroinflammation and discuss pericyte-mediated neuroinflammation as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of a range of devastating brain disorders.

  8. Pericytes: brain-immune interface modulators

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Cabañas-Morales, Adrian M.; Gómez-Gónzalez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The premise that the central nervous system is immune-privileged arose from the fact that direct contact between immune and nervous cells is hindered by the blood–brain barrier. However, the blood–brain barrier also comprises the interface between the immune and nervous systems by secreting chemo-attractant molecules and by modulating immune cell entry into the brain. The majority of published studies on the blood–brain barrier focus on endothelial cells (ECs), which are a critical component, but not the only one; other cellular components include astroglia, microglia, and pericytes. Pericytes are poorly studied in comparison with astrocytes or ECs; they are mesenchymal cells that can modify their ultrastructure and gene expression in response to changes in the central nervous system microenvironment. Pericytes have a unique synergistic relationship with brain ECs in the regulation of capillary permeability through secretion of cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinases, and by means of capillary contraction. Those pericyte manifestations are related to changes in blood–brain barrier permeability by an increase in endocytosis-mediated transport and by tight junction disruption. In addition, recent reports demonstrate that pericytes control the migration of leukocytes in response to inflammatory mediators by up-regulating the expression of adhesion molecules and releasing chemo-attractants; however, under physiological conditions they appear to be immune-suppressors. Better understanding of the immune properties of pericytes and their participation in the effects of brain infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and sleep loss will be achieved by analyzing pericyte ultrastructure, capillary coverage, and protein expression. That knowledge may provide a mechanism by which pericytes participate in the maintenance of the proper function of the brain-immune interface. PMID:24454281

  9. GRK5 deficiency leads to susceptibility to intermittent hypoxia-induced cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, XueFeng; Suo, William Z.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to cognitive impairment in about 25% patients, though it remains elusive what makes one more susceptible than the other to be cognitively impaired. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) deficiency is recently found to render subjects more susceptible to cognitive impairment triggered by over-expression of Swedish mutant ß-amyloid precursor protein. This study is to determine whether GRK5 deficiency also renders subjects more susceptible to the OSA-triggered cognitive impairment. Both wild type (WT) and GRK5 knockout (KO) mice were placed in conditions absence and presence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) with 8%/21% O2 90-second cycle for 8 hours a day for a month, and then followed by behavioral assessments with battery of tasks. We found that the selected IH condition only induced marginally abnormal behavior (slightly elevated anxiety with most others unchanged) in the WT mice but it caused significantly more behavioral deficits in the KO mice, ranging from elevated anxiety, impaired balancing coordination, and impaired short-term spatial memory. These results suggest that GRK5 deficiency indeed makes the mice more susceptible to wide range of behavioral impairments, including cognitive impairments. PMID:26778781

  10. Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Induction of Oral Tolerance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Akiko; Shuto, Emi; Tsutsumi, Rie; Nakamoto, Mariko; Nii, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Oral tolerance is a phenomenon of induction of systemic unresponsiveness to antigens ingested by the oral route and loss of immune response. Studies have shown the importance of vitamin A in oral tolerance in vitro but not in an in vivo experimental model. Therefore, we carried out experiments to determine how vitamin A deficiency affects tolerance induction and the ability of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD11c(+) cells to induce regulatory T cells (Tregs). Immunological tolerance was induced by oral ovalbumin (OVA) administration in vitamin A-sufficient mice. OVA-specific antibody and cytokine production were significantly reduced. On the other hand, in vitamin A-deficient mice, both OVA-specific antibody and cytokine production were not suppressed by oral OVA administration. Regarding induction of Tregs, the conversion rate of Foxp3(+) cells from naïve CD4(+) cell by CD11c(+) cells was decreased in vitamin A-deficient mice. Our study indicates that vitamin A deficiency causes the breakdown of oral tolerance in vivo.

  11. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition confers pericyte properties on cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Anitha K.; Jin, Yue; Luo, Huacheng; Pampo, Christine; Shao, Rong; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Heldermon, Coy D.; Law, Brian K.; Chang, Lung-Ji

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma cells can acquire increased motility and invasiveness through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the significance of EMT in cancer metastasis has been controversial, and the exact fates and functions of EMT cancer cells in vivo remain inadequately understood. Here, we tracked epithelial cancer cells that underwent inducible or spontaneous EMT in various tumor transplantation models. Unlike epithelial cells, the majority of EMT cancer cells were specifically located in the perivascular space and closely associated with blood vessels. EMT markedly activated multiple pericyte markers in carcinoma cells, in particular PDGFR-β and N-cadherin, which enabled EMT cells to be chemoattracted towards and physically interact with endothelium. In tumor xenografts generated from carcinoma cells that were prone to spontaneous EMT, a substantial fraction of the pericytes associated with tumor vasculature were derived from EMT cancer cells. Depletion of such EMT cells in transplanted tumors diminished pericyte coverage, impaired vascular integrity, and attenuated tumor growth. These findings suggest that EMT confers key pericyte attributes on cancer cells. The resulting EMT cells phenotypically and functionally resemble pericytes and are indispensable for vascular stabilization and sustained tumor growth. This study thus proposes a previously unrecognized role for EMT in cancer. PMID:27721239

  12. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition confers pericyte properties on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Anitha K; Jin, Yue; Luo, Huacheng; Tang, Ming; Pampo, Christine; Shao, Rong; Siemann, Dietmar W; Wu, Lizi; Heldermon, Coy D; Law, Brian K; Chang, Lung-Ji; Lu, Jianrong

    2016-11-01

    Carcinoma cells can acquire increased motility and invasiveness through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the significance of EMT in cancer metastasis has been controversial, and the exact fates and functions of EMT cancer cells in vivo remain inadequately understood. Here, we tracked epithelial cancer cells that underwent inducible or spontaneous EMT in various tumor transplantation models. Unlike epithelial cells, the majority of EMT cancer cells were specifically located in the perivascular space and closely associated with blood vessels. EMT markedly activated multiple pericyte markers in carcinoma cells, in particular PDGFR-β and N-cadherin, which enabled EMT cells to be chemoattracted towards and physically interact with endothelium. In tumor xenografts generated from carcinoma cells that were prone to spontaneous EMT, a substantial fraction of the pericytes associated with tumor vasculature were derived from EMT cancer cells. Depletion of such EMT cells in transplanted tumors diminished pericyte coverage, impaired vascular integrity, and attenuated tumor growth. These findings suggest that EMT confers key pericyte attributes on cancer cells. The resulting EMT cells phenotypically and functionally resemble pericytes and are indispensable for vascular stabilization and sustained tumor growth. This study thus proposes a previously unrecognized role for EMT in cancer.

  13. Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency impairs hippocampal myelinated growth in lactational rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Min, Hui; Song, Binbin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency causes neurological deficits and impairments of brain function in offspring. Hypothyroxinemia is prevalent in developing and developed countries alike. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits remains less well known. Given that the myelin plays an important role in learning and memory function, we hypothesize that hippocampal myelinated growth may be impaired in rat offspring exposed to hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency. To test this hypothesis, the female Wistar rats were used and four experimental groups were prepared: (1) control; (2) maternal mild iodine deficiency diet inducing hypothyroxinemia; (3) hypothyroidism induced by maternal severe iodine deficiency diet; (4) hypothyroidism induced by maternal methimazole water. The rats were fed the diet from 3 months before pregnancy to the end of lactation. Our results showed that the physiological changes occuring in the hippocampal myelin were altered in the mild iodine deficiency group as indicated by the results of immunofluorescence of myelin basic proteins on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Moreover, hypothyroxinemia reduced the expressions of oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 and myelin-related proteins in the treatments on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Our data suggested that hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency may impair myelinated growth of the offspring.

  14. Pericyte antigens in angiomyolipoma and PEComa family tumors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Scott, Michelle A; Asatrian, Greg; Barnhill, Raymond; Lugassy, Claire; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M; James, Aaron W

    2015-08-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are an uncommon family of soft tissue tumors with dual myoid-melanocytic differentiation. Although PEComa family tumors commonly demonstrate a perivascular growth pattern, pericyte antigen expression has not yet been examined among this unique tumor group. Previously, we demonstrated that a subset of perivascular soft tissue tumors exhibit a striking pericytic immunophenotype, with diffuse expression of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Here, we describe the presence of pericyte antigens across a diverse group of PEComa family tumors (n = 19 specimens). Results showed that pericyte antigens differed extensively by histological appearance. Typical angiomyolipoma (AML) specimens showed variable expression of pericyte antigens among both perivascular and myoid-appearing cells. In contrast, AML specimens with a predominant spindled morphology showed diffuse expression of pericyte markers, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. AML samples with predominant epithelioid morphology showed a marked reduction in or the absence of immunoreactivity for pericyte markers. Lymphangiomyoma samples showed more variable and partial pericyte marker expression. In summary, pericyte antigen expression is variable among PEComa family tumors and largely varies by tumor morphology. Pericytic marker expression in PEComa may represent a true pericytic cell of origin, or alternatively aberrant pericyte marker adoption. Markers of pericytic differentiation may be of future diagnostic utility for the evaluation of mesenchymal tumors, or identify actionable signaling pathways for future therapeutic intervention.

  15. Impaired behavioral sensitization to cocaine in vasopressin deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Post, R M; Contel, N R; Gold, P

    1982-12-13

    Behavioral sensitization to cocaine involves progressive and long-lasting increases in hyperactivity and stereotypy in response to the same daily dose. In order to test whether vasopressin, a neuro-hormone implicated in drug tolerance and in other models of learning and memory, affected behavioral sensitization, cocaine was administered daily to animals with hereditary absence of vasopressin. Brattleboro homozygotes which lack vasopressin show deficient onset and persistence of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization compared to heterozygote, litter-mate controls. These data extend previous reports of vasopressin's role in memory and long-term coding of behavior to the model of pharmacologically-induced behavioral sensitization.

  16. Impaired function of Fanconi anemia type C-deficient macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Ballman, Kimberly; Li, Deqiang; Khan, Shehnaz; Derr-Yellin, Ethel; Shou, Weinian; Haneline, Laura S

    2012-02-01

    FA is a genetic disorder characterized by BM failure, developmental defects, and cancer predisposition. Previous studies suggest that FA patients exhibit alterations in immunologic function. However, it is unclear whether the defects are immune cell-autonomous or secondary to leukopenia from evolving BM failure. Given the central role that macrophages have in the innate immune response, inflammation resolution, and antigen presentation for acquired immunity, we examined whether macrophages from Fancc-/- mice exhibit impaired function. Peritoneal inflammation induced by LPS or sodium periodate resulted in reduced monocyte/macrophage recruitment in Fancc-/- mice compared with WT controls. Fancc-/- mice also had decreased inflammatory monocytes mobilized into the peripheral blood after LPS treatment compared with controls. Furthermore, Fancc-/- peritoneal macrophages displayed cell-autonomous defects in function, including impaired adhesion to FN or endothelial cells, reduced chemoattractant-mediated migration, and decreased phagocytosis. Moreover, dysregulated F-actin rearrangement was detected in Fancc-/- macrophages after adhesion to FN, which was consistent with an observed reduction in RhoA-GTP levels. Importantly, these data suggest that impaired cytoskeletal rearrangements in Fancc-/- macrophages may be the common mechanism responsible for cell-autonomous defects detected in vitro, as well as altered monocyte/macrophage trafficking in vivo.

  17. Adiponectin Deficiency Impairs Maternal Metabolic Adaptation to Pregnancy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liping; Wattez, Jean-Sebastien; Lee, Samuel; Nguyen, Amanda; Schaack, Jerome; Hay, William W; Shao, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Hypoadiponectinemia has been widely observed in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To investigate the causal role of hypoadiponectinemia in GDM, adiponectin gene knockout (Adipoq(-/-) ) and wild-type (WT) mice were crossed to produce pregnant mouse models with or without adiponectin deficiency. Adenoviral vector-mediated in vivo transduction was used to reconstitute adiponectin during late pregnancy. Results showed that Adipoq(-/-) dams developed glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia in late pregnancy. Increased fetal body weight was detected in Adipoq(-/-) dams. Adiponectin reconstitution abolished these metabolic defects in Adipoq(-/-) dams. Hepatic glucose and triglyceride production rates of Adipoq(-/-) dams were significantly higher than those of WT dams. Robustly enhanced lipolysis was found in gonadal fat of Adipoq(-/-) dams. Interestingly, similar levels of insulin-induced glucose disposal and insulin signaling in metabolically active tissues in Adipoq(-/-) and WT dams indicated that maternal adiponectin deficiency does not reduce insulin sensitivity. However, remarkably decreased serum insulin concentrations were observed in Adipoq(-/-) dams. Furthermore, β-cell mass, but not glucose-stimulated insulin release, in Adipoq(-/-) dams was significantly reduced compared with WT dams. Together, these results demonstrate that adiponectin plays an important role in controlling maternal metabolic adaptation to pregnancy. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Smooth Muscle Hgs Deficiency Leads to Impaired Esophageal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jicheng; Hou, Ning; Zhang, Chong; Teng, Yan; Cheng, Xuan; Li, Zhenhua; Ren, Jie; Zeng, Jian; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiao; Lan, Yu

    2015-01-01

    As a master component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport proteins, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hgs) participates multiple cellular behaviors. However, the physiological role of Hgs in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is by far unknown. Here we explored the in vivo function of Hgs in SMCs by using a conditional gene knockout strategy. Hgs deficiency in SMCs uniquely led to a progressive dilatation of esophagus with a remarkable thinning muscle layer. Of note, the mutant esophagus showed a decreased contractile responsiveness to potassium chloride and acetylcholine stimulation. Furthermore, an increase in the inhibitory neurites along with an intense infiltration of T lymphocytes in the mucosa and muscle layer were observed. Consistently, Hgs deficiency in SMCs resulted in a disturbed expression of a set of genes involved in neurotrophin and inflammation, suggesting that defective SMC might be a novel source for excessive production of cytokines and chemokines which may trigger the neuronal dysplasia and ultimately contribute to the compromised esophageal motility. The data suggest potential implications in the pathogenesis of related diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:26078721

  19. Impairment of the peripheral lymphoid compartment in iron-deficient piglets.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, M; Drabek, J; Krejci, J; Rehakova, Z; Faldyna, M

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neonatal iron deficiency on immune functions in young piglets. While control piglets were not given any iron preparation until the age of 21 days, another group of piglets was given 200 mg of Fe(3+)-dextran i.m. on day 3. Red blood cell parameters in the former, iron-deficient group were characteristic of hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the total leucocyte count (P < 0.01), relative and absolute neutrophil count (P < 0.01) and absolute lymphocyte count (P < 0.05) in peripheral blood were found significantly lower in iron-deficient piglets than in their iron-supplemented counterparts. Lymphocyte activity as measured by in vitro lymphocyte transformation test was impaired in iron-deficient piglets. A statistically significant decrease in circulating B-lymphocyte numbers was found in non-supplemented animals. Iron deficiency apparently negatively influenced the immunocompetence in piglets.

  20. Impaired cued and contextual memory in NPAS2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J A; Zhang, D; Estill, S J; Michnoff, C; Rutter, J; Reick, M; Scott, K; Diaz-Arrastia, R; McKnight, S L

    2000-06-23

    Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) PAS domain transcription factor expressed in multiple regions of the vertebrate brain. Targeted insertion of a beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) resulted in the production of an NPAS2-lacZ fusion protein and an altered form of NPAS2 lacking the bHLH domain. The neuroanatomical expression pattern of NPAS2-lacZ was temporally and spatially coincident with formation of the mature frontal association/limbic forebrain pathway. NPAS2-deficient mice were subjected to a series of behavioral tests and were found to exhibit deficits in the long-term memory arm of the cued and contextual fear task. Thus, NPAS2 may serve a dedicated regulatory role in the acquisition of specific types of memory.

  1. Impaired glycogen breakdown and synthesis in phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Preisler, Nicolai; Cohen, Jonathan; Vissing, Christoffer Rasmus; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Heinicke, Katja; Sharp, Lydia Jane; Phillips, Lauren; Romain, Nadine; Park, Sun Young; Newby, Marta; Wyrick, Phil; Mancias, Pedro; Galbo, Henrik; Vissing, John; Haller, Ronald Gerald

    2017-08-25

    We investigated metabolism and physiological responses to exercise in an 18-year-old woman with multiple congenital abnormalities and exertional muscle fatigue, tightness, and rhabdomyolysis. We studied biochemistry in muscle and fibroblasts, performed mutation analysis, assessed physiological responses to forearm and cycle-ergometer exercise combined with stable-isotope techniques and indirect calorimetry, and evaluated the effect of IV glucose infusion and oral sucrose ingestion on the exercise response. Phosphoglucomutase type 1 (PGM1) activity in muscle and fibroblasts was severely deficient and PGM1 in muscle was undetectable by Western blot. The patient was compound heterozygous for missense (R422W) and nonsense (Q530X) mutations in PGM1. Forearm exercise elicited no increase in lactate, but an exaggerated increase in ammonia, and provoked a forearm contracture. Comparable to patients with McArdle disease, the patient developed a 'second wind' with a spontaneous fall in exercise heart rate and perceived exertion. Like in McArdle disease, this was attributable to an increase in muscle oxidative capacity. Carbohydrate oxidation was blocked during exercise, and the patient had exaggerated oxidation of fat to fuel exercise. Exercise heart rate and perceived exertion were lower after IV glucose and oral sucrose. Muscle glycogen level was low normal. The second wind phenomenon has been considered to be pathognomonic for McArdle disease, but we demonstrate that it can also be present in PGM1 deficiency. We show that severe loss of PGM1 activity causes blocked muscle glycogenolysis that mimics McArdle disease, but may also limit glycogen synthesis, which broadens the phenotypic spectrum of this disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rcan1 deficiency impairs neuronal migration and causes periventricular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yang; Li, Dan; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2015-01-14

    Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a cortical malformation characterized by aggregation of neurons lining the lateral ventricles due to abnormal neuronal migration. The molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of PH is unclear. Here we show that Regulators of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1), a Down syndrome-related gene, plays an important role in radial migration of rat cortical neurons. Downregulation of Rcan1 by expressing shRNA impaired neural progenitor proliferation and led to defects in radial migration and PH. Two isoforms of Rcan1 (Rcan1-1 and Rcan1-4) are expressed in the rat brain. Migration defects due to downregulation of Rcan1 could be prevented by shRNA-resistant expression of Rcan1-1 but not Rcan1-4. Furthermore, we found that Rcan1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression level of Flna, an F-actin cross-linking protein essential for cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell migration, mutation of which causes the most common form of bilateral PH in humans. Finally, overexpression of FLNA in Rcan1 knockdown neurons prevented migration abnormalities. Together, these findings demonstrate that Rcan1 acts upstream from Flna in regulating radial migration and suggest that impairment of Rcan1-Flna pathway may underlie PH pathogenesis.

  3. Aminoguanidine prevents impaired healing and deficient angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A S; Caliari, M V; Rocha, O A; Machado, R D; Andrade, S P

    1999-12-01

    The diabetic organism is unable to produce normal amount of granulation tissue which results in delayed wound healing, a significant clinical problem. In the present study, the effect of oral administration of aminoguanidine (AG), in the diabetes-induced inhibition of angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation was tested. Subcutaneous implantation of sponge discs in nondiabetic rats induced a wound repair response as determined by the amount of hemoglobin (vascular index) and granulation tissue formation (morphometric analysis) of the implants. In the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats the predominant response indicative of healing was inhibitory. Aminoguanidine was effective in preventing in 50% the diabetes-induced inhibition of fibrovascular tissue growth in the implants, as indicated by the values of hemoglobin content and vascular growth areas of the implants. These results indicate that AG holds potential therapeutic value in the management of healing impairment of the diabetic condition.

  4. ClC-7 Deficiency Impairs Tooth Development and Eruption

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Pan, Meng; Ni, Jinwen; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Yutao; Gao, Shan; Liu, Jin; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Rong; He, Huiming; Wu, Buling; Duan, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    CLCN7 gene encodes the voltage gated chloride channel 7 (ClC-7) in humans. The mutations in CLCN7 have been associated with osteopetrosis in connection to the abnormal osteoclasts functions. Previously, we found that some osteopetrosis patients with CLCN7 mutations suffered from impacted teeth and root dysplasia. Here we set up two in vivo models under a normal or an osteoclast-poor environment to investigate how ClC-7 affects tooth development and tooth eruption. Firstly, chitosan-Clcn7-siRNA nanoparticles were injected around the first maxillary molar germ of newborn mice and caused the delay of tooth eruption and deformed tooth with root dysplasia. Secondly, E13.5 molar germs infected with Clcn7 shRNA lentivirus were transplanted under the kidney capsule and presented the abnormal changes in dentin structure, periodontal tissue and cementum. All these teeth changes have been reported in the patients with CLCN7 mutation. In vitro studies of ameloblasts, odontoblasts and dental follicle cells (DFCs) were conducted to explore the involved mechanism. We found that Clcn7 deficiency affect the differentiation of these cells, as well as the interaction between DFCs and osteoclasts through RANKL/OPG pathway. We conclude that ClC-7 may affect tooth development by directly targeting tooth cells, and regulate tooth eruption through DFC mediated osteoclast pathway. PMID:26829236

  5. Impaired theta-gamma coupling in APP-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhong, Wewei; Brankačk, Jurij; Weyer, Sascha W.; Müller, Ulrike C.; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is critically involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, but its physiological functions remain elusive. Importantly, APP knockout (APP-KO) mice exhibit cognitive deficits, suggesting that APP plays a role at the neuronal network level. To investigate this possibility, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the posterior parietal cortex, dorsal hippocampus and lateral prefrontal cortex of freely moving APP-KO mice. Spectral analyses showed that network oscillations within the theta- and gamma-frequency bands were not different between APP-KO and wild-type mice. Surprisingly, however, while gamma amplitude coupled to theta phase in all recorded regions of wild-type animals, in APP-KO mice theta-gamma coupling was strongly diminished in recordings from the parietal cortex and hippocampus, but not in LFPs recorded from the prefrontal cortex. Thus, lack of APP reduces oscillatory coupling in LFP recordings from specific brain regions, despite not affecting the amplitude of the oscillations. Together, our findings reveal reduced cross-frequency coupling as a functional marker of APP deficiency at the network level. PMID:26905287

  6. Glucocerebrosidase deficiency and mitochondrial impairment in experimental Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Noelker, Carmen; Lu, Lixia; Höllerhage, Matthias; Vulinovic, Franca; Sturn, Annekathrin; Roscher, René; Höglinger, Günter U; Hirsch, Etienne C; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Alvarez-Fischer, Daniel; Andreas, Hartmann

    2015-09-15

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive disease, caused by a lack or functional deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Recently, mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) have been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and GBA mutations are now considered the most important genetic vulnerability factor for PD. In this study, we have investigated (i) in vivo whether inhibition of the enzyme glucosylceramide synthase by miglustat may protect C57Bl/6 mice against subchronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication and (ii) in vitro whether a decrease of GCase activity may render dopaminergic neurons susceptible to MPP(+) (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) or alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) toxicity and amenable to miglustat treatment. We could demonstrate that reduction of glucocerebroside by inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase partially protects mice against MPTP-induced toxicity. Conversely, we could show that inhibition of GCase activity with conduritol-B-epoxide (CBE) enhances both α-Syn and MPP(+) induced toxicity in vitro. However, only CBE-induced enhancement of MPP(+) toxicity could be reversed by miglustat. Moreover, we were unable to reveal any alterations of complex I activity or cell respiration upon treatment with either CBE or miglustat. Our findings suggest that the reduction of GCase activity rather than an accumulation of glucocerebroside increases aSyn toxicity.

  7. Impaired mechanical stability, migration and contractile capacity in vimentin-deficient fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckes, B.; Dogic, D.; Colucci-Guyon, E.; Wang, N.; Maniotis, A.; Ingber, D.; Merckling, A.; Langa, F.; Aumailley, M.; Delouvee, A.; Koteliansky, V.; Babinet, C.; Krieg, T.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of a vimentin network due to gene disruption created viable mice that did not differ overtly from wild-type littermates. Here, primary fibroblasts derived from vimentin-deficient (-/-) and wild-type (+/+) mouse embryos were cultured, and biological functions were studied in in vitro systems resembling stress situations. Stiffness of -/- fibroblasts was reduced by 40% in comparison to wild-type cells. Vimentin-deficient cells also displayed reduced mechanical stability, motility and directional migration towards different chemo-attractive stimuli. Reorganization of collagen fibrils and contraction of collagen lattices were severely impaired. The spatial organization of focal contact proteins, as well as actin microfilament organization was disturbed. Thus, absence of a vimentin filament network does not impair basic cellular functions needed for growth in culture, but cells are mechanically less stable, and we propose that therefore they are impaired in all functions depending upon mechanical stability.

  8. Impaired mechanical stability, migration and contractile capacity in vimentin-deficient fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckes, B.; Dogic, D.; Colucci-Guyon, E.; Wang, N.; Maniotis, A.; Ingber, D.; Merckling, A.; Langa, F.; Aumailley, M.; Delouvee, A.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Loss of a vimentin network due to gene disruption created viable mice that did not differ overtly from wild-type littermates. Here, primary fibroblasts derived from vimentin-deficient (-/-) and wild-type (+/+) mouse embryos were cultured, and biological functions were studied in in vitro systems resembling stress situations. Stiffness of -/- fibroblasts was reduced by 40% in comparison to wild-type cells. Vimentin-deficient cells also displayed reduced mechanical stability, motility and directional migration towards different chemo-attractive stimuli. Reorganization of collagen fibrils and contraction of collagen lattices were severely impaired. The spatial organization of focal contact proteins, as well as actin microfilament organization was disturbed. Thus, absence of a vimentin filament network does not impair basic cellular functions needed for growth in culture, but cells are mechanically less stable, and we propose that therefore they are impaired in all functions depending upon mechanical stability.

  9. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-09-16

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impaired brain development and reduced cognitive function in phospholipase D-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Ute; Stegner, David; Hattingen, Elke; Beyer, Sandra; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Klein, Jochen

    2014-06-20

    The phospholipases D (PLD1 and 2) are signaling enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid, a lipid second messenger involved in cell proliferation, and choline, a precursor of acetylcholine (ACh). In the present study, we investigated development and cognitive function in mice that were deficient for PLD1, or PLD2, or both. We found that PLD-deficient mice had reduced brain growth at 14-27 days post partum when compared to wild-type mice. In adult PLD-deficient mice, cognitive function was impaired in social and object recognition tasks. Using brain microdialysis, we found that wild-type mice responded with a 4-fold increase of hippocampal ACh release upon behavioral stimulation in the open field, while PLD-deficient mice released significantly less ACh. These results may be relevant for cognitive dysfunctions observed in fetal alcohol syndrome and in Alzheimer' disease.

  11. Impaired IL-13-mediated functions of macrophages in STAT6-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Takeda, K; Kamanaka, M; Tanaka, T; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1996-10-15

    IL-13 shares many biologic responses with IL-4. In contrast to well-characterized IL-4 signaling pathways, which utilize STAT6 and 4PS/IRS2, IL-13 signaling pathways are poorly understood. Recent studies performed with STAT6-deficient mice have demonstrated that STAT6 plays an essential role in IL-4 signaling. In this study, the functions of peritoneal macrophages of STAT6-deficient mice in response to IL-13 were analyzed. In STAT6-deficient mice, neither morphologic changes nor augmentation of MHC class II expression in response to IL-13 was observed. In addition, IL-13 did not decrease the nitric oxide production by activated macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that the macrophage functions in response to IL-13 were impaired in STAT6-deficient mice, indicating that IL-13 and IL-4 share the signaling pathway via STAT6.

  12. Impaired Posterior Frontal Sutural Fusion in the Biglycan/Decorin Double Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Sunil; Bi, Yanming; Ortiz, Ana T.; Embree, Mildred C.; Kilts, Tina; Iozzo, Renato; Opperman, Lynne A.; Young, Marian F.

    2007-01-01

    Biglycan (Bgn) and decorin (Dcn) are highly expressed in numerous tissues in the craniofacial complex. However, their expression and function in the cranial sutures is unknown. In order to study this, we first examined the expression of biglycan and decorin in the posterior frontal suture (PFS), which predictably fuses between 21–45 days post-natal and in the non-fusing sagittal (S) suture from wildtype (Wt) mice. Our data showed that Bgn and Dcn were expressed in both cranial sutures. We then characterized the cranial suture phenotype in Bgn deficient, Dcn deficient, Bgn/Dcn double deficient, and Wt mice. At embryonic day 18.5, alizarin red/ alcian blue staining showed that the Bgn/Dcn double deficient mice had hypomineralization of the frontal and parietal craniofacial bones. Histological analysis of adult mice (45–60 days post natal) showed that the Bgn or Dcn deficient mice had no cranial suture abnormalities and immunohistochemistry staining showed increased production of Dcn in the PFS from Bgn deficient mice. To test possible compensation of Dcn in the Bgn deficient sutures we examined the Bgn/Dcn double deficient mice and found they had impaired fusion of the PFS. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of RNA from 35 day-old mice revealed increased expression of Bmp-4 and Dlx-5 in the PFS compared to their non-fusing S suture in Wt tissues and decreased expression of Dlx-5 in both PF and S sutures in the Bgn/Dcn double deficient mice compared to the Wt mice. Failure of PFS fusion and hypomineralization of the calvaria in the Bgn/Dcn double deficient mice demonstrate these extracellular matrix proteoglycans could have a role in controlling the formation and growth of the cranial vault. PMID:17188951

  13. Combined Effects of Pericytes in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Aline Lopes; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are multipotent perivascular cells whose involvement in vasculature development is well established. Evidences in the literature also suggest that pericytes display immune properties and that these cells may serve as an in vivo reservoir of stem cells, contributing to the regeneration of diverse tissues. Pericytes are also capable of tumor homing and are important cellular components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this review, we highlight the contribution of pericytes to some classical hallmarks of cancer, namely, tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and evasion of immune destruction, and discuss how collectively these hallmarks could be tackled by therapies targeting pericytes, providing a rationale for cancer drugs aiming at the TME. PMID:26000022

  14. Pericytes: developmental, physiological, and pathological perspectives, problems, and promises.

    PubMed

    Armulik, Annika; Genové, Guillem; Betsholtz, Christer

    2011-08-16

    Pericytes, the mural cells of blood microvessels, have recently come into focus as regulators of vascular morphogenesis and function during development, cardiovascular homeostasis, and disease. Pericytes are implicated in the development of diabetic retinopathy and tissue fibrosis, and they are potential stromal targets for cancer therapy. Some pericytes are probably mesenchymal stem or progenitor cells, which give rise to adipocytes, cartilage, bone, and muscle. However, there is still confusion about the identity, ontogeny, and progeny of pericytes. Here, we review the history of these investigations, indicate emerging concepts, and point out problems and promise in the field of pericyte biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined effects of pericytes in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Aline Lopes; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are multipotent perivascular cells whose involvement in vasculature development is well established. Evidences in the literature also suggest that pericytes display immune properties and that these cells may serve as an in vivo reservoir of stem cells, contributing to the regeneration of diverse tissues. Pericytes are also capable of tumor homing and are important cellular components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this review, we highlight the contribution of pericytes to some classical hallmarks of cancer, namely, tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and evasion of immune destruction, and discuss how collectively these hallmarks could be tackled by therapies targeting pericytes, providing a rationale for cancer drugs aiming at the TME.

  16. PDGFR Inhibition Results in Pericyte Depletion and Hemorrhage into the Corpus Luteum of the Rat Ovary.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anthony P; Ashton, Susan; Horner, Judith; Wilson, Zena; Reens, Jaimini; Richmond, Graham H P; Barry, Simon T; Wedge, Steve R

    2016-01-01

    The growth plate, ovary, adrenal gland, and rodent incisor tooth are sentinel organs for antiangiogenic effects since they respond reliably, quantitatively, and sensitively to inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Here we report that treatment of rats with platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) inhibitors that target pericytes results in severe ovarian hemorrhage with degeneration and eventual rupture of the corpus luteum. Evaluation of the growth plate, adrenal gland, and incisor tooth that are typical target organs for antiangiogenic treatment in the rodent revealed no abnormalities. Histologically, the changes in the ovary were characterized by sinusoidal dilatation, increased vessel fragility, and hemorrhage into the corpus luteum. Immunocytochemical staining of vessels with alpha smooth muscle actin and CD31 that recognize pericytes and vascular endothelium, respectively, demonstrated that this effect was due to selective pericyte deficiency within corpora lutea. Further experiments in which rats were treated concurrently with both PDGFRβ and VEGFR inhibitors ablated the hemorrhagic response, resulting instead in corpus luteum necrosis. These changes are consistent with the notion that selective pericyte loss in the primitive capillary network resulted in increased vessel fragility and hemorrhage, whereas concomitant VEGFR inhibition resulted in vessel regression and reduced vascular perfusion that restricted development of the hemorrhagic vessels. These results also highlight the utility of the rodent ovary to respond differentially to VEGFR and PDGFR inhibitors, which may provide useful information during routine safety assessment for determining target organ toxicity.

  17. Skeletal and cardiac muscle pericytes: Functions and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Murray, Iain R; Baily, James E; Chen, William C W; Dar, Ayelet; Gonzalez, Zaniah N; Jensen, Andrew R; Petrigliano, Frank A; Deb, Arjun; Henderson, Neil C

    2017-03-01

    Pericytes are periendothelial mesenchymal cells residing within the microvasculature. Skeletal muscle and cardiac pericytes are now recognized to fulfill an increasing number of functions in normal tissue homeostasis, including contributing to microvascular function by maintaining vessel stability and regulating capillary flow. In the setting of muscle injury, pericytes contribute to a regenerative microenvironment through release of trophic factors and by modulating local immune responses. In skeletal muscle, pericytes also directly enhance tissue healing by differentiating into myofibers. Conversely, pericytes have also been implicated in the development of disease states, including fibrosis, heterotopic ossication and calcification, atherosclerosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Despite increased recognition of pericyte heterogeneity, it is not yet clear whether specific subsets of pericytes are responsible for individual functions in skeletal and cardiac muscle homeostasis and disease.

  18. The Role of Pericyte Detachment in Vascular Rarefaction

    PubMed Central

    Schrimpf, Claudia; Teebken, Omke E.; Wilhelmi, Mathias; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pericytes surround endothelial cells at the perivascular interface. Signaling between endothelial cells and pericytes is crucial for capillary homeostasis, as pericytes stabilize vessels and regulate many microvascular functions. Recently it has been shown that pericytes are able to detach from the vascular wall and contribute to fibrosis by becoming scar-forming myofibroblasts in many organs including the kidney. At the same time, the loss of pericytes within the perivascular compartment results in vulnerable capillaries which are prone to instability, pathological angiogenesis, and, ultimately, rarefaction. Aims This review will give an overview of pericyte-endothelial cell interactions, summarize the signaling pathways that have been identified to be involved in pericyte detachment from the vascular wall, and present pathological endothelial responses in the context of disease of the kidney. PMID:25195856

  19. Pericytes: A Newly Recognized Player in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J; Satish, Latha; Yates, Cecelia C; Wells, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes have generally been considered in the context of stabilizing vessels, ensuring the blood barriers, and regulating the flow through capillaries. However, new reports suggest that pericytes may function at critical times to either drive healing with minimal scarring or, perversely, contribute to fibrosis and ongoing scar formation. Beneficially, pericytes likely drive much of the vascular involution that occurs during the transition from the regenerative to the resolution phases of healing. Pathologically, pericytes can assume a fibrotic phenotype and promote scarring. This perspective will discuss pericyte involvement in wound repair and the relationship pericytes form with the parenchymal cells of the skin. We will further evaluate the role pericytes may have in disease progression in relation to chronic wounds and fibrosis. PMID:26969517

  20. Regional early and progressive loss of brain pericytes but not vascular smooth muscle cells in adult mice with disrupted platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nikolakopoulou, Angeliki Maria; Zhao, Zhen; Montagne, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain. We asked whether these mice have a stable or progressive vascular phenotype after birth, and whether both pericyte and VSMCs populations are affected in the adult brain. We found an early and progressive region-dependent loss of brain pericytes, microvascular reductions and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, which were more pronounced in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum than in the thalamus, whereas VSMCs population remained unaffected at the time when pericyte loss was already established. For example, compared to age-matched controls, PdgfrβF7/F7 mice between 4–6 and 36–48 weeks of age developed a region-dependent loss in pericyte coverage (22–46, 24–44 and 4–31%) and cell numbers (36–49, 34–64 and 11–36%), reduction in capillary length (20–39, 13–46 and 1–30%), and an increase in extravascular fibrinogen-derived deposits (3.4–5.2, 2.8–4.1 and 0–3.6-fold) demonstrating BBB breakdown in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus, respectively. Capillary reductions and BBB breakdown correlated with loss of pericyte coverage. Our data suggest that PdgfrβF7/F7 mice develop an aggressive and rapid vascular phenotype without appreciable early involvement of VSMCs, therefore providing a valuable model to study regional effects of pericyte loss on brain vascular and neuronal functions. This model could be a useful tool for future studies directed at understanding the role of pericytes in the pathogenesis

  1. A mutation of Ikbkg causes immune deficiency without impairing degradation of IκBα

    PubMed Central

    Siggs, Owen M.; Berger, Michael; Krebs, Philippe; Arnold, Carrie N.; Eidenschenk, Celine; Huber, Christoph; Pirie, Elaine; Smart, Nora G.; Khovananth, Kevin; Xia, Yu; McInerney, Gerald; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.; Nemazee, David; Beutler, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Null alleles of the gene encoding NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) are lethal in hemizygous mice and men, whereas hypomorphic alleles typically cause a syndrome of immune deficiency and ectodermal dysplasia. Here we describe an allele of Ikbkg in mice that impaired Toll-like receptor signaling, lymph node formation, development of memory and regulatory T cells, and Ig production, but did not cause ectodermal dysplasia. Degradation of IκBα, which is considered a primary requirement for NEMO-mediated immune signaling, occurred normally in response to Toll-like receptor stimulation, yet ERK phosphorylation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation were severely impaired. This selective loss of function highlights the immunological importance of NEMO-regulated pathways beyond IκBα degradation, and offers a biochemical explanation for rare immune deficiencies in man. PMID:20133626

  2. Impairment of pachytene spermatogenesis in Dmrt7 deficient mice, possibly causing meiotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Date, Shiori; Nozawa, Osamu; Inoue, Hiroaki; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although Dmrt7 has been reported to be essential for male spermatogenesis, the molecular mechanism underlying pachytene spermatogenesis by Dmrt7 is not known. In the present study, by detailed analysis of Dmrt7 protein distribution in spermatocytes in the first wave of spermatogenesis, we clarified the profile of Dmrt7 expression and localization in pachytene spermatogenesis. Dmrt7-deficient spermatocytes were arrested in the pachytene stage, followed by apoptosis. We analyzed to determine whether every event in the spermatogenesis at the Dmrt7-deficient mice progressed normally, because in several gene knockout mice with spermatogenic arrest described in the previous reports impairments of these events often appeared. Mutant mice showed normal synapsis and XY body formation, while impairment of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), decreased expression of backup genes, and increased expression of retrotransposons indicated incomplete meiotic recombination.

  3. Zinc deficiency with reduced mastication impairs spatial memory in young adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kida, Kumiko; Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2015-12-01

    Sufficient oral microelements such as zinc and fully chewing of foods are required to maintain cognitive function despite aging. No knowledge exists about the combination of factors such as zinc deficiency and reduced mastication on learning and memory. Here we show that tooth extraction only in 8-week-old mice did not change the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-labeled astrocytes in the hippocampus or spatial memory parameters. However, tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation strongly impaired spatial memory and led to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. The impaired spatial performance in the zinc-deficient only (ZD) mice also coincided well with the increase in the astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. After switching both zinc-deficient groups to a normal diet with sufficient zinc, spatial memory recovered, and more time was spent in the quadrant with the goal in the probe test in the mice with tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation (EZD) compared to the ZD mice. Interestingly, we found no differences in astrocytic density in the CA1 region among all groups at 22 weeks of age. Furthermore, the escape latency in a visible probe test at all times was longer in zinc-deficient groups than the others and demonstrated a negative correlation with body weight. No significant differences in escape latency were observed in the visible probe test among the ZD, EZD, and normal-fed control at 4 weeks (CT4w) groups in which body weight was standardized to that of the EZD group, or in the daily reduction in latency between the normal-fed control and CT4w groups. Our data showed that zinc-deficient feeding during a young age impairs spatial memory performance and leads to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region and that zinc-sufficient feeding is followed by recovery of the impaired spatial memory along with changes in astrocytic density. The combination of the two factors, zinc deficiency

  4. Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency: basal ganglia impairment may occur independently of ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Paquay, Stéphanie; Bourillon, Agnès; Pichard, Samia; Benoist, Jean-François; de Lonlay, Pascale; Dobbelaere, Dries; Fouilhoux, Alain; Guffon, Nathalie; Rouvet, Isabelle; Labarthe, François; Mention, Karine; Touati, Guy; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Elmaleh-Bergès, Monique; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Schiff, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency affects ketone body and isoleucine catabolism. Neurological impairment may occur secondary to ketoacidotic episodes. However, we observed neuromotor abnormalities without ketoacidotic events in two T2-deficient families. We hypothesized that the neurological signs were related to the genetic defect and may occur independently of ketoacidotic episodes. We therefore conducted a retrospective review on a French T2-deficient patient series searching for neuromotor impairment. In total, 26 cases were retrospectively analysed for clinical, biological and neuroimaging data. Neurological findings were observed for 6/26 (23%) patients. Among these, two had never experienced ketoacidotic episodes, though they developed extrapyramidal signs with putamen involvement. Two of the other four patients developed neurological abnormalities before the first ketoacidotic crisis, with putamen involvement in one case. The third patient developed extrapyramidal symptoms more than 10 years after the initial decompensation with globus pallidus involvement. The last patient developed extrapyramidal signs immediately after a severe ketoacidotic crisis with putaminal lesions. Most T2-deficient patients achieved normal neurodevelopment. However, on account of the role of T2 in isoleucine catabolism, these patients are potentially exposed to accumulation of toxic isoleucine-derived metabolites, which may contribute to neurological impairment. Our findings confirm previous observations that neurological symptoms in T2 deficiency may occur unrelated to ketoacidosis. The role of protein restriction as a preventive measure against neurological symptoms could not be established in this study and deserves further evaluation. Long-term follow-up data on children diagnosed by newborn screening may clarify the pathogenesis of this neurometabolic association.

  5. Heterozygous deficiency of δ-catenin impairs pathological angiogenesis | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    About the Cover: DeBusk et al. find that δ-catenin expression in vascular endothelial cells is boosted by inflammatory cytokines, and that δ-catenin deficiency impairs tumor angiogenesis in mice. The original immunofluorescence image (right) shows the endothelial marker CD31 (green) in tumor tissue sections from mice injected subcutaneously with Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Artwork by Joshua Graver (joshuagraver@mac.com). Abstract:

  6. 5-Lipoxygenase deficiency impairs innate and adaptive immune responses during fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Secatto, Adriana; Rodrigues, Lilian Cataldi; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Medeiros, Alexandra I

    2012-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase-derived products have been implicated in both the inhibition and promotion of chronic infection. Here, we sought to investigate the roles of endogenous 5-lipoxygenase products and exogenous leukotrienes during Histoplasma capsulatum infection in vivo and in vitro. 5-LO deficiency led to increased lung CFU, decreased nitric oxide production and a deficient primary immune response during active fungal infection. Moreover, H. capsulatum-infected 5-LO(-/-) mice showed an intense influx of neutrophils and an impaired ability to generate and recruit effector T cells to the lung. The fungal susceptibility of 5-LO(-/-) mice correlated with a lower rate of macrophage ingestion of IgG-H. capsulatum relative to WT macrophages. Conversely, exogenous LTB4 and LTC4 restored macrophage phagocytosis in 5-LO deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that leukotrienes are required to control chronic fungal infection by amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune response during histoplasmosis.

  7. Iodine deficiency in the U.K.: an overlooked cause of impaired neurodevelopment?

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2013-05-01

    This review describes historical iodine deficiency in the U.K., gives current information on dietary sources of iodine and summarises recent evidence of iodine deficiency and its association with child neurodevelopment. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones that are needed for brain development, particularly during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable brain damage worldwide and is associated with impaired cognitive function. Despite a global focus on the elimination of iodine deficiency, iodine is a largely overlooked nutrient in the U.K., a situation we have endeavoured to address through a series of studies. Although the U.K. has been considered iodine-sufficient for many years, there is now concern that iodine deficiency may be prevalent, particularly in pregnant women and women of childbearing age; indeed we found mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Surrey. As the major dietary source of iodine in the U.K. is milk and dairy produce, it is relevant to note that we have found the iodine concentration of organic milk to be over 40% lower than that of conventional milk. In contrast to many countries, iodised table salt is unlikely to contribute to U.K. iodine intake as we have shown that its availability is low in grocery stores. This situation is of concern as the level of U.K. iodine deficiency is such that it is associated with adverse effects on offspring neurological development; we demonstrated a higher risk of low IQ and poorer reading-accuracy scores in U.K. children born to mothers who were iodine-deficient during pregnancy. Given our findings and those of others, iodine status in the U.K. population should be monitored, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as pregnant women and children.

  8. Gestational Zinc Deficiency Impairs Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Vaccination in Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Wang, Xuelian; Zhang, Ying; Gu, Qiuhong; Huang, Fen; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    Background Gestational zinc deficiency has been confirmed to impair the infant immune function. However, knowledge about effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy on hepatitis B vaccine responsiveness in offspring is limited. In this report, we aimed to examine how maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy influences humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in offspring of BALB/c mice. Methodology/Principal Findings From day 1 of pregnancy upon delivery, maternal mice were given a standard diet (30 mg/kg/day zinc), zinc deficient diet (8 mg/kg/day zinc), or combination of zinc deficient diet (8 mg/kg/day zinc in the first 2 weeks of gestation) and zinc supplement diet (150 mg/kg/day zinc for the last week of pregnancy), respectively. Newborn pups of these maternal mice were immunized with hepatitis B vaccine at postnatal weeks 0, 2 and 4. Then, splenocytes and blood samples from the offspring mice were harvested for detection of serum zinc concentrations, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, expression of cytokines using ELISA, CCK-8 and flow cytometric analysis. Results from the present study demonstrated that gestational zinc deficiency inhibited antibody responses, and decreased the proliferative capacity of T cells in offsprings immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. Additionally, HBsAg-specific cytokines analysis revealed that gestational zinc deficiency could inhibit secretion of IFN-γ from splenocytes, and decrease IFN-γ expression of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Conclusions/Significance Gestational zinc deficiency can weaken the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to hepatitis B vaccine via decreasing B cell counts and hepatitis B virus-specific immunoglobulin G production, as well as reducing T cell proliferation, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, and Th1-type immune responses. PMID:24069198

  9. TRAF1 Deficiency Attenuates Atherosclerosis in Mice by Impairing Monocyte Recruitment to the Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Missiou, Anna; Köstlin, Natascha; Varo, Nerea; Rudolf, Philipp; Aichele, Peter; Ernst, Sandra; Münkel, Christian; Walter, Carina; Stachon, Peter; Sommer, Benjamin; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Zirlik, Katja; MacFarlane, Lindsey; Wolf, Dennis; Tsitsikov, Erdyni; Bode, Christoph; Libby, Peter; Zirlik, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, such as TNFα, potently promote atherogenesis in mice and humans. TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins for this group of cytokines. Methods and Results This study tested the hypothesis that TRAF1 modulates atherogenesis in vivo. TRAF1−/−/LDLR−/− mice consuming a high-cholesterol diet for 18 weeks developed significantly smaller atherosclerotic lesions compared with LDLR−/− (low density lipoprotein receptor) control animals. As the most prominent change in histologic composition, plaques of TRAF1-deficient animals contained significantly fewer macrophages. Bone marrow transplantations revealed that TRAF1 deficiency on both hematopoetic as well as vascular resident cells contributed to the reduction in atherogenesis observed. Mechanistic studies showed that deficiency of TRAF1 in endothelial cells and monocytes reduced adhesion of inflammatory cells to the endothelium in static and dynamic assays. Impaired adhesion coincided with reduced cell spreading, actin polymerization, and CD29 expression in macrophages, as well as decreased expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. SiRNA studies on human cells verified these findings. Furthermore, TRAF1 mRNA levels were significantly elevated in blood of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Conclusions TRAF1 deficiency attenuates atherogenesis in mice, most likely due to impaired monocyte recruitment to the vessel wall. These data identify TRAF1 as a potential treatment target for atherosclerosis. PMID:20421522

  10. IDH1 deficiency attenuates gluconeogenesis in mouse liver by impairing amino acid utilization

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jing; Gu, Yu; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Yuanlin; Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Zhenyue; Sheng, Yi; Li, Wanda Y.; Wakeham, Andrew; Cairns, Rob A.; Mak, Tak W.

    2017-01-01

    Although the enzymatic activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) was defined decades ago, its functions in vivo are not yet fully understood. Cytosolic IDH1 converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a key metabolite regulating nitrogen homeostasis in catabolic pathways. It was thought that IDH1 might enhance lipid biosynthesis in liver or adipose tissue by generating NADPH, but we show here that lipid contents are relatively unchanged in both IDH1-null mouse liver and IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells generated using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Instead, we found that IDH1 is critical for liver amino acid (AA) utilization. Body weights of IDH1-null mice fed a high-protein diet (HPD) were abnormally low. After prolonged fasting, IDH1-null mice exhibited decreased blood glucose but elevated blood alanine and glycine compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Similarly, in IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells, glucose consumption was increased, but alanine utilization and levels of intracellular α-KG and glutamate were reduced. In IDH1-deficient primary hepatocytes, gluconeogenesis as well as production of ammonia and urea were decreased. In IDH1-deficient whole livers, expression levels of genes involved in AA metabolism were reduced, whereas those involved in gluconeogenesis were up-regulated. Thus, IDH1 is critical for AA utilization in vivo and its deficiency attenuates gluconeogenesis primarily by impairing α-KG–dependent transamination of glucogenic AAs such as alanine. PMID:28011762

  11. Impaired mast cell maturation and degranulation and attenuated allergic responses in Ndrg1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Sunaga, Kohei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masanori; Arata, Satoru; Okuda, Tomohiko; Moon, Tae-Chul; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Kokame, Koichi; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Murakami, Makoto; Kudo, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    We have previously reported that N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is an early inducible protein during the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) toward a connective tissue mast cell-like phenotype. To clarify the function of NDRG1 in mast cells and allergic responses, we herein analyzed mast cell-associated phenotypes of mice lacking the Ndrg1 gene. Allergic responses including IgE-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylactic reactions were markedly attenuated in Ndrg1-deficient mice as compared with those in wild-type mice. In Ndrg1-deficient mice, dermal and peritoneal mast cells were decreased in number and morphologically abnormal with impaired degranulating ability. Ex vivo, Ndrg1-deficient BMMCs cocultured with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of stem cell factor, a condition that facilitates the maturation of BMMCs toward a CTMC-like phenotype, displayed less exocytosis than replicate wild-type cells after the cross-linking of FcepsilonRI or stimulation with compound 48/80, even though the exocytotic response of IL-3-maintained, immature BMMCs from both genotypes was comparable. Unlike degranulation, the production of leukotriene and cytokines by cocultured BMMCs was unaffected by NDRG1 deficiency. Taken together, the altered phenotypes of Ndrg1-deficient mast cells both in vivo and ex vivo suggest that NDRG1 has roles in the terminal maturation and effector function (degranulation) of mast cells.

  12. Impaired Biotinidase Activity Disrupts Holocarboxylase Synthetase Expression in Late Onset Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Monjaras, Anylu; Cervantes-Roldán, Rafael; Meneses-Morales, Iván; Gravel, Roy A.; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Solórzano-Vargas, Sergio; González-Noriega, Alfonso; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Biotinidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the vitamin biotin from proteolytically degraded biotin-dependent carboxylases. This key reaction makes the biotin available for reutilization in the biotinylation of newly synthesized apocarboxylases. This latter reaction is catalyzed by holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) via synthesis of 5′-biotinyl-AMP (B-AMP) from biotin and ATP, followed by transfer of the biotin to a specific lysine residue of the apocarboxylase substrate. In addition to carboxylase activation, B-AMP is also a key regulatory molecule in the transcription of genes encoding apocarboxylases and HCS itself. In humans, genetic deficiency of HCS or biotinidase results in the life-threatening disorder biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency, characterized by a reduction in the activities of all biotin-dependent carboxylases. Although the clinical manifestations of both disorders are similar, they differ in some unique neurological characteristics whose origin is not fully understood. In this study, we show that biotinidase deficiency not only reduces net carboxylase biotinylation, but it also impairs the expression of carboxylases and HCS by interfering with the B-AMP-dependent mechanism of transcription control. We propose that biotinidase-deficient patients may develop a secondary HCS deficiency disrupting the altruistic tissue-specific biotin allocation mechanism that protects brain metabolism during biotin starvation. PMID:18845537

  13. Dose-Response Analysis of Developmental Iodide Deficiency: Reductions in Thyroid Hormones and Impaired Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis and severe iodide deficiency (ID) during early development is associated with neurological impairments. Several environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under cond...

  14. Dose-Response Analysis of Developmental Iodide Deficiency: Reductions in Thyroid Hormones and Impaired Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis and severe iodide deficiency (ID) during early development is associated with neurological impairments. Several environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under cond...

  15. CCR2 deficiency prevents neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairments induced by cranial irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Belarbi, Karim; Jopson, Timothy; Arellano, Carla; Fike, John R.; Rosi, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Cranial irradiation can lead to long-lasting cognitive impairments in patients receiving radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Recent studies have suggested inflammation as a major contributor to these deficits; we determined if the chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) was a mediator of cognitive impairments induced by irradiation. Two-month-old male Ccr2 knockout (−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice received 10 Gy cranial irradiation or sham-treatment. One month after irradiation, bromodeoxyuridine was injected intraperitoneally for seven consecutive days to label newly generated cells. At two months post-irradiation, cognitive function was assessed by novel object recognition and Morris water maze. Our results demonstrate that CCR2 deficiency prevented hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory impairments induced by cranial irradiation. Hippocampal gene expression analysis showed that irradiation induced CCR2 ligands such as CCL8, and CCR2 deficiency reduced this induction. Irradiation reduced the number of adult-born neurons in both WT and Ccr2−/− mice, but the distribution pattern of the adult-born neurons through the granule cell layer was only altered in WT mice. Importantly, CCR2 deficiency normalized the fraction of pyramidal neurons expressing the plasticity-related immediate early gene Arc. These data offer new insight into the mechanism(s) of radiation-injury and suggest that CCR2 is a critical mediator hippocampal neuronal dysfunction and hippocampal cognitive impairments after irradiation. Targeting CCR2 signaling could conceivably provide an effective approach to reduce or prevent the incidence and severity of this serious side effect of ionizing irradiation. PMID:23243025

  16. CCR2 deficiency prevents neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairments induced by cranial irradiation.

    PubMed

    Belarbi, Karim; Jopson, Timothy; Arellano, Carla; Fike, John R; Rosi, Susanna

    2013-02-01

    Cranial irradiation can lead to long-lasting cognitive impairments in patients receiving radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Recent studies have suggested inflammation as a major contributor to these deficits; we determined if the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) was a mediator of cognitive impairments induced by irradiation. Two-month-old male Ccr2 knockout (-/-) and wild-type mice received 10 Gy cranial irradiation or sham-treatment. One month after irradiation, bromodeoxyuridine was injected intraperitoneally for seven consecutive days to label newly generated cells. At two months postirradiation, cognitive function was assessed by novel object recognition and Morris water maze. Our results show that CCR2 deficiency prevented hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory impairments induced by cranial irradiation. Hippocampal gene expression analysis showed that irradiation induced CCR2 ligands such as CCL8 and CCR2 deficiency reduced this induction. Irradiation reduced the number of adult-born neurons in both wild-type and Ccr2(-/-) mice, but the distribution pattern of the adult-born neurons through the granule cell layer was only altered in wild-type mice. Importantly, CCR2 deficiency normalized the fraction of pyramidal neurons expressing the plasticity-related immediate early gene Arc. These data offer new insight into the mechanism(s) of radiation-injury and suggest that CCR2 is a critical mediator of hippocampal neuronal dysfunction and hippocampal cognitive impairments after irradiation. Targeting CCR2 signaling could conceivably provide an effective approach to reduce or prevent the incidence and severity of this serious side effect of ionizing irradiation.

  17. p75(NTR)-dependent activation of NF-κB regulates microRNA-503 transcription and pericyte-endothelial crosstalk in diabetes after limb ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Andrea; Meloni, Marco; Nailor, Audrey; Mitić, Tijana; Shantikumar, Saran; Riu, Federica; Sala-Newby, Graciela B; Rose, Lorraine; Besnier, Marie; Katare, Rajesh; Voellenkle, Christine; Verkade, Paul; Martelli, Fabio; Madeddu, Paolo; Emanueli, Costanza

    2015-08-13

    The communication between vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes in the microvasculature is fundamental for vascular growth and homeostasis; however, these processes are disrupted by diabetes. Here we show that modulation of p75(NTR) expression in ECs exposed to high glucose activates transcription of miR-503, which negatively affects pericyte function. p75(NTR) activates NF-κB to bind the miR-503 promoter and upregulate miR-503 expression in ECs. NF-κB further induces activation of Rho kinase and shedding of endothelial microparticles carrying miR-503, which transfer miR-503 from ECs to vascular pericytes. The integrin-mediated uptake of miR-503 in the recipient pericytes reduces expression of EFNB2 and VEGFA, resulting in impaired migration and proliferation. We confirm operation of the above mechanisms in mouse models of diabetes, in which EC-derived miR-503 reduces pericyte coverage of capillaries, increased permeability and impaired post-ischaemic angiogenesis in limb muscles. Collectively, our data demonstrate that miR-503 regulates pericyte-endothelial crosstalk in microvascular diabetic complications.

  18. Glaucoma, capillaries and pericytes. 4. Beta-adrenergic activation of cultured retinal pericytes.

    PubMed

    Zschauer, A O; Davis, E B; Anderson, D R

    1996-01-01

    To characterize the relaxation of pericytes induced by beta-adrenergic stimulation, changes in the contractile tone of pericytes were quantified as a change in the wrinkling of an elastic silicone surface on which they were cultured. Isoproterenol produced relaxation of pericytes in a dose-dependent manner over a range of 5 nM to 1 microM. Low concentrations of the nonselective beta-blockers propanolol and timolol blocked the relaxation produced by isoproterenol. The specific beta 2-adrenergic component of isoproterenol-induced relaxation was shown by blockage with bromoacetyl alprenolol menthane. In contrast, atenolol and betaxolol, as relatively selective beta 1-adrenergic blockers, had no effect on the isoproterenol-induced relaxation.

  19. TMEM175 deficiency impairs lysosomal and mitochondrial function and increases α-synuclein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Jinn, Sarah; Drolet, Robert E.; Cramer, Paige E.; Wong, Andus Hon-Kit; Toolan, Dawn M.; Gretzula, Cheryl A.; Voleti, Bhavya; Vassileva, Galya; Disa, Jyoti; Tadin-Strapps, Marija; Stone, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss and the postmortem presence of Lewy bodies, depositions of insoluble α-synuclein, and other proteins that likely contribute to cellular toxicity and death during the disease. Genetic and biochemical studies have implicated impaired lysosomal and mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of PD. Transmembrane protein 175 (TMEM175), the lysosomal K+ channel, is centered under a major genome-wide association studies peak for PD, making it a potential candidate risk factor for the disease. To address the possibility that variation in TMEM175 could play a role in PD pathogenesis, TMEM175 function was investigated in a neuronal model system. Studies confirmed that TMEM175 deficiency results in unstable lysosomal pH, which led to decreased lysosomal catalytic activity, decreased glucocerebrosidase activity, impaired autophagosome clearance by the lysosome, and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, TMEM175 deficiency in rat primary neurons resulted in increased susceptibility to exogenous α-synuclein fibrils. Following α-synuclein fibril treatment, neurons deficient in TMEM175 were found to have increased phosphorylated and detergent-insoluble α-synuclein deposits. Taken together, data from these studies suggest that TMEM175 plays a direct and critical role in lysosomal and mitochondrial function and PD pathogenesis and highlight this ion channel as a potential therapeutic target for treating PD. PMID:28193887

  20. Pericyte-expressed Tie2 controls angiogenesis and vessel maturation

    PubMed Central

    Teichert, Martin; Milde, Laura; Holm, Annegret; Stanicek, Laura; Gengenbacher, Nicolas; Savant, Soniya; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Hasanov, Zulfiyya; Srivastava, Kshitij; Hu, Junhao; Hertel, Stella; Bartol, Arne; Schlereth, Katharina; Augustin, Hellmut G.

    2017-01-01

    The Tie receptors with their Angiopoietin ligands act as regulators of angiogenesis and vessel maturation. Tie2 exerts its functions through its supposed endothelial-specific expression. Yet, Tie2 is also expressed at lower levels by pericytes and it has not been unravelled through which mechanisms pericyte Angiopoietin/Tie signalling affects angiogenesis. Here we show that human and murine pericytes express functional Tie2 receptor. Silencing of Tie2 in pericytes results in a pro-migratory phenotype. Pericyte Tie2 controls sprouting angiogenesis in in vitro sprouting and in vivo spheroid assays. Tie2 downstream signalling in pericytes involves Calpain, Akt and FOXO3A. Ng2-Cre-driven deletion of pericyte-expressed Tie2 in mice transiently delays postnatal retinal angiogenesis. Yet, Tie2 deletion in pericytes results in a pronounced pro-angiogenic effect leading to enhanced tumour growth. Together, the data expand and revise the current concepts on vascular Angiopoietin/Tie signalling and propose a bidirectional, reciprocal EC-pericyte model of Tie2 signalling. PMID:28719590

  1. Pericyte-expressed Tie2 controls angiogenesis and vessel maturation.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Martin; Milde, Laura; Holm, Annegret; Stanicek, Laura; Gengenbacher, Nicolas; Savant, Soniya; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Hasanov, Zulfiyya; Srivastava, Kshitij; Hu, Junhao; Hertel, Stella; Bartol, Arne; Schlereth, Katharina; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2017-07-18

    The Tie receptors with their Angiopoietin ligands act as regulators of angiogenesis and vessel maturation. Tie2 exerts its functions through its supposed endothelial-specific expression. Yet, Tie2 is also expressed at lower levels by pericytes and it has not been unravelled through which mechanisms pericyte Angiopoietin/Tie signalling affects angiogenesis. Here we show that human and murine pericytes express functional Tie2 receptor. Silencing of Tie2 in pericytes results in a pro-migratory phenotype. Pericyte Tie2 controls sprouting angiogenesis in in vitro sprouting and in vivo spheroid assays. Tie2 downstream signalling in pericytes involves Calpain, Akt and FOXO3A. Ng2-Cre-driven deletion of pericyte-expressed Tie2 in mice transiently delays postnatal retinal angiogenesis. Yet, Tie2 deletion in pericytes results in a pronounced pro-angiogenic effect leading to enhanced tumour growth. Together, the data expand and revise the current concepts on vascular Angiopoietin/Tie signalling and propose a bidirectional, reciprocal EC-pericyte model of Tie2 signalling.

  2. Pericytes as a new target for pathological processes in CADASIL.

    PubMed

    Dziewulska, Dorota; Lewandowska, Eliza

    2012-10-01

    CADASIL is a generalized angiopathy caused by mutations in NOTCH 3 gene leading to degeneration and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in small arteries and arterioles. Since the receptor protein encoded by NOTCH 3 gene is expressed not only on VSMC but also on pericytes, pericytes and capillary vessels can be damaged by CADASIL. To check this hypothesis we examined microvessels in autopsy brains and skin-muscle biopsies of CADASIL patients. We found degeneration and loss of pericytes in capillary vessels. Pericytes were shrunken and their cytoplasm contained numerous vacuoles, big vesicular structures and complexes of enlarged pathological mitochondria. Degenerative changes were also observed within endothelial-pericytic connections, especially within peg-and-socket junctions. Nearby pericyte cell membranes or inside infoldings, deposits of granular osmiophilic material (GOM) were usually seen. In the affected capillaries endothelial cells revealed features of degeneration, selective death or swelling, leading to narrowing or occlusion of the capillary lumen. Our findings indicate that in CADASIL not only VSMC but also pericytes are severely damaged. Pericyte involvement in CADASIL can result in increased permeability of capillary vessels and disturbances in cerebral microcirculation, leading to white matter injury. Since in capillaries pericytes regulate vessel contractility, their degeneration can also cause defective vasomotor reactivity, the phenomenon observed very early in CADASIL, before development of histopathological changes in vessel walls.

  3. Foxc1 is required by pericytes during fetal brain angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Julie A; Choe, Youngshik; Patterson, Katelin P; Hsieh, Ivy; Li, Dan; Jaminet, Shou-Ching; Daneman, Richard; Kume, Tsutomu; Huang, Eric J; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2013-07-15

    Brain pericytes play a critical role in blood vessel stability and blood-brain barrier maturation. Despite this, how brain pericytes function in these different capacities is only beginning to be understood. Here we show that the forkhead transcription factor Foxc1 is expressed by brain pericytes during development and is critical for pericyte regulation of vascular development in the fetal brain. Conditional deletion of Foxc1 from pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells leads to late-gestation cerebral micro-hemorrhages as well as pericyte and endothelial cell hyperplasia due to increased proliferation of both cell types. Conditional Foxc1 mutants do not have widespread defects in BBB maturation, though focal breakdown of BBB integrity is observed in large, dysplastic vessels. qPCR profiling of brain microvessels isolated from conditional mutants showed alterations in pericyte-expressed proteoglycans while other genes previously implicated in pericyte-endothelial cell interactions were unchanged. Collectively these data point towards an important role for Foxc1 in certain brain pericyte functions (e.g. vessel morphogenesis) but not others (e.g. barriergenesis).

  4. Type-2 pericytes participate in normal and tumoral angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Olson, John D; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-07-01

    Tissue growth and function depend on vascularization, and vascular insufficiency or excess exacerbates many human diseases. Identification of the biological processes involved in angiogenesis will dictate strategies to modulate reduced or excessive vessel formation. We examine the essential role of pericytes. Their heterogeneous morphology, distribution, origins, and physiology have been described. Using double-transgenic Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mice, we identified two pericyte subsets. We found that Nestin-GFP(-)/NG2-DsRed(+) (type-1) and Nestin-GFP(+)/NG2-DsRed(+) (type-2) pericytes attach to the walls of small and large blood vessels in vivo; in vitro, type-2, but not type-1, pericytes spark endothelial cells to form new vessels. Matrigel assay showed that only type-2 pericytes participate in normal angiogenesis. Moreover, when cancer cells were transplanted into Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mice, type-1 pericytes did not penetrate the tumor, while type-2 pericytes were recruited during its angiogenesis. As inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising strategy in cancer therapy, type-2 pericytes may provide a cellular target susceptible to signaling and pharmacological manipulation in treating malignancy. This work also reports the potential of type-2 pericytes to improve blood perfusion in ischemic hindlimbs, indicating their potential for treating ischemic illnesses.

  5. Type-2 pericytes participate in normal and tumoral angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Olson, John D.; Mintz, Akiva

    2014-01-01

    Tissue growth and function depend on vascularization, and vascular insufficiency or excess exacerbates many human diseases. Identification of the biological processes involved in angiogenesis will dictate strategies to modulate reduced or excessive vessel formation. We examine the essential role of pericytes. Their heterogeneous morphology, distribution, origins, and physiology have been described. Using double-transgenic Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mice, we identified two pericyte subsets. We found that Nestin-GFP−/NG2-DsRed+ (type-1) and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ (type-2) pericytes attach to the walls of small and large blood vessels in vivo; in vitro, type-2, but not type-1, pericytes spark endothelial cells to form new vessels. Matrigel assay showed that only type-2 pericytes participate in normal angiogenesis. Moreover, when cancer cells were transplanted into Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mice, type-1 pericytes did not penetrate the tumor, while type-2 pericytes were recruited during its angiogenesis. As inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising strategy in cancer therapy, type-2 pericytes may provide a cellular target susceptible to signaling and pharmacological manipulation in treating malignancy. This work also reports the potential of type-2 pericytes to improve blood perfusion in ischemic hindlimbs, indicating their potential for treating ischemic illnesses. PMID:24788248

  6. Myelin basic protein accumulation is impaired in a model of protein deficiency during development.

    PubMed

    Montanha-Rojas, E A; Ferreira, A A; Tenório, F; Barradas, P C

    2005-02-01

    During the development of the central nervous system (CNS) there is a great possibility of permanent effects in consequence of environmental disturbances. Nutritional deficiency is one of the factors that impair the normal CNS formation. In general, the protein deficiency evokes, beyond the damages in the maturation of nervous system, several consequences in body growth, biochemical maturation, motor function and the major cognitive functions. These effects were observed in undernourished children all over the world. Even in a restricted period, the malnutrition status may evoke permanent impairments in feeding behavior and in metabolism. Rats submitted to malnutrition during development, showed a marked decrease in the number of myelinated fibers. This condition may reflect a failure in the beginning of the wrapping of axons by oligodendroglial processes and/or a delay in the myelin synthesis. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is an intracellular oligodendrocyte protein that is directly related to the formation of the myelin sheath. In this study we verified the temporal pattern of MBP expression, by immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses, in a model of protein malnutrition induced during the first half of the lactation period. We showed that MBP expression was impaired in our malnutrition model and that some of the effects were maintained in adulthood, with possible consequences in the maturation of myelin sheath.

  7. The asymmetry defect of hippocampal circuitry impairs working memory in β2-microglobulin deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kazuhiro; Ito, Isao

    2017-03-01

    Left-right (L-R) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of brain function, but the mechanisms underlying functional asymmetry remain largely unknown. We previously identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus that result from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B) subunits. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we found that β2-microglobulin (β2m)-deficient mice that are defective in the stable cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) lack this circuit asymmetry. To investigate the effect of hippocampal asymmetry defect on brain function, we examined working memory of β2m-deficient mice in a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP) task. Mice were trained to nosepoke either a left or right key of a sample, to retain the position of the key during a delay interval, and then to choose the key opposite from the sample. During training sessions in which no programmed delay interval was imposed, the β2m-deficient mice acquired the task as fast as control mice, suggesting that the discrimination of left and right positions is not impaired by the total loss of hippocampal asymmetry. In contrast, the β2m-deficient mice made fewer correct responses than control mice when variable delay was imposed, suggesting that the asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry plays an important role in working memory.

  8. Deficiency in prohormone convertase PC1 impairs prohormone processing in Prader-Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Lisa C.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Sulsona, Carlos R.; Paull, Daniel; Rausch, Richard; Eddiry, Sanaa; Carli, Jayne F. Martin; Morabito, Michael V.; Skowronski, Alicja A.; Hubner, Gabriela; Zimmer, Matthew; Wang, Liheng; Day, Robert; Levy, Brynn; Dubern, Beatrice; Poitou, Christine; Clement, Karine; Rosenbaum, Michael; Salles, Jean Pierre; Tauber, Maithe; Egli, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by a loss of paternally expressed genes in an imprinted region of chromosome 15q. Among the canonical PWS phenotypes are hyperphagic obesity, central hypogonadism, and low growth hormone (GH). Rare microdeletions in PWS patients define a 91-kb minimum critical deletion region encompassing 3 genes, including the noncoding RNA gene SNORD116. Here, we found that protein and transcript levels of nescient helix loop helix 2 (NHLH2) and the prohormone convertase PC1 (encoded by PCSK1) were reduced in PWS patient induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPSC-derived) neurons. Moreover, Nhlh2 and Pcsk1 expression were reduced in hypothalami of fasted Snord116 paternal knockout (Snord116p–/m+) mice. Hypothalamic Agrp and Npy remained elevated following refeeding in association with relative hyperphagia in Snord116p–/m+ mice. Nhlh2-deficient mice display growth deficiencies as adolescents and hypogonadism, hyperphagia, and obesity as adults. Nhlh2 has also been shown to promote Pcsk1 expression. Humans and mice deficient in PC1 display hyperphagic obesity, hypogonadism, decreased GH, and hypoinsulinemic diabetes due to impaired prohormone processing. Here, we found that Snord116p–/m+ mice displayed in vivo functional defects in prohormone processing of proinsulin, pro-GH–releasing hormone, and proghrelin in association with reductions in islet, hypothalamic, and stomach PC1 content. Our findings suggest that the major neuroendocrine features of PWS are due to PC1 deficiency. PMID:27941249

  9. Impaired fatty acid oxidation in a Drosophila model of mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kishita, Yoshihito; Tsuda, Manabu; Aigaki, Toshiro

    2012-03-09

    Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP), which consists of the MTPα and MTPβ subunits, catalyzes long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. MTP deficiency in humans results in Reye-like syndrome. Here, we generated Drosophila models of MTP deficiency by targeting two genes encoding Drosophila homologs of human MTPα and MTPβ, respectively. Both Mtpα(KO) and Mtpβ(KO) flies were viable, but demonstrated reduced lifespan, defective locomotor activity, and reduced fecundity represented by the number of eggs laid by the females. The phenotypes of Mtpα(KO) flies were generally more striking than those of Mtpβ(KO) flies. Mtpα(KO) flies were hypersensitive to fasting, and retained lipid droplets in their fat body cells as in non-fasting conditions. The amount of triglyceride was also unchanged upon fasting in Mtpα(KO) flies, suggesting that lipid mobilization was disrupted. Finally, we showed that both Mtpα(KO) and Mtpβ(KO) flies accumulated acylcarnitine and hydroxyacylcarnitine, diagnostic markers of MTP deficiencies in humans. Our results indicated that both Mtpα(KO) and Mtpβ(KO) flies were impaired in long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. These flies should be useful as a model system to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of MTP deficiency.

  10. Cognitive impairment in folate-deficient rats corresponds to depleted brain phosphatidylcholine and is prevented by methionine without lowering homocysteine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poor folate status is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Although impaired brain methylation activity and homocysteine toxicity are widely believed to account for this association, how folate deficiency impairs cognition is uncertain. To better define the role of folate ...

  11. B-vitamin deficiency causes hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular cognitive impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Troen, Aron M; Shea-Budgell, Melissa; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Smith, Donald E; Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2008-08-26

    In older adults, mildly elevated plasma total homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment, cerebrovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease, but it is uncertain whether this is due to underlying metabolic, neurotoxic, or vascular processes. We report here that feeding male C57BL6/J mice a B-vitamin-deficient diet for 10 weeks induced hyperhomocysteinemia, significantly impaired spatial learning and memory, and caused a significant rarefaction of hippocampal microvasculature without concomitant gliosis and neurodegeneration. Total hippocampal capillary length was inversely correlated with Morris water maze escape latencies (r = -0.757, P < 0.001), and with plasma total homocysteine (r = -0.631, P = 0.007). Feeding mice a methionine-rich diet produced similar but less pronounced effects. Our findings suggest that cerebral microvascular rarefaction can cause cognitive dysfunction in the absence of or preceding neurodegeneration. Similar microvascular changes may mediate the association of hyperhomocysteinemia with human age-related cognitive decline.

  12. Impaired Exercise Performance and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Rats with Secondary Carnitine Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bouitbir, Jamal; Haegler, Patrizia; Singh, François; Joerin, Lorenz; Felser, Andrea; Duthaler, Urs; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP), a carnitine analog inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n = 12) or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n = 12) via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion. Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (–24%) and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption) was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected. Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle. PMID:27559315

  13. Ferritin Mutants of Escherichia coli Are Iron Deficient and Growth Impaired, and fur Mutants are Iron Deficient

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Tehrani, Hossein; Hudson, Aaron J.; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Timms, Andrew R.; Hawkins, Chris; Williams, John M.; Harrison, Pauline M.; Guest, John R.; Andrews, Simon C.

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of “reactive ferrous iron.” It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling

  14. Deficiency of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase impairs lysosomal metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Ilker; Tamboli, Irfan Y; Glebov, Konstantin; Richter, Josefine; Fell, Lisa H; Grimm, Marcus O; Haupenthal, Viola J; Hartmann, Tobias; Gräler, Markus H; van Echten-Deckert, Gerhild; Walter, Jochen

    2014-06-13

    Progressive accumulation of the amyloid β protein in extracellular plaques is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease. Amyloid β is generated during sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. In addition to the proteolytic processing by secretases, APP is also metabolized by lysosomal proteases. Here, we show that accumulation of intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) impairs the metabolism of APP. Cells lacking functional S1P-lyase, which degrades intracellular S1P, strongly accumulate full-length APP and its potentially amyloidogenic C-terminal fragments (CTFs) as compared with cells expressing the functional enzyme. By cell biological and biochemical methods, we demonstrate that intracellular inhibition of S1P-lyase impairs the degradation of APP and CTFs in lysosomal compartments and also decreases the activity of γ-secretase. Interestingly, the strong accumulation of APP and CTFs in S1P-lyase-deficient cells was reversed by selective mobilization of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum or lysosomes. Intracellular accumulation of S1P also impairs maturation of cathepsin D and degradation of Lamp-2, indicating a general impairment of lysosomal activity. Together, these data demonstrate that S1P-lyase plays a critical role in the regulation of lysosomal activity and the metabolism of APP.

  15. Pancreas Recovery Following Caerulein-induced Pancreatitis is Impaired in Plasminogen Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lugea, Aurelia; Nan, Li; French, Samuel W.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims: The plasminogen (plg) system participates in tissue repair in several organs, but its role in pancreas repair remains poorly characterized. To better understand the role of plg in pancreas recovery following injury, we examined the course of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in plg deficient and sufficient mice. Methods: Pancreatitis was induced by caerulein administration (50 μg/kg, 7 ip injections). Mice were sacrificed either at the acute phase (7 hours after the first caerulein injection) or during recovery (at 2, 4 and 7 days). In pancreatic sections we examined: pancreatic morphology, trypsin activation, inflammatory cell infiltration, acinar cell death, cell proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, activation of stellate cells (PSCs), and components of the plg and metalloproteinase systems. Results: In plg sufficient mice, pancreatic plg levels and plasmin activity increased during the acute phase and remained elevated during recovery. Pancreatitis resolved in plg sufficient mice within 7 days. Pancreas recovery involved reorganization of the parenchyma structure, removal of necrotic debris, cell proliferation, transient activation of PSCs and moderate deposition of ECM proteins. Acute pancreatitis (7-h) was indistinguishable between plg deficient and sufficient mice. In contrast, pancreas recovery was impaired in plg deficient mice. Plg deficiency led to disorganized parenchyma, extensive acinar cell loss, poor removal of necrotic debris, reduced cell proliferation and fibrosis. Fibrosis was characterized by deposition of collagens and fibronectin, persistent activation of PSCs and upregulation of pancreatic TGF-β1. Conclusions: Plg/plasmin deficiency leads to features similar to those found in chronic pancreatitis such as parenchymal atrophy and fibrosis. PMID:16952557

  16. Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Tian, Zhi Mei; Zhang, Han Xing; Ruan, Dong; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Chun Tian; Lin, Ying Cai

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the process of shell formation. Four hundred and fifty female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at 22 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups. Ducks were fed one of two calcium-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% calcium, respectively) or a calcium-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% calcium) for 67 days (depletion period) and then all ducks were fed a calcium-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the calcium-adequate control, the average shell thickness, egg shell weight, breaking strength, mammillae density and mammillary knob thickness of shell from ducks that consumed the diet with 0.38% calcium were significantly decreased (P<0.05) during the depletion period, accompanied by reduced tibia quality. The mRNA expression of both secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) and carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) in the uterus was decreased after feeding calcium-deficient diets (1.8% or 0.38% calcium). mRNA transcripts of calbindin 1 (CALB1), an important protein responsible for calcium transport, and the matrix protein genes ovocalyxin-32 (OCX-32) and ovocleidin-116 (OC-116) were reduced in ducks fed 0.38% calcium but not 1.8% calcium. Plasma estradiol concentration was decreased by both of the calcium-deficient diets (P<0.05). The impaired shell quality and suppressed functional proteins involved in shell formation could be reversed by repletion of dietary calcium. The results of the present study suggest that dietary calcium deficiency negatively affects eggshell quality and microarchitecture, probably by suppressing shell biomineralization. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Microvascular Remodeling and Wound Healing: A Role for Pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Dulmovits, Brian M.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Physiologic wound healing is highly dependent on the coordinated functions of vascular and non-vascular cells. Resolution of tissue injury involves coagulation, inflammation, formation of granulation tissue, remodeling and scarring. Angiogenesis, the growth of microvessels the size of capillaries, is crucial for these processes, delivering blood-borne cells, nutrients and oxygen to actively remodeling areas. Central to angiogenic induction and regulation is microvascular remodeling, which is dependent upon capillary endothelial cell and pericyte interactions. Despite our growing knowledge of pericyte-endothelial cell crosstalk, it is unclear how the interplay among pericytes, inflammatory cells, glia and connective tissue elements shape microvascular injury response. Here, we consider the relationships that pericytes form with the cellular effectors of healing in normal and diabetic environments, including repair following injury and vascular complications of diabetes, such as diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In addition, pericytes and stem cells possessing “pericyte-like” characteristics are gaining considerable attention in experimental and clinical efforts aimed at promoting healing or eradicating ocular vascular proliferative disorders. As the origin, identification and characterization of microvascular pericyte progenitor populations remains somewhat ambiguous, the molecular markers, structural and functional characteristics of pericytes will be briefly reviewed. PMID:22750474

  18. Pericytic mimicry in well-differentiated liposarcoma / atypical lipomatous tumor

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Rao, P. Nagesh; Asatrian, Greg; Scott, Michelle A.; Nguyen, Vi; Giacomelli, Paulina; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Eilber, Fritz C.; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M.; James, Aaron W.

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes are modified smooth muscle cells that closely enwrap small blood vessels, regulating and supporting the microvasculature through direct endothelial contact. Pericytes demonstrate a distinct immunohistochemical profile, including expression of αSMA (Smooth Muscle Actin), CD146, PDGFRβ (Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor β), and RGS5 (regulator of G-protein signaling 5). Previously, pericyte related antigens have been observed to be present among a group of soft tissue tumors with a perivascular growth pattern, including glomus tumor, myopericytoma and angioleiomyoma. Similarly, malignant tumor cells have been shown to pericyte-like immunoprofile when present in a perivascular location, seen in malignant melanoma, glioblastoma, and adenocarcinoma. Here, we examine well-differentiated liposarcoma specimens, which showed some element of perivascular areas with the appearance of smooth muscle (N=7 tumors). Immunohistochemical staining was performed for pericyte antigens, including αSMA, CD146, PDGFRβ, and RGS5. Results showed consistent pericytic marker expression among liposarcoma tumor cells within a perivascular distribution. MDM2 immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization for MDM2 revealed that these perivascular cells were of tumor origin (7/7 tumors), while double immunohistochemical detection for CD31/CD146 ruled out an endothelial cell contribution. These findings further support the concept of pericytic mimicry, already established in diverse malignancies, and its presence in well-differentiated liposarcoma. The extent to which pericytic mimicry has prognostic significance in liposarcoma is as yet unknown. PMID:27063472

  19. High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Hippocampal Zinc Deficiency and Memory Impairment with Inhibition of BDNF Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shou-Peng; Gu, Run-Xia; Tang, Fang-Xu; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Xiong, Yan; Qiu, Mei; Sun, Xu-Ying; Ke, Dan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose), 60 ppm Zn (high dose) or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit. PMID:23383172

  20. Impaired intestinal wound healing in Fhl2-deficient mice is due to disturbed collagen metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Kirfel, Jutta Pantelis, Dimitrios; Kabba, Mustapha; Kahl, Philip; Roeper, Anke; Kalff, Joerg C.; Buettner, Reinhard

    2008-12-10

    Four and one half LIM domain protein FHL2 participates in many cellular processes involved in tissue repair such as regulation of gene expression, cytoarchitecture, cell adhesion, migration and signal transduction. The repair process after wounding is initiated by the release of peptides and bioactive lipids. These molecules induce synthesis and deposition of a provisional extracellular matrix. We showed previously that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) triggers a signal transduction cascade mediating nuclear translocation of FHL2 in response to activation of the RhoA GTPase. Our present study shows that FHL2 is an important signal transducer influencing the outcome of intestinal anastomotic healing. Early wound healing is accompanied by reconstitution and remodelling of the extracellular matrix and collagen is primarily responsible for wound strength. Our results show that impaired intestinal wound healing in Fhl2-deficient mice is due to disturbed collagen III metabolism. Impaired collagen III synthesis reduced the mechanical stability of the anastomoses and led to lower bursting pressure in Fhl2-deficient mice after surgery. Our data confirm that FHL2 is an important factor regulating collagen expression in the early phase of wound healing, and thereby is critically involved in the physiologic process of anastomosis healing after bowel surgery and thus may represent a new therapeutic target.

  1. High dose zinc supplementation induces hippocampal zinc deficiency and memory impairment with inhibition of BDNF signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Jing, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Shou-Peng; Gu, Run-Xia; Tang, Fang-Xu; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Xiong, Yan; Qiu, Mei; Sun, Xu-Ying; Ke, Dan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose), 60 ppm Zn (high dose) or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit.

  2. microRNA-155 deficiency impairs dendritic cell function in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junfeng; Iwanowycz, Stephen; Yu, Fang; Jia, Xuemei; Leng, Shuilong; Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Wei; Huang, Shiang; Ai, Walden; Fan, Daping

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In antitumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) capture, process, and present tumor antigens to T cells, initiating a tumoricidal response. However, DCs are often dysfunctional due to their exposure to the tumor microenvironment (TME), leading to tumor escape from immune surveillance. Here, a vital role of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in regulating the function of DCs in breast cancer is reported. Host miR-155 deficiency enhanced breast cancer growth in mice, accompanied by reduced DCs in the tumors and draining lymph nodes. miR-155 deficiency in DCs impaired their maturation, migration ability, cytokine production, and the ability to activate T cells. We demonstrate that miR-155 regulates DC migration through epigenetic modulation of CCR7 expression. Moreover, IL-6 and IL-10, two cytokines abundant in the TME, are found to impair DC maturation by suppressing miR-155 expression. Furthermore, animal studies show that a lack of miR-155 diminishes the effectiveness of DC-based immunotherapy for breast cancer. In conclusion, these findings suggest that miR-155 is a master regulator of DC function in breast cancer, including maturation, cytokine secretion, migration toward lymph nodes, and activation of T-cells. These results suggest that boosting the expression of a single microRNA, miR-155, may significantly improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapies for breast cancer. PMID:27999745

  3. Role of thrombin-PAR1-PKCθ/δ axis in brain pericytes in thrombin-induced MMP-9 production and blood-brain barrier dysfunction in vitro.

    PubMed

    Machida, Takashi; Dohgu, Shinya; Takata, Fuyuko; Matsumoto, Junichi; Kimura, Ikuya; Koga, Mariko; Nakamoto, Keiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2017-03-24

    Thrombin, an essential component in the coagulation cascade, participates in the pathogenesis of brain diseases, such as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease through blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. It is thought that the thrombin-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 axis is an important process in the pathogenesis of neurovascular disease, such as BBB dysfunction. We recently reported that brain pericytes are the most MMP-9-releasing cells in response to thrombin stimulation among the BBB-constituting cells. This thrombin-induced MMP-9 release is partially due to protease-activated receptor (PAR1), one of the specific thrombin receptors. Then, we evaluated the intracellular signaling pathways involved in MMP-9 release and the contribution of thrombin-reactive brain pericytes to BBB dysfunction. PKC activator evoked MMP-9 release from brain pericytes. The thrombin-induced MMP-9 release was inhibited by U0126, LY294002, Go6976, and Go6983. However, Go6976 decreased phosphorylation levels of PKCθ and Akt, and Go6983 decreased phosphorylation levels of PKCδ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Additionally, treatment of pericytes with thrombin or PAR1-activating peptide stimulated PKCδ/θ signaling. These substances impaired brain endothelial barrier function in the presence of brain pericytes. Brain pericytes function through two independent downstream signaling pathways via PAR1 activation to release MMP-9 in response to thrombin - the PKCθ-Akt pathway and the PKCδ-ERK1/2 pathway. These pathways participate in PAR1-mediated MMP-9 release from pericytes, which leads to BBB dysfunction. Brain pericytes and their specific signaling pathways could provide novel therapeutic targets for thrombin-induced neurovascular diseases.

  4. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates.

  5. Dectin-3 Deficiency Promotes Colitis Development due to Impaired Antifungal Innate Immune Responses in the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tingting; Pan, Deng; Zhou, Zhicheng; You, Yun; Jiang, Changying; Zhao, Xueqiang; Lin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between commensal fungi and gut immune system are critical for establishing colonic homeostasis. Here we found that mice deficient in Dectin-3 (Clec4d-/-), a C-type lectin receptor that senses fungal infection, were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared with wild-type mice. The specific fungal burden of Candida (C.) tropicalis was markedly increased in the gut after DSS treatment in Clec4d-/- mice, and supplementation with C. tropicalis aggravated colitis only in Clec4d-/- mice, but not in wild-type controls. Mechanistically, Dectin-3 deficiency impairs phagocytic and fungicidal abilities of macrophages, and C. tropicalis-induced NF-κB activation and cytokine production. The conditioned media derived from Dectin-3-deficient macrophages were defective in promoting tissue repairing in colonic epithelial cells. Finally, anti-fungal therapy was effective in treating colitis in Clec4d-/- mice. These studies identified the role of Dectin-3 and its functional interaction with commensal fungi in intestinal immune system and regulation of colonic homeostasis. PMID:27280399

  6. Zinc deficiency results in a post transcriptional impairment in insulin synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jhala, U.S.; Baly, D.L. )

    1991-03-15

    Zinc deficiency results in a decrease in glucose stimulated insulin release. This study was conducted to examine whether zinc deficiency results in a decrease in insulin mRNA levels. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet containing 1ppm Zn(ZnD-1) 5ppm Zn(ZnD-5) or 30 ppm (ZnS) or were food restricted to match the intake of ZnD-1(PF-1) and ZnD-5(PF-5). Using the isolated perfused pancreas technique and a maximal glucose stimulus of 300 mg/dl, the authors confirmed their previous findings of a 50% decrease in insulin secretion in ZnD-5 compared with PF-5 and ZnS and a 50 to 75% decrease in insulin secretion in ZnD-1 compared with PF-1 and ZnS respectively. With a lower glucose stimulus impaired insulin release was observed only in ZnD-1 but in ZnD-5. Despite dramatic differences in insulin secretion, insulin message levels were not altered in the various experimental groups suggesting that the defect is not at the transcriptional level. Hence translation may be decreased or degradation of the protein may be increased. It is tempting to speculate that since insulin is stored as a hexamer of zinc, deficiency may result in the formation of an altered storage complex rendering it susceptible to proteolytic degradation.

  7. TRH Action Is Impaired in Pituitaries of Male IGSF1-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Marc-Olivier; Silander, Tanya L; Doycheva, Denica; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Rigden, Marc; Ongaro, Luisina; Zhou, Xiang; Joustra, Sjoerd D; Wit, Jan M; Wade, Mike G; Heuer, Heike; Refetoff, Samuel; Bernard, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 (IGSF1) gene cause central hypothyroidism. IGSF1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of unknown function expressed in thyrotropin (TSH)-producing thyrotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The protein is cotranslationally cleaved, with only its C-terminal domain (CTD) being trafficked to the plasma membrane. Most intragenic IGSF1 mutations in humans map to the CTD. In this study, we used CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce a loss-of-function mutation into the IGSF1-CTD in mice. The modified allele encodes a truncated protein that fails to traffic to the plasma membrane. Under standard laboratory conditions, Igsf1-deficient males exhibit normal serum TSH levels as well as normal numbers of TSH-expressing thyrotropes. However, pituitary expression of the TSH subunit genes and TSH protein content are reduced, as is expression of the receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). When challenged with exogenous TRH, Igsf1-deficient males release TSH, but to a significantly lesser extent than do their wild-type littermates. The mice show similarly attenuated TSH secretion when rendered profoundly hypothyroid with a low iodine diet supplemented with propylthiouracil. Collectively, these results indicate that impairments in pituitary TRH receptor expression and/or downstream signaling underlie central hypothyroidism in IGSF1 deficiency syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  8. Mitochondrial deficiency impairs hypoxic induction of HIF-1 transcriptional activity and retards tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Koido, Masaru; Haga, Naomi; Furuno, Aki; Tsukahara, Satomi; Sakurai, Junko; Tani, Yuri; Sato, Shigeo; Tomida, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria can be involved in regulating cellular stress response to hypoxia and tumor growth, but little is known about that mechanistic relationship. Here, we show that mitochondrial deficiency severely retards tumor xenograft growth with impairing hypoxic induction of HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Using mtDNA-deficient ρ0 cells, we found that HIF-1 pathway activation was comparable in slow-growing ρ0 xenografts and rapid-growing parental xenografts. Interestingly, we found that ex vivo ρ0 cells derived from ρ0 xenografts exhibited slightly increased HIF-1α expression and modest HIF-1 pathway activation regardless of oxygen concentration. Surprisingly, ρ0 cells, as well as parental cells treated with oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors, were unable to boost HIF-1 transcriptional activity during hypoxia, although HIF-1α protein levels were ordinarily increased in these cells under hypoxic conditions. These findings indicate that mitochondrial deficiency causes loss of hypoxia-induced HIF-1 transcriptional activity and thereby might lead to a constitutive HIF-1 pathway activation as a cellular adaptation mechanism in tumor microenvironment. PMID:28060746

  9. Subclinical zinc deficiency impairs pancreatic digestive enzyme activity and digestive capacity of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Daniel; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term subclinical Zn deficiency on exocrine pancreatic activity and changes in digestive capacity. A total of forty-eight weaned piglets were fed ad libitum a basal diet (maize and soyabean meal) with adequate Zn supply (88 mg Zn/kg diet) during a 2-week acclimatisation phase. Animals were then assigned to eight dietary treatment groups (n 6) according to a complete randomised block design considering litter, live weight and sex. All pigs were fed restrictively (450 g diet/d) the basal diet but with varying ZnSO4.7H2O additions, resulting in 28·1, 33·6, 38·8, 42·7, 47·5, 58·2, 67·8 and 88·0 mg Zn/kg diet for a total experimental period of 8 d. Pancreatic Zn concentrations and pancreatic activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A and B, elastase and α-amylase exhibited a broken-line response to stepwise reduction in dietary Zn by declining beneath thresholds of 39·0, 58·0, 58·0, 41·2, 47·5, 57·7 and 58·0 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. Furthermore, carboxypeptidase B and α-amylase activities were significantly lower in samples with reduced pancreatic Zn contents. Coefficients of faecal digestibility of DM, crude protein, total lipids and crude ash responded similarly to pancreatic enzyme activities by declining below dietary thresholds of 54·7, 45·0, 46·9 and 58·2 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. In conclusion, (1) subclinical Zn deficiency impaired pancreatic exocrine enzymes, (2) this response was connected to pancreatic Zn metabolism and (3) the decline in catalytic activity impaired faecal digestibility already after 1 week of insufficient alimentary Zn supply and very early before clinical deficiency symptoms arise.

  10. Partial eNOS deficiency causes spontaneous thrombotic cerebral infarction, amyloid angiopathy and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xing-Lin; Xue, Yue-Qiang; Ma, Tao; Wang, Xiaofang; Li, Jing Jing; Lan, Lubin; Malik, Kafait U; McDonald, Michael P; Dopico, Alejandro M; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2015-06-24

    Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis leads to the most common type of stroke and a likely cause of age-related cognitive decline and dementia. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) generates NO, which plays a crucial role in maintaining vascular function and exerting an antithrombotic action. Reduced eNOS expression and eNOS polymorphisms have been associated with stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of dementia associated with neurovascular dysfunction. However, direct proof of such association is lacking. Since there are no reports of complete eNOS deficiency in humans, we used heterozygous eNOS(+/-) mice to mimic partial deficiency of eNOS, and determine its impact on cerebrovascular pathology and perfusion of cerebral vessels. Combining cerebral angiography with immunohistochemistry, we found thrombotic cerebral infarctions in eNOS(+/-) mice as early as 3-6 months of age but not in eNOS(+/+) mice at any age. Remarkably, vascular occlusions in eNOS(+/-) mice were found almost exclusively in three areas: temporoparietal and retrosplenial granular cortexes, and hippocampus this distribution precisely matching the hypoperfused areas identified in preclinical AD patients. Moreover, progressive cerebral amyloid angiopaphy (CAA), blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and cognitive impairment were also detected in aged eNOS(+/-) mice. These data provide for the first time the evidence that partial eNOS deficiency results in spontaneous thrombotic cerebral infarctions that increase with age, leading to progressive CAA and cognitive impairments. We thus conclude that eNOS(+/-) mouse may represent an ideal model of ischemic stroke to address early and progressive damage in spontaneously-evolving chronic cerebral ischemia and thus, study vascular mechanisms contributing to vascular dementia and AD.

  11. Phosphatidylethanolamine deficiency in Mammalian mitochondria impairs oxidative phosphorylation and alters mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Tasseva, Guergana; Bai, Helin Daniel; Davidescu, Magdalena; Haromy, Alois; Michelakis, Evangelos; Vance, Jean E

    2013-02-08

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders, but the role of phospholipids, particularly the nonbilayer-forming lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), in mitochondrial function is poorly understood. Elimination of mitochondrial PE (mtPE) synthesis via phosphatidylserine decarboxylase in mice profoundly alters mitochondrial morphology and is embryonic lethal (Steenbergen, R., Nanowski, T. S., Beigneux, A., Kulinski, A., Young, S. G., and Vance, J. E. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 40032-40040). We now report that moderate <30% depletion of mtPE alters mitochondrial morphology and function and impairs cell growth. Acute reduction of mtPE by RNAi silencing of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase and chronic reduction of mtPE in PSB-2 cells that have only 5% of normal phosphatidylserine synthesis decreased respiratory capacity, ATP production, and activities of electron transport chain complexes (C) I and CIV but not CV. Blue native-PAGE analysis revealed defects in the organization of CI and CIV into supercomplexes in PE-deficient mitochondria, correlated with reduced amounts of CI and CIV proteins. Thus, mtPE deficiency impairs formation and/or membrane integration of respiratory supercomplexes. Despite normal or increased levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins in mtPE-deficient cells, and no reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondria were extensively fragmented, and mitochondrial ultrastructure was grossly aberrant. In general, chronic reduction of mtPE caused more pronounced mitochondrial defects than did acute mtPE depletion. The functional and morphological changes in PSB-2 cells were largely reversed by normalization of mtPE content by supplementation with lyso-PE, a mtPE precursor. These studies demonstrate that even a modest reduction of mtPE in mammalian cells profoundly alters mitochondrial functions.

  12. Deficiency of filaggrin regulates endogenous cysteine protease activity, leading to impaired skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Wang, X W; Wang, J J; Gutowska-Owsiak, D; Salimi, M; Selvakumar, T A; Gwela, A; Chen, L Y; Wang, Y J; Giannoulatou, E; Ogg, G

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder, characterized by skin barrier defects and enhanced allergen priming. Null mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are strongly associated with moderate to severe AD, but the pathways linking barrier dysfunction and cutaneous inflammation are still largely unknown. To assess alteration of endogenous cysteine protease activity in FLG-deficient keratinocytes, and to determine whether the alteration in cysteine protease activity affects epidermal barrier function and associated gene and protein expression. We established a stable FLG knockdown cell line, and reconstructed epidermal equivalents in vitro. Barrier function of the reconstructed epidermis, the barrier-associated genes and proteins, and the activity of endogenous cysteine proteases were tested. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases were used to further evaluate the role of endogenous cysteine proteases in epidermal barrier function. FLG knockdown induced impaired epidermal barrier function. Microarray, western blotting and fluorescence staining showed reduced expression of K10, ZO-1, E-cadherin, claudin-1 and occludin in FLG knockdown keratinocytes. Compared with cysteine protease activity in control cells, protease activity was dramatically enhanced in FLG knockdown keratinocytes. Furthermore, administration of cysteine protease inhibitors significantly recovered expression of K10 and tight junction proteins, and the barrier defect induced by FLG deficiency. This is the first observation of elevated endogenous cysteine protease activity in FLG-deficient keratinocytes, which may play an important role in impaired barrier function in AD skin. Modulation of cysteine protease activity might be a novel therapeutic approach for AD treatment. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. ABCG2 deficiency in skin impairs re-epithelialization in cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Min; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Sung-Jan; Huang, Wei-Chao; Shen, Chia-Rui; Mao, Wan-Yu; Shen, Chia-Ning

    2016-05-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 is expressed in the interfollicular epidermis and mediates the side-population phenotype in skin cells. However, the role of ABCG2 in skin is unclear. Increased expression levels of ABCG2 were found at the basal layer of transitional epidermis adjacent to cutaneous wounds in human patients, indicating that ABCG2 may be involved in regulating the wound healing process. To investigate the role of ABCG2 in cutaneous wound healing, full-thickness skin wounds were created in ABCG2 knockout (ABCG2-KO) and wild-type mice. The healing process was analysed and revealed that ABCG2 deficiency in skin results in delays in wound closure and impairments in re-epithelialization, as evidenced by reductions in both suprabasal differentiation and in p63-expressing keratinocytes migrating from transitional epidermis to epithelial tongues. The reduction in p63-expressing cells may be due to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species in ABCG2-KO epidermis, which can cause DNA damage and lead to proliferation arrest. To determine whether ABCG2 deficiency affects the potency of epidermal stem/progenitor cells (EPCs), transplantation studies were carried out, which demonstrated that ABCG2-KO EPCs display higher levels of γH2AX and lose the capacity to differentiate into suprabasal keratinocytes. A competitive repopulation assay confirmed that ABCG2 expression is critical for the proper expansion and differentiation of EPCs in cutaneous wounds. As EPCs are known to contribute to the healing of larger wounds, the current findings imply a functional role for ABCG2 in the expansion and differentiation of p63-expressing EPCs. Thus, ABCG2 deficiency in skin impairs re-epithelialization in cutaneous wound healing.

  14. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe oxidative stress, leading to memory retention impairment in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Bito, Tomohiro; Misaki, Taihei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various human diseases and conditions, such as a neurodegeneration, which is the major symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency, although the underlying disease mechanisms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency are poorly understood. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found to significantly increase cellular H2O2 and NO content in Caenorhabditis elegans and significantly decrease low molecular antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH) and L-ascorbic acid] levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities, indicating that vitamin B12 deficiency induces severe oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage of various cellular components in worms. An NaCl chemotaxis associative learning assay indicated that vitamin B12 deficiency did not affect learning ability but impaired memory retention ability, which decreased to approximately 58% of the control value. When worms were treated with 1mmol/L GSH, L-ascorbic acid, or vitamin E for three generations during vitamin B12 deficiency, cellular malondialdehyde content as an index of oxidative stress decreased to the control level, but the impairment of memory retention ability was not completely reversed (up to approximately 50%). These results suggest that memory retention impairment formed during vitamin B12 deficiency is partially attributable to oxidative stress.

  15. Propranolol targets the contractility of infantile haemangioma-derived pericytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, D; Boscolo, E; Durham, J T; Mulliken, J B; Herman, I M; Bischoff, J

    2014-11-01

    Propranolol, a β-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, is an effective treatment for endangering infantile haemangioma (IH). Dramatic fading of cutaneous colour is often seen a short time after initiating propranolol therapy, with accelerated regression of IH blood vessels discerned after weeks to months. To assess a possible role for haemangioma-derived pericytes (HemPericytes) isolated from proliferating and involuting phase tumours in apparent propranolol-induced vasoconstriction. HemPericytes were assayed for contractility on a deformable silicone substrate: propranolol (10 μmol L(-1)) restored basal contractile levels in HemPericytes that were relaxed with the AR agonist epinephrine. Small interfering RNA knockdown of β2-AR blunted this response. HemPericytes and haemangioma-derived endothelial cells were co-implanted subcutaneously in nude mice to form blood vessels; at day 7 after injection, mice were randomized into vehicle and propranolol-treated groups. HemPericytes expressed high levels of β2-AR mRNA compared with positive control bladder smooth muscle cells. In addition, β2-AR mRNA levels were relatively high in IH specimens (n = 15) compared with β1-AR, β3-AR and α1b-AR. Normal human retinal and placental pericytes were not affected by epinephrine or propranolol in this assay. Propranolol (10 μmol L(-1)) inhibited the proliferation of HemPericytes in vitro, as well as normal pericytes, indicating a nonselective effect in this assay. Contrast-enhanced microultrasonography of the implants after 7 days of treatment showed significantly decreased vascular volume in propranolol-treated animals, but no reduction in vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that the mechanism of propranolol's effect on proliferating IH involves increased pericytic contractility. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Propranolol Targets Contractility of Infantile Hemangioma-derived Pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D.; Boscolo, E.; Durham, J.T.; Mulliken, J.B.; Herman, I.M.; Bischoff, J.

    2014-01-01

    Propranolol, a β-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, was discovered serendipitously to be an effective treatment for endangering infantile hemangioma (IH). Dramatic fading of cutaneous color is often seen a short time after initiating propranolol therapy, with accelerated regression of IH blood vessels discerned after weeks to months. Here we focus on hemangioma-derived pericytes (HemPericytes) isolated from proliferating and involuting phase tumors to assess a possible role for these cells in the apparent propranolol-induced vasoconstriction. HemPericytes express high levels of β2 AR mRNA, compared to positive control bladder smooth muscle cells. In addition, β2 AR mRNA levels were relatively high in IH specimens (n=15) compared to β1 AR, β3 AR and α1bAR. HemPericytes were assayed for contractility on a deformable silicone substrate: propranolol (10μM) restored basal contractile levels in HemPericytes that were relaxed with the AR agonist epinephrine. siRNA knockdown β2 AR blunted this response. Normal human retinal and placental pericytes were not affected by epinephrine or propranolol in this assay. Propranolol (10μM) inhibited proliferation of HemPericytes in vitro, as well as normal pericytes, indicating a non-selective effect in this assay. HemPericytes and HemEC were co-implanted subcutaneously in nude mice to form blood vessels, and at day 7 after injection, mice were randomized into vehicle and propranolol treated groups. Contrast-enhanced micro-ultrasonography of the implants after 7 days of treatment showed significantly decreased vascular volume in propranolol-treated animals, but no reduction in vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that the mechanism of propranolol's effect on proliferating IH involves increased pericytic contractility. PMID:24720697

  17. Skin inflammation arising from cutaneous Treg deficiency leads to impaired viral immune responses1

    PubMed Central

    Freyschmidt, Eva-Jasmin; Mathias, Clinton B.; Diaz, Natalia; MacArthur, Daniel H.; Laouar, Amale; Manjunath, Narasimhaswamy; Hofer, Matthias D.; Wurbel, Marc-Andre; Campbell, James J.; Chatila, Talal A.; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) immunized with the small pox vaccine, vaccinia virus (VV), are susceptible to eczema vaccinatum (EV), a potentially-fatal disseminated infection. Dysfunction of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. To test whether Treg-deficiency predisposes to EV, we percutaneously VV-infected FoxP3-deficient (FoxP3KO) mice, which completely lack FoxP3+ Treg. These animals generated both fewer VV-specific CD8+ effector T cells and interferon-γ producing CD8+ T cells than controls, had higher viral loads and exhibited abnormal Th2 polarized responses to the virus. To focus on the consequences of Treg deficiency confined to the skin, we generated mixed CCR4KO FoxP3KO bone marrow (CCR4/FoxP3) chimeras in which skin, but not other tissues or central lymphoid organs, lack Treg. Like FoxP3KO mice, the chimeras had impaired VV-specific effector T cell responses and higher viral loads. Skin cytokine expression was significantly altered in infected chimeras compared to controls. Levels of the antiviral cytokines, type I and II interferons and IL-12, were reduced whereas expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β and IL-23, was increased. Importantly, infection of CCR4/FoxP3 chimeras by a non-cutaneous route (i.p.) induced immune responses comparable to controls. Our findings implicate allergic skin inflammation resulting from local Treg deficiency in the pathogenesis of EV. PMID:20548030

  18. Skin inflammation arising from cutaneous regulatory T cell deficiency leads to impaired viral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Freyschmidt, Eva-Jasmin; Mathias, Clinton B; Diaz, Natalia; MacArthur, Daniel H; Laouar, Amale; Manjunath, Narasimhaswamy; Hofer, Matthias D; Wurbel, Marc-Andre; Campbell, James J; Chatila, Talal A; Oettgen, Hans C

    2010-07-15

    Individuals with atopic dermatitis immunized with the small pox vaccine, vaccinia virus (VV), are susceptible to eczema vaccinatum (EV), a potentially fatal disseminated infection. Dysfunction of Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Treg) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. To test whether Treg deficiency predisposes to EV, we percutaneously VV infected FoxP3-deficient (FoxP3(KO)) mice, which completely lack FoxP3(+) Treg. These animals generated both fewer VV-specific CD8(+) effector T cells and IFN-gamma-producing CD8(+) T cells than controls, had higher viral loads, and exhibited abnormal Th2-polarized responses to the virus. To focus on the consequences of Treg deficiency confined to the skin, we generated mixed CCR4(KO) FoxP3(KO) bone marrow (CCR4/FoxP3) chimeras in which skin, but not other tissues or central lymphoid organs, lack Treg. Like FoxP3(KO) mice, the chimeras had impaired VV-specific effector T cell responses and higher viral loads. Skin cytokine expression was significantly altered in infected chimeras compared with controls. Levels of the antiviral cytokines, type I and II IFNs and IL-12, were reduced, whereas expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-beta, and IL-23, was increased. Importantly, infection of CCR4/FoxP3 chimeras by a noncutaneous route (i.p.) induced immune responses comparable to controls. Our findings implicate allergic skin inflammation resulting from local Treg deficiency in the pathogenesis of EV.

  19. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Deficiency Independently Predicts Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Sen Hee; Ho, Chung Shun; Ho, Roger Chun-Man; Mak, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive dysfunction has been reported in 20–80% of SLE patients. Converging evidence has indicated the importance of vitamin D as a neuroimmunomodulator for cognitive function. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and cognitive dysfunction. Methods Consecutive age- and gender-matched SLE patients and healthy controls (HCs) were administered Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics in this cross-sectional study. The primary outcome was the total throughput score (TTS). Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3 and total 25(OH)D] were measured using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Results In total, 61 SLE patients and 61 HCs were studied. SLE patients scored significantly lower than HCs in the TTS (p = 0.004). There were no statistically significant differences in 25(OH)D3 levels, total 25(OH)D levels and total 25(OH)D deficiency between SLE patients and HCs. However, more SLE patients had 25(OH)D3 deficiency compared to HCs [12 (19.7%) versus 2 (3.3%), p = 0.003]. Deficiency of 25(OH)D3 (β = -63.667, SE = 27.456, p = 0.025), but not other vitamin D variables, independently predicted worse TTS after adjusting for age, education, gender, ethnicity, HADS-Total, duration of SLE, SELENA-SLEDAI, SLICC/ACR Damage Index and cumulative steroid dose in SLE patients. Age (β = -4.261, SE = 0.866, p < 0.001) was the only predictor of TTS after adjusting for education, gender, ethnicity, HADS-Total, vitamin D levels or status in HCs. Conclusions Deficiency of 25(OH)D3, a potentially modifiable risk factor, independently predicted cognitive impairment in SLE patients. PMID:26636681

  20. Impairment of survival signaling and efferocytosis in TRPC3-deficient macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Tano, Jean-Yves; Smedlund, Kathryn; Lee, Robert; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Vazquez, Guillermo

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the role of TRPC3 channel in macrophage survival, apoptosis and efferocytic properties. {yields} TRPC3-deficient macrophages exhibit impaired survival signaling, increased apoptosis and impaired efferocytosis. {yields} These findings suggest that macrophage TRPC3 is an essential component for macrophage survival and clearance of apoptotic cells. -- Abstract: We have recently shown that in macrophages proper operation of the survival pathways phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) has an obligatory requirement for constitutive, non-regulated Ca{sup 2+} influx. In the present work we examined if Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 3 (TRPC3), a member of the TRPC family of Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cation channels, contributes to the constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx that supports macrophage survival. We used bone marrow-derived macrophages obtained from TRPC3{sup -/-} mice to determine the activation status of survival signaling pathways, apoptosis and their efferocytic properties. Treatment of TRPC3{sup +/+} macrophages with the pro-apoptotic cytokine TNF{alpha} induced time-dependent phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, AKT and BAD, and this was drastically reduced in TRPC3{sup -/-} macrophages. Compared to TRPC3{sup +/+} cells TRPC3{sup -/-} macrophages exhibited reduced constitutive cation influx, increased apoptosis and impaired efferocytosis. The present findings suggest that macrophage TRPC3, presumably through its constitutive function, contributes to survival signaling and efferocytic properties.

  1. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Elisa; Raoul, William; Calippe, Bertrand; Sahel, José-Alain; Guillonneau, Xavier; Paques, Michel; Sennlaub, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined. Methods and Results We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGFβ, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC) dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO. Conclusion Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease. PMID:26208283

  2. CCN2/Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Essential for Pericyte Adhesion and Endothelial Basement Membrane Formation during Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bau-Lin; van Handel, Ben; Hofmann, Jennifer J.; Chen, Tom T.; Choi, Aaron; Ong, Jessica R.; Benya, Paul D.; Mikkola, Hanna; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Lyons, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    CCN2/Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein that regulates cell adhesion, migration, and survival. CCN2 is best known for its ability to promote fibrosis by mediating the ability of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) to induce excess extracellular matrix production. In addition to its role in pathological processes, CCN2 is required for chondrogenesis. CCN2 is also highly expressed during development in endothelial cells, suggesting a role in angiogenesis. The potential role of CCN2 in angiogenesis is unclear, however, as both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. Here, through analysis of Ccn2-deficient mice, we show that CCN2 is required for stable association and retention of pericytes by endothelial cells. PDGF signaling and the establishment of the endothelial basement membrane are required for pericytes recruitment and retention. CCN2 induced PDGF-B expression in endothelial cells, and potentiated PDGF-B-mediated Akt signaling in mural (vascular smooth muscle/pericyte) cells. In addition, CCN2 induced the production of endothelial basement membrane components in vitro, and was required for their expression in vivo. Overall, these results highlight CCN2 as an essential mediator of vascular remodeling by regulating endothelial-pericyte interactions. Although most studies of CCN2 function have focused on effects of CCN2 overexpression on the interstitial extracellular matrix, the results presented here show that CCN2 is required for the normal production of vascular basement membranes. PMID:22363445

  3. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development in rat hippocampus: involvement of doublecortin and NCAM-180

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Developmental iodine deficiency results in inadequate thyroid hormone (TH), which damages the hippocampus. Here, we explored the roles of hippocampal doublecortin and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-180 in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Methods Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil (PTU)-adulterated water (5 ppm or 15 ppm) to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PN) 28. Silver-stained neurons and protein levels of doublecortin and NCAM-180 in several hippocampal subregions were assessed on PN14, PN21, PN28, and PN42. Results The results show that nerve fibers in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats were injured on PN28 and PN42. Downregulation of doublecortin and upregulation of NCAM-180 were observed in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats from PN14 on. These alterations were irreversible by the restoration of serum TH concentrations on PN42. Conclusion Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair the expression of doublecortin and NCAM-180, leading to nerve fiber malfunction and thus impairments in hippocampal development. PMID:20412599

  4. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development in rat hippocampus: involvement of doublecortin and NCAM-180.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Liu, Wanyang; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Xu, Hongde; Wei, Wei; Zhong, Jiapeng; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2010-04-23

    Developmental iodine deficiency results in inadequate thyroid hormone (TH), which damages the hippocampus. Here, we explored the roles of hippocampal doublecortin and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-180 in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil (PTU)-adulterated water (5 ppm or 15 ppm) to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PN) 28. Silver-stained neurons and protein levels of doublecortin and NCAM-180 in several hippocampal subregions were assessed on PN14, PN21, PN28, and PN42. The results show that nerve fibers in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats were injured on PN28 and PN42. Downregulation of doublecortin and upregulation of NCAM-180 were observed in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats from PN14 on. These alterations were irreversible by the restoration of serum TH concentrations on PN42. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair the expression of doublecortin and NCAM-180, leading to nerve fiber malfunction and thus impairments in hippocampal development.

  5. Aspects of pericytes and their potential therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Różycka, Justyna; Brzóska, Edyta; Skirecki, Tomasz

    2017-03-13

    Pericytes, which are multi-potential stem cells, co-create the walls of the microvessels: capillaries, terminal arterioles and postcapillary venules. These cells are localized under the basement membrane, tightly encircling the endothelium. The most frequently mentioned molecular markers of pericytes include NG2 (neural-glial antigen 2), β-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRβ), smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), regulator of G protein signalling 5 (RGS5), the adhesion protein CD146 and nestin. Different functions in physiological processes are assigned to pericytes such as maintaining the integrity and senescence of endothelial cells, transregulation of vascular tone or the potential to differentiate into other cells. Probably they are also involved in pathological processes such as tissues fibrosis. In this review, we focus on the participation of pericytes in the process of blood vessel formation, the regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue and fibrosis. Strong evidence for pericytes' participation in endothelial homeostasis, as well as in pathological conditions such as fibrosis, reveals a broad potential for the therapeutic use of these cells. Targeted pharmacological modulation of pericytes, leading to blocking signalling pathways responsible for the differentiation of pericytes into myofibroblasts, seems to be a promising strategy for the treatment of fibrosis in the early stages.

  6. Descending vasa recta endothelial cells and pericytes form mural syncytia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong; Lin, Hai; Cao, Chunhua; Payne, Kristie

    2013-01-01

    Using patch clamp, we induced depolarization of descending vasa recta (DVR) pericytes or endothelia and tested whether it was conducted to distant cells. Membrane potential was measured with the fluorescent voltage dye di-8-ANEPPS or with a second patch-clamp electrode. Depolarization of an endothelial cell induced responses in other endothelia within a millisecond and was slowed by gap junction blockade with heptanol. Endothelial response to pericyte depolarization was poor, implying high-resistance myo-endothelial coupling. In contrast, dual patch clamp of neighboring pericytes revealed syncytial coupling. At high sampling rate, the spread of depolarization between pericytes and endothelia occurred in 9 ± 2 or 12 ± 2 μs, respectively. Heptanol (2 mM) increased the overall input resistance of the pericyte layer to current flow and prevented transmission of depolarization between neighboring cells. The fluorescent tracer Lucifer yellow (LY), when introduced through ruptured patches, spread between neighboring endothelia in 1 to 7 s, depending on location of the flanking cell. LY diffused to endothelial cells on the ipsilateral but not contralateral side of the DVR wall and minimally between pericytes. We conclude that both DVR pericytes and endothelia are part of individual syncytia. The rate of conduction of membrane potential exceeds that for diffusion of hydrophilic molecules by orders of magnitude. Gap junction coupling of adjacent endothelial cells may be spatially oriented to favor longitudinal transmission along the DVR axis. PMID:24381184

  7. The pericyte antigen RGS5 in perivascular soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Scott, Michelle A; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M; James, Aaron W

    2016-01-01

    Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear lineage of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from or differentiate to pericytes or a modified perivascular cell. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation--although little bona fide evidence of pericytic differentiation exists. Likewise the perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) family shares a perivascular growth pattern, but with distinctive dual myoid-melanocytic differentiation. RGS5, regulator of G-protein signaling 5, is a novel pericyte antigen with increasing use in animal models. Here, we describe the immunohistochemical expression patterns of RGS5 across perivascular soft tissue tumors, including glomus tumor (n = 6), malignant glomus tumor (n = 4), myopericytoma (n = 3), angioleiomyoma (n = 9), myofibroma (n = 4), solitary fibrous tumor (n = 10), and PEComa (n = 19). Immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantification was performed, and compared to αSMA (smooth muscle actin) expression. Results showed that glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma shared a similar diffuse immunoreactivity for RGS5 and αSMA across all tumors examined. In contrast, myofibroma, solitary fibrous tumor and PEComa showed predominantly focal to absent RGS5 immunoreactivity. These findings further support a common pericytic lineage of differentiation in glomus tumors, myopericytoma and angioleiomyoma. The pericyte marker RGS5 may be of future clinical utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors.

  8. Modeling neurodegenerative disease pathophysiology in thiamine deficiency: consequences of impaired oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jhala, Shivraj S; Hazell, Alan S

    2011-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that thiamine deficiency (TD), the cause of Wernicke's encephalopathy, produces alterations in brain function and structural damage that closely model a number of maladies in which neurodegeneration is a characteristic feature, including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, along with alcoholic brain disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Impaired oxidative metabolism in TD due to decreased activity of thiamine-dependent enzymes leads to a multifactorial cascade of events in the brain that include focal decreases in energy status, oxidative stress, lactic acidosis, blood-brain barrier disruption, astrocyte dysfunction, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, amyloid deposition, decreased glucose utilization, immediate-early gene induction, and inflammation. This review describes our current understanding of the basis of these abnormal processes in TD, their interrelationships, and why this disorder can be useful for our understanding of how decreased cerebral energy metabolism can give rise to cell death in different neurodegenerative disease states.

  9. Force impairment in calpain 3-deficient mice is not correlated with mechanical disruption.

    PubMed

    Fougerousse, Françoise; Gonin, Patrick; Durand, Muriel; Richard, Isabelle; Raymackers, Jean-Marc

    2003-05-01

    Defects in human calpain 3 are responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized mainly by late-onset proximal muscular atrophy. A corresponding murine model has previously been generated by gene targeting. In this report, muscular activity of calpain 3-deficient (capn3(-/-)) mice was evaluated at different ages. Growth curves showed a progressive global muscular atrophy. Histological examination throughout the lifespan of mice confirmed the dystrophic lesions. Whole animal tests showed only a mild significant impairment of the forelimbs. Studies of the mechanical properties of selected isolated fast- and slow-twitch muscles demonstrated that slow-twitch muscles were significantly weaker in capn3(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Three different tests showed that there was no membrane disruption, suggesting a nonmechanical etiology of capn3(-/-) mice dystrophy. These findings are consistent with a mechanism involving signaling systems.

  10. Selective loss of gastrointestinal mast cells and impaired immunity in PI3K-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Fukao, Taro; Yamada, Taketo; Tanabe, Masanobu; Terauchi, Yasuo; Ota, Takayuki; Takayama, Tetsuro; Asano, Tomoichiro; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Kadowaki, Takashi; Hata Ji, Jun-ichi; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2002-03-01

    Mice that lack the p85alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) are deficient in gastrointestinal and peritoneal mast cells but have dermal mast cells. Accordingly, these mice show impaired bacterial clearance in response to acute septic peritonitis and are highly susceptible to infection by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis. Systemic anaphylactic shock responses, however, are intact. We found that although reconstitution of PI3Kminus sign/minus sign mice with bone marrow--derived mast cells (BMMCs) restored anti-bacterial immunity, only T helper type 2 (TH2)-conditioned BMMCs, not "standard" BMMCs, were able to restore anti-nematode immunity. This finding highlights the importance of the TH2 response in the control of nematode infection. Thus, PI3K likely plays an essential role in host immune responses by regulating both the development and induction of mast cells.

  11. Autosomal recessive PGM3 mutations link glycosylation defects to atopy, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and neurocognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Xiaomin; Ichikawa, Mie; Lyons, Jonathan J.; Datta, Shrimati; Lamborn, Ian T.; Jing, Huie; Kim, Emily S.; Biancalana, Matthew; Wolfe, Lynne A.; DiMaggio, Thomas; Matthews, Helen F.; Kranick, Sarah M.; Stone, Kelly D.; Holland, Steven M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Hughes, Jason D.; Mehmet, Huseyin; McElwee, Joshua; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Freeze, Hudson H.; Su, Helen C.; Milner, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying genetic syndromes that lead to significant atopic disease can open new pathways for investigation and intervention in allergy. Objective To define a genetic syndrome of severe atopy, elevated serum IgE, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and motor and neurocognitive impairment. Methods Eight patients from two families who had similar syndromic features were studied. Thorough clinical evaluations, including brain MRI and sensory evoked potentials, were performed. Peripheral lymphocyte flow cytometry, antibody responses, and T cell cytokine production were measured. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify disease-causing mutations. Immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, enzymatic assays, nucleotide sugar and sugar phosphate analyses along with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of glycans were used to determine the molecular consequences of the mutations. Results Marked atopy and autoimmunity were associated with increased TH2 and TH17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells. Bacterial and viral infection susceptibility were noted along with T cell lymphopenia, particularly of CD8+ T cells, and reduced memory B cells. Apparent brain hypomyelination resulted in markedly delayed evoked potentials and likely contributed to neurological abnormalities. Disease segregated with novel autosomal recessive mutations in a single gene, phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3). Although PGM3 protein expression was variably diminished, impaired function was demonstrated by decreased enzyme activity and reduced UDP-GlcNAc, along with decreased O- and N-linked protein glycosylation in patients’ cells. These results define a new Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation. Conclusions Autosomal recessive, hypomorphic PGM3 mutations underlie a disorder of severe atopy, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, intellectual disability and hypomyelination. PMID:24589341

  12. Impaired osteoclast homeostasis in the cystatin B-deficient mouse model of progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Otto; Puolakkainen, Tero; Lehto, Jemina; Harittu, Elina; Kallonen, Aki; Peura, Marko; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Kopra, Outi; Kiviranta, Riku; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

    2015-12-01

    Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of Unverricht-Lundborg type (EPM1) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by incapacitating stimulus-sensitive myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures with onset at the age of 6 to 16 years. EPM1 patients also exhibit a range of skeletal changes, e.g., thickened frontal cranial bone, arachnodactyly and scoliosis. Mutations in the gene encoding cystatin B (CSTB) underlie EPM1. CSTB is an inhibitor of cysteine cathepsins, including cathepsin K, a key enzyme in bone resorption by osteoclasts. CSTB has previously been shown to protect osteoclasts from experimentally induced apoptosis and to modulate bone resorption in vitro. Nevertheless, its physiological function in bone and the cause of the bone changes in patients remain unknown. Here we used the CSTB-deficient mouse (Cstb(-/-)) model of EPM1 to evaluate the contribution of defective CSTB protein function on bone pathology and osteoclast differentiation and function. Micro-computed tomography of hind limbs revealed thicker trabeculae and elevated bone mineral density in the trabecular bone of Cstb(-/-) mice. Histology from Cstb(-/-) mouse bones showed lower osteoclast count and thinner growth plates in long bones. Bone marrow-derived osteoclast cultures revealed lower osteoclast number and size in the Cstb(-/-) group. Cstb(-/-) osteoclasts formed less and smaller resorption pits in an in vitro assay. This impaired resorptive capacity was likely due to a decrease in osteoclast numbers and size. These data imply that the skeletal changes in Cstb(-/-) mice and in EPM1 patients are a result of CSTB deficiency leading to impaired osteoclast formation and consequently compromised resorptive capacity. These results suggest that the role of CSTB in osteoclast homeostasis and modulation of bone metabolism extends beyond cathepsin K regulation.

  13. Msh2 deficiency leads to dysmyelination of the corpus callosum, impaired locomotion, and altered sensory function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Barthelemy; Devaraju, Prakash; Janke, Laura J.; Fan, Yiping; Frase, Sharon; Eddins, Donnie; Peters, Jennifer L.; Kim, Jieun; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Evans, William E.

    2016-01-01

    A feature in patients with constitutional DNA-mismatch repair deficiency is agenesis of the corpus callosum, the cause of which has not been established. Here we report a previously unrecognized consequence of deficiency in MSH2, a protein known primarily for its function in correcting nucleotide mismatches or insertions and deletions in duplex DNA caused by errors in DNA replication or recombination. We documented that Msh2 deficiency causes dysmyelination of the axonal projections in the corpus callosum. Evoked action potentials in the myelinated corpus callosum projections of Msh2-null mice were smaller than wild-type mice, whereas unmyelinated axons showed no difference. Msh2-null mice were also impaired in locomotive activity and had an abnormal response to heat. These findings reveal a novel pathogenic consequence of MSH2 deficiency, providing a new mechanistic hint to previously recognized neurological disorders in patients with inherited DNA-mismatch repair deficiency. PMID:27476972

  14. Deficiency in ubiquitin-like protein Ubl4A impairs migration of fibroblasts and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Affonso, Carlos; Bonomo, Raiza; Mañas, Adriana; Xiang, Jialing

    2017-01-29

    Ubiquitin-like protein Ubl4A is a small, multi-functional protein with no ubiquitination activity. We have previously demonstrated that Ubl4A directly interacts with actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3) and promotes Arp2/3-dependent actin branching, thereby accelerating plasma membrane translocation of protein kinase Akt upon insulin stimulation. Here, we show that Ubl4A is critical for plasma membrane protrusion and cell migration. Ubl4A, F-actin and Arp2/3 are co-localized at the cell leading edges during wound closure. Knockout of Ubl4A significantly reduces actin-mediated membrane protrusion and delays wound healing by primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Consistently, the ability of fibroblasts to migrate out of corneal tissue ex vivo is also impaired in Ubl4A-deficient mice. Furthermore, cell motility, but not phagocytosis, is significantly decreased in Ubl4A-deficient macrophages compared with wild-type controls. These results imply an important role for Ubl4A in cell migration-associated pathophysiological processes.

  15. Cyclophilin D deficiency rescues Aβ-impaired PKA/CREB signaling and alleviates synaptic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Du, Heng; Guo, Lan; Wu, Xiaoping; Sosunov, Alexander A; McKhann, Guy M; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2014-12-01

    The coexistence of neuronal mitochondrial pathology and synaptic dysfunction is an early pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cyclophilin D (CypD), an integral part of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), is involved in amyloid beta (Aβ)-instigated mitochondrial dysfunction. Blockade of CypD prevents Aβ-induced mitochondrial malfunction and the consequent cognitive impairments. Here, we showed the elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by antioxidants probucol or superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase blocks Aβ-mediated inactivation of protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP regulatory-element-binding (CREB) signal transduction pathway and loss of synapse, suggesting the detrimental effects of oxidative stress on neuronal PKA/CREB activity. Notably, neurons lacking CypD significantly attenuate Aβ-induced ROS. Consequently, CypD-deficient neurons are resistant to Aβ-disrupted PKA/CREB signaling by increased PKA activity, phosphorylation of PKA catalytic subunit (PKA C), and CREB. In parallel, lack of CypD protects neurons from Aβ-induced loss of synapses and synaptic dysfunction. Furthermore, compared to the mAPP mice, CypD-deficient mAPP mice reveal less inactivation of PKA-CREB activity and increased synaptic density, attenuate abnormalities in dendritic spine maturation, and improve spontaneous synaptic activity. These findings provide new insights into a mechanism in the crosstalk between the CypD-dependent mitochondrial oxidative stress and signaling cascade, leading to synaptic injury, functioning through the PKA/CREB signal transduction pathway.

  16. Impaired clot retraction in factor XIII A subunit-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Kohji; Souri, Masayoshi; Kaneda, Mizuho; Miki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Ichinose, Akitada

    2010-02-11

    Factor XIII (FXIII) is a plasma transglutaminase that cross-links fibrin monomers, alpha(2)-plasmin inhibitor, and so forth. Congenital FXIII deficiency causes lifelong bleeding symptoms. To understand the molecular pathology of FXIII deficiency in vivo, its knockout mice have been functionally analyzed. Because prolonged bleeding times, a sign of defective/abnormal primary hemostasis, were commonly observed in 2 separate lines of FXIII A subunit (FXIII-A) knockout mice, a possible role or roles of FXIII in platelet-related function was investigated in the present study. Although platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate or collagen was normal, clot retraction (CR) was lost in the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) of FXIII-A knockout mice. In contrast, there was no CR impairment in the PRP of tissue transglutaminase-knockout mice compared with that of wild-type mice. Furthermore, a transglutaminase inhibitor, cystamine, halted CR in the PRP of wild-type mice. These results indicate that the enzymatic activity of FXIII is necessary for CR, at least in mice.

  17. Abcd2 Is a Strong Modifier of the Metabolic Impairments in Peritoneal Macrophages of Abcd1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Zahid; Wiesinger, Christoph; Voigtländer, Till; Werner, Hauke B.; Berger, Johannes; Forss-Petter, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    The inherited peroxisomal disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), associated with neurodegeneration and inflammatory cerebral demyelination, is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCD1 (ALDP). ABCD1 transports CoA-esters of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into peroxisomes for degradation by β-oxidation; thus, ABCD1 deficiency results in VLCFA accumulation. The closest homologue, ABCD2 (ALDRP), when overexpressed, compensates for ABCD1 deficiency in X-ALD fibroblasts and in Abcd1-deficient mice. Microglia/macrophages have emerged as important players in the progression of neuroinflammation. Human monocytes, lacking significant expression of ABCD2, display severely impaired VLCFA metabolism in X-ALD. Here, we used thioglycollate-elicited primary mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMΦ) from Abcd1 and Abcd2 single- and double-deficient mice to establish how these mutations affect VLCFA metabolism. By quantitative RT-PCR, Abcd2 mRNA was about half as abundant as Abcd1 mRNA in wild-type and similarly abundant in Abcd1-deficient MPMΦ. VLCFA (C26∶0) accumulated about twofold in Abcd1-deficient MPMΦ compared with wild-type controls, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In Abcd2-deficient macrophages VLCFA levels were normal. However, upon Abcd1/Abcd2 double-deficiency, VLCFA accumulation was markedly increased (sixfold) compared with Abcd1-deficient MPMΦ. Elovl1 mRNA, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for elongation of VLCFA, was equally abundant across all genotypes. Peroxisomal β-oxidation of C26∶0 amounted to 62% of wild-type activity in Abcd1-deficient MPMΦ and was significantly more impaired (29% residual activity) upon Abcd1/Abcd2 double-deficiency. Single Abcd2 deficiency did not significantly compromise β-oxidation of C26∶0. Thus, the striking accumulation of VLCFA in double-deficient MPMΦ compared with single Abcd1 deficiency was due to the loss of ABCD2

  18. Abcd2 is a strong modifier of the metabolic impairments in peritoneal macrophages of ABCD1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Zahid; Wiesinger, Christoph; Voigtländer, Till; Werner, Hauke B; Berger, Johannes; Forss-Petter, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    The inherited peroxisomal disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), associated with neurodegeneration and inflammatory cerebral demyelination, is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCD1 (ALDP). ABCD1 transports CoA-esters of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into peroxisomes for degradation by β-oxidation; thus, ABCD1 deficiency results in VLCFA accumulation. The closest homologue, ABCD2 (ALDRP), when overexpressed, compensates for ABCD1 deficiency in X-ALD fibroblasts and in Abcd1-deficient mice. Microglia/macrophages have emerged as important players in the progression of neuroinflammation. Human monocytes, lacking significant expression of ABCD2, display severely impaired VLCFA metabolism in X-ALD. Here, we used thioglycollate-elicited primary mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMΦ) from Abcd1 and Abcd2 single- and double-deficient mice to establish how these mutations affect VLCFA metabolism. By quantitative RT-PCR, Abcd2 mRNA was about half as abundant as Abcd1 mRNA in wild-type and similarly abundant in Abcd1-deficient MPMΦ. VLCFA (C26∶0) accumulated about twofold in Abcd1-deficient MPMΦ compared with wild-type controls, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In Abcd2-deficient macrophages VLCFA levels were normal. However, upon Abcd1/Abcd2 double-deficiency, VLCFA accumulation was markedly increased (sixfold) compared with Abcd1-deficient MPMΦ. Elovl1 mRNA, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for elongation of VLCFA, was equally abundant across all genotypes. Peroxisomal β-oxidation of C26∶0 amounted to 62% of wild-type activity in Abcd1-deficient MPMΦ and was significantly more impaired (29% residual activity) upon Abcd1/Abcd2 double-deficiency. Single Abcd2 deficiency did not significantly compromise β-oxidation of C26∶0. Thus, the striking accumulation of VLCFA in double-deficient MPMΦ compared with single Abcd1 deficiency was due to the loss of ABCD2

  19. SHANK3 Deficiency Impairs Heat Hyperalgesia and TRPV1 Signaling in Primary Sensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingjian; Kim, Yong Ho; Wang, Xiaoming; Liu, Di; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Bey, Alexandra L; Lay, Mark; Chang, Wonseok; Berta, Temugin; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2016-12-21

    Abnormal pain sensitivity is commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and affects the life quality of ASD individuals. SHANK3 deficiency was implicated in ASD and pain dysregulation. Here, we report functional expression of SHANK3 in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons and spinal cord presynaptic terminals. Homozygous and heterozygous Shank3 complete knockout (Δe4-22) results in impaired heat hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Specific deletion of Shank3 in Nav1.8-expressing sensory neurons also impairs heat hyperalgesia in homozygous and heterozygous mice. SHANK3 interacts with transient receptor potential subtype V1 (TRPV1) via Proline-rich region and regulates TRPV1 surface expression. Furthermore, capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, inward currents in DRG neurons, and synaptic currents in spinal cord neurons are all reduced after Shank3 haploinsufficiency. Finally, partial knockdown of SHANK3 expression in human DRG neurons abrogates TRPV1 function. Our findings reveal a peripheral mechanism of SHANK3, which may underlie pain deficits in SHANK3-related ASDs.

  20. Early growth and development impairments in patients with ganglioside GM3 synthase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, A; Wang, D; Bright, A; Sency, V; Zhou, A; Xin, B

    2016-05-01

    Ganglioside GM3 synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides. GM3 synthase deficiency (GSD) causes a complete absence of GM3 and all downstream biosynthetic derivatives. The individuals affected by this disorder manifest severe irritability, intractable seizures and profound intellectual disability. However, we have found that most newborns seem symptom-free for a period of time after birth. In order to further understand the onset of the disease, we investigated the early growth and development of patients with this condition through this study. We compared 37 affected individuals with their normal siblings and revealed that all children with GSD had relatively normal intrauterine growth and development, as their weight, length and head circumference were similar to their normal siblings at birth. However, the disease progresses quickly after birth and causes significant constitutional impairments of growth and development by 6 months of age. Neither breastfeeding nor gastrostomy tube placement made significant difference on growth and development as all groups of patients showed the similar pattern. We conclude that GSD causes significant postnatal growth and developmental impairments and the amount of gangliosides in breast milk and general nutritional intervention do not seem to alter these outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Souza, Valéria; Alenina, Natalia; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M; Santos, Robson Augusto S; Bader, Michael; Rabelo, Luiza A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2(-/y)) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2(-/y) mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2(-/y) mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2(-/y) mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2(-/y) mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2(-/y) mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis.

  2. Impairment of dendritic cell functions in patients with adaptor protein-3 complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Alberto; Salvi, Valentina; Colombo, Francesca; Moratto, Daniele; Lorenzi, Luisa; Vermi, William; De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Porta, Fulvio; Plebani, Alessandro; Facchetti, Fabio; Sozzani, Silvano; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-06-30

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2) is a primary immunodeficiency due to adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex deficiency. HPS2 patients present neutropenia, partial albinism, and impaired lysosomal vesicles formation in hematopoietic cells. Given the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the immune response, we studied monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in two HPS2 siblings. Mature HPS2 moDCs showed impaired expression of CD83 and DC-lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP), low levels of MIP1-β/CCL4, MIG/CXCL9, and severe defect of interleukin-12 (IL-12) secretion. DCs in lymph-node biopsies from the same patients showed a diffuse cytoplasm reactivity in a large fraction of DC-LAMP(+) cells, instead of the classical dot-like stain. In addition, analysis of pDC-related functions of blood-circulating mononuclear cells revealed reduced interferon-α secretion in response to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), whereas granzyme-B induction upon IL-3/IL-10 stimulation was normal. Finally, T-cell costimulatory activity, as measured by mixed lymphocyte reaction assay, was lower in patients, suggesting that function and maturation of DCs is abnormal in patients with HPS2.

  3. Impaired fertilizing ability of superoxide dismutase 1-deficient mouse sperm during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Kimura, Naoko; Fujii, Junichi

    2012-11-01

    The oxidative modification of gametes by a reactive oxygen species is a major deleterious factor that decreases the successful rate of in vitro fertilization. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) plays a pivotal role in antioxidation by scavenging the superoxide anion, and its deficiency causes infertility in female mice, but the significance of the enzyme in male mice remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized Sod1(-/-) (Sod1-KO) male reproductive organs and compiled the first report of the impaired fertilizing ability of Sod1-KO sperm in in vitro fertilization. Insemination of wild-type oocytes with Sod1-KO sperm exhibited lower rates of fertility compared with insemination by wild-type sperm. The low fertilizing ability found for Sod1-KO sperm was partially rescued by reductant 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggested the oxidative modification of sperm components. The numbers of motile and progressive sperm decreased during the in vitro fertilization process, and a decline in ATP content and elevation in lipid peroxidation occurred in the Sod1-KO sperm in an incubation time-dependent manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation, which is a hallmark for sperm capacitation, was also impaired in the Sod1-KO sperm. These results collectively suggest that machinery involved in sperm capacitation and motility are vulnerable to oxidative damage during the in vitro fertilization process, which could increase the rate of inefficient fertilization.

  4. Characterisation of CASPR2 deficiency disorder--a syndrome involving autism, epilepsy and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Rodenas-Cuadrado, Pedro; Pietrafusa, Nicola; Francavilla, Teresa; La Neve, Angela; Striano, Pasquale; Vernes, Sonja C

    2016-02-03

    Heterozygous mutations in CNTNAP2 have been identified in patients with a range of complex phenotypes including intellectual disability, autism and schizophrenia. However heterozygous CNTNAP2 mutations are also found in the normal population. Conversely, homozygous mutations are rare in patient populations and have not been found in any unaffected individuals. We describe a consanguineous family carrying a deletion in CNTNAP2 predicted to abolish function of its protein product, CASPR2. Homozygous family members display epilepsy, facial dysmorphisms, severe intellectual disability and impaired language. We compared these patients with previously reported individuals carrying homozygous mutations in CNTNAP2 and identified a highly recognisable phenotype. We propose that CASPR2 loss produces a syndrome involving early-onset refractory epilepsy, intellectual disability, language impairment and autistic features that can be recognized as CASPR2 deficiency disorder. Further screening for homozygous patients meeting these criteria, together with detailed phenotypic and molecular investigations will be crucial for understanding the contribution of CNTNAP2 to normal and disrupted development.

  5. Superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs olfactory sexual signaling and alters bioenergetic function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Garratt, Michael; Pichaud, Nicolas; Glaros, Elias N.; Kee, Anthony John; Brooks, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress (an overproduction of reactive oxygen species in relation to defense mechanisms) may restrict investment in life history traits, such as growth, reproduction, lifespan, and the production of sexual signals to attract mates. The constraint on sexual signaling by oxidative stress is of particular interest because it has been proposed as a mechanism ensuring that only good-quality males produce the most attractive sexual signals. Despite these predictions, evidence supporting this theory is, at best, equivocal. We used a superoxide dismutase knockout mouse to demonstrate that oxidative stress directly impairs investment in morphological (preputial glands) and molecular (major urinary proteins) components of olfactory signaling essential for mate attraction. By maintaining males in a much more competitive environment than usual for mouse laboratory experiments, we also revealed a range of phenotypes of superoxide dismutase deficiency not observed in previous studies of this mouse model. This range included impaired bioenergetic function, which was undetectable in the control environment of this study. We urge further examination of model organisms in seminatural conditions and more competitive laboratory environments, as important phenotypes can be exposed under these more demanding conditions. PMID:24843175

  6. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M.; Santos, Robson Augusto S.; Bader, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2−/y) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2−/y mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2−/y mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2−/y mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2−/y mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2−/y mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis. PMID:28101297

  7. PICK1 Deficiency Impairs Secretory Vesicle Biogenesis and Leads to Growth Retardation and Decreased Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Anna M.; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K.; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N.; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K.; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine

  8. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine

  9. CX3CR1 deficiency leads to impairment of hippocampal cognitive function and synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Justin, T. Rogers; Josh, M. Morganti; Adam, D. Bachstetter; Charles, E. Hudson; Melinda, M. Peters; Bethany, A. Grimmig; Edwin, J. Weeber; Paula, C. Bickford; Gemma, Carmelina

    2011-01-01

    The protective/neurotoxic role of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling in neurodegenerative disease is an intricate and highly debated research topic and it is becoming even more complicated as new studies reveal discordant results. It appears that the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis plays a direct role in neurodegeneration and/or neuroprotection depending upon the CNS insult. However, all the above studies focused on the role of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling in pathological conditions, ignoring the relevance of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling under physiological conditions. No approach to date has been taken to decipher the significance of defects in CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling in physiological condition. In the present study we used CX3CR1−/−, CX3CR1+/− and wild-type mice to investigate the physiological role of CX3CR1 receptor in cognition and synaptic plasticity. Our results demonstrated for the first time that mice lacking CX3CR1 receptor show contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze deficits. CX3CR1 deficiency also affects motor learning. Importantly, mice lacking the receptor have a significant impairment in long term potentiation (LTP). Infusion with IL-1β receptor antagonist significantly reversed the deficit in cognitive function and impairment in LTP. Our results reveal that under physiological conditions, disruption in CX3CL1 signaling will lead to impairment in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity via increased action of IL-1β. PMID:22072675

  10. Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, deficiencies in dietary folic acid and uracil-DNA glycosylase impair learning in a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, Nafisa M; Farr, Tracy D; Lips, Janet; Khalil, Ahmed A; Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Foddis, Marco; Harms, Christoph; Füchtemeier, Martina; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2015-04-15

    Dietary deficiencies in folic acid result in elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, which has been associated with the development of dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders. Previously, we have shown that elevated levels of plasma homocysteine in mice deficient for a DNA repair enzyme, uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), result in neurodegeneration. The goal of this study was to evaluate how deficiencies in folic acid and UNG along with elevated levels of homocysteine affect vascular cognitive impairment, via chronic hypoperfursion in an animal model. Ung(+/+) and Ung(-/-) mice were placed on either control (CD) or folic acid deficient (FADD) diets. Six weeks later, the mice either underwent implantation of microcoils around both common carotid arteries. Post-operatively, behavioral tests began at 3-weeks, angiography was measured after 5-weeks using MRI to assess vasculature and at completion of study plasma and brain tissue was collected for analysis. Learning impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM) were observed only in hypoperfused Ung(-/-) FADD mice and these mice had significantly higher plasma homocysteine concentrations. Interestingly, Ung(+/+) FADD produced significant remodeling of the basilar artery and arterial vasculature. Increased expression of GFAP was observed in the dentate gyrus of Ung(-/-) hypoperfused and FADD sham mice. Chronic hypoperfusion resulted in increased cortical MMP-9 protein levels of FADD hypoperfused mice regardless of genotypes. These results suggest that elevated levels of homocysteine only, as a result of dietary folic acid deficiency, don't lead to memory impairments and neurobiochemical changes. Rather a combination of either chronic hypoperfusion or UNG deficiency is required.

  11. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) deficiency impairs NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) priming and defense against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Michael; Wiegmann, Katja; Schramm, Sandra; Gluschko, Alexander; Herb, Marc; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Krönke, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2 , is converted by riboflavin kinase (RFK) into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which are essential cofactors of dehydrogenases, reductases, and oxidases including the phagocytic NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2). Riboflavin deficiency is common in young adults and elderly individuals, who are at the coincidental risk for listeriosis. To address the impact of acute riboflavin deficiency on host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), we generated conditional RFK knockout (KO) strains of mice. Phagocyte-specific RFK KO impaired the capability of phagocytes to control intracellular L.m., which corresponded to a greater susceptibility of mice to in vivo challenge with L.m. The oxidative burst of RFK-deficient phagocytes in response to L.m. infection was significantly reduced. Mechanistically, TNF-induced priming of Nox2, which is needed for oxidative burst, was defective in RFK-deficient phagocytes. Lack of riboflavin in wild-type macrophages for only 6 h shut down TNF-induced, RFK-mediated de novo FMN/FAD generation, which was accompanied by diminished ROS production and impaired anti-listerial activity. Vice versa, ROS production by riboflavin-deprived macrophages was rapidly restored by riboflavin supplementation. Our results suggest that acute riboflavin deficiency immediately impairs priming of Nox2, which is of crucial relevance for an effective phagocytic immune response in vivo. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. TLR4 Deficiency Impairs Oligodendrocyte Formation in the Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jamie S.; Kigerl, Kristina A.; Lerch, Jessica K.; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute oligodendrocyte (OL) death after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is followed by robust neuron–glial antigen 2 (NG2)-positive OL progenitor proliferation and differentiation into new OLs. Inflammatory mediators are prevalent during both phases and can influence the fate of NG2 cells and OLs. Specifically, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling induces OL genesis in the naive spinal cord, and lack of TLR4 signaling impairs white matter sparing and functional recovery after SCI. Therefore, we hypothesized that TLR4 signaling may regulate oligodendrogenesis after SCI. C3H/HeJ (TLR4-deficient) and control (C3H/HeOuJ) mice received a moderate midthoracic spinal contusion. TLR4-deficient mice showed worse functional recovery and reduced OL numbers compared with controls at 24 h after injury through chronic time points. Acute OL loss was accompanied by reduced ferritin expression, which is regulated by TLR4 and needed for effective iron storage. TLR4-deficient injured spinal cords also displayed features consistent with reduced OL genesis, including reduced NG2 expression, fewer BrdU-positive OLs, altered BMP4 signaling and inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) expression, and delayed myelin phagocytosis. Expression of several factors, including IGF-1, FGF2, IL-1β, and PDGF-A, was altered in TLR4-deficient injured spinal cords compared with wild types. Together, these data show that TLR4 signaling after SCI is important for OL lineage cell sparing and replacement, as well as in regulating cytokine and growth factor expression. These results highlight new roles for TLR4 in endogenous SCI repair and emphasize that altering the function of a single immune-related receptor can dramatically change the reparative responses of multiple cellular constituents in the injured CNS milieu. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelinating cells of the CNS [oligodendrocytes (OLs)] are killed for several weeks after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), but they are replaced by resident

  13. Phospholipid transfer protein deficiency in mice impairs macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo.

    PubMed

    Si, Yanhong; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xiaofeng; Zhai, Lei; Zhou, Guanghai; Yu, Ailing; Cao, Haijun; Shucun, Qin

    2016-07-01

    phospholipid transfer protein KO mice compared with WT mice. These data reveal that systemic phospholipid transfer protein deficiency in mice impairs macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. Phospholipid transfer protein deficiency in mice impairs macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Si, Yanhong; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xiaofeng; Zhai, Lei; Zhou, Guanghai; Yu, Ailing; Cao, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    phospholipid transfer protein KO mice compared with WT mice. These data reveal that systemic phospholipid transfer protein deficiency in mice impairs macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. PMID:27037277

  15. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development, upregulate caveolin-1, and downregulate synaptotagmin-1 in the rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Zhong, Jiapeng; Wei, Wei; Gong, Jian; Dong, Jing; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jie

    2011-12-01

    Adequate thyroid hormone is critical for cerebellar development. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency during gestation and postnatal period results in permanent impairments of cerebellar development with an unclear mechanism. In the present study, we implicate cerebellar caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1, the two important molecules involved in neuronal development, in developmental iodine deficiency, and in developmental hypothyroidism. Two developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Nissl staining and the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1 in cerebella were assessed on PN28 and PN42. The results show that the numbers of Purkinje cells were reduced in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. The upregulation of caveolin-1 and the downregulation of synaptotagmin-1 were observed in both iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. These findings may implicate decreases in the number of Purkinje cells and the alterations in the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1 in the impairments of cerebellar development induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.

  16. Human Myocardial Pericytes: Multipotent Mesodermal Precursors Exhibiting Cardiac Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William C.W.; Baily, James E.; Corselli, Mirko; Diaz, Mary; Sun, Bin; Xiang, Guosheng; Gray, Gillian A.; Huard, Johnny; Péault, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular mesenchymal precursor cells (i.e. pericytes) reside in skeletal muscle where they contribute to myofiber regeneration; however, the existence of similar microvessel-associated regenerative precursor cells in cardiac muscle has not yet been documented. We tested whether microvascular pericytes within human myocardium exhibit phenotypes and multipotency similar to their anatomically and developmentally distinct counterparts. Fetal and adult human heart pericytes (hHPs) express canonical pericyte markers in situ, including CD146, NG2, PDGFRβ, PDGFRα, αSMA, and SM-MHC, but not CD117, CD133 and desmin, nor endothelial cell (EC) markers. hHPs were prospectively purified to homogeneity from ventricular myocardium by flow cytometry, based on a combination of positive- (CD146) and negative-selection (CD34, CD45, CD56, and CD117) cell lineage markers. Purified hHPs expanded in vitro were phenotypically similar to human skeletal muscle-derived pericytes (hSkMPs). hHPs express MSC markers in situ and exhibited osteo- chondro-, and adipogenic potentials but, importantly, no ability for skeletal myogenesis, diverging from pericytes of all other origins. hHPs supported network formation with/without ECs in Matrigel cultures; hHPs further stimulated angiogenic responses under hypoxia, markedly different from hSkMPs. The cardiomyogenic potential of hHPs was examined following 5-azacytidine treatment and neonatal cardiomyocyte co-culture in vitro, and intramyocardial transplantation in vivo. Results indicated cardiomyocytic differentiation in a small fraction of hHPs. In conclusion, human myocardial pericytes share certain phenotypic and developmental similarities with their skeletal muscle homologs, yet exhibit different antigenic, myogenic, and angiogenic properties. This is the first example of an anatomical restriction in the developmental potential of pericytes as native mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25336400

  17. Capillary pericytes regulate cerebral blood flow in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Brad A.; O’Farrell, Fergus M.; Buchan, Alastair M.; Lauritzen, Martin; Attwell, David

    2014-01-01

    Brain blood flow increases, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and are the basis of BOLD functional imaging. It is controversial whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes. We demonstrate that neuronal activity and the neurotransmitter glutamate evoke the release of messengers that dilate capillaries by actively relaxing pericytes. Dilation is mediated by prostaglandin E2, but requires nitric oxide release to suppress vasoconstricting 20-HETE synthesis. In vivo, when sensory input increases blood flow, capillaries dilate before arterioles and are estimated to produce 84% of the blood flow increase. In pathology, ischaemia evokes capillary constriction by pericytes. We show that this is followed by pericyte death in rigor, which may irreversibly constrict capillaries and damage the blood-brain barrier. Thus, pericytes are major regulators of cerebral blood flow and initiators of functional imaging signals. Prevention of pericyte constriction and death may reduce the long-lasting blood flow decrease which damages neurons after stroke. PMID:24670647

  18. Pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy: mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Elena; Porta, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The onset of diabetic retinopathy is characterized by morphologic alterations of the microvessels, with thickening of the basement membrane, loss of inter-endothelial tight junctions and early and selective loss of pericytes, together with increased vascular permeability, capillary occlusions, microaneurysms and, later, loss of endothelial cells (EC). A key role in the evolution of the disease is played by pericytes, specialized contractile mesenchymal cells of mesodermal origin, that, in capillaries, exert a function similar to smooth muscle cells in larger vessels, regulating vascular tone and perfusion pressure. Thickening of the basement membrane, together with systemic and local hypertension, hyperglycaemia, advanced glycation end-product formation and hypoxia, may disrupt the tight link between pericytes and EC causing pericyte apoptosis, while endothelium, deprived of proliferation control, can give rise to new vessels. Pericyte dropout has great consequences on capillary remodelling and may cause the first abnormalities of the diabetic eye which can be observed clinically. Hyperglycaemia and local hypertension are known to be a direct cause of pericyte apoptosis and dropout, and intracellular biochemical pathways of the glucose metabolites have been explored. However, the exact mechanisms are not yet fully understood and need further clarification in order to develop new effective drugs for the prevention of retinopathy.

  19. Involvement of PUMA in pericyte migration induced by methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Yuan; Bai, Ying; Chao, Jie; Hu, Gang; Chen, Xufeng; Yao, Honghong

    2017-07-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier damage, with emphasis on endothelial cells. The role of pericytes in methamphetamine-induced BBB damage remains unknown. Our study demonstrated that methamphetamine increased the migration of pericytes from the endothelial basement membrane. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Thus, we examined the molecular mechanisms involved in methamphetamine-induced pericyte migration. The results showed that exposure of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs to methamphetamine increased PUMA expression via activation of the sigma-1 receptor, MAPK and Akt/PI3K pathways. Moreover, methamphetamine treatment resulted in the increased migration of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs. Knockdown of PUMA in pericytes transduced with PUMA siRNA attenuated the methamphetamine-induced increase in cell migration through attenuation of integrin and tyrosine kinase mechanisms, implicating a role of PUMA in the migration of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs. This study has demonstrated that methamphetamine-mediated pericytes migration involves PUMA up-regulation. Thus, targeted studies of PUMA could provide insights to facilitate the development of a potential therapeutic approach for alleviation of methamphetamine-induced pericyte migration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Impaired Coronary and Renal Vascular Function in Spontaneously Type 2 Diabetic Leptin-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Westergren, Helena U; Grönros, Julia; Heinonen, Suvi E; Miliotis, Tasso; Jennbacken, Karin; Sabirsh, Alan; Ericsson, Anette; Jönsson-Rylander, Ann-Cathrine; Svedlund, Sara; Gan, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with macro- and microvascular complications in man. Microvascular dysfunction affects both cardiac and renal function and is now recognized as a main driver of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, progression of microvascular dysfunction in experimental models is often obscured by macrovascular pathology and consequently demanding to study. The obese type 2 diabetic leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mouse lacks macrovascular complications, i.e. occlusive atherosclerotic disease, and may therefore be a potential model for microvascular dysfunction. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that these mice with an insulin resistant phenotype might display microvascular dysfunction in both coronary and renal vascular beds. In this study we used non-invasive Doppler ultrasound imaging to characterize microvascular dysfunction during the progression of diabetes in ob/ob mice. Impaired coronary flow velocity reserve was observed in the ob/ob mice at 16 and 21 weeks of age compared to lean controls. In addition, renal resistivity index as well as pulsatility index was higher in the ob/ob mice at 21 weeks compared to lean controls. Moreover, plasma L-arginine was lower in ob/ob mice, while asymmetric dimethylarginine was unaltered. Furthermore, a decrease in renal vascular density was observed in the ob/ob mice. In parallel to previously described metabolic disturbances, the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice also display cardiac and renal microvascular dysfunction. This model may therefore be suitable for translational, mechanistic and interventional studies to improve the understanding of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Association between Decreased Klotho Blood Levels and Organic Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children with Growth Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ami, Michal; Levy-Shraga, Yael; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Hemi, Rina; Kanety, Hannah; Rubinek, Tami; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2014-01-01

    Objective Klotho is an aging-modulating protein expressed mainly in the kidneys and choroid plexus, which can also be shed, released into the circulation and act as a hormone. Klotho deficient mice are smaller compared to their wild-type counterparts and their somatotropes show marked atrophy and reduced number of secretory granules. Recent data also indicated an association between klotho levels and growth hormone (GH) levels in acromegaly. We aimed to study the association between klotho levels and GH deficiency (GHD) in children with growth impairment. Design Prospective study comprising 99 children and adolescents (aged 9.0±3.7 years, 49 male) undergoing GH stimulation tests for short stature (height-SDS = −2.1±0.6). Klotho serum levels were measured using an α-klotho ELISA kit. Results Klotho levels were significantly lower (p<0.001) among children with organic GHD (n = 11, 727±273 pg/ml) compared to both GH sufficient participants (n = 59, 1497±754 pg/ml) and those with idiopathic GHD (n = 29, 1645±778 pg/ml). The difference between GHS children and children with idiopathic GHD was not significant. Klotho levels positively correlated with IGF-1- standard deviation scores (SDS) (R = 0.45, p<0.001), but were not associated with gender, pubertal status, age or anthropometric measurements. Conclusions We have shown, for the first time, an association between low serum klotho levels and organic GHD. If validated by additional studies, serum klotho may serve as novel biomarker of organic GHD. PMID:25198618

  2. CCR5 deficiency accelerates lipopolysaccharide-induced astrogliosis, amyloid-beta deposit and impaired memory function.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chul Ju; Park, Mi Hee; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Yun, Na Young; Oh, Sang Yeon; Song, Ju Kyung; Seo, Hyun Ok; Kim, Yun-Bae; Hwang, Dae Yeon; Oh, Ki-Wan; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-03-15

    Chemokine receptors are implicated in inflammation and immune responses. Neuro-inflammation is associated with activation of astrocyte and amyloid-beta (Aβ) generations that lead to pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous our study showed that deficiency of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) results in activation of astrocytes and Aβ deposit, and thus memory dysfunction through increase of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression. CCR5 knockout mice were used as an animal model with memory dysfunction. For the purpose LPS was injected i.p. daily (0.25 mg/kg/day). The memory dysfunctions were much higher in LPS-injected CCR5 knockout mice compared to CCR5 wild type mice as well as non-injected CCR5 knockout mice. Associated with severe memory dysfuction in LPS injected CCR5 knockout mice, LPS injection significant increase expression of inflammatory proteins, astrocyte activation, expressions of β-secretase as well as Aβ deposition in the brain of CCR5 knockout mice as compared with that of CCR5 wild type mice. In CCR5 knockout mice, CCR2 expressions were high and co-localized with GFAP which was significantly elevated by LPS. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) which ligands of CCR2 also increased by LPS injection, and increment of MCP-1 expression is much higher in CCR5 knockout mice. BV-2 cells treated with CCR5 antagonist, D-ala-peptide T-amide (DAPTA) and cultured astrocytes isolated from CCR5 knockout mice treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) and CCR2 antagonist, decreased the NF-ĸB activation and Aβ level. These findings suggest that the deficiency of CCR5 enhances response of LPS, which accelerates to neuro-inflammation and memory impairment.

  3. CCR5 deficiency accelerates lipopolysaccharide-induced astrogliosis, amyloid-beta deposit and impaired memory function

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Yun, Na Young; Oh, Sang Yeon; Song, Ju Kyung; Seo, Hyun Ok; Kim, Yun-Bae; Hwang, Dae Yeon; Oh, Ki-Wan; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine receptors are implicated in inflammation and immune responses. Neuro-inflammation is associated with activation of astrocyte and amyloid-beta (Aβ) generations that lead to pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous our study showed that deficiency of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) results in activation of astrocytes and Aβ deposit, and thus memory dysfunction through increase of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression. CCR5 knockout mice were used as an animal model with memory dysfunction. For the purpose LPS was injected i.p. daily (0.25 mg/kg/day). The memory dysfunctions were much higher in LPS-injected CCR5 knockout mice compared to CCR5 wild type mice as well as non-injected CCR5 knockout mice. Associated with severe memory dysfuction in LPS injected CCR5 knockout mice, LPS injection significant increase expression of inflammatory proteins, astrocyte activation, expressions of β-secretase as well as Aβ deposition in the brain of CCR5 knockout mice as compared with that of CCR5 wild type mice. In CCR5 knockout mice, CCR2 expressions were high and co-localized with GFAP which was significantly elevated by LPS. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) which ligands of CCR2 also increased by LPS injection, and increment of MCP-1 expression is much higher in CCR5 knockout mice. BV-2 cells treated with CCR5 antagonist, D-ala-peptide T-amide (DAPTA) and cultured astrocytes isolated from CCR5 knockout mice treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) and CCR2 antagonist, decreased the NF-ĸB activation and Aβ level. These findings suggest that the deficiency of CCR5 enhances response of LPS, which accelerates to neuro-inflammation and memory impairment. PMID:26910914

  4. Sociocommunicative and Sensorimotor Impairments in Male P2X4-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Letisha R; Godar, Sean C; Khoja, Sheraz; Jakowec, Michael W; Alkana, Ronald L; Bortolato, Marco; Davies, Daryl L

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic P2X receptors are a family of ligand-gated ion channels gated by extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). Of the seven P2X subtypes, P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) are richly expressed in the brain, yet their role in behavioral organization remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the behavioral responses of P2X4R heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice in a variety of testing paradigms designed to assess complementary aspects of sensory functions, emotional reactivity, and cognitive organization. P2X4R deficiency did not induce significant alterations of locomotor activity and anxiety-related indices in the novel open field and elevated plus-maze tests. Conversely, P2X4R KO mice displayed marked deficits in acoustic startle reflex amplitude, as well as significant sensorimotor gating impairments, as assessed by the prepulse inhibition of the startle. In addition, P2X4R KO mice displayed enhanced tactile sensitivity, as signified by a lower latency in the sticky-tape removal test. Moreover, both P2X4R HZ and KO mice showed significant reductions in social interaction and maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in pups. Notably, brain regions of P2X4R KO mice exhibited significant brain-regional alterations in the subunit composition of glutamate ionotropic receptors. These results collectively document that P2X4-deficient mice exhibit a spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities partially akin to those observed in other murine models of autism-spectrum disorder. In conclusion, our findings highlight a putative role of P2X4Rs in the regulation of perceptual and sociocommunicative functions and point to these receptors as putative targets for disturbances associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23604007

  5. Leaky RAG Deficiency in Adult Patients with Impaired Antibody Production against Bacterial Polysaccharide Antigens.

    PubMed

    Geier, Christoph B; Piller, Alexander; Linder, Angela; Sauerwein, Kai M T; Eibl, Martha M; Wolf, Hermann M

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function mutations in the recombination activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 have been reported to cause a T-B-NK+ type of severe combined immunodeficiency. In addition identification of hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 has led to an expansion of the spectrum of disease to include Omenn syndrome, early onset autoimmunity, granuloma, chronic cytomegalovirus- or EBV-infection with expansion of gamma/delta T-cells, idiophatic CD4 lymphopenia and a phenotype resembling common variable immunodeficiency. Herein we describe a novel presentation of leaky RAG1 and RAG2 deficiency in two unrelated adult patients with impaired antibody production against bacterial polysaccharide antigens. Clinical manifestation included recurrent pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media and in one patient recurrent cutaneous vasculitis. Both patients harbored a combination of a null mutation on one allele with a novel hypomorphic RAG1/2 mutation on the other allele. One of these novel mutations affected the start codon of RAG1 and resulted in an aberrant gene and protein expression. The second novel RAG2 mutation leads to a truncated RAG2 protein, lacking the C-terminus with intact core RAG2 and reduced VDJ recombination capacity as previously described in a mouse model. Both patients presented with severely decreased numbers of naïve CD4+ T cells and defective T independent IgG responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens, while T cell-dependent IgG antibody formation e.g. after tetanus or TBEV vaccination was intact. In conclusion, hypomorphic mutations in genes responsible for SCID should be considered in adults with predominantly antibody deficiency.

  6. RAD51AP1-deficiency in vertebrate cells impairs DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Parplys, Ann C; Kratz, Katja; Speed, Michael C; Leung, Stanley G; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) is critical for homologous recombination (HR) by interacting with and stimulating the activities of the RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases. In human somatic cells, knockdown of RAD51AP1 results in increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and to impaired HR, but the formation of DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci is unaffected. Here, we generated a genetic model system, based on chicken DT40 cells, to assess the phenotype of fully inactivated RAD51AP1 in vertebrate cells. Targeted inactivation of both RAD51AP1 alleles has no effect on either viability or doubling-time in undamaged cells, but leads to increased levels of cytotoxicity after exposure to cisplatin or to ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GgRAD51AP1, but not of HsRAD51AP1 is able to fully complement in cell survival assays. Notably, in RAD51AP1-deficient DT40 cells the resolution of DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci is greatly slowed down, while their formation is not impaired. We also identify, for the first time, an important role for RAD51AP1 in counteracting both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced replication stress. In human and in chicken cells, RAD51AP1 is required to maintain wild type speed of replication fork progression, and both RAD51AP1-depleted human cells and RAD51AP1-deficient DT40 cells respond to replication stress by a slow-down of replication fork elongation rates. However, increased firing of replication origins occurs in RAD51AP1-/- DT40 cells, likely to ensure the timely duplication of the entire genome. Taken together, our results may explain why RAD51AP1 commonly is overexpressed in tumor cells and tissues, and we speculate that the disruption of RAD51AP1 function could be a promising approach in targeted tumor therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human TLR1 Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Mycobacterial Signaling and Protection from Leprosy Reversal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Misch, Elizabeth A.; Macdonald, Murdo; Ranjit, Chaman; Sapkota, Bishwa R.; Wells, Richard D.; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Kaplan, Gilla; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important regulators of the innate immune response to pathogens, including Mycobacterium leprae, which is recognized by TLR1/2 heterodimers. We previously identified a transmembrane domain polymorphism, TLR1_T1805G, that encodes an isoleucine to serine substitution and is associated with impaired signaling. We hypothesized that this TLR1 SNP regulates the innate immune response and susceptibility to leprosy. In HEK293 cells transfected with the 1805T or 1805G variant and stimulated with extracts of M. leprae, NF-κB activity was impaired in cells with the 1805G polymorphism. We next stimulated PBMCs from individuals with different genotypes for this SNP and found that 1805GG individuals had significantly reduced cytokine responses to both whole irradiated M. leprae and cell wall extracts. To investigate whether TLR1 variation is associated with clinical presentations of leprosy or leprosy immune reactions, we examined 933 Nepalese leprosy patients, including 238 with reversal reaction (RR), an immune reaction characterized by a Th1 T cell cytokine response. We found that the 1805G allele was associated with protection from RR with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.51 (95% CI 0.29–0.87, p = 0.01). Individuals with 1805 genotypes GG or TG also had a reduced risk of RR in comparison to genotype TT with an OR of 0.55 (95% CI 0.31–0.97, p = 0.04). To our knowledge, this is the first association of TLR1 with a Th1-mediated immune response. Our findings suggest that TLR1 deficiency influences adaptive immunity during leprosy infection to affect clinical manifestations such as nerve damage and disability. PMID:18461142

  8. Partial genetic deficiency in tissue kallikrein impairs adaptation to high potassium intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Joana S; Blanchard, Anne; Curis, Emmanuel; Chambrey, Régine; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Azizi, Michel

    2013-12-01

    Inactivation of the tissue kallikrein gene in mice impairs renal handling of potassium due to enhanced H, K-ATPase activity, and induces hyperkalemia. We investigated whether the R53H loss-of-function polymorphism of the human tissue kallikrein gene affects renal potassium handling. In a crossover study, 30 R53R homozygous and 10 R53H heterozygous healthy males were randomly assigned to a low-sodium/high-potassium or a high-sodium/low-potassium diet to modulate tissue kallikrein synthesis. On the seventh day of each diet, participants were studied before and during a 2-h infusion of furosemide to stimulate distal potassium secretion. Urinary kallikrein activity was significantly lower in R53H than in R53R subjects on the low-sodium/high-potassium diet and was similarly reduced in both genotypes on high-sodium/low-potassium. Plasma potassium and renal potassium reabsorption were similar in both genotypes on an ad libitum sodium/potassium diet or after 7 days of a high-sodium/low-potassium diet. However, the median plasma potassium was significantly higher after 7 days of low-sodium/high-potassium diet in R53H than in R53R individuals. Urine potassium excretion and plasma aldosterone concentrations were similar. On the low-sodium/high-potassium diet, furosemide-induced decrease in plasma potassium was significantly larger in R53H than in R53R subjects. Thus, impaired tissue kallikrein stimulation by a low-sodium/high-potassium diet in R53H subjects with partial tissue kallikrein deficiency highlights an inappropriate renal adaptation to potassium load, consistent with experimental data in mice.

  9. Ultrastructural pathology of cortical capillary pericytes in human traumatic brain oedema.

    PubMed

    Castejón, Orlando J

    2011-01-01

    In human traumatic brain oedema pericytes exhibit remarkable oedematous changes, increased vacuolar and vesicular transport, transient transpericytal channels, and tubular structures demonstrating pericyte brain barrier dysfunction. They show nuclear invaginations, actin and myosin-like filaments, and coupled interaction with endothelial cells through the macula occludens. Some pericytes display hypertrophic and necrotic changes, and phagocytic capacity. Hypertrophic pericytes induce basement membrane splitting. Degenerated pericytes exhibit lacunar enlargement of endoplasmic reticulum, dense osmiophilic bodies, glycogen granules, vacuolization, oedematous Golgi apparatus, and pleomorphic mitochondria. Certain micropinocytotic vesicles are orientated to the Golgi complex and multivesicular bodies, suggesting that pericytes play some role in oedema resolution.

  10. Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Characterized by Deficient Brainstem and Cortical Representations of Speech.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Lowther, Jill E; Tak, Sunghee H; Alain, Claude

    2017-03-29

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is recognized as a transitional phase in the progression toward more severe forms of dementia and is an early precursor to Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies reveal that MCI is associated with aberrant sensory-perceptual processing in cortical brain regions subserving auditory and language function. However, whether the pathophysiology of MCI extends to speech processing before conscious awareness (brainstem) is unknown. Using a novel electrophysiological approach, we recorded both brainstem and cortical speech-evoked brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in older, hearing-matched human listeners who did and did not present with subtle cognitive impairment revealed through behavioral neuropsychological testing. We found that MCI was associated with changes in neural speech processing characterized as hypersensitivity (larger) brainstem and cortical speech encoding in MCI compared with controls in the absence of any perceptual speech deficits. Group differences also interacted with age differentially across the auditory pathway; brainstem responses became larger and cortical ERPs smaller with advancing age. Multivariate classification revealed that dual brainstem-cortical speech activity correctly identified MCI listeners with 80% accuracy, suggesting its application as a biomarker of early cognitive decline. Brainstem responses were also a more robust predictor of individuals' MCI severity than cortical activity. Our findings suggest that MCI is associated with poorer encoding and transfer of speech signals between functional levels of the auditory system and advance the pathophysiological understanding of cognitive aging by identifying subcortical deficits in auditory sensory processing mere milliseconds (<10 ms) after sound onset and before the emergence of perceptual speech deficits.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a precursor to dementia marked by declines in communication skills. Whether

  11. Isoflurane anesthesia exacerbates learning and memory impairment in zinc-deficient APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunsheng; Liu, Ya; Yuan, Ye; Cui, Weiwei; Zheng, Feng; Ma, Yuan; Piao, Meihua

    2016-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is known to play crucial roles in numerous brain functions including learning and memory. Zn deficiency is believed to be widespread throughout the world, particularly in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have shown that volatile anesthetics, such as isoflurane, might be potential risk factors for the development of AD. However, whether isoflurane exposure accelerates the process of AD and cognitive impairment in AD patients with Zn deficiency is yet to be documented. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of 1.4% isoflurane exposure for 2 h on learning and memory function, and neuropathogenesis in 10-month-old Zn-adequate, Zn-deficient, and Zn-treated APP/PS1 mice with the following parameters: behavioral tests, neuronal apoptosis, Aβ, and tau pathology. The results demonstrated that isoflurane exposure showed no impact on learning and memory function, but induced transient elevation of neuroapoptosis in Zn-adequate APP/PS1 mice. Exposure of isoflurane exhibited significant neuroapoptosis, Aβ generation, tau phosphorylation, and learning and memory impairment in APP/PS1 mice in the presence of Zn deficiency. Appropriate Zn treatment improved learning and memory function, and prevented isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis in APP/PS1 mice. Isoflurane exposure may cause potential neurotoxicity, which is tolerated to some extent in Zn-adequate APP/PS1 mice. When this tolerance is limited, like in AD with Zn deficiency, isoflurane exposure markedly exacerbated learning and memory impairment, and neuropathology, indicating that AD patients with certain conditions such as Zn deficiency may be vulnerable to volatile anesthetic isoflurane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Secretin deficiency causes impairment in survival of neural progenitor cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Jukkola, Peter I; Rogers, Justin T; Kaspar, Brian K; Weeber, Edwin J; Nishijima, Ichiko

    2011-03-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is the lifelong production of new neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and affects many physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including neurobehavioral disorders. The early postnatal stage is the most prominent neurogenesis period; however, the functional role of neurogenesis in this developing stage has not been well characterized. To understand the role of hippocampal neurogenesis in the postnatal developing period, we analyzed secretin, a neuropeptide, which is expressed significantly higher in the development stage. Secretin is a pleiotropic neuropeptide hormone that belongs to the secretin/VIP/glucagon peptide family. Although secretin was originally isolated in the gastrointestinal system, it has been found that secretin itself acts as a neuropeptide in the CNS. Here, we report a new function of secretin as a survival factor for neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus. We found that secretin-deficient mice exhibit decreased numbers of BrdU-labeled new neurons and dramatically increased apoptosis of doublecortin-positive neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) during the early postnatal period. Furthermore, we found that reduced survival of neural progenitor cells leads to decreased volume of DG, reduced long-term potentiation and impaired spatial learning ability in adults. Our studies demonstrate that secretin has important implications for neurogenesis in postnatal development, and affects neurobehavioral function in the adult mouse.

  13. Arginine Starvation Impairs Mitochondrial Respiratory Function in ASS1-Deficient Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiyong; Chu, Cheng-Ying; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Xu, Jinghong; Gaur, Shikha; Forman, Henry Jay; Zhang, Hang; Zheng, Shu; Yen, Yun; Huang, Jian; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Ann, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is the principal catabolic response to nutrient starvation and is necessary to clear dysfunctional or damaged organelles, but excessive autophagy can be cytotoxic or cytostatic and contributes to cell death. Depending on the abundance of enzymes involved in molecule biosynthesis, cells can be dependent on uptake of exogenous nutrients to provide these molecules. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) is a key enzyme in arginine biosynthesis, and its abundance is reduced in many solid tumors, making them sensitive to external arginine depletion. We demonstrated that prolonged arginine starvation by exposure to ADI-PEG20 (pegylated arginine deiminase) induced autophagy-dependent death of ASS1-deficient breast cancer cells, because these cells are arginine auxotrophs (dependent on uptake of extracellular arginine). Indeed, these breast cancer cells died in culture when exposed to ADI-PEG20 or cultured in the absence of arginine. Arginine starvation induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, which impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics and integrity. Furthermore, arginine starvation killed breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro only if they were autophagy-competent. Thus, a key mechanism underlying the lethality induced by prolonged arginine starvation was the cytotoxic autophagy that occurred in response to mitochondrial damage. Last, ASS1 was either low in abundance or absent in more than 60% of 149 random breast cancer bio-samples, suggesting that patients with such tumors could be candidates for arginine starvation therapy. PMID:24692592

  14. CALHM1 deficiency impairs cerebral neuron activity and memory flexibility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Chang, Eric H.; Frattini, Stephen A.; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Adrien, Leslie; Strohl, Joshua J.; Gibson, Elizabeth L.; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Huerta, Patricio T.; Marambaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    CALHM1 is a cell surface calcium channel expressed in cerebral neurons. CALHM1 function in the brain remains unknown, but recent results showed that neuronal CALHM1 controls intracellular calcium signaling and cell excitability, two mechanisms required for synaptic function. Here, we describe the generation of Calhm1 knockout (Calhm1−/−) mice and investigate CALHM1 role in neuronal and cognitive functions. Structural analysis revealed that Calhm1−/− brains had normal regional and cellular architecture, and showed no evidence of neuronal or synaptic loss, indicating that CALHM1 deficiency does not affect brain development or brain integrity in adulthood. However, Calhm1−/− mice showed a severe impairment in memory flexibility, assessed in the Morris water maze, and a significant disruption of long-term potentiation without alteration of long-term depression, measured in ex vivo hippocampal slices. Importantly, in primary neurons and hippocampal slices, CALHM1 activation facilitated the phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors by protein kinase A. Furthermore, neuronal CALHM1 activation potentiated the effect of glutamate on the expression of c-Fos and C/EBPβ, two immediate-early gene markers of neuronal activity. Thus, CALHM1 controls synaptic activity in cerebral neurons and is required for the flexible processing of memory in mice. These results shed light on CALHM1 physiology in the mammalian brain. PMID:27066908

  15. Skeletal muscle pericyte subtypes differ in their differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have been proposed as a therapy for central nervous system disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and trauma injuries, however their accessibility is a major limitation. We recently isolated Tuj1+ cells from skeletal muscle culture of Nestin-GFP transgenic mice however whether they form functional neurons in the brain is not yet known. Additionally, their isolation from nontransgenic species and identification of their ancestors is unknown. This gap of knowledge precludes us from studying their role as a valuable alternative to neural progenitors. Here, we identified two pericyte subtypes, type-1 and type-2, using a double transgenic Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mouse and demonstrated that Nestin-GFP+/Tuj1+ cells derive from type-2 Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+/CD146+ pericytes located in the skeletal muscle interstitium. These cells are bipotential as they generate either Tuj1+ cells when cultured with muscle cells or become "classical" α-SMA+pericytes when cultured alone. In contrast, type-1 Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+/CD146+ pericytes generate α-SMA+pericytes but not Tuj1+ cells. Interestingly, type-2 pericyte derived Tuj1+ cells retain some pericytic markers (CD146+/PDGFRβ+/NG2+). Given the potential application of Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+/Tuj1+ cells for cell therapy, we found a surface marker, the nerve growth factor receptor, which is expressed exclusively in these cells and can be used to identify and isolate them from mixed cell populations in nontransgenic species for clinical purposes.

  16. Skeletal Muscle Pericyte Subtypes Differ in their Differentiation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N.; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2012-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have been proposed as a therapy for central nervous system disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and trauma injuries, however their accessibility is a major limitation. We recently isolated Tuj1+ cells from skeletal muscle culture of Nestin-GFP transgenic mice however whether they form functional neurons in the brain is not yet known. Additionally, their isolation from nontransgenic species and identification of their ancestors is unknown. This gap of knowledge precludes us from studying their role as a valuable alternative to neural progenitors. Here, we identified two pericyte subtypes, type-1 and type-2, using a double transgenic Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mouse and demonstrated that Nestin-GFP+/Tuj1+ cells derive from type-2 Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+/CD146+ pericytes located in the skeletal muscle interstitium. These cells are bipotential as they generate either Tuj1+ cells when cultured with muscle cells or become “classical” α-SMA+ pericytes when cultured alone. In contrast, type-1 Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+/CD146+ pericytes generate α-SMA+ pericytes but not Tuj1+ cells. Interestingly, type-2 pericyte derived Tuj1+ cells retain some pericytic markers (CD146+/PDGFRβ+/NG2+). Given the potential application of Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+/Tuj1+ cells for cell therapy, we found a surface marker, the nerve growth factor receptor, which is expressed exclusively in these cells and can be used to identify and isolate them from mixed cell populations in nontransgenic species for clinical purposes. PMID:23128780

  17. Immunoevasive Pericytes From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Preferentially Modulate Induction of Allogeneic Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Domev, Hagit; Milkov, Irina; Dar, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    Isolated microvessel-residing pericytes and pericytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) exhibit mesenchymal stem cell-like characteristics and therapeutic properties. Despite growing interest in pericyte-based stem cell therapy, their immunogenicity and immunomodulatory effects on nonactivated T cells are still poorly defined, in particular those of vasculogenic hPSC pericytes. We found that tissue-embedded and unstimulated cultured hPSC- or tissue-derived pericytes constitutively expressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and the inhibitory programmed cell death-ligand 1/2 (PD-L1/2) molecules but not MHC class II or CD80/CD86 costimulatory molecules. Pretreatment with inflammatory mediators failed to induce an antigen-presenting cell-like phenotype in stimulated pericytes. CD146+ pericytes from hPSCs did not induce activation and proliferation of allogeneic resting T cells independent of interferon (IFN)-γ prestimulation, similarly to pericytes from human brain or placenta. Instead, pericytes mediated a significant increase in the frequency of allogeneic CD25highFoxP3+ regulatory T cells when cocultured with nonactivated peripheral blood T cells. Furthermore, when peripheral blood CD25high regulatory T cells (Tregs) were depleted from isolated CD3+ T cells, pericytes preferentially induced de novo formation of CD4+CD25highFoxP3+CD127−, suppressive regulatory T cells. Constitutive expression of PD-L1/2 and secretion of transforming growth factor-β by hPSC pericytes directly regulated generation of pericyte-induced Tregs. Pericytes cotransplanted into immunodeficient mice with allogeneic CD25− T cells maintained a nonimmunogenic phenotype and mediated the development of functional regulatory T cells. Together, these findings reveal a novel feature of pericyte-mediated immunomodulation distinguished from immunosuppression, shared by native tissue pericytes and hPSC pericytes, and support the notion that pericytes can be applied for

  18. Intranasal siRNA administration reveals IGF2 deficiency contributes to impaired cognition in Fragile X syndrome mice

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Marta; Cheng, Yuyan; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Magistri, Marco; Martinez, Ana; Faghihi, Mohammad A.; Jope, Richard S.; Beurel, Eleonore

    2017-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory remain imprecisely understood, and restorative interventions are lacking. We report that intranasal administration of siRNAs can be used to identify targets important in cognitive processes and to improve genetically impaired learning and memory. In mice modeling the intellectual deficiency of Fragile X syndrome, intranasally administered siRNA targeting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), HDAC2, or HDAC3 diminished cognitive impairments. In WT mice, intranasally administered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) siRNA or HDAC4 siRNA impaired learning and memory, which was partially due to reduced insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) levels because the BDNF siRNA– or HDAC4 siRNA–induced cognitive impairments were ameliorated by intranasal IGF2 administration. In Fmr1–/– mice, hippocampal IGF2 was deficient, and learning and memory impairments were ameliorated by IGF2 intranasal administration. Therefore intranasal siRNA administration is an effective means to identify mechanisms regulating cognition and to modulate therapeutic targets. PMID:28352664

  19. Severe impaired deambulation in a patient with vitamin D and mineral deficiency due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anton Tedja; Østergård, Torben; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-09-09

    Skeletal muscle weakness and impaired gait function are common risk factors for disease and even death. Therefore, identification of the modifiable causes of skeletal muscle weakness should have high priority. Knowledge regarding optimal vitamin D treatment in cases of pancreatic insufficiency is scarce. We report a case of a slow decrease in ability to walk distances more than 100 m during the previous 6 months. Low exocrine pancreatic function resulting in phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D deficiency was found. Medical treatment with peroral pancreatic enzymes, phosphorus, magnesium and i.m. injections of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) was initiated. Gait function gradually increased to a walking distance of 1,500-3,000 m along with the normalization of the vitamin D and mineral blood levels. Vitamin D deficiency due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency should be kept in mind as one of the reasons for impaired gait and skeletal muscle weakness.

  20. Deficient cerebellar long-term depression and impaired motor learning in mGluR1 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Aiba, A; Kano, M; Chen, C; Stanton, M E; Fox, G D; Herrup, K; Zwingman, T A; Tonegawa, S

    1994-10-21

    mGluR1 mutant mice are viable but show characteristic cerebellar symptoms such as ataxic gait and intention tremor. The anatomy of the cerebellum is not overtly disturbed. Excitatory synaptic transmission from parallel fibers (PFs) to Purkinje cells and that from climbing fibers (CFs) to Purkinje cells appear to be functional, and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels of Purkinje cells are normal. Both PF and CF synapses display normal short-term synaptic plasticity to paired stimuli. By marked contrast, long-term depression (LTD) is clearly deficient and conditioned eyeblink response is impaired. We conclude that mGluR1 is required for the induction of LTD and that the ataxic behavior and impaired eyeblink conditioning of the mGluR1 mutant mice are primarily due to deficient LTD.

  1. Nrf2 deficiency impairs the barrier function of mouse esophageal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Hu, Yuhui; Fang, Yu; Djukic, Zorka; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Orlando, Roy C.; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    deficiency impairs esophageal barrier function through disrupting energy-dependent tight junction. Elucidating the role of this pathway in GERD has potential implications for the pathogenesis and therapy of the disease. PMID:23676441

  2. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair spatial memory in adolescent rat hippocampus: involvement of CaMKII, calmodulin and calcineurin.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Liu, Wanyang; Wang, Yi; Hou, Yi; Xu, Hongde; Gong, Jian; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), calmodulin and calcineurin are implicated in the impaired spatial memory in adolescent rats following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Then, the spatial memory to a water maze test was studied in pups before PN42. After testing periods, the latency to platform and the number of error in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.05). Total and phosphorylated CaMKII, calmodulin, and calcineurin in the hippocampus were detected with both the immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Without going through water maze test, iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups showed significantly lower CaMKII and calmodulin and significantly higher calcineurin than the controls in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions (P < 0.05). After trials of water maze task, however, CaMKII and calmodulin were up-regulated and calcineurin was down-regulated in control group (P < 0.05), but not in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups. Data indicate that hippocampal CaMKII, calmodulin, and calcineurin are involved in the impaired spatial memory induced by developmental ID and hypothyroidism.

  3. Pericytes, integral components of adult hematopoietic stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Sá da Bandeira, D; Casamitjana, J; Crisan, M

    2017-03-01

    The interest in perivascular cells as a niche for adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is significantly growing. In the adult bone marrow (BM), perivascular cells and HSCs cohabit. Among perivascular cells, pericytes are precursors of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. In situ, pericytes are recognised by their localisation to the abluminal side of the blood vessel wall and closely associated with endothelial cells, in combination with the expression of markers such as CD146, neural glial 2 (NG2), platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), nestin (Nes) and/or leptin receptor (LepR). However, not all pericytes share a common phenotype: different immunophenotypes can be associated with distinct mesenchymal features, including hematopoietic support. In adult BM, arteriolar and sinusoidal pericytes control HSC behaviour, maintenance, quiescence and trafficking through paracrine effects. Different groups identified and characterized hematopoietic supportive pericyte subpopulations using various markers and mouse models. In this review, we summarize recent work performed by others to understand the role of the perivascular niche in the biology of HSCs in adults, as well as their importance in the development of therapies.

  4. Pericytes on the tumor vasculature: jekyll or hyde?

    PubMed

    Barlow, Keith D; Sanders, Anne M; Soker, Shay; Ergun, Suleyman; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J

    2013-04-01

    The induction of tumor vasculature, known as the 'angiogenic switch', is a rate-limiting step in tumor progression. Normal blood vessels are composed of two distinct cell types: endothelial cells which form the channel through which blood flows, and mural cells, the pericytes and smooth muscle cells which serve to support and stabilize the endothelium. Most functional studies have focused on the responses of endothelial cells to pro-angiogenic stimuli; however, there is mounting evidence that the supporting mural cells, particularly pericytes, may play key regulatory roles in both promoting vessel growth as well as terminating vessel growth to generate a mature, quiescent vasculature. Tumor vessels are characterized by numerous structural and functional abnormalities, including altered association between endothelial cells and pericytes. These dysfunctional, unstable vessels contribute to hypoxia, interstitial fluid pressure, and enhanced susceptibility to metastatic invasion. Increasing evidence points to the pericyte as a critical regulator of endothelial activation and subsequent vessel development, stability, and function. Here we discuss both the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of pericytes on the vasculature and the possible utilization of vessel normalization as a therapeutic strategy to combat cancer.

  5. High frequency of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Western brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Santana, Marli S; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Costa, Mônica R F; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Brito, Marcelo A M; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Alecrim, Maria G C

    2014-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, and it has a significant prevalence in the male population (X chromosome linked). The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes among G6PD-deficient persons in Manaus, Brazil, an area in the Western Brazilian Amazon to which malaria is endemic. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient males had more impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. This feature could be used as a screening tool for G6PD-deficient persons who are unable to use primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

  6. Cutting edge: DNAX accessory molecule 1-deficient CD8+ T cells display immunological synapse defects that impair antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Hawkins, Edwin D; Shimoni, Raz; McGrath, Mairi; Chan, Christopher J; Russell, Sarah M; Smyth, Mark J; Oliaro, Jane

    2014-01-15

    DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1) is expressed on all CD8(+) T cells and promotes their activation and effector function. DNAM-1 interacts with LFA-1, a critical molecule for immunological synapse formation between T cells and APCs, and for cytotoxic killing of target cells. Mice that lack DNAM-1 display abnormal T cell responses and antitumor activity; however, the mechanism involved is unclear. In this article, we show that DNAM-1 deficiency results in reduced proliferation of CD8(+) T cells after Ag presentation and impaired cytotoxic activity. We also demonstrate that DNAM-1-deficient T cells show reduced conjugations with tumor cells and decreased recruitment of both LFA-1 and lipid rafts to the immunological synapse, which correlates with reduced tumor cell killing in vitro. This synapse defect may explain why DNAM-1-deficient mice cannot clear tumors in vivo, and highlights the importance of DNAM-1 and the immunological synapse in T cell-mediated antitumor immunity.

  7. Nxf7 deficiency impairs social exploration and spatio-cognitive abilities as well as hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mice.

    PubMed

    Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Ahmed, Tariq; Vermaercke, Ben; Marynen, Peter; Balschun, Detlef; Froyen, Guy; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear RNA export factors (NXF) are conserved in all metazoans and are deemed essential for shuttling RNA across the nuclear envelope and other post-transcriptional processes (such as mRNA metabolism, storage and stability). Disruption of human NXF5 has been implicated in intellectual and psychosocial disabilities. In the present report, we use recently described Nxf7 knockout (KO) mice as an experimental model to analyze in detail the behavioral consequences of clinical NXF5 deficiency. We examined male Nxf7 KO mice using an extended cognitive and behavioral test battery, and recorded extracellular field potentials in the hippocampal CA1 region. We observed various cognitive and behavioral changes including alterations in social exploration, impaired spatial learning and spatio-cognitive abilities. We also defined a new experimental paradigm to discriminate search strategies in Morris water maze and showed significant differences between Nxf7 KO and control animals. Furthermore, while we observed no difference in a nose poke suppression in an conditioned emotional response (CER) protocol, Nxf7 KO mice were impaired in discriminating between differentially reinforced cues in an auditory fear conditioning protocol. This distinct neurocognitive phenotype was accompanied by impaired hippocampal Long-term potentiation (LTP), while long-term depression (LTD) was not affected by Nxf7 deficiency. Our data demonstrate that disruption of murine Nxf7 leads to behavioral phenotypes that may relate to the intellectual and social deficits in patients with NXF5 deficiency.

  8. A case of isolated ACTH deficiency who developed autoimmune-mediated hypothyroidism and impaired water diuresis during glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Y

    2000-12-01

    A case of isolated ACTH deficiency who developed autoimmune-mediated hypothyroidism and still showed impaired water diuresis during glucocorticoid replacement therapy is reported. A 45-year-old woman was initially admitted for nausea, vomiting, and general malaise. Her serum sodium and plasma osmolality, ACTH and cortisol values were low, but her urine osmolality was high. Other pituitary hormone levels, thyroid hormone levels, and a computed tomogram of the pituitary gland were normal. The patient was treated with hydrocortisone and followed in the outpatient clinic; however, she was lost to follow up 18 months after admission. Three years later she presented with hypoglycemia and hyponatremia. Her serum or plasma ACTH, FT3, FT4, cortisol levels were low and her serum TSH level was high. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH to CRH and an exaggerated response of TSH to TRH. Plasma ADH was inappropriately high, and a water-loading test revealed impaired water diuresis and poor suppression of ADH. Although ADH was suppressed, impaired water diuresis was observed in the water loading test after hydrocortisone supplementation. Thyroxine supplementation completely normalized the water diuresis. Her outpatient clinic medical records revealed a gradual increase in TSH levels during follow up, indicating that she had developed hypothyroidism during glucocorticoid replacement therapy. The hyponatremia on the first admission was due to glucocorticoid deficiency, whereas the hyponatremia on the second admission was due to combined deficiencies of glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones.

  9. CIA2 deficiency results in impaired oxidative stress response and enhanced intracellular basal UPR activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Hua-Zhen; Niu, Yu-Jie; Yuan, Yuan; Fang, Bing-Xiong; Liu, Yi-Na; Cai, Lu-Hui; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Liu, Xin-Guang

    2015-03-01

    Yeast Cia2p is a component of the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. Initial studies of the CIA machinery were performed in yeast, but the precise role of Cia2p in this eukaryote is still unknown. We report that CIA2 deficiency results in impaired oxidative stress response, as evidenced by increased sensitivity to the oxidant cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), impaired activities of superoxide dismutases and aconitase and decreased replicative lifespan in the mutants. Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were significantly increased in CIA2-deficient cells after treatment with CHP. We also show that CIA2-deficient cells display an increased resistance to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as evidenced by the upregulated splicing of the mRNA of HAC1, which encodes a functional transcription factor that regulates the transcription of unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes, suggesting enhanced intracellular UPR activity. Furthermore, the transcription of several canonical UPR target genes is strongly induced in CIA2-deficient cells as compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results suggest the involvement of Cia2p in oxidative and ER stress responses in yeast. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. RNA sequencing of creatine transporter (SLC6A8) deficient fibroblasts reveals impairment of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Nota, Benjamin; Ndika, Joseph D T; van de Kamp, Jiddeke M; Kanhai, Warsha A; van Dooren, Silvy J M; van de Wiel, Mark A; Pals, Gerard; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-09-01

    Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) deficiency is the most common cause of cerebral creatine syndromes, and is characterized by depletion of creatine in the brain. Manifestations of this X-linked disorder include intellectual disability, speech/language impairment, behavior abnormalities, and seizures. At the moment, no effective treatment is available. In order to investigate the molecular pathophysiology of this disorder, we performed RNA sequencing on fibroblasts derived from patients. The transcriptomes of fibroblast cells from eight unrelated individuals with SLC6A8 deficiency and three wild-type controls were sequenced. SLC6A8 mutations with different effects on the protein product resulted in different gene expression profiles. Differential gene expression analysis followed by gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that especially the expression of genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton are altered in SLC6A8 deficiency, such as collagens, keratins, integrins, and cadherins. This suggests an important novel role for creatine in the structural development and maintenance of cells. It is likely that the (extracellular) structure of brain cells is also impaired in SLC6A8-deficient patients, and future studies are necessary to confirm this and to reveal the true functions of creatine in the brain. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Impaired nitric oxide production in coronary endothelial cells of the spontaneously diabetic BB rat is due to tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Meininger, C J; Marinos, R S; Hatakeyama, K; Martinez-Zaguilan, R; Rojas, J D; Kelly, K A; Wu, G

    2000-01-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) from diabetic BioBreeding (BB) rats have an impaired ability to produce NO. This deficiency is not due to a defect in the constitutive isoform of NO synthase in EC (ecNOS) or alterations in intracellular calcium, calmodulin, NADPH or arginine levels. Instead, ecNOS cannot produce sufficient NO because of a deficiency in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor necessary for enzyme activity. EC from diabetic rats exhibited only 12% of the BH(4) levels found in EC from normal animals or diabetes-prone animals which did not develop disease. As a result, NO synthesis by EC of diabetic rats was only 18% of that for normal animals. Increasing BH(4) levels with sepiapterin increased NO production, suggesting that BH(4) deficiency is a metabolic basis for impaired endothelial NO synthesis in diabetic BB rats. This deficiency is due to decreased activity of GTP-cyclohydrolase I, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of BH(4). GTP-cyclohydrolase activity was low because of a decreased expression of the protein in the diabetic cells. PMID:10861247

  12. Sirtuin-6 deficiency exacerbates diabetes-induced impairment of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Suresh Babu, Sahana; Jeyabal, Prince; Verma, Suresh K; Mackie, Alexander R; Khan, Mohsin; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kishore, Raj; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna

    2015-10-01

    Delayed wound healing is one of the major complications in diabetes and is characterized by chronic proinflammatory response, and abnormalities in angiogenesis and collagen deposition. Sirtuin family proteins regulate numerous pathophysiological processes, including those involved in promotion of longevity, DNA repair, glycolysis and inflammation. However, the role of sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a NAD+-dependent nuclear deacetylase, in wound healing specifically under diabetic condition remains unclear. To analyse the role of SIRT6 in cutaneous wound healing, paired 6-mm stented wound was created in diabetic db/db mice and injected siRNA against SIRT6 in the wound margins (transfection agent alone and nonsense siRNA served as controls). Wound time to closure was assessed by digital planimetry, and wounds were harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. SIRT6-siRNA-treated diabetic wound showed impaired healing, which was associated with reduced capillary density (CD31-staining vessels) when compared to control treatment. Interestingly, SIRT6 deficiency decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression and proliferation markers in the wounds. Furthermore, SIRT6 ablation in diabetic wound promotes nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation resulting in increased expression of proinflammatory markers (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and increased oxidative stress. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that loss of SIRT6 in cutaneous wound aggravates proinflammatory response by increasing NF-κB activation, oxidative stress and decrease in angiogenesis in the diabetic mice. Based on these findings, we speculate that the activation of SIRT6 signalling might be a potential therapeutic approach for promoting wound healing in diabetics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impairment of Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling in Caveolin-1-deficient Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Rafael; Valverde, Ángela M.; Llorente Izquierdo, Cristina; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Boscá, Lisardo; Martín-Sanz, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the main structural protein of caveolae and plays an important role in various cellular processes such as vesicular transport, cholesterol homeostasis, and signal transduction pathways. The expression and functional role of Cav-1 have been reported in liver and in hepatocyte cell lines, in human cirrhotic liver, and in hepatocellular carcinomas. Previous studies demonstrated that Cav-1 was dispensable for liver regeneration, because Cav-1−/− animals survived and fully regenerated liver function and size after partial hepatectomy. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms by which the lack of Cav-1 accelerates liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. The data show that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling is impaired in regenerating liver of Cav-1−/− mice and in hepatocytes derived from these animals. TGF-β receptors I and II do not colocalize in the same membrane fraction in the hepatocytes derived from Cav-1−/− mice, as Smad2/3 signaling decreased in the absence of Cav-1 at the time that the transcriptional corepressor SnoN accumulates. Accordingly, the expression of TGF-β target genes, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, is decreased due to the presence of the high levels of SnoN. Moreover, hepatocyte growth factor inhibited TGF-β signaling in the absence of Cav-1 by increasing SnoN expression. Taken together, these data might help to unravel why Cav-1-deficient mice exhibit an accelerated liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and add new insights on the molecular mechanisms controlling the initial commitment to hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:19966340

  14. Matrix Gla protein deficiency impairs nasal septum growth, causing midface hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Marulanda, Juliana; Eimar, Hazem; McKee, Marc D; Berkvens, Michelle; Nelea, Valentin; Roman, Hassem; Borrás, Teresa; Tamimi, Faleh; Ferron, Mathieu; Murshed, Monzur

    2017-07-07

    Genetic and environmental factors may lead to abnormal growth of the orofacial skeleton, affecting the overall structure of the face. In this study, we investigated the craniofacial abnormalities in a mouse model for Keutel syndrome, a rare genetic disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the matrix Gla protein (MGP) gene. Keutel syndrome patients show diffuse ectopic calcification of cartilaginous tissues and impaired midface development. Our comparative cephalometric analyses of micro-computed tomography images revealed a severe midface hypoplasia in Mgp(-/-) mice. In vivo reporter studies demonstrated that the Mgp promoter is highly active at the cranial sutures, cranial base synchondroses, and nasal septum. Interestingly, the cranial sutures of the mutant mice showed normal anatomical features. Although we observed a mild increase in mineralization of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis, it did not reduce the relative length of the cranial base in comparison with total skull length. Contrary to this, we found the nasal septum to be abnormally mineralized and shortened in Mgp(-/-) mice. Transgenic restoration of Mgp expression in chondrocytes fully corrected the craniofacial anomalies caused by MGP deficiency, suggesting a local role for MGP in the developing nasal septum. Although there was no up-regulation of markers for hypertrophic chondrocytes, a TUNEL assay showed a marked increase in apoptotic chondrocytes in the calcified nasal septum. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed unusual mineral deposits in the septal extracellular matrix of the mutant mice. Of note, the systemic reduction of the inorganic phosphate level was sufficient to prevent abnormal mineralization of the nasal septum in Mgp(-/-);Hyp compound mutants. Our work provides evidence that modulation of local and systemic factors regulating extracellular matrix mineralization can be possible therapeutic strategies to prevent ectopic cartilage calcification and some forms of congenital

  15. Olfactomedin 1 Deficiency Leads to Defective Olfaction and Impaired Female Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Diao, Honglu; Zhao, Fei; Xiao, Shuo; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E.; Dudley, Elizabeth A.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactomedin 1 (OLFM1) is a glycoprotein highly expressed in the brain. Olfm1−/− female mice were previously reported to have reduced fertility. Previous microarray analysis revealed Olfm1 among the most highly upregulated genes in the uterine luminal epithelium upon embryo implantation, which was confirmed by in situ hybridization. We hypothesized that Olfm1 deficiency led to defective embryo implantation and thus impaired fertility. Indeed, Olfm1−/− females had defective embryo implantation. However, Olfm1−/− females rarely mated and those that mated rarely became pregnant. Ovarian histology indicated the absence of corpora lutea in Olfm1−/− females, indicating defective ovulation. Superovulation using equine chorionic gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin rescued mating, ovulation, and pregnancy, and equine chorionic gonadotropin alone rescued ovulation in Olfm1−/− females. Olfm1−/− females had a 13% reduction of hypothalamic GnRH neurons but comparable basal serum LH levels and GnRH-induced LH levels compared with wild-type controls. These results indicated no obvious local defects in the female reproductive system and a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Olfm1−/− females were unresponsive to the effects of male bedding stimulation on pubertal development and estrous cycle. There were 41% fewer cFos-positive cells in the mitral cell layer of accessory olfactory bulb upon male urine stimulation for 90 minutes. OLFM1 was expressed in the main and accessory olfactory systems including main olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, main olfactory bulb, and accessory olfactory bulb, with the highest expression detected in the axon bundles of olfactory sensory neurons. These data demonstrate that defective fertility in Olfm1−/− females is most likely a secondary effect of defective olfaction. PMID:26107991

  16. Impaired intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 in human iPSC-derived TLR3-deficient CNS cells.

    PubMed

    Lafaille, Fabien G; Pessach, Itai M; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Ciancanelli, Michael J; Herman, Melina; Abhyankar, Avinash; Ying, Shui-Wang; Keros, Sotirios; Goldstein, Peter A; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Tu, Edmund; Elkabetz, Yechiel; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Tardieu, Marc; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Daley, George Q; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Studer, Lorenz; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2012-11-29

    In the course of primary infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), children with inborn errors of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) immunity are prone to HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE). We tested the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of HSE involves non-haematopoietic CNS-resident cells. We derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of TLR3- and UNC-93B-deficient patients and from controls. These iPSCs were differentiated into highly purified populations of neural stem cells (NSCs), neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) and/or IFN-λ1 in response to stimulation by the dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) was dependent on TLR3 and UNC-93B in all cells tested. However, the induction of IFN-β and IFN-λ1 in response to HSV-1 infection was impaired selectively in UNC-93B-deficient neurons and oligodendrocytes. These cells were also much more susceptible to HSV-1 infection than control cells, whereas UNC-93B-deficient NSCs and astrocytes were not. TLR3-deficient neurons were also found to be susceptible to HSV-1 infection. The rescue of UNC-93B- and TLR3-deficient cells with the corresponding wild-type allele showed that the genetic defect was the cause of the poly(I:C) and HSV-1 phenotypes. The viral infection phenotype was rescued further by treatment with exogenous IFN-α or IFN-β ( IFN-α/β) but not IFN-λ1. Thus, impaired TLR3- and UNC-93B-dependent IFN-α/β intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 in the CNS, in neurons and oligodendrocytes in particular, may underlie the pathogenesis of HSE in children with TLR3-pathway deficiencies.

  17. Effects of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid on Human Pericytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Tomas; Dencker, Lennart; Sundberg, Christian; Scholz, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular pericytes are of key importance in neoformation of blood vessels, in stabilization of newly formed vessels as well as maintenance of angiostasis in resting tissues. Furthermore, pericytes are capable of differentiating into pro-fibrotic collagen type I producing fibroblasts. The present study investigates the effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on pericyte proliferation, cell viability, migration and differentiation. The results show that HDAC inhibition through exposure of pericytes to VPA in vitro causes the inhibition of pericyte proliferation and migration with no effect on cell viability. Pericyte exposure to the potent HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A caused similar effects on pericyte proliferation, migration and cell viability. HDAC inhibition also inhibited pericyte differentiation into collagen type I producing fibroblasts. Given the importance of pericytes in blood vessel biology a qPCR array focusing on the expression of mRNAs coding for proteins that regulate angiogenesis was performed. The results showed that HDAC inhibition promoted transcription of genes involved in vessel stabilization/maturation in human microvascular pericytes. The present in vitro study demonstrates that VPA influences several aspects of microvascular pericyte biology and suggests an alternative mechanism by which HDAC inhibition affects blood vessels. The results raise the possibility that HDAC inhibition inhibits angiogenesis partly through promoting a pericyte phenotype associated with stabilization/maturation of blood vessels. PMID:21966390

  18. Survival motor neuron protein deficiency impairs myotube formation by altering myogenic gene expression and focal adhesion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bricceno, Katherine V; Martinez, Tara; Leikina, Evgenia; Duguez, Stephanie; Partridge, Terence A; Chernomordik, Leonid V; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Sumner, Charlotte J; Burnett, Barrington G

    2014-09-15

    While spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by motor neuron degeneration, it is unclear whether and how much survival motor neuron (SMN) protein deficiency in muscle contributes to the pathophysiology of the disease. There is increasing evidence from patients and SMA model organisms that SMN deficiency causes intrinsic muscle defects. Here we investigated the role of SMN in muscle development using muscle cell lines and primary myoblasts. Formation of multinucleate myotubes by SMN-deficient muscle cells is inhibited at a stage preceding plasma membrane fusion. We found increased expression and reduced induction of key muscle development factors, such as MyoD and myogenin, with differentiation of SMN-deficient cells. In addition, SMN-deficient muscle cells had impaired cell migration and altered organization of focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton. Partially restoring SMN inhibited the premature expression of muscle differentiation markers, corrected the cytoskeletal abnormalities and improved myoblast fusion. These findings are consistent with a role for SMN in myotube formation through effects on muscle differentiation and cell motility. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. CCR6 Deficiency Impairs IgA Production and Dysregulates Antimicrobial Peptide Production, Altering the Intestinal Flora

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ya-Lin; Ip, Peng-Peng; Liao, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal immunity exists as a complex relationship among immune cells, epithelial cells, and microbiota. CCR6 and its ligand–CCL20 are highly expressed in intestinal mucosal tissues, such as Peyer’s patches (PPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). In this study, we investigated the role of the CCR6–CCL20 axis in intestinal immunity under homeostatic conditions. CCR6 deficiency intrinsically affects germinal center reactions in PPs, leading to impairments in IgA class switching, IgA affinity, and IgA memory B cell production and positioning in PPs, suggesting an important role for CCR6 in T-cell-dependent IgA generation. CCR6 deficiency impairs the maturation of ILFs. In these follicles, group 3 innate lymphoid cells are important components and a major source of IL-22, which stimulates intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). We found that CCR6 deficiency reduces IL-22 production, likely due to diminished numbers of group 3 innate lymphoid cells within small-sized ILFs. The reduced IL-22 levels subsequently decrease the production of AMPs, suggesting a critical role for CCR6 in innate intestinal immunity. Finally, we found that CCR6 deficiency impairs the production of IgA and AMPs, leading to increased levels of Alcaligenes in PPs, and segmented filamentous bacteria in IECs. Thus, the CCR6–CCL20 axis plays a crucial role in maintaining intestinal symbiosis by limiting the overgrowth of mucosa-associated commensal bacteria. PMID:28744287

  20. Deficiency in Origin Licensing Proteins Impairs Cilia Formation: Implications for the Aetiology of Meier-Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alcantara, Diana; Outwin, Emily; Brunner, Han G.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6, which encode proteins required for DNA replication origin licensing, cause Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), a disorder conferring microcephaly, primordial dwarfism, underdeveloped ears, and skeletal abnormalities. Mutations in ATR, which also functions during replication, can cause Seckel syndrome, a clinically related disorder. These findings suggest that impaired DNA replication could underlie the developmental defects characteristic of these disorders. Here, we show that although origin licensing capacity is impaired in all patient cells with mutations in origin licensing component proteins, this does not correlate with the rate of progression through S phase. Thus, the replicative capacity in MGS patient cells does not correlate with clinical manifestation. However, ORC1-deficient cells from MGS patients and siRNA–mediated depletion of origin licensing proteins also have impaired centrosome and centriole copy number. As a novel and unexpected finding, we show that they also display a striking defect in the rate of formation of primary cilia. We demonstrate that this impacts sonic hedgehog signalling in ORC1-deficient primary fibroblasts. Additionally, reduced growth factor-dependent signaling via primary cilia affects the kinetics of cell cycle progression following cell cycle exit and re-entry, highlighting an unexpected mechanism whereby origin licensing components can influence cell cycle progression. Finally, using a cell-based model, we show that defects in cilia function impair chondroinduction. Our findings raise the possibility that a reduced efficiency in forming cilia could contribute to the clinical features of MGS, particularly the bone development abnormalities, and could provide a new dimension for considering developmental impacts of licensing deficiency. PMID:23516378

  1. Impaired exercise tolerance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and muscle fiber maintenance in miR-133a-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yaohui; Sato, Yoriko; Wang, Chao; Yue, Feng; Kuang, Shihuan; Gavin, Timothy P

    2016-11-01

    Exercise promotes multiple beneficial effects on muscle function, including induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. miR-133a is a muscle-enriched microRNA that regulates muscle development and function. The role of miR-133a in exercise tolerance has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, mice that were deficient in miR-133a demonstrated low maximal exercise capacity and low resting metabolic rate. Transcription of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-β, nuclear respiratory factor-1, and transcription factor A, mitochondrial were lower in miR-133a-deficient muscle, which was consistent with lower mitochondrial mass and impaired exercise capacity. Six weeks of endurance exercise training increased the transcriptional level of miR-133a and stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in wild-type mice, but failed to improve mitochondrial function in miR-133a-deficient mice. Further mechanistic analysis showed an increase in the miR-133a potential target, IGF-1 receptor, along with hyperactivation of Akt signaling, in miR-133a-deficient mice, which was consistent with lower transcription of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators. These findings indicate an essential role of miR-133a in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, exercise tolerance, and response to exercise training.-Nie, Y., Sato, Y., Wang, C., Yue, F., Kuang, S., Gavin, T. P. Impaired exercise tolerance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and muscle fiber maintenance in miR-133a-deficient mice. © FASEB.

  2. Placental growth factor deficiency is associated with impaired cerebral vascular development in mice.

    PubMed

    Luna, Rayana Leal; Kay, Vanessa R; Rätsep, Matthew T; Khalaj, Kasra; Bidarimath, Mallikarjun; Peterson, Nichole; Carmeliet, Peter; Jin, Albert; Croy, B Anne

    2016-02-01

    deficiency on cerebrovascular development cannot be separated. However, as PGF was strongly expressed in the developing brain at all timepoints, we suggest that local PGF has a more important role than distant maternal or placental sources. Full PGF loss is not expected in PE pregnancies, predicting that the effects of PGF deficiency identified in this model will be more severe than any effects in PE-offspring. These studies provoke the question of whether PGF expression is decreased and cerebral vascular maldevelopment occurs in fetuses who experience a preeclamptic gestation. These individuals have already been reported to have elevated risk for stroke and cognitive impairments. N/A. This work was supported by awards from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, the Canada Research Chairs Program and the Canadian Foundation for Innovation to B.A.C. and by training awards from the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brazil to R.L.L.; Queen's University to V.R.K. and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to M.T.R. The work of P.C. is supported by the Belgian Science Policy BELSPO-IUAP7/03, Structural funding by the Flemish Government-Methusalem funding, and the Flemish Science Fund-FWO grants. There were no competing interests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Marginal copper deficiency impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation responses across two generations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The generational effects of marginal copper (Cu) deficiency on vascular function have not been characterized.In this study, the vascular consequences of marginal Cu deficiency were determined by relaxation responses in mesenteric arteries of dams and two generations of offspring. Pups from dams (fir...

  4. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME IS IMPAIRED FOLLOWING TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN AGING NOGOA/B-DEFICIENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Marklund, Niklas; Morales, Diego; Clausen, Fredrik; Hånell, Anders; Kiwanuka, Olivia; Pitkanen, Asla; Gimbel, David A.; Philipson, Ola; Lannfelt, Lars; Hillered, Lars; Strittmatter, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Tracy K.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing age is associated with a poor prognosis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Central nervous system axons may recover poorly following TBI due to expression of myelin-derived inhibitors to axonal outgrowth such as Nogo-A. To study the role of Nogo-A/B in the pathophysiological response of the elderly to TBI, 1-year old mice deficient in Nogo-A/B (Nogo-A/B homozygous −/− mice), Nogo-A/B heterozygous −/+ mice, and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermate controls were subjected to a controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI. Sham-injured WT mice (7 months old) and 12 months old naïve Nogo-A/B−/− and Nogo-A/B−/+ served as controls. Neurological motor function was evaluated up to 3 weeks, and cognitive function, hemispheric tissue loss, myelin staining and hippocampal β-amyloid (Aβ) immunohistochemistry was evaluated at 4 weeks post-injury. In WT littermates, TBI significantly impaired learning ability at 4 weeks and neurological motor function up to 2 weeks post-injury and caused a significant loss of hemispheric tissue. Following TBI, Nogo-A/B−/− mice showed significantly less recovery from neurological motor deficits compared to brain-injured WT mice. Naïve Nogo-A/B−/−and Nogo-A/B−/+ mice quickly learned the MWM task in contrast to brain-injured Nogo-A/B−/− mice who failed to learn the MWM task at 4 week post-injury. Hemispheric tissue loss and cortical lesion volume was similar among the brain-injured genotypes. Neither TBI nor the absence of NogoA/B caused an increased Aβ expression. Myelin staining showed a reduced area and density in the corpus callosum in brain-injured Nogo-A/B−/−animals compared to their littermate controls. These novel and unexpected behavioral results demonstrate that the absence of Nogo-A/B may negatively influence outcome, possibly related to hypomyelination, following TBI in mice and suggest a complex role for this myelin-associated axonal growth inhibitor following TBI. PMID:19555742

  5. Benefits of targeting both pericytes and endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature with kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bergers, Gabriele; Song, Steven; Meyer-Morse, Nicole; Bergsland, Emily; Hanahan, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Functions of receptor tyrosine kinases implicated in angiogenesis were pharmacologically impaired in a mouse model of pancreatic islet cancer. An inhibitor targeting VEGFRs in endothelial cells (SU5416) is effective against early-stage angiogenic lesions, but not large, well-vascularized tumors. In contrast, a kinase inhibitor incorporating selectivity for PDGFRs (SU6668) is shown to block further growth of end-stage tumors, eliciting detachment of pericytes and disruption of tumor vascularity. Importantly, PDGFRs were expressed only in perivascular cells of this tumor type, suggesting that PDGFR+ pericytes in tumors present a complimentary target to endothelial cells for efficacious antiangiogenic therapy. Therapeutic regimes combining the two kinase inhibitors (SU5416 and SU6668) were more efficacious against all stages of islet carcinogenesis than either single agent. Combination of the VEGFR inhibitor with another distinctive kinase inhibitor targeting PDGFR activity (Gleevec) was also able to regress late-stage tumors. Thus, combinatorial targeting of receptor tyrosine kinases shows promise for treating multiple stages in tumorigenesis, most notably the often-intractable late-stage solid tumor. PMID:12727920

  6. Tissue iron deficiency without anemia impairs adaptation in endurance capacity after aerobic training in previously untrained women.

    PubMed

    Brownlie, Thomas; Utermohlen, Virginia; Hinton, Pamela S; Haas, Jere D

    2004-03-01

    We previously showed that iron supplementation significantly improves iron status and maximal work capacity in previously untrained, marginally iron-deficient women with a baseline serum transferrin receptor concentration > 8.0 mg/L. However, the effect of transferrin receptor status on adaptation in endurance capacity after aerobic training in these subjects has not been fully explored. Our objective was to examine the effect of baseline serum transferrin receptor status on adaptations in endurance capacity. Forty-one untrained, iron-depleted, nonanemic women were randomly assigned to receive either 100 mg FeSO(4) or a placebo for 6 wk in a double-blind trial. All subjects trained on cycle ergometers 5 d/wk for the last 4 wk of the study. Endurance capacity was assessed at baseline and after treatment by using a 15-km time trial conducted on a cycle ergometer. Significant treatment effects were observed for time to complete the 15-km time trial, work rate, and percentage of maximal oxygen uptake in subjects with a baseline serum transferrin receptor concentration > 8.0 mg/L. No significant treatment effects were observed in subjects with a normal baseline transferrin receptor concentration. Our findings suggest that, in the presence of overt tissue iron deficiency, iron deficiency without anemia impairs adaptation in endurance capacity after aerobic training in previously untrained women. This impairment can be corrected with iron supplementation.

  7. Optineurin deficiency in mice contributes to impaired cytokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in bacteria-driven colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Thean S.; O'Shea, Nuala R.; Sewell, Gavin W.; Oehlers, Stefan H.; Mulvey, Claire M.; Crosier, Philip S.; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka; Bloom, Stuart L.; Smith, Andrew M.; Segal, Anthony W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with delayed neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance at sites of acute inflammation as a result of impaired secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. To investigate the impaired cytokine secretion and confirm our previous findings, we performed transcriptomic analysis in macrophages and identified a subgroup of individuals with CD who had low expression of the autophagy receptor optineurin (OPTN). We then clarified the role of OPTN deficiency in: macrophage cytokine secretion; mouse models of bacteria-driven colitis and peritonitis; and zebrafish Salmonella infection. OPTN-deficient bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with heat-killed Escherichia coli secreted less proinflammatory TNFα and IL6 cytokines despite similar gene transcription, which normalised with lysosomal and autophagy inhibitors, suggesting that TNFα is mis-trafficked to lysosomes via bafilomycin-A-dependent pathways in the absence of OPTN. OPTN-deficient mice were more susceptible to Citrobacter colitis and E. coli peritonitis, and showed reduced levels of proinflammatory TNFα in serum, diminished neutrophil recruitment to sites of acute inflammation and greater mortality, compared with wild-type mice. Optn-knockdown zebrafish infected with Salmonella also had higher mortality. OPTN plays a role in acute inflammation and neutrophil recruitment, potentially via defective macrophage proinflammatory cytokine secretion, which suggests that diminished OPTN expression in humans might increase the risk of developing CD. PMID:26044960

  8. Phonological abilities in literacy-impaired children: Brain potentials reveal deficient phoneme discrimination, but intact prosodic processing.

    PubMed

    Männel, Claudia; Schaadt, Gesa; Illner, Franziska K; van der Meer, Elke; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-02-01

    Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia) are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology), findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology) are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands. To provide an objective behavior-independent picture of segmental and suprasegmental phonological processing in impaired literacy acquisition, we investigated event-related brain potentials during passive listening in typically and poor-spelling German school children. For segmental phonology, we analyzed the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) during vowel length discrimination, capturing automatic auditory deviancy detection in repetitive contexts. For suprasegmental phonology, we analyzed the Closure Positive Shift (CPS) that automatically occurs in response to prosodic boundaries. Our results revealed spelling group differences for the MMN, but not for the CPS, indicating deficient segmental, but intact suprasegmental phonological processing in poor spellers. The present findings point towards a differential role of segmental and suprasegmental phonology in literacy disorders and call for interventions that invigorate impaired literacy by utilizing intact prosody in addition to training deficient phonemic awareness.

  9. Optineurin deficiency in mice contributes to impaired cytokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in bacteria-driven colitis.

    PubMed

    Chew, Thean S; O'Shea, Nuala R; Sewell, Gavin W; Oehlers, Stefan H; Mulvey, Claire M; Crosier, Philip S; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka; Bloom, Stuart L; Smith, Andrew M; Segal, Anthony W

    2015-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with delayed neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance at sites of acute inflammation as a result of impaired secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. To investigate the impaired cytokine secretion and confirm our previous findings, we performed transcriptomic analysis in macrophages and identified a subgroup of individuals with CD who had low expression of the autophagy receptor optineurin (OPTN). We then clarified the role of OPTN deficiency in: macrophage cytokine secretion; mouse models of bacteria-driven colitis and peritonitis; and zebrafish Salmonella infection. OPTN-deficient bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with heat-killed Escherichia coli secreted less proinflammatory TNFα and IL6 cytokines despite similar gene transcription, which normalised with lysosomal and autophagy inhibitors, suggesting that TNFα is mis-trafficked to lysosomes via bafilomycin-A-dependent pathways in the absence of OPTN. OPTN-deficient mice were more susceptible to Citrobacter colitis and E. coli peritonitis, and showed reduced levels of proinflammatory TNFα in serum, diminished neutrophil recruitment to sites of acute inflammation and greater mortality, compared with wild-type mice. Optn-knockdown zebrafish infected with Salmonella also had higher mortality. OPTN plays a role in acute inflammation and neutrophil recruitment, potentially via defective macrophage proinflammatory cytokine secretion, which suggests that diminished OPTN expression in humans might increase the risk of developing CD.

  10. A mouse model for creatine transporter deficiency reveals early onset cognitive impairment and neuropathology associated with brain aging.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, Laura; Molinaro, Angelo; Cacciante, Francesco; Alessandrì, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Debora; Putignano, Elena; Tola, Jonida; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Cioni, Giovanni; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in the creatine (Cr) transporter (CrT) gene lead to cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome-1 (CCDS1), an X-linked metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral Cr deficiency causing intellectual disability, seizures, movement and autistic-like behavioural disturbances, language and speech impairment. Since no data are available about the neural and molecular underpinnings of this disease, we performed a longitudinal analysis of behavioural and pathological alterations associated with CrT deficiency in a CCDS1 mouse model. We found precocious cognitive and autistic-like defects, mimicking the early key features of human CCDS1. Moreover, mutant mice displayed a progressive impairment of short and long-term declarative memory denoting an early brain aging. Pathological examination showed a prominent loss of GABAergic synapses, marked activation of microglia, reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis and the accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin. Our data suggest that brain Cr depletion causes both early intellectual disability and late progressive cognitive decline, and identify novel targets to design intervention strategies aimed at overcoming brain CCDS1 alterations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cerebral perfusion and oxygenation are impaired by folate deficiency in rat: absolute measurements with noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Troen, Aron M

    2011-01-01

    Brain microvascular pathology is a common finding in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. However, the extent to which microvascular abnormalities cause or contribute to cognitive impairment is unclear. Noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can address this question, but its use for clarifying the role of microvascular dysfunction in dementia has been limited due to theoretical and practical considerations. We developed a new noninvasive NIRS method to obtain quantitative, dynamic measurements of absolute brain hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation and used it to show significant cerebrovascular impairments in a rat model of diet-induced vascular cognitive impairment. We fed young rats folate-deficient (FD) and control diets and measured absolute brain hemoglobin and hemodynamic parameters at rest and during transient mild hypoxia and hypercapnia. With respect to control animals, FD rats featured significantly lower brain hemoglobin concentration (72±4 μmol/L versus 95±6 μmol/L) and oxygen saturation (54%±3% versus 65%±2%). By contrast, resting arterial oxygen saturation was the same for both groups (96%±4%), indicating that decrements in brain hemoglobin oxygenation were independent of blood oxygen carrying capacity. Vasomotor reactivity in response to hypercapnia was also impaired in FD rats. Our results implicate microvascular abnormality and diminished oxygen delivery as a mechanism of cognitive impairment. PMID:21386853

  12. The nuclear membrane and mechanotransduction: impaired nuclear mechanics and mechanotransduction in lamin A/C deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Lammerding, Jan; Lee, Richard T

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the lamin A/C gene cause a variety of human diseases including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. The tissue specific effects of lamin mutations are unclear, in part because the function of lamin A/C is incompletely defined, but the many muscle specific phenotypes suggest that defective lamin A/C could increase cellular mechanical sensitivity. Lamin A/C deficient fibroblasts were subjected to mechanical strain to measure nuclear mechanical properties and strain-induced signalling. We found that lamin A/C deficient fibroblasts are characterized by impaired nuclear mechanics and mechanotransduction, reflected by increased nuclear deformations, increased nuclear fragility, attenuated expression of mechanosensitive genes, and impaired transcriptional activation, leading to impaired viability of mechanically strained cells. Lamins and other nuclear envelope proteins can thus affect several levels of the mechanotransduction cascade, altering nuclear and cytoskeletal mechanics as well as playing an important role in mechanically activated gene regulation. Individual mutations in the lamin A/C gene could potentially selectively interfere with any of these functions, explaining the tissue-specific effects observed in the laminopathies.

  13. Sleep deprivation impairs Ca2+ expression in the hippocampus: ionic imaging analysis for cognitive deficiency with TOF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Liao, Wen-Chieh; Sheu, Ji-Nan; Chang, Chun-Chao; Lan, Chyn-Tair; Mai, Fu-Der

    2012-06-01

    Sleep deprivation causes cognitive dysfunction in which impaired neuronal plasticity in hippocampus may underlie the molecular mechanisms of this deficiency. Considering calcium-mediated NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activation plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal plasticity, the present study is aimed to determine whether total sleep deprivation (TSD) would impair calcium expression, together with injury of the neuronal plasticity in hippocampus. Adult rats subjected to TSD were processed for time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, NMDAR1 immunohistochemistry, nNOS biochemical assay, cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, and the Morris water maze learning test to detect ionic, neurochemical, bioenergetic as well as behavioral changes of neuronal plasticity, respectively. Results indicated that in normal rats, strong calcium signaling along with intense NMDAR1/nNOS expression were observed in hippocampal regions. Enhanced calcium imaging and neurochemical expressions corresponded well with strong bioenergetic activity and good performance of behavioral testing. However, following TSD, both calcium intensity and NMDAR1/nNOS expressions were significantly decreased. Behavioral testing also showed poor responses after TSD. As proper calcium expression is essential for maintaining hippocampal neuronal plasticity, impaired calcium expression would depress downstream NMDAR1-mediated nNOS activation, which might contribute to the initiation or development of TSD-related cognitive deficiency.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency impairs skeletal muscle function in a smoking mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Cielen, Nele; Heulens, Nele; Maes, Karen; Carmeliet, Geert; Mathieu, Chantal; Janssens, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with skeletal muscle dysfunction. Vitamin D plays an important role in muscle strength and performance in healthy individuals. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in COPD, but its role in skeletal muscle dysfunction remains unclear. We examined the time-course effect of vitamin D deficiency on limb muscle function in mice with normal or deficient vitamin D serum levels exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 6, 12 or 18 weeks. The synergy of smoking and vitamin D deficiency increased lung inflammation and lung compliance from 6 weeks on with highest emphysema scores observed at 18 weeks. Smoking reduced body and muscle mass of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), but did not affect contractility, despite type II atrophy. Vitamin D deficiency did not alter muscle mass but reduced muscle force over time, downregulated vitamin D receptor expression, and increased muscle lipid peroxidation but did not alter actin and myosin expression, fiber dimensions or twitch relaxation time. The combined effect of smoking and vitamin D deficiency did not further deteriorate muscle function but worsened soleus mass loss and EDL fiber atrophy at 18 weeks. We conclude that the synergy of smoking and vitamin D deficiency in contrast to its effect on lung disease, had different, independent but important noxious effects on skeletal muscles in a mouse model of mild COPD. PMID:26906744

  15. Rat meningeal and brain microvasculature pericytes co-express the vesicular glutamate transporters 2 and 3.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Brian N; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2008-04-18

    Pericytes are small cells that are apposed to brain and meningeal microvasculature and control capillary contraction, thereby regulating local cerebral perfusion. Pericytes respond to exogenously applied glutamate in vitro and express metabotropic glutamate receptors. However, it is unclear if pericytes have the capacity to release glutamate. We therefore determined whether pericytes express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), which are considered to be unambiguous markers of cells that use glutamate as an intercellular signaling molecule. Leptomeningeal and brain microvasculature-associated pericytes of the adult rat, as defined by the presence of NG2 proteoglycan, expressed both VGLUT2- and VGLUT3-immunoreactivity, but did not express VGLUT1. Consistent with the hypothesis that pericytes release glutamate, VGLUT2- and VGLUT3-immunoreactivities appeared to be localized to secretory vesicles. These results suggest that glutamate is released from pericytes of the leptomeninges and brain microvasculature, and demonstrate for the first time the co-localization of VGLUT2 and VGLUT3.

  16. Autoimmune destruction of pericytes as the cause of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Duncan D

    2008-06-01

    In diabetic retinopathy, collapse of the retinal vasculature is associated with loss of the pericytes. These are contractile cells that together with endothelial cells form the terminal arterioles of the retina. The cause of the loss of pericytes is not known. Recently, it has been discovered that type 1 diabetes is caused by forbidden clones of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which destroy the insulin-making cells with exquisite specificity. In the light of this, I postulate that an antigenically-related forbidden clone of cytotoxic T lymphocytes selectively destroys the pericytes and that this is the cause of the vascular collapse of diabetic retinopathy. If this is so, the therapeutic implications are immense, involving a switch from ineffectual tight glycemic control to immunotherapy. This is already used as immunosuppression to prevent organ transplant rejection, and as the immune ablation and autologous bone marrow cell reconstitution that has saved the lives of patients with lethally-severe scleroderma. Once the pericyte surface auto-antigen for the T lymphocytes has been isolated, selective destruction of the pathogenic T lymphocytes would be possible by manufacture and use of cytotoxic auto-antigen complexes, which arrests progression of the retinopathy.

  17. Pericytes and their potential in regenerative medicine across species.

    PubMed

    Esteves, C L; Donadeu, F X

    2017-09-20

    The discovery that pericytes are in vivo counterparts of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs) has placed these perivascular cells in the research spotlight, bringing up hope for a well-characterized cell source for clinical applications, alternative to poorly defined, heterogeneous MSCs preparations currently in use. Native pericytes express typical MSC markers and, after isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, display an MSC phenotype in culture. These features have been demonstrated in different species, including humans and horses, the main targets of regenerative treatments. Significant clinical potential of pericytes has been shown by transplantation of human cells into rodent models of tissue injury, and it is hoped that future studies will demonstrate clinical potential in veterinary species. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on pericytes across different species including humans, companion and large animal models, in relation to their identification in different body tissues, methodology for prospective isolation, characterization, and potential for tissue regeneration. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. Cellular Model of Atherogenesis Based on Pluripotent Vascular Wall Pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes are pluripotent cells that can be found in the vascular wall of both microvessels and large arteries and veins. They have distinct morphology with long branching processes and form numerous contacts with each other and with endothelial cells, organizing the vascular wall cells into a three-dimensional network. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that pericytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis. Macrovascular pericytes are able to accumulate lipids and contribute to growth and vascularization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Moreover, they participate in the local inflammatory process and thrombosis, which can lead to fatal consequences. At the same time, pericytes can represent a useful model for studying the atherosclerotic process and for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. In particular, they are suitable for testing various substances' potential for decreasing lipid accumulation induced by the incubation of cells with atherogenic low-density lipoprotein. In this review we will discuss the application of cellular models for studying atherosclerosis and provide several examples of successful application of these models to drug research. PMID:26880986

  19. Pericytes are progenitors for coronary artery smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Katharina S; Jacobs, Andrew H; Chen, Heidi I; Poduri, Aruna; McKay, Andrew S; Riordan, Daniel P; Kofler, Natalie; Kitajewski, Jan; Weissman, Irving; Red-Horse, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial cells on the heart’s surface give rise to coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) located deep in the myocardium. However, the differentiation steps between epicardial cells and caSMCs are unknown as are the final maturation signals at coronary arteries. Here, we use clonal analysis and lineage tracing to show that caSMCs derive from pericytes, mural cells associated with microvessels, and that these cells are present in adults. During development following the onset of blood flow, pericytes at arterial remodeling sites upregulate Notch3 while endothelial cells express Jagged-1. Deletion of Notch3 disrupts caSMC differentiation. Our data support a model wherein epicardial-derived pericytes populate the entire coronary microvasculature, but differentiate into caSMCs at arterial remodeling zones in response to Notch signaling. Our data are the first demonstration that pericytes are progenitors for smooth muscle, and their presence in adult hearts reveals a new potential cell type for targeting during cardiovascular disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10036.001 PMID:26479710

  20. Folic acid deficiency induces premature hearing loss through mechanisms involving cochlear oxidative stress and impairment of homocysteine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Garrido, Francisco; Partearroyo, Teresa; Cediel, Rafael; Zeisel, Steven H; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A

    2015-02-01

    Nutritional imbalance is emerging as a causative factor of hearing loss. Epidemiologic studies have linked hearing loss to elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and folate deficiency, and have shown that folate supplementation lowers tHcy levels potentially ameliorating age-related hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to address the impact of folate deficiency on hearing loss and to examine the underlying mechanisms. For this purpose, 2-mo-old C57BL/6J mice (Animalia Chordata Mus musculus) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 65 each) that were fed folate-deficient (FD) or standard diets for 8 wk. HPLC analysis demonstrated a 7-fold decline in serum folate and a 3-fold increase in tHcy levels. FD mice exhibited severe hearing loss measured by auditory brainstem recordings and TUNEL-positive-apoptotic cochlear cells. RT-quantitative PCR and Western blotting showed reduced levels of enzymes catalyzing homocysteine (Hcy) production and recycling, together with a 30% increase in protein homocysteinylation. Redox stress was demonstrated by decreased expression of catalase, glutathione peroxidase 4, and glutathione synthetase genes, increased levels of manganese superoxide dismutase, and NADPH oxidase-complex adaptor cytochrome b-245, α-polypeptide (p22phox) proteins, and elevated concentrations of glutathione species. Altogether, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia induced by folate deficiency and premature hearing loss involves impairment of cochlear Hcy metabolism and associated oxidative stress. © FASEB.

  1. TACI deficiency impairs sustained Blimp-1 expression in B cells decreasing long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shoichiro; Cortesão, Catarina; Bram, Richard J; Platt, Jeffrey L; Cascalho, Marilia

    2011-11-24

    Deficiencies in transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) result in common variable immune deficiency, a syndrome marked by recurrent infections with encapsulated microorganisms, impaired production of antibodies, and lymphoproliferation. How TACI promotes antibody production and inhibits lymphoproliferation is not understood. To answer this question, we studied the generation of immunity to protein antigens in both TACI-deficient and TACI-proficient mice. We show that TACI promotes sustained Blimp-1 expression by B cells responding to antigen, which in turn limits B-cell clonal expansion and facilitates differentiation of long-lived antibody-secreting cells. Short-term IgG secretion occurs independently of TACI as DNA double-strand breaks associated with isotype class switching induce Blimp-1 transiently, independently of TACI. Our results showing that TACI induces and maintains Blimp-1 provide, for the first time, a unified molecular and cellular mechanism explaining the primary features of common variable immune deficiency, exquisite vulnerability to infection with encapsulated organisms, lymphoproliferation, and hypogammaglobulinemia.

  2. TACI deficiency impairs sustained Blimp-1 expression in B cells decreasing long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Shoichiro; Cortesão, Catarina; Bram, Richard J.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Deficiencies in transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) result in common variable immune deficiency, a syndrome marked by recurrent infections with encapsulated microorganisms, impaired production of antibodies, and lymphoproliferation. How TACI promotes antibody production and inhibits lymphoproliferation is not understood. To answer this question, we studied the generation of immunity to protein antigens in both TACI-deficient and TACI-proficient mice. We show that TACI promotes sustained Blimp-1 expression by B cells responding to antigen, which in turn limits B-cell clonal expansion and facilitates differentiation of long-lived antibody-secreting cells. Short-term IgG secretion occurs independently of TACI as DNA double-strand breaks associated with isotype class switching induce Blimp-1 transiently, independently of TACI. Our results showing that TACI induces and maintains Blimp-1 provide, for the first time, a unified molecular and cellular mechanism explaining the primary features of common variable immune deficiency, exquisite vulnerability to infection with encapsulated organisms, lymphoproliferation, and hypogammaglobulinemia. PMID:21984806

  3. A role for human brain pericytes in neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain inflammation plays a key role in neurological disease. Although much research has been conducted investigating inflammatory events in animal models, potential differences in human brain versus rodent models makes it imperative that we also study these phenomena in human cells and tissue. Methods Primary human brain cell cultures were generated from biopsy tissue of patients undergoing surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cells were treated with pro-inflammatory compounds IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β, and LPS, and chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1 were measured by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarray analysis was also performed on late passage cultures treated with vehicle or IFNγ and IL-1β. Results Early passage human brain cell cultures were a mixture of microglia, astrocytes, fibroblasts and pericytes. Later passage cultures contained proliferating fibroblasts and pericytes only. Under basal culture conditions all cell types showed cytoplasmic NFκB indicating that they were in a non-activated state. Expression of IP-10 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. The two chemokines were expressed in mixed cultures as well as cultures of fibroblasts and pericytes only. The expression of IP-10 and MCP-1 were regulated at the mRNA and protein level, and both were secreted into cell culture media. NFκB nuclear translocation was also detected in response to pro-inflammatory cues (except IFNγ) in all cell types. Microarray analysis of brain pericytes also revealed widespread changes in gene expression in response to the combination of IFNγ and IL-1β treatment including interleukins, chemokines, cellular adhesion molecules and much more. Conclusions Adult human brain cells are sensitive to cytokine challenge. As expected ‘classical’ brain immune cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, responded to cytokine challenge but of even more interest, brain pericytes also responded to such challenge with a

  4. A role for human brain pericytes in neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Deidre; Rustenhoven, Justin; Feng, Sheryl; Hurley, Daniel; Oldfield, Robyn L; Bergin, Peter S; Mee, Edward W; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike

    2014-06-11

    Brain inflammation plays a key role in neurological disease. Although much research has been conducted investigating inflammatory events in animal models, potential differences in human brain versus rodent models makes it imperative that we also study these phenomena in human cells and tissue. Primary human brain cell cultures were generated from biopsy tissue of patients undergoing surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cells were treated with pro-inflammatory compounds IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β, and LPS, and chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1 were measured by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarray analysis was also performed on late passage cultures treated with vehicle or IFNγ and IL-1β. Early passage human brain cell cultures were a mixture of microglia, astrocytes, fibroblasts and pericytes. Later passage cultures contained proliferating fibroblasts and pericytes only. Under basal culture conditions all cell types showed cytoplasmic NFκB indicating that they were in a non-activated state. Expression of IP-10 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. The two chemokines were expressed in mixed cultures as well as cultures of fibroblasts and pericytes only. The expression of IP-10 and MCP-1 were regulated at the mRNA and protein level, and both were secreted into cell culture media. NFκB nuclear translocation was also detected in response to pro-inflammatory cues (except IFNγ) in all cell types. Microarray analysis of brain pericytes also revealed widespread changes in gene expression in response to the combination of IFNγ and IL-1β treatment including interleukins, chemokines, cellular adhesion molecules and much more. Adult human brain cells are sensitive to cytokine challenge. As expected 'classical' brain immune cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, responded to cytokine challenge but of even more interest, brain pericytes also responded to such challenge with a rich repertoire of gene expression. Immune

  5. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2−/− mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2−/− mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  6. Phytochromobilin deficiency impairs sugar metabolism through the regulation of cytokinin and auxin signaling in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Bianchetti, Ricardo Ernesto; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Oliveira, Bruna Soares; Demarco, Diego; Purgatto, Eduardo; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Rossi, Magdalena; Freschi, Luciano

    2017-08-10

    Phytochomes and plant hormones have been emerging as important regulators of fleshy fruit biology and quality traits; however, the relevance of phytochrome-hormonal signaling crosstalk in controlling fruit development and metabolism remains elusive. Here, we show that the deficiency in phytochrome chromophore phytochromobilin (PΦB) biosynthesis inhibits sugar accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits by transcriptionally downregulating sink- and starch biosynthesis-related enzymes, such as cell-wall invertases, sucrose transporters and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. PΦB deficiency was also shown to repress fruit chloroplast biogenesis, which implicates more limited production of photoassimilates via fruit photosynthesis. Genetic and physiological data revealed the involvement of auxins and cytokinins in mediating the negative impact of PΦB deficiency on fruit sink strength and chloroplast formation. PΦB deficiency was shown to transcriptionally repress type-A TOMATO RESPONSE REGULATORs and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs both in pericarp and columella, suggesting active phytochrome-hormonal signaling crosstalk in these tissues. Data also revealed that PΦB deficiency influences fruit ripening by delaying the climacteric rise in ethylene production and signaling. Altogether, the data uncover the impact of phytochromobilin deficiency in fine-tuning sugar metabolism, chloroplast formation and the timing of fruit ripening and also reveal a link between auxins, cytokinins and phytochromes in regulating sugar import and accumulation in fruits.

  7. Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency?

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, S; Yokota, T; Shiojiri, T; Matunaga, T; Tanaka, H; Nishina, K; Hirota, H; Inaba, A; Yamada, M; Kanda, T; Mizusawa, H

    2003-05-01

    Acute axonal polyneuropathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy developed simultaneously in three patients. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) detected markedly decreased compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) with minimal conduction slowing; sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were also notably decreased. Sural nerve biopsies showed only mild axonal degeneration with scattered myelin ovoid formation. The symptoms of neuropathy lessened within two weeks after an intravenous thiamine infusion. CMAPs, SNAPs, and SSRs also increased considerably. We suggest that this is a new type of peripheral nerve impairment: physiological conduction failure with minimal conduction delay due to thiamine deficiency.

  8. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  9. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  10. Combined ascorbate and glutathione deficiency leads to decreased cytochrome b5 expression and impaired reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine

    PubMed Central

    Bhusari, Sachin; Abouraya, Mahmoud; Padilla, Marcia L.; Pinkerton, Marie E.; Drescher, Nicholas J.; Sacco, James C.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfonamide antimicrobials such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) have been associated with drug hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in patients with AIDS. A reactive oxidative metabolite, sulfamethoxazole-nitroso (SMX-NO), forms drug-tissue adducts that elicit a T cell response. Antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA) and glutathione (GSH) reduce SMX-NO to the less reactive hydroxylamine metabolite (SMX-HA), which is further reduced to the non-immunogenic parent compound by cytochrome b5 (b5) and its reductase (b5R). We hypothesized that deficiencies in AA and GSH would enhance drug-tissue adduct formation and immunogenicity towards SMX-NO, and that these antioxidant deficiencies might also impair the activity of the b5/b5R pathway. We tested these hypotheses in guinea pigs fed either a normal or AA-restricted diet, followed by buthionine sulfoximine treatment (250 mg/kg SC daily, or vehicle); and SMX-NO (1 mg/kg IP 4 days per week, or vehicle), for 2 weeks. Guinea pigs did not show any biochemical or histopathologic evidence of SMX-NO related toxicity. Combined AA and GSH deficiency in this model did not significantly increase tissue drug-adduct formation, or splenocyte proliferation in response to SMX-NO. However, combined antioxidant deficiency was associated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome b5, as well as significant decreases in SMX-HA reduction in SMX-NO treated pigs. These results suggest that SMX-HA detoxification may be down-regulated in combined AA and GSH deficiency. This mechanism could contribute to the higher risk of SMX hypersensitivity in AIDS patients with antioxidant depletion. PMID:20221587

  11. Combined ascorbate and glutathione deficiency leads to decreased cytochrome b5 expression and impaired reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Bhusari, Sachin; Abouraya, Mahmoud; Padilla, Marcia L; Pinkerton, Marie E; Drescher, Nicholas J; Sacco, James C; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2010-08-01

    Sulfonamide antimicrobials such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) have been associated with drug hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in patients with AIDS. A reactive oxidative metabolite, sulfamethoxazole-nitroso (SMX-NO), forms drug-tissue adducts that elicit a T-cell response. Antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA) and glutathione (GSH) reduce SMX-NO to the less reactive hydroxylamine metabolite (SMX-HA), which is further reduced to the non-immunogenic parent compound by cytochrome b (5) (b5) and its reductase (b5R). We hypothesized that deficiencies in AA and GSH would enhance drug-tissue adduct formation and immunogenicity toward SMX-NO and that these antioxidant deficiencies might also impair the activity of the b5/b5R pathway. We tested these hypotheses in guinea pigs fed either a normal or AA-restricted diet, followed by buthionine sulfoximine treatment (250 mg/kg SC daily, or vehicle); and SMX-NO (1 mg/kg IP 4 days per week, or vehicle), for 2 weeks. Guinea pigs did not show any biochemical or histopathologic evidence of SMX-NO-related toxicity. Combined AA and GSH deficiency in this model did not significantly increase tissue-drug adduct formation, or splenocyte proliferation in response to SMX-NO. However, combined antioxidant deficiency was associated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome b (5), as well as significant decreases in SMX-HA reduction in SMX-NO-treated pigs. These results suggest that SMX-HA detoxification may be down-regulated in combined AA and GSH deficiency. This mechanism could contribute to the higher risk of SMX hypersensitivity in patients with AIDS with antioxidant depletion.

  12. Exaggerated inflammation, impaired host defense, and neuropathology in progranulin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fangfang; Banerjee, Rebecca; Thomas, Bobby; Zhou, Ping; Qian, Liping; Jia, Ting; Ma, Xiaojing; Ma, Yao; Iadecola, Costantino; Beal, M Flint; Nathan, Carl; Ding, Aihao

    2010-01-18

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a widely expressed protein involved in diverse biological processes. Haploinsufficiency of PGRN in the human causes tau-negative, ubiquitin-positive frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the mechanisms are unknown. To explore the role of PGRN in vivo, we generated PGRN-deficient mice. Macrophages from these mice released less interleukin-10 and more inflammatory cytokines than wild type (WT) when exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. PGRN-deficient mice failed to clear Listeria monocytogenes infection as quickly as WT and allowed bacteria to proliferate in the brain, with correspondingly greater inflammation than in WT. PGRN-deficient macrophages and microglia were cytotoxic to hippocampal cells in vitro, and PGRN-deficient hippocampal slices were hypersusceptible to deprivation of oxygen and glucose. With age, brains of PGRN-deficient mice displayed greater activation of microglia and astrocytes than WT, and their hippocampal and thalamic neurons accumulated cytosolic phosphorylated transactivation response element DNA binding protein-43. Thus, PGRN is a key regulator of inflammation and plays critical roles in both host defense and neuronal integrity. FTD associated with PGRN insufficiency may result from many years of reduced neutrotrophic support together with cumulative damage in association with dysregulated inflammation.

  13. Multiple sulfatase deficiency (mucosulfatidosis): impaired degradation of labeled sulfated compounds in cultured skin fibroblasts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Eto, Y; Numaguchi, S; Tahara, T; Rennert, O M

    1980-10-01

    Skin fibroblasts from a Japanese patient with multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) (Mucosulfatidosis) were studied with regard to metabolism of various sulfated compounds in vivo. Several sulfatase activities (arylsulfatases A, B and C, cholesterol sulfatase, heparin N-sulfatase) were deficient in skin fibroblasts grown in F-10 CO2 medium. The accumulation and degradation of 35S-sulfatide, 35S-mucopolysaccharides, 14C-cholesterol sulfate by MSD cells were also studied, comparing them to control, Hunter and metachromatic leukodystrophy cells. MSD fibroblasts accumulated and failed to degrade these compounds in vivo. Cholesterol sulfate was also incorporated into the control and pathological cells, and MSD cells were unable to hydrolyze cholesterol sulfate, though cholesterol sulfate is known to be hydrolyzed in the non-lysosomal subfraction. From these data it is clear that multiple enzyme deficiencies in MSD fibroblasts can be demonstrated in vivo.

  14. Maintenance of vascular integrity by pericytes is essential for normal kidney function.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Dario R; Marsh, Graham; Huang, Angela; Campanholle, Gabriela; Aburatani, Takahide; Dang, Lan; Gomez, Ivan; Fisher, Ken; Ligresti, Giovanni; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2016-12-01

    Pericytes are tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitor cells anatomically associated with the vasculature that have been shown to participate in tissue regeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that kidney pericytes, derived from FoxD1(+) mesodermal progenitors during embryogenesis, are necessary for postnatal kidney homeostasis. Diphtheria toxin delivery to FoxD1Cre::RsDTR transgenic mice resulted in selective ablation of >90% of kidney pericytes but not other cell lineages. Abrupt increases in plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and albuminuria within 96 h indicated acute kidney injury in pericyte-ablated mice. Loss of pericytes led to a rapid accumulation of neutral lipid vacuoles, swollen mitochondria, and apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells. Pericyte ablation led to endothelial cell swelling, reduced expression of vascular homeostasis markers, and peritubular capillary loss. Despite the observed injury, no signs of the acute inflammatory response were observed. Pathway enrichment analysis of genes expressed in kidney pericytes in vivo identified basement membrane proteins, angiogenic factors, and factors regulating vascular tone as major regulators of vascular function. Using novel microphysiological devices, we recapitulated human kidney peritubular capillaries coated with pericytes and showed that pericytes regulate permeability, basement membrane deposition, and microvascular tone. These findings suggest that through the active support of the microvasculature, pericytes are essential to adult kidney homeostasis.

  15. Apelin Protects Primary Rat Retinal Pericytes from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yong; Feng, Jing; Jiang, Yan Rong

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are a population of cells that participate in normal vessel architecture and regulate permeability. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ, participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes. To date, the effect of apelin on pericyte is not clear. Our study aimed to investigate the potential protection mechanisms of apelin, with regard to primary rat retinal pericytes under hypoxia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that pericytes colocalized with APJ in the fibrovascular membranes dissected from proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. In the in vitro studies, we first demonstrated that the expression of apelin/APJ was upregulated in pericytes under hypoxia, and apelin increased pericytes proliferation and migration. Moreover, knockdown of apelin in pericyte was achieved via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference. After the inhibition of apelin, pericytes proliferation was inhibited significantly in hypoxia culture condition. Furthermore, exogenous recombinant apelin effectively prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis through downregulating active-caspase 3 expression and increasing the ratio of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) in pericytes. These results suggest that apelin suppressed hypoxia-induced pericytes injury, which indicated that apelin could be a potential therapeutic target for retinal angiogenic diseases. PMID:26491547

  16. Ultrastructural changes in cerebral capillary pericytes in aged Notch3 mutant transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin; Liu, Xiao-Yun; Fagan, Austin; Gonzalez-Toledo, Maria E; Zhao, Li-Ru

    2012-02-01

    Pericytes, the specialized vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), play an important role in supporting and maintaining the structure of capillaries. Pericytes show biochemical and physiologic features similar to VSMC, usually containing smooth muscle actin fibers and rich endoplasm reticulum. Studies have indicated that degeneration of VSMCs due to Notch3 mutations is the cause of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). However, it remains unclear whether the Notch3 mutation also affects cerebral cortex capillary pericytes. In this ultrastructural morphologic study, the authors have observed pathological changes in the cerebral cortex capillary pericytes in aged mice that carry human mutant Notch3 genes. The number of abnormal pericytes in the cerebral cortex in Notch3 gene mutant mice was slightly increased when compared to an age-matched control group. Morphologically, the pericytes in the brains of Notch3 gene mutant mice showed more severe cellular injury, such as the presence of damaged mitochondria, secondary lysosomes, and large cytoplasmic vesicles. In addition, morphologic structures related to autophagy were also present in the pericytes of Notch3 gene mutant group. These ultrastructural morphologic alterations suggest that Notch3 mutation precipitates age-related pericytic degeneration that might result in cellular injury and trigger autophagic apoptosis. Microvascular dysfunction due to pericyte degeneration could initiate secondary neurodegenerative changes in brain parenchyma. These findings provide new insight into understanding the role of pericyte degeneration in the phathogenesis of CADASIL disease.

  17. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs wound healing in advanced age by reducing neovascularization and fibroblast function

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Duscher, Dominik; Rustad, Kristine C.; Kosaraju, Revanth; Rodrigues, Melanie; Whittam, Alexander J.; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is characterized by impairments in wound healing, and evidence is accumulating that this may be due in part to a concomitant increase in oxidative stress. Extended exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal death via the destructive oxidation of intra-cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD/SOD3) is a prime antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space that eliminates ROS. Here, we demonstrate that reduced SOD3 levels contribute to healing impairments in aged mice. These impairments include delayed wound closure, reduced neovascularization, impaired fibroblast proliferation and increased neutrophil recruitment. We further establish that SOD3 KO and aged fibroblasts both display reduced production of TGF-β1, leading to decreased differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that wound healing impairments in ageing are associated with increased levels of ROS, decreased SOD3 expression and impaired extracellular oxidative stress regulation. Our results identify SOD3 as a possible target to correct age-related cellular dysfunction in wound healing. PMID:26663425

  18. Quality of life in adolescents with hearing deficiencies and visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Marques Freire Torres, Vanthauze; Lidianne Alencar Marinho, Christielle; Gabriela Gomes de Oliveira, Carolina; Conceição Maria Vieira, Sandra

    2013-04-01

     The term quality of life (in Portuguese, Qualidade de Vida; QV) has been expanded and modified over the years and has come to signify social development in terms of education, health, and leisure as well as economic issues.  To analyze the perception of QV in adolescents with hearing and visual impairments and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics on the domains of QV.  This descriptive series study comprised 42 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years who were students at Recife's state schools. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated questionnaire was used to evaluate QV. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests with a significance level of p < 0.05.  The global perception of QV was higher among adolescents with visual impairments than among those with hearing impairments. Among the individual components of QV, the environment domain garnered the lowest scores independent of the type of impairment. The subjects with visual impairments reported higher scores for social relationships, while the psychological domain scored higher among those with hearing impairments. The students integrated into normal classrooms perceived better QV in the psychological and social relationships domains than did those who sat in special classrooms.  The environmental domain was the worst component of the QV of handicapped adolescents, suggesting a need for greater investments in policies to improve the QV of this population.

  19. Quality of life in adolescents with hearing deficiencies and visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Marques Freire Torres, Vanthauze; Lidianne Alencar Marinho, Christielle; Gabriela Gomes de Oliveira, Carolina; Conceição Maria Vieira, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The term quality of life (in Portuguese, Qualidade de Vida; QV) has been expanded and modified over the years and has come to signify social development in terms of education, health, and leisure as well as economic issues. Objective: To analyze the perception of QV in adolescents with hearing and visual impairments and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics on the domains of QV. Method: This descriptive series study comprised 42 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years who were students at Recife's state schools. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated questionnaire was used to evaluate QV. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: The global perception of QV was higher among adolescents with visual impairments than among those with hearing impairments. Among the individual components of QV, the environment domain garnered the lowest scores independent of the type of impairment. The subjects with visual impairments reported higher scores for social relationships, while the psychological domain scored higher among those with hearing impairments. The students integrated into normal classrooms perceived better QV in the psychological and social relationships domains than did those who sat in special classrooms. Conclusion: The environmental domain was the worst component of the QV of handicapped adolescents, suggesting a need for greater investments in policies to improve the QV of this population. PMID:26029272

  20. From pericytes to perivascular tumours: correlation between pathology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mravic, Marco; Asatrian, Greg; Soo, Chia; Lugassy, Claire; Barnhill, Raymond L; Dry, Sarah M; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W

    2014-09-01

    Pericytes were once thought only to aid in angiogenesis and blood pressure control. Gradually, the known functions of pericytes and other perivascular stem cells (PSC) have broadly increased. The following review article will summarize the known functions and importance of pericytes across disciplines of pathology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. A literature review was performed for studies examining the importance of pericytes in pathology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. The importance of pericytes most prominently includes the identification of the perivascular identity of mesenchymal stem cells (or MSC). Now, pericytes and other PSC are known to display surface markers and multilineage differentiation potential of MSC. Accordingly, interest in the purification and use of PSC for mesenchymal tissue formation and regeneration has increased. Significant demonstration of in vivo efficacy in bone and muscle regeneration has been made in laboratory animals. Contemporaneously with the uncovering of an MSC identity for pericytes, investigators in tumour biology have found biologically relevant roles for pericytes in tumor formation, lymphovascular invasion, and perivascular tumor spread. As well, the contribution of pericytes to perivascular tumors has been examined (and debated), including glomus tumour, myopericytoma and solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma. In addition, an expanding recognition of pericyte mimicry and perivascular tumour invasion has occurred, encompassing common malignancies of the brain and skin. In summary, pericytes have a wide range of roles in health and disease. Pericytes are being increasingly studied for their role in tumour formation, growth and invasion. Likewise, the application of pericytes/PSC for mesenchymal tissue engineering is an expanding field of interest.

  1. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190–240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40–60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  2. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190-240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40-60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  3. Elevated Slit2 Activity Impairs VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Tumor Neovascularization in EphA2-deficient Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Youngblood, Victoria; Wang, Shan; Song, Wenqiang; Walter, Debra; Hwang, Yoonha; Chen, Jin; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenic remodeling during embryonic development and in adult tissue homeostasis is orchestrated by cooperative signaling between several distinct molecular pathways, which are often exploited by tumors. Indeed, tumors upregulate pro-angiogenic molecules while simultaneously suppressing angiostatic pathways in order to recruit blood vessels for growth, survival, and metastatic spread. Understanding how cancers exploit pro- and anti-angiogenic signals is a key step in developing new, molecularly targeted anti-angiogenic therapies. While EphA2, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is required for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis, the mechanism through which these pathways intersect remains unclear. Slit2 expression is elevated in EphA2-deficient endothelium, and here it is reported that inhibiting Slit activity rescues VEGF-induced angiogenesis in cell culture and in vivo, as well as VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis, in EphA2-deficient endothelial cells and animals. Moreover, blocking Slit activity or Slit2 expression in EphA2-deficient endothelial cells restores VEGF-induced activation of Src and Rac, both of which are required for VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. These data suggest that EphA2 suppression of Slit2 expression and Slit angiostatic activity enables VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible mechanism for impaired endothelial responses to VEGF in the absence of EphA2 function. PMID:25504371

  4. Deficiency of Parkinson's disease-related gene Fbxo7 is associated with impaired mitochondrial metabolism by PARP activation

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Camprubi, Marta; Esteras, Noemi; Soutar, Marc PM; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Abramov, Andrey Y

    2017-01-01

    The Parkinson's disease (PD)-related protein F-box only protein 7 (Fbxo7) is the substrate-recognition component of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. We have recently shown that PD-associated mutations in Fbxo7 disrupt mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), suggesting a role for Fbxo7 in modulating mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we report that Fbxo7 deficiency is associated with reduced cellular NAD+ levels, which results in increased mitochondrial NADH redox index and impaired activity of complex I in the electron transport chain. Under these conditions of compromised respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP contents are reduced, and cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is increased. ROS activates poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity in Fbxo7-deficient cells. PARP inhibitor restores cellular NAD+ content and redox index and ATP pool, suggesting that PARP overactivation is cause of decreased complex I-driven respiration. These findings bring new insight into the mechanism of Fbxo7 deficiency, emphasising the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. PMID:27689878

  5. RAGE Deficiency Impairs Bacterial Clearance in Murine Staphylococcal Sepsis, but Has No Significant Impact on Staphylococcal Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Majd; Na, Manli; Welin, Amanda; Svensson, Mattias N. D.; Ali, Abukar; Jin, Tao; Pullerits, Rille

    2016-01-01

    Background Septic arthritis is a serious joint disease often caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) has an important role in several infections. We sought to investigate the role of RAGE in staphylococcal septic arthritis and sepsis in mice. Methods Wild-type (WT) and RAGE deficient (RAGE-/-) mice were intra-articularly or intravenously inoculated with an arthritic or septic dose of S. aureus LS-1 strain. Clinical arthritis, weight development and mortality were monitored for 14 days. Serum levels of cytokines, kidney bacterial loads as well as micro-CT and histopathology of the joints were assessed. Results RAGE-/- mice with septic arthritis had significantly lower IL-17A and higher bone mineral density (BMD) compared to the control group. However, no significant differences between the groups were observed regarding the weight loss, the severity and frequency of arthritis, and bacterial loads in the kidneys. In mice with sepsis, the overall mortality rate was similar in RAGE-/- (39%) and in WT mice (45%). However, RAGE-/- mice with sepsis had significantly higher bacterial load in their kidneys compared to the WT controls. In line with data from hematogenous S. aureus arthritis, RAGE deficiency had no impact on arthritis severity in local joint infection. Conclusions Our results indicate that lack of RAGE has no significant impact on septic arthritis. However, RAGE-/- mice had significantly higher BMD compared to WT mice, which coincided with lower IL-17A in RAGE-/- mice. In sepsis, RAGE deficiency impairs bacterial kidney clearance. PMID:27907047

  6. Zinc-deficient culture medium and protein kinase C inhibitors impair phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation of murine splenocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.J.; Cousins, R.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Zinc deficiency inhibits mitogen-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in this process is being evaluated by culturing splenocytes from C57Bl/6 mice in medium containing 5% Chelex-treated fetal bovine serum and the T-cell mitogen, phytohemagglutinin (PHA). PHA induces proliferation measured by ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximal induction at 2.5 {mu}g/ml. The PKC inhibitors staurosporine and H-7 inhibit PHA-stimulated proliferation in concentration-dependent manners with IC{sub 50} values of 2.6 nM and 15 {mu}M, respectively. PHA has little or not effect on proliferation of cells cultured in medium containing 0.8 {mu}M zinc. However, increasing the medium zinc concentration to 16 {mu}M dramatically increases PHA-stimulated proliferation over control cultures. The results suggest that PHA-induced proliferation of murine T-cells is mediated by PKC. It is hypothesized that zinc deficiency inhibits mitogen-stimulated proliferation by preventing PKC coupling to plasma membranes. The results of these studies may provide a mechanism to explain impaired immunocompetence and other clinical problems associated with zinc deficiency.

  7. PX-RICS-deficient mice mimic autism spectrum disorder in Jacobsen syndrome through impaired GABAA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Arima-Yoshida, Fumiko; Sakaue, Fumika; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Takeda, Yasuko; Matsuura, Ken; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N; Grossfeld, Paul D; Manabe, Toshiya; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2016-03-16

    Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a rare congenital disorder caused by a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. A subset of patients exhibit social behavioural problems that meet the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. PX-RICS is located in the chromosomal region commonly deleted in JBS patients with autistic-like behaviour. Here we report that PX-RICS-deficient mice exhibit ASD-like social behaviours and ASD-related comorbidities. PX-RICS-deficient neurons show reduced surface γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) levels and impaired GABAAR-mediated synaptic transmission. PX-RICS, GABARAP and 14-3-3ζ/θ form an adaptor complex that interconnects GABAAR and dynein/dynactin, thereby facilitating GABAAR surface expression. ASD-like behavioural abnormalities in PX-RICS-deficient mice are ameliorated by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission with a GABAAR agonist. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of PX-RICS in cognition and suggest a causal link between PX-RICS deletion and ASD-like behaviour in JBS patients.

  8. DJ-1 deficiency impairs glutamate uptake into astrocytes via the regulation of flotillin-1 and caveolin-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Mo; Cha, Seon-Heui; Choi, Yu Ree; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-Hye; Park, Sang Myun

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although the cause of PD is still poorly understood, mutations in many genes including SNCA, parkin, PINK1, LRRK2, and DJ-1 have been identified in the familial forms of PD. It was recently proposed that alterations in lipid rafts may cause the neurodegeneration shown in PD. Here, we observe that DJ-1 deficiency decreased the expression of flotillin-1 (flot-1) and caveolin-1 (cav-1), the main protein components of lipid rafts, in primary astrocytes and MEF cells. As a mechanism, DJ-1 regulated flot-1 stability by direct interaction, however, decreased cav-1 expression may not be a direct effect of DJ-1, but rather as a result of decreased flot-1 expression. Dysregulation of flot-1 and cav-1 by DJ-1 deficiency caused an alteration in the cellular cholesterol level, membrane fluidity, and alteration in lipid rafts-dependent endocytosis. Moreover, DJ-1 deficiency impaired glutamate uptake into astrocytes, a major function of astrocytes in the maintenance of CNS homeostasis, by altering EAAT2 expression. This study will be helpful to understand the role of DJ-1 in the pathogenesis of PD, and the modulation of lipid rafts through the regulation of flot-1 or cav-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for PD. PMID:27346864

  9. PX-RICS-deficient mice mimic autism spectrum disorder in Jacobsen syndrome through impaired GABAA receptor trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Arima-Yoshida, Fumiko; Sakaue, Fumika; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Takeda, Yasuko; Matsuura, Ken; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N.; Grossfeld, Paul D.; Manabe, Toshiya; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a rare congenital disorder caused by a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. A subset of patients exhibit social behavioural problems that meet the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. PX-RICS is located in the chromosomal region commonly deleted in JBS patients with autistic-like behaviour. Here we report that PX-RICS-deficient mice exhibit ASD-like social behaviours and ASD-related comorbidities. PX-RICS-deficient neurons show reduced surface γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) levels and impaired GABAAR-mediated synaptic transmission. PX-RICS, GABARAP and 14-3-3ζ/θ form an adaptor complex that interconnects GABAAR and dynein/dynactin, thereby facilitating GABAAR surface expression. ASD-like behavioural abnormalities in PX-RICS-deficient mice are ameliorated by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission with a GABAAR agonist. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of PX-RICS in cognition and suggest a causal link between PX-RICS deletion and ASD-like behaviour in JBS patients. PMID:26979507

  10. RAGE Deficiency Impairs Bacterial Clearance in Murine Staphylococcal Sepsis, but Has No Significant Impact on Staphylococcal Septic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Majd; Na, Manli; Welin, Amanda; Svensson, Mattias N D; Ali, Abukar; Jin, Tao; Pullerits, Rille

    2016-01-01

    Septic arthritis is a serious joint disease often caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) has an important role in several infections. We sought to investigate the role of RAGE in staphylococcal septic arthritis and sepsis in mice. Wild-type (WT) and RAGE deficient (RAGE-/-) mice were intra-articularly or intravenously inoculated with an arthritic or septic dose of S. aureus LS-1 strain. Clinical arthritis, weight development and mortality were monitored for 14 days. Serum levels of cytokines, kidney bacterial loads as well as micro-CT and histopathology of the joints were assessed. RAGE-/- mice with septic arthritis had significantly lower IL-17A and higher bone mineral density (BMD) compared to the control group. However, no significant differences between the groups were observed regarding the weight loss, the severity and frequency of arthritis, and bacterial loads in the kidneys. In mice with sepsis, the overall mortality rate was similar in RAGE-/- (39%) and in WT mice (45%). However, RAGE-/- mice with sepsis had significantly higher bacterial load in their kidneys compared to the WT controls. In line with data from hematogenous S. aureus arthritis, RAGE deficiency had no impact on arthritis severity in local joint infection. Our results indicate that lack of RAGE has no significant impact on septic arthritis. However, RAGE-/- mice had significantly higher BMD compared to WT mice, which coincided with lower IL-17A in RAGE-/- mice. In sepsis, RAGE deficiency impairs bacterial kidney clearance.

  11. Glutaredoxin 5 deficiency causes sideroblastic anemia by specifically impairing heme biosynthesis and depleting cytosolic iron in human erythroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hong; Jeong, Suh Young; Ghosh, Manik C.; Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Silvestri, Laura; Ortillo, Danilo; Uchida, Naoya; Tisdale, John; Camaschella, Clara; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2010-01-01

    Glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) deficiency has previously been identified as a cause of anemia in a zebrafish model and of sideroblastic anemia in a human patient. Here we report that GLRX5 is essential for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis and the maintenance of normal mitochondrial and cytosolic iron homeostasis in human cells. GLRX5, a mitochondrial protein that is highly expressed in erythroid cells, can homodimerize and assemble [2Fe-2S] in vitro. In GLRX5-deficient cells, [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis was impaired, the iron-responsive element–binding (IRE-binding) activity of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) was activated, and increased IRP2 levels, indicative of relative cytosolic iron depletion, were observed together with mitochondrial iron overload. Rescue of patient fibroblasts with the WT GLRX5 gene by transfection or viral transduction reversed a slow growth phenotype, reversed the mitochondrial iron overload, and increased aconitase activity. Decreased aminolevulinate δ, synthase 2 (ALAS2) levels attributable to IRP-mediated translational repression were observed in erythroid cells in which GLRX5 expression had been downregulated using siRNA along with marked reduction in ferrochelatase levels and increased ferroportin expression. Erythroblasts express both IRP-repressible ALAS2 and non-IRP–repressible ferroportin 1b. The unique combination of IRP targets likely accounts for the tissue-specific phenotype of human GLRX5 deficiency. PMID:20364084

  12. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair IgM responses against T-independent bacterial antigens

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Paul J.; Simchoni, Noa; Black, Samuel; Radigan, Lin; Overbey, Jessica R.; Bagiella, Emilia; Bussel, James B.; Bossuyt, Xavier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meyts, Isabelle; Cerutti, Andrea; Picard, Capucine

    2014-01-01

    IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and lead to heightened susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Individuals with these primary immunodeficiencies have fewer immunoglobulin M (IgM)+IgD+CD27+ B cells, a population that resembles murine splenic marginal zone B cells that mount T-independent antibody responses against bacterial antigens. However, the significance of this B-cell subset in humans is poorly understood. Using both a 610 carbohydrate array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies have reduced serum IgM, but not IgG antibody, recognizing T-independent bacterial antigens. Moreover, the quantity of specific IgM correlated with IgM+IgD+CD27+ B-cell frequencies. As with mouse marginal zone B cells, human IgM+CD27+ B cells activated by TLR7 or TLR9 agonists produced phosphorylcholine-specific IgM. Further linking splenic IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells with production of T-independent IgM, serum from splenectomized subjects, who also have few IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells, had reduced antibacterial IgM. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impaired TLR-induced proliferation of this B-cell subset, suggesting a means by which loss of this activation pathway leads to reduced cell numbers. Thus, by bolstering the IgM+IgD+CD27+ B-cell subset, IRAK-4 and MyD88 promote optimal T-independent IgM antibody responses against bacteria in humans. PMID:25320238

  13. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair IgM responses against T-independent bacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J; Simchoni, Noa; Black, Samuel; Radigan, Lin; Overbey, Jessica R; Bagiella, Emilia; Bussel, James B; Bossuyt, Xavier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meyts, Isabelle; Cerutti, Andrea; Picard, Capucine; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2014-12-04

    IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and lead to heightened susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Individuals with these primary immunodeficiencies have fewer immunoglobulin M (IgM)(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, a population that resembles murine splenic marginal zone B cells that mount T-independent antibody responses against bacterial antigens. However, the significance of this B-cell subset in humans is poorly understood. Using both a 610 carbohydrate array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies have reduced serum IgM, but not IgG antibody, recognizing T-independent bacterial antigens. Moreover, the quantity of specific IgM correlated with IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell frequencies. As with mouse marginal zone B cells, human IgM(+)CD27(+) B cells activated by TLR7 or TLR9 agonists produced phosphorylcholine-specific IgM. Further linking splenic IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells with production of T-independent IgM, serum from splenectomized subjects, who also have few IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, had reduced antibacterial IgM. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impaired TLR-induced proliferation of this B-cell subset, suggesting a means by which loss of this activation pathway leads to reduced cell numbers. Thus, by bolstering the IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell subset, IRAK-4 and MyD88 promote optimal T-independent IgM antibody responses against bacteria in humans.

  14. Connexin 30 deficiency impairs renal tubular ATP release and pressure natriuresis.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Arnold; Vargas, Sarah L; Toma, Ildikó; Hanner, Fiona; Willecke, Klaus; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2009-08-01

    In the renal tubule, ATP is an important regulator of salt and water reabsorption, but the mechanism of ATP release is unknown. Several connexin (Cx) isoforms form mechanosensitive, ATP-permeable hemichannels. We localized Cx30 to the nonjunctional apical membrane of cells in the distal nephron and tested whether Cx30 participates in physiologically important release of ATP. We dissected, partially split open, and microperfused cortical collecting ducts from wild-type and Cx30-deficient mice in vitro. We used PC12 cells as ATP biosensors by loading them with Fluo-4/Fura Red to measure cytosolic calcium and positioning them in direct contact with the apical surface of either intercalated or principal cells. ATP biosensor responses, triggered by increased tubular flow or by bath hypotonicity, were approximately three-fold greater when positioned next to intercalated cells than next to principal cells. In addition, these responses did not occur in preparations from Cx30-deficient mice or with purinergic receptor blockade. After inducing step increases in mean arterial pressure by ligating the distal aorta followed by the mesenteric and celiac arteries, urine output increased 4.2-fold in wild-type mice compared with 2.6-fold in Cx30-deficient mice, and urinary Na(+) excretion increased 5.2-fold in wild-type mice compared with 2.8-fold in Cx30-deficient mice. Furthermore, Cx30-deficient mice developed endothelial sodium channel-dependent, salt-sensitive elevations in mean arterial pressure. Taken together, we suggest that mechanosensitive Cx30 hemichannels have an integral role in pressure natriuresis by releasing ATP into the tubular fluid, which inhibits salt and water reabsorption.

  15. Connexin 30 Deficiency Impairs Renal Tubular ATP Release and Pressure Natriuresis

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, Arnold; Vargas, Sarah L.; Toma, Ildikó; Hanner, Fiona; Willecke, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    In the renal tubule, ATP is an important regulator of salt and water reabsorption, but the mechanism of ATP release is unknown. Several connexin (Cx) isoforms form mechanosensitive, ATP-permeable hemichannels. We localized Cx30 to the nonjunctional apical membrane of cells in the distal nephron and tested whether Cx30 participates in physiologically important release of ATP. We dissected, partially split open, and microperfused cortical collecting ducts from wild-type and Cx30-deficient mice in vitro. We used PC12 cells as ATP biosensors by loading them with Fluo-4/Fura Red to measure cytosolic calcium and positioning them in direct contact with the apical surface of either intercalated or principal cells. ATP biosensor responses, triggered by increased tubular flow or by bath hypotonicity, were approximately three-fold greater when positioned next to intercalated cells than next to principal cells. In addition, these responses did not occur in preparations from Cx30-deficient mice or with purinergic receptor blockade. After inducing step increases in mean arterial pressure by ligating the distal aorta followed by the mesenteric and celiac arteries, urine output increased 4.2-fold in wild-type mice compared with 2.6-fold in Cx30-deficient mice, and urinary Na+ excretion increased 5.2-fold in wild-type mice compared with 2.8-fold in Cx30-deficient mice. Furthermore, Cx30-deficient mice developed endothelial sodium channel–dependent, salt-sensitive elevations in mean arterial pressure. Taken together, we suggest that mechanosensitive Cx30 hemichannels have an integral role in pressure natriuresis by releasing ATP into the tubular fluid, which inhibits salt and water reabsorption. PMID:19478095

  16. Impaired interval timing and spatial-temporal integration in mice deficient in CHL1, a gene associated with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Buhusi, Mona; Scripa, Ioana; Williams, Christina L; Buhusi, Catalin V

    2013-01-01

    Interval timing is crucial for decision-making and motor control and is impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia - a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Several gene mutations, polymorphisms or rare copy number variants have been associated with schizophrenia. L1 cell adhesion molecules (L1CAMs) are involved in neurodevelopmental processes, and in synaptic function and plasticity in the adult brain. Mice deficient in the Close Homolog to L1 (CHL1) adhesion molecule show alterations of hippocampal and thalamo-cortical neuroanatomy as well as deficits in sensorimotor gating and exploratory behavior. We analyzed interval timing and attentional control of temporal and spatial information in male CHL1 deficient (KO) mice and wild type (WT) controls. In a 20-s peak-interval timing procedure (standard and reversed), KO mice showed a maintained leftward shift of the response function relative to WT, indicative of a deficit in memory encoding/decoding. In trials with 2, 5, or 10-s gaps, KO mice shifted their peak times less than WT controls at longer gap durations, suggesting a decreased (attentional) effect of interruptions. In the spatial-temporal task, KO mice made more working and reference memory errors than controls, suggestive of impaired use of spatial and/or temporal information. When the duration spent on the central platform of the maze was manipulated, WT mice showed fewer spatial errors at the trained duration than at shorter or longer durations, indicative of discrimination based upon spatial-temporal integration. In contrast, performance was similar at all tested durations in KO mice, indicative of control by spatial cues, but not by temporal cues. These results suggest that CHL1 KO mice selectively attend to the more relevant cues of the task, and fail to integrate more complex spatial-temporal information, possibly as a result of reduced memory capacity related to hippocampal impairment, and altered

  17. Brain catecholamine depletion and motor impairment in a Th knock-in mouse with type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Korner, Germaine; Noain, Daniela; Ying, Ming; Hole, Magnus; Flydal, Marte I; Scherer, Tanja; Allegri, Gabriella; Rassi, Anahita; Fingerhut, Ralph; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Pillai, Samyuktha; Wueest, Stephan; Konrad, Daniel; Lauber-Biason, Anna; Baumann, Christian R; Bindoff, Laurence A; Martinez, Aurora; Thöny, Beat

    2015-10-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyses the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to l-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines. Mutations in the TH gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase are associated with the autosomal recessive disorder tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, which manifests phenotypes varying from infantile parkinsonism and DOPA-responsive dystonia, also termed type A, to complex encephalopathy with perinatal onset, termed type B. We generated homozygous Th knock-in mice with the mutation Th-p.R203H, equivalent to the most recurrent human mutation associated with type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency (TH-p.R233H), often unresponsive to l-DOPA treatment. The Th knock-in mice showed normal survival and food intake, but hypotension, hypokinesia, reduced motor coordination, wide-based gate and catalepsy. This phenotype was associated with a gradual loss of central catecholamines and the serious manifestations of motor impairment presented diurnal fluctuation but did not improve with standard l-DOPA treatment. The mutant tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme was unstable and exhibited deficient stabilization by catecholamines, leading to decline of brain tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in the Th knock-in mice. In fact the substantia nigra presented an almost normal level of mutant tyrosine hydroxylase protein but distinct absence of the enzyme was observed in the striatum, indicating a mutation-associated mislocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal pathway. This hypomorphic mouse model thus provides understanding on pathomechanisms in type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency and a platform for the evaluation of novel therapeutics for movement disorders with loss of dopaminergic input to the striatum. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Impaired endothelial barrier function in apolipoprotein M–deficient mice is dependent on sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Pernille M.; Liu, Catherine H.; Swendeman, Steven L.; Obinata, Hideru; Qvortrup, Klaus; Nielsen, Lars B.; Hla, Timothy; Christoffersen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) transports sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in plasma, and ApoM-deficient mice (Apom−/−) have ∼50% reduced plasma S1P levels. There are 5 known S1P receptors, and S1P induces adherens junction formation between endothelial cells through the S1P1 receptor, which in turn suppresses vascular leak. Increased vascular permeability is a hallmark of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between vascular leakage in ApoM deficiency and S1P1 function in normal physiology and in inflammation. Vascular permeability in the lungs was assessed by accumulation of dextran molecules (70 kDa) and was increased ∼40% in Apom−/− mice compared to WT (C57Bl6/j) mice. Reconstitution of plasma ApoM/S1P or treatment with an S1P1 receptor agonist (SEW2871) rapidly reversed the vascular leakage to a level similar to that in WT mice, suggesting that it is caused by decreased plasma levels of S1P and reduced S1P1 stimulation. In a carrageenan-induced model of inflammation, Apom−/− mice had increased vascular leakage compared with that in WT mice. Adenoviral overexpression of ApoM in Apom−/− mice decreased the vascular leakage compared to adenoviral overexpression of green fluorescent protein. The study suggests that vascular leakage of albumin-sized particles in ApoM deficiency is S1P- and S1P1-dependent and this dependency exacerbates the response to inflammatory stimuli.—Christensen, P. M., Liu, C. H., Swendeman, S. L., Obinata, H., Qvortrup, K., Nielsen, L B., Hla, T., Di Lorenzo, A., Christoffersen, C. Impaired endothelial barrier function in apolipoprotein M-deficient mice is dependent on sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1. PMID:26956418

  19. Impaired endothelial barrier function in apolipoprotein M-deficient mice is dependent on sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Pernille M; Liu, Catherine H; Swendeman, Steven L; Obinata, Hideru; Qvortrup, Klaus; Nielsen, Lars B; Hla, Timothy; Di Lorenzo, Annarita; Christoffersen, Christina

    2016-06-01

    Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) transports sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in plasma, and ApoM-deficient mice (Apom(-/-)) have ∼50% reduced plasma S1P levels. There are 5 known S1P receptors, and S1P induces adherens junction formation between endothelial cells through the S1P1 receptor, which in turn suppresses vascular leak. Increased vascular permeability is a hallmark of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between vascular leakage in ApoM deficiency and S1P1 function in normal physiology and in inflammation. Vascular permeability in the lungs was assessed by accumulation of dextran molecules (70 kDa) and was increased ∼40% in Apom(-/-) mice compared to WT (C57Bl6/j) mice. Reconstitution of plasma ApoM/S1P or treatment with an S1P1 receptor agonist (SEW2871) rapidly reversed the vascular leakage to a level similar to that in WT mice, suggesting that it is caused by decreased plasma levels of S1P and reduced S1P1 stimulation. In a carrageenan-induced model of inflammation, Apom(-/-) mice had increased vascular leakage compared with that in WT mice. Adenoviral overexpression of ApoM in Apom(-/-) mice decreased the vascular leakage compared to adenoviral overexpression of green fluorescent protein. The study suggests that vascular leakage of albumin-sized particles in ApoM deficiency is S1P- and S1P1-dependent and this dependency exacerbates the response to inflammatory stimuli.-Christensen, P. M., Liu, C. H., Swendeman, S. L., Obinata, H., Qvortrup, K., Nielsen, L B., Hla, T., Di Lorenzo, A., Christoffersen, C. Impaired endothelial barrier function in apolipoprotein M-deficient mice is dependent on sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1. © FASEB.

  20. Prion protein-deficient mice exhibit decreased CD4 T and LTi cell numbers and impaired spleen structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soochan; Han, Sinsuk; Lee, Ye Eun; Jung, Woong-Jae; Lee, Hyung Soo; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein is expressed in almost all tissues, including the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues. To investigate the effects of the prion protein in lymphoid cells and spleen structure formation, we used prion protein-deficient (Prnp(0/0)) Zürich I mice generated by inactivation of the Prnp gene. Prnp(0/0) mice had decreased lymphocytes, in particular, CD4 T cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Decreased CD4 T cells resulted from impaired expression of CCL19 and CCL21 in the spleen rather than altered chemokine receptor CCR7 expression. Importantly, some of the white pulp regions in spleens from Prnp(0/0) mice displayed impaired T zone structure as a result of decreased LTi cell numbers and altered expression of the lymphoid tissue-organizing genes lymphotoxin-α and CXCR5, although expression of the lymphatic marker podoplanin and CXCL13 by stromal cells was not affected. In addition, CD3(-)CD4(+)IL-7Rα(+) LTi cells were rarely detected in impaired white pulp in spleens of these mice. These data suggest that the prion protein is required to form the splenic white pulp structure and for development of normal levels of CD4 T and LTi cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Prostacyclin Prevents Pericyte Loss and Demyelination Induced by Lysophosphatidylcholine in the Central Nervous System*

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Rieko; Kuroda, Mariko; Matoba, Ken; Lin, Hsiaoyun; Takahashi, Chisato; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes play pivotal roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in the central nervous system. As pericytes prevent vascular leakage, they can halt neuronal damage stemming from a compromised blood-brain barrier. Therefore, pericytes may be a good target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, although evidence is lacking. In this study, we show that prostacyclin attenuates lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-mediated vascular dysfunction through pericyte protection in the adult mouse spinal cord. LPC decreased the number of pericytes in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model, and this decrease was prevented by iloprost treatment, a prostacyclin analog. Intrathecal administration of iloprost attenuated vascular barrier disruption after LPC injection in the mouse spinal cord. Furthermore, iloprost treatment diminished demyelination and motor function deficits in mice injected with LPC. These results support the notion that prostacyclin acts on pericytes to maintain vascular barrier integrity. PMID:25795781

  2. Impaired self-awareness in human addiction: Deficient attribution of personal relevance

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2014-01-01

    Compromised self-awareness of illness-related deficits and behaviors in psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia) has been associated with deficient functioning of cortical midline regions including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), implicated in personal relevance. Here, we review and critically analyze recent evidence to suggest that vmPFC abnormalities could similarly underlie deficient tagging of personal relevance in drug addiction, evidenced by a constellation of behaviors encompassing drug-biased attention, negative outcome insensitivity, self-report/behavior dissociation, and social inappropriateness. This novel framework might clarify, for example, why drug-addicted individuals often ruin long-standing relationships or forego important job opportunities while continuing to engage in uncontrolled drug-taking. Therapeutic interventions targeting personal relevance and associated vmPFC functioning could enhance self-awareness and facilitate more adaptive behavior in this chronically relapsing psychopathology. PMID:25278368

  3. ARID1A Deficiency Impairs the DNA Damage Checkpoint and Sensitizes Cells to PARP Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianfeng; Peng, Yang; Wei, Leizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Lin; Lan, Li; Kapoor, Prabodh; Ju, Zhenlin; Mo, Qianxing; Shih, Ie-Ming; Uray, Ivan P.; Wu, Xiangwei; Brown, Powel H.; Shen, Xuetong; Mills, Gordon B.; Peng, Guang

    2015-01-01

    ARID1A, a chromatin remodeler of the SWI/SNF family, is a recently identified tumor suppressor that is mutated in a broad spectrum of human cancers. Thus, it is of fundamental clinical importance to understand its molecular functions and determine whether ARID1A deficiency can be exploited therapeutically. In this manuscript, we report a key function of ARID1A in regulating the DNA damage checkpoint. ARID1A is recruited to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) via its interaction with the upstream DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATR. At the molecular level, ARID1A facilitates efficient processing of DSB to single strand ends, and sustains DNA damage signaling. Importantly, ARID1A deficiency sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibitors in vitro and in vivo providing a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with ARID1A-mutant tumors. PMID:26069190

  4. Impaired self-awareness in human addiction: deficient attribution of personal relevance.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2014-12-01

    Compromised self-awareness of illness-related deficits and behaviors in psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia) has been associated with deficient functioning of cortical midline regions including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), implicated in personal relevance. Here, we review and critically analyze recent evidence to suggest that vmPFC abnormalities could similarly underlie deficient tagging of personal relevance in drug addiction, evidenced by a constellation of behaviors encompassing drug-biased attention, negative outcome insensitivity, self-report/behavior dissociation, and social inappropriateness. This novel framework might clarify, for example, why drug-addicted individuals often ruin long-standing relationships or forego important job opportunities while continuing to engage in uncontrolled drug-taking. Therapeutic interventions targeting personal relevance and associated vmPFC functioning could enhance self-awareness and facilitate more adaptive behavior in this chronically relapsing psychopathology.

  5. Somatostatin protects human retinal pericytes from inflammation mediated by microglia.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Aurora; Arroba, Ana I; Beltramo, Elena; Valverde, Angela M; Porta, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is usually considered a microvascular disease. However, involvement of the neuroretina in the early stages of DR has recently gained major credit. Inflammatory processes, leading to glial activation and neuronal apoptosis, develop early in the retina of diabetic subjects. Pericytes constitute a link between the vascular and the neural retina, play a central role in blood-retinal barrier maintenance, and may influence neuroinflammation. Somatostatin (SST) is a potent neuroprotective factor, which is down-regulated during early DR. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of the inflammatory signals triggered by the activation of microglia on inflammation and apoptosis/survival pathways in pericytes. Microglia cells (Bv-2) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or SST. Human retinal pericytes (HRP) were exposed to conditioned media (CM) collected from Bv-2 cells in physiological conditions and in the settings described above. A panel of inflammation, apoptosis and survival mediators was analyzed. HRP treated with LPS-CM showed a significant increase of pro-inflammatory (iNos and TNFα) and pro-apoptotic mediators (FasL, active caspase-8, tBid and Bax), and a concomitant decrease in pro-survival factors (BclxL and pAkt). SST added to LPS was able to counteract these effects in all conditions. In conclusion, SST is able to modulate apoptosis/survival pathways in HRP during microglia-mediated inflammation. These results demonstrate a crosstalk between microglia and retinal pericytes, evidencing a possible defensive role of microglia in the early phases of DR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impaired Calcification Around Matrix Vesicles of Growth Plate and Bone in Alkaline Phosphatase-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, H. Clarke; Sipe, Joseph B.; Hessle, Lovisa; Dhamyamraju, Rama; Atti, Elisa; Camacho, Nancy P.; Luis Millán, José

    2004-01-01

    The presence of skeletal hypomineralization was confirmed in mice lacking the gene for bone alkaline phosphatase, ie, the tissue-non-specific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). In this study, a detailed characterization of the ultrastructural localization, the relative amount and ultrastructural morphology of bone mineral was carried out in tibial growth plates and in subjacent metaphyseal bone of 10-day-old TNAP knockout mice. Alizarin red staining, microcomputerized tomography (micro CT), and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) confirmed a significant overall decrease of mineral density in the cartilage and bone matrix of TNAP-deficient mice. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed diminished mineral in growth plate cartilage and in newly formed bone matrix. High resolution TEM indicated that mineral crystals were initiated, as is normal, within matrix vesicles (MVs) of the growth plate and bone of TNAP-deficient mice. However, mineral crystal proliferation and growth was inhibited in the matrix surrounding MVs, as is the case in the hereditary human disease hypophosphatasia. These data suggest that hypomineralization in TNAP-deficient mice results primarily from an inability of initial mineral crystals within MVs to self-nucleate and to proliferate beyond the protective confines of the MV membrane. This failure of the second stage of mineral formation may be caused by an excess of the mineral inhibitor pyrophosphate (PPi) in the extracellular fluid around MVs. In normal circumstances, PPi is hydrolyzed by the TNAP of MVs’ outer membrane yielding monophosphate ions (Pi) for incorporation into bone mineral. Thus, with TNAP deficiency a buildup of mineral-inhibiting PPi would be expected at the perimeter of MVs. PMID:14982838

  7. Adrenergic deficiency leads to impaired electrical conduction and increased arrhythmic potential in the embryonic mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Baker, Candice; Taylor, David G; Osuala, Kingsley; Natarajan, Anupama; Molnar, Peter J; Hickman, James; Alam, Sabikha; Moscato, Brittany; Weinshenker, David; Ebert, Steven N

    2012-07-06

    To determine if adrenergic hormones play a critical role in the functional development of the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system, we employed a mouse model where adrenergic hormone production was blocked due to targeted disruption of the dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene. Immunofluorescent histochemical evaluation of the major gap junction protein, connexin 43, revealed that its expression was substantially decreased in adrenergic-deficient (Dbh-/-) relative to adrenergic-competent (Dbh+/+ and Dbh+/-) mouse hearts at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), whereas pacemaker and structural protein staining appeared similar. To evaluate cardiac electrical conduction in these hearts, we cultured them on microelectrode arrays (8×8, 200 μm apart). Our results show a significant slowing of atrioventricular conduction in adrenergic-deficient hearts compared to controls (31.4±6.4 vs. 15.4±1.7 ms, respectively, p<0.05). To determine if the absence of adrenergic hormones affected heart rate and rhythm, mouse hearts from adrenergic-competent and deficient embryos were cultured ex vivo at E10.5, and heart rates were measured before and after challenge with the β-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol (0.5 μM). On average, all hearts showed increased heart rate responses following isoproterenol challenge, but a significant (p<0.05) 225% increase in the arrhythmic index (AI) was observed only in adrenergic-deficient hearts. These results show that adrenergic hormones may influence heart development by stimulating connexin 43 expression, facilitating atrioventricular conduction, and helping to maintain cardiac rhythm during a critical phase of embryonic development.

  8. Bif-1 deficiency impairs lipid homeostasis and causes obesity accompanied by insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Desai, Neelam; Zhang, Jun; Serfass, Jacob M; Shi, Yu-Guang; Lynch, Christopher J; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2016-02-09

    Bif-1 is a membrane-curvature inducing protein that is implicated in the regulation of autophagy and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that Bif-1 plays a critical role in regulating lipid catabolism to control the size of lipid droplets and prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance upon aging or dietary challenge. Our data show that Bif-1 deficiency promotes the expansion of adipose tissue mass without altering food intake or physical activities. While Bif-1 is dispensable for adipose tissue development, its deficiency reduces the basal rate of adipose tissue lipolysis and results in adipocyte hypertrophy upon aging. The importance of Bif-1 in lipid turnover is not limited to adipose tissue since fasting and refeeding-induced lipid droplet clearance is also attenuated by Bif-1 loss in the liver. Interestingly, obesity induced by a high fat-diet or Bif-1 deficiency downregulates the expression of proteins involved in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, including Atg9a and Lamp1 in the adipose tissue. These findings thus identify Bif-1 as a novel regulator of lipid homeostasis to prevent the pathogenesis of obesity and its associated metabolic complications.

  9. ICAM-1 and β2 Integrin Deficiency Impairs Fat Oxidation and Insulin Metabolism during Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Babic, Aleksandar M; Wang, Hong-Wei; Lai, Margaret J; Daniels, Thomas G; Felbinger, Thomas W; Burger, Peter C; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Wagner, Denisa D

    2004-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and β2 integrins play critical roles in immune responses. ICAM-1 may also participate in regulation of energy balance because ICAM-1–deficient mice become obese on a high-fat diet. We show that mice deficient in these adhesion receptors are unable to respond to fasting by up-regulation of fatty acid oxidation. Normal mice, when fasted, exhibit reduced circulating neutrophil counts and increased ICAM-1 expression and neutrophil recruitment in liver. Mice lacking ICAM-1 or β2 integrins fail to show these responses—instead they become hypoglycemic with steatotic livers. Fasting ICAM-1–deficient mice reduce insulin more slowly than wild-type mice. This produces fasting hyperinsulinemia that prevents activation of adenosine mono-phosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase in muscles and liver, which results in decreased import of long chain fatty acids into mitochondria. Thus, we show a new role for immune cells and their adhesion receptors in regulating metabolic response to fasting. PMID:15706402

  10. Grasping Motor Impairments in Autism: Not Action Planning but Movement Execution Is Deficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoit, Astrid M. B.; van Schie, Hein T.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Different views on the origin of deficits in action chaining in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been posited, ranging from functional impairments in action planning to internal models supporting motor control. Thirty-one children and adolescents with ASD and twenty-nine matched controls participated in a two-choice reach-to-grasp paradigm…

  11. Grasping Motor Impairments in Autism: Not Action Planning but Movement Execution Is Deficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoit, Astrid M. B.; van Schie, Hein T.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Different views on the origin of deficits in action chaining in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been posited, ranging from functional impairments in action planning to internal models supporting motor control. Thirty-one children and adolescents with ASD and twenty-nine matched controls participated in a two-choice reach-to-grasp paradigm…

  12. Grammatical Difficulties in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Is Learning Deficient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of grammatical limitations in specific language impairment (SLI) have been polarized between those that postulate problems with domain-specific grammatical knowledge, and those that regard grammatical deficits as downstream consequences of perceptual or memory limitations. Here we consider an alternative view that grammatical…

  13. B-vitamin deficiency causes hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular cognitive impairment in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In older adults, mildly elevated plasma total homocysteine (Hyperhomocysteinemia) is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment, cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease, but it is uncertain whether this is due to underlying metabolic, neurotoxic or vascular processes. We report h...

  14. Actin- and myosin-like filaments in rat brain pericytes.

    PubMed

    Le Beux, Y J; Willemot, J

    1978-04-01

    Heavy meromyosin (HMM) labeling was used to identify the nature of the filaments which form bundles in the cytoplasm of the pericytes in brain tissue. Rat brain tissue pieces were incubated in glycerol solutions at 4 degrees and then transferred into buffer (pH 7.0), (1) without HMM, (2) with HMM, (3) with HMM + 5 mM ATP, and (4) with HMM + 2.5 mM Na+ pyrophosphate. In pericytes from untreated tissue, smooth-surfaced microfilaments, averaging 6 nm in diameter, appear to branch and anastomose and to anchor on the plasma membrane. After exposure to HMM, the number and the density of the microfilaments are strikingly increased. These tightly-packed microfilaments are now heavily coated with exogeneous HMM thus increasing in width to 18-20 mm. They intertwine in closely-woven networks. After incubation in HMM solutions containing ATP or Na+ phosphate, they are no longer coated with thick sidearms. It can thus be concluded that these microfilaments are of actin-like nature. In addition, after incubation in ATP, they are intermingled with, and converge onto the surfaces of, thick, tapered filaments, which we have tentatively identified as of myosin-like nature. Thus, it appears that certain of the major elements necessary for contraction are present in brain pericytes.

  15. Pericytes derived from adipose-derived stem cells protect against retinal vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Thomas A; Clabough, Erin B D; Kao, David S; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N; Durham, Jennifer T; Zotter, Brendan C; Seaman, Scott A; Cronk, Stephen M; Rakoczy, Elizabeth P; Katz, Adam J; Herman, Ira M; Peirce, Shayn M; Yates, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Retinal vasculopathies, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), threaten the vision of over 100 million people. Retinal pericytes are critical for microvascular control, supporting retinal endothelial cells via direct contact and paracrine mechanisms. With pericyte death or loss, endothelial dysfunction ensues, resulting in hypoxic insult, pathologic angiogenesis, and ultimately blindness. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) differentiate into pericytes, suggesting they may be useful as a protective and regenerative cellular therapy for retinal vascular disease. In this study, we examine the ability of ASCs to differentiate into pericytes that can stabilize retinal vessels in multiple pre-clinical models of retinal vasculopathy. We found that ASCs express pericyte-specific markers in vitro. When injected intravitreally into the murine eye subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), ASCs were capable of migrating to and integrating with the retinal vasculature. Integrated ASCs maintained marker expression and pericyte-like morphology in vivo for at least 2 months. ASCs injected after OIR vessel destabilization and ablation enhanced vessel regrowth (16% reduction in avascular area). ASCs injected intravitreally before OIR vessel destabilization prevented retinal capillary dropout (53% reduction). Treatment of ASCs with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) enhanced hASC pericyte function, in a manner similar to native retinal pericytes, with increased marker expression of smooth muscle actin, cellular contractility, endothelial stabilization, and microvascular protection in OIR. Finally, injected ASCs prevented capillary loss in the diabetic retinopathic Akimba mouse (79% reduction 2 months after injection). ASC-derived pericytes can integrate with retinal vasculature, adopting both pericyte morphology and marker expression, and provide functional vascular protection in multiple murine models of retinal vasculopathy. The pericyte phenotype demonstrated by ASCs is

  16. CD146 coordinates brain endothelial cell-pericyte communication for blood-brain barrier development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianan; Luo, Yongting; Hui, Hui; Cai, Tanxi; Huang, Hongxin; Yang, Fuquan; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Jingjing; Yan, Xiyun

    2017-09-05

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) establishes a protective interface between the central neuronal system and peripheral blood circulation and is crucial for homeostasis of the CNS. BBB formation starts when the endothelial cells (ECs) invade the CNS and pericytes are recruited to the nascent vessels during embryogenesis. Despite the essential function of pericyte-EC interaction during BBB development, the molecular mechanisms coordinating the pericyte-EC behavior and communication remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a single cell receptor, CD146, that presents dynamic expression patterns in the cerebrovasculature at the stages of BBB induction and maturation, coordinates the interplay of ECs and pericytes, and orchestrates BBB development spatiotemporally. In mouse brain, CD146 is first expressed in the cerebrovascular ECs of immature capillaries without pericyte coverage; with increased coverage of pericytes, CD146 could only be detected in pericytes, but not in cerebrovascular ECs. Specific deletion of Cd146 in mice ECs resulted in reduced brain endothelial claudin-5 expression and BBB breakdown. By analyzing mice with specific deletion of Cd146 in pericytes, which have defects in pericyte coverage and BBB integrity, we demonstrate that CD146 functions as a coreceptor of PDGF receptor-β to mediate pericyte recruitment to cerebrovascular ECs. Moreover, we found that the attached pericytes in turn down-regulate endothelial CD146 by secreting TGF-β1 to promote further BBB maturation. These results reveal that the dynamic expression of CD146 controls the behavior of ECs and pericytes, thereby coordinating the formation of a mature and stable BBB.

  17. Pericytes Derived from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Protect against Retinal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Thomas A.; Clabough, Erin B. D.; Kao, David S.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Durham, Jennifer T.; Zotter, Brendan C.; Seaman, Scott A.; Cronk, Stephen M.; Rakoczy, Elizabeth P.; Katz, Adam J.; Herman, Ira M.; Peirce, Shayn M.; Yates, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Retinal vasculopathies, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), threaten the vision of over 100 million people. Retinal pericytes are critical for microvascular control, supporting retinal endothelial cells via direct contact and paracrine mechanisms. With pericyte death or loss, endothelial dysfunction ensues, resulting in hypoxic insult, pathologic angiogenesis, and ultimately blindness. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) differentiate into pericytes, suggesting they may be useful as a protective and regenerative cellular therapy for retinal vascular disease. In this study, we examine the ability of ASCs to differentiate into pericytes that can stabilize retinal vessels in multiple pre-clinical models of retinal vasculopathy. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that ASCs express pericyte-specific markers in vitro. When injected intravitreally into the murine eye subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), ASCs were capable of migrating to and integrating with the retinal vasculature. Integrated ASCs maintained marker expression and pericyte-like morphology in vivo for at least 2 months. ASCs injected after OIR vessel destabilization and ablation enhanced vessel regrowth (16% reduction in avascular area). ASCs injected intravitreally before OIR vessel destabilization prevented retinal capillary dropout (53% reduction). Treatment of ASCs with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) enhanced hASC pericyte function, in a manner similar to native retinal pericytes, with increased marker expression of smooth muscle actin, cellular contractility, endothelial stabilization, and microvascular protection in OIR. Finally, injected ASCs prevented capillary loss in the diabetic retinopathic Akimba mouse (79% reduction 2 months after injection). Conclusions/Significance ASC-derived pericytes can integrate with retinal vasculature, adopting both pericyte morphology and marker expression, and provide functional vascular protection in multiple murine models of

  18. Emerging roles of pericytes in the regulation of the neurovascular unit in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jeremy; Rom, Slava; Ramirez, Servio H.; Persidsky, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Pericytes of the central nervous system (CNS) are uniquely positioned within a multicellular structure termed the neurovascular unit (NVU) to provide crucial support to blood brain barrier (BBB) formation, maintenance, and stability. Numerous CNS diseases are associated with some aspect of BBB dysfunction. A dysfunction can manifest as one or multiple disruptions to any of the following barriers: physical, metabolic, immunological and transport barrier. A breach in the BBB can notably result in BBB hyper-permeability, endothelial activation and enhanced immune-endothelial interaction. How the BBB is regulated within this integrated unit remains largely unknown, especially as it relates to pericyte-endothelial interaction. We summarize the latest findings on pericyte origin, possible marker expression, and availability within different organ systems. We highlight pericyte-endothelial cell interactions, concentrating on extra- and intra- cellular signaling mechanisms linked to platelet derived growth factor-B, transforming growth factor -β, angiopoietins, Notch, and gap junctions. We discuss the role of pericytes in the NVU under inflammatory insult, focusing on how pericytes may indirectly affect leukocyte CNS infiltration, the direct role of pericyte-mediated basement membrane modifications, and immune responses. We review new findings of pericyte actions in CNS pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, and HIV-1 infection. The uncovering of the regulatory role of pericytes on the BBB will provide key insight into how barrier integrity can be re-established during neuroinflammation. PMID:25119834

  19. Pericytes from Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a model for the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaohe; Brookes, Oliver; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Blood brain-barrier (BBB) in vitro models have been widely reported in studies of the BBB phenotype. However, established co-culture systems involve brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, neurons and pericytes, and therefore are often consuming and technically challenging. Here we use mesenchymal system cells (MSC) as a potential substitute for pericytes in a BBB model. Both MSC and pericyte markers in 2D culture environment were evaluated on different extracellular matrix compositions. Further experiments indicated that MSC contributed in a similar manner to pericytes in a co-cultured 3D model on increasing trans-endothelial electric resistance (TEER) and decreasing permeability against macromolecules. PMID:28098158

  20. Deficiency of sphingomyelin synthase-1 but not sphingomyelin synthase-2 causes hearing impairments in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mei-Hong; Takemoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Ken; Luo, Huan; Nishimura, Masataka; Yano, Masato; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Okazaki, Toshiro; Oike, Yuichi; Song, Wen-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) is a sphingolipid reported to function as a structural component of plasma membranes and to participate in signal transduction. The role of SM metabolism in the process of hearing remains controversial. Here, we examined the role of SM synthase (SMS), which is subcategorized into the family members SMS1 and SMS2, in auditory function. Measurements of auditory brainstem response (ABR) revealed hearing impairment in SMS1−/− mice in a low frequency range (4–16 kHz). As a possible mechanism of this impairment, we found that the stria vascularis (SV) in these mice exhibited atrophy and disorganized marginal cells. Consequently, SMS1−/− mice exhibited significantly smaller endocochlear potentials (EPs). As a possible mechanism for EP reduction, we found altered expression patterns and a reduced level of KCNQ1 channel protein in the SV of SMS1−/− mice. These mice also exhibited reduced levels of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Quantitative comparison of the SV atrophy, KCNQ1 expression, and outer hair cell density at the cochlear apical and basal turns revealed no location dependence, but more macrophage invasion into the SV was observed in the apical region than the basal region, suggesting a role of cochlear location-dependent oxidative stress in producing the frequency dependence of hearing loss in SMS1−/− mice. Elevated ABR thresholds, decreased EPs, and abnormal KCNQ1 expression patterns in SMS1−/− mice were all found to be progressive with age. Mice lacking SMS2, however, exhibited neither detectable hearing loss nor changes in their EPs. Taken together, our results suggest that hearing impairments occur in SMS1−/− but not SMS2−/− mice. Defects in the SV with subsequent reductions in EPs together with hair cell dysfunction may account, at least partially, for hearing impairments in SMS1−/− mice. PMID:22641779

  1. Deficiency of sphingomyelin synthase-1 but not sphingomyelin synthase-2 causes hearing impairments in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei-Hong; Takemoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Ken; Luo, Huan; Nishimura, Masataka; Yano, Masato; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Okazaki, Toshiro; Oike, Yuichi; Song, Wen-Jie

    2012-08-15

    Sphingomyelin (SM) is a sphingolipid reported to function as a structural component of plasma membranes and to participate in signal transduction. The role of SM metabolism in the process of hearing remains controversial. Here, we examined the role of SM synthase (SMS), which is subcategorized into the family members SMS1 and SMS2, in auditory function. Measurements of auditory brainstem response (ABR) revealed hearing impairment in SMS1−/− mice in a low frequency range (4–16 kHz). As a possible mechanism of this impairment, we found that the stria vascularis (SV) in these mice exhibited atrophy and disorganized marginal cells. Consequently, SMS1−/− mice exhibited significantly smaller endocochlear potentials (EPs). As a possible mechanism for EP reduction, we found altered expression patterns and a reduced level of KCNQ1 channel protein in the SV of SMS1−/− mice. These mice also exhibited reduced levels of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Quantitative comparison of the SV atrophy, KCNQ1 expression, and outer hair cell density at the cochlear apical and basal turns revealed no location dependence, but more macrophage invasion into the SV was observed in the apical region than the basal region, suggesting a role of cochlear location-dependent oxidative stress in producing the frequency dependence of hearing loss in SMS1−/− mice. Elevated ABR thresholds, decreased EPs, and abnormal KCNQ1 expression patterns in SMS1−/− mice were all found to be progressive with age. Mice lacking SMS2, however, exhibited neither detectable hearing loss nor changes in their EPs. Taken together, our results suggest that hearing impairments occur in SMS1−/− but not SMS2−/− mice. Defects in the SV with subsequent reductions in EPs together with hair cell dysfunction may account, at least partially, for hearing impairments in SMS1−/− mice.

  2. Inherited human IRAK-1 deficiency selectively impairs TLR signaling in fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Borghesi, Alessandro; Zhou, Hao; Bougarn, Salim; Boughorbel, Sabri; Israel, Laura; Meloni, Ilaria; Chrabieh, Maya; Ling, Yun; Itan, Yuval; Renieri, Alessandra; Mazzucchelli, Iolanda; Basso, Sabrina; Pavone, Piero; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Ciccone, Roberto; Cerbo, Rosa Maria; Stronati, Mauro; Picard, Capucine; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Abel, Laurent; Chaussabel, Damien; Marr, Nico; Li, Xiaoxia; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Most members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) families transduce signals via a canonical pathway involving the MyD88 adapter and the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) complex. This complex contains four molecules, including at least two (IRAK-1 and IRAK-4) active kinases. In mice and humans, deficiencies of IRAK-4 or MyD88 abolish most TLR (except for TLR3 and some TLR4) and IL-1R signaling in both leukocytes and fibroblasts. TLR and IL-1R responses are weak but not abolished in mice lacking IRAK-1, whereas the role of IRAK-1 in humans remains unclear. We describe here a boy with X-linked MECP2 deficiency-related syndrome due to a large de novo Xq28 chromosomal deletion encompassing both MECP2 and IRAK1. Like many boys with MECP2 null mutations, this child died very early, at the age of 7 mo. Unlike most IRAK-4– or MyD88-deficient patients, he did not suffer from invasive bacterial diseases during his short life. The IRAK-1 protein was completely absent from the patient’s fibroblasts, which responded very poorly to all TLR2/6 (PAM2CSK4, LTA, FSL-1), TLR1/2 (PAM3CSK4), and TLR4 (LPS, MPLA) agonists tested but had almost unimpaired responses to IL-1β. By contrast, the patient’s peripheral blood mononuclear cells responded normally to all TLR1/2, TLR2/6, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR8 (R848) agonists tested, and to IL-1β. The death of this child precluded long-term evaluations of the clinical consequences of inherited IRAK-1 deficiency. However, these findings suggest that human IRAK-1 is essential downstream from TLRs but not IL-1Rs in fibroblasts, whereas it plays a redundant role downstream from both TLRs and IL-1Rs in leukocytes. PMID:28069966

  3. Childhood encephalomyopathy with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, ataxia, muscle wasting, and mental impairment.

    PubMed

    Angelini, C; Bresolin, N; Pegolo, G; Bet, L; Rinaldo, P; Trevisan, C; Vergani, L

    1986-08-01

    The son of third cousins was normal until age 2 when he had difficulty walking. At age 8 there was limb weakness, ataxia, loss of tendon reflexes, dislalia, and he was mildly retarded. During fasting, urinary organic acid excretion was abnormally high. Cytochrome c oxidase activity in muscle was 7% of the normal mean. The enzyme in platelets was 16% of controls with a decreased cytochrome aa3 peak. These data suggest an autosomal recessive transmission of this variant of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

  4. The pericyte as a cellular regulator of penile erection and a novel therapeutic target for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guo Nan; Das, Nando Dulal; Choi, Min Ji; Song, Kang-Moon; Kwon, Mi-Hye; Ock, Jiyeon; Limanjaya, Anita; Ghatak, Kalyan; Kim, Woo Jean; Hyun, Jae Seog; Koh, Gou Young; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2015-06-05

    Pericytes are known to play critical roles in vascular development and homeostasis. However, the distribution of cavernous pericytes and their roles in penile erection is unclear. Herein we report that the pericytes are abundantly distributed in microvessels of the subtunical area and dorsal nerve bundle of mice, followed by dorsal vein and cavernous sinusoids. We further confirmed the presence of pericytes in human corpus cavernosum tissue and successfully isolated pericytes from mouse penis. Cavernous pericyte contents from diabetic mice and tube formation of cultured pericytes in high glucose condition were greatly reduced compared with those in normal conditions. Suppression of pericyte function with anti-PDGFR-β blocking antibody deteriorated erectile function and tube formation in vivo and in vitro diabetic condition. In contrast, enhanced pericyte function with HGF protein restored cavernous pericyte content in diabetic mice, and significantly decreased cavernous permeability in diabetic mice and in pericytes-endothelial cell co-culture system, which induced significant recovery of erectile function. Overall, these findings showed the presence and distribution of pericytes in the penis of normal or pathologic condition and documented their role in the regulation of cavernous permeability and penile erection, which ultimately explore novel therapeutics of erectile dysfunction targeting pericyte function.

  5. The pericyte as a cellular regulator of penile erection and a novel therapeutic target for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guo Nan; Das, Nando Dulal; Choi, Min Ji; Song, Kang-Moon; Kwon, Mi-Hye; Ock, Jiyeon; Limanjaya, Anita; Ghatak, Kalyan; Kim, Woo Jean; Hyun, Jae Seog; Koh, Gou Young; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are known to play critical roles in vascular development and homeostasis. However, the distribution of cavernous pericytes and their roles in penile erection is unclear. Herein we report that the pericytes are abundantly distributed in microvessels of the subtunical area and dorsal nerve bundle of mice, followed by dorsal vein and cavernous sinusoids. We further confirmed the presence of pericytes in human corpus cavernosum tissue and successfully isolated pericytes from mouse penis. Cavernous pericyte contents from diabetic mice and tube formation of cultured pericytes in high glucose condition were greatly reduced compared with those in normal conditions. Suppression of pericyte function with anti-PDGFR-β blocking antibody deteriorated erectile function and tube formation in vivo and in vitro diabetic condition. In contrast, enhanced pericyte function with HGF protein restored cavernous pericyte content in diabetic mice, and significantly decreased cavernous permeability in diabetic mice and in pericytes-endothelial cell co-culture system, which induced significant recovery of erectile function. Overall, these findings showed the presence and distribution of pericytes in the penis of normal or pathologic condition and documented their role in the regulation of cavernous permeability and penile erection, which ultimately explore novel therapeutics of erectile dysfunction targeting pericyte function. PMID:26044953

  6. Autosomal recessive phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) mutations link glycosylation defects to atopy, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and neurocognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Xiaomin; Ichikawa, Mie; Lyons, Jonathan J; Datta, Shrimati; Lamborn, Ian T; Jing, Huie; Kim, Emily S; Biancalana, Matthew; Wolfe, Lynne A; DiMaggio, Thomas; Matthews, Helen F; Kranick, Sarah M; Stone, Kelly D; Holland, Steven M; Reich, Daniel S; Hughes, Jason D; Mehmet, Huseyin; McElwee, Joshua; Freeman, Alexandra F; Freeze, Hudson H; Su, Helen C; Milner, Joshua D

    2014-05-01

    Identifying genetic syndromes that lead to significant atopic disease can open new pathways for investigation and intervention in allergy. We sought to define a genetic syndrome of severe atopy, increased serum IgE levels, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and motor and neurocognitive impairment. Eight patients from 2 families with similar syndromic features were studied. Thorough clinical evaluations, including brain magnetic resonance imaging and sensory evoked potentials, were performed. Peripheral lymphocyte flow cytometry, antibody responses, and T-cell cytokine production were measured. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify disease-causing mutations. Immunoblotting, quantitative RT-PCR, enzymatic assays, nucleotide sugar, and sugar phosphate analyses, along with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry of glycans, were used to determine the molecular consequences of the mutations. Marked atopy and autoimmunity were associated with increased T(H)2 and T(H)17 cytokine production by CD4(+) T cells. Bacterial and viral infection susceptibility were noted along with T-cell lymphopenia, particularly of CD8(+) T cells, and reduced memory B-cell numbers. Apparent brain hypomyelination resulted in markedly delayed evoked potentials and likely contributed to neurologic abnormalities. Disease segregated with novel autosomal recessive mutations in a single gene, phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3). Although PGM3 protein expression was variably diminished, impaired function was demonstrated by decreased enzyme activity and reduced uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, along with decreased O- and N-linked protein glycosylation in patients' cells. These results define a new congenital disorder of glycosylation. Autosomal recessive hypomorphic PGM3 mutations underlie a disorder of severe atopy, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, intellectual disability, and hypomyelination. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  7. Parental origin impairment of synaptic functions and behaviors in cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 1 (Cyfip1) deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Leeyup; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Li; Towers, Aaron J; Cao, Xinyu; Kim, Il Hwan; Jiang, Yong-hui

    2015-12-10

    CYFIP1 maps to the interval between proximal breakpoint 1 (BP1) and breakpoint 2 (BP2) of chromosomal 15q11-q13 deletions that are implicated in the Angelman (AS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). There is only one breakpoint (BP3) at the distal end of deletion. CYFIP1 is deleted in AS patients with the larger class I deletion (BP1 to BP3) and the neurological presentations in these patients are more severe than that of patients with class II (BP2 to BP3) deletion. The haploinsufficiency of CYFIP1 is hypothesized to contribute to more severe clinical presentations in class I AS patients. The expression of CYFIP1 is suggested to be bi-allelic in literature but the possibility of parental origin of expression is not completely excluded. We generated and characterized Cyfip1 mutant mice. Homozygous Cyfip1 mice were early embryonic lethal. However, there was a parental origin specific effect between paternal Cyfip1 deficiency (m+/p-) and maternal deficiency (m-/p+) on both synaptic transmissions and behaviors in hippocampal CA1 synapses despite no evidence supporting the parental origin difference for the expression. Both m-/p+ and m+/p- showed the impaired input-output response and paired-pulse facilitation. While the long term-potentiation and group I mGluR mediated long term depression induced by DHPG was not different between Cyfip1 m-/p+ and m+/p- mice, the initial DHPG induced response was significantly enhanced in m-/p+ but not in m+/p- mice. m+/p- but not m-/p+ mice displayed increased freezing in cued fear conditioning and abnormal transitions in zero-maze test. The impaired synaptic transmission and behaviors in haploinsufficiency of Cyfip1 mice provide the evidence supporting the role of CYFIP1 modifying the clinical presentation of class I AS patients and in human neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. MEC-17 deficiency leads to reduced α-tubulin acetylation and impaired migration of cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wei, Dan; Wang, Qiong; Pan, Jing; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xu; Bao, Lan

    2012-09-12

    Neuronal migration is a fundamental process during the development of the cerebral cortex and is regulated by cytoskeletal components. Microtubule dynamics can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to tubulin subunits. Acetylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40 is important in regulating microtubule properties, and this process is controlled by acetyltransferase and deacetylase. MEC-17 is a newly discovered α-tubulin acetyltransferase that has been found to play a major role in the acetylation of α-tubulin in different species in vivo. However, the physiological function of MEC-17 during neural development is largely unknown. Here, we report that MEC-17 is critical for the migration of cortical neurons in the rat. MEC-17 was strongly expressed in the cerebral cortex during development. MEC-17 deficiency caused migratory defects in the cortical projection neurons and interneurons, and perturbed the transition of projection neurons from the multipolar stage to the unipolar/bipolar stage in the intermediate zone of the cortex. Furthermore, knockdown of α-tubulin deacetylase HDAC6 or overexpression of tubulin(K40Q) to mimic acetylated α-tubulin could reduce the migratory and morphological defects caused by MEC-17 deficiency in cortical projection neurons. Thus, MEC-17, which regulates the acetylation of α-tubulin, appears to control the migration and morphological transition of cortical neurons. This finding reveals the importance of MEC-17 and α-tubulin acetylation in cortical development.

  9. Characterization of connexin31.1-deficient mice reveals impaired placental development.

    PubMed

    Zheng-Fischhöfer, Qingyi; Kibschull, Mark; Schnichels, Marc; Kretz, Markus; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Strotmann, Jörg; Reucher, Harald; Lynn, Bruce D; Nagy, James I; Lye, Stephen J; Winterhager, Elke; Willecke, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    The gap junction gene Connexin31.1 has been reported to be expressed predominantly in the epidermis of murine skin. To study the function of this gene, we generated mice in which the coding DNA of the Connexin31.1 gene was replaced by lacZ reporter coding DNA. Using beta-galactosidase staining, we have shown that lacZ/Connexin31.1 was expressed in the spinous and granular layers of the epidermis, in cells of olfactory epithelium and in the vomeronasal organ. During embryogenesis, Connexin31.1 was co-expressed with another isoform, Connexin31, in the post-implantation trophoblast cell lineage and, later in gestation, in placental glycogen cells. Although homozygous Connexin31.1-deficient mice were fertile and showed no morphological or functional defects in adult organs expressing this gene, 30% of the offspring expected according to Mendelian inheritance were lost between embryonic days 11.5 and 14.5 and surviving embryos were significantly reduced in weight near the end of pregnancy. Placentas of Connexin31.1-deficient embryos were reduced in weight and showed altered morphology of the spongiotrophoblast and labyrinth layer. The spongiotrophoblast formed a compact barrier at the decidual border that might restrict the maternal blood supply. We conclude that Connexin31.1 is critical for normal placental development but appears to be functionally compensated by other connexin isoforms in the embryo proper and adult mouse.

  10. Impaired neural tube closure, axial skeleton malformations, and tracheal ring disruption in TRAF4-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Régnier, Catherine H; Masson, Régis; Kedinger, Valérie; Textoris, Julien; Stoll, Isabelle; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Dierich, Andrée; Tomasetto, Catherine; Rio, Marie-Christine

    2002-04-16

    TRAF4 belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family of proteins but, unlike other family members, has not yet been clearly associated to any specific receptor or signaling pathway. To investigate the biological function of TRAF4, we have generated traf4-deficient mice by gene disruption. The traf4 gene mutation is embryonic lethal but with great individual variation, as approximately one third of the homozygous mutant embryos died in utero around embryonic day 14, whereas the others reach adulthood. Surviving mutant mice manifest numerous developmental abnormalities; notably, 100% of homozygous mutant mice suffer respiratory disorder and wheezing caused by tracheal ring disruption. Additional malformations concern mainly the axial skeleton, as the ribs, sternum, tail, and vertebral arches are affected, with various degrees of penetrance. Traf4-deficient mice also exhibit a high incidence of spina bifida, a defect likened to neural tube defects (NTD) that are common congenital malformations in humans. Altogether, our results demonstrate that TRAF4 is required during embryogenesis in key biological processes including the formation of the trachea, the development of the axial skeleton, and the closure of the neural tube. Considering the normal expression pattern of TRAF4 in neural tissues, we can conclude that TRAF4 participates in neurulation in vivo.

  11. Impaired replication elongation in Tetrahymena mutants deficient in histone H3 Lys 27 monomethylation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Xiong, Jie; Zhang, Chunchao; Berquist, Brian R.; Yang, Rendong; Zhao, Meng; Molascon, Anthony J.; Kwiatkowski, Shaina Y.; Yuan, Dongxia; Qin, Zhaohui; Wen, Jianfan; Kapler, Geoffrey M.; Andrews, Philip C.; Miao, Wei; Liu, Yifan

    2013-01-01

    Replication of nuclear DNA occurs in the context of chromatin and is influenced by histone modifications. In the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, we identified TXR1, encoding a histone methyltransferase. TXR1 deletion resulted in severe DNA replication stress, manifested by the accumulation of ssDNA, production of aberrant replication intermediates, and activation of robust DNA damage responses. Paired-end Illumina sequencing of ssDNA revealed intergenic regions, including replication origins, as hot spots for replication stress in ΔTXR1 cells. ΔTXR1 cells showed a deficiency in histone H3 Lys 27 monomethylation (H3K27me1), while ΔEZL2 cells, deleting a Drosophila E(z) homolog, were deficient in H3K27 di- and trimethylation, with no detectable replication stress. A point mutation in histone H3 at Lys 27 (H3 K27Q) mirrored the phenotype of ΔTXR1, corroborating H3K27me1 as a key player in DNA replication. Additionally, we demonstrated interactions between TXR1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). These findings support a conserved pathway through which H3K27me1 facilitates replication elongation. PMID:23884606

  12. Gpr177 deficiency impairs mammary development and prohibits Wnt-induced tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Eri Ohfuchi; Yu, H-M Ivy; Jiang, Ming; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of the Wnt pathway, essential for various developmental processes, is tightly linked to human breast cancers. By hijacking this evolutionary conserved signaling pathway, cancer cells acquire sustaining proliferation ability, leading to modification of physiologic properties necessary for tumor initiation and progression. An enormous wealth of knowledge on the importance of Wnt signaling in breast development and cancer has been obtained, but the cell types responsible for production of this proliferative signal operating within normal and malignant tissues remains poorly understood. Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177 is essential for mammary morphogenesis. The loss of Gpr177 interferes with mammary stem cells, leading to deficiencies in cell proliferation and differentiation. Genetic analysis further demonstrates an indispensable role of Gpr177 in Wnt-induced tumorigenesis. The Gpr177-deficiency mice are resistant to malignant transformation. This study not only demonstrates the necessity of Wnt in mammary organogenesis but also provides a proof-of-principle for targeting of Gpr177 as a potential new treatment for human diseases with aberrant Wnt stimulation.

  13. Impaired redox status and cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica

    PubMed Central

    Chariot, P; Chevalier, X; Yerroum, M; Drogou, I; Authier, F; Gherardi, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate redox status and muscular mitochondrial abnormalities in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).
METHODS—Prospective evaluation of deltoid muscle biopsy in 15 patients with PMR. Fifteen subjects matched for age and sex, with histologically normal muscle and without clinical evidence of myopathy, were used as controls. Cryostat sections of muscle were processed for conventional dyes, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), usual histochemical reactions, and Sudan black. A total of 300-800 fibres was examined in each case. Blood lactate, pyruvate, and lactate/pyruvate ratio were determined in all patients.
RESULTS—Ragged red fibres were found in eight patients with PMR and accounted for 0-0.5% of fibres. Focal COX deficiency was found in 14 (93%) of 15 patients and in nine (60%) of 15 controls. COX deficient fibres were more common in patients with PMR (range 0-2.5%; mean 0.9%) than in controls (range 0-1.2%; mean 0.3%) (paired t test, p=0.001). Seven (47%) of 15 patients had high blood lactate levels (1.50-2.60 mmol/l) or high blood lactate/pyruvate ratios (22-25).
CONCLUSIONS—PMR is associated with mitochondrial abnormalities not solely related to the aging process.

 PMID:11602471

  14. Impaired renal H+ secretion and NH3 production in mineralocorticoid-deficient glucocorticoid-replete dogs.

    PubMed

    Hulter, H N; Ilnicki, L P; Harbottle, J A; Sebastian, A

    1977-02-01

    When the administration of exogenous mineralocorticoid hormones was discontinued in adrenalectomized dogs maintained on glucocorticoid, net acid excretion decreased due largely to a reduction in urinary ammonium excretion (UNH4+V), and hyperchloremic hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis occurred and persisted. The reduction in UNH4+V was not associated with an increase in urine pH (UpH) or a decrease in urine flow, but correlated with the severity of hyperkalemia and was mitigated by dietary potassium restriction. UpH decreased to values as low as 5.3. During acidosis, UpH varied directly with UNH4+V, but in relation to UNH4+V, UpH exceeded that in acid-fed mineralocorticoid-replete dogs. Extrapolated to UNH4+V=0, however, UpH was not significantly different in the two groups (5.27 vs. 5.44). When distal delivery of sodium was increased by infusion of sodium phosphate, titratable acid excretion increased in both groups but pateaued at lower rates in the mineralocorticoid-deficient dogs. These results suggest that in mineralocorticoid-deficient dogs, renal ammonia production is diminished, in part due to potassium retention and hyperkalemia; renal hydrogen ion secretory capacity is reduced even when sodium and buffer delivery to the distal nephron is not reduced; and the ability of the kidney to generate normally steep urine-to-blood hydrogen ion concentration gradients is unimpaired.

  15. Deficiency in the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (Immp21) gene increases ischemic brain damage and impairs mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Mehta, Suresh L.; Lu, Baisong; Andy Li, P.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in mediating ischemic brain damage. Immp2l is an inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase that processes mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c1 (Cyc1). Homozygous mutation of Immp2l (Immp2lTg(Tyr)979Ove or Immp2l−/−) elevates mitochondrial membrane potential, increases superoxide (•O2−) production in the brain and impairs fertility. The objectives of this study are to explore the effects of heterozygous mutation of lmmp2l (Immp2l+/−) on ischemic outcome and to determine the influence of Immp2l deficiency on brain mitochondria after stroke. Male Immp2l+/− and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to 1-h focal cerebral ischemia. Their brains were harvested after 5 and 24-h of reperfusion. The results showed that infarct volume and DNA oxidative damage significantly increased in the Immp2l+/− mice. There were no obvious cerebral vasculature abnormalities between the two types of mice viewed by Indian ink perfusion. The increased damage in Immp2l+/− mice was associated with early increase in •O2− production. Mitochondrial respiratory rate, total mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochondrial respiratory complex activities were decreased at 5-h of recirculation in Immp2l+/− mice compared to WT mice. Our results suggest that lmmp2l deficiency increases ischemic brain damage by enhancing •O2− production and damaging mitochondrial functional performance. PMID:21824519

  16. Deficiency in the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (Immp21) gene increases ischemic brain damage and impairs mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Mehta, Suresh L; Lu, Baisong; Li, P Andy

    2011-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in mediating ischemic brain damage. Immp2l is an inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase that processes mitochondrial protein cytochrome c1 (Cyc1). Homozygous mutation of Immp2l (Immp2l(Tg(Tyr)979Ove) or Immp2l(-/-)) elevates mitochondrial membrane potential, increases superoxide (O(2)(-)) production in the brain and impairs fertility. The objectives of this study are to explore the effects of heterozygous mutation of Immp2l (Immp2l(+/-)) on ischemic outcome and to determine the influence of Immp2l deficiency on brain mitochondria after stroke. Male Immp2l(+/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to 1-h focal cerebral ischemia. Their brains were harvested after 5 and 24-h of reperfusion. The results showed that infarct volume and DNA oxidative damage significantly increased in the Immp2l(+/-) mice. There were no obvious cerebral vasculature abnormalities between the two types of mice viewed by Indian ink perfusion. The increased damage in Immp2l(+/-) mice was associated with early increase in O(2)(-) production. Mitochondrial respiratory rate, total mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochondrial respiratory complex activities were decreased at 5-h of recirculation in Immp2l(+/-) mice compared to WT mice. Our results suggest that Immp2l deficiency increases ischemic brain damage by enhancing O(2)(-) production and damaging mitochondrial functional performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Enhanced perisomatic inhibition and impaired long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of juvenile CHL1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nikonenko, Alexander G; Sun, Mu; Lepsveridze, Eka; Apostolova, Ivayla; Petrova, Iveta; Irintchev, Andrey; Dityatev, Alexander; Schachner, Melitta

    2006-04-01

    The cell adhesion molecule, CHL1, like its close homologue L1, is important for normal brain development and function. In this study, we analysed the functional role of CHL1 in synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus using juvenile CHL1-deficient (CHL1-/-) and wild-type (CHL1+/+) mice. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked in pyramidal cells by minimal stimulation of perisomatically projecting interneurons were increased in CHL1-/- mice compared with wild-type littermates. Also, long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 excitatory synapses was reduced under physiological conditions in CHL1-/- mice. This abnormality was abolished by application of a GABAA receptor antagonist, suggesting that enhanced inhibition is the cause of LTP impairment. Quantitative ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analyses revealed aberrations possibly related to the abnormally high inhibition observed in CHL1-/- mice. The length and linear density of active zones in symmetric synapses on pyramidal cell bodies, as well as number of perisomatic puncta containing inhibitory axonal markers were increased. Density and total number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons was also abnormally high. These observations and the finding that CA1 interneurons express CHL1 protein indicate that CHL1 is important for regulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission and interneuron populations in the postnatal brain. The observed enhancement of inhibitory transmission in CHL1-/- mice is in contrast to the previous finding of reduced inhibition in L1 deficient mice and indicates different functions of these two closely related molecules.

  18. Impaired liver regeneration is associated with reduced cyclin B1 in natural killer T cell-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Meir, Hadar; Zolotaryova, Lydia; Ilan, Yaron; Shteyer, Eyal

    2017-03-23

    It has been shown that the proportion of natural killer T cells is markedly elevated during liver regeneration and their activation under different conditions can modulate this process. As natural killer T cells and liver injury are central in liver regeneration, elucidating their role is important. The aim of the current study is to explore the role of natural killer T cells in impaired liver regeneration. Concanvalin A was injected 4 days before partial hepatectomy to natural killer T cells- deficient mice or to anti CD1d1-treated mice. Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were used to measure hepatocytes proliferation. Expression of hepatic cyclin B1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were evaluated by Western Blot and liver injury was assessed by ALT and histology. Natural killer T cells- deficient or mice injected with anti CD1d antibodies exhibited reduced liver regeneration. These mice were considerably resistant to ConA-induced liver injury. In the absence of NKT cells hepatic proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin B1 decreased in mice injected with Concanvalin A before partial hepatectomy. This was accompanied with reduced serum interleukin-6 levels. Natural killer T cells play an important role in liver regeneration, which is associated with cyclin B1 and interleukin-6.

  19. A Novel Animal Model of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Induced by the Interaction of Vitamin E Deficiency and 60Co Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yue; Cheng, Yan; Yin, Ying; Duan, Jialin; Wei, Guo; Weng, Yan; Guo, Chao; Zhu, Yanrong; Wang, Yanhua; Xi, Miaomiao; Wen, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), known as the prediabetes stage, is usually induced by habits of life or environmental factors. Established IGT animal models are mostly conducted with chemical compounds such as streptozocin or genetic modification. However, the occasion of exposure to these factors in daily life is seldom. The objective of this study was to establish a new animal model of IGT induced by VE deficiency in diet and exposure to radiation. SD rats were treated individually or in combination of these two factors. In the combination group, the calculated insulin sensitivity index decreased; then HOMA-β value increased. Oxidative damage and IGT were observed. Insulin secretion level in perfusate from pancreas response to glucose was characterized by a rapid but reduced first phase and an obviously defective second phase upon pancreas perfusion. Histopathological images demonstrated the pathological changes. Western blotting analysis showed that the insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. The interaction of VE deficiency in diet and exposure to radiation could break the equilibrium of oxidation and antioxidation and result in IGT. More importantly, a new IGT model was successfully established which may be conducive to further research into development of drugs against human IGT. PMID:25954750

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases classified into subgroups based on substrate preference in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in various disease processes via degradation of extracellular matrix components. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to be up-regulated in skeletal muscles in the lethal X-linked muscle disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by loss of dystrophin. A recent study showed that deletion of the MMP9 gene in mdx, a mouse model for DMD, improved skeletal muscle pathology and function; however, the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle is not well known. In this study, we aimed at verifying the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle by using mdx mice with genetic ablation of MMP-2 (mdx/MMP-2(-/-)). We found impairment of regenerated muscle fiber growth with reduction of angiogenesis in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an important angiogenesis-related factor, decreased in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. MMP-2 had not a critical role in the degradation of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components such as β-dystroglycan and β-sarcoglycan in the regeneration process of the dystrophic muscle. Accordingly, MMP-2 may be essential for growth of regenerated muscle fibers through VEGF-associated angiogenesis in the dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  1. High-Iron Consumption Impairs Growth and Causes Copper-Deficiency Anemia in Weanling Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jung-Heun; Doguer, Caglar; Wang, Xiaoyu; Flores, Shireen R.; Collins, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-copper interactions were described decades ago; however, molecular mechanisms linking the two essential minerals remain largely undefined. Investigations in humans and other mammals noted that copper levels increase in the intestinal mucosa, liver and blood during iron deficiency, tissues all important for iron homeostasis. The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that dietary copper influences iron homeostasis during iron deficiency and iron overload. We thus fed weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-11/group) AIN-93G-based diets containing high (~8800 ppm), adequate (~80) or low (~11) iron in combination with high (~183), adequate (~8) or low (~0.9) copper for 5 weeks. Subsequently, the iron- and copper-related phenotype of the rats was assessed. Rats fed the low-iron diets grew slower than controls, with changes in dietary copper not further influencing growth. Unexpectedly, however, high-iron (HFe) feeding also impaired growth. Furthermore, consumption of the HFe diet caused cardiac hypertrophy, anemia, low serum and tissue copper levels and decreased circulating ceruloplasmin activity. Intriguingly, these physiologic perturbations were prevented by adding extra copper to the HFe diet. Furthermore, higher copper levels in the HFe diet increased serum nonheme iron concentration and transferrin saturation, exacerbated hepatic nonheme iron loading and attenuated splenic nonheme iron accumulation. Moreover, serum erythropoietin levels, and splenic erythroferrone and hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels were altered by the dietary treatments in unanticipated ways, providing insight into how iron and copper influence expression of these hormones. We conclude that high-iron feeding of weanling rats causes systemic copper deficiency, and further, that copper influences the iron-overload phenotype. PMID:27537180

  2. Stomatin-like protein 2 deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial translation.

    PubMed

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Lapohos, Orsolya; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Antonicka, Hana; Chang, Yu-Han; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria translate the RNAs for 13 core polypeptides of respiratory chain and ATP synthase complexes that are essential for the assembly and function of these complexes. This process occurs in close proximity to the mitochondrial inner membrane. However, the mechanisms and molecular machinery involved in mitochondrial translation are not fully understood, and defects in this process can result in severe diseases. Stomatin-like protein (SLP)-2 is a mainly mitochondrial protein that forms cardiolipin- and prohibitin-enriched microdomains in the mitochondrial inner membrane that are important for the formation of respiratory supercomplexes and their function. Given this regulatory role of SLP-2 in processes closely associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane, we hypothesized that the function of SLP-2 would have an impact on mitochondrial translation. 35S-Methionine/cysteine pulse labeling of resting or activated T cells from T cell-specific Slp-2 knockout mice showed a significant impairment in the production of several mitochondrial DNA-encoded polypeptides following T cell activation, including Cytb, COXI, COXII, COXIII, and ATP6. Measurement of mitochondrial DNA stability and mitochondrial transcription revealed that this impairment was at the post-transcriptional level. Examination of mitochondrial ribosome assembly showed that SLP-2 migrated in sucrose-density gradients similarly to the large ribosomal subunit but that its deletion at the genetic level did not affect mitochondrial ribosome assembly. Functionally, the impairment in mitochondrial translation correlated with decreased interleukin-2 production in activated T cells. Altogether, these data show that SLP-2 acts as a general regulator of mitochondrial translation.

  3. Invariant Natural Killer T Cell Deficiency and Functional Impairment in Sleep Apnea: Links to Cancer Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Gaoatswe, Gadintshware; Kent, Brian D; Corrigan, Michelle A; Nolan, Geraldine; Hogan, Andrew E; McNicholas, Walter T; O'Shea, Donal

    2015-10-01

    Emerging evidence links obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with increased cancer incidence and mortality. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play an important role in cancer immunity. We hypothesized that patients with OSA have low number of circulating invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which may also be functionally impaired. This study aims to evaluate the frequency of circulating iNKT cells in OSA. We evaluated the frequency of circulating iNKT cells by flow cytometry in 33 snorers being assessed for possible OSA. Using iNKT cell lines, we also evaluated the effect of exposure to hypoxia over 24 hours on apoptosis, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production. Teaching hospital based sleep unit and research laboratory. Thirty-three snorers were evaluated: 9 with no OSA (apnea-hypopnea frequency [AHI] < 5/h), 12 with mild-moderate OSA (AHI 5-30) and 12 with severe OSA (AHI > 30). Patients with severe OSA had considerably fewer iNKT cells (0.18%) compared to patients with mild-moderate (0.24%) or no OSA (0.35%), P = 0.0026. The frequency of iNKT cells correlated negatively with apnea-hypopnea index (r = -0.58, P = 0.001), oxygen desaturation index (r = -0.58, P = 0.0003), and SpO2% < 90% (r = -0.5407, P = 0.005). The frequency of iNKT cells increased following 12 months of nCPAP therapy (P = 0.015). Hypoxia resulted in increased apoptosis (P = 0.016) and impaired cytotoxicity (P = 0.035). Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have significantly reduced levels of circulating invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and hypoxia leads to impaired iNKT cell function. These observations may partly explain the increased cancer risk reported in patients with OSA. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Grammatical Difficulties in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Is Learning Deficient?

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of grammatical limitations in specific language impairment (SLI) have been polarized between those that postulate problems with domain-specific grammatical knowledge, and those that regard grammatical deficits as downstream consequences of perceptual or memory limitations. Here we consider an alternative view that grammatical deficits arise when the learning system is biased towards memorization of exemplars, and is poor at extracting statistical dependencies from the input. We examine evidence that SLI involves deficits in extracting nonadjacent dependencies from input, leading to reliance on rote learning, and consider how far this may be part of a limitation of procedural learning, or a secondary consequence of memory limitations.

  5. Macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ deficiency delays skin wound healing through impairing apoptotic cell clearance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H; Shi, R; Luo, B; Yang, X; Qiu, L; Xiong, J; Jiang, M; Liu, Y; Zhang, Z; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Skin wound macrophages are key regulators of skin repair and their dysfunction causes chronic, non-healing skin wounds. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates pleiotropic functions of macrophages, but its contribution in skin wound healing is poorly defined. We observed that macrophage PPARγ expression was upregulated during skin wound healing. Furthermore, macrophage PPARγ deficiency (PPARγ-knock out (KO)) mice exhibited impaired skin wound healing with reduced collagen deposition, angiogenesis and granulation formation. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in wounds of PPARγ-KO mice was significantly increased and local restoration of TNF-α reversed the healing deficit in PPARγ-KO mice. Wound macrophages produced higher levels of TNF-α in PPARγ-KO mice compared with control. In vitro, the higher production of TNF-α by PPARγ-KO macrophages was associated with impaired apoptotic cell clearance. Correspondingly, increased apoptotic cell accumulation was found in skin wound of PPARγ-KO mice. Mechanically, peritoneal and skin wound macrophages expressed lower levels of various phagocytosis-related molecules. In addition, PPARγ agonist accelerated wound healing and reduced local TNF-α expression and wound apoptotic cells accumulation in wild type but not PPARγ-KO mice. Therefore, PPARγ has a pivotal role in controlling wound macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells to ensure efficient skin wound healing, suggesting a potential new therapeutic target for skin wound healing. PMID:25590807

  6. Axonal degeneration in paraplegin-deficient mice is associated with abnormal mitochondria and impairment of axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Ferreirinha, Fatima; Quattrini, Angelo; Pirozzi, Marinella; Valsecchi, Valentina; Dina, Giorgia; Broccoli, Vania; Auricchio, Alberto; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Gaeta, Laura; Casari, Giorgio; Ballabio, Andrea; Rugarli, Elena I.

    2004-01-01

    In several neurodegenerative diseases, axonal degeneration occurs before neuronal death and contributes significantly to patients’ disability. Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by selective degeneration of axons of the corticospinal tracts and fasciculus gracilis. HSP may therefore be considered an exemplary disease to study the local programs mediating axonal degeneration. We have developed a mouse model for autosomal recessive HSP due to mutations in the SPG7 gene encoding the mitochondrial ATPase paraplegin. Paraplegin-deficient mice are affected by a distal axonopathy of spinal and peripheral axons, characterized by axonal swelling and degeneration. We found that mitochondrial morphological abnormalities occurred in synaptic terminals and in distal regions of axons long before the first signs of swelling and degeneration and correlated with onset of motor impairment during a rotarod test. Axonal swellings occur through massive accumulation of organelles and neurofilaments, suggesting impairment of anterograde axonal transport. Retrograde axonal transport is delayed in symptomatic mice. We speculate that local failure of mitochondrial function may affect axonal transport and cause axonal degeneration. Our data suggest that a timely therapeutic intervention may prevent the loss of axons. PMID:14722615

  7. Mycobacterial disease and impaired IFN-γ immunity in humans with inherited ISG15 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bogunovic, Dusan; Byun, Minji; Durfee, Larissa A; Abhyankar, Avinash; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Salem, Sandra; Radovanovic, Irena; Grant, Audrey V; Adimi, Parisa; Mansouri, Nahal; Okada, Satoshi; Bryant, Vanessa L; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Kreins, Alexandra; Velez, Marcela Moncada; Boisson, Bertrand; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Ozcelik, Ugur; Darazam, Ilad Alavi; Schoggins, John W; Rice, Charles M; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Behr, Marcel; Vogt, Guillaume; Puel, Anne; Bustamante, Jacinta; Gros, Philippe; Huibregtse, Jon M; Abel, Laurent; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2012-09-28

    ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-α/β-inducible, ubiquitin-like intracellular protein. Its conjugation to various proteins (ISGylation) contributes to antiviral immunity in mice. Here, we describe human patients with inherited ISG15 deficiency and mycobacterial, but not viral, diseases. The lack of intracellular ISG15 production and protein ISGylation was not associated with cellular susceptibility to any viruses that we tested, consistent with the lack of viral diseases in these patients. By contrast, the lack of mycobacterium-induced ISG15 secretion by leukocytes-granulocyte, in particular-reduced the production of IFN-γ by lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, probably accounting for the enhanced susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. This experiment of nature shows that human ISGylation is largely redundant for antiviral immunity, but that ISG15 plays an essential role as an IFN-γ-inducing secreted molecule for optimal antimycobacterial immunity.

  8. Mycobacterial disease and impaired IFN-γ immunity in humans with inherited ISG15 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bogunovic, Dusan; Byun, Minji; Durfee, Larissa A.; Abhyankar, Avinash; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Salem, Sandra; Radovanovic, Irena; Grant, Audrey V.; Adimi, Parisa; Mansouri, Nahal; Okada, Satoshi; Bryant, Vanessa L.; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Kreins, Alexandra; Velez, Marcela Moncada; Boisson, Bertrand; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Ozcelik, Ugur; Darazam, Ilad Alavi; Schoggins, John W.; Rice, Charles M.; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Behr, Marcel; Vogt, Guillaume; Puel, Anne; Bustamante, Jacinta; Gros, Philippe; Huibregtse, Jon M.; Abel, Laurent; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-α/β-inducible, ubiquitin-like intracellular protein. Its conjugation to various proteins (ISGylation) contributes to antiviral immunity in mice. We describe human patients with inherited ISG15 deficiency and mycobacterial, but not viral diseases. The lack of intracellular ISG15 production and protein ISGylation was not associated with cellular susceptibility to any viruses tested, consistent with the lack of viral diseases in these patients. By contrast, the lack of mycobacterium-induced ISG15 secretion by leukocytes — granulocytes in particular — reduced the production of IFN-γ by lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, probably accounting for the enhanced susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. This experiment of Nature shows that human ISGylation is largely redundant for antiviral immunity, but that ISG15 plays an essential role as an IFN-γ-inducing secreted molecule for optimal antimycobacterial immunity. PMID:22859821

  9. Myeloid PTEN deficiency impairs tumor-immune surveillance via immune-checkpoint inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kuttke, M.; Sahin, E.; Pisoni, J.; Percig, S.; Vogel, A.; Kraemmer, D.; Hanzl, L.; Brunner, J. S.; Paar, H.; Soukup, K.; Halfmann, A.; Dohnal, A. M.; Steiner, C. W.; Blüml, S.; Basilio, J.; Hochreiter, B.; Salzmann, M.; Hoesel, B.; Lametschwandtner, G.; Eferl, R.; Schmid, J. A.; Schabbauer, G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor–host interaction is determined by constant immune surveillance, characterized by tumor infiltration of myeloid and lymphoid cells. A malfunctioning or diverted immune response promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Recent advances had been made, by treating of certain tumor types, such as melanoma, with T-cell checkpoint inhibitors. This highlights the importance of understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between tumors and their environment, in particular myeloid and lymphoid cells. Our aim was to study the contribution of the myeloid PI3K/PTEN-signaling pathway in the regulation of tumor-immune surveillance in murine models of cancer. We made use of conditional PTEN-deficient mice, which exhibit sustained activation of the PI3K-signaling axis in a variety of myeloid cell subsets such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). In colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC), mice deficient in myeloid PTEN showed a markedly higher tumor burden and decreased survival. We attributed this observation to the increased presence of immune-modulatory conventional CD8α+ DCs in the spleen, whereas other relevant myeloid cell subsets were largely unaffected. Notably, we detected enhanced surface expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on these DCs. As a consequence, tumoricidal T-cell responses were hampered or redirected. Taken together, our findings indicated an unanticipated role for the PI3K/PTEN-signaling axis in the functional regulation of splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Our data pointed at potential, indirect, tumoricidal effects of subclass-specific PI3K inhibitors, which are currently under clinical investigation for treatment of tumors, via myeloid cell activation. PMID:27622019

  10. Leptin deficiency in rats results in hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Anna M; Asadi, Ali; Johnson, James D; Covey, Scott D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has well-established anorexigenic effects but is also able to regulate glucose homeostasis independent of body weight. Until recently, the ob/ob mouse was the only animal model of global leptin deficiency. Here we report the effects of leptin deficiency on glucose homeostasis in male and female leptin knockout (KO) rats. Leptin KO rats developed obesity by 6 to 7 weeks of age, and lipid mass was increased by more than 2-fold compared with that of wild-type (WT) littermates at 18 weeks of age. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were evident in both males and females and were sustained with aging. Male KO rats experienced transient mild fasting hyperglycemia between 14 and 25 weeks of age, but thereafter fasting glucose levels were comparable to those of WT littermates up to 36 weeks of age. Fasting glucose levels of female KO rats were similar to those of WT littermates. Male KO rats exhibited a 3-fold increase in the proportion of β-cell area relative to total pancreas at 36 weeks of age. Islets from 12-week-old KO rats secreted more insulin when stimulated than islets from WT littermates. Leptin replacement via miniosmotic pump (100 μg/d) reduced food intake, attenuated weight gain, normalized glucose tolerance, and improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Together, these data demonstrate that the absence of leptin in rats recapitulates some of the phenotype previously observed in ob/ob mice including development of hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and insulin resistance.

  11. Impaired dental cytodifferentiation in glial cell-line derived growth factor (GDNF) deficient mice.

    PubMed

    de Vicente, J C; Cabo, R; Ciriaco, E; Laurà, R; Naves, F J; Silos-Santiago, I; Vega, J A

    2002-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor promotes the survival of multiple neuron types in the central and peripheral nervous system. Moreover, it plays a key role in the development of the enteric nervous system and in the kidney organogenesis. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and their receptors are expressed in the developing tooth as well as in the trigeminal ganglion. However, the precise role of this growth factor in tooth morphogenesis and cell differentiation, or in the development of trigeminal ganglion cells, is still elusive. Using structural and ultrastructural techniques we analyzed in detail the first molar tooth germ of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor deficient mice as well as the neuronal density in trigeminal ganglion. The length and width of first molar tooth germ in knockout deficient animals showed no differences in the knockout animals in comparison with age-matched heterozygous or wild-type littermates. Nevertheless, in mice lacking glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, both ameloblasts and odontoblasts failed to fully develop and differentiate, and the enamel matrix and predentin layers were absent. On the other hand, the number of trigeminal sensory neurons and the structure of the nerves supplying first molar tooth germ were largely normal. Present results suggest a new non-neuronal role for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in tooth development. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor seems not to be involved in tooth initiation and morphogenesis, whereas it seems essential for cytodifferentiation. Conversely, neither development of trigeminal neuron nor nerve fibers supplying teeth are directly dependent on glial cell line-derived neutrophic factor.

  12. Moderate zinc deficiency reduces testicular Zip6 and Zip10 abundance and impairs spermatogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Croxford, Thomas P; McCormick, Nicholas H; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2011-03-01

    Male infertility accounts for ~40% of cases of failure to conceive. Testes have a strict zinc (Zn) requirement and severe Zn deficiency compromises spermatogenesis, sperm viability, and motility, compromising fertility in men. Despite the high prevalence of marginal Zn deficiency in humans, less emphasis has been placed on understanding the consequences on male reproduction. Swiss Webster mice were used to visualize Zip protein expression during spermatogenesis using immunohistochemistry. Data suggest Zip5 imports Zn into Sertoli cells and spermatocytes, augmented by Zip10 (primary spermatocytes) and Zip8 (secondary spermatocytes). Zip6, 8, and 10 expression was retained in round spermatids, although Zip8 and Zip10 expression disappears during spermatid maturation. Zip1 and Zip6 expression was detected in mature, elongated spermatids. Zip14 was detected in undifferentiated spermatogonia and Leydig cells. Mice fed diets (n = 10/group) reduced in Zn concentration [marginal-Zn diet (MZD), 10 mg Zn/kg; low-Zn diet (ZD), 7 mg Zn/kg] for 30 d had >35% lower liver Zn concentrations than mice fed the control diet (C; 30 mg Zn/kg) (P < 0.05). Plasma Zn and testosterone concentrations and the testes Zn concentration and weight were not significantly lower than in controls. Plasma Zn was greater in the ZD group than in the C and MZD groups. Mice fed ZD had a reduced number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells (~50%; P < 0.05), compromised seminiferous tubule structure, and reduced Zip10 and Zip6 abundance (>50%; P < 0.5) compared with mice fed C. Our data provide compelling evidence that reduced Zn intake may be associated with infertility in men, perhaps independent of decreased levels of circulating Zn or testosterone, which warrants further investigation in human populations.

  13. TLR3 deficiency impairs spinal cord synaptic transmission, central sensitization, and pruritus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Berta, Temugin; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Chul-Kyu; Zhang, Ling; Lü, Ning; Liu, Qin; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yong-Jing; Liu, Yen-Chin; Ma, Qiufu; Dong, Xinzhong; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Itch, also known as pruritus, is a common, intractable symptom of several skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and xerosis. TLRs mediate innate immunity and regulate neuropathic pain, but their roles in pruritus are elusive. Here, we report that scratching behaviors induced by histamine-dependent and -independent pruritogens are markedly reduced in mice lacking the Tlr3 gene. TLR3 is expressed mainly by small-sized primary sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) that coexpress the itch signaling pathway components transient receptor potential subtype V1 and gastrin-releasing peptide. Notably, we found that treatment with a TLR3 agonist induces inward currents and action potentials in DRG neurons and elicited scratching in WT mice but not Tlr3–/– mice. Furthermore, excitatory synaptic transmission in spinal cord slices and long-term potentiation in the intact spinal cord were impaired in Tlr3–/– mice but not Tlr7–/– mice. Consequently, central sensitization–driven pain hypersensitivity, but not acute pain, was impaired in Tlr3–/– mice. In addition, TLR3 knockdown in DRGs also attenuated pruritus in WT mice. Finally, chronic itch in a dry skin condition was substantially reduced in Tlr3–/– mice. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of TLR3 in regulating sensory neuronal excitability, spinal cord synaptic transmission, and central sensitization. TLR3 may serve as a new target for developing anti-itch treatment. PMID:22565312

  14. TLR3 deficiency impairs spinal cord synaptic transmission, central sensitization, and pruritus in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Berta, Temugin; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Chul-Kyu; Zhang, Ling; Lü, Ning; Liu, Qin; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yong-Jing; Liu, Yen-Chin; Ma, Qiufu; Dong, Xinzhong; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2012-06-01

    Itch, also known as pruritus, is a common, intractable symptom of several skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and xerosis. TLRs mediate innate immunity and regulate neuropathic pain, but their roles in pruritus are elusive. Here, we report that scratching behaviors induced by histamine-dependent and -independent pruritogens are markedly reduced in mice lacking the Tlr3 gene. TLR3 is expressed mainly by small-sized primary sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) that coexpress the itch signaling pathway components transient receptor potential subtype V1 and gastrin-releasing peptide. Notably, we found that treatment with a TLR3 agonist induces inward currents and action potentials in DRG neurons and elicited scratching in WT mice but not Tlr3(-/-) mice. Furthermore, excitatory synaptic transmission in spinal cord slices and long-term potentiation in the intact spinal cord were impaired in Tlr3(-/-) mice but not Tlr7(-/-) mice. Consequently, central sensitization-driven pain hypersensitivity, but not acute pain, was impaired in Tlr3(-/-) mice. In addition, TLR3 knockdown in DRGs also attenuated pruritus in WT mice. Finally, chronic itch in a dry skin condition was substantially reduced in Tlr3(-/-) mice. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of TLR3 in regulating sensory neuronal excitability, spinal cord synaptic transmission, and central sensitization. TLR3 may serve as a new target for developing anti-itch treatment.

  15. IRS-2 Deficiency Impairs NMDA Receptor-Dependent Long-term Potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Eduardo D.; Sánchez-Perez, Ana; Trejo, José Luis; Martin-Aldana, Juan Antonio; Cano Jaimez, Marife; Pons, Sebastián; Acosta Umanzor, Carlos; Menes, Lorena; White, Morris F.

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I on cognition have been documented in humans and animal models. Conversely, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and diabetes increase the risk for neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms by which insulin regulates synaptic plasticity are not well understood. Here, we report that complete disruption of insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) in mice impairs long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Basal synaptic transmission and paired-pulse facilitation were similar between the 2 groups of mice. Induction of LTP by high-frequency conditioning tetanus did not activate postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in hippocampus slices from Irs2−/− mice, although the expression of NR2A, NR2B, and PSD95 was equivalent to wild-type controls. Activation of Fyn, AKT, and MAPK in response to tetanus stimulation was defective in Irs2−/− mice. Interestingly, IRS2 was phosphorylated during induction of LTP in control mice, revealing a potential new component of the signaling machinery which modulates synaptic plasticity. Given that IRS2 expression is diminished in Type 2 diabetics as well as in AD patients, these data may reveal an explanation for the prevalence of cognitive decline in humans with metabolic disorders by providing a mechanistic link between insulin resistance and impaired synaptic transmission. PMID:21955917

  16. Cortical Structure Alterations and Social Behavior Impairment in p50-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Sara Anna; Mastinu, Andrea; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Mitola, Stefania; Premoli, Marika; La Rosa, Luca Rosario; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Memo, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in genes that regulate neurodevelopment can lead to cortical malformations, resulting in malfunction during postnatal life. The NF-κB pathway has a key role during neurodevelopment by regulating the maintenance of the neural progenitor cell pool and inhibiting neuronal differentiation. In this study, we evaluated whether mice lacking the NF-κB p50 subunit (KO) present alterations in cortical structure and associated behavioral impairment. We found that, compared with wild type (WT), KO mice at postnatal day 2 present an increase in radial glial cells, an increase in Reelin protein expression levels, in addition to an increase of specific layer thickness. Moreover, adult KO mice display abnormal columnar organization in the somatosensory cortex, a specific decrease in somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, altered neurite orientation, and a decrease in Synapsin I protein levels. Concerning behavior, KO mice, in addition to an increase in locomotor and exploratory activity, display impairment in social behaviors, with a reduction in social interaction. Finally, we found that risperidone treatment decreased hyperactivity of KO mice, but had no effect on defective social interaction. Altogether, these data add complexity to a growing body of data, suggesting a link between dysregulation of the NF-κB pathway and neurodevelopmental disorders pathogenesis.

  17. Cortical Structure Alterations and Social Behavior Impairment in p50-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Sara Anna; Mastinu, Andrea; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Mitola, Stefania; Premoli, Marika; La Rosa, Luca Rosario; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Memo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in genes that regulate neurodevelopment can lead to cortical malformations, resulting in malfunction during postnatal life. The NF-κB pathway has a key role during neurodevelopment by regulating the maintenance of the neural progenitor cell pool and inhibiting neuronal differentiation. In this study, we evaluated whether mice lacking the NF-κB p50 subunit (KO) present alterations in cortical structure and associated behavioral impairment. We found that, compared with wild type (WT), KO mice at postnatal day 2 present an increase in radial glial cells, an increase in Reelin protein expression levels, in addition to an increase of specific layer thickness. Moreover, adult KO mice display abnormal columnar organization in the somatosensory cortex, a specific decrease in somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, altered neurite orientation, and a decrease in Synapsin I protein levels. Concerning behavior, KO mice, in addition to an increase in locomotor and exploratory activity, display impairment in social behaviors, with a reduction in social interaction. Finally, we found that risperidone treatment decreased hyperactivity of KO mice, but had no effect on defective social interaction. Altogether, these data add complexity to a growing body of data, suggesting a link between dysregulation of the NF-κB pathway and neurodevelopmental disorders pathogenesis. PMID:26946128

  18. Impaired Cardiac Contractility Response to Hemodynamic Stress in S100A1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiao-Jun; Cole, Timothy J.; Tenis, Nora; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Köntgen, Frank; Kemp, Bruce E.; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Ca2+ signaling plays a central role in cardiac contractility and adaptation to increased hemodynamic demand. We have generated mice with a targeted deletion of the S100A1 gene coding for the major cardiac isoform of the large multigenic S100 family of EF hand Ca2+-binding proteins. S100A1−/− mice have normal cardiac function under baseline conditions but have significantly reduced contraction rate and relaxation rate responses to β-adrenergic stimulation that are associated with a reduced Ca2+ sensitivity. In S100A1−/− mice, basal left-ventricular contractility deteriorated following 3-week pressure overload by thoracic aorta constriction despite a normal adaptive hypertrophy. Surprisingly, heterozygotes also had an impaired response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation but maintained normal contractility in response to chronic pressure overload that coincided with S100A1 upregulation to wild-type levels. In contrast to other genetic models with impaired cardiac contractility, loss of S100A1 did not lead to cardiac hypertrophy or dilation in aged mice. The data demonstrate that high S100A1 protein levels are essential for the cardiac reserve and adaptation to acute and chronic hemodynamic stress in vivo. PMID:11909974

  19. Impaired cardiac contractility response to hemodynamic stress in S100A1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Jun; Cole, Timothy J; Tenis, Nora; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Köntgen, Frank; Kemp, Bruce E; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2002-04-01

    Ca(2+) signaling plays a central role in cardiac contractility and adaptation to increased hemodynamic demand. We have generated mice with a targeted deletion of the S100A1 gene coding for the major cardiac isoform of the large multigenic S100 family of EF hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins. S100A1(-/-) mice have normal cardiac function under baseline conditions but have significantly reduced contraction rate and relaxation rate responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation that are associated with a reduced Ca(2+) sensitivity. In S100A1(-/-) mice, basal left-ventricular contractility deteriorated following 3-week pressure overload by thoracic aorta constriction despite a normal adaptive hypertrophy. Surprisingly, heterozygotes also had an impaired response to acute beta-adrenergic stimulation but maintained normal contractility in response to chronic pressure overload that coincided with S100A1 upregulation to wild-type levels. In contrast to other genetic models with impaired cardiac contractility, loss of S100A1 did not lead to cardiac hypertrophy or dilation in aged mice. The data demonstrate that high S100A1 protein levels are essential for the cardiac reserve and adaptation to acute and chronic hemodynamic stress in vivo.

  20. Mitochondria in peroxisome-deficient hepatocytes exhibit impaired respiration, depleted DNA, and PGC-1α independent proliferation.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Annelies; Shinde, Abhijit Babaji; Dirkx, Ruud; Smet, Joél; De Bock, Katrien; Espeel, Marc; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Vanlander, Arnaud; Van Coster, Rudy; Carmeliet, Peter; Fransen, Marc; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Baes, Myriam

    2015-02-01

    The tight interrelationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria is illustrated by their cooperation in lipid metabolism, antiviral innate immunity and shared use of proteins executing organellar fission. In addition, we previously reported that disruption of peroxisome biogenesis in hepatocytes severely impacts on mitochondrial integrity, primarily damaging the inner membrane. Here we investigated the molecular impairments of the dysfunctional mitochondria in hepatocyte selective Pex5 knockout mice. First, by using blue native electrophoresis and in-gel activity stainings we showed that the respiratory complexes were differentially affected with reduction of complexes I and III and incomplete assembly of complex V, whereas complexes II and IV were normally active. This resulted in impaired oxygen consumption in cultured Pex5(-/-) hepatocytes. Second, mitochondrial DNA was depleted causing an imbalance in the expression of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. Third, mitochondrial membranes showed increased permeability and fluidity despite reduced content of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. Fourth, the affected mitochondria in peroxisome deficient hepatocytes displayed increased oxidative stress. Acute deletion of PEX5 in vivo using adeno-Cre virus phenocopied these effects, indicating that mitochondrial perturbations closely follow the loss of functional peroxisomes in time. Likely to compensate for the functional impairments, the volume of the mitochondrial compartment was increased several folds. This was not driven by PGC-1α but mediated by activation of PPARα, possibly through c-myc overexpression. In conclusion, loss of peroxisomal metabolism in hepatocytes perturbs the mitochondrial inner membrane, depletes mitochondrial DNA and causes mitochondrial biogenesis independent of PGC-1α. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Selhub, Jacob; Morris, Martha Savaria; Jacques, Paul F; Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2009-01-01

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational data are inconclusive. With the use of data from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we evaluated the interaction between high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status [ie, plasma vitamin B-12 < 148 pmol/L or methylmalonic acid (MMA) > 210 nmol/L] with respect to anemia and cognitive impairment. With subjects having both plasma folate ≤ 59 nmol/L and normal vitamin B-12 status as the referent category, odds ratios for the prevalence of anemia compared with normal hemoglobin concentration and impaired compared with unimpaired cognitive function were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.7) and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.9), respectively, for those with low vitamin B-12 status but normal serum folate and 4.9 (95% CI: 2.3, 10.6) and 5.0 (95% CI: 2.7, 9.5), respectively, for those with low vitamin B-12 status and plasma folate >59 nmol/L. Among subjects with low vitamin B-12 status, mean circulating vitamin B-12 was 228 pmol/L for the normal-folate subgroup and 354 pmol/L for the high-folate subgroup. We subsequently showed increases in circulating homocysteine and MMA concentrations with increasing serum folate among NHANES participants with serum vitamin B-12 < 148 pmol/L, whereas the opposite trends occurred among subjects with serum vitamin B-12 ≥ 148 pmol/L. These interactions, which were not seen in NHANES III before fortification, imply that, in vitamin B-12 deficiency, high folate status is associated with impaired activity of the 2 vitamin B-12–dependent enzymes, methionine synthase and MMA–coenzyme A mutase. PMID:19141696

  2. TNF-α promotes cerebral pericyte remodeling in vitro, via a switch from α1 to α2 integrins.

    PubMed

    Tigges, Ulrich; Boroujerdi, Amin; Welser-Alves, Jennifer V; Milner, Richard

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that pericytes play a crucial role in regulating the remodeling state of blood vessels. As cerebral pericytes are embedded within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the vascular basal lamina, it is important to understand how individual ECM components influence pericyte remodeling behavior, and how cytokines regulate these events. The influence of different vascular ECM substrates on cerebral pericyte behavior was examined in assays of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Pericyte expression of integrin receptors was examined by flow cytometry. The influence of cytokines on pericyte functions and integrin expression was also examined, and the role of specific integrins in mediating these effects was defined by function-blocking antibodies. Expression of pericyte integrins within remodeling cerebral blood vessels was analyzed using dual immunofluorescence (IF) of brain sections derived from the animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Fibronectin and collagen I promoted pericyte proliferation and migration, but heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) had an inhibitory influence on pericyte behavior. Flow cytometry showed that cerebral pericytes express high levels of α5 integrin, and lower levels of α1, α2, and α6 integrins. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α strongly promoted pericyte proliferation and migration, and concomitantly induced a switch in pericyte integrins, from α1 to α2 integrin, the opposite to the switch seen when pericytes differentiated. Inhibition studies showed that α2 integrin mediates pericyte adhesion to collagens, and significantly, function blockade of α2 integrin abrogated the pro-modeling influence of TNF-α. Dual-IF on brain tissue with the pericyte marker NG2 showed that while α1 integrin was expressed by pericytes in both stable and remodeling vessels, pericyte expression of α2 integrin was strongly induced in

  3. Human TRAF3 adaptor molecule deficiency leads to impaired Toll-like receptor 3 response and susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    de Diego, Rebeca Pérez; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Puel, Anne; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Picard, Capucine; Herman, Melina; Cardon, Annabelle; Durandy, Anne; Bustamante, Jacinta; Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Bravo, Jerónimo; Warnatz, Klaus; Chaix, Yves; Cascarrigny, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Karin, Michael; Tardieu, Marc; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) functions downstream of multiple receptors that induce interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN–β and IFN-λ production, including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is deficient in some patients with herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis (HSE). Mice lacking TRAF3 die in the neonatal period, preventing direct investigation of the role of TRAF3 in immune responses and host defenses in vivo. Here we reported the autosomal dominant, human TRAF3 deficiency in a young adult with a history of HSE in childhood. The TRAF3 mutant allele was a loss-of-expression, loss-of-function, dominant-negative phenotype, and was associated with impaired, but not abolished TRAF3-dependent responses upon stimulation of both TNF receptors and receptors that induce IFN production. TRAF3 deficiency was associated with a clinical phenotype limited to HSE resulting from the impairment of TLR3-dependent induction of IFN. Thus, TLR3-mediated immunity against primary infection by HSV-1 in the central nervous system is critically dependent on TRAF3. Highlight sentence Autosomal dominant TRAF3 deficiency is a genetic etiology of herpes simplex encephalitis. Highlight sentence R118W TRAF3 allele is loss-of-function, loss-of-expression, and dominant-negative. Highlight sentence Human TRAF3 deficiency impairs the TLR3-dependent induction of anti-viral interferons. PMID:20832341

  4. Impaired splenic function and tuftsin deficiency in patients with intestinal failure on long term intravenous nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Zoli, G; Corazza, G; Wood, S; Bartoli, R; Gasbarrini, G; Farthing, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—Reticuloendothelial system function is impaired in humans receiving lipid regimens. 
Aims—To evaluate the effects of long term administration of long chain triglyceride emulsions on reticuloendothelial system function. 
Methods—Splenic function and tuftsin activity were measured in 20 patients on intravenous nutrition for intestinal failure, 20 patients with Crohn's disease who were not receiving intravenous nutrition, and 50 healthy controls. 
Results—Pitted red cells counts in patients on intravenous nutrition (8.0%) were significantly higher (p<0.001) than in healthy controls (0.6%) and in patients with Crohn's disease (0.9%). No difference was found between healthy controls and patients with Crohn's disease. There was a correlation (r=0.50; p<0.03) between percentage of pitted red cells and duration of intravenous nutrition. Tuftsin activity was significantly reduced in the intravenous nutrition patient group (6%) compared with both disease controls (16.5%, p<0.01) and healthy volunteers (17.8%, p<0.001) . An inverse correlation between tuftsin activity and pitted red cell percentage was found in the patients on intravenous nutrition (rs =−0.44, p<0.05). No relation was found in the patients on intravenous nutrition between pitted red cell percentage or tuftsin activity and type of disease, percentage of ideal body weight, residual length of small intestine, or administration (quantity and frequency) of lipid emulsion. Eight patients on intravenous nutrition had serious infections within the previous 12months. 
Conclusions—Patients with a short bowel treated with long term intravenous nutrition have impaired splenic function, reduced tuftsin activity, and an increased risk of infection. 

 Keywords: splenic function; hyposplenism; tuftsin; home parenteral nutrition; short bowel syndrome PMID:9824601

  5. Impaired erectile function in CD73-deficient mice with reduced endogenous penile adenosine production.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiaming; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Zhang, Weiru; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2011-08-01

    Adenosine has been implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection. However, a direct role of endogenous adenosine in erectile physiology and pathology has not been established. To determine the functional role of endogenous adenosine production in erectile function. CD73-deficient mice (CD73(-/-)) and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were used. Some WT mice were treated with alpha, beta-methylene adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (APCP), a CD73-specific inhibitor. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure adenosine levels in mouse penile tissues. In vivo assessment of intracorporal pressure (ICP) normalized to mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to electrical stimulation (ES) of the cavernous nerve was used. The main outcome measures of this study were the in vivo assessment of initiation and maintenance of penile erection in WT mice and mice with deficiency in CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase), a key cell-surface enzyme to produce extracellular adenosine. Endogenous adenosine levels were elevated in the erected state induced by ES of cavernous nerve compared to the flaccid state in WT mice but not in CD73(-/-) mice. At cellular levels, we identified that CD73 was highly expressed in the neuronal, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in mouse penis. Functionally, we found that the ratio of ES-induced ICP to MAP in CD73(-/-) mice was reduced from 0.48 ± 0.03 to 0.33 ± 0.05 and ES-induced slope was reduced from 0.30 ± 0.13 mm Hg/s to 0.15 ± 0.05 mm Hg/s (both P < 0.05). The ratio of ES-induced ICP to MAP in APCP-treated WT mice was reduced from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.06 and ES-induced slope was reduced from 0.29 ± 0.11 mm Hg/s to 0.19 ± 0.04 mm Hg/s (both P < 0.05). Overall, our findings demonstrate that CD73-dependent production of endogenous adenosine plays a direct role in initiation and maintenance of penile erection. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Impaired Erectile Function in CD73-deficient Mice with Reduced Endogenous Penile Adenosine Production

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiaming; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Zhang, Weiru; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Adenosine has been implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection. However, a direct role of endogenous adenosine in erectile physiology and pathology has not been established. Aim To determine the functional role of endogenous adenosine production in erectile function. Methods CD73-deficient mice (CD73−/−) and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were used. Some WT mice were treated with alpha, beta-methylene adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (APCP), a CD73-specific inhibitor. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure adenosine levels in mouse penile tissues. In vivo assessment of intracorporal pressure (ICP) normalized to mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to electrical stimulation (ES) of the cavernous nerve was used. Main Outcome Measurement The main outcome measures of this study were the in vivo assessment of initiation and maintenance of penile erection in WT mice and mice with deficiency in CD73 (ecto-5′-nucleotidase), a key cell-surface enzyme to produce extracellular adenosine. Results Endogenous adenosine levels were elevated in the erected state induced by ES of cavernous nerve compared to the flaccid state in WT mice but not in CD73−/− mice. At cellular levels, we identified that CD73 was highly expressed in the neuronal, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in mouse penis. Functionally, we found that the ratio of ES-induced ICP to MAP in CD73−/− mice was reduced from 0.48 ± 0.03 to 0.33 ± 0.05 and ES-induced slope was reduced from 0.30 ± 0.13 mm Hg/s to 0.15 ± 0.05 mm Hg/s (both P < 0.05). The ratio of ES-induced ICP to MAP in APCP-treated WT mice was reduced from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.06 and ES-induced slope was reduced from 0.29 ± 0.11 mm Hg/s to 0.19 ± 0.04 mm Hg/s (both P < 0.05). Conclusion Overall, our findings demonstrate that CD73-dependent production of endogenous adenosine plays a direct role in initiation and maintenance of penile erection. PMID:21595838

  7. Targeting vascular pericytes in hypoxic tumors increases lung metastasis via angiopoietin-2

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Doruk; Kim, Jiha; Cooke, Vesselina G.; Wu, Chia-Chin; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Gu, Chenghua; De Palma, Michele; Kalluri, Raghu; LeBleu, Valerie S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Strategies to target angiogenesis include inhibition of the vessel-stabilizing properties of vascular pericytes. Pericyte depletion in early-stage non-hypoxic tumors suppressed nascent angiogenesis, tumor growth and lung metastasis. In contrast, pericyte depletion in advanced-stage hypoxic tumors with pre-established vasculature resulted in enhanced intra-tumoral hypoxia, decreased tumor growth and increased lung metastasis. Further, depletion of pericytes in post-natal retinal blood vessels resulted in abnormal and leaky vasculature. Tumor transcriptome profiling and biological validation revealed that angiopoietin signaling is a key regulatory pathway associated with pericyte targeting. Indeed, pericyte targeting in established mouse tumors increased angiopoietin-2 (ANG2/Angpt2) expression. Depletion of pericytes, coupled with targeting of ANG2 signaling, restored vascular stability in multiple model systems and decreased tumor growth and metastasis. Importantly, ANGPT2 expression correlated with poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. These results emphasize the potential utility of therapeutic regimens that target pericytes and ANG2 signaling in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25704811

  8. NG2 PROTEOGLYCAN-DEPENDENT CONTRIBUTIONS OF PERICYTES AND MACROPHAGES TO BRAIN TUMOR VASCULARIZATION AND PROGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Stallcup, William B.; You, Weon-Kyoo; Kucharova, Karolina; Cejudo-Martin, Pilar; Yotsumoto, Fusanori

    2015-01-01

    The NG2 proteoglycan promotes tumor growth as a component of both tumor and stromal cells. Using intracranial, NG2-negative B16F10 melanomas, we have investigated the importance of pericyte and macrophage NG2 in brain tumor progression. Reduced melanoma growth in myeloid-specific NG2 null (Mac-NG2ko) and pericyte-specific NG2 null (PC-NG2ko) mice demonstrates the importance of NG2 in both stromal compartments. In each genotype, loss of pericyte-endothelial cell interaction diminishes formation of endothelial junctions and assembly of the basal lamina. Tumor vessels in Mac-NG2ko mice have smaller diameters, reduced patency, and increased leakiness compared to PC-NG2ko mice, thus decreasing tumor blood supply and increasing hypoxia. While reduced pericyte interaction with endothelial cells in PC-NG2ko mice results from loss of pericyte activation of β1 integrin signaling in endothelial cells, reduced pericyte-endothelial cell interaction in Mac-NG2ko mice results from 90% reduced macrophage recruitment. The absence of macrophage-derived signals in Mac-NG2ko mice causes loss of pericyte association with endothelial cells. Reduced macrophage recruitment may be due to diminished activation of integrins in the absence of NG2, causing decreased macrophage interaction with endothelial adhesion molecules that are needed for extravasation. These results reflect the complex interplay that occurs between macrophages, pericytes, and endothelial cells during tumor vascularization. PMID:26465118

  9. Dual role of pericyte α6β1-integrin in tumour blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Gabriela; Lechertier, Tanguy; Papachristodoulou, Alexandros; Muñoz-Félix, José M.; De Arcangelis, Adèle; Baker, Marianne; Serrels, Bryan; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The α6β1-integrin is a major laminin receptor, and formation of a laminin-rich basement membrane is a key feature in tumour blood vessel stabilisation and pericyte recruitment, processes that are important in the growth and maturation of tumour blood vessels. However, the role of pericyte α6β1-integrin in angiogenesis is largely unknown. We developed mice where the α6-integrin subunit is deleted in pericytes and examined tumour angiogenesis and growth. These mice had: (1) reduced pericyte coverage of tumour blood vessels; (2) reduced tumour blood vessel stability; (3) increased blood vessel diameter; (4) enhanced blood vessel leakiness, and (5) abnormal blood vessel basement membrane architecture. Surprisingly, tumour growth, blood vessel density and metastasis were not altered. Analysis of retinas revealed that deletion of pericyte α6-integrin did not affect physiological angiogenesis. At the molecular level, we provide evidence that pericyte α6-integrin controls PDGFRβ expression and AKT–mTOR signalling. Taken together, we show that pericyte α6β1-integrin regulates tumour blood vessels by both controlling PDGFRβ and basement membrane architecture. These data establish a novel dual role for pericyte α6-integrin as modulating the blood vessel phenotype during pathological angiogenesis. PMID:28289267

  10. Type-1 pericytes participate in fibrous tissue deposition in aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-12-01

    In older adults, changes in skeletal muscle composition are associated with increased fibrosis, loss of mass, and decreased force, which can lead to dependency, morbidity, and mortality. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible is essential to sustaining and improving their quality of life. Compared with young mice, aged mice take longer to recover from muscle injury; their tissue fibrosis is more extensive, and regenerated myofibers are smaller. Strong evidence indicates that cells called pericytes, embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries, contribute to the satellite-cell pool and muscle growth. In addition to their role in skeletal muscle repair, after tissue damage, they detach from capillaries and migrate to the interstitial space to participate in fibrosis formation. Here we distinguish two bona fide pericyte subtypes in the skeletal muscle interstitium, type-1 (Nestin-GFP(-)/NG2-DsRed(+)) and type-2 (Nestin-GFP(+)/NG2-DsRed(+)), and characterize their heretofore unknown specific roles in the aging environment. Our in vitro results show that type-1 and type-2 pericytes are either fibrogenic or myogenic, respectively. Transplantation studies in young animals indicate that type-2 pericytes are myogenic, while type-1 pericytes remain in the interstitial space. In older mice, however, the muscular regenerative capacity of type-2 pericytes is limited, and type-1 pericytes produce collagen, contributing to fibrous tissue deposition. We conclude that in injured muscles from aging mice, the pericytes involved in skeletal muscle repair differ from those associated with scar formation.

  11. Type-1 pericytes participate in fibrous tissue deposition in aged skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva

    2013-01-01

    In older adults, changes in skeletal muscle composition are associated with increased fibrosis, loss of mass, and decreased force, which can lead to dependency, morbidity, and mortality. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible is essential to sustaining and improving their quality of life. Compared with young mice, aged mice take longer to recover from muscle injury; their tissue fibrosis is more extensive, and regenerated myofibers are smaller. Strong evidence indicates that cells called pericytes, embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries, contribute to the satellite-cell pool and muscle growth. In addition to their role in skeletal muscle repair, after tissue damage, they detach from capillaries and migrate to the interstitial space to participate in fibrosis formation. Here we distinguish two bona fide pericyte subtypes in the skeletal muscle interstitium, type-1 (Nestin-GFP−/NG2-DsRed+) and type-2 (Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+), and characterize their heretofore unknown specific roles in the aging environment. Our in vitro results show that type-1 and type-2 pericytes are either fibrogenic or myogenic, respectively. Transplantation studies in young animals indicate that type-2 pericytes are myogenic, while type-1 pericytes remain in the interstitial space. In older mice, however, the muscular regenerative capacity of type-2 pericytes is limited, and type-1 pericytes produce collagen, contributing to fibrous tissue deposition. We conclude that in injured muscles from aging mice, the pericytes involved in skeletal muscle repair differ from those associated with scar formation. PMID:24067916

  12. Engineering of a Biomimetic Pericyte-Covered 3D Microvascular Network.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaerim; Chung, Minhwan; Kim, Sudong; Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hun; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes enveloping the endothelium play an important role in the physiology and pathology of microvessels, especially in vessel maturation and stabilization. However, our understanding of fundamental pericyte biology is limited by the lack of a robust in vitro model system that allows researchers to evaluate the interactions among multiple cell types in perfusable blood vessels. The present work describes a microfluidic platform that can be used to investigate interactions between pericytes and endothelial cells (ECs) during the sprouting, growth, and maturation steps of neovessel formation. A mixture of ECs and pericytes was attached to the side of a pre-patterned three dimensional fibrin matrix and allowed to sprout across the matrix. The effects of intact coverage and EC maturation by the pericytes on the perfused EC network were confirmed using a confocal microscope. Compared with EC monoculture conditions, EC-pericyte co-cultured vessels showed a significant reduction in diameter, increased numbers of junctions and branches and decreased permeability. In response to biochemical factors, ECs and pericytes in the platform showed the similar features with previous reports from in vivo experiments, thus reflect various pathophysiological conditions of in vivo microvessels. Taken together, these results support the physiological relevancy of our three-dimensional microfluidic culture system but also that the system can be used to screen drug effect on EC-pericyte biology.

  13. Pericytic mimicry in well-differentiated liposarcoma/atypical lipomatous tumor.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Rao, P Nagesh; Asatrian, Greg; Scott, Michelle A; Nguyen, Vi; Giacomelli, Paulina; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Eilber, Fritz C; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M; James, Aaron W

    2016-08-01

    Pericytes are modified smooth muscle cells that closely enwrap small blood vessels, regulating and supporting the microvasculature through direct endothelial contact. Pericytes demonstrate a distinct immunohistochemical profile, including expression of smooth muscle actin, CD146, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and regulator of G-protein signaling 5. Previously, pericyte-related antigens have been observed to be present among a group of soft tissue tumors with a perivascular growth pattern, including glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Similarly, malignant tumor cells have been shown to have a pericyte-like immunoprofile when present in a perivascular location, seen in malignant melanoma, glioblastoma, and adenocarcinoma. Here, we examine well-differentiated liposarcoma specimens, which showed some element of perivascular areas with the appearance of smooth muscle (n = 7 tumors). Immunohistochemical staining was performed for pericyte antigens, including smooth muscle actin, CD146, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and regulator of G-protein signaling 5. Results showed consistent pericytic marker expression among liposarcoma tumor cells within a perivascular distribution. MDM2 immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization for MDM2 revealed that these perivascular cells were of tumor origin (7/7 tumors), whereas double immunohistochemical detection for CD31/CD146 ruled out an endothelial cell contribution. These findings further support the concept of pericytic mimicry, already established in diverse malignancies, and its presence in well-differentiated liposarcoma. The extent to which pericytic mimicry has prognostic significance in liposarcoma is as yet unknown.

  14. Impaired conditioned fear response and startle reactivity in epinephrine-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Toth, Mate; Ziegler, Michael; Sun, Ping; Gresack, Jodi; Risbrough, Victoria

    2013-02-01

    Norepinephrine and epinephrine signaling is thought to facilitate cognitive processes related to emotional events and heightened arousal; however, the specific role of epinephrine in these processes is less known. To investigate the selective impact of epinephrine on arousal and fear-related memory retrieval, mice unable to synthesize epinephrine (phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase knockout, PNMT-KO) were tested for contextual and cued-fear conditioning. To assess the role of epinephrine in other cognitive and arousal-based behaviors these mice were also tested for acoustic startle, prepulse inhibition, novel object recognition, and open-field activity. Our results show that compared with wild-type mice, PNMT-KO mice showed reduced contextual fear but normal cued fear. Mice exhibited normal memory performance in the short-term version of the novel object recognition task, suggesting that PNMT mice exhibit more selective memory effects on highly emotional and/or long-term memories. Similarly, open-field activity was unaffected by epinephrine deficiency, suggesting that differences in freezing are not related to changes in overall anxiety or exploratory drive. Startle reactivity to acoustic pulses was reduced in PNMT-KO mice, whereas prepulse inhibition was increased. These findings provide further evidence for a selective role of epinephrine in contextual-fear learning and support its potential role in acoustic startle.

  15. Claudin-16 Deficiency Impairs Tight Junction Function in Ameloblasts, Leading to Abnormal Enamel Formation.

    PubMed

    Bardet, Claire; Courson, Frédéric; Wu, Yong; Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Ribes, Sandy; Thumfart, Julia; Yamaguti, Paulo M; Rochefort, Gael Y; Figueres, Marie-Lucile; Breiderhoff, Tilman; Garcia-Castaño, Alejandro; Vallée, Benoit; Le Denmat, Dominique; Baroukh, Brigitte; Guilbert, Thomas; Schmitt, Alain; Massé, Jean-Marc; Bazin, Dominique; Lorenz, Georg; Morawietz, Maria; Hou, Jianghui; Carvalho-Lobato, Patricia; Manzanares, Maria Cristina; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Talmud, Deborah; Demontis, Renato; Neves, Francisco; Zenaty, Delphine; Berdal, Ariane; Kiesow, Andreas; Petzold, Matthias; Menashi, Suzanne; Linglart, Agnes; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Müller, Dominik; Houillier, Pascal; Chaussain, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Claudin-16 protein (CLDN16) is a component of tight junctions (TJ) with a restrictive distribution so far demonstrated mainly in the kidney. Here, we demonstrate the expression of CLDN16 also in the tooth germ and show that claudin-16 gene (CLDN16) mutations result in amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in the 5 studied patients with familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC). To investigate the role of CLDN16 in tooth formation, we studied a murine model of FHHNC and showed that CLDN16 deficiency led to altered secretory ameloblast TJ structure, lowering of extracellular pH in the forming enamel matrix, and abnormal enamel matrix protein processing, resulting in an enamel phenotype closely resembling human AI. This study unravels an association of FHHNC owing to CLDN16 mutations with AI, which is directly related to the loss of function of CLDN16 during amelogenesis. Overall, this study indicates for the first time the importance of a TJ protein in tooth formation and underlines the need to establish a specific dental follow-up for these patients. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Slitrk5 deficiency impairs corticostriatal circuitry and leads to obsessive-compulsive–like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shmelkov, Sergey V; Hormigo, Adília; Jing, Deqiang; Proenca, Catia C; Bath, Kevin G; Milde, Till; Shmelkov, Evgeny; Kushner, Jared S; Baljevic, Muhamed; Dincheva, Iva; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Gale, Nicholas W; Yancopoulos, George D; Ninan, Ipe; Lee, Francis S; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder defined by the presence of obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsive actions, and it often encompasses anxiety and depressive symptoms1,2. Recently, the corticostriatal circuitry has been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD3,4. However, the etiology, pathophysiology and molecular basis of OCD remain unknown. Several studies indicate that the pathogenesis of OCD has a genetic component5–8. Here we demonstrate that loss of a neuron-specific transmembrane protein, SLIT and NTRK-like protein-5 (Slitrk5), leads to OCD-like behaviors in mice, which manifests as excessive self-grooming and increased anxiety-like behaviors, and is alleviated by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Slitrk5−/− mice show selective overactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex, abnormalities in striatal anatomy and cell morphology and alterations in glutamate receptor composition, which contribute to deficient corticostriatal neurotransmission. Thus, our studies identify Slitrk5 as an essential molecule at corticostriatal synapses and provide a new mouse model of OCD-like behaviors. PMID:20418887

  17. DOCK8 deficiency impairs CD8 T cell survival and function in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Katrina L.; Chan, Stephanie S.-Y.; Ma, Cindy S.; Fung, Ivan; Mei, Yan; Yabas, Mehmet; Tan, Andy; Arkwright, Peter D.; Al Suwairi, Wafaa; Lugo Reyes, Saul Oswaldo; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco A.; de la Luz Garcia-Cruz, Maria; Smart, Joanne M.; Picard, Capucine; Okada, Satoshi; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Lambe, Teresa; Cornall, Richard J.; Russell, Sarah; Oliaro, Jane; Tangye, Stuart G.; Bertram, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    In humans, DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome is characterized by severe cutaneous viral infections. Thus, CD8 T cell function may be compromised in the absence of DOCK8. In this study, by analyzing mutant mice and humans, we demonstrate a critical, intrinsic role for DOCK8 in peripheral CD8 T cell survival and function. DOCK8 mutation selectively diminished the abundance of circulating naive CD8 T cells in both species, and in DOCK8-deficient humans, most CD8 T cells displayed an exhausted CD45RA+CCR7− phenotype. Analyses in mice revealed the CD8 T cell abnormalities to be cell autonomous and primarily postthymic. DOCK8 mutant naive CD8 T cells had a shorter lifespan and, upon encounter with antigen on dendritic cells, exhibited poor LFA-1 synaptic polarization and a delay in the first cell division. Although DOCK8 mutant T cells underwent near-normal primary clonal expansion after primary infection with recombinant influenza virus in vivo, they showed greatly reduced memory cell persistence and recall. These findings highlight a key role for DOCK8 in the survival and function of human and mouse CD8 T cells. PMID:22006977

  18. Impaired thyroid hormone status and thermoregulation during cold exposure of zinc-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Hall, C B; Marchello, M J

    1992-08-01

    Forty-five male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were matched by weight into three groups (n = 15). One group was fed ad libitum a semipurified diet containing all essential nutrients and 30 ppm of zinc (control). A second group was fed ad libitum a similar diet but with a deficient zinc intake of less than 1 ppm (ZnD). A third group was pair-fed (PF) the control diet in amounts equal to that consumed by the matched ZnD animals. After 42 days, the animals were fasted for 12 hr then five animals from each group were sacrificed and the remainder was exposed to 3 degrees C for 6 hr. Rectal temperatures were lower (p less than 0.05) in ZnD at 23 degrees C and during cold exposure. Plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were reduced (p less than 0.05) at room temperature in ZnD rats. During cold exposure, the ZnD animals had depressed (p less than 0.05) plasma thyrotropin, T4 and T3 concentrations. Thus, ZnD adversely affects thermoregulatory performance of rats acutely exposed to cold by influencing thyroid hormone metabolism.

  19. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Deficiency Leads to Impaired Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Mantelmacher, Fernanda Dana; Fishman, Sigal; Cohen, Keren; Pasmanik Chor, Metsada; Yamada, Yuichiro; Zvibel, Isabel; Varol, Chen

    2017-04-15

    The bone marrow (BM) contains controlled specialized microenvironments, or niches, that regulate the quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut-derived incretin hormone that mediates postprandial insulin secretion and has anabolic effects on adipose tissue. Previous studies demonstrated altered bone microarchitecture in mice deficient for GIP receptor (Gipr(-/-) ), as well as the expression of high-affinity GIP receptor by distinct cells constructing the BM HSPC niche. Nevertheless, the involvement of GIP in the process of BM hematopoiesis remains elusive. In this article, we show significantly reduced representation and proliferation of HSPC and myeloid progenitors in the BM of Gipr(-/-) mice. This was further manifested by reduced levels of BM and circulating differentiated immune cells in young and old adult mice. Moreover, GIP signaling was required for the establishment of supportive BM HSPC niches during HSPC repopulation in radioablated BM chimera mice. Finally, molecular profiling of various factors involved in retention, survival, and expansion of HSPC revealed significantly lower expression of the Notch-receptor ligands Jagged 1 and Jagged 2 in osteoblast-enriched bone extracts from Gipr(-/-) mice, which are important for HSPC expansion. In addition, there was increased expression of CXCL12, a factor important for HSPC retention and quiescence, in whole-BM extracts from Gipr(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data suggest that the metabolic hormone GIP plays an important role in BM hematopoiesis.

  20. Possible involvement of the cerebellum in motor-function impairment in progranulin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuwaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Akira; Mase, Kanade; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-Ichi; Miyoshi, Takahiro; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2015-09-30

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a multifunctional growth factor involved in many physiological and pathological processes in the brain such as sexual differentiation, neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Previously, we showed that PGRN was expressed broadly in the brain and the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum were one of the regions with the highest expression level of PGRN. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the possible roles of PGRN in the cerebellum by comparing wild-type (WT) and PGRN-deficient (KO) mice with immunohistochemical staining for calbindin, a marker of Purkinje cells. The results showed that the density of Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer of the cerebellum was significantly higher in KO mice than in WT mice, although the number of cell bodies was comparable between the genotypes. Subsequently, as the cerebellum is the center of the motor function, we performed a rotarod test and found that KO mice remained on the rotating rod for significantly shorter periods than WT mice. However, KO and WT mice did not differ significantly with respect to the diameter of myofibers in a skeletal muscle. These results suggest that PGRN is involved in the development and/or maturation of neuronal networks comprising Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, which may be a prerequisite to normal motor function.

  1. Granzyme K-deficient mice show no evidence of impaired antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Joeckel, Lars T; Allison, Cody C; Pellegrini, Marc; Bird, Catherina H; Bird, Phillip I

    2017-04-21

    The biological role of granzyme K, a serine protease of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), is controversial. It has been reported to induce perforin-mediated cell death in vitro, but is also reported to be non-cytotoxic and to operate in inflammatory processes. To elucidate the biological role of this protease, we have deleted the granzyme K gene in mice (mutant allele: Gzmk(tm1.1Pib); MGI:5636646). Gzmk (-/-) mice are healthy, anatomically normal, fecund and show normal hematopoietic development. Gzmk (-/-) mice readily recover from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and mouse pox Ectromelia virus infection. Ex vivo, virus-specific granzyme K-deficient CTL are indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice in apoptosis induction of target cells. These data suggest that granzyme K does not play an essential role in viral immunity or cytotoxicity. Our granzyme K knockout line completes the collection of mouse models for the human granzymes, and will further our understanding of their biological roles and relationships.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 23 May 2017; doi:10.1038/icb.2017.35.

  2. Collagenase-2 deficiency or inhibition impairs experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Folgueras, Alicia R; Fueyo, Antonio; García-Suárez, Olivia; Cox, Jennifer; Astudillo, Aurora; Tortorella, Paolo; Campestre, Cristina; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Fanjul-Fernández, Miriam; Pennington, Caroline J; Edwards, Dylan R; Overall, Christopher M; López-Otín, Carlos

    2008-04-04

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including neuroimmunological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. However, the recent finding that some MMPs play paradoxical protective roles in these diseases has made necessary the detailed study of the specific function of each family member in their pathogenesis. To determine the relevance of collagenase-2 (MMP-8) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, we have performed two different analyses involving genetic and biochemical approaches. First, we have analyzed the development of EAE in mutant mouse deficient in MMP-8, with the finding that the absence of this proteolytic enzyme is associated with a marked reduction in the clinical symptoms of EAE. We have also found that MMP-8(-/-) mice exhibit a marked reduction in central nervous system-infiltrating cells and demyelinating lesions. As a second approach, we have carried out a pharmacological inhibition of MMP-8 with a selective inhibitor against this protease (IC(50) = 0.4 nM). These studies have revealed that the administration of the MMP-8 selective inhibitor to mice with EAE also reduces the severity of the disease. Based on these findings, we conclude that MMP-8 plays an important role in EAE development and propose that this enzyme may be a novel therapeutic target in human neuro-inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  3. Folate- and vitamin B12-deficient diet during gestation and lactation alters cerebellar synapsin expression via impaired influence of estrogen nuclear receptor α.

    PubMed

    Pourié, Grégory; Martin, Nicolas; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine; Akchiche, Nassila; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Geoffroy, Andréa; Jeannesson, Elise; El Hajj Chehadeh, Sarah; Mimoun, Khalid; Brachet, Patrick; Koziel, Violette; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Helle, Deborah; Debard, Renée; Leininger, Brigitte; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Deficiency in the methyl donors vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy and postnatal life impairs proper brain development. We studied the consequences of this combined deficiency on cerebellum plasticity in offspring from rat mothers subjected to deficient diet during gestation and lactation and in rat neuroprogenitor cells expressing cerebellum markers. The major proteomic change in cerebellum of 21-d-old deprived females was a 2.2-fold lower expression of synapsins, which was confirmed in neuroprogenitors cultivated in the deficient condition. A pathway analysis suggested that these proteomic changes were related to estrogen receptor α (ER-α)/Src tyrosine kinase. The influence of impaired ER-α pathway was confirmed by abnormal negative geotaxis test at d 19-20 and decreased phsophorylation of synapsins in deprived females treated by ER-α antagonist 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP). This effect was consistent with 2-fold decreased expression and methylation of ER-α and subsequent decreased ER-α/PPAR-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) interaction in deficiency condition. The impaired ER-α pathway led to decreased expression of synapsins through 2-fold decreased EGR-1/Zif-268 transcription factor and to 1.7-fold reduced Src-dependent phosphorylation of synapsins. The treatment of neuroprogenitors with either MPP or PP1 (4-(4'-phenoxyanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, 6,7-dimethoxy-N-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-4-quinazolinamine, SKI-1, Src-l1) Src inhibitor produced similar effects. In conclusion, the deficiency during pregnancy and lactation impairs the expression of synapsins through a deregulation of ER-α pathway. © FASEB.

  4. Inhibition of GSK-3β rescues the impairments in bone formation and mechanical properties associated with fracture healing in osteoblast selective connexin 43 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Alayna E; Lloyd, Shane A J; Paul, Emmanuel M; Lewis, Gregory S; Donahue, Henry J

    2013-01-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in bone and is required for osteoblastic differentiation and bone homeostasis. During fracture healing, Cx43 is abundantly expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while Cx43 deficiency impairs bone formation and healing. In the present study we selectively deleted Cx43 in the osteoblastic lineage from immature osteoblasts through osteocytes and tested the hypothesis that Cx43 deficiency results in delayed osteoblastic differentiation and impaired restoration of biomechanical properties due to attenuated β-catenin expression relative to wild type littermates. Here we show that Cx43 deficiency results in alterations in the mineralization and remodeling phases of healing. In Cx43 deficient fractures the mineralization phase is marked by delayed expression of osteogenic genes. Additionally, the decrease in the RankL/Opg ratio, osteoclast number and osteoclast size suggest decreased osteoclast bone resorption and remodeling. These changes in healing result in functional deficits as shown by a decrease in ultimate torque at failure. Consistent with these impairments in healing, β-catenin expression is attenuated in Cx43 deficient fractures at 14 and 21 days, while Sclerostin (Sost) expression, a negative regulator of bone formation is increased in Cx43cKO fractures at 21 days, as is GSK-3β, a key component of the β-catenin proteasomal degradation complex. Furthermore, we show that alterations in healing in Cx43 deficient fractures can be rescued by inhibiting GSK-3β activity using Lithium Chloride (LiCl). Treatment of Cx43 deficient mice with LiCl restores both normal bone formation and mechanical properties relative to LiCl treated WT fractures. This study suggests that Cx43 is a potential therapeutic target to enhance fracture healing and identifies a previously unknown role for Cx43 in regulating β-catenin expression and thus bone formation during fracture repair.

  5. Adipocyte STAT5 deficiency promotes adiposity and impairs lipid mobilisation in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaltenecker, Doris; Mueller, Kristina M; Benedikt, Pia; Feiler, Ursula; Themanns, Madeleine; Schlederer, Michaela; Kenner, Lukas; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Moriggl, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Dysfunction of lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue can substantially interfere with health and quality of life, for example in obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is important to characterise pathways that regulate lipid handling in adipocytes and determine how they affect metabolic homeostasis. Components of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway are involved in adipocyte physiology and pathophysiology. However, the exact physiological importance of the STAT family member STAT5 in white adipose tissue is yet to be determined. Here, we aimed to delineate adipocyte STAT5 functions in the context of lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. We generated an adipocyte specific knockout of Stat5 in mice using the Adipoq-Cre recombinase transgene followed by in vivo and in vitro biochemical and molecular studies. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Stat5 resulted in increased adiposity, while insulin resistance and gluconeogenic capacity was decreased, indicating that glucose metabolism can be improved by interfering with adipose STAT5 function. Basal lipolysis and fasting-induced lipid mobilisation were diminished upon STAT5 deficiency, which coincided with reduced levels of the rate-limiting lipase of triacylglycerol hydrolysis, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, encoded by Pnpla2) and its coactivator comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58). In a mechanistic analysis, we identified a functional STAT5 response element within the Pnpla2 promoter, indicating that Pnpla2 is transcriptionally regulated by STAT5. Our findings reveal an essential role for STAT5 in maintaining lipid homeostasis in white adipose tissue and provide a rationale for future studies into the potential of STAT5 manipulation to improve outcomes in metabolic diseases.

  6. Brief report: impaired cell reprogramming in nonhomologous end joining deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Molina-Estevez, F Javier; Lozano, M Luz; Navarro, Susana; Torres, Yaima; Grabundzija, Ivana; Ivics, Zoltan; Samper, Enrique; Bueren, Juan A; Guenechea, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Although there is an increasing interest in defining the role of DNA damage response mechanisms in cell reprogramming, the relevance of proteins participating in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), a major mechanism of DNA double-strand breaks repair, in this process remains to be investigated. Herein, we present data related to the reprogramming of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from severe combined immunodeficient (Scid) mice defective in DNA-PKcs, a key protein for NHEJ. Reduced numbers of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies were generated from Scid cells using reprogramming lentiviral vectors (LV), being the reprogramming efficiency fourfold to sevenfold lower than that observed in wt cells. Moreover, these Scid iPSC-like clones were prematurely lost or differentiated spontaneously. While the Scid mutation neither reduce the proliferation rate nor the transduction efficacy of fibroblasts transduced with reprogramming LV, both the expression of SA-β-Gal and of P16/INK(4a) senescence markers were highly increased in Scid versus wt MEFs during the reprogramming process, accounting for the reduced reprogramming efficacy of Scid MEFs. The use of improved Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase systems allowed us, however, to isolate DNA-PKcs-deficient iPSCs which preserved their parental genotype and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. This new disease-specific iPSC model would be useful to understand the physiological consequences of the DNA-PKcs mutation during development and would help to improve current cell and gene therapy strategies for the disease. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Impaired trafficking and subcellular localization of a mutant lactase associated with congenital lactase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Marc; Keiser, Markus; Hoch, Melanie; Naim, Hassan Y

    2009-06-01

    Congenital lactase deficiency (CLD) is a cause of disaccharide intolerance and malabsorption characterized by watery diarrhea in infants fed breast milk or lactose-containing formulas. The molecular basis of CLD is unknown. Mutations in the coding region of the brush border enzyme lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) were found to cause CLD in a study of 19 Finnish families. We analyzed the effects of one of these mutations, G1363S, on LPH folding, trafficking, and function. We introduced a mutation into the LPH complementary DNA that resulted in the amino acid substitution G1363S. The mutant gene was transiently expressed in COS-1 cells, and the effects were assessed at the protein, structural, and subcellular levels. The mutant protein LPH-G1363S was misfolded and could not exit the endoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, the mutation creates an additional N-glycosylation site that is characteristic of a temperature-sensitive protein. The intracellular transport and enzymatic activity, but not correct folding, of LPH-G1363S were partially restored by expression at 20 degrees C. However, a form of LPH that contains the mutations G1363S and N1361A, which eliminates the N-glycosylation site, did not restore the features of wild-type LPH. Thus, the additional glycosyl group is not required for the LPH-G1363S defects. This is the first characterization, at the molecular and subcellular levels, of a mutant form of LPH that is involved in the pathogenesis of CLD. Mutant LPH accumulates predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum but can partially mature at a permissive temperature; these features are unique for a protein involved in a carbohydrate malabsorption defect implicating LPH.

  8. Immunoglobulin Class Switch Recombination Is Impaired in Atm-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, Joanne M.; McCarty, Thomas; Petiniot, Lisa K.; Shen, Rhuna; Barlow, Carrolee; Wynn, Thomas A.; Morse, Herbert C.; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Max, Edward E.; Hodes, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (Ig CSR) involves DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) at recombining switch regions and repair of these breaks by nonhomologous end-joining. Because the protein kinase ataxia telengiectasia (AT) mutated (ATM) plays a critical role in DSB repair and AT patients show abnormalities of Ig isotype expression, we assessed the role of ATM in CSR by examining ATM-deficient mice. In response to T cell–dependent antigen (Ag), Atm−/− mice secreted substantially less Ag-specific IgA, IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3, and less total IgE than Atm+/+ controls. To determine whether Atm−/− B cells have an intrinsic defect in their ability to undergo CSR, we analyzed in vitro responses of purified B cells. Atm−/− cells secreted substantially less IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3, and IgE than wild-type (WT) controls in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, CD40 ligand, or anti-IgD plus appropriate cytokines. Molecular analysis of in vitro responses indicated that WT and Atm−/− B cells produced equivalent amounts of germline IgG1 and IgE transcripts, whereas Atm−/− B cells produced markedly reduced productive IgG1 and IgE transcripts. The reduction in isotype switching by Atm−/− B cells occurs at the level of genomic DNA recombination as measured by digestion–circularization PCR. Analysis of sequences at CSR sites indicated that there is greater microhomology at the μ–γ1 switch junctions in ATM B cells than in wild-type B cells, suggesting that ATM function affects the need or preference for sequence homology in the CSR process. These findings suggest a role of ATM in DNA DSB recognition and/or repair during CSR. PMID:15504820

  9. Impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in ageing aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Biljes, Daniel; Hammerschmidt-Kamper, Christiane; Kadow, Stephanie; Diel, Patrick; Weigt, Carmen; Burkart, Volker; Esser, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism are dominant features of the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS) and can increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a severe metabolic disease. T2D prevalence increases with age. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a sensor of small molecules including dietary components. AHR has been identified as potential regulator of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Epidemiologically, exposure to xenobiotic AHR ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is linked to T2D. We assess here the potential role of the AHR in disturbances of glucose and lipid metabolism in young (age 2-5 months) and old (age > 1,5 years) AHR-deficient (AHR KO) mice. Fasted young wildtype (WT) and AHR-KO mice displayed similar blood glucose kinetics after challenge with intra-peritoneal glucose injection. However, old AHR-KO mice showed lower tolerance than WT to i.p. administered glucose, i.e. glucose levels rose higher and returned more slowly to normal levels. Old mice had overall higher insulin levels than young mice, and old AHR-KO had a somewhat disturbed insulin kinetic in the serum after glucose challenge. Surprisingly, young AHR-KO mice had significantly lower triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein values than WT, i.e., a dyslipidemic profile. With ageing, AHR-KO and WT mice did not differ in these lipid levels, except for slightly reduced levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. In conclusion, our findings in AHR KO mice suggest that AHR expression is relevant for the maintenance of glucose and lipid homeostasis in old mice. PMID:26664351

  10. Excessive penile norepinephrine level underlies impaired erectile function in adenosine A1 receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chen; Qi, Lin; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Zhang, Weiru; Wang, Wei; Blackburn, Michael; Kellems, Rodney; Xia, Yang

    2012-10-01

    Penile erection is a complex neurovascular physiological event controlled by multiple factors and signaling pathways. A considerable amount of evidence indicates that adenosine plays a significant role in cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation. However, the specific role of adenosine and its receptors in erectile physiology and pathology is not fully understood. To determine the role of the adenosine A1 receptor (ADORA1) in penile erection. Adenosine A1 receptor deficient (Adora1-/-) mice and aged-matched wild-type (WT) mice were utilized. We evaluated the in vivo erectile function by measuring the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to cavernous nerve stimulation (CNS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the norepinephrine (NE) plasma concentration in the corpus cavernosum and systemic circulation. We also evaluated the myosin light chain phosphorylation (p-MLC) in penile tissue pre- and post-CNS. The main outcome measurement of this research was the evaluation of in vivo erectile response to CNS by measuring the ICP in Adora1-/- mice and WT mice and to identify the localization and specific neuron types of ADORA1 expression by dual immunostaining and immunofluorescence co-localization. In vivo, both the ratio of CNS-induced Maximum ICP to mean arterial pressure and CNS-induced slope in Adora1-/- mice were significantly lower than WT mice. At the cellular level in penile tissue, we determined that ADORA1 was highly abundant in neuronal cells. During penile erection, Adora1-/- mice exhibited a higher level of NE plasma concentration in the penis than WT mice. And WT mice had a significantly greater reduction in p-MLC compared to Adora1-/- mice. Our results show that ADORA1 is enriched on neuron cells where it functions to control NE release. Activation of this receptor during penile erection results in reduced NE release and reduced cavernosal smooth muscle contraction, therefore facilitating penile erection. © 2012 International Society for

  11. Impaired ovarian development and reduced fertility in female mice deficient in Skp2

    PubMed Central

    Fotovati, Abbas; Abu-Ali, Samah; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakayama, Keiichi I

    2011-01-01

    p27 is a major negative regulator of somatic cellular proliferation, and its down-regulation has been shown to be associated with cancer development. Targeted disruption ofp27 results in complete loss of fertility in female mice, suggesting that it plays a significant role in the development of female gametes and the surrounding environment. We have now investigated the effect of loss of Skp2, an F-box protein that mediates ubiquitin-dependent degradation of p27, on female gamete production. The female Skp2-deficient mice showed accumulation of p27 in the ovary and severely compromised gamete development from the embryonic stage to follicular growth in the adult ovary, eventually leading to a decreased functional gamete reserve. Additional deletion of p27 resulted in relatively normal ovarian folliculogenesis, suggesting that accumulating p27 is primarily responsible for the compromised ovarian development. Embryonic ovaries of Skp2−/− mice manifested massive apoptosis as evidenced by cleavage of pro-caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. This in turn resulted in a significant decrease in the remaining pool of functional gametes in Skp2−/− mice shortly after sexual maturity and premature ovarian failure. The increased apoptosis seemed to be attributable to the polyploidy of granulosa cells. These results suggest that proper progression of the cell cycle, regulated by the p27-Skp2 axis, is pivotal for the maintenance of fertility, and that defects in this system may underlie the pathogenesis of abnormal gamete production and premature ovarian failure during the reproductive life of women. PMID:21450015

  12. Preserved otolith organ function in caspase-3 deficient mice with impaired horizontal semicircular canal function

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Patrick A; Wood, Scott J; Shimizu, Naoki; Kuster, Kael; Perachio, Adrian; Makishima, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered mice are valuable models for elucidation of auditory and vestibular pathology. Our goal was to establish a comprehensive vestibular function testing system in mice using: 1) horizontal angular vestibular-ocular reflex (hVOR) to evaluate semicircular canal function, and 2) otolith-ocular reflex (OOR) to evaluate otolith organ function, and to validate the system by characterizing mice with vestibular dysfunction. We used pseudo-off vertical axis rotation (pOVAR) to induce an otolith-only stimulus using a custom-made centrifuge. For the OOR, horizontal slow phase eye velocity (HEV) and vertical eye position (VEP) was evaluated as a function of acceleration. Using this system, we characterized hVOR and OOR in the caspase-3 (Casp3) mutant mice. Casp3 −/− mice had severely impaired hVOR gain, while Casp3 +/− mice had an intermediate response compared to WT mice. Evaluation of OOR revealed that at low to mid frequencies and stimulus intensity, Casp3 mutants and WT mice had similar responses. At higher frequencies and stimulus intensity, the Casp3 mutants displayed mildly reduced otolith organ related responses. These findings suggest that the Casp3 gene is important for the proper function of the semicircular canals but less important for the otolith organ function. PMID:25827332

  13. Evidence of Deficient Central Speech Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: the T-Complex

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Martin, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper examined neurophysiological correlates of speech in children with language impairment (LI) and typical language development (TLD) across four experiments using different speech stimuli and tasks. Method The T-complex event-related potential (ERP) components and other ERP components (e.g., mismatch negativity [MMN]; N400) were examined. A subset of the children participated in more than one of the experiments. Results 73% of the children with LI had poor T-complex measures compared to only 13% of children with TLD. The T-complex measures were more comparable, in terms of indicating typical versus deviant processing, to neurophysiological measures of language processing, such as lexical discrimination, than to other measures of auditory and speech processing, such as the MMN. Only one LI child showed no poor measures and 64% showed three or more poor neurophyisological measures. However, 50% of children with TLD showed no poor neurophysiological measures, and 82% of the TLD children showed no more than two poor measures. Conclusion These results suggest that poor auditory processing, as measured by the T-complex, is a marker for LI and that multiple deficits serve to mark LI. Significance The T-complex measures, indexing secondary auditory cortex, reflect an important aspect of processing in speech and language development. PMID:21147550

  14. Impaired Fear Memory Specificity Associated with Deficient Endocannabinoid-Dependent Long-Term Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Vieira, Philip A; Corches, Alex; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward

    2014-01-01

    In addition to its central role in learning and memory, N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent signaling regulates central glutamatergic synapse maturation and has been implicated in schizophrenia. We have transiently induced NMDAR hypofunction in infant mice during postnatal days 7–11, followed by testing fear memory specificity and presynaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adult mice. We show that transient NMDAR hypofunction during early brain development, coinciding with the maturation of cortical plasticity results in a loss of an endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated form of long-term depression (eCB-LTD) at adult central glutamatergic synapses, while another form of presynaptic long-term depression mediated by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3-LTD) remains intact. Mice with this selective impairment of presynaptic plasticity also showed deficits in fear memory specificity. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic plasticity may represent a neural maladaptation contributing to network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning. PMID:24457285

  15. Impaired fear memory specificity associated with deficient endocannabinoid-dependent long-term plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Vieira, Philip A; Corches, Alex; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward

    2014-06-01

    In addition to its central role in learning and memory, N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent signaling regulates central glutamatergic synapse maturation and has been implicated in schizophrenia. We have transiently induced NMDAR hypofunction in infant mice during postnatal days 7-11, followed by testing fear memory specificity and presynaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adult mice. We show that transient NMDAR hypofunction during early brain development, coinciding with the maturation of cortical plasticity results in a loss of an endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated form of long-term depression (eCB-LTD) at adult central glutamatergic synapses, while another form of presynaptic long-term depression mediated by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3-LTD) remains intact. Mice with this selective impairment of presynaptic plasticity also showed deficits in fear memory specificity. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic plasticity may represent a neural maladaptation contributing to network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning.

  16. Numb deficiency in cerebellar Purkinje cells impairs synaptic expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor and motor coordination

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liang; Yang, Dong; Wang, De-Juan; Xie, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Jia-Huan; Zhou, Lin; Huang, Hao; Han, Shuo; Shao, Chong-Yu; Li, Hua-Shun; Zhu, J. Julius; Qiu, Meng-Sheng; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Shen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Protein Numb, first identified as a cell-fate determinant in Drosophila, has been shown to promote the development of neurites in mammals and to be cotransported with endocytic receptors in clathrin-coated vesicles in vitro. Nevertheless, its function in mature neurons has not yet been elucidated. Here we show that cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) express high levels of Numb during adulthood and that conditional deletion of Numb in PCs is sufficient to impair motor coordination despite maintenance of a normal cerebellar cyto-architecture. Numb proved to be critical for internalization and recycling of metabotropic glutamate 1 receptor (mGlu1) in PCs. A significant decrease of mGlu1 and an inhibition of long-term depression at the parallel fiber–PC synapse were observed in conditional Numb knockout mice. Indeed, the trafficking of mGlu1 induced by agonists was inhibited significantly in these mutants, but the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and of mGlu1-associated proteins was not affected by the loss of Numb. Moreover, transient and persistent forms of mGlu1 plasticity were robustly induced in mutant PCs, suggesting that they do not require mGlu1 trafficking. Together, our data demonstrate that Numb is a regulator for constitutive expression and dynamic transport of mGlu1. PMID:26621723

  17. 3BP2-deficient mice are osteoporotic with impaired osteoblast and osteoclast functions

    PubMed Central

    Levaot, Noam; Simoncic, Paul D.; Dimitriou, Ioannis D.; Scotter, Andrew; La Rose, Jose; Ng, Adeline H.M.; Willett, Thomas L.; Wang, Chiachien J.; Janmohamed, Salima; Grynpas, Marc; Reichenberger, Ernst; Rottapel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A fine balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts maintains bone homeostasis. In patients with cherubism, gain-of-function mutations in 3BP2, which is encoded by SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2), cause cystic lesions with activated osteoclasts that lead to craniofacial abnormalities. However, little is known about the function of wild-type 3BP2 in regulating bone homeostasis. Here we have shown that 3BP2 is required for the normal function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Initial analysis showed that Sh3bp2–/–mice developed osteoporosis as a result of reduced bone formation despite the fact that bone resorption was impaired. We demonstrated using reciprocal bone marrow chimeras, a cell-intrinsic defect of the osteoblast and osteoclast compartments in vivo. Further, Sh3bp2–/– osteoblasts failed to mature and form mineralized nodules in vitro, while Sh3bp2–/– osteoclasts spread poorly and were unable to effectively degrade dentine matrix in vitro. Finally, we showed that 3BP2 was required for Abl activation in osteoblasts and Src activation in osteoclasts, and demonstrated that the in vitro defect of each cell type was restored by the respective expression of activated forms of these kinases. These findings reveal an unanticipated role for the 3BP2 adapter protein in osteoblast function and in coordinating bone homeostatic signals in both osteoclast and osteoblast lineages. PMID:21765218

  18. Impaired novelty acquisition and synaptic plasticity in congenital hyperammonemia caused by hepatic glutamine synthetase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chepkova, Aisa N.; Sergeeva, Olga A.; Görg, Boris; Haas, Helmut L.; Klöcker, Nikolaj; Häussinger, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Genetic defects in ammonia metabolism can produce irreversible damage of the developing CNS causing an impairment of cognitive and motor functions. We investigated alterations in behavior, synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum of transgenic mice with systemic hyperammonemia resulting from conditional knockout of hepatic glutamine synthetase (LGS-ko). These mice showed reduced exploratory activity and delayed habituation to a novel environment. Field potential recordings from LGS-ko brain slices revealed significantly reduced magnitude of electrically-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in both CA3-CA1 hippocampal and corticostriatal synaptic transmission. Corticostriatal but not hippocampal slices from LGS-ko brains demonstrated also significant alterations in long-lasting effects evoked by pharmacological activation of glutamate receptors. Real-time RT-PCR revealed distinct patterns of dysregulated gene expression in the hippocampus and striatum of LGS-ko mice: LGS-ko hippocampus showed significantly modified expression of mRNAs for mGluR1, GluN2B subunit of NMDAR, and A1 adenosine receptors while altered expression of mRNAs for D1 dopamine receptors, the M1 cholinoreceptor and the acetylcholine-synthetizing enzyme choline-acetyltransferase was observed in LGS-ko striatum. Thus, inborn systemic hyperammonemia resulted in significant deficits in novelty acquisition and disturbed synaptic plasticity in corticostriatal and hippocampal pathways involved in learning and goal-directed behavior. PMID:28067279

  19. Acyl-CoA synthetase 1 deficiency alters cardiolipin species and impairs mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Grevengoed, Trisha J.; Martin, Sarah A.; Katunga, Lalage; Cooper, Daniel E.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Murphy, Robert C.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) contributes more than 90% of total cardiac ACSL activity, but its role in phospholipid synthesis has not been determined. Mice with an inducible knockout of ACSL1 (Acsl1T−/−) have impaired cardiac fatty acid oxidation and rely on glucose for ATP production. Because ACSL1 exhibited a strong substrate preference for linoleate, we investigated the composition of heart phospholipids. Acsl1T−/− hearts contained 83% less tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin (CL), the major form present in control hearts. A stable knockdown of ACSL1 in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes resulted in low incorporation of linoleate into CL and in diminished incorporation of palmitate and oleate into other phospholipids. Overexpression of ACSL1 in H9c2 and HEK-293 cells increased incorporation of linoleate into CL and other phospholipids. To determine whether increasing the content of linoleate in CL would improve mitochondrial respiratory function in Acsl1T−/− hearts, control and Acsl1T−/− mice were fed a high-linoleate diet; this diet normalized the amount of tetralinoleoyl-CL but did not improve respiratory function. Thus, ACSL1 is required for the normal composition of several phospholipid species in heart. Although ACSL1 determines the acyl-chain composition of heart CL, a high tetralinoleoyl-CL content may not be required for normal function. PMID:26136511

  20. Hematopoietic not systemic impairment of Roquin expression accounts for intestinal inflammation in Roquin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Nakra, Niyati; Schaefer, Jeremy S.; Klein, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Roquin, an E3 ligase, is involved in curtailing autoimmune pathology as seen from studies using mice with mutated (Rc3h1san/san) or disrupted (Rc3h1gt/gt) Rc3h1 gene. The extent to which intestinal immunopathology is caused by insufficient Roquin expression in the immune system, or by Roquin impairment in non-hematopoietic cells, has not been determined. Using bone marrow cells from Rc3h1gt/gt mice transferred into irradiated normal mice (Rc3h1gt/gt → NL chimeras), we show that inflammation developed in the small intestine, kidney, lung, liver, and spleen. Proinflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs). Inflammation in the liver was accompanied by areas of hepatocyte apoptosis. Lung inflammation consisted of an influx of both T cells and B cells. Small intestinal LPLs had increased numbers of CD44hi, CD62Llo, KLRG1+, ICOS+ short-lived effector cells, indicating an influx of activated T cells. Following oral infection with L. monocytogenes, Rc3h1gt/gt → NL chimeras had more liver pathology and greater numbers of bacteria in the Peyer's patches than NL → NL chimeras. These findings demonstrate that small intestinal inflammation in Rc3h1san/san and Rc3h1gt/gt mice is due to a failure of Roquin expression in the immune system and not to insufficient systemic Roquin expression. PMID:24815331

  1. Atrogin-1 deficiency promotes cardiomyopathy and premature death via impaired autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zaglia, Tania; Milan, Giulia; Ruhs, Aaron; Franzoso, Mauro; Bertaggia, Enrico; Pianca, Nicola; Carpi, Andrea; Carullo, Pierluigi; Pesce, Paola; Sacerdoti, David; Sarais, Cristiano; Catalucci, Daniele; Krüger, Marcus; Mongillo, Marco; Sandri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte proteostasis is mediated by the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy/lysosome system and is fundamental for cardiac adaptation to both physiologic (e.g., exercise) and pathologic (e.g., pressure overload) stresses. Both the UPS and autophagy/lysosome system exhibit reduced efficiency as a consequence of aging, and dysfunction in these systems is associated with cardiomyopathies. The muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1 targets signaling proteins involved in cardiac hypertrophy for degradation. Here, using atrogin-1 KO mice in combination with in vivo pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture proteomics and biochemical and cellular analyses, we identified charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B), which is part of an endosomal sorting complex (ESCRT) required for autophagy, as a target of atrogin-1–mediated degradation. Mice lacking atrogin-1 failed to degrade CHMP2B, resulting in autophagy impairment, intracellular protein aggregate accumulation, unfolded protein response activation, and subsequent cardiomyocyte apoptosis, all of which increased progressively with age. Cellular proteostasis alterations resulted in cardiomyopathy characterized by myocardial remodeling with interstitial fibrosis, with reduced diastolic function and arrhythmias. CHMP2B downregulation in atrogin-1 KO mice restored autophagy and decreased proteotoxicity, thereby preventing cell death. These data indicate that atrogin-1 promotes cardiomyocyte health through mediating the interplay between UPS and autophagy/lysosome system and its alteration promotes development of cardiomyopathies. PMID:24789905

  2. Atrogin-1 deficiency promotes cardiomyopathy and premature death via impaired autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zaglia, Tania; Milan, Giulia; Ruhs, Aaron; Franzoso, Mauro; Bertaggia, Enrico; Pianca, Nicola; Carpi, Andrea; Carullo, Pierluigi; Pesce, Paola; Sacerdoti, David; Sarais, Cristiano; Catalucci, Daniele; Krüger, Marcus; Mongillo, Marco; Sandri, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Cardiomyocyte proteostasis is mediated by the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy/lysosome system and is fundamental for cardiac adaptation to both physiologic (e.g., exercise) and pathologic (e.g., pressure overload) stresses. Both the UPS and autophagy/lysosome system exhibit reduced efficiency as a consequence of aging, and dysfunction in these systems is associated with cardiomyopathies. The muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1 targets signaling proteins involved in cardiac hypertrophy for degradation. Here, using atrogin-1 KO mice in combination with in vivo pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture proteomics and biochemical and cellular analyses, we identified charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B), which is part of an endosomal sorting complex (ESCRT) required for autophagy, as a target of atrogin-1-mediated degradation. Mice lacking atrogin-1 failed to degrade CHMP2B, resulting in autophagy impairment, intracellular protein aggregate accumulation, unfolded protein response activation, and subsequent cardiomyocyte apoptosis, all of which increased progressively with age. Cellular proteostasis alterations resulted in cardiomyopathy characterized by myocardial remodeling with interstitial fibrosis, with reduced diastolic function and arrhythmias. CHMP2B downregulation in atrogin-1 KO mice restored autophagy and decreased proteotoxicity, thereby preventing cell death. These data indicate that atrogin-1 promotes cardiomyocyte health through mediating the interplay between UPS and autophagy/lysosome system and its alteration promotes development of cardiomyopathies.

  3. Deficiency of Mkrn2 causes abnormal spermiogenesis and spermiation, and impairs male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xu; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Bo; Shi, Zhu-Mei; Ge, Xin; Jiang, Cheng-Fei; Qian, Ying-Chen; Li, Dong-Mei; Li, Wei; Liu, Xue; Yin, Yu; Zheng, Ji-Tai; Shen, Hua; Wang, Min; Guo, Xue-Jiang; He, Jun; Lin, Marie; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Sha, Jia-Hao; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although recent studies have shed insights on some of the potential causes of male infertility, new underlining molecular mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. Makorin-2 (Mkrn2) is an evolutionarily conserved gene whose biological functions are not fully known. We developed an Mrkn2 knockout mouse model to study the role of this gene, and found that deletion of Mkrn2 in mice led to male infertility. Mkrn2 knockout mice produced abnormal sperms characterized by low number, poor motility, and aberrant morphology. Disruption of Mkrn2 also caused failure of sperm release (spermiation failure) and misarrangement of ectoplasmic specialization (ES) in testes, thus impairing spermiogenesis and spermiation. To understand the molecular mechanism, we found that expression of Odf2, a vital protein in spermatogenesis, was significantly decreased. In addition, we found that expression levels of Odf2 were decreased in Mkrn2 knockout mice. We also found that MKRN2 was prominently expressed in the sperm of normal men, but was significantly reduced in infertile men. This result indicates that our finding is clinically relevant. The results of our study provided insights into a new mechanism of male infertility caused by the MKRN2 downregulation. PMID:28008940

  4. Effects of angiotensin II on the pericyte-containing microvasculature of the rat retina

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Hajime; Kobayashi, Masato; Li, Qing; Yamanishi, Shigeki; Katsumura, Kozo; Minami, Masahiro; Wu, David M; Puro, Donald G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms by which angiotensin II alters the physiology of the pericyte-containing microvasculature of the retina. Despite evidence that this vasoactive signal regulates capillary perfusion by inducing abluminal pericytes to contract and thereby microvascular lumens to constrict, little is known about the events linking angiotensin exposure with pericyte contraction. Here, using microvessels freshly isolated from the adult rat retina, we monitored pericyte currents via perforated-patch pipettes, measured pericyte calcium levels with fura-2 and visualized pericyte contractions and lumen constrictions by time-lapse photography. We found that angiotensin activates nonspecific cation (NSC) and calcium-activated chloride channels; the opening of these channels induces a depolarization that is sufficient to activate the voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) expressed in the retinal microvasculature. Associated with these changes in ion channel activity, intracellular calcium levels rise, pericytes contract and microvascular lumens narrow. Our experiments revealed that an influx of calcium through the NSC channels is an essential step linking the activation of AT1 angiotensin receptors with pericyte contraction. Although not required in order for angiotensin to induce pericytes to contract, calcium entry via VDCCs serves to enhance the contractile response of these cells. In addition to activating nonspecific cation, calcium-activated chloride and voltage-dependent calcium channels, angiotensin II also causes the functional uncoupling of pericytes from their microvascular neighbours. This inhibition of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication suggests a previously unappreciated complexity in the spatiotemporal dynamics of the microvascular response to angiotensin II. PMID:15486015

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 Deficiency Does Not Impair the Osteoanabolic Action of Parathyroid Hormone on Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yangli; Yi, Lingxian; Weng, Tujun; Huang, Junlan; Luo, Fengtao; Jiang, Wanling; Xian, Cory J; Du, Xiaolan; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Summary: PTH stimulates bone formation in Fgfr3 knockout mice through promotion of proliferation and differentiation in osteoblasts. Introduction: Previous studies showed that endogenous fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is required for parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated bone anabolic effects, however, the exact mechanisms by which PTH stimulate bone formation and the function of FGF receptors in mediating these actions are not fully defined. FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) has been characterized as an important regulator of bone metabolism and is confirmed to cross-talk with PTH/PTHrP signal in cartilage and bone development. Methods: Fgfr3 knockout and wild-type mice at 2-month-old and 4-month-old were intraperitoneally injected with PTH intermittently for 4 weeks and then the skeletal responses to PTH were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry. Results: Intermittent PTH treatment improved bone mineral density (BMD) and femoral mechanical properties in both Fgfr3-/- and wild-type mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed that bone formation and bone resorption were increased in both genotypes following PTH treatment. PTH treatment increased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) in WT and Fgfr3-deficient mice. The anabolic response in Fgfr3-deficient and wild-type bone is characterized by an increase of both bone formation and resorption-related genes following PTH treatment. In addition, we found that Fgfr3 null osteoblasts (compared to wild-type controls) maintained normal abilities to response to PTH-stimulated increase of proliferation, differentiation, expression of osteoblastic marker genes (Cbfa1, Osteopontin and Osteocalcin), and phosphorylation of Erk1/2. Conclusions: Bone anabolic effects of PTH were not impaired by the absence of FGFR3, suggesting that the FGFR3 signaling may not be required for osteoanabolic effects of PTH activities. PMID:27489502

  6. Long term potentiation is impaired in membrane glycoprotein CD200-deficient mice: a role for Toll-like receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Costello, Derek A; Lyons, Anthony; Denieffe, Stephanie; Browne, Tara C; Cox, F Fionnuala; Lynch, Marina A

    2011-10-07

    The membrane glycoprotein CD200 is expressed on several cell types, including neurons, whereas expression of its receptor, CD200R, is restricted principally to cells of the myeloid lineage, including microglia. The interaction between CD200 and CD200R maintains microglia and macrophages in a quiescent state; therefore, CD200-deficient mice express an inflammatory phenotype exhibiting increased macrophage or microglial activation in models of arthritis, encephalitis, and uveoretinitis. Here, we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam(3)CysSerLys(4) exerted more profound effects on release of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), in glia prepared from CD200(-/-) mice compared with wild type mice. This effect is explained by the loss of CD200 on astrocytes, which modulates microglial activation. Expression of Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 (TLR4 and -2) was increased in glia prepared from CD200(-/-) mice, and the evidence indicates that microglial activation, assessed by the increased numbers of CD11b(+) cells that stained positively for both MHCII and CD40, was enhanced in CD200(-/-) mice compared with wild type mice. These neuroinflammatory changes were associated with impaired long term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 of hippocampal slices prepared from CD200(-/-) mice. One possible explanation for this is the increase in TNFα in hippocampal tissue prepared from CD200(-/-) mice because TNFα application inhibited LTP in CA1. Significantly, LPS and Pam(3)CysSerLys(4), at concentrations that did not affect LTP in wild type mice, inhibited LTP in slices prepared from CD200(-/-) mice, probably due to the accompanying increase in TLR2 and TLR4. Thus, the neuroinflammatory changes that result from CD200 deficiency have a negative impact on synaptic plasticity.

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 Deficiency Does Not Impair the Osteoanabolic Action of Parathyroid Hormone on Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangli; Yi, Lingxian; Weng, Tujun; Huang, Junlan; Luo, Fengtao; Jiang, Wanling; Xian, Cory J; Du, Xiaolan; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    PTH stimulates bone formation in Fgfr3 knockout mice through promotion of proliferation and differentiation in osteoblasts. Previous studies showed that endogenous fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is required for parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated bone anabolic effects, however, the exact mechanisms by which PTH stimulate bone formation and the function of FGF receptors in mediating these actions are not fully defined. FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) has been characterized as an important regulator of bone metabolism and is confirmed to cross-talk with PTH/PTHrP signal in cartilage and bone development. Fgfr3 knockout and wild-type mice at 2-month-old and 4-month-old were intraperitoneally injected with PTH intermittently for 4 weeks and then the skeletal responses to PTH were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry. Intermittent PTH treatment improved bone mineral density (BMD) and femoral mechanical properties in both Fgfr3 (-/-) and wild-type mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed that bone formation and bone resorption were increased in both genotypes following PTH treatment. PTH treatment increased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) in WT and Fgfr3-deficient mice. The anabolic response in Fgfr3-deficient and wild-type bone is characterized by an increase of both bone formation and resorption-related genes following PTH treatment. In addition, we found that Fgfr3 null osteoblasts (compared to wild-type controls) maintained normal abilities to response to PTH-stimulated increase of proliferation, differentiation, expression of osteoblastic marker genes (Cbfa1, Osteopontin and Osteocalcin), and phosphorylation of Erk1/2. Bone anabolic effects of PTH were not impaired by the absence of FGFR3, suggesting that the FGFR3 signaling may not be required for osteoanabolic effects of PTH activities.

  8. Impairments of hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in PPARα-deficient neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Cotter, David G; Ercal, Baris; d'Avignon, D André; Dietzen, Dennis J; Crawford, Peter A

    2014-07-15

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a master transcriptional regulator of hepatic metabolism and mediates the adaptive response to fasting. Here, we demonstrate the roles for PPARα in hepatic metabolic adaptations to birth. Like fasting, nutrient supply is abruptly altered at birth when a transplacental source of carbohydrates is replaced by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate milk diet. PPARα-knockout (KO) neonatal mice exhibit relative hypoglycemia due to impaired conversion of glycerol to glucose. Although hepatic expression of fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenases is imparied in PPARα neonates, these animals exhibit normal blood acylcarnitine profiles. Furthermore, quantitative metabolic fate mapping of the medium-chain fatty acid [(13)C]octanoate in neonatal mouse livers revealed normal contribution of this fatty acid to the hepatic TCA cycle. Interestingly, octanoate-derived carbon labeled glucose uniquely in livers of PPARα-KO neonates. Relative hypoketonemia in newborn PPARα-KO animals could be mechanistically linked to a 50% decrease in de novo hepatic ketogenesis from labeled octanoate. Decreased ketogenesis was associated with diminished mRNA and protein abundance of the fate-committing ketogenic enzyme mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS2) and decreased protein abundance of the ketogenic enzyme β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 (BDH1). Finally, hepatic triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations were increased 6.9- and 2.7-fold, respectively, in suckling PPARα-KO neonates. Together, these findings indicate a primary defect of gluconeogenesis from glycerol and an important role for PPARα-dependent ketogenesis in the disposal of hepatic fatty acids during the neonatal period.

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency impairs microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandari, Labchan; Tegenge, Million Adane; Shrestha, Shiva; Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Malik, Adeel; Mithal, Aditya; Hosmane, Suneil; Venkatesan, Arun

    2014-12-01

    Microglia are rapidly activated in the central nervous system (CNS) in response to a variety of injuries, including inflammation, trauma, and stroke. In addition to modulation of the innate immune response, a key function of microglia is the phagocytosis of dying cells and cellular debris, which can facilitate recovery. Despite emerging evidence that axonal debris can pose a barrier to regeneration of new axons in the CNS, little is known of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie clearance of degenerating CNS axons. We utilize a custom micropatterned microfluidic system that enables robust microglial-axon co-culture to explore the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. We find that pharmacologic and genetic disruption of TLR4 blocks induction of the Type-1 interferon response and inhibits phagocytosis of axon debris in vitro. Moreover, TLR4-dependent microglial clearance of unmyelinated axon debris facilitates axon outgrowth. In vivo, microglial phagocytosis of CNS axons undergoing Wallerian degeneration in a dorsal root axotomy model is impaired in adult mice in which TLR4 has been deleted. Since purinergic receptors can influence TLR4-mediated signaling, we also explored a role for the microglia P2 receptors and found that the P2X7R contributes to microglial clearance of degenerating axons. Overall, we identify TLR4 as a key player in axonal debris clearance by microglia, thus creating a more permissive environment for axonal outgrowth. Our findings have significant implications for the development of protective and regenerative strategies for the many inflammatory, traumatic, and neurodegenerative conditions characterized by CNS axon degeneration.

  10. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol deficiency in Arabidopsis affects pigment composition in the prolamellar body and impairs thylakoid membrane energization and photoprotection in leaves.

    PubMed

    Aronsson, Henrik; Schöttler, Mark A; Kelly, Amélie A; Sundqvist, Christer; Dörmann, Peter; Karim, Sazzad; Jarvis, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is the major lipid constituent of chloroplast membranes and has been proposed to act directly in several important plastidic processes, particularly during photosynthesis. In this study, the effect of MGDG deficiency, as observed in the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase1-1 (mgd1-1) mutant, on chloroplast protein targeting, phototransformation of pigments, and photosynthetic light reactions was analyzed. The targeting of plastid proteins into or across the envelope, or into the thylakoid membrane, was not different from wild-type in the mgd1 mutant, suggesting that the residual amount of MGDG in mgd1 was sufficient to maintain functional targeting mechanisms. In dark-grown plants, the ratio of bound protochlorophyllide (Pchlide, F656) to free Pchlide (F631) was increased in mgd1 compared to the wild type. Increased levels of the photoconvertible pigment-protein complex (F656), which is photoprotective and suppresses photooxidative damage caused by an excess of free Pchlide, may be an adaptive response to the mgd1 mutation. Leaves of mgd1 suffered from a massively impaired capacity for thermal dissipation of excess light due to an inefficient operation of the xanthophyll cycle; the mutant contained less zeaxanthin and more violaxanthin than wild type after 60 min of high-light exposure and suffered from increased photosystem II photoinhibition. This is attributable to an increased conductivity of the thylakoid membrane at high light intensities, so that the proton motive force is reduced and the thylakoid lumen is less acidic than in wild type. Thus, the pH-dependent activation of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and of the PsbS protein is impaired.

  11. TGF-beta1 regulates human brain pericyte inflammatory processes involved in neurovasculature function.

    PubMed

    Rustenhoven, Justin; Aalderink, Miranda; Scotter, Emma L; Oldfield, Robyn L; Bergin, Peter S; Mee, Edward W; Graham, E Scott; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Park, Thomas I-H; Dragunow, Mike

    2016-02-11

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is strongly induced following brain injury and polarises microglia to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Augmentation of TGFβ1 responses may therefore be beneficial in preventing inflammation in neurological disorders including stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. However, several other cell types display immunogenic potential and identifying the effect of TGFβ1 on these cells is required to more fully understand its effects on brain inflammation. Pericytes are multifunctional cells which ensheath the brain vasculature and have garnered recent attention with respect to their immunomodulatory potential. Here, we sought to investigate the inflammatory phenotype adopted by TGFβ1-stimulated human brain pericytes. Microarray analysis was performed to examine transcriptome-wide changes in TGFβ1-stimulated pericytes, and results were validated by qRT-PCR and cytometric bead arrays. Flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and LDH/Alamar Blue® viability assays were utilised to examine phagocytic capacity of human brain pericytes, transcription factor modulation and pericyte health. TGFβ1 treatment of primary human brain pericytes induced the expression of several inflammatory-related genes (NOX4, COX2, IL6 and MMP2) and attenuated others (IL8, CX3CL1, MCP1 and VCAM1). A synergistic induction of IL-6 was seen with IL-1β/TGFβ1 treatment whilst TGFβ1 attenuated the IL-1β-induced expression of CX3CL1, MCP-1 and sVCAM-1. TGFβ1 was found to signal through SMAD2/3 transcription factors but did not modify nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) translocation. Furthermore, TGFβ1 attenuated the phagocytic ability of pericytes, possibly through downregulation of the scavenger receptors CD36, CD47 and CD68. Whilst TGFβ did decrease pericyte number, this was due to a reduction in proliferation, not apoptotic death or compromised cell viability. TGFβ1 attenuated pericyte expression of key chemokines and

  12. Impaired differentiation of macrophage lineage cells attenuates bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis in Ndrg1 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Watari, Kosuke; Shibata, Tomohiro; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Ai; Fukunaga, Yuichi; Kawahara, Akihiko; Karasuyama, Kazuyuki; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2016-01-18

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a responsible gene for a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D). This is the first study aiming to assess the contribution of NDRG1 to differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, which has important implications for bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. Ndrg1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal curvature of the spine, high trabecular bone mass, and reduced number of osteoclasts. We observed that serum levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and macrophage-related cytokines were markedly decreased in KO mice. Differentiation of bone marrow (BM) cells into osteoclasts, M1/M2-type macrophages and dendritic cells was all impaired. Furthermore, KO mice also showed reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis by cancer cells, accompanied by decreased infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages. The transfer of BM-derived macrophages from KO mice into BM-eradicated wild type (WT) mice induced much less tumor angiogenesis than observed in WT mice. Angiogenesis in corneas in response to inflammatory stimuli was also suppressed with decreased infiltration of macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that NDRG1 deficiency attenuates the differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, suppressing bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. This study strongly suggests the crucial role of NDRG1 in differentiation process for macrophages.

  13. Impaired de novo choline synthesis explains why phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, René L; Zhao, Yang; Koonen, Debby P Y; Sletten, Torunn; Su, Brian; Lingrell, Susanne; Cao, Guoqing; Peake, David A; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Proctor, Spencer D; Kennedy, Brian P; Dyck, Jason R B; Vance, Dennis E

    2010-07-16

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is synthesized from choline via the CDP-choline pathway. Liver cells can also synthesize PC via the sequential methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, catalyzed by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT). The current study investigates whether or not hepatic PC biosynthesis is linked to diet-induced obesity. Pemt(+/+) mice fed a high fat diet for 10 weeks increased in body mass by 60% and displayed insulin resistance, whereas Pemt(-/-) mice did not. Compared with Pemt(+/+) mice, Pemt(-/-) mice had increased energy expenditure and maintained normal peripheral insulin sensitivity; however, they developed hepatomegaly and steatosis. In contrast, mice with impaired biosynthesis of PC via the CDP-choline pathway in liver became obese when fed a high fat diet. We, therefore, hypothesized that insufficient choline, rather than decreased hepatic phosphatidylcholine, was responsible for the lack of weight gain in Pemt(-/-) mice despite the presence of 1.3 g of choline/kg high fat diet. Supplementation with an additional 2.7 g of choline (but not betaine)/kg of diet normalized energy metabolism, weight gain, and insulin resistance in high fat diet-fed Pemt(-/-) mice. Furthermore, Pemt(+/+) mice that were fed a choline-deficient diet had increased oxygen consumption, had improved glucose tolerance, and gained less weight. Thus, de novo synthesis of choline via PEMT has a previously unappreciated role in regulating whole body energy metabolism.

  14. Impaired de Novo Choline Synthesis Explains Why Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase-deficient Mice Are Protected from Diet-induced Obesity*

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, René L.; Zhao, Yang; Koonen, Debby P. Y.; Sletten, Torunn; Su, Brian; Lingrell, Susanne; Cao, Guoqing; Peake, David A.; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Proctor, Spencer D.; Kennedy, Brian P.; Dyck, Jason R. B.; Vance, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is synthesized from choline via the CDP-choline pathway. Liver cells can also synthesize PC via the sequential methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, catalyzed by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT). The current study investigates whether or not hepatic PC biosynthesis is linked to diet-induced obesity. Pemt+/+ mice fed a high fat diet for 10 weeks increased in body mass by 60% and displayed insulin resistance, whereas Pemt−/− mice did not. Compared with Pemt+/+ mice, Pemt−/− mice had increased energy expenditure and maintained normal peripheral insulin sensitivity; however, they developed hepatomegaly and steatosis. In contrast, mice with impaired biosynthesis of PC via the CDP-choline pathway in liver became obese when fed a high fat diet. We, therefore, hypothesized that insufficient choline, rather than decreased hepatic phosphatidylcholine, was responsible for the lack of weight gain in Pemt−/− mice despite the presence of 1.3 g of choline/kg high fat diet. Supplementation with an additional 2.7 g of choline (but not betaine)/kg of diet normalized energy metabolism, weight gain, and insulin resistance in high fat diet-fed Pemt−/− mice. Furthermore, Pemt+/+ mice that were fed a choline-deficient diet had increased oxygen consumption, had improved glucose tolerance, and gained less weight. Thus, de novo synthesis of choline via PEMT has a previously unappreciated role in regulating whole body energy metabolism. PMID:20452975

  15. Blood-brain barrier impairment in MPS III patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of a specific enzyme leading to heparan sulfate (HS) accumulation within cells and to eventual progressive cerebral and systemic organ abnormalities. Different enzyme deficiencies comprise the MPS III subcategories (A, B, C, D). Since neuropathological manifestations are common to all MPS III types, determining blood-brain barrier (BBB) condition may be critical to understand potential additional disease mechanisms. Methods We investigated BBB integrity in various brain structures of post-mortem tissues from an eleven year old Caucasian female with MPS III A and from a twenty four year old Caucasian female with MPS III D. Control tissues were obtained post-mortem from three Caucasians without neurological deficits: a twelve year old male, a twenty four year old female, and a twenty seven year old female. BBB capillary ultrastructure (electron microscopy) and capillary functional integrity (IgG leakage, tight junction proteins, and lysosomal accumulation within endothelium) were examined. Results Compromised BBB integrity was found in both MPS III cases. Major study findings were: (1) capillary endothelial and pericyte cell damage; (2) mucopolysaccharide bodies in a majority of endothelial cells and pericytes rupturing cell membranes; (3) severe extracellular edema; (4) IgG microvascular leakage and reductions of occludin and claudin-5 with variations between MPS III types; (5) extensive lysosomal accumulation in capillary endothelium. Conclusions These new findings of BBB structural and functional impairment, although from only two cases, MPS III A and III D, may have implications for disease pathogenesis and should be considered in treatment development for MPS III. PMID:24225396

  16. Blood-brain barrier impairment in MPS III patients.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Mirtyl, Santhia; Sallot, Sebastian A; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G; Haller, Edward; Sanberg, Paul R

    2013-11-13

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of a specific enzyme leading to heparan sulfate (HS) accumulation within cells and to eventual progressive cerebral and systemic organ abnormalities. Different enzyme deficiencies comprise the MPS III subcategories (A, B, C, D). Since neuropathological manifestations are common to all MPS III types, determining blood-brain barrier (BBB) condition may be critical to understand potential additional disease mechanisms. We investigated BBB integrity in various brain structures of post-mortem tissues from an eleven year old Caucasian female with MPS III A and from a twenty four year old Caucasian female with MPS III D. Control tissues were obtained post-mortem from three Caucasians without neurological deficits: a twelve year old male, a twenty four year old female, and a twenty seven year old female. BBB capillary ultrastructure (electron microscopy) and capillary functional integrity (IgG leakage, tight junction proteins, and lysosomal accumulation within endothelium) were examined. Compromised BBB integrity was found in both MPS III cases. Major study findings were: (1) capillary endothelial and pericyte cell damage; (2) mucopolysaccharide bodies in a majority of endothelial cells and pericytes rupturing cell membranes; (3) severe extracellular edema; (4) IgG microvascular leakage and reductions of occludin and claudin-5 with variations between MPS III types; (5) extensive lysosomal accumulation in capillary endothelium. These new findings of BBB structural and functional impairment, although from only two cases, MPS III A and III D, may have implications for disease pathogenesis and should be considered in treatment development for MPS III.

  17. An anti-inflammatory role for C/EBPδ in human brain pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Rustenhoven, Justin; Scotter, Emma L.; Jansson, Deidre; Kho, Dan T.; Oldfield, Robyn L.; Bergin, Peter S.; Mee, Edward W.; Faull, Richard L. M.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Graham, Scott E.; Park, Thomas I-H.; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders and pericytes are implicated in brain inflammatory processes. Cellular inflammatory responses are orchestrated by transcription factors but information on transcriptional control in pericytes is lacking. Because the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPδ) is induced in a number of inflammatory brain disorders, we sought to investigate its role in regulating pericyte immune responses. Our results reveal that C/EBPδ is induced in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion in human brain pericytes by interleukin-1β (IL-1β). To investigate the function of the induced C/EBPδ in pericytes we used siRNA to knockdown IL-1β-induced C/EBPδ expression. C/EBPδ knockdown enhanced IL-1β-induced production of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-1β, whilst attenuating cyclooxygenase-2 and superoxide dismutase-2 gene expression. Altered ICAM-1 and MCP-1 protein expression were confirmed by cytometric bead array and immunocytochemistry. Our results show that knock-down of C/EBPδ expression in pericytes following immune stimulation increased chemokine and adhesion molecule expression, thus modifying the human brain pericyte inflammatory response. The induction of C/EBPδ following immune stimulation may act to limit infiltration of peripheral immune cells, thereby preventing further inflammatory responses in the brain. PMID:26166618

  18. Effects of mechanical stress and high glucose on pericyte proliferation, apoptosis and contractile phenotype.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Elena; Berrone, Elena; Giunti, Sara; Gruden, Gabriella; Perin, Paolo Cavallo; Porta, Massimo

    2006-10-01

    Pericyte loss is an early step of diabetic retinopathy. High glucose induces apoptosis in retinal pericytes, but systemic and capillary hypertension are also believed to be important in the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. The haemodynamic insult of retinal capillary hypertension can be mimicked by exposing pericytes to mechanical stretch. We investigated the effect of stretch combined with high glucose on pericyte proliferation/apoptosis and morphology. Bovine retinal pericytes, cultured in either normal or high glucose concentrations in flexible-base plates, were exposed to mechanical stretch for 48/72 h. Cell replication was determined by both cell counting and DNA synthesis, apoptosis by ELISA, cell morphology and actin cytoskeleton distribution by immunofluorescence. Both reduction in cell proliferation and increase in apoptosis were confirmed in high glucose alone. When cells were subjected to stretch, proliferation was reduced and apoptosis increased in both normal and high glucose in comparison with unstretched controls. In both cases, a synergistic effect of hyperglycaemia combined with stretch was shown. Cell morphology showed modifications of cytoskeleton in all experimental conditions; in particular, cells subjected to stretch showed a clear elongation and translocation of actin fibres. In conclusion, our results show that stretch, alone or combined with high glucose, reduces cell proliferation, increases apoptosis and induces morphological changes in pericyte cytoskeleton. Further elucidations of the mechanisms on the basis of reduced proliferation of pericytes subjected to high glucose and stretch could help to clarify the effects of combined hyperglycaemia and hypertension in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.

  19. The pericyte antigen RGS5 in perivascular soft tissue tumors☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Scott, Michelle A.; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M.; James, Aaron W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear lineage of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from or differentiate to pericytes or a modified perivascular cell. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation—although little bona fide evidence of pericytic differentiation exists. Likewise the perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) family shares a perivascular growth pattern, but with distinctive dual myoid-melanocytic differentiation. RGS5, regulator of G-protein signaling 5, is a novel pericyte antigen with increasing use in animal models. Here, we describe the immunohistochemical expression patterns of RGS5 across perivascular soft tissue tumors, including glomus tumor (n = 6), malignant glomus tumor (n = 4), myopericytoma (n = 3), angioleiomyoma (n = 9), myofibroma (n = 4), solitary fibrous tumor (n = 10), and PEComa (n = 19). Immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantification was performed, and compared to αSMA (smooth muscle actin) expression. Results showed that glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma shared a similar diffuse immunoreactivity for RGS5 and αSMA across all tumors examined. In contrast, myofibroma, solitary fibrous tumor and PEComa showed predominantly focal to absent RGS5 immunoreactivity. These findings further support a common pericytic lineage of differentiation in glomus tumors, myopericytoma and angioleiomyoma. The pericyte marker RGS5 may be of future clinical utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26558691

  20. Pericyte contractility controls endothelial cell cycle progression and sprouting: insights into angiogenic switch mechanics.

    PubMed

    Durham, Jennifer T; Surks, Howard K; Dulmovits, Brian M; Herman, Ira M

    2014-11-01

    Microvascular stability and regulation of capillary tonus are regulated by pericytes and their interactions with endothelial cells (EC). While the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway has been implicated in modulation of pericyte contractility, in part via regulation of the myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), the mechanisms linking Rho GTPase activity with actomyosin-based contraction and the cytoskeleton are equivocal. Recently, the myosin phosphatase-RhoA-interacting protein (MRIP) was shown to mediate the RhoA/ROCK-directed MLCP inactivation in vascular smooth muscle. Here we report that MRIP directly interacts with the β-actin-specific capping protein βcap73. Furthermore, manipulation of MRIP expression influences pericyte contractility, with MRIP silencing inducing cytoskeletal remodeling and cellular hypertrophy. MRIP knockdown induces a repositioning of βcap73 from the leading edge to stress fibers; thus MRIP-silenced pericytes increase F-actin-driven cell spreading twofold. These hypertrophied and cytoskeleton-enriched pericytes demonstrate a 2.2-fold increase in contractility upon MRIP knockdown when cells are plated on a deformable substrate. In turn, silencing pericyte MRIP significantly affects EC cycle progression and angiogenic activation. When MRIP-silenced pericytes are cocultured with capillary EC, there is a 2.0-fold increase in EC cycle entry. Furthermore, in three-dimensional models of injury and repair, silencing pericyte MRIP results in a 1.6-fold elevation of total tube area due to EC network formation and increased angiogenic sprouting. The pivotal role of MRIP expression in governing pericyte contractile phenotype and endothelial growth should lend important new insights into how chemomechanical signaling pathways control the "angiogenic switch" and pathological angiogenic induction. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Topiramate Protects Pericytes from Glucotoxicity: Role for Mitochondrial CA VA in Cerebromicrovascular Disease in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Ping; Price, Tulin O.; Diogo, Ana L.; Sheibani, Nader; Banks, William A.; Shah, Gul N.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus causes oxidative stress and pericyte depletion from the microvasculature of the brain thus leading to the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) disruption. The compromised BBB exposes the brain to circulating substances, resulting in neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death. The decline in pericyte numbers in diabetic mouse brain and pericyte apoptosis in high glucose cultures are caused by excess superoxide produced during enhanced respiration (mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of glucose). Superoxide is precursor to all Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which, in turn, cause oxidative stress. The rate of respiration and thus the ROS production is regulated by mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases (mCA) VA and VB, the two isoforms expressed in the mitochondria. Inhibition of both mCA: decreases the oxidative stress and restores the pericyte numbers in diabetic brain; and reduces high glucose-induced respiration, ROS, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in cultured brain pericytes. However, the individual role of the two isoforms has not been established. To investigate the contribution of mCA VA in ROS production and apoptosis, a mCA VA overexpressing brain pericyte cell line was engineered. These cells were exposed to high glucose and analyzed for the changes in ROS and apoptosis. Overexpression of mCA VA significantly increased pericyte ROS and apoptosis. Inhibition of mCA VA with topiramate prevented increases both in glucose-induced ROS and pericyte death. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that mCA VA regulates the rate of pericyte respiration. These findings identify mCA VA as a novel and specific therapeutic target to protect the cerebromicrovascular bed in diabetes. PMID:26167540

  2. Possible involvement of basic FGF in the upregulation of PDGFRβ in pericytes after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kuniyuki; Arimura, Koichi; Nishimura, Ataru; Tachibana, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Yoji; Makihara, Noriko; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Kuroda, Junya; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kitazono, Takanari; Ago, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) pericytes have been recognized as an indispensable component of the neurovascular unit. The expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is markedly increased in CNS pericytes after brain ischemia. It has been elucidated that PDGFRβ, expressed in pericytes and pericyte-derived fibroblast-like cells, plays important roles in the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in the repair process in infarct areas. The aim of this study was to uncover how the PDGFRβ expression is regulated in pericytes after brain ischemia. We found that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), but neither hypoxia at 1% O2 nor acidification at pH 6.5, significantly upregulated the PDGFRβ expression in human cultured CNS pericytes. SU5402, an inhibitor of FGF receptor (FGFR), and inhibitors of its downstream effectors Akt and Erk abolished the bFGF-induced upregulation of PDGFRβ. On the other hand, acidification significantly upregulated the expression of bFGF, while hypoxia upregulated the expression of FGFR1 in the pericytes. The expression of bFGF and FGFR1 was markedly induced in the ischemic hemisphere after ischemic insult in a middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model. Immunofluorescent double labeling demonstrated that the expression of bFGF and FGFR1 was co-localized with PDGFRβ-positive cells in peri-infarct areas. Moreover, treatment with bFGF enhanced cell growth and the PDGF-BB-induced migratory activity of cultured pericytes, which were significantly suppressed by SU5402 or Sunitinib, an inhibitor of PDGFR. These data suggested that increased bFGF upregulates the expression of PDGFRβ and may enhance PDGFRβ-mediated pericyte functions after brain ischemia.

  3. Sustained inflammation after pericyte depletion induces irreversible blood-retina barrier breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Shuntaro; Kurata, Kaori; Hattori, Yuki; Takase, Hiroshi; Ishiguro-Oonuma, Toshina; Hwang, Yoonha; Ahn, Soyeon; Ikeda, Wataru; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Fukushima, Yoko; Nara, Hiromi; Sakai, Hideto; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsushita, Jun; Ema, Masatsugu; Hirashima, Masanori; Shibuya, Masabumi; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Kim, Pilhan; Miyata, Takaki; Ogura, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    In the central nervous system, endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes (PCs) of blood vessel walls cooperatively form a physical and chemical barrier to maintain neural homeostasis. However, in diabetic retinopathy (DR), the loss of PCs from vessel walls is assumed to cause breakdown of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) and subsequent vision-threatening vascular dysfunctions. Nonetheless, the lack of adequate DR animal models has precluded disease understanding and drug discovery. Here, by using an anti-PDGFRβ antibody, we show that transient inhibition of the PC recruitment to developing retinal vessels sustained EC-PC dissociations and BRB breakdown in adult mouse retinas, reproducing characteristic features of DR such as hyperpermeability, hypoperfusion, and neoangiogenesis. Notably, PC depletion directly induced inflammatory responses in ECs and perivascular infiltration of macrophages, whereby macrophage-derived VEGF and placental growth factor (PlGF) activated VEGFR1 in macrophages and VEGFR2 in ECs. Moreover, angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2) upregulation and Tie1 downregulation activated FOXO1 in PC-free ECs locally at the leaky aneurysms. This cycle of vessel damage was shut down by simultaneously blocking VEGF, PlGF, and Angpt2, thus restoring the BRB integrity. Together, our model provides new opportunities for identifying the sequential events triggered by PC deficiency, not only in DR, but also in various neurological disorders. PMID:28194443

  4. Sustained inflammation after pericyte depletion induces irreversible blood-retina barrier breakdown.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Shuntaro; Kurata, Kaori; Hattori, Yuki; Takase, Hiroshi; Ishiguro-Oonuma, Toshina; Hwang, Yoonha; Ahn, Soyeon; Park, Inwon; Ikeda, Wataru; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Fukushima, Yoko; Nara, Hiromi; Sakai, Hideto; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsushita, Jun; Ema, Masatsugu; Hirashima, Masanori; Minami, Takashi; Shibuya, Masabumi; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Kim, Pilhan; Miyata, Takaki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Uemura, Akiyoshi

    2017-02-09

    In the central nervous system, endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes (PCs) of blood vessel walls cooperatively form a physical and chemical barrier to maintain neural homeostasis. However, in diabetic retinopathy (DR), the loss of PCs from vessel walls is assumed to cause breakdown of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) and subsequent vision-threatening vascular dysfunctions. Nonetheless, the lack of adequate DR animal models has precluded disease understanding and drug discovery. Here, by using an anti-PDGFRβ antibody, we show that transient inhibition of the PC recruitment to developing retinal vessels sustained EC-PC dissociations and BRB breakdown in adult mouse retinas, reproducing characteristic features of DR such as hyperpermeability, hypoperfusion, and neoangiogenesis. Notably, PC depletion directly induced inflammatory responses in ECs and perivascular infiltration of macrophages, whereby macrophage-derived VEGF and placental growth factor (PlGF) activated VEGFR1 in macrophages and VEGFR2 in ECs. Moreover, angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2) upregulation and Tie1 downregulation activated FOXO1 in PC-free ECs locally at the leaky aneurysms. This cycle of vessel damage was shut down by simultaneously blocking VEGF, PlGF, and Angpt2, thus restoring the BRB integrity. Together, our model provides new opportunities for identifying the sequential events triggered by PC deficiency, not only in DR, but also in various neurological disorders.

  5. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development, up-regulate caveolin-1 and down-regulate synaptophysin in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gong, J; Dong, J; Wang, Y; Xu, H; Wei, W; Zhong, J; Liu, W; Xi, Q; Chen, J

    2010-02-01

    Developmental iodine deficiency leads to inadequate thyroid hormone, which damages the hippocampus. In the present study, we implicate hippocampal caveolin-1 and synaptophysin in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Two developmental rat models were established: pregnant rats were administered either an iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU)-adulterated (5 p.p.m. or 15 p.p.m.) drinking water from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PN) 28. Nissl staining and the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptophysin in several hippocampal subregions were assessed on PN14, PN21, PN28 and PN42. The results obtained show that surviving cells in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats were lower than in controls. Up-regulation of caveolin-1 and down-regulation of synaptophysin were observed in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. Our findings implicate decreases in the number of surviving cells and alterations in the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptophysin in the impairments in neural development induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.

  6. Selectively reduced glycerol in skin of aquaporin-3-deficient mice may account for impaired skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier recovery.

    PubMed

    Hara, Mariko; Ma, Tonghui; Verkman, A S

    2002-11-29

    Deletion of the epidermal water/glycerol transporter aquaporin-3 (AQP3) in mice reduced superficial skin conductance by approximately 2-fold (Ma, T., Hara, M., Sougrat, R., Verbavatz, J. M., and Verkman, A. S. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 17147-17153), suggesting defective stratum corneum (SC) hydration. Here, we demonstrate significant impairment of skin hydration, elasticity, barrier recovery, and wound healing in AQP3 null mice in a hairless (SKH1) genetic background and investigate the cause of the functional defects by analysis of SC morphology and composition. Utilizing a novel (3)H(2)O distribution method, SC water content was reduced by approximately 50% in AQP3 null mice. Skin elasticity measured by cutometry was significantly reduced in AQP3 null mice with approximately 50% reductions in elasticity parameters Uf, Ue, and Ur. Although basal skin barrier function was not impaired, AQP3 deletion produced an approximately 2-fold delay in recovery of barrier function as measured by transepidermal water loss after tape stripping. Another biosynthetic skin function, wound healing, was also approximately 2-fold delayed by AQP3 deletion. By electron microscopy AQP3 deletion did not affect the structure of the unperturbed SC. The SC content of ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and small solutes (urea, lactic acid, glucose) was not affected by AQP3 deletion nor was the absolute amount or profile of lipids and free amino acids. However, AQP3 deletion produced significant reductions in glycerol content in SC and epidermis (in nmol/microg protein: 5.5 +/- 0.4 versus 2.3 +/- 0.7 in SC; 0.037 +/- 0.007 versus 0.022 +/- 0.005 in epidermis) but not in dermis or blood. These results establish hydration, mechanical, and biosynthetic defects in skin of AQP3-deficient mice. The selective reduction in epidermal and SC glycerol content in AQP3 null mice may account for these defects, providing the first functional evidence for physiologically important glycerol transport by an

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in the abnormal regulation of serine dehydratase and tyrosine aminotransferase activities correlated with impairment of the adenylyl cyclase system in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ebara, Shuhei; Nakao, Motoyuki; Tomoda, Mayuko; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Fumio; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of the vitamin B(12) deficiency-induced changes of the serine dehydratase (SDH) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activities in the rat liver. When rats were maintained on a vitamin B(12)-deficient diet, the activities of these two enzymes in the liver were significantly reduced compared with those in the B12-sufficient control rats (SDH 2.8 (sd 0.56) v. 17.5 (sd 6.22) nmol/mg protein per min (n 5); P < 0.05) (TAT 25.2 (sd 5.22) v. 41.3 (sd 8.11) nmol/mg protein per min (n 5); P < 0.05). In the B(12)-deficient rats, the level of SDH induction in response to the administration of glucagon and dexamethasone was significantly lower than in the B(12)-sufficient controls. Dexamethasone induced a significant increase in TAT activity in the primary culture of the hepatocytes prepared from the deficient rats, as well as in the cells from the control rats. However, a further increase in TAT activity was not observed in the hepatocytes from the deficient rats, in contrast to the cells from the controls, when glucagon was added simultaneously with dexamethasone. The glucagon-stimulated production of cAMP was significantly reduced in the hepatocytes from the deficient rats relative to the cells from the control rats. Furthermore, the glucagon-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in the liver was significantly lower in the deficient rats than in the controls. These results suggest that vitamin B(12) deficiency results in decreases in SDH and TAT activities correlated with the impairment of the glucagon signal transduction through the activation of the adenylyl cyclase system in the liver.

  8. A Cardiolipin-Deficient Mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Has an Altered Cell Shape and Is Impaired in Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ti-Yu; Santos, Thiago M. A.; Kontur, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell shape has been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of bacterial attachment to surfaces and the formation of communities associated with surfaces. We found that a cardiolipin synthase (Δcls) mutant of the rod-shaped bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides—in which synthesis of the anionic, highly curved phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is reduced by 90%—produces ellipsoid-shaped cells that are impaired in biofilm formation. Reducing the concentration of CL did not cause significant defects in R. sphaeroides cell growth, swimming motility, lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide production, surface adhesion protein expression, and membrane permeability. Complementation of the CL-deficient mutant by ectopically expressing CL synthase restored cells to their rod shape and increased biofilm formation. Treating R. sphaeroides cells with a low concentration (10 μg/ml) of the small-molecule MreB inhibitor S-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)isothiourea produced ellipsoid-shaped cells that had no obvious growth defect yet reduced R. sphaeroides biofilm formation. This study demonstrates that CL plays a role in R. sphaeroides cell shape determination, biofilm formation, and the ability of the bacterium to adapt to its environment. IMPORTANCE Membrane composition plays a fundamental role in the adaptation of many bacteria to environmental stress. In this study, we build a new connection between the anionic phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) and cellular adaptation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We demonstrate that CL plays a role in the regulation of R. sphaeroides morphology and is important for the ability of this bacterium to form biofilms. This study correlates CL concentration, cell shape, and biofilm formation and provides the first example of how membrane composition in bacteria alters cell morphology and influences adaptation. This study also provides insight into the potential of phospholipid biosynthesis as a target for new chemical strategies designed to

  9. Pex11α deficiency impairs peroxisome elongation and division and contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver in mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Ji, Xu; Naito, Yukiko; Endo, Kosuke; Ma, Xiao; Takahashi, Rie; Shen, Chunshen; Hirokawa, Go; Fukushima, Yasue; Iwai, Naoharu

    2013-01-15

    Hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation is considered to be a prerequisite for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Peroxisomes have many important functions in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid β-oxidization. However, the pathogenic link between NAFL and peroxisome biogenesis remains unclear. To examine the molecular and physiological functions of the Pex11α gene, we disrupted this gene in mice. Body weights and hepatic TG concentrations in Pex11α(-/-) mice were significantly higher than those in wild-type (WT) mice fed a normal or a high-fat diet. Hepatic TG concentrations in fasted Pex11α(-/-) mice were significantly higher than those in fasted WT mice. Plasma TG levels increased at lower rates in Pex11α(-/-) mice than in WT mice after treatment with the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor tyloxapol. The number of peroxisomes was lower in the livers of Pex11α(-/-) mice than in those of WT mice. Ultrastructural analysis showed that small and regular spherically shaped peroxisomes were more prevalent in Pex11α(-/-) mice fed normal chow supplemented without or with fenofibrate. We observed a significantly higher ratio of empty peroxisomes containing only PMP70, a peroxisome membrane protein, but not catalase, a peroxisome matrix protein, in Pex11α(-/-) mice. The mRNA expression levels of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation-related genes (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily D, member 2, and acyl-CoA thioesterase 3) were significantly higher in WT mice than those in Pex11α(-/-) mice under fed conditions. Our results demonstrate that Pex11α deficiency impairs peroxisome elongation and abundance and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, which contributes to increased lipid accumulation in the liver.

  10. IL-1R Type 1-Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Impaired Host Immune Response against Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Jin, Michelle Qiushuang; Dubin, Krista; King, Sandra L; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Murphy, George F; Chen, Chen Amy; Kupper, Thomas S; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    The IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors has been studied extensively. However, the specific roles of IL-1 elements in host immunity to cutaneous viral infection remain elusive. In this study, we applied vaccinia virus (VACV) by scarification to IL-1R1 knockout mice (IL-1R1(-/-)) and found that these mice developed markedly larger lesions with higher viral genome copies in skin than did wild-type mice. The phenotype of infected IL-1R1(-/-) mice was similar to eczema vaccinatum, a severe side effect of VACV vaccination that may develop in humans with atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the impaired cutaneous response of IL-1R1(-/-) mice did not reflect a systemic immune deficiency, because immunized IL-1R1(-/-) mice survived subsequent lethal VACV intranasal challenge, or defects of T cell activation or T cell homing to the site of inoculation. Histologic evaluation revealed that VACV infection and replication after scarification were limited to the epidermal layer of wild-type mice, whereas lack of IL-1R1 permitted extension of VACV infection into dermal layers of the skin. We explored the etiology of this discrepancy and determined that IL-1R1(-/-) mice contained significantly more macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the dermis after VACV scarification. These cells were vulnerable to VACV infection and may augment the transmission of virus to adjacent skin, thus leading to larger skin lesions and satellite lesions in IL-1R1(-/-) mice. These results suggest new therapeutic strategies for treatment of eczema vaccinatum and inform assessment of risks in patients receiving IL-1 blocking Abs for treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Pericytes promote endothelial cell survival through induction of autocrine VEGF-A signaling and Bcl-w expression

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Marcela; Roswall, Pernilla; Cortez, Eliane; Hanahan, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) in blood vessels under formation are stabilized by the recruitment of pericytes, both in normal tissues and during angiogenesis in pathologic situations, including neoplasia. In the tumor vasculature, besides supporting the functionality of blood flow, pericytes protect ECs from antiangiogenic therapies, and have thus been implicated in clinical resistance to vascular targeting drugs. However, the molecular nature of the crosstalk between pericytes and ECs is largely unchartered. Herein, we identified pericyte-induced survival signals in ECs by isolation of vascular fragments derived from tumors that had been genetically or pharmacologically engineered to be either pericyte-rich or pericyte-poor. Pericytes induced the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-w in tumor ECs both in vivo and in vitro, thereby conveying protection from cytotoxic damage. The pericyte-dependent survival signaling in ECs was consequential to enforcement of an autocrine loop involving VEGF-A expression in ECs. Through molecular and functional studies, we delineated a signal transduction pathway in ECs downstream of integrin αv involving activation of NF-κB as the initiating event of the protective crosstalk from pericytes. Our elucidation of pericyte-derived pro-survival signaling in tumor ECs has potentially important implications for clinical development of antiangiogenic drugs, and suggests new therapeutic targets for rational multitargeting of cancer. PMID:21778339

  12. Vitamin B1-deficient mice show impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation and loss of hippocampal neurons and dendritic spines: potential microendophenotypes of Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hiroyoshi; Kishimoto, Takuya; Oishi, Satoru; Nagata, Kan; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Tamae; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Patients with severe Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. PTD mice show deficits in the hippocampus-dependent memory formation, although they show normal hippocampus-independent memory. Similarly with WKS, impairments in memory formation did not recover even at 6 months after treatment with PTD. Importantly, PTD mice exhibit a decrease in neurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus and reduced density of wide dendritic spines in the DG. Our findings suggest that TD induces hippocampal degeneration, including the loss of neurons and spines, thereby leading to enduring impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation. PMID:27576603

  13. Vitamin B1-deficient mice show impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation and loss of hippocampal neurons and dendritic spines: potential microendophenotypes of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Hiroyoshi; Kishimoto, Takuya; Oishi, Satoru; Nagata, Kan; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Tamae; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Patients with severe Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. PTD mice show deficits in the hippocampus-dependent memory formation, although they show normal hippocampus-independent memory. Similarly with WKS, impairments in memory formation did not recover even at 6 months after treatment with PTD. Importantly, PTD mice exhibit a decrease in neurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus and reduced density of wide dendritic spines in the DG. Our findings suggest that TD induces hippocampal degeneration, including the loss of neurons and spines, thereby leading to enduring impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation.

  14. Pericytes. Morphofunction, interactions and pathology in a quiescent and activated mesenchymal cell niche.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, L; Gutiérrez, R; Madrid, J F; Varela, H; Valladares, F; Acosta, E; Martín-Vasallo, P; Díaz-Flores, L

    2009-07-01

    We review the morphofunctional characteristics of pericytes and report our observations. After a brief historical background, we consider the following aspects of pericytes: A) Origin in embryonic vasculogenesis (mesenchymal stem cells, neurocrest and other possible sources) and in embryonic and postnatal life angiogenesis (pre-existing pericytes, fibroblast/ myofibroblasts and circulating progenitor cells). B) Location in pericytic microvasculature and in the other blood vessels (including transitional cell forms and absence in lymphatic vessels), incidence (differences depending on species, topographical location, and type and stage of vessels) and distribution (specific polarities) in blood vessels. C) Morphology (cell body, and longitudinal and circumferential cytoplasmic processes), structure (nucleus, cytoplasmic organelles and distribution of microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments) and surface (caveolae system). D) Basement membrane disposition, formation, components and functions. E) Contacts with endothelial cells (ECs) (peg and socket arrangements, adherent junctions and gap junctions) and with basal membrane (adhesion plaques). F) Molecular expression (pericyte marker identification). G) Functions, such as vessel stabilization, regulation of vascular tone and maintenance of local and tissue homeostasis (contractile capacity and vessel permeability regulation), matrix protein synthesis, macrophage-like properties, immunological defense, intervention in coagulation, participation in mechanisms that regulate the quiescent and angiogenic stages of blood vessels (including the behaviour of pericytes during sprouting angiogenesis and intussuceptive vascular growth, as well as pericyte interactions with endothelium and other cells, and with extracellular matrix) and plasticity, as progenitor cells with great mesenchymal potential, originating other pericytes, fibroblast/myofibroblasts, preadipocytes, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, odontoblasts

  15. Infection and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human brain vascular pericytes by human cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play an essential role in the development and function of the blood–brain barrier yet their unique role in HCMV dissemination and neuropathlogy has not been reported. Methods Primary human brain vascular pericytes were exposed to a primary clinical isolate of HCMV designated ‘SBCMV’. Infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarrays were performed to identify proinflammatory cytokines upregulated after SBCMV exposure, and the results validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methodology. In situ cytokine expression of pericytes after exposure to HCMV was examined by ELISA and in vivo evidence of HCMV infection of brain pericytes was shown by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Results HCMV-infected human brain vascular pericytes as evidenced by several markers. Using a clinical isolate of HCMV (SBCMV), microscopy of infected pericytes showed virion production and typical cytomegalic cytopathology. This finding was confirmed by the expression of major immediate early and late virion proteins and by the presence of HCMV mRNA. Brain pericytes were fully permissive for CMV lytic replication after 72 to 96 hours in culture compared to human astrocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC). However, temporal transcriptional expression of pp65 virion protein after SBCMV infection was lower than that seen with the HCMV Towne laboratory strain. Using RT-PCR and dual-labeled immunofluorescence, proinflammatory cytokines CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL11/ITAC, and CCL5/Rantes were upregulated in SBCMV-infected cells, as were tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Pericytes exposed to SBCMV elicited higher levels of IL-6

  16. Pericytes: multitasking cells in the regeneration of injured, diseased, and aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria L; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Pericytes are perivascular cells that envelop and make intimate connections with adjacent capillary endothelial cells. Recent studies show that they may have a profound impact in skeletal muscle regeneration, innervation, vessel formation, fibrosis, fat accumulation, and ectopic bone formation throughout life. In this review, we summarize and evaluate recent advances in our understanding of pericytes' influence on adult skeletal muscle pathophysiology. We also discuss how further elucidating their biology may offer new approaches to the treatment of conditions characterized by muscle wasting.

  17. Dual effects of carbon monoxide on pericytes and neurogenesis in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Maki, Takakuni; Mandeville, Emiri T; Koh, Seong-Ho; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Arai, Ken; Kim, Young-Myeong; Whalen, Michael J; Xing, Changhong; Wang, Xiaoying; Kim, Kyu-Won; Lo, Eng H

    2016-11-01

    At low levels, carbon monoxide (CO) has physiological roles as a second messenger and neuromodulator. Here we assess the effects of CO in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Treatment with CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-3 reduced pericyte death and ameliorated the progression of neurological deficits. In contrast, although treatment with the radical scavenger N-tert-butyl-a-phenylnitrone (PBN) also reduced pericyte death, neurological outcomes were not rescued. As compared to vehicle-treated control and PBN-treated mice, CORM-3-treated mice showed higher levels of phosphorylated neural nitric oxide synthase within neural stem cells (NSCs). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase diminished the CORM-3-mediated increase in the number of cells that stained positive for both the neuronal marker NeuN and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; a marker for proliferating cells) in vivo, consequently interfering with neurological recovery after TBI. Because NSCs seemed to be in close proximity to pericytes, we asked whether cross-talk between pericytes and NSCs was induced by CORM-3, thereby promoting neurogenesis. In pericyte cultures that were undergoing oxygen and glucose deprivation, conditioned cell culture medium collected after CORM-3 treatment enhanced the in vitro differentiation of NSCs into mature neurons. Taken together, these findings suggest that CO treatment may provide a therapeutic approach for TBI by preventing pericyte death, rescuing cross-talk with NSCs and promoting neurogenesis.

  18. Pericytes of Multiple Organs Do Not Behave as Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Camboa, Nuno; Cattaneo, Paola; Sun, Yunfu; Moore-Morris, Thomas; Gu, Yusu; Dalton, Nancy D; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Peterson, Kirk L; Stallcup, William B; Chen, Ju; Evans, Sylvia M

    2017-03-02

    Pericytes are widely believed to function as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotent tissue-resident progenitors with great potential for regenerative medicine. Cultured pericytes isolated from distinct tissues can differentiate into multiple cell types in vitro or following transplantation in vivo. However, the cell fate plasticity of endogenous pericytes in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that the transcription factor Tbx18 selectively marks pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in multiple organs of adult mouse. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-purified Tbx18-expressing cells behaved as MSCs in vitro. However, lineage-tracing experiments using an inducible Tbx18-CreERT2 line revealed that pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells maintained their identity in aging and diverse pathological settings and did not significantly contribute to other cell lineages. These results challenge the current view of endogenous pericytes as multipotent tissue-resident progenitors and suggest that the plasticity observed in vitro or following transplantation in vivo arises from artificial cell manipulations ex vivo.

  19. Placental pericytes and cytomegalovirus infectivity: Implications for HCMV placental pathology and congenital disease.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, David M; Correa, Hernan; Rogers, Lisa M; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Alcendor, Donald J

    2017-09-01

    Placental pericytes are essential for placental microvascular function, stability, and integrity. Mechanisms of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pathogenesis incorporating placental pericytes are unknown. HCMV-infected placental tissue was stained by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Primary placental pericytes, cytotrophoblasts, and villous fibroblasts were exposed to HCMV; and infectivity was analyzed by microscopy and immunofluorescence. Cytokine expression was examined by Luminex assay. A HCMV-GFP recombinant virus was used to examine replication kinetics. Immunohistochemistry showed HCMV in trophoblast and the villous core with T-cell and macrophage infiltration. Primary HCMV isolate from a patient (SBCMV)- infected pericytes showed dysregulation of proinflammatory and angiogenic cytokines when compared to control cells. A tri-cell model of the villous floor showed a unique expression profile. Finally, we show pericytes infected in vivo with HCMV in placental tissue from a congenitally infected child. Placental pericytes support HCMV replication, inducing proinflammatory and angiogenic cytokines that likely contribute to viral dissemination, placenta inflammation, and dysregulation of placental angiogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The effect of antioxidants on glycated albumin-induced cytotoxicity in bovine retinal pericytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaetaek; Kim, Kwang-seok; Shinn, Jong-wook; Oh, Yeon-sahng; Kim, Heung-tae; Jo, Inho; Shinn, Soon-hyun

    2002-04-12

    Loss of retinal pericytes is the initial deficit in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Glycated albumin (GA) forms under hyperglycemic conditions and exists in the retinal blood vessels of diabetic patients with retinopathy. In this study, using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction test, we investigated whether GA induces cytotoxicity in cultured bovine retinal pericytes, and whether the antioxidants, l-ascorbic acid, Trolox, and probucol, provide any protection from GA-mediated cytotoxicity. GA induced pericyte death in a dose-dependent manner. With increasing time, GA-induced cytotoxicity also increased despite no strict time dependence. Furthermore, this cell death was found to be mediated both by apoptosis, which was confirmed by apoptosis-specific fluorescent staining of nuclei and cell membranes, and mitochondrial damage, as elucidated by electron microscopy. All three antioxidants used in this study partially protected against GA-induced pericyte death, suggesting that oxidative stress plays a role in GA-induced pericyte death. The results indicate that GA induces cell death in cultured bovine retinal pericytes, and that certain antioxidants may reduce this cytotoxicity.

  1. D-galactose induces a mitochondrial complex I deficiency in mouse skeletal muscle: potential benefits of nutrient combination in ameliorating muscle impairment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liao; Liu, Xin; Liu, Jing; Li, Hua; Yang, Yanshen; Liu, Jia; Guo, Zihao; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Jiankang; Zhao-Wilson, Xi; Long, Jiangang

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating research has shown that chronic D-galactose (D-gal) exposure induces symptoms similar to natural aging in animals. Therefore, rodents chronically exposed to D-gal are increasingly used as a model for aging and delay-of-aging pharmacological research. Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a vital role in aging and age-related diseases; however, whether mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in mice exposed to D-gal remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated cognitive dysfunction, locomotor activity, and mitochondrial dysfunction involved in D-gal exposure in mice. We found that D-gal exposure (125 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks) resulted in a serious impairment in grip strength in mice, whereas spatial memory and locomotor coordination remained intact. Interestingly, muscular mitochondrial complex I deficiency occurred in the skeletal muscle of mice exposed to D-gal. Mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormality was implicated as a contributing factor in D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Moreover, three combinations (A, B, and C) of nutrients applied in this study effectively reversed D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Nutrient formulas B and C were especially effective in reversing complex I dysfunction in both skeletal muscle and heart muscle. These findings suggest the following: (1) chronic exposure to D-gal first results in specific muscular impairment in mice, rather than causing general, premature aging; (2) poor skeletal muscle strength induced by D-gal might be due to the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by complex I deficiency; and (3) the nutrient complexes applied in the study attenuated the skeletal muscle impairment, most likely by improving mitochondrial function.

  2. Aquaporin-4 Deficiency Impairs Synaptic Plasticity and Associative Fear Memory in the Lateral Amygdala: Involvement of Downregulation of Glutamate Transporter-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Kun; Wang, Fang; Wang, Wei; Luo, Yi; Wu, Peng-Fei; Xiao, Jun-Li; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Jin, You; Hu, Gang; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are implicated in information processing, signal transmission, and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel in adult brain and is primarily expressed in astrocytes. A growing body of evidence indicates that AQP4 is a potential molecular target for the regulation of astrocytic function. However, little is known about the role of AQP4 in synaptic plasticity in the amygdala. Therefore, we evaluated long-term potentiation (LTP) in the lateral amygdala (LA) and associative fear memory of AQP4 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice. We found that AQP4 deficiency impaired LTP in the thalamo-LA pathway and associative fear memory. Furthermore, AQP4 deficiency significantly downregulated glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) expression and selectively increased NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated EPSCs in the LA. However, low concentration of NMDAR antagonist reversed the impairment of LTP in KO mice. Upregulating GLT-1 expression by chronic treatment with ceftriaxone also reversed the impairment of LTP and fear