Science.gov

Sample records for defining climate zones

  1. Genetic delineation of local provenance defines seed collection zones along a climate gradient.

    PubMed

    Hufford, Kristina M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish native plant species should consider intraspecific variation if we are to restore genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Data describing spatial genetic structure and the scale of adaptive differentiation are needed for restoration seed sourcing. Genetically defined provenance zones provide species-specific guidelines for the distance within which seed transfer likely maintains levels of genetic diversity and conserves locally adapted traits. While a growing number of studies incorporate genetic marker data in delineation of local provenance, they often fail to distinguish the impacts of neutral and non-neutral variation. We analysed population genetic structure for 134 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in Stylidium hispidum (Stylidiaceae) along a north-south transect of the species' range with the goal to estimate the distance at which significant genetic differences occur among source and recipient populations in restoration. In addition, we tested AFLP markers for signatures of selection, and examined the relationship of neutral and putatively selected markers with climate variables. Estimates of population genetic structure revealed significant levels of differentiation (ΦPT = 0.23) and suggested a global provenance distance of 45 km for pairwise comparisons of 16 populations. Of the 134 markers, 13 exhibited evidence of diversifying selection (ΦPT = 0.52). Using data for precipitation and thermal gradients, we compared genetic, geographic and environmental distance for subsets of neutral and selected markers. Strong isolation by distance was detected in all cases, but positive correlations with climate variables were present only for markers with signatures of selection. We address findings in light of defining local provenance in ecological restoration.

  2. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones.

  3. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

  4. Hybrid Zones: Windows on Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica L.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on biodiversity and species distributions is currently a high priority. Niche models focus primarily on predicted changes in abiotic factors; however, species interactions and adaptive evolution will impact the ability of species to persist in the face of changing climate. Our review focuses on the use of hybrid zones to monitor species' responses to contemporary climate change. Monitoring hybrid zones provides insight into how range boundaries shift in response to climate change by illuminating the combined effects of species interactions and physiological sensitivity. At the same time, the semi-permeable nature of species boundaries allows us to document adaptive introgression of alleles associated with response to climate change. PMID:25982153

  5. Hybrid zones: windows on climate change.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott A; Larson, Erica L; Harrison, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Defining the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on biodiversity and species distributions is currently a high priority. Niche models focus primarily on predicted changes in abiotic factors; however, species interactions and adaptive evolution will impact the ability of species to persist in the face of changing climate. Our review focuses on the use of hybrid zones to monitor responses of species to contemporary climate change. Monitoring hybrid zones provides insight into how range boundaries shift in response to climate change by illuminating the combined effects of species interactions and physiological sensitivity. At the same time, the semipermeable nature of species boundaries allows us to document adaptive introgression of alleles associated with response to climate change.

  6. Defining the Entrainment Zone in Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Zhou, M.; Kalogiros, J. A.; Lenschow, D. H.; Dai, C.; Wang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of an entrainment zone near the top of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layers has been identified by many early studies. However, the definition of the entrainment zone was rather vague. We have examined the fine vertical variations of cloud liquid water content, wind, temperature and humidity near the stratocumulus top and developed a new method to identify the entrainment zone objectively. Aircraft measurements from various field projects in stratocumulus-topped boundary layers are used, taking advantage of the fast sampling capability of many of the aircraft sensors. Because of the inhomogeneous mixing of two air masses with distinctively different thermodynamic properties, the magnitude of temperature perturbations within the entrainment zone is significantly larger than those above or below. This characteristics is used to define the upper and lower boundaries of the entrainment zone using a wavelet spectra analyses. The definition of the entrainment zone is further evaluated by the presence of a linear mixing line through mixing line analyses. Various other interfaces at the cloud top are also examined, including the cloud interface, temperature interface (inversion), and moisture interface. The heights of these interfaces are examined relative to the height of the entrainment zone. This study also systematically revealed the presence of turbulence above the local cloud top and/or above the entrainment zone. Wind shear near the cloud top is one possible source that generated local turbulence. Other potential sources of turbulence will also be discussed.

  7. Vegetation zones shift in changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Kalvova, Jaroslava; Holtanova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of climate patterns can be performed for each climate variable separately or the data can be aggregated using e.g. some kind of climate classification. These classifications usually correspond to vegetation distribution in the sense that each climate type is dominated by one vegetation zone or eco-region. In case of the Köppen-Trewartha classification it is integrated assessment of temperature and precipitation together with their annual cycle as well. This way climate classifications also represent a convenient tool for the assessment and validation of climate models and for the analysis of simulated future climate changes. The Köppen-Trewartha classification is used on full CMIP5 family of more than 40 GCM simulations and CRU dataset for comparison. This evaluation provides insight on the GCM performance and errors for simulations of the 20th century climate. Common regions are identified, such as Australia or Amazonia, where many state-of-the-art models perform inadequately. Furthermore, the analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 is performed to assess the climate change for future. There are significant changes for some types in most models e.g. increase of savanna and decrease of tundra for the future climate. For some types significant shifts in latitude can be seen when studying their geographical location in selected continental areas, e.g. toward higher latitudes for boreal climate. For Europe, EuroCORDEX results for both 0.11 and 0.44 degree resolution are validated using Köppen-Trewartha types in comparison to E-OBS based classification. ERA-Interim driven simulations are compared to both present conditions of CMIP5 models as well as their downscaling by EuroCORDEX RCMs. Finally, the climate change signal assessment is provided using the individual climate types. In addition to the changes assessed similarly as for GCMs analysis in terms of the area of individual types, in the continental scale some shifts of boundaries

  8. Downscaling NASA Climatological Data to Produce Detailed Climate Zone Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David J.; Whitlock, Charles H.; Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2011-01-01

    The design of energy efficient sustainable buildings is heavily dependent on accurate long-term and near real-time local weather data. To varying degrees the current meteorological networks over the globe have been used to provide these data albeit often from sites far removed from the desired location. The national need is for access to weather and solar resource data accurate enough to use to develop preliminary building designs within a short proposal time limit, usually within 60 days. The NASA Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project was established by NASA to provide industry friendly access to globally distributed solar and meteorological data. As a result, the POWER web site (power.larc.nasa.gov) now provides global information on many renewable energy parameters and several buildings-related items but at a relatively coarse resolution. This paper describes a method of downscaling NASA atmospheric assimilation model results to higher resolution and maps those parameters to produce building climate zone maps using estimates of temperature and precipitation. The distribution of climate zones for North America with an emphasis on the Pacific Northwest for just one year shows very good correspondence to the currently defined distribution. The method has the potential to provide a consistent procedure for deriving climate zone information on a global basis that can be assessed for variability and updated more regularly.

  9. Functional clustering for Italian climate zones identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giuseppe, E.; Jona Lasinio, G.; Esposito, S.; Pasqui, M.

    2013-10-01

    This work presents a functional clustering procedure applied to meteorological time series. Our proposal combines time series interpolation with smoothing penalized B-spline and the partitioning around medoids clustering algorithm. Our final goal is to obtain homogeneous climate zones of Italy. We compare this approach to standard methods based on a combination of principal component analysis and Cluster Analysis (CA) and we discuss it in relation to other functional clustering approaches based on Fourier analysis and CA. We show that a functional approach is simpler than the standard methods from a methodological and interpretability point of view. Indeed, it becomes natural to find a clear connection between mathematical results and physical variability mechanisms. We discuss how the choice of the basis expansion (splines, Fourier) affects the analysis and propose some comments on their use. The basis for classification is formed by monthly values of temperature and precipitation recorded during the period 1971-2000 over 95 and 94 Italian monitoring stations, respectively. An assessment based on climatic patterns is presented to prove the consistency of the clustering and a comparison of results obtained with different methods is used to judge the functional data approach.

  10. Fault-Zone Maturity Defines Maximum Earthquake Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnhoff, M.; Bulut, F.; Stierle, E.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Estimating the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on transform faults near large metropolitan areas has fundamental consequences for the expected hazard. Here we show that the maximum earthquakes on different sections of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) scale with the duration of fault zone activity, cumulative offset and length of individual fault segments. The findings are based on a compiled catalogue of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist due to the long civilization record. We find that the largest earthquakes (M~8) are exclusively observed along the well-developed part of the fault zone in the east. In contrast, the western part is still in a juvenile or transitional stage with historical earthquakes not exceeding M=7.4. This limits the current seismic hazard to NW Turkey and its largest regional population and economical center Istanbul. Our findings for the NAFZ are consistent with data from the two other major transform faults, the San Andreas fault in California and the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East. The results indicate that maximum earthquake magnitudes generally scale with fault-zone evolution.

  11. Defining and Responding to Issues of Canada's Coastal Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Defines and discusses critical issues for each of Canada's coastal regions (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, and Great Lakes) in environmental, technological, social, and political contexts; reviews recent efforts to obtain and use environmental information; and highlights alternative ways of achieving better stewardship. (Author/DH)

  12. Multiclass Classification of Agro-Ecological Zones for Arabica Coffee: An Improved Understanding of the Impacts of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Christian; Läderach, Peter; Pérez Jimenez, Juan Guillermo; Montagnon, Christophe; Schilling, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of Coffea arabica is highly sensitive to and has been shown to be negatively impacted by progressive climatic changes. Previous research contributed little to support forward-looking adaptation. Agro-ecological zoning is a common tool to identify homologous environments and prioritize research. We demonstrate here a pragmatic approach to describe spatial changes in agro-climatic zones suitable for coffee under current and future climates. We defined agro-ecological zones suitable to produce arabica coffee by clustering geo-referenced coffee occurrence locations based on bio-climatic variables. We used random forest classification of climate data layers to model the spatial distribution of these agro-ecological zones. We used these zones to identify spatially explicit impact scenarios and to choose locations for the long-term evaluation of adaptation measures as climate changes. We found that in zones currently classified as hot and dry, climate change will impact arabica more than those that are better suited to it. Research in these zones should therefore focus on expanding arabica's environmental limits. Zones that currently have climates better suited for arabica will migrate upwards by about 500m in elevation. In these zones the up-slope migration will be gradual, but will likely have negative ecosystem impacts. Additionally, we identified locations that with high probability will not change their climatic characteristics and are suitable to evaluate C. arabica germplasm in the face of climate change. These locations should be used to investigate long term adaptation strategies to production systems. PMID:26505637

  13. Multiclass Classification of Agro-Ecological Zones for Arabica Coffee: An Improved Understanding of the Impacts of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christian; Läderach, Peter; Pérez Jimenez, Juan Guillermo; Montagnon, Christophe; Schilling, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of Coffea arabica is highly sensitive to and has been shown to be negatively impacted by progressive climatic changes. Previous research contributed little to support forward-looking adaptation. Agro-ecological zoning is a common tool to identify homologous environments and prioritize research. We demonstrate here a pragmatic approach to describe spatial changes in agro-climatic zones suitable for coffee under current and future climates. We defined agro-ecological zones suitable to produce arabica coffee by clustering geo-referenced coffee occurrence locations based on bio-climatic variables. We used random forest classification of climate data layers to model the spatial distribution of these agro-ecological zones. We used these zones to identify spatially explicit impact scenarios and to choose locations for the long-term evaluation of adaptation measures as climate changes. We found that in zones currently classified as hot and dry, climate change will impact arabica more than those that are better suited to it. Research in these zones should therefore focus on expanding arabica's environmental limits. Zones that currently have climates better suited for arabica will migrate upwards by about 500m in elevation. In these zones the up-slope migration will be gradual, but will likely have negative ecosystem impacts. Additionally, we identified locations that with high probability will not change their climatic characteristics and are suitable to evaluate C. arabica germplasm in the face of climate change. These locations should be used to investigate long term adaptation strategies to production systems.

  14. Characterization of climatic zones, variability and trend in northern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djomou, Zéphirin Yepdo; Monkam, David; Chamani, Roméo

    2015-03-01

    Using precipitation data from the Climatic Research Unit and the cluster analysis method, the northern Africa (0-30°N; 20°W-40°E) was sub-divided into four homogenous climatic zones for the base period (P0) 1901-1940. The four climatic zones were distributed into Saharan, Sahelian, wet tropical and equatorial climate types. The application of a segment of 15 years with overlap going from 1901-1940 (P0) and 1961 to 2000 (P4) throughout the periods 1916-1955 (P1), 1931-1970 (P2) and 1946-1985 (P3), shows important spatio-temporal modifications of rainfall zones south of 15°N . The semiarid lands (Sahelian) which govern the dynamics of this zone doubled at the end of the twentieth century, while the wet tropical and equatorial zones decreased at the half. Temperature trends have a magnitude of up to 1.5 K per century in all the four climatic zones. This warming was mainly observed during the last three decades. During these same three decades, regional precipitation trends were less significant. The extreme conditions in temperature and the precipitation were analysed in terms of their persistence. The sporadic long-lasting extreme conditions appear for several years to over 10 years during the last century.

  15. On validation of the rain climatic zone designations for Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiyemi, O. O.; Ibiyemi, T. S.; Ojo, J. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, validation of rain climatic zone classifications for Nigeria is presented based on global radio-climatic models by the International Telecommunication Union-Radiocommunication (ITU-R) and Crane. Rain rate estimates deduced from several ground-based measurements and those earlier estimated from the precipitation index on the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM) were employed for the validation exercise. Although earlier classifications indicated that Nigeria falls into zones P, Q, N, and K for the ITU-R designations, and zones E and H for Crane's climatic zone designations, the results however confirmed that the rain climatic zones across Nigeria can only be classified into four, namely P, Q, M, and N for the ITU-R designations, while the designations by Crane exhibited only three zones, namely E, G, and H. The ITU-R classification was found to be more suitable for planning microwave and millimeter wave links across Nigeria. The research outcomes are vital in boosting the confidence level of system designers in using the ITU-R designations as presented in the map developed for the rain zone designations for estimating the attenuation induced by rain along satellite and terrestrial microwave links over Nigeria.

  16. Control of climate and litter quality on leaf litter decomposition in different climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Climate and initial litter quality are the major factors influencing decomposition rates on large scales. We established a comprehensive database of terrestrial leaf litter decomposition, including 785 datasets, to examine the relationship between climate and litter quality and evaluate the factors controlling decomposition on a global scale, the arid and semi-arid (AS) zone, the humid middle and humid low (HL) latitude zones. Initial litter nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration only increased with mean annual temperature (MAT) in the AS zone and decreased with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the HL zone. Compared with nutrient content, MAT imposed less effect on initial litter lignin content than MAP. MAT were the most important decomposition driving factors on a global scale as well as in different climatic zones. MAP only significantly affected decomposition constants in AS zone. Although litter quality parameters also showed significant influence on decomposition, their importance was less than the climatic factors. Besides, different litter quality parameters exerted significant influence on decomposition in different climatic zones. Our results emphasized that climate consistently exerted important effects on decomposition constants across different climatic zones.

  17. Fault-Zone Maturity Defines Maximum Earthquake Magnitude: The case of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnhoff, Marco; Bulut, Fatih; Stierle, Eva; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia; Benzion, Yehuda

    2015-04-01

    Estimating the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on transform faults near large metropolitan areas has fundamental consequences for the expected hazard. Here we show that the maximum earthquakes on different sections of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) scale with the duration of fault zone activity, cumulative offset and length of individual fault segments. The findings are based on a compiled catalogue of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist due to the long civilization record. We find that the largest earthquakes (M~8) are exclusively observed along the well-developed part of the fault zone in the east. In contrast, the western part is still in a juvenile or transitional stage with historical earthquakes not exceeding M=7.4. This limits the current seismic hazard to NW Turkey and its largest regional population and economical center Istanbul. Our findings for the NAFZ are consistent with data from the two other major transform faults, the San Andreas fault in California and the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East. The results indicate that maximum earthquake magnitudes generally scale with fault-zone evolution.

  18. Defining an Effective Damage Zone from the Topological Connectivity of Deformation Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, S.; Edwards, P.; Sanderson, D. J.; Kim, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    The length, intensity, and geometrical and topological characteristics of the deformation bands in the damage zone have been analysed along the length of the Bartlett Fault, Utah and through its linked section to the Moab Fault. Samples were also collected at each location for porosity and permeability analysis to understand the effect of the deformation bands on the fluid flow characteristics of the damage zone. Significant changes in deformation band density and connectivity occur along strike of the fault, creating zones of high connectivity in damage zones. The complexity of the damage zone and the connectivity of the deformation bands can change permeability along and across faults. Changes in intensity and strike of the deformation bands occur, particularly in linkage damage zones or remnant linkage damage zones. In these areas the intensity of deformation bands often increases, but in some cases decreases. To estimate fluid flow reduction around sandstone reservoirs, we define an 'effective damage zone', as the damage zone volume around the fault core that is topologically connected. This effective damage zone can be used to predict compartments of reduced permeability in and around the fault damage zone. We calculated the width of an effective damage zone using proportion of connecting nodes in the damage networks, and the distance from the fault at which the network is not connected. The geometry of deformation bands in the damage zone (parallel to the fault strike) results in directional differences in fluid flow reduction through the networks. Fault normal flow would be reduced significantly more than fault parallel flow if the deformation bands were connected. An increase in the proportion of deformation bands to matrix, moving towards the fault, along with increases in connectivity would result in very low fault normal permeability within the effective damage zone. Changes in fault geometry, segmentation and linkage are important controlling factors

  19. Weather, Not Climate, Defines Distributions of Vagile Bird Species

    PubMed Central

    Reside, April E.; VanDerWal, Jeremy J.; Kutt, Alex S.; Perkins, Genevieve C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate predictions of species distributions are essential for climate change impact assessments. However the standard practice of using long-term climate averages to train species distribution models might mute important temporal patterns of species distribution. The benefit of using temporally explicit weather and distribution data has not been assessed. We hypothesized that short-term weather associated with the time a species was recorded should be superior to long-term climate measures for predicting distributions of mobile species. Methodology We tested our hypothesis by generating distribution models for 157 bird species found in Australian tropical savannas (ATS) using modelling algorithm Maxent. The variable weather of the ATS supports a bird assemblage with variable movement patterns and a high incidence of nomadism. We developed “weather” models by relating climatic variables (mean temperature, rainfall, rainfall seasonality and temperature seasonality) from the three month, six month and one year period preceding each bird record over a 58 year period (1950–2008). These weather models were compared against models built using long-term (30 year) averages of the same climatic variables. Conclusions Weather models consistently achieved higher model scores than climate models, particularly for wide-ranging, nomadic and desert species. Climate models predicted larger range areas for species, whereas weather models quantified fluctuations in habitat suitability across months, seasons and years. Models based on long-term climate averages over-estimate availability of suitable habitat and species' climatic tolerances, masking species potential vulnerability to climate change. Our results demonstrate that dynamic approaches to distribution modelling, such as incorporating organism-appropriate temporal scales, improves understanding of species distributions. PMID:21042575

  20. Sensitivity of Vadose Zone Water Fluxes to Climate Shifts in Arid Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Pfletschinger, H.; Prömmel, K.; Schüth, C.; Herbst, M.; Engelhardt, I.

    2014-01-01

    Vadose zone water fluxes in arid settings are investigated regarding their sensitivity to hydraulic soil parameters and meteorological data. The study is based on the inverse modeling of highly defined soil column experiments and subsequent scenario modeling comparing different climate projections for a defined arid region. In arid regions, groundwater resources are prone to depletion due to excessive water use and little recharge potential. Especially in sand dune areas, groundwater recharge is highly dependent on vadose zone properties and corresponding water fluxes. Nevertheless, vadose zone water fluxes under arid conditions are hard to determine owing to, among other reasons, deep vadose zones with generally low fluxes and only sporadic high infiltration events. In this study, we present an inverse model of infiltration experiments accounting for variable saturated nonisothermal water fluxes to estimate effective hydraulic and thermal parameters of dune sands. A subsequent scenario modeling links the results of the inverse model with projections of a global climate model until 2100. The scenario modeling clearly showed the high dependency of groundwater recharge on precipitation amounts and intensities, whereas temperature increases are only of minor importance for deep infiltration. However, simulated precipitation rates are still affected by high uncertainties in the response to the hydrological input data of the climate model. Thus, higher certainty in the prediction of precipitation pattern is a major future goal for climate modeling to constrain future groundwater management strategies in arid regions.

  1. Defining Canadian Perspectives on Climate Change Science and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence of potentially disastrous change in global climate, little is being accomplished in climate mitigation or adaptation in Canada. The energy sector in Canada is still primarily oil and gas, with huge tax breaks to the industry in spite of well known harmful regional and global impacts of fossil fuel pollution. One of the largest concerns for the climate science community is the variable and often complacent attitude many Canadians share on the issue of climate change. The objective herein is twofold: (1) a survey tool will be used to assess the views and opinions of Canadians on climate change science and solutions; (2) develop better communication methods for industry, government and NGOs to share the science and solutions with the public. The study results will inform the Canadian public, policy makers and industry of practical, effective changes needed to address climate change challenges. A survey of Canadians' perspectives is an important step in policy changing research. The climate research and application community must know the most effective ways to communicate the science and solutions with a public that is often resistant to change. The AGU presentation will feature the results of the survey, while continued work into 2015 will be towards advancing communication. This study is both timely and crucial for science communicators in understanding how Canadians view climate change, considering, for example, devastatingly extreme weather being experienced of late and its effect on the economy. The results will assist in recognizing how to encourage Canadians to work towards a more sustainable and resilient energy sector in Canada and abroad.

  2. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; McMillan, Hilary; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    The catchment representative root zone storage capacity (Sr), i.e. the plant available soil water, is an important parameter of hydrological systems. It does not only influence the runoff from catchments, by controlling the partitioning of water fluxes but it also influences the local climate, by providing the source for transpiration. Sr is difficult to observe at catchment scale, due to heterogeneities in vegetation and soils. Sr estimates are traditionally derived from soil characteristics and estimates of root depths. In contrast, a recently suggested method allows the determination of Sr based on climate data, i.e. precipitation and evaporation, alone (Gao et al., 2014). By doing so, the time-variable size of Sr, is explicitly accounted for, which is not the case for traditional soil based methods. The time-variable size of Sr reflects root growth and thus the vegetation's adaption to medium-term fluctuations in the climate. Thus, we tested and compared Sr estimates from this 'climate based method' with estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show a larger range in climate derived Sr than in soil derived Sr. Using a model experiment, we show that a model using the climate derived Sr is more accurately able to reproduce a set of hydrological regime signatures, in particular for humid catchments. For more arid catchments, the two methods provide similar model results. This implies that, although soil database information has some predictive power for model soil storage capacity, climate has a similar or greater control on Sr, as climate affects the evolving hydrological functioning of the root zone at the time scale of hydrological interest. In addition, Sr represents the plant available water and thus root surface, volume and density, and is therefore a more complete descriptor of vegetation influence on water fluxes than mere root depth. On balance, the results indicate that climate has a higher explanatory power than soils for

  3. Defining, Assessing, and Improving Community Junior College Instructional Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, Stephen; Newport, Donald L.

    A study was conducted to determine the perceptions of students and faculty members concerning an effective instructional climate in which satisfying and successful teaching and learning occur. A questionnaire was developed for use as a means of gaining such perceptions in terms of 70 possible attributes. Usable responses were received from 2,058…

  4. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer-Euser, T.; McMillan, H.; Hrachowitz, M.; Winsemius, H.; Savenije, H.

    2015-12-01

    The catchment representative root zone storage capacity (Sr), i.e. the plant available soil water, is an important parameter of hydrological systems. It does not only influence the runoff from catchments, by controlling the partitioning of water fluxes but it also influences the local climate, by providing the source for transpiration. Sr is difficult to observe at catchment scale, due to heterogeneities in vegetation and soils. Sr estimates are traditionally derived from soil characteristics and estimates of root depths. In contrast, a recently suggested method allows the determination of Sr based on climate data, i.e. precipitation and evaporation, alone (Gao et al., 2014). By doing so, the time-variable size of Sr, is explicitly accounted for, which is not the case for traditional soil based methods. The time-variable size of Sr reflects root growth and thus the vegetation's adaption to medium-term fluctuations in the climate. Thus, we tested and compared Sr estimates from this 'climate based method' with estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show a larger range in climate derived Sr than in soil derived Sr. Using a model experiment, we show that a model using the climate derived Sr is more accurately able to reproduce a set of hydrological regime signatures, in particular for humid catchments. For more arid catchments, the two methods provide similar model results. This implies that, although soil information has some predictive power for Sr, climate has a similar or greater control on Sr, as climate affects the evolving hydrological functioning of the root zone at the time scale of hydrological interest. In addition, Sr represents the plant available water and thus root surface, volume and density, and is therefore a more complete descriptor of vegetation influence on water fluxes than mere root depth. On balance, the results indicate that climate has a higher explanatory power than soils for catchment representative Sr.

  5. Visualizing Life Zone Boundary Sensitivities Across Climate Models and Temporal Spans

    SciTech Connect

    Sisneros, Roberto R; Huang, Jian; Ostrouchov, George; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2011-01-01

    Life zones are a convenient and quantifiable method for delineating areas with similar plant and animal communities based on bioclimatic conditions. Such ecoregionalization techniques have proved useful for defining habitats and for studying how these habitats may shift due to environmental change. The ecological impacts of climate change are of particular interest. Here we show that visualizations of the geographic projection of life zones may be applied to the investigation of potential ecological impacts of climate change using the results of global climate model simulations. Using a multi-factor classification scheme, we show how life zones change over time based on quantitative model results into the next century. Using two straightforward metrics, we identify regions of high sensitivity to climate changes from two global climate simulations under two different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Finally, we identify how preferred human habitats may shift under these scenarios. We apply visualization methods developed for the purpose of displaying multivariate relationships within data, especially for situations that involve a large number of concurrent relationships. Our method is based on the concept of multivariate classification, and is implemented directly in VisIt, a production quality visualization package.

  6. Towards Defining Probability Forecasts of Likely Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.; Allen, M. R.; Stainforth, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    There is strong desire for probabilistic forecasts of climate change, both for policy making and risk management, as well as scientific interest. The extent to which this desire can be satisfied scientifically is unclear. The aim of this paper is to explore (i) current methods for extracting probability forecasts and (ii) alternative deliverables which have a firm scientific basis given the current limitations to the state of the art. Even ``physics-based" models contain empirically determined paramters and parameterizations. While it is straightforward to make `ensembles' over initial conditions, parameter values and even several model structures, the interpretation of the resulting ensemble of simulations requires some care. Methods for extracting probability forecasts from ensembles of model simulations will be discussed in terms of their relevance and internal consistency, a particular example being provided by Murphy et al (Nature, 2004). This approach will be compared and contrasted with one proposed by climateprediction.net (Stainforth et al, Nature, in review), which strives to produce policy relevant information when no coherent probability forecast can be extracted from the limited ensembles available in practice. The role of the Bayesian paradigm will be considered in both cases. Extracting probability distributions in the context of climate change requires consideration of a discrete sample drawn from a high dimensional space. The analysis of small ensembles requires further assumptions of linearity and smoothness which must be verified explicitly; even when ``large" ensembles are to hand, the analysis of the collection of simulations requires combining mutually exclusive runs, sampling a restricted region of the parameter space, under a set of models with related shortcoming. Historical observations serve to lift some of these difficulties, but attempts to fold observations into the analysis (say, in terms of weighting sets of simulations differently

  7. Spatial changes of Extended De Martonne climatic zones affected by climate change in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Jaber; Ebrahimpour, Meisam; Khalili, Ali

    2013-05-01

    In order to better understand the effect associated with global climate change on Iran's climate condition, it is important to quantify possible shifts in different climatic types in the future. To this end, monthly mean minimum and maximum temperature, and precipitation from 181 synoptic meteorological stations (average 1970-2005) have been collected from the meteorological organization of Iran. In this paper, to study spatial changes of Iran's climatic zones affected by climate changes, Extended De Martonne's classification (originally formulated by De Martonne and extended by Khalili (1992)) was used. Climate change scenarios were simulated in two future climates (average conditions during the 2050s and the 2080s) under each of the SRES A1B and A2, for the CSIRO-MK3, HadCM3, and CGCM3 climate models. Coarse outputs of GCMs were downscaled by delta method. We produced all maps for three time periods (one for the current and two for the future) according to Extended De Martonne's classification. Finally, for each climatic zone, changes between the current and the future were compared. As the main result, simulated changes indicate shifts to warmer and drier zones. For example, in the current, extra arid-cold ( A1.1m2) climate is covering the largest area of the country (21.4 %), whereas in both A1B and A2 scenarios in the 2050s and the 2080s, extra arid-moderate ( A1.1m3) and extra arid-warm ( A1.1m4) will be the climate and will occupy the largest area of the country, about 21 and 38 %, respectively. This analysis suggests that the global climate change will have a profound effect on the future distribution of severe aridity in Iran.

  8. The drivers of ET sensitivity for different climate zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Danlu; Westra, Seth; Maier, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Assessing evapotranspiration (ET) sensitivity is critical to understand the impact of different climate variables for ET estimation under changing climate. This study assesses the ET sensitivity across a large number of plausible climate conditions as a function of both the baseline hydroclimatic conditions and the ET model choice. We first define the plausible ranges of change for each variable based on available climate projections, over which the ET sensitivity will be estimated. We investigate the impact of different hydro-climatic conditions on the sensitivity of the Penman-Monteith PET estimates with 30 study sites across Australia. By perturbing each ET-related climate variable individually within their plausible range, we observe that the baseline conditions, especially T , RH, Rs and PET, play important roles on the ET sensitivity. Importantly, humid temperate catchments show higher sensitivity to climate changes while catchments within the dry and hot regions tend to maintain a more stable PET in the future. PET also shows higher sensitivity to changes in climate variables under energy-limited conditions, which can mean an elevated water loss through increasing actual ET and can have substantial implications on water balance under changing climates. To allow comparison of ET sensitivities across 11 alternative ET models with different input data requirements, we then followed the global sensitivity analysis in which the ET-related climate variables are perturbed jointly. From different ET models, we obtained contrasting ranges of ET estimates and identified different key climate variables that drive the estimates, which can be explained by their different process representations and assumptions. The results highlighted the importance of ensemble modelling for enhancing our overall understanding of the expected ranges of ET estimates under future climate changes.

  9. Edge-defined contact heater apparatus and method for floating zone crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kou, Sindo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for growing a monocrystalline body (30) from a polycrystalline feed rod (22) includes a heater (20) that is positioned to heat a short section of the polycrystalline rod (22) to create a molten zone (34). The heater (20) is formed to include a shaper (40) that contacts the polycrystalline rod (22) in the molten zone (34) and has a hole (46) to allow flow in the molten zone (34) between the polycrystalline rod (22) side and the monocrystalline body (30) side of the shaper. The shaper (40) has an edge (42) that defines the boundary of the cross-section of the monocrystalline body (30) that is formed as the molten material solidifies.

  10. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer-Euser, Tanja; McMillan, Hilary K.; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-03-01

    Root zone storage capacity (Sr) is an important variable for hydrology and climate studies, as it strongly influences the hydrological functioning of a catchment and, via evaporation, the local climate. Despite its importance, it remains difficult to obtain a well-founded catchment representative estimate. This study tests the hypothesis that vegetation adapts its Sr to create a buffer large enough to sustain the plant during drought conditions of a certain critical strength (with a certain probability of exceedance). Following this method, Sr can be estimated from precipitation and evaporative demand data. The results of this "climate-based method" are compared with traditional estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show that the differences between catchments in climate-derived catchment representative Sr values are larger than for soil-derived Sr values. Using a model experiment, we show that the climate-derived Sr can better reproduce hydrological regime signatures for humid catchments; for more arid catchments, the soil and climate methods perform similarly. This makes the climate-based Sr a valuable addition for increasing hydrological understanding and reducing hydrological model uncertainty.

  11. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 11. Climate Zone 3 cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Responses for Climate Zone 3 to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) are presented. Climate Zone 3 is defined according to the sum of heating and cooling degree days, and amounts to 7000 to 7999. A map outlines these four zones. The fifty questions were cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana, with a total of 4030 households sampled. 480 households were sampled in Climate Zone 3. Information on 54 tables is explained. (MCW)

  12. Climate Change Is "a Defining Issue of Our Time," Joint Report States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-03-01

    Noting that "climate change is one of the defining issues of our time," a 26 February report jointly issued by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Royal Society in the United Kingdom aims to provide a clearly written reference document for policy makers, educators, and others about the current state of climate change science.

  13. Analysis of projected climate change in the Carpathian Basin region based on Holdridge life zone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Sümegi, Pál

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays more and more environmental lobbyists believe that climate change must be demonstrated in a new form. The estimated temperature increase can be realized more easily, if the emphasis is on ecological effects of the predicted temperature. For this reason a bioclimatic classification method was used to analyse the projected changes for the Carpathian Basin region. We applied the Holdridge life zone system, which is relatively simple, so our results can be used to inform the population. Holdridge developed a geometric model for climate classification which declares the relationship between classes (life zones) and climate indices (mean annual biotemperature, average total annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration ratio). The necessary data for this study was derived from regional climate model (RCM) experiments of the ENSEMBLES project using the SRES A1B emission scenario. The temperature and precipitation data series were bias corrected for the selected RCM simulations. The target area of our investigations is the Carpathian Basin region. Life zones maps were created using the selected RCM simulations and their ensemble mean for the periods: 1961-1990 (T1), 2021-2050 (T2), 2061-2090 (T3). The spatial distribution of life zones and their temporal changes were investigated. According to our results the spatial pattern of life zones changes significantly from T1 to T3. It is possible that some types of life zones (e.g. boreal rain forest) will disappear; and some types (e.g. warm temperate thorn steppe) will appear in the target area. We determined those RCM simulations which predicted the maximum and minimum changes of the spatial pattern of life zones. Maps of T1 were compared to maps of T3 using Cohen's Kappa coefficient. Furthermore, relative extents, vertical distribution patterns and mean centres of life zones have been analysed. These parameters were defined for each decade and also for T1, T2 and T3. The temporal changes of the decadal values

  14. An Assessment of Actual and Potential Building Climate Zone Change and Variability From the Last 30 Years Through 2100 Using NASA's MERRA and CMIP5 Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the US, residential and commercial building infrastructure combined consumes about 40% of total energy usage and emits about 39% of total CO2 emission (DOE/EIA "Annual Energy Outlook 2013"). Building codes, as used by local and state enforcement entities are typically tied to the dominant climate within an enforcement jurisdiction classified according to various climate zones. These climate zones are based upon a 30-year average of local surface observations and are developed by DOE and ASHRAE. Establishing the current variability and potential changes to future building climate zones is very important for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings and reducing energy costs and emissions in the future. Objectives: This paper demonstrates the usefulness of using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric data assimilation to derive the DOE/ASHRAE building climate zone maps and then using MERRA to define the last 30 years of variability in climate zones for the Continental US. An atmospheric assimilation is a global atmospheric model optimized to satellite, atmospheric and surface in situ measurements. Using MERRA as a baseline, we then evaluate the latest Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) climate model Version 5 runs to assess potential variability in future climate zones under various assumptions. Methods: We derive DOE/ASHRAE building climate zones using surface and temperature data products from MERRA. We assess these zones using the uncertainties derived by comparison to surface measurements. Using statistical tests, we evaluate variability of the climate zones in time and assess areas in the continental US for statistically significant trends by region. CMIP 5 produced a data base of over two dozen detailed climate model runs under various greenhouse gas forcing assumptions. We evaluate the variation in building climate zones for 3 different decades using an ensemble and quartile

  15. Climate change effects of the vadose zone on runoff dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischeid, Gunnar; Steidl, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is assumed to have substantial impact on water budgets in many regions. Many studies investigated the effect of changes of precipitation and/or evapotranspiration on total runoff as well as on groundwater levels. In contrast, runoff dynamics likely will be affected as well which has been considered less often: Climate change might affect the way how a catchment's runoff reacts to heavy rainstorms. Those effects should be considered with respect to flood risk assessment, seasonal stream water availability, etc. Advanced methods of data analysis have been applied to a variety of different data sets of groundwater head, soil water content and discharge data from various catchments. There was no evidence for interflow runoff processes in these catchments. We identified two different effects. Firstly, we found clear evidence that the temporal pattern of groundwater heads in the first place reflected vadose zone processes. The precipitation input signal is transformed in a characteristic way during vertical seepage flux: Time series of soil water content are increasingly more low-pass filtered, damped, smoothed and delayed with increasing depth. Principal component analysis of these time series can be used to quantify the degree of transformation. It could be shown that the spatial heterogeneity of time series of groundwater head is closely related to the local thickness of the vadose zone as well as to local soil texture. Secondly, applying the same approach to merged data sets of groundwater head and discharge data revealed that the hydrographs could be regarded as superpositions of the contributions of single flowpaths. Thus, more responsive hydrographs point to a rather large area of shallow groundwater in the riparian zone close to the stream, which increases with increasing density of the stream network. In contrast, upper reaches of the streams fell dry when groundwater levels drop below the stream bed. As a consequence, the stream behaves less

  16. Defining the worst case scenario for the Makran Subduction Zone: the 1008 AD tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Goesta

    2016-04-01

    correlated to the 1008 AD earthquake and tsunami inundation. The boulder deposits as well as the archaeological remains testify for a maximum tsunami runup of 15m, exceeding by far the inundation as observed in 1945. We define this as the worst case scenario for the Makran Subduction Zone. However, the return period is rather large (>500 years).

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 110 - Climatic Zones Used To Determine Rates of Commutation Allowance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Virginia 42. Wisconsin 43. Wyoming The climate zones listed above are to be used as a guide to determine... commanders may request a zone change by submitting evidence to the Major Command of the appropriate...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 110 - Climatic Zones Used To Determine Rates of Commutation Allowance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Virginia 42. Wisconsin 43. Wyoming The climate zones listed above are to be used as a guide to determine... commanders may request a zone change by submitting evidence to the Major Command of the appropriate...

  19. Regional climate model projections of the South Pacific Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. P.; Bormann, K.; Katzfey, J.; Dean, S.; Arritt, R.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents results from regional climate model (RCM) projections for the south-west Pacific Ocean. The regional models used bias corrected sea surface temperatures. Six global climate models (GCMs) were used to drive a global variable resolution model on a quasi-uniform 60 km grid. One of these simulations was used to drive three limited area regional models. Thus a four member ensemble was produced by different RCMs downscaling the same GCM (GFDL2.1), and a six member ensemble was produced by the same RCM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model—CCAM) downscaling six different GCMs. Comparison of the model results with precipitation observations shows the differences to be dominated by the choice of RCM, with all the CCAM simulations performing similarly and generally having lower error than the other RCMs. However, evaluating aspects of the model representation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) does not show CCAM to perform better in this regard. In terms of the future projections of the SPCZ for the December-January-February season, the ensemble showed no consensus change in most characteristics though a majority of the ensemble members project a decrease in the SPCZ strength. Thus, similar to GCM based studies, there is large uncertainty concerning future changes in the SPCZ and there is no evidence to suggest that future changes will be outside the natural variability. These RCM simulations do not support an increase in the frequency of zonal SPCZ events.

  20. Defining and Measuring Safety Climate: A Review of the Construction Industry Literature.

    PubMed

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Hecker, Steven; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Safety climate measurements can be used to proactively assess an organization's effectiveness in identifying and remediating work-related hazards, thereby reducing or preventing work-related ill health and injury. This review article focuses on construction-specific articles that developed and/or measured safety climate, assessed safety climate's relationship with other safety and health performance indicators, and/or used safety climate measures to evaluate interventions targeting one or more indicators of safety climate. Fifty-six articles met our inclusion criteria, 80% of which were published after 2008. Our findings demonstrate that researchers commonly defined safety climate as perception based, but the object of those perceptions varies widely. Within the wide range of indicators used to measure safety climate, safety policies, procedures, and practices were the most common, followed by general management commitment to safety. The most frequently used indicators should and do reflect that the prevention of work-related ill health and injury depends on both organizational and employee actions. Safety climate scores were commonly compared between groups (e.g. management and workers, different trades), and often correlated with subjective measures of safety behavior rather than measures of ill health or objective safety and health outcomes. Despite the observed limitations of current research, safety climate has been promised as a useful feature of research and practice activities to prevent work-related ill health and injury. Safety climate survey data can reveal gaps between management and employee perceptions, or between espoused and enacted policies, and trigger communication and action to narrow those gaps. The validation of safety climate with safety and health performance data offers the potential for using safety climate measures as a leading indicator of performance. We discuss these findings in relation to the related concept of safety culture and

  1. Defining and Measuring Safety Climate: A Review of the Construction Industry Literature.

    PubMed

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Hecker, Steven; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Safety climate measurements can be used to proactively assess an organization's effectiveness in identifying and remediating work-related hazards, thereby reducing or preventing work-related ill health and injury. This review article focuses on construction-specific articles that developed and/or measured safety climate, assessed safety climate's relationship with other safety and health performance indicators, and/or used safety climate measures to evaluate interventions targeting one or more indicators of safety climate. Fifty-six articles met our inclusion criteria, 80% of which were published after 2008. Our findings demonstrate that researchers commonly defined safety climate as perception based, but the object of those perceptions varies widely. Within the wide range of indicators used to measure safety climate, safety policies, procedures, and practices were the most common, followed by general management commitment to safety. The most frequently used indicators should and do reflect that the prevention of work-related ill health and injury depends on both organizational and employee actions. Safety climate scores were commonly compared between groups (e.g. management and workers, different trades), and often correlated with subjective measures of safety behavior rather than measures of ill health or objective safety and health outcomes. Despite the observed limitations of current research, safety climate has been promised as a useful feature of research and practice activities to prevent work-related ill health and injury. Safety climate survey data can reveal gaps between management and employee perceptions, or between espoused and enacted policies, and trigger communication and action to narrow those gaps. The validation of safety climate with safety and health performance data offers the potential for using safety climate measures as a leading indicator of performance. We discuss these findings in relation to the related concept of safety culture and

  2. Interactions between climate change, hydrology and soil erosion in different climatic zones in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, A.; Pavanelli, D.

    2010-03-01

    In Italy, during last century the mean annual temperature (Tym) increased by 0.4°C/100 years in Northern areas (N) (continental zone) and by 0.7°C/100 years in Central (C) and Southern (S) parts (peninsular zones). A negative trend of annual rainfall (Py) was evident in both N and S areas. Extreme events had different tendencies, corresponding to increases in rainfall intensity and in drought conditions in both N and S areas. Climate change affects both vegetation water availability and runoff and erosion. Different results on climatic trends were obtained for smaller sub-regions of Southern Italy. Therefore, climate change studies at a regional level should also account for geographical factors (e.g. distance from the sea, elevation, aspect). In the current study trend in precipitation recorded during last century in three different climatic zones in Italy were investigated and compared. The three zones are: a typical Tuscan-Emilian Apennines watershed (the Reno river) located in the continental area, the Calabria region located in the peninsular zone, and the Sicily region, an island located in the South of Italy. For Reno river mountain watershed (2.597 km2), an attempt was made to gain some knowledge about the changes in the 20th century of the land use and of the climate, connected to the erosion soil risk. The Italian Apennines, from the 16th century, were exploited for farming and for agro forestry and pastoral activities. This human activities encouraged intense erosive processes, but an important factor controlling the intense morphodynamics is the contemporary increase of rainfall in the "Little Ice Age". From the beginning of the 1900, have been led two conflicting and simultaneous phenomena: population moving both to cities and valley bottoms and agricultural mechanization. Their consequences have been evident on land use: abandonment of unproductive fields, of forestry practices and enlargement of the remaining plots. The Calabria region is a long

  3. Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Yin, Rongxin; Brown, Carrie; Kim, DongEun

    2009-06-01

    The potential for using building thermal mass for load shifting and peak energy demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. Previous Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory research has demonstrated that the approach is very effective in cool and moderately warm climate conditions (California Climate Zones 2-4). However, this method had not been tested in hotter climate zones. This project studied the potential of pre-cooling the building early in the morning and increasing temperature setpoints during peak hours to reduce cooling-related demand in two typical office buildings in hotter California climates ? one in Visalia (CEC Climate Zone 13) and the other in San Bernardino (CEC Climate Zone 10). The conclusion of the work to date is that pre-cooling in hotter climates has similar potential to that seen previously in cool and moderate climates. All other factors being equal, results to date indicate that pre-cooling increases the depth (kW) and duration (kWh) of the possible demand shed of a given building. The effectiveness of night pre-cooling in typical office building under hot weather conditions is very limited. However, night pre-cooling is helpful for office buildings with an undersized HVAC system. Further work is required to duplicate the tests in other typical buildings and in other hot climate zones and prove that pre-cooling is truly effective.

  4. Integration of climatic indices in an objective probabilistic model for establishing and mapping viticultural climatic zones in a region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luis L.; García, Abelardo; Honorio, Fulgencio

    2016-05-01

    Different climatic indices have been proposed to determine the wine suitability in a region. Some of them are related to the air temperature, but the hydric component of climate should also be considered which, in turn, is influenced by the precipitation during the different stages of the grapevine growing and ripening periods. In this study, we propose using the information obtained from ten climatic indices [heliothermal index (HI), cool night index (CI), dryness index (DI), growing season temperature (GST), the Winkler index (WI), September mean thermal amplitude (MTA), annual precipitation (AP), precipitation during flowering (PDF), precipitation before flowering (PBF), and summer precipitation (SP)] as inputs in an objective and probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of integrating the individual effects of them, obtaining the climate data that summarize all main climatic indices, which could influence on wine suitability from a climate viewpoint, and utilizing the Rasch measures to generate homogeneous climatic zones. The use of the Rasch model to estimate viticultural climatic suitability constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a region where high viticultural potential exists and establishing a ranking of the climatic indices which exerts an important influence on wine suitability in a region. Furthermore, from the measures of viticultural climatic suitability at some locations, estimates can be computed using a geostatistical algorithm, and these estimates can be utilized to map viticultural climatic zones in a region. To illustrate the process, an application to Extremadura, southwestern Spain, is shown.

  5. Climatic zoning for the calculation of the thermal demand of buildings in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Pulido, Elena; Ruíz, Antonio; López, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports on a methodology to assess the climatic severity of a particular geographic region as compared to specific information available in the current regulations. The viability for each of the 387 municipalities in the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) is analysed, making a distinction between those with reliable climate reports and those for which no such information is available. In the case study, although the weather conditions in Extremadura are quite homogeneous according to the Spanish Technical Building Code (STBC 2015) classification and most areas are associated to zone C4 (soft winters and hot summers), the southern area in the region is associated to zone D1, similar to the north of Spain, where winters and summers are cool, which does not coincide with the actual climate in the south of Extremadura. The general climatic homogeneity in Extremadura was also highlighted with the new procedure, predominating zone C4, but unexpected or unreal climatic zoning was not generated, giving place to a consistent spatial distribution of zones throughout the region. Consequently, the proposed method allows a more accurate climatic zoning of any region in agreement with the Spanish legislation on energy efficiency in buildings, which would enhance the setting of thermal demand rates according to the actual climatic characterisation of the area in which a particular municipality is located.

  6. Congruence of zebrin II expression and functional zones defined by climbing fiber topography in the flocculus.

    PubMed

    Pakan, J M P; Wylie, D R W

    2008-11-11

    The cerebellum is organized into parasagittal zones with respect to the topography of climbing fiber (CF) afferents and the expression of molecular markers such as zebrin II. Zebrin is expressed by a subset of Purkinje cells that are distributed as a parasagittal array of immunopositive and immunonegative stripes. Several studies in rodents suggest that, in general, CFs to the zebrin negative stripes convey somatosensory information, whereas CFs to the zebrin positive stripes convey information from visual and other sensory systems. The pigeon flocculus consists of four pairs of zebrin+/- stripes (P4 +/- through P7 +/-), however the CF input consists entirely of visual inputs. Thus, because the correspondence of zebrin expression and CF information must be different from that proposed for rodents, we investigated this relationship in the pigeon flocculus. Floccular Purkinje cells respond to patterns of optic flow resulting from self-rotation about one of two axes: either the vertical axis (zones 0 and 2), or a horizontal axis (zones 1 and 3). Visual CF afferents projecting to the flocculus arise from the medial column of the inferior olive (mcIO). Zones 0 and 2 receive input from the caudal mcIO, whereas zones 1 and 3 receive input from the rostral mcIO. We injected a fluorescent anterograde tracer into the rostral and/or caudal mcIO and visualized zebrin expression. There was a strict concordance between CF organization and zebrin labeling: caudal mcIO injections resulted in CFs in zebrin bands P4 +/- and P6 +/-, whereas rostral mcIO injections resulted in CFs in zebrin bands P5 +/- and P7 +/-. Thus, zebrin stripes P4 +/- and P6 +/- correspond to the vertical axis zones 0 and 2, whereas P5 +/- and P7 +/- correspond to the horizontal axis zones 1 and 3. This is the first explicit demonstration that a series of zebrin stripes corresponds with functional zones in the cerebellum. PMID:18824220

  7. Defining the Brittle Failure Envelopes of Individual Reaction Zones Observed in CO2-Exposed Wellbore Cement.

    PubMed

    Hangx, Suzanne J T; van der Linden, Arjan; Marcelis, Fons; Liteanu, Emilia

    2016-01-19

    To predict the behavior of the cement sheath after CO2 injection and the potential for leakage pathways, it is key to understand how the mechanical properties of the cement evolves with CO2 exposure time. We performed scratch-hardness tests on hardened samples of class G cement before and after CO2 exposure. The cement was exposed to CO2-rich fluid for one to six months at 65 °C and 8 MPa Ptotal. Detailed SEM-EDX analyses showed reaction zones similar to those previously reported in the literature: (1) an outer-reacted, porous silica-rich zone; (2) a dense, carbonated zone; and (3) a more porous, Ca-depleted inner zone. The quantitative mechanical data (brittle compressive strength and friction coefficient) obtained for each of the zones suggest that the heterogeneity of reacted cement leads to a wide range of brittle strength values in any of the reaction zones, with only a rough dependence on exposure time. However, the data can be used to guide numerical modeling efforts needed to assess the impact of reaction-induced mechanical failure of wellbore cement by coupling sensitivity analysis and mechanical predictions. PMID:26690239

  8. Can we define the Impact of Climate Change on Ljubljansko polje Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracic Zeleznik, B.; Cencur Curk, B.

    2009-04-01

    and define the "natural" and "anthropological" Climate Change patterns.

  9. Quantitative determination of G6Pase activity in histochemically defined zones of the liver acinus.

    PubMed

    Teutsch, H F

    1978-12-13

    Qualitative histochemical G6Pase distribution patterns obtained with an improved method (Teutsch, 1978) served as the basis for a zonal microdissection of the liver acinus. G6Pase activity was determined quantitatively in tissue samples of zones 1 and 3 by a microfluorometric method (Burch et al., 1978). Using a correlation system it could be demonstrated that the histochemical distribution pattern obtained with the improved method was in better agreement with quantitatively estimated zonal differences of G6Pase activity, both in fed and starved female rats, than with the Wachstein and Meisel medium (1956). From a total of 50 tissue samples analyzed the following average G6Pase activities were calculated: in fed animals 15.36 +/- 3.48 U/g dry weight in zone 1, and 9.28 +/- 2.15 U/g dry weight in zone 3; in starved female rats 42.50 +/- 8.20 U/g dry weight in zone 1, and 29.25 +/- 5.68 U/g dry weight in zone 3. The qualitative histochemical as well as quantitative zonal differences of G6Pase activities are taken as further support for the hypothesis of metabolic zonation of liver parenchyma.

  10. Morphological adaptations for digging and climate-impacted soil properties define pocket gopher (Thomomys spp.) distributions.

    PubMed

    Marcy, Ariel E; Fendorf, Scott; Patton, James L; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Species ranges are mediated by physiology, environmental factors, and competition with other organisms. The allopatric distribution of five species of northern Californian pocket gophers (Thomomys spp.) is hypothesized to result from competitive exclusion. The five species in this environmentally heterogeneous region separate into two subgenera, Thomomys or Megascapheus, which have divergent digging styles. While all pocket gophers dig with their claws, the tooth-digging adaptations of subgenus Megascapheus allow access to harder soils and climate-protected depths. In a Northern Californian locality, replacement of subgenus Thomomys with subgenus Megascapheus occurred gradually during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Concurrent climate change over this transition suggests that environmental factors--in addition to soil--define pocket gopher distributional limits. Here we show 1) that all pocket gophers occupy the subset of less energetically costly soils and 2) that subgenera sort by percent soil clay, bulk density, and shrink-swell capacity (a mineralogical attribute). While clay and bulk density (without major perturbations) stay constant over decades to millennia, low precipitation and high temperatures can cause shrink-swell clays to crack and harden within days. The strong yet underappreciated interaction between soil and moisture on the distribution of vertebrates is rarely considered when projecting species responses to climatic change. Furthermore, increased precipitation alters the weathering processes that create shrink-swell minerals. Two projected outcomes of ongoing climate change--higher temperatures and precipitation--will dramatically impact hardness of soil with shrink-swell minerals. Current climate models do not include factors controlling soil hardness, despite its impact on all organisms that depend on a stable soil structure.

  11. Morphological Adaptations for Digging and Climate-Impacted Soil Properties Define Pocket Gopher (Thomomys spp.) Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Marcy, Ariel E.; Fendorf, Scott; Patton, James L.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Species ranges are mediated by physiology, environmental factors, and competition with other organisms. The allopatric distribution of five species of northern Californian pocket gophers (Thomomys spp.) is hypothesized to result from competitive exclusion. The five species in this environmentally heterogeneous region separate into two subgenera, Thomomys or Megascapheus, which have divergent digging styles. While all pocket gophers dig with their claws, the tooth-digging adaptations of subgenus Megascapheus allow access to harder soils and climate-protected depths. In a Northern Californian locality, replacement of subgenus Thomomys with subgenus Megascapheus occurred gradually during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Concurrent climate change over this transition suggests that environmental factors – in addition to soil – define pocket gopher distributional limits. Here we show 1) that all pocket gophers occupy the subset of less energetically costly soils and 2) that subgenera sort by percent soil clay, bulk density, and shrink-swell capacity (a mineralogical attribute). While clay and bulk density (without major perturbations) stay constant over decades to millennia, low precipitation and high temperatures can cause shrink-swell clays to crack and harden within days. The strong yet underappreciated interaction between soil and moisture on the distribution of vertebrates is rarely considered when projecting species responses to climatic change. Furthermore, increased precipitation alters the weathering processes that create shrink-swell minerals. Two projected outcomes of ongoing climate change—higher temperatures and precipitation—will dramatically impact hardness of soil with shrink-swell minerals. Current climate models do not include factors controlling soil hardness, despite its impact on all organisms that depend on a stable soil structure. PMID:23717675

  12. Dermatophytosis among Schoolchildren in Three Eco-climatic Zones of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Goïta, Siaka; Gaudart, Jean; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatophytosis, and particularly the subtype tinea capitis, is common among African children; however, the risk factors associated with this condition are poorly understood. To describe the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in distinct eco-climatic zones, three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in public primary schools located in the Sahelian, Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zones in Mali. Principal Findings Among 590 children (average age 9.7 years) the overall clinical prevalence of tinea capitis was 39.3%. Tinea capitis prevalence was 59.5% in the Sudano-Guinean zone, 41.6% in the Sudanian zone and 17% in the Sahelian eco-climatic zone. Microsporum audouinii was isolated primarily from large and/or microsporic lesions. Trichophyton soudanense was primarily isolated from trichophytic lesions. Based on the multivariate analysis, tinea capitis was independently associated with male gender (OR = 2.51, 95%CI [1.74–3.61], P<10−4) and residing in the Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zone (OR = 7.45, 95%CI [4.63–11.99], P<10−4). Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii, were the most frequent species associated with tinea capitis among primary schoolchildren in Mali. Conclusions Tinea capitis risk increased with increasing climate humidity in this relatively homogenous schoolchild population in Mali, which suggests a significant role of climatic factors in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis. PMID:27124571

  13. Discrepancy in climatic zoning of the current soil productivity evaluation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuchma, Filip; Středová, Hana

    2015-12-01

    Pedologic-ecological estimation in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) means determination of land agronomic productivity and its economical pricing and is expressed as a five position numeral code and mapped as iso-lines. The first position of the code is the climatic region representing approximately the same conditions for agricultural plant growth and development. This climatic regionalization was based on the climatic data from 1901-1950. Currently, there is the need to update their existing zoning due to the technological progress of measurement and development of climate models including estimation of future climate. The aim of the paper is (i) to apply actual climatic data to climatic regionalization and (ii) to estimate what climatic conditions are relevant for actually valid climatic regions. The original methodology currently enables us to unequivocally classify only 17% of the entire territory of the Czech Republic (and 18% of Czech agricultural land). A substantial part of the territory does not fit neatly into individual climatic regions. Subsequently the actually valid ranges of climatic characteristics of individual climatic regions were determined. The GIS layers of individual climatic variables computed with data from 1961-2010 were one by one covered by GIS layers of individual climatic regions based on data from 1901-1950. Interval ranges of climatic region variables determined in this way are valid for the period 1961-2010. The upper limit of air temperature sum above 10 °C and annual air temperature in most of the climatic regions was significantly shifted up in 1961-2010. An increase in precipitation is noticeable in wet climatic regions. Moisture certainty in vegetation season and probability of dry vegetation are the most problematic in terms of Estimated Pedologic-Ecological Units (EPEU) climatic zoning. This should be taken into account when fixing the official soil price.

  14. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky, USA: I. Weathering zones defined by mineralogy and major-element composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of chemical and mineralogical changes induced by weathering is valuable information when considering the supply of nutrients and toxic elements from rocks. Here minerals that release and fix major elements during progressive weathering of a bed of Devonian New Albany Shale in eastern Kentucky are documented. Samples were collected from unweathered core (parent shale) and across an outcrop excavated into a hillside 40 year prior to sampling. Quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogical data record progressive shale alteration across the outcrop. Mineral compositional changes reflect subtle alteration processes such as incongruent dissolution and cation exchange. Altered primary minerals include K-feldspars, plagioclase, calcite, pyrite, and chlorite. Secondary minerals include jarosite, gypsum, goethite, amorphous Fe(III) oxides and Fe(II)-Al sulfate salt (efflorescence). The mineralogy in weathered shale defines four weathered intervals on the outcrop-Zones A-C and soil. Alteration of the weakly weathered shale (Zone A) is attributed to the 40-a exposure of the shale. In this zone, pyrite oxidization produces acid that dissolves calcite and attacks chlorite, forming gypsum, jarosite, and minor efflorescent salt. The pre-excavation, active weathering front (Zone B) is where complete pyrite oxidation and alteration of feldspar and organic matter result in increased permeability. Acidic weathering solutions seep through the permeable shale and evaporate on the surface forming abundant efflorescent salt, jarosite and minor goethite. Intensely weathered shale (Zone C) is depleted in feldspars, chlorite, gypsum, jarosite and efflorescent salts, but has retained much of its primary quartz, illite and illite-smectite. Goethite and amorphous FE(III) oxides increase due to hydrolysis of jarosite. Enhanced permeability in this zone is due to a 14% loss of the original mass in parent shale. Denudation rates suggest that characteristics of Zone C

  15. How Much Curriculum Change Is Appropriate? Defining a Zone of Feasible Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The article grapples with the question of how much curriculum change is appropriate in a given context and in a given time frame. How can a balance be struck between stagnation, on the one hand, and the promotion of unrealistic innovation on the other? In answer to this dilemma, the concept of a zone of feasible innovation (ZFI) is proposed and…

  16. UNSATURATED ZONE CALCITE 813C EVIDENCE OF SOUTHERN NEVADA CLIMATES DURING THE PAST 9 MILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPH F. WHELAN AND RICHARD J. MOSCATI

    1998-01-26

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation's high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs in which the depth to the water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present-day arid to semi-arid environment, is considered a positive argument for the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relationship between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible transport and release of radionuclides. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration (Whelan et al., 1994). Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences allows the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite to be used to reconstruct general climate variations during the past 9 M.y.

  17. Lymph node detection in IASLC-defined zones on PET/CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yihua; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Lymph node detection is challenging due to the low contrast between lymph nodes as well as surrounding soft tissues and the variation in nodal size and shape. In this paper, we propose several novel ideas which are combined into a system to operate on positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT) images to detect abnormal thoracic nodes. First, our previous Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) approach is modified where lymph node zones predominantly following International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) specifications are modeled as objects arranged in a hierarchy along with key anatomic anchor objects. This fuzzy anatomy model built from diagnostic CT images is then deployed on PET/CT images for automatically recognizing the zones. A novel globular filter (g-filter) to detect blob-like objects over a specified range of sizes is designed to detect the most likely locations and sizes of diseased nodes. Abnormal nodes within each automatically localized zone are subsequently detected via combined use of different items of information at various scales: lymph node zone model poses found at recognition indicating the geographic layout at the global level of node clusters, g-filter response which hones in on and carefully selects node-like globular objects at the node level, and CT and PET gray value but within only the most plausible nodal regions for node presence at the voxel level. The models are built from 25 diagnostic CT scans and refined for an object hierarchy based on a separate set of 20 diagnostic CT scans. Node detection is tested on an additional set of 20 PET/CT scans. Our preliminary results indicate node detection sensitivity and specificity at around 90% and 85%, respectively.

  18. Defining the southwestern end of the Blytheville Arch, northeastern Arkansas: delimiting a seismic source zone in the New Madrid region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Vibroseis seismic-reflection profiles around the southwestern end of the Blytheville arch document the southwesternly extent of the arch and refine the length of a fault zone that coincides with the arch. The 74.3 km of newly interpreted profiles and previously described profiles form a network of lines across and around the southern end of the arch. The southwestern terminus of the arch is defined by the absence of significantly upwarped or extensively disrupted reflectors, which are diagnostic traits of the arch where it is well developed. The arch is 134 km long as documented here, which is only slightly longer than the length reported by previous studies. Differing opinions about the magnitude of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes could be partly explained by substantially longer seismic source zones, but this minor increase in source zone length does not reconcile the large differences in magnitude estimates of the events. If future earthquake ruptures associated with the arch are confined to areas of extensive deformation, then this well documented southwestern termination precludes a rupture substantially longer than ~134 km along the zone of seismicity that coincides with the axis of the Reelfoot rift.

  19. Defining an Abrasion Index for Lunar Surface Systems as a Function of Dust Interaction Modes and Variable Concentration Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected issues were encountered during the Apollo era of lunar exploration due to detrimental abrasion of materials upon exposure to the fine-grained, irregular shaped dust on the surface of the Moon. For critical design features involving contact with the lunar surface and for astronaut safety concerns, operational concepts and dust tolerance must be considered in the early phases of mission planning. To systematically define material selection criteria, dust interaction can be characterized by two-body or three-body abrasion testing, and subcategorically by physical interactions of compression, rolling, sliding and bending representing specific applications within the system. Two-body abrasion occurs when a single particle or asperity slides across a given surface removing or displacing material. Three-body abrasion occurs when multiple particles interact with a solid surface, or in between two surfaces, allowing the abrasives to freely rotate and interact with the material(s), leading to removal or displacement of mass. Different modes of interaction are described in this paper along with corresponding types of tests that can be utilized to evaluate each configuration. In addition to differential modes of abrasion, variable concentrations of dust in different zones can also be considered for a given system design and operational protocol. These zones include: (1) outside the habitat where extensive dust exposure occurs, (2) in a transitional zone such as an airlock or suitport, and (3) inside the habitat or spacesuit with a low particle count. These zones can be used to help define dust interaction frequencies, and corresponding risks to the systems and/or crew can be addressed by appropriate mitigation strategies. An abrasion index is introduced that includes the level of risk, R, the hardness of the mineralogy, H, the severity of the abrasion mode, S, and the frequency of particle interactions, F.

  20. Using MERRA, AMIP II, CMIP5 Outputs to Assess Actual and Potential Building Climate Zone Change and Variability From the Last 30 Years Through 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Westberg, D. J.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Zhang, T.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, residential and commercial building infrastructure combined consumes about 40% of total energy usage and emits about 39% of total CO2emission (DOE/EIA "Annual Energy Outlook 2013"). Thus, increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is paramount to reducing energy costs and emissions. Building codes, as used by local and state enforcement entities are typically tied to the dominant climate within an enforcement jurisdiction classified according to various climate zones. These climates zones are based upon a 30-year average of local surface observations and are developed by DOE and ASHRAE (formerly known as the American Society of Hearting, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers). A significant shortcoming of the methodology used in constructing such maps is the use of surface observations (located mainly near airports) that are unequally distributed and frequently have periods of missing data that need to be filled by various approximation schemes. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric data assimilation to derive the ASHRAE climate zone maps and then using MERRA to define the last 30 years of variability in climate zones. These results show that there is a statistically significant increase in the area covered by warmer climate zones and some tendency for a reduction of area in colder climate zones that require longer time series to confirm. Using the uncertainties of the basic surface temperature and precipitation parameters from MERRA as determined by comparison to surface measurements, we first compare patterns and variability of ASHRAE climate zones from MERRA relative to present day climate model runs from AMIP simulations to establish baseline sensitivity. Based upon these results, we assess the variability of the ASHRAE climate zones according to CMIP runs through 2100 using an ensemble analysis that classifies model output changes by

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions from Sow Farm Lagoons across Climates Zones.

    PubMed

    Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T; Lawrence, Alfred J; Heber, Albert J

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (HS) emissions were measured periodically over the course of 2 yr at three sow waste lagoons representing humid mesothermal (North Carolina, NC), humid microthermal (Indiana, IN), and semiarid (Oklahoma, OK) climates. Emissions were determined using a backward Lagrangian stochastic model in conjunction with line-sampled HS concentrations and measured turbulence. The median annual sow-specific (area-specific) lagoon emissions at the OK farm were approximately 1.6 g head [hd] d (5880 µg m s), whereas those at the IN and NC sow farms were 0.035 g hd d (130 µg m s), and 0.041 g hd d (260 µg m s), respectively. Hydrogen sulfide emissions generally increased with wind speed. The daily HS emissions from the OK lagoon were greatest during the first half of the year and decreased as the year progressed. Emissions were episodic at the NC and IN lagoons. The generally low emissions at the NC and IN lagoons were probably a result of significant populations of purple sulfur bacteria maintained in the humid mesothermal and humid microthermal climates. Most of the large HS emission events at the NC and IN lagoons appeared to be a result of either precipitation events or liquid pump-out events. The high emissions at the OK lagoon in a semiarid climate were largely a result of high wind speeds enhancing both lagoon and air boundary layer mixing. The climate (air temperature, winds, and precipitation) appeared to influence the HS emissions from lagoons.

  2. Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Eliane S. M.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2014-04-01

    As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in

  3. Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Eliane S M; Sentelhas, Paulo C

    2014-11-01

    As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in

  4. Locomotion in response to shifting climate zones: not so fast.

    PubMed

    Feder, Martin E; Garland, Theodore; Marden, James H; Zera, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Although a species' locomotor capacity is suggestive of its ability to escape global climate change, such a suggestion is not necessarily straightforward. Species vary substantially in locomotor capacity, both ontogenetically and within/among populations, and much of this variation has a genetic basis. Accordingly, locomotor capacity can and does evolve rapidly, as selection experiments demonstrate. Importantly, even though this evolution of locomotor capacity may be rapid enough to escape changing climate, genetic correlations among traits (often due to pleiotropy) are such that successful or rapid dispersers are often limited in colonization or reproductive ability, which may be viewed as a trade-off. The nuanced assessment of this variation and evolution is reviewed for well-studied models: salmon, flying versus flightless insects, rodents undergoing experimental evolution, and metapopulations of butterflies. This work reveals how integration of physiology with population biology and functional genomics can be especially informative.

  5. Locomotion in response to shifting climate zones: not so fast.

    PubMed

    Feder, Martin E; Garland, Theodore; Marden, James H; Zera, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Although a species' locomotor capacity is suggestive of its ability to escape global climate change, such a suggestion is not necessarily straightforward. Species vary substantially in locomotor capacity, both ontogenetically and within/among populations, and much of this variation has a genetic basis. Accordingly, locomotor capacity can and does evolve rapidly, as selection experiments demonstrate. Importantly, even though this evolution of locomotor capacity may be rapid enough to escape changing climate, genetic correlations among traits (often due to pleiotropy) are such that successful or rapid dispersers are often limited in colonization or reproductive ability, which may be viewed as a trade-off. The nuanced assessment of this variation and evolution is reviewed for well-studied models: salmon, flying versus flightless insects, rodents undergoing experimental evolution, and metapopulations of butterflies. This work reveals how integration of physiology with population biology and functional genomics can be especially informative. PMID:20148672

  6. Limited hydrologic response to Pleistocene climate change in deep vadose zones - Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paces, J.B.; Neymark, L.A.; Whelan, J.F.; Wooden, J.L.; Lund, S.P.; Marshall, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the movement of water through thick vadose zones, especially on time scales encompassing long-term climate change, is increasingly important as societies utilize semi-arid environments for both water resources and sites viewed as favorable for long-term disposal or storage of hazardous waste. Hydrologic responses to Pleistocene climate change within a deep vadose zone in the eastern Mojave Desert at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were evaluated by uranium-series dating of finely layered hyalitic opal using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Opal is present within cm-thick secondary hydrogenic mineral crusts coating floors of lithophysal cavities in fractured volcanic rocks at depths of 200 to 300 m below land surface. Uranium concentrations in opal fluctuate systematically between 5 and 550 μg/g. Age-calibrated profiles of uranium concentration correlate with regional climate records over the last 300,000 years and produce time-series spectral peaks that have distinct periodicities of 100- and 41-ka, consistent with planetary orbital parameters. These results indicate that the chemical compositions of percolating solutions varied in response to near-surface, climate-driven processes. However, slow (micrometers per thousand years), relatively uniform growth rates of secondary opal and calcite deposition spanning several glacial–interglacial climate cycles imply that water fluxes in the deep vadose zone remained low and generally buffered from the large fluctuations in available surface moisture during different climates.

  7. Limited hydrologic response to Pleistocene climate change in deep vadose zones — Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paces, James B.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Whelan, Joseph F.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Lund, Steven P.; Marshall, Brian D.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the movement of water through thick vadose zones, especially on time scales encompassing long-term climate change, is increasingly important as societies utilize semi-arid environments for both water resources and sites viewed as favorable for long-term disposal or storage of hazardous waste. Hydrologic responses to Pleistocene climate change within a deep vadose zone in the eastern Mojave Desert at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were evaluated by uranium-series dating of finely layered hyalitic opal using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Opal is present within cm-thick secondary hydrogenic mineral crusts coating floors of lithophysal cavities in fractured volcanic rocks at depths of 200 to 300 m below land surface. Uranium concentrations in opal fluctuate systematically between 5 and 550 μg/g. Age-calibrated profiles of uranium concentration correlate with regional climate records over the last 300,000 years and produce time-series spectral peaks that have distinct periodicities of 100- and 41-ka, consistent with planetary orbital parameters. These results indicate that the chemical compositions of percolating solutions varied in response to near-surface, climate-driven processes. However, slow (micrometers per thousand years), relatively uniform growth rates of secondary opal and calcite deposition spanning several glacial-interglacial climate cycles imply that water fluxes in the deep vadose zone remained low and generally buffered from the large fluctuations in available surface moisture during different climates.

  8. Species distribution models contribute to determine the effect of climate and interspecific interactions in moving hybrid zones.

    PubMed

    Engler, J O; Rödder, D; Elle, O; Hochkirch, A; Secondi, J

    2013-11-01

    Climate is a major factor delimiting species' distributions. However, biotic interactions may also be prominent in shaping geographical ranges, especially for parapatric species forming hybrid zones. Determining the relative effect of each factor and their interaction of the contact zone location has been difficult due to the lack of broad scale environmental data. Recent developments in species distribution modelling (SDM) now allow disentangling the relative contributions of climate and species' interactions in hybrid zones and their responses to future climate change. We investigated the moving hybrid zone between the breeding ranges of two parapatric passerines in Europe. We conducted SDMs representing the climatic conditions during the breeding season. Our results show a large mismatch between the realized and potential distributions of the two species, suggesting that interspecific interactions, not climate, account for the present location of the contact zone. The SDM scenarios show that the southerly distributed species, Hippolais polyglotta, might lose large parts of its southern distribution under climate change, but a similar gain of novel habitat along the hybrid zone seems unlikely, because interactions with the other species (H. icterina) constrain its range expansion. Thus, whenever biotic interactions limit range expansion, species may become 'trapped' if range loss due to climate change is faster than the movement of the contact zone. An increasing number of moving hybrid zones are being reported, but the proximate causes of movement often remain unclear. In a global context of climate change, we call for more interest in their interactions with climate change.

  9. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature < or = 5.0 degrees C and more than 3 days was used to indicate the climatic risk of chilling injury during the whole growth season, and an integrated climatic index with the background of climate change was constructed. The maps of geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for each grade chilling injury, and of integrated climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  10. Finding Queer Allies: The Impact of Ally Training and Safe Zone Stickers on Campus Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Stephanie L.; Bartle, Eli; Masequesmay, Gina

    2008-01-01

    To counter heterosexism, homophobia, and gender binarism in higher education, "safe zone" or "ally" programs are efforts by American universities to create a welcoming environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning (LGBTQ) members of the campus community. This study describes perceptions of campus climate for LGBTQ…

  11. Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Lin

    2012-07-01

    Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the

  12. Climate change and temperate zone insects: the tyranny of thermodynamics meets the world of limited resources.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Baker, Jillian L; Lovett, Maggie M E; Wilson, Graham

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will result in warmer temperatures and an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events. Given that higher temperatures increase the reproductive rate of temperate zone insects, insect population growth rates are predicted to increase in the temperate zone in response to climate. This consensus, however, rests on the assumption that food is freely available. However, under conditions of limited food, the reproductive output of the Texan cricket Gryllus texensis (Cade and Otte) was highest at its current normal average temperature and declined with increasing temperature. Moreover, low food availability decreased survival during a simulated heat wave. Therefore, the effects of climate change on this species, and possibly on many others, are likely to hinge on food availability. Extrapolation from our data suggests that G. texensis will show larger yearly fluctuations in population size as climate change continues, and this will also have ecological repercussions. Only those temperate zone insects with a ready supply of food (e.g., agricultural pests) are likely to experience the predicted increase in population growth in response to climate change; food-limited species are likely to experience a population decline. PMID:23321114

  13. What's the meaning of local? Using molecular markers to define seed transfer zones for ecological restoration in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marte Holten; Elameen, Abdelhameed; Hofman, Nadine; Klemsdal, Sonja; Malaval, Sandra; Fjellheim, Siri

    2016-06-01

    According to the Norwegian Diversity Act, practitioners of restoration in Norway are instructed to use seed mixtures of local provenance. However, there are no guidelines for how local seed should be selected. In this study, we use genetic variation in a set of alpine species (Agrostis mertensii, Avenella flexuosa, Carex bigelowii, Festuca ovina, Poa alpina and Scorzoneroides autumnalis) to define seed transfer zones to reduce confusion about the definition of 'local seeds'. The species selected for the study are common in all parts of Norway and suitable for commercial seed production. The sampling covered the entire alpine region (7-20 populations per species, 3-15 individuals per population). We characterised genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms. We identified different spatial genetic diversity structures in the species, most likely related to differences in reproductive strategies, phylogeographic factors and geographic distribution. Based on results from all species, we suggest four general seed transfer zones for alpine Norway. This is likely more conservative than needed for all species, given that no species show more than two genetic groups. Even so, the approach is practical as four seed mixtures will serve the need for restoration of vegetation in alpine regions in Norway. PMID:27247618

  14. What's the meaning of local? Using molecular markers to define seed transfer zones for ecological restoration in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marte Holten; Elameen, Abdelhameed; Hofman, Nadine; Klemsdal, Sonja; Malaval, Sandra; Fjellheim, Siri

    2016-06-01

    According to the Norwegian Diversity Act, practitioners of restoration in Norway are instructed to use seed mixtures of local provenance. However, there are no guidelines for how local seed should be selected. In this study, we use genetic variation in a set of alpine species (Agrostis mertensii, Avenella flexuosa, Carex bigelowii, Festuca ovina, Poa alpina and Scorzoneroides autumnalis) to define seed transfer zones to reduce confusion about the definition of 'local seeds'. The species selected for the study are common in all parts of Norway and suitable for commercial seed production. The sampling covered the entire alpine region (7-20 populations per species, 3-15 individuals per population). We characterised genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms. We identified different spatial genetic diversity structures in the species, most likely related to differences in reproductive strategies, phylogeographic factors and geographic distribution. Based on results from all species, we suggest four general seed transfer zones for alpine Norway. This is likely more conservative than needed for all species, given that no species show more than two genetic groups. Even so, the approach is practical as four seed mixtures will serve the need for restoration of vegetation in alpine regions in Norway.

  15. Importance of unsaturated zone flow for simulating recharge in a humid climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Prudic, D.E.; Walker, J.F.; Anderson, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Transient recharge to the water table is often not well understood or quantified. Two approaches for simulating transient recharge in a ground water flow model were investigated using the Trout Lake watershed in north-central Wisconsin: (1) a traditional approach of adding recharge directly to the water table and (2) routing the same volume of water through an unsaturated zone column to the water table. Areas with thin (less than 1 m) unsaturated zones showed little difference in timing of recharge between the two approaches; when water was routed through the unsaturated zone, however, less recharge was delivered to the water table and more discharge occurred to the surface because recharge direction and magnitude changed when the water table rose to the land surface. Areas with a thick (15 to 26 m) unsaturated zone were characterized by multimonth lags between infiltration and recharge, and, in some cases, wetting fronts from precipitation events during the fall overtook and mixed with infiltration from the previous spring snowmelt. Thus, in thicker unsaturated zones, the volume of water infiltrated was properly simulated using the traditional approach, but the timing was different from simulations that included unsaturated zone flow. Routing of rejected recharge and ground water discharge at land surface to surface water features also provided a better simulation of the observed flow regime in a stream at the basin outlet. These results demonstrate that consideration of flow through the unsaturated zone may be important when simulating transient ground water flow in humid climates with shallow water tables.

  16. Importance of unsaturated zone flow for simulating recharge in a humid climate.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J; Prudic, David E; Walker, John F; Anderson, Mary P

    2008-01-01

    Transient recharge to the water table is often not well understood or quantified. Two approaches for simulating transient recharge in a ground water flow model were investigated using the Trout Lake watershed in north-central Wisconsin: (1) a traditional approach of adding recharge directly to the water table and (2) routing the same volume of water through an unsaturated zone column to the water table. Areas with thin (less than 1 m) unsaturated zones showed little difference in timing of recharge between the two approaches; when water was routed through the unsaturated zone, however, less recharge was delivered to the water table and more discharge occurred to the surface because recharge direction and magnitude changed when the water table rose to the land surface. Areas with a thick (15 to 26 m) unsaturated zone were characterized by multimonth lags between infiltration and recharge, and, in some cases, wetting fronts from precipitation events during the fall overtook and mixed with infiltration from the previous spring snowmelt. Thus, in thicker unsaturated zones, the volume of water infiltrated was properly simulated using the traditional approach, but the timing was different from simulations that included unsaturated zone flow. Routing of rejected recharge and ground water discharge at land surface to surface water features also provided a better simulation of the observed flow regime in a stream at the basin outlet. These results demonstrate that consideration of flow through the unsaturated zone may be important when simulating transient ground water flow in humid climates with shallow water tables.

  17. Variations in the kinematics of deformation along the Zagros inclined transpression zone, Iran: Implications for defining a curved inclined transpression zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Partabian, Abdolreza; Faghih, Ali

    2013-03-01

    The combination of inclined collision and plate boundary shape can control the nature of deformation and the sense of shear along a transpression zone. The present study investigated the effects of a boundary zone with curvilinear shape along a transpression zone on the kinematics of deformation. The kinematics of the Zagros transpression zone varies with the orientation of the zone boundary. Detailed structural and microstructural studies showed sinistral sense of shear on the southeastern part of the Zagros inclined transpression zone (Fars Arc), but dextral sense of shear on the northwestern part of the zone. It is inferred that the both senses of shear were developed coevally under a bulk general shear, regional-scale deformation along a curved inclined transpression miming the shape of the Fras Arc of the Zagros and the reentrant of the Bandar Abbas Syntaxis. The Zagros transpression zone formed by inclined continental collision between the Afro-Arabian continent and Iranian microcontinent.

  18. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  19. Differential effects of climate and species interactions on range limits at a hybrid zone: potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    McQuillan, Michael A; Rice, Amber M

    2015-11-01

    The relative contributions of climate versus interspecific interactions in shaping species distributions have important implications for closely related species at contact zones. When hybridization occurs within a contact zone, these factors regulate hybrid zone location and movement. While a hybrid zone's position may depend on both climate and interactions between the hybridizing species, little is known about how these factors interact to affect hybrid zone dynamics. Here, we utilize SDM (species distribution modeling) both to characterize the factors affecting the current location of a moving North American avian hybrid zone and to predict potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on future distributions. We focus on two passerine species that hybridize where their ranges meet, the Black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina (P. carolinensis) chickadee. Our contemporary climate models predict the occurrence of climatically suitable habitat extending beyond the hybrid zone for P. atricapillus only, suggesting that interspecific interactions primarily regulate this range boundary in P. atricapillus, while climatic factors regulate P. carolinensis. Year 2050 climate models predict a drastic northward shift in suitable habitat for P. carolinensis. Because of the greater importance of interspecific interactions for regulating the southern range limit of P. atricapillus, these climate-mediated shifts in the distribution of P. carolinensis may indirectly lead to a range retraction in P. atricapillus. Together, our results highlight the ways climate change can both directly and indirectly affect species distributions and hybrid zone location. In addition, our study lends support to the longstanding hypothesis that abiotic factors regulate species' poleward range limits, while biotic factors shape equatorial range limits.

  20. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  1. Booming during a bust: Asynchronous population responses of arid zone lizards to climatic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, John L.; Kovac, Kelli-Jo; Brook, Barry W.; Fordham, Damien A.

    2012-04-01

    The productivity of arid environments and the reproductive success of vertebrates in these systems, are typically thought to be primarily influenced by rainfall patterns. Data from our 15 year study at an Australian arid zone site reveals asynchronous demographic responses to rainfall and other climatic variables among different lizard species. We show that, in addition to precipitation, key demographic rates (fecundity, recruitment and survival) are correlated strongly with temporal variability in temperature, during and prior to the breeding season, and also to the density of sympatric lizard species. There were nine-fold fluctuations through time in the relative abundance of two similar-sized Ctenotus species, and asynchronous recruitment success and survival among other species, despite the absence of direct anthropogenic affects Understanding the drivers and magnitude of the substantial natural variability in arid-zone lizard assemblages is integral to predicting and interpreting their responses to future land use or climate-change scenarios.

  2. Climate change impact on groundwater levels in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2013-12-01

    The unsustainable use of groundwater in many countries might cause water availability restrictions in the future. Such issue is likely to worsen due to predicted climate changes for the incoming decades. As numerous studies suggest, aquifers recharge rates will be affected as a result of climate change. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is one of the most important transboundary aquifer in the world, providing drinkable water for millions of people in four South American countries (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay). Considering the GAS relevance and how its recharge rates might be altered by climatic conditions anomalies, the objective of this work is to assess possible climate changes impacts on groundwater levels in this aquifer outcrop zone. Global Climate Models' (GCM) outputs were used as inputs in a transient flux groundwater model created using the software SPA (Simulation of Process in Aquifers), enabling groundwater table fluctuation to be evaluated under distinct climatic scenarios. Six monitoring wells, located in a representative basin (Ribeirão da Onça basin) inside a GAS outcrop zone (ROB), provided water table measurements between 2004 and 2011 to calibrate the groundwater model. Using observed climatic data, a water budget method was applied to estimate recharge in different types of land uses. Statistically downscaled future climate scenarios were used as inputs for that same recharge model, which provided data for running SPA under those scenarios. The results show that most of the GCMs used here predict temperature arises over 275,15 K and major monthly rainfall mean changes to take place in the dry season. During wet seasons, those means might experience around 50% decrease. The transient model results indicate that water table variations, derived from around 70% of the climate scenarios, would vary below those measured between 2004 and 2011. Among the thirteen GCMs considered in this work, only four of them predicted more extreme

  3. Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Louise; Butler, Colin D; Anage, Ababu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The links between rapid population growth and concerns regarding climate change have received little attention. Some commentators have argued that slowing population growth is necessary to reduce further rises in carbon emissions. Others have objected that this would give rise to dehumanizing “population control” programmes in developing countries. Yet the perspective of the developing countries that will be worst affected by climate change has been almost completely ignored by the scientific literature. This deficit is addressed by this paper, which analyses the first 40 National Adaptation Programmes of Action reports submitted by governments of least-developed countries to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Of these documents, 93% identified at least one of three ways in which demographic trends interact with the effects of climate change: (i) faster degradation of the sources of natural resources; (ii) increased demand for scarce resources; and (iii) heightened human vulnerability to extreme weather events. These findings suggest that voluntary access to family planning services should be made more available to poor communities in least-developed countries. We stress the distinction between this approach, which prioritizes the welfare of poor communities affected by climate change, and the argument that population growth should be slowed to limit increases in global carbon emissions. The paper concludes by calling for increased support for rights-based family planning services, including those integrated with HIV/AIDS services, as an important complementary measure to climate change adaptation programmes in developing countries. PMID:20072771

  4. [Changes of climate and fire dynamic in China vegetation zone during 1961-2010].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Rui; Zhao, Feng-Jun; Shu, Li-Fu; Miao, Qing-Lin; Wang, Ming-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Climate, vegetation and human activities have influences on regional fire regimes. To understand the fire regimes for ecological zones on national scale is the base for carrying on the forest fire management. Daily observed temperature and precipitation data in 1961-2010 were interpolated into grids for China mainland with spatial resolution of 0.250 x 0.250, which was used to analyze their changes in fire season for eight ecological zones. Mann-Kendall test method was used for trend analysis of climate and fire dynamics. The results indicated that the average temperature for the areas with forests showed a significant linear upward trend in 1961-2010, but the precipitation didn't have the tendency. The average temperature in fire season for all the ecological zones increased significantly in the study period, and the most increment occurred in temperate semi-arid/arid steppe regions. There was no significant change in precipitation in fire season for most regions. Forest fire numbers for the mainland showed obvious fluctuations, but the affected forest areas decreased significantly. The curves of fire numbers and affected forest areas showed a bimodal shape for all ecological zones, except those showed a significant increase in the coniferous forest region in the temperate arid areas.

  5. Groundwater-surface water interactions in the hyporheic zone under climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shangbo; Yuan, Xingzhong; Peng, Shuchan; Yue, Junsheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Hong; Williams, D Dudley

    2014-12-01

    Slight changes in climate, such as the rise of temperature or alterations of precipitation and evaporation, will dramatically influence nearly all freshwater and climate-related hydrological behavior on a global scale. The hyporheic zone (HZ), where groundwater (GW) and surface waters (SW) interact, is characterized by permeable sediments, low flow velocities, and gradients of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics along the exchange flows. Hyporheic metabolism, that is biogeochemical reactions within the HZ as well as various processes that exchange substances and energy with adjoining systems, is correlated with hyporheic organisms, habitats, and the organic matter (OM) supplied from GW and SW, which will inevitably be influenced by climate-related variations. The characteristics of the HZ in acting as a transition zone and in filtering and purifying exchanged water will be lost, resulting in a weakening of the self-purification capacity of natural water bodies. Thus, as human disturbances intensify in the future, GW and SW pollution will become a greater challenge for mankind than ever before. Biogeochemical processes in the HZ may favor the release of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) under climate change scenarios. Future water resource management should consider the integrity of aquatic systems as a whole, including the HZ, rather than independently focusing on SW and GW.

  6. Energy Savings of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels across US Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-10-01

    This report builds off of previous modeling work related to low-e storm windows used to create a "Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows." This work updates similar studies using new fuel costs and examining the separate contributions of reduced air leakage and reduced coefficients of overall heat transfer and solar heat gain. In this report we examine the energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates, excluding the impact from infiltration reductions, which tend to vary using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by climate zone.

  7. Design and Development of Geothermal Cooling System for Composite Climatic Zone in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralegaonkar, R.; Kamath, M. V.; Dakwale, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    The tropical climate buildings use about 70 % of operating energy for cooling of built environment. In composite climatic zone like Nagpur, Maharashtra, India several electro-mechanical cooling appliances viz., evaporative coolers, air conditioners, etc. are used. Application of geothermal cooling system is a very apt option for saving energy and reducing emission when compared to conventional cooling techniques. In the present work design methodology of geothermal cooling system is broadly elaborated and is applied to a case study of an educational building located in composite climate. The application of conventional and geothermal cooling systems is compared in terms of energy consumption. It is found that geothermal cooling system saves around 90 % of electricity as compared to air conditioner and 100 % of water as compared to evaporative coolers. This approach can further be extended for larger applications that will reduce consumption of energy and water in buildings.

  8. A guideline for sizing Photovoltaic panels across different climatic zones in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waongo, M.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.

    2012-02-01

    In many developing countries a long time series of solar radiation measurements are not often available. This is due to the cost, maintenance and calibration requirements of measuring devices. Consequently, the use of solar energy by Photovoltaic (PV) conversion copes with the choice and the optimization of the PV system. This work concerned the analysis of climate parameters strongly influencing the Photovoltaic (PV) systems energy production and the simulation of an ideal system based on a single PV module. Estimation and analysis of time series of climate parameters covered a set of six weather stations with respect to the three climatic zones in Burkina Faso (BF), over 38 years. The analysis showed that the solar irradiation in BF lies between 3 kWh/m2/day and 7.5 kWh/m2/day. The highest values of the solar irradiation are measured in the Northern part of the country while lowest values are measured in the Southern part. Daily mean temperature for all weather stations was greater than the Standard Test Condition (STC) temperature (25°C) over a long period of the year. Information on solar irradiation and temperature is fundamental for PV systems sizing process. For PV performance evaluation, a simulation is carried out using an ideal system composed of a single PV module from TENESOL Company. This simulation is performed for three classes of climatic conditions "Mean situation", "Adverse situation", and "Beneficial situation", and evaluated for six sitesacross BF. The results revealed intra-annual and spatial variability of Maximum Power (MP). Across BF, MP varied between 60 W/day and 190 W/day in Sahelian zone, between 65 W/day and 185 W/day in soudano-sahelian zone, and between 67 W/day and 208 W/day in Soudanian zone. MP intra-annual variability is higher during the period July-August, mainly for "Beneficial situation". The negative effect of temperature on PV energy production is specially amplified in Sahelian zone due to its highest temperatures. This

  9. Effects of Atlantic warm pool variability over climate of South America tropical transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaurte Villota, Constanza; Romero-Rodríguez, Deisy; Andrés Ordoñez-Zuñiga, Silvio; Murcia-Riaño, Magnolia; Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo

    2016-04-01

    Colombia is located in the northwestern corner of South America in a climatically complex region due to the influence processes modulators of climate both the Pacific and Atlantic region, becoming in a transition zone between phenomena of northern and southern hemisphere. Variations in the climatic conditions of this region, especially rainfall, have been attributed to the influence of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but little is known about the interaction within Atlantic Ocean and specifically Caribbean Sea with the environmental conditions of this region. In this work We studied the influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on the Colombian Caribbean (CC) climate using data of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) between 1900 - 2014 from ERSST V4, compared with in situ data SIMAC (National System for Coral Reef Monitoring in Colombia - INVEMAR), rainfall between 1953-2013 of meteorological stations located at main airports in the Colombian Caribbean zone, administered by IDEAM, and winds data between 2003 - 2014 from WindSat sensor. The parameters analyzed showed spatial differences throughout the study area. SST anomalies, representing the variability of the AWP, showed to be associated with Multidecadal Atlantic Oscillation (AMO) and with the index of sea surface temperature of the North-tropical Atlantic (NTA), the variations was on 3 to 5 years on the ENSO scale and of approximately 11 years possibly related to solar cycles. Rainfall anomalies in the central and northern CC respond to changes in SST, while in the south zone these are not fully engage and show a high relationship with the ENSO. Finally, the winds also respond to changes in SST and showed a signal approximately 90 days possibly related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation, whose intensity depends on the CC region being analyzed. The results confirm that region is a transition zone in which operate several forcing, the variability of climate conditions is difficult to attribute only one, as ENSO

  10. Human-water interactions in Myanmar's Dry Zone under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    Understanding human-water interactions is particularly essential in countries where the economy and the people's well-being and income strongly depend on the availability and quality of sufficient water resources. Such a strong dependency on water is existent in Myanmar's Dry Zone located in the central Ayeyarwady River basin. In this area, rainfall is associated with high heterogeneity across space and time. Precipitation amounts in the Dry Zone (500-1000 mm annually) are generally less compared to other regions in Myanmar (up to 4000-6000 mm). Following the Global Climate Risk Index, Myanmar is one of the countries which were most affected by extreme weather events between 1994 and 2013. Severe drought periods e.g in the years 1997-1998, 2010 and 2014 led to crop failures and water shortage in the Dry Zone, where more than 14 mio people predominantly practice agriculture. Due to the high variability of rainfalls, farming is only possible with irrigation, mainly conducted by canal systems from the rivers and groundwater withdrawal. Myanmar is recently facing big challenges which result from comprehensive political and economic reforms since 2011. These may also include increasing water use by new industrial zones and urbanization. However, not only policy and economy modify the need for water. Variability of river runoff and changes in seasonality are expected as a result of climate change. The overarching goal of the study is to understand and increase the knowledge on human-water-climate interactions and to elaborate possible future scenarios for Myanmar's Dry Zone. It is not well studied yet how current and future climate change and increasing human impact will influence the country's abundant water resources including groundwater. Therefore, the first step of this study is to identify the major drivers within the central Ayeyarwady River basin. We are in the process of collecting and analyzing data sets and information including hydrologic and eco

  11. Analysis of climatic conditions and preliminary assessment of alternative cooling strategies for houses in California transition climate zones

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-07-01

    This is a preliminary scoping study done as part of the {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressive Cooling in California Transition Climates{close_quotes} project, which has the goal of demonstrating that houses in the transitional areas between the coast and the Central Valley of California do not require air-conditioning if they are properly designed and operated. The first part of this report analyzes the climate conditions within the transitional areas, with emphasis on design rather than seasonal conditions. Transitional climates are found to be milder but more variable than those further inland. The design temperatures under the most stringent design criteria, e.g. 0.1 % annual, are similar to those in the Valley, but significantly lower under more relaxed design criteria, e.g., 2% annual frequency. Transition climates also have large day-night temperature swings, indicating significant potential for night cooling, and wet-bulb depressions in excess of 25 F, indicating good potential for evaporative cooling. The second part of the report is a preliminary assessment using DOE-2 computer simulations of the effectiveness of alternative cooling and control strategies in improving indoor comfort conditions in two conventional Title-24 houses modeled in various transition climate locations. The cooling measures studied include increased insulation, light colors, low-emissivity glazing, window overhangs, and exposed floor slab. The control strategies studied include natural and mechanical ventilation, and direct and two-stage evaporative cooling. The results indicate the cooling strategies all have limited effectiveness, and need to be combined to produce significant improvements in indoor comfort. Natural and forced ventilation provide similar improvements in indoor conditions, but during peak cooling periods, these will still be above the comfort zone. Two-stage evaporative coolers can maintain indoor comfort at all hours, but not so direct evaporative coolers.

  12. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Sujakhu, Nani M.; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A.; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops. PMID:27689354

  13. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Christopher M.; Garrabrant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  14. Coral oxygen isotope records of interdecadal climate variations in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, Stefan; Linsley, Braddock K.; Howe, Stephen S.; Wellington, Gerard M.; Salinger, Jim

    2005-06-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), a region of high rainfall, is a major feature of subtropical Southern Hemisphere climate and contributes to and interacts with circulation features across the Pacific, yet its past temporal variability and forcing remain only partially understood. Here we compare coral oxygen isotopic (δ18O) series (spanning A.D. 1997-1780 and A.D. 2001-1776) from two genera of hermatypic corals in Fiji, located within the SPCZ, to examine the fidelity of these corals in recording climate change and SPCZ interdecadal dynamics. One of these coral records is a new 225-year subannually resolved δ18O series from the massive coral Diploastreaheliopora. Diploastrea's use in climate reconstructions is still relatively new, but this coral has shown encouragingly similar interannual variability to Porites, the coral genus most commonly used in Pacific paleoclimate studies. In Fiji we observe that interdecadal δ18O variance is also similar in these two coral genera, and Diploastrea contains a larger-amplitude interdecadal signal that more closely tracks instrumental-based indices of Pacific interdecadal climate change and the SPCZ than Porites. Both coral δ18O series record greater interdecadal variability from ˜1880 to 1950, which is consistent with the observations of Folland et al. (2002), who reported higher variability in SPCZ position before 1945. These observations indicate that Diploastrea will likely provide a significant new source of long-term climate information from the SPCZ region.

  15. Defining global syndromes of fire and the relationship of these to biomes, climate and human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, C.; Archibald, S.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Bradstock, R.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is a ubiquitous component of the Earth system that remains poorly understood. To date, global scale understanding of fire is limited largely to the annual extent of burning as detected by satellites. This is problematic because fire is multi-dimensional, and focus on individual metrics belies both the complexity and importance of fire within the Earth system. In an applied sense, the lack of a unified understanding of fire impedes estimation of GHG emissions or prediction of future fire regimes as a consequence of changing patterns of climate and land use. To address this we identified five key characteristics of fire regimes: size, frequency, intensity, season and extent. We combined new global datasets with existing datasets to examine cross-correlations among characteristics. We demonstrate that only certain combinations of fire characteristics are possible and this likely reflects fundamental energetic constraints derived from interactions between under-lying fuel types, climate and rates of re-growth post-fire. For example, very intense fires can only occur infrequently because a system requires a lengthy period to develop sufficient fuel to burn. Further, very cool fires only occur infrequently because fuels are not available to burn. Following, we applied a clustering algorithm to these data to determine whether we could identify syndromes of fire regimes. Pyromes, as global syndromes of fire are conceptually analogous to biomes (global syndromes of vegetation) where the extent of each pyrome is determined solely as a product of the fire characteristics themselves. A point of difference to biomes being that no one has previously attempted to quantify the global range of fire syndromes. We identified five pyromes, four of which we believe represent distinctions between crown, litter and grass-fuelled fires. The relationship of pyromes to biomes and climate are not deterministic as different biomes and climates may be represented within a single pyrome

  16. Climate controls how ecosystems size the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Schymanski, Stan; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Sriwongsitanon, Nutchanart; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The root zone moisture storage capacity (SR) of terrestrial ecosystems is a buffer providing vegetation continuous access to water and a critical factor controlling land-atmospheric moisture exchange, hydrological response and biogeochemical processes. However, it is impossible to observe directly at catchment scale. Here, using data from 300 diverse catchments, it was tested that, treating the root zone as a reservoir, the mass curve technique (MCT), an engineering method for reservoir design, can be used to estimate catchment-scale SR from effective rainfall and plant transpiration. Supporting the initial hypothesis, it was found that MCT-derived SR coincided with model-derived estimates. These estimates of parameter SR can be used to constrain hydrological, climate and land surface models. Further, the study provides evidence that ecosystems dynamically design their root systems to bridge droughts with return periods of 10-40 years, controlled by climate and linked to aridity index, inter-storm duration, seasonality and runoff ratio. This adaptation of ecosystems to climate could be explored for prediction in ungauged basins. We found that implementing the MCT-derived SR without recalibration has dramatically increased hydrological model transferability.

  17. Defining climate modeling user needs: which data are actually required to support impact analysis and adaptation policy development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, R. J.; Pagé, C.

    2010-12-01

    Until recently, the policy applications of Earth System Models in general and climate models in particular were focusing mainly on the potential future changes in the global and regional climate and attribution of observed changes to anthropogenic activities. Is climate change real? And if so, why do we have to worry about it? Following the broad acceptance of the reality of the risks by the majority of governments, particularly after the publication of IPCC’s 4th Assessment Report and the increasing number of observations of changes in ecological and socio-economic systems that are consistent with the observed climatic changes, governments, companies and other societal groups have started to evaluate their own vulnerability in more detail and to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies. After an early focus on the most vulnerable developing countries, recently, an increasing number of industrialized countries have embarked on the design of adaptation and mitigation plans, or on studies to evaluate the level of climate resilience of their development plans and projects. Which climate data are actually required to effectively support these activities? This paper reports on the efforts of the IS-ENES project, the infrastructure project of the European Network for Earth System Modeling, to address this question. How do we define user needs and can the existing gap between the climate modeling and impact research communities be bridged in support of the ENES long-term strategy? In contrast from the climate modeling community, which has a relatively long history of collaboration facilitated by a relatively uniform subject matter, commonly agreed definitions of key terminology and some level of harmonization of methods, the climate change impacts research community is very diverse and fragmented, using a wide variety of data sources, methods and tools. An additional complicating factor is that researchers working on adaptation usually closely collaborate with non

  18. Elevation and connectivity define genetic refugia for mountain sheep as climate warms.

    PubMed

    Epps, Clinton W; Palsbøll, Per J; Wehausen, John D; Roderick, George K; McCullough, Dale R

    2006-12-01

    Global warming is predicted to affect the evolutionary potential of natural populations. We assessed genetic diversity of 25 populations of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) in southeastern California, where temperatures have increased and precipitation has decreased during the 20th century. Populations in low-elevation habitats had lower genetic diversity, presumably reflecting more fluctuations in population sizes and founder effects. Higher-elevation habitats acted as reservoirs of genetic diversity. However, genetic diversity was also affected by population connectivity, which has been disrupted by human development. Restoring population connectivity may be necessary to buffer the effects of climate change on this desert-adapted ungulate.

  19. Genetic differentiation of strongyloides stercoralis from two different climate zones revealed by 18S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Pakdee, Wallop; Thaenkham, Urusa; Dekumyoy, Paron; Sa-Nguankiat, Surapol; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit

    2012-11-01

    Over 70 countries in tropical and subtropical zones are endemic areas for Strongyloides stercoralis, with a higher prevalence of the parasite often occurring in tropical regions compared to subtropical ones. In order to explore genetic variations of S. stercoralis form different climate zones, 18S ribosomal DNA of parasite specimens obtained from Thailand were sequenced and compared with those from Japan. The maximum likelihood indicates that S. stercoralis populations from these two different climate zones have genetically diverged. The genetic relationship between S. stercoralis populations is not related to the host species, but rather to moisture and temperature. These factors may directly drive genetic differentiation among isolated populations of S. stercoralis.

  20. Climate change and groundwater ecohydrology: Simulating subsurface flow and discharge zones in Covey Hill, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, J.; Larocque, M.; Ouellet, M.; van Waterschoot, L.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 2 billion people use groundwater and in Canada it is the potable water supply for about 30% of the population. Groundwater is also used in industrial and agricultural applications, and contributes to important hydrological habitats for various species. Limited research has been conducted to determine the potential impacts of climate change on groundwater. Local studies are crucial to better understand how, for example, increased duration and frequency of storms or drought periods may affect groundwater dependent ecosystems in order to anticipate and mitigate the impacts. Thus, the aim of this research is to explore the effects of climate change on a groundwater-surface water interacting system that supports a fragile ecosystem. This research is used to inform ecological conservation measures. The research site is the 17500 ha Covey Hill Natural Laboratory, which is located on the Quebec, Canada and New York State, USA border in the Chateauguay River watershed. At various locations within the Natural Laboratory there is continuous monitoring of groundwater levels and river flows. Covey Hill is an important recharge zone for the regional aquifer and provides habitat for endangered salamanders in discharge zones. Two hydrogeological models were constructed to represent flow at the site. First, a three-dimensional, finite difference model was developed using MODFLOW software to simulate overall groundwater flow at the research site. Second, a smaller-scale, discrete fracture, transient, three-dimensional, finite difference, integrated model was developed using HydroGeoSphere software to represent in better detail flow from bedrock springs that occur at mid-slope and provide the habitat for endangered salamanders. The models were used to: 1) observe groundwater flow under current climate conditions; 2) quantify water dynamics in response to climate change using 10 scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (for 1971-2000 and 2041-2070 time periods); and 3

  1. The role of climate in the dynamics of a hybrid zone in Appalachian salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walls, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    I examined the potential influence of climate change on the dynamics of a previously studied hybrid zone between a pair of terrestrial salamanders at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, U.S. Forest Service, in the Nantahala Mountains of North Carolina, USA. A 16-year study led by Nelson G. Hairston, Sr. revealed that Plethodon teyahalee and Plethodon shermani hybridized at intermediate elevations, forming a cline between 'pure' parental P. teyahalee at lower elevations and 'pure' parental P. shermani at higher elevations. From 1974 to 1990 the proportion of salamanders at the higher elevation scored as 'pure' P. shermani declined significantly, indicating that the hybrid zone was spreading upward. To date there have been no rigorous tests of hypotheses for the movement of this hybrid zone. Using temperature and precipitation data from Coweeta, I re-analyzed Hairston's data to examine whether the observed elevational shift was correlated with variation in either air temperature or precipitation from the same time period. For temperature, my analysis tracked the results of the original study: the proportion of 'pure' P. shermani at the higher elevation declined significantly with increasing mean annual temperature, whereas the proportion of 'pure' P. teyahalee at lower elevations did not. There was no discernable relationship between proportions of 'pure' individuals of either species with variation in precipitation. From 1974 to 1990, low-elevation air temperatures at the Coweeta Laboratory ranged from annual means of 11.8 to 14.2??C, compared with a 55-year average (1936-1990) of 12.6??C. My re-analyses indicate that the upward spread of the hybrid zone is correlated with increasing air temperatures, but not precipitation, and provide an empirical test of a hypothesis for one factor that may have influenced this movement. My results aid in understanding the potential impact that climate change may have on the ecology and evolution of terrestrial salamanders in

  2. The role of climate in the dynamics of a hybrid zone in Appalachian salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walls, Susan

    2009-01-01

    I examined the potential influence of climate change on the dynamics of a previously studied hybrid zone between a pair of terrestrial salamanders at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, U.S. Forest Service, in the Nantahala Mountains of North Carolina, USA. A 16-year study led by Nelson G. Hairston, Sr. revealed that Plethodon teyahalee and Plethodon shermani hybridized at intermediate elevations, forming a cline between 'pure' parental P. teyahalee at lower elevations and 'pure' parental P. shermani at higher elevations. From 1974 to 1990 the proportion of salamanders at the higher elevation scored as 'pure' P. shermani declined significantly, indicating that the hybrid zone was spreading upward. To date there have been no rigorous tests of hypotheses for the movement of this hybrid zone. Using temperature and precipitation data from Coweeta, I re-analyzed Hairston's data to examine whether the observed elevational shift was correlated with variation in either air temperature or precipitation from the same time period. For temperature, my analysis tracked the results of the original study: the proportion of 'pure' P. shermani at the higher elevation declined significantly with increasing mean annual temperature, whereas the proportion of 'pure' P. teyahalee at lower elevations did not. There was no discernable relationship between proportions of 'pure' individuals of either species with variation in precipitation. From 1974 to 1990, low-elevation air temperatures at the Coweeta Laboratory ranged from annual means of 11.8 to 14.2 °C, compared with a 55-year average (1936-1990) of 12.6 °C. My re-analyses indicate that the upward spread of the hybrid zone is correlated with increasing air temperatures, but not precipitation, and provide an empirical test of a hypothesis for one factor that may have influenced this movement. My results aid in understanding the potential impact that climate change may have on the ecology and evolution of terrestrial salamanders in

  3. Shifts in Köppen-Geiger climate zones over southern Africa in relation to key global temperature goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Christien J.; Engelbrecht, Francois A.

    2016-01-01

    Potential changes in Köppen-Geiger climate zones over southern Africa (Africa south of 22 °S) under future climate change are investigated using an ensemble of high-resolution projections of a regional climate model. The projections are performed under the A2 scenario of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES), and changes are presented for those times in the future when the increase in global average surface temperature reaches thresholds of 1, 2, and 3 °C, relative to the present-day baseline climatology. Widespread shifts in climate regimes are projected, of which the southern and eastern expansion of the hot desert and hot steppe zones is the most prominent. From occupying 33.1 and 19.4 % of southern Africa under present-day climate, these regions are projected to occupy between 47.3 and 59.7 % (hot desert zone) and 24.9 and 29.9 % (hot steppe zone) of the region in a future world where the global temperature has increased by 3 °C. The cold desert and cold steppe zones are projected to decrease correspondingly. The temperate regions of eastern South Africa, the Cape south coast, and winter rainfall region of the southwestern Cape are also projected to contract. An expansion of the hot steppe zone into the cold steppe and temperate zones may favor the intrusion of trees (and therefore the savanna biome) into the most pristine grasslands of southern Africa. However, the correlative climate-vegetation approach of using projected changes in Köppen-Geiger zones to infer future vegetation patterns is of limited value in the savanna complex of southern Africa, where complex feedbacks occur between carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, trees, C4 grasses, fire, and climate. The present-day temperate Cape Fynbos regime may come under increasing pressure as the encompassing temperate zone is invaded mainly from the east by the hot steppe climate regime under climate change, with the incidence of Fynbos fires also becoming more likely in a generally warmer and

  4. Plasmodium vivax malaria: a re-emerging threat for temperate climate zones?

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eskild; Severini, Carlo; Picot, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax was endemic in temperate areas in historic times up to the middle of last century. Temperate climate P. vivax has a long incubation time of up to 8-10 months, which partly explain how it can be endemic in temperate areas with a could winter. P. vivax disappeared from Europe within the last 40-60 years, and this change was not related to climatic changes. The surge of P. vivax in Northern Europe after the second world war was related to displacement of refugees and large movement of military personnel exposed to malaria. Lately P. vivax has been seen along the demilitarized zone in South Korea replication a high endemicity in North Korea. The potential of transmission of P. vivax still exist in temperate zones, but reintroduction in a larger scale of P. vivax to areas without present transmission require large population movements of P. vivax infected people. The highest threat at present is refugees from P. vivax endemic North Korea entering China and South Korea in large numbers.

  5. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah; Maiga, Abdou; Moussa, Ibrahim Bouzou; Barbier, Bruno; Diouf, Awa; Diallo, Drissa; Da, Evariste Dapola; Dabi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60-80% of households. Contrary to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500-900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region, especially in the 500-900 mm zones and the western part of SSWA.

  6. Regional climate change scenarios applied to viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cabré, María Fernanda; Quénol, Hervé; Nuñez, Mario

    2016-09-01

    regions. It has been concluded that regional climate change simulations are an adequate methodology, and indeed, the MM5 regional model is an appropriate tool to be applied in viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina.

  7. Regional climate change scenarios applied to viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabré, María Fernanda; Quénol, Hervé; Nuñez, Mario

    2016-09-01

    regions. It has been concluded that regional climate change simulations are an adequate methodology, and indeed, the MM5 regional model is an appropriate tool to be applied in viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina.

  8. Regional climate change scenarios applied to viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabré, María Fernanda; Quénol, Hervé; Nuñez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    regions. It has been concluded that regional climate change simulations are an adequate methodology, and indeed, the MM5 regional model is an appropriate tool to be applied in viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina.

  9. Chitinolytic and pectinolytic community of soils and terrestrial ecosystems of different climatic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukacheva, Evgeniya; Manucharova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Structural and functional features of the complex microbial degradation of biopolymers one of the most important direction in microbial ecology. But there is no a lot of data concerns degradation in vertical structure of terrestrial ecosystems. Microbial complexes of natural areas were analyzed only as humus horizons (A1) of the soil profile. Only small part of microbial community could be studied with this approach. The breakdown of chitin and pectin was studied. The aim was to provide a characterization of microorganisms involved in chitin and pectin degradation in the soils and terrestrial ecosystems in different climatic zones: steppe zone, deciduous forests and taiga. Samples of leaves, soils and litter were studied and compared. Quantity of eukaryote and procaryote organisms increased in samples with chitin and pectin comparing with control samples. Increasing of eukaryote in samples with pectin was more then in samples with chitin. Also should be noted the significant increasing of actinomycet's quantity in the samples with chitin in comparison with samples with pectin. Further prokaryote community was investigated by method FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). FISH is a cytogenetic technique developed that is used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. Quantity of Actinomycets and Firmicures was the largest among identified cells with metabolic activity in both types of the samples. Should be noted significant increasing of the quantity of Acidobateria and Bacteroidetes in pectinolytic community and Alphaproteobacteria in chitinolytic community soils. The difference between climatic zones was studied and the mathematical model was created. The mathematic model could be use in different aims, such as prognosis of microbial community composition and their classification.

  10. Environmental survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in different climatic zones of eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Eppleston, Jeffrey; Begg, Douglas J; Dhand, Navneet K; Watt, Bruce; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    The duration of survival of both the S and C strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces was quantified in contrasting climatic zones of New South Wales, Australia, and detailed environmental temperature data were collected. Known concentrations of S and C strains in feces placed on soil in polystyrene boxes were exposed to the environment with or without the provision of shade (70%) at Bathurst, Armidale, Condobolin, and Broken Hill, and subsamples taken every 2 weeks were cultured for the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The duration of survival ranged from a minimum of 1 week to a maximum of 16 weeks, and the provision of 70% shade was the most important factor in extending the survival time. The hazard of death for exposed compared to shaded samples was 20 and 9 times higher for the S and C strains, respectively. Site did not affect the survival of the C strain, but for the S strain, the hazard of death was 2.3 times higher at the two arid zone sites (Broken Hill and Condobolin) than at the two temperate zone sites (Bathurst and Armidale). Temperature measurements revealed maximum temperatures exceeding 60°C and large daily temperature ranges at the soil surface, particularly in exposed boxes.

  11. Environmental Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Different Climatic Zones of Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Douglas J.; Dhand, Navneet K.; Watt, Bruce; Whittington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The duration of survival of both the S and C strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces was quantified in contrasting climatic zones of New South Wales, Australia, and detailed environmental temperature data were collected. Known concentrations of S and C strains in feces placed on soil in polystyrene boxes were exposed to the environment with or without the provision of shade (70%) at Bathurst, Armidale, Condobolin, and Broken Hill, and subsamples taken every 2 weeks were cultured for the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The duration of survival ranged from a minimum of 1 week to a maximum of 16 weeks, and the provision of 70% shade was the most important factor in extending the survival time. The hazard of death for exposed compared to shaded samples was 20 and 9 times higher for the S and C strains, respectively. Site did not affect the survival of the C strain, but for the S strain, the hazard of death was 2.3 times higher at the two arid zone sites (Broken Hill and Condobolin) than at the two temperate zone sites (Bathurst and Armidale). Temperature measurements revealed maximum temperatures exceeding 60°C and large daily temperature ranges at the soil surface, particularly in exposed boxes. PMID:24463974

  12. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  13. Analysis of Radiant Cooling System Configurations Integrated with Cooling Tower for Different Indian Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S; Jain, Robin; Srivastava, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Radiant cooling system has proven to be a low energy consumption system for building cooling needs. This study describes the use of cooling tower in radiant cooling system to improve the overall system efficiency. A comprehensive simulation feasibility study of the application of cooling tower in radiant cooling system was performed for the fifteen cities in different climatic zones of India. It was found that in summer, the wet bulb temperature (WBT) of the different climatic zones except warm-humid is suitable for the integration of cooling tower with radiant cooling system. In these climates, cooling tower can provide on average 24 C to 27 C water In order to achieve the energy saving potential, three different configurations of radiant cooling system have been compared in terms of energy consumption. The different configurations of the radiant cooling system integrated with cooling tower are: (1) provide chilled water to the floor, wall and ceiling mounted tubular installation. (2) provide chilled water to the wall and ceiling mounted tabular installation. In this arrangement a separate chiller has also been used to provide chilled water at 16 C to the floor mounted tubular installation. (3) provide chilled water to the wall mounted tabular installation and a separate chiller is used to provide chilled water at 16 C to the floor and ceiling mounted tabular installation. A dedicated outdoor air system is also coupled for dehumidification and ventilation in all three configurations. A conventional all-air system was simulated as a baseline to compare these configurations for assessing the energy saving potential.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ginger variety Suprabha from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Mahendra; Das, Aradhana; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sujata; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a well-known member of family Zingiberaceae, is bestowed with number of medicinal properties which is because of the secondary metabolites, essential oil and oleoresin, it contains in its rhizome. The drug yielding potential is known to depend on agro-climatic conditions prevailing at the place cultivation. Present study deals with comparative transcriptome analysis of two sample of elite ginger variety Suprabha collected from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. Transcriptome assembly for both the samples was done using next generation sequencing methodology. The raw data of size 10.8 and 11.8 GB obtained from analysis of two rhizomes S1Z4 and S2Z5 collected from Bhubaneswar and Koraput and are available in NCBI accession number SAMN03761169 and SAMN03761176 respectively. We identified 60,452 and 54,748 transcripts using trinity tool respectively from ginger rhizome of S1Z4 and S2Z5. The transcript length varied from 300 bp to 15,213 bp and 8988 bp and N50 value of 1415 bp and 1334 bp respectively for S1Z4 and S2Z5. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome analysis of elite ginger cultivars Suprabha from two different agro-climatic conditions of Odisha, India which will help to understand the effect of agro-climatic conditions on differential expression of secondary metabolites. PMID:27408809

  15. [Correlation analysis between meteorological factors, biomass, and active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in different climatic zones].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen-lu; Liang, Zong-suo; Guo, Hong-bo; Liu, Jing-ling; Liu, Yan; Liu, Feng-hua; Wei, Lang-zhu

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the growth and accumulation of active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in twenty two experimental sites which crossing through three typical climate zones. The S. miltiorrhiza seedlings with the same genotype were planted in each site in spring, which were cultivated in fields with uniform management during their growing seasons till to harvest. The diterpene ketones (dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A)) in S. miltiorrhiza root samples were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The biomass of root (root length, number of root branches, root width and dry weight) was also measured. The results showed that tanshinone II(A) in all samples of each site were higher than the standards required by China Pharmacopoeia. It has been found there is a relationship between root shape and climate change. The correlation analysis between active components and meteorological factors showed that the accumulation of tanshinones were effected by such meteorological factors as average relative humidity from April to October > average vapor pressure from April to October > average temperature difference day and night from April to October > annual average temperature and so on. The correlation analysis between root biomass and meteorological factors exhibited that root shape and accumulation of dry matter were affected by those factors, such as average annual aboveground (0-20 cm) temperature from April to October > annual average temperature > average vapor pressure from April to October > annual active accumulated temperature > annual average temperature > average vapor pressure from April to October. The accumulation of tanshinones and biomass was increased with the decrease of latitude. At the same time, the dry matter and diameter of root decreased if altitude rises. In addition, S. miltiorrhiza required sunlight is not sophisticated, when compared with humid and temperature. To sum up, S

  16. Climate change, agroclimatic resources and agroclimatic zoning of agriculture in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Moteva, M.; Georgieva, V.

    2009-09-01

    The important factors for the agrarian output in Bulgaria are only thermal and water probability. From the two factors the component related to soil moisture is more limited. As well water and temperatures probabilities in the agrarian output are estimated trough sums of temperatures and rainfalls or by derivatives indicators (most frequently named as coefficients or indices). The heat conditions and the heat resources are specified by the continuousness of the vegetative period. Duration of vegetative season is limited for each type of plant, between the spring and autumn steady pass of air temperature across the biological minimum. For the agricultural crops in Bulgaria the three biological minimums: in 5°C are taken for wheat and barley, oat, pea, lentil and sunflower; 10°C for corn, haricot, and soybean and in 15°C for the cotton, vegetables and other spring cultures). The cold and warm period duration are mutually related characteristics. The first period define number of days with the snow fall and days with the snow cover, that are in the basis in the formation of soil moisture reserves after the spring snow melt. Definition of the regions with temperature stress conditions during vegetative season is one of the most important parameters of agroclimatic conditions. The values indicating for the limitations are one or more periods from at least 10 consecutive days with maximal air temperature over 35 °С. More from the agricultures, character for the moderate continental climatic zone are developed normally under temperatures 25-28°С. Temperatures over 28°C are ballast slowing the growth and destroying plants due to the heat tension. The component, limiting in greatest degree growth, development and formation of yields from the agricultural crops are the conditions of moisturizing, present trough atmospheric and soil moisture. The most apparent indicator is the year sum of the rains or their sum by the periods with the average daily temperatures of

  17. Influence of hydro-climatic conditions, soil type, and application matrix on potential vadose zone export of PPCPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, H. E.; Rao, P.; O'Connor, G.

    2013-12-01

    The land-application of biosolids and animal manure to agricultural fields has the potential to negatively impact the quality of nearby surface and subsurface water due to the presence of emerging contaminants in these residuals. We investigated the extent to which the vadose zone acts as a hydrologic and biogeochemical filter of two emerging contaminants, Triclosan (TCS) and estrone (E1) using a coupled source zone and vadose zone modeling approach. Monte Carlo simulations were run for a year following residual applications to explore the following research questions: (1) how does the application matrix (e.g., de-watered solids, liquid lagoon effluent, etc.) affect PPCP mass fluxes?; (2) how do hydro-climatic conditions and soil type affect PPCP mass fluxes?; (3) what role does the presence of macropore pathways play in PPCP export from the vadose zone; and (4) does the long-term, repeated application of residuals affect the ability of the vadose zone to act as an effective biogeochemical filter? The simulations were conducted for a sub-tropical climate with sand (e.g., Florida) and a humid climate with a silty clay loam (e.g., Midwestern United States). Simulation results suggest that the potential mobility of emerging contaminants increases linearly with increasing fraction applied to the mobile phase of the source zone (i.e., higher PPCP mass fraction in the dissolved phase during application). Following a single application, the total amount of PPCP mass exported from the source zone over the course of a year can be as high as 70% in a sub-tropical climate with sand soil. However, these types of soils do not have macropore flow pathways and the annual PPCP mass exported from the vadose zone is less than 1% of the mass applied. The higher organic carbon content in a silty clay loam reduces the amount of PPCP mass released from the source zone to less than 5% of the mass applied. In the presence of macropore pathways, the silty clay loam's vadose zone acts as a

  18. Cause-Specific Human Mortality by Building Climate Zone during the Great California Heat Wave of July 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnly, M. E.; Joe, L.; Smorodinsky, S.; Hoshiko, S.; Smith, D.

    2011-12-01

    California has suffered a number of heat waves (HWs) which have resulted in considerable human mortality. With climate change, HWs are predicted to increase, particularly in areas where HWs have historically occurred. The "Great" California HW of July 2006 was unprecedented in duration and occurred statewide, lasting ten days in much of the state and longer in some areas. Previous analysis has shown that an excess of all-cause human mortality occurred statewide and that the excess was higher in the Northern part of the state. We calculated the ratio of deaths during the heat wave period (July 15 - Aug 1, 2006) to deaths in reference days from the non-heat wave period in the same summer by cause of death. We have further calculated these cause-specific ratios by California's sixteen building climate zones. These zones were outlined in 1982 based on climate, geophysical features, and estimated energy consumption. We will discuss whether differences in mortality ratios by these climate zones may be related to zonal differences in HW intensity or duration, air conditioning use, building insulation requirements, or other factors. Identifying resilient (low health impact) and vulnerable zones (high health impacts) and factors that may mitigate the health impact will ultimately inform climate change mitigation and adaptation policies.

  19. How do changes in the Diurnal Cycle affect Bi-stability and Climate Sensitivity in the Habitable Zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, R.; Valerio, L.

    2013-09-01

    In this study we deal with the effect of varying the length of the diurnal cycle on its bi-stability properties. By using a general circulation model, PlaSim, we consider several values for the diurnal cycle, from tidally locked, to that of 1 Earth day. For each value of the diurnal cycle, we slowly modulate the solar constant between 1510 and 1000 Wm-2 and perform a hysteresis experiment. It is found that the width of the bi-stable region, i.e. the range of climate states - determined here by changes in S* - which support two climatic attractors, reduces when the diurnal cycle is increased in length and disappears - signifying the merging of both attractors - for climates with a diurnal cycle greater than 180 days. Crucial to the loss of bi-stability is the longitudinally asymmetric distribution of solar radiation, incident on the planet's surface, leading to the development of equatorial sea-ice. For diurnal cycles where bi-stability is found, the longitudinally asymmetric heating is sufficiently compensated for by the strength of the zonal winds and the rate of solar distribution, which redistribute heat and maintain the meridional temperature gradient across all longitudes. Conversely, for mono-stable regimes, the energy transport associated with zonal winds becomes insufficient to compensate for the increase in the length of the diurnal cycle, resulting in large zonal temperature gradients along the equatorial band. Furthermore, the results found here confirm and reenforce the robustness of those found in Boschi et al (2013), showing that, for climates which support bistability, it may be possible to parameterise variables such as the material entropy production and the meridional heat transport in terms of the surface and emission temperatures, within reasonably well defined upper and lower bounds, even when considering a wide range of planetary rotation speeds and changes to the infrared opacity. This paves the way for the possibility of practically deducing

  20. Conservation Priorities for Prunus africana Defined with the Aid of Spatial Analysis of Genetic Data and Climatic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J.; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A. C.; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species’ range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts. PMID:23544118

  1. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A C; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

  2. Vulnerability of boreal zone for increased nitrogen loading due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankinen, Katri; Holmberg, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The observed rapid warming of the boreal zone that has been observed in Finland (0.14 °C by decade) is expected to continue (http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/). Also precipitation is assumed to increase in future. These changes may increase nitrogen (N) loading from terrestrial environments to water bodies by accelerating soil organic matter decay and by increasing runoff. Nitrogen is limiting nutrient in the Baltic Sea but also in some lakes, so increased loading may increase eutrophication. Further, high nitrate levels in drinking water may cause methaemoglobin anemia for humans, and nitrate is also connected to increased risk of diabetes and cancer. Thus EU has set upper limits to nitrate concentration in drinking water. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409) is a project about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone. We simulated N loading from two boreal catchments to the receiving waters by the dynamic, catchment scale model INCA in different climate change and land use change scenarios. We calculated land use specific N loading values for these two well monitored catchments that belong to the LTER (The Long Term Ecological Research) monitoring network. We upscaled the results to the larger river basin, combining them with the information on drinking water supply to assess the vulnerability. Specific emphasis was paid on nitrate concentrations in soil water and groundwater. In general, land use change has higher influence on N loading than increase in precipitation and temperature alone. Peak runoff will sift from snow melting peak in April to late autumn and winter. Growing season will become longer allowing more efficient vegetation uptake of nutrients. Small groundwater aquifers and private wells in the middle of agricultural fields will be in the risk of increased N concentrations, if agricultural N loading increases due to changes in agricultural patterns and land use change.

  3. Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczucinski, W.

    2013-12-01

    Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded

  4. Frost weathering: Climate control of regolith production and critical zone evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Anderson, R. S.; Kelly, P. J.; Tucker, G. E.; Wickert, A.

    2012-04-01

    Rock generally displays greater fracture density and reduced strength near the surface than at depth. Relatively few processes can explain this profile of mechanical damage seen in rock. Motivated by weathered rock profiles measured in Gordon Gulch in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (Colorado Front Range, USA), we focus on frost cracking as an important weathering process. We use our measurements to guide a model of frost cracking. Although the modern mean annual ground temperature is ~4°C, it was subzero during Pleistocene glacial times. Frost cracking is therefore a plausible mechanism of rock damage. Rock on north-facing slopes in this high elevation catchment (~2600 m a.s.l.) is more deeply weathered and displays lower tensile strength than rock on south-facing slopes. We present detailed subsurface temperature profile records at sites on both slopes, reaching depths up to 1.5 m, and therefore crossing the mobile regolith - saprolite interface. We augment existing frost cracking models by incorporating daily thermal cycles, snow cover, latent heat, variation in material properties with depth, and limitations imposed by long transport distances for water to the freezing front. The north- and south-facing hillslope asymmetries in critical zone architecture can be explained with differences in mean annual surface temperatures, although moisture differences may also play a role. A temperature-controlled model of rock weathering enables consideration of the effect of climate change on weathered profile development.

  5. NDVI dynamics of the taiga zone in connection with modern climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkov, A.; Panidi, E.; Torlopova, N.; Tsepelev, V.

    2015-04-01

    This research is dedicated to the investigation of the relations between the XXI century climate changes and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) variability of the taiga zone. For this purposes was used the observations of vegetation variability on the test area located nearby Syktyvkar city (Komi Republic, Russia), 16-day averages of NDVI data derived from TERRA/MODIS space imagery (spatial resolution is about 250 meters), and the air temperature and precipitation observations from Syktyvkar meteorological station. The research results confirmed the statistically significant positive correlation between NDVI and air temperature for all vegetation types of the test area, for both spring and autumn seasons. The weakest correlation was found for coniferous forest, namely, pine forest on poor soils, and the strongest correlation was found for meadows and bogs. Additionally the map of NDVI trends of the test area shows that the sectors of greatest positive trend located on the territories with non-forest cover, and as a result, the positive trend of air temperature is indicated most brightly on vegetation of non-forest lands. Thereby these lands can serve as climate changes indicator in the investigated region. The study was partially supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), research project No. 14-05-00858 a.

  6. Comparative study of the antibacterial activity of propolis from different geographical and climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Véronique; Peyfoon, Elham; Watson, David G; Fearnley, James

    2008-09-01

    Propolis is a natural substance produced by honeybees upon collection and transformation of resins and exudates from plants. Comparative studies on propolis collected from a wide range of countries are crucial for linking its provenance to antibacterial activity and thus ensuring that the beneficial properties of propolis are used more efficiently by the general public. This study reports the in vitro screening of ethanol extracts of propolis (n = 40), collected from a wide range of countries within the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, and on the comparison of their activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using a broth microdilution assay. The results obtained revealed that propolis extracts were mostly active against Gram-positive bacteria. The samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to model their activity against Gram-positive microorganisms. Three distinct clusters were distinguished in the PCA mapping based on MIC values, categorizing samples with strong (MIC range 3.9-31.25 mg/L), moderate (MIC range 31.25-> or =500 mg/L) and weak antibacterial activity or inactivity (MIC > or = 500 mg/L only). It is hypothesized that for samples of tropical provenance differences in the activity profiles may depend on the climatic characteristics of the collection sites. High antibacterial activity was observed for samples from locations characterized by a wet-tropical rainforest-type climate.

  7. Climate-induced larch growth response within the central Siberian permafrost zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Il'ya A.

    2015-12-01

    Aim: estimation of larch (Larix gmelinii) growth response to current climate changes. Location: permafrost area within the northern part of Central Siberia (˜65.8°N, 98.5°E). Method: analysis of dendrochronological data, climate variables, drought index SPEI, GPP (gross primary production) and EVI vegetation index (both Aqua/MODIS satellite derived), and soil water content anomalies (GRACE satellite measurements of equivalent water thickness anomalies, EWTA). Results: larch tree ring width (TRW) correlated with previous year August precipitation (r = 0.63), snow accumulation (r = 0.61), soil water anomalies (r = 0.79), early summer temperatures and water vapor pressure (r = 0.73 and r = 0.69, respectively), May and June drought index (r = 0.68-0.82). There are significant positive trends of TRW since late 1980 s and GPP since the year 2000. Mean TRW increased by about 50%, which is similar to post-Little Ice Age warming. TRW correlated with GPP and EVI of larch stands (r = 0.68-0.69). Main conclusions: within the permafrost zone of central Siberia larch TRW growth is limited by early summer temperatures, available water from snowmelt, water accumulated within soil in the previous year, and permafrost thaw water. Water stress is one of the limiting factors of larch growth. Larch TRW growth and GPP increased during recent decades.

  8. Regional climate change scenarios applied to viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cabré, María Fernanda; Quénol, Hervé; Nuñez, Mario

    2016-09-01

    regions. It has been concluded that regional climate change simulations are an adequate methodology, and indeed, the MM5 regional model is an appropriate tool to be applied in viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina. PMID:26823161

  9. Climate-induced landsliding within the larch dominant permafrost zone of central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Shushpanov, Alexandr S.; Im, Sergei T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-04-01

    Climate impact on landslide occurrence and spatial patterns were analyzed within the larch-dominant communities associated with continuous permafrost areas of central Siberia. We used high resolution satellite imagery (i.e. QuickBird, WorldView) to identify landslide scars over an area of 62 000 km2. Landslide occurrence was analyzed with respect to climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, drought index SPEI), and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite derived equivalent of water thickness anomalies (EWTA). Landslides were found only on southward facing slopes, and the occurrence of landslides increased exponentially with increasing slope steepness. Lengths of landslides correlated positively with slope steepness. The observed upper elevation limit of landslides tended to coincide with the tree line. Observations revealed landslides occurrence was also found to be strongly correlated with August precipitation (r = 0.81) and drought index (r = 0.7), with June-July-August soil water anomalies (i.e., EWTA, r = 0.68-0.7), and number of thawing days (i.e., a number of days with t max > 0 °C r = 0.67). A significant increase in the variance of soil water anomalies was observed, indicating that occurrence of landslides may increase even with a stable mean precipitation level. The key-findings of this study are (1) landslides occurrence increased within the permafrost zone of central Siberia in the beginning of the 21st century; (2) the main cause of increased landslides occurrence are extremes in precipitation and soil water anomalies; and (3) landslides occurrence are strongly dependent on relief features such as southward facing steep slopes.

  10. On the use of mean groundwater age, life expectancy and capture probability for defining aquifer vulnerability and time-of-travel zones for source water protection.

    PubMed

    Molson, J W; Frind, E O

    2012-01-01

    Protection and sustainability of water supply wells requires the assessment of vulnerability to contamination and the delineation of well capture zones. Capture zones, or more generally, time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific contaminant travel times, are most commonly delineated using advective particle tracking. More recently, the capture probability approach has been used in which a probability of capture of P=1 is assigned to the well and the growth of a probability-of-capture plume is tracked backward in time using an advective-dispersive transport model. This approach accounts for uncertainty due to local-scale heterogeneities through the use of macrodispersion. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach to capture zone delineation by applying the concept of mean life expectancy E (time remaining before being captured by the well), and we show how life expectancy E is related to capture probability P. Either approach can be used to delineate time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific travel times, as well as the ultimate capture zone. The related concept of mean groundwater age A (time since recharge) can also be applied in the context of defining the vulnerability of a pumped aquifer. In the same way as capture probability, mean life expectancy and groundwater age account for local-scale uncertainty or unresolved heterogeneities through macrodispersion, which standard particle tracking neglects. The approach is tested on 2D and 3D idealized systems, as well as on several watershed-scale well fields within the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

  11. A restricted period for formation of outer subventricular zone defined by Cdh1 and Trnp1 levels

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Maria Ángeles; De Juan Romero, Camino; Fernández, Virginia; Cárdenas, Adrián; Götz, Magdalena; Borrell, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) is a germinal layer playing key roles in the development of the neocortex, with particular relevance in gyrencephalic species such as human and ferret, where it contains abundant basal radial glia cells (bRGCs) that promote cortical expansion. Here we identify a brief period in ferret embryonic development when apical RGCs generate a burst of bRGCs that become founders of the OSVZ. After this period, bRGCs in the OSVZ proliferate and self-renew exclusively locally, thereby forming a self-sustained lineage independent from the other germinal layers. The time window for the brief period of OSVZ bRGC production is delineated by the coincident downregulation of Cdh1 and Trnp1, and their upregulation reduces bRGC production and prevents OSVZ seeding. This mechanism in cortical development may have key relevance in brain evolution and disease. PMID:27264089

  12. A restricted period for formation of outer subventricular zone defined by Cdh1 and Trnp1 levels.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Maria Ángeles; De Juan Romero, Camino; Fernández, Virginia; Cárdenas, Adrián; Götz, Magdalena; Borrell, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) is a germinal layer playing key roles in the development of the neocortex, with particular relevance in gyrencephalic species such as human and ferret, where it contains abundant basal radial glia cells (bRGCs) that promote cortical expansion. Here we identify a brief period in ferret embryonic development when apical RGCs generate a burst of bRGCs that become founders of the OSVZ. After this period, bRGCs in the OSVZ proliferate and self-renew exclusively locally, thereby forming a self-sustained lineage independent from the other germinal layers. The time window for the brief period of OSVZ bRGC production is delineated by the coincident downregulation of Cdh1 and Trnp1, and their upregulation reduces bRGC production and prevents OSVZ seeding. This mechanism in cortical development may have key relevance in brain evolution and disease. PMID:27264089

  13. A restricted period for formation of outer subventricular zone defined by Cdh1 and Trnp1 levels.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Maria Ángeles; De Juan Romero, Camino; Fernández, Virginia; Cárdenas, Adrián; Götz, Magdalena; Borrell, Víctor

    2016-06-06

    The outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) is a germinal layer playing key roles in the development of the neocortex, with particular relevance in gyrencephalic species such as human and ferret, where it contains abundant basal radial glia cells (bRGCs) that promote cortical expansion. Here we identify a brief period in ferret embryonic development when apical RGCs generate a burst of bRGCs that become founders of the OSVZ. After this period, bRGCs in the OSVZ proliferate and self-renew exclusively locally, thereby forming a self-sustained lineage independent from the other germinal layers. The time window for the brief period of OSVZ bRGC production is delineated by the coincident downregulation of Cdh1 and Trnp1, and their upregulation reduces bRGC production and prevents OSVZ seeding. This mechanism in cortical development may have key relevance in brain evolution and disease.

  14. The transition zone chlorophyll front, a dynamic global feature defining migration and forage habitat for marine resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Howell, Evan; Kobayashi, Donald R.; Seki, Michael P.

    Pelagic ecosystem dynamics on all temporal scales may be driven by the dynamics of very specialized oceanic habitats. One such habitat is the basin-wide chlorophyll front located at the boundary between the low chlorophyll subtropical gyres and the high chlorophyll subarctic gyres. Global satellite maps of surface chlorophyll clearly show this feature in all oceans. In the North Pacific, the front is over 8000 km long and seasonally migrates north and south about 1000 km. In the winter this front is located at about 30-35°N latitude and in the summer at about 40-45°N. It is a zone of surface convergence where cool, vertically mixed, high chlorophyll, surface water on the north side sinks beneath warm, stratified, low chlorophyll water on the south side. Satellite telemetry data on movements of loggerhead turtles and detailed fisheries data for albacore tuna show that both apex predators travel along this front as they migrate across the North Pacific. The front is easily monitored with ocean color satellite remote sensing. A change in the position of the TZCF between 1997 and 1998 appears to have altered the spatial distribution of loggerhead turtles. The position and dynamics of the front varied substantially between the 1998 El Niño and the 1999 La Niña. For example, from May to July 1999 the transition zone chlorophyll front (TZCF) remained between about 35°N and 40°N latitude showing very little meandering, whereas in 1998, during the same period, the TZCF exhibited considerable meandering and greater monthly latitudinal movement. Catch rates for albacore were considerably higher in 1998 than in 1999, and we hypothesize that a meandering TZCF creates regions of convergence, which enhances the foraging habitat for apex predators along the front.

  15. Application of the Köppen classification for climatic zoning in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sá Júnior, Arionaldo; de Carvalho, Luiz Gonsaga; da Silva, Fábio Fernandes; de Carvalho Alves, Marcelo

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of the climatic conditions of a region is crucial for its agricultural development. It is also extremely important for understanding the fact that certain cultures have to develop under prevailing temperature and humidity conditions and assist in the adoption of a suitable irrigation technique, as well as its management and operationalization. The Köppen system of climate classification is widely used for the identification of homogeneous climate zones as it considers only rainfall and temperature as the meteorological elements for classification. For this study, we used climatic databases of rainfall and temperature in a raster format, with a spatial resolution of 30″ of arc (an approximate area of 0.86 km2 pixel-1), from 1961 to 1990. Through geoprocessing techniques, we obtained a map of climatic classification for the state of Minas Gerais. We found that the state has the following three major climatic groups: A, B and C, which correspond to tropical rainy, dry and warm temperate climates, respectively. The climate classes obtained were Aw, Am, BSh, Cwa and Cwb, with Aw, Cwa and Cwb classes occupying 99.89% of the territorial area of the state. The validation of the results showed a satisfactory agreement, with 93.75% reliability.

  16. Adaptation and exogenous selection in a Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone: implications for forest management under climate change

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, Amanda R; Wang, Tongli; Jaquish, Barry; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-01-01

    The nature of selection responsible for the maintenance of the economically and ecologically important Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone was investigated. Genomic, phenotypic and climatic data were used to test assumptions of hybrid zone maintenance and to model future scenarios under climate change. Genome-wide estimates of admixture based on a panel of 86 candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were combined with long-term quantitative data on growth and survival (over 20 yr), as well as one-time assessments of bud burst and bud set phenology, and cold hardiness traits. A total of 15 498 individuals were phenotyped for growth and survival. Our results suggest that the P. glauca × P. engelmannii hybrid zone is maintained by local adaptation to growing season length and snowpack (exogenous selection). Hybrids appeared to be fitter than pure species in intermediate environments, which fits expectations of the bounded hybrid superiority model of hybrid zone maintenance. Adaptive introgression from parental species has probably contributed to increased hybrid fitness in intermediate habitats. While P. engelmannii ancestry is higher than P. glauca ancestry in hybrid populations, on average, selective breeding in managed hybrid populations is shifting genomic composition towards P. glauca, potentially pre-adapting managed populations to warmer climates. PMID:24200028

  17. Rapid turnover of dissolved DMS and DMSP by defined bacterioplankton communities in the stratified euphotic zone of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Fuchs, Bernhard M.; Archer, Stephen D.; Kiene, Ronald P.; Amann, Rudolf; Burkill, Peter H.

    Bacterioplankton-driven turnover of the algal osmolyte, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), and its degradation product, dimethylsulphide (DMS) the major natural source of atmospheric sulphur, were studied during a Lagrangian SF 6-tracer experiment in the North Sea (60°N, 3°E). The water mass sampled within the euphotic zone was characterised by a surface mixed layer (from 0 m to 13-30 m) and a subsurface layer (from 13-30 m to 45-58 m) separated by a 2°C thermocline spanning 2 m. The fluxes of dissolved DMSP (DMSPd) and DMS were determined using radioactive tracer techniques. Rates of the simultaneous incorporation of 14C-leucine and 3H-thymidine were measured to estimate bacterioplankton production. Flow cytometry was employed to discriminate subpopulations and to determine the numbers and biomass of bacterioplankton by staining for nucleic acids and proteins. Bacterioplankton subpopulations were separated by flow cytometric sorting and their composition determined using 16S ribosomal gene cloning/sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with designed group-specific oligonucleotide probes. A subpopulation, dominated by bacteria related to Roseobacter-( α-proteobacteria), constituted 26-33% of total bacterioplankton numbers and 45-48% of biomass in both surface and subsurface layers. The other abundant prokaryotes were a group within the SAR86 cluster of γ-proteobacteria and bacteria from the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium—cluster. Bacterial consumption of DMSPd was greater in the subsurface layer (41 nM d -1) than in the surface layer (20 nM d -1). Bacterioplankton tightly controlled the DMSPd pool, particularly in the subsurface layer, with a turnover time of 2 h, whereas the turnover time of DMSPd in the surface layer was 10 h. Consumed DMSP satisfied the majority of sulphur demands of bacterioplankton, even though bacterioplankton assimilated only about 2.5% and 6.0% of consumed DMSPd sulphur in the surface and subsurface layers, respectively

  18. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  19. Modelled effects of precipitation on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones

    SciTech Connect

    Gerten, Dieter; Luo, Yiqi; Le Maire, Guerric; Parton, William; Keough, Cindy; Weng, Ensheng; Beier, Claus; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Dukes, Jeff; Hanson, Paul J; Knapp, Alan; Linder, Sune; Nepstad, Daniel; Rustad, Lindsey; Sowerby, ALWYN

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing changes in the global climate expose the world s ecosystems not only to increasing CO2 concentrations and temperatures but also to altered precipitation (P) regimes. Using four well-established process-based ecosystem models (LPJ, DayCent, ORCHIDEE, TECO), we explored effects of potential P changes on water limitation and net primary production (NPP) in seven terrestrial ecosystems with distinctive vegetation types in different hydroclimatic zones. We found that NPP responses to P changes differed not only among sites but also within a year at a given site. The magnitudes of NPP change were basically determined by the degree of ecosystem water limitation, which was quantified here using the ratio between atmospheric transpirational demand and soil water supply. Humid sites and/or periods were least responsive to any change in P as compared with moderately humid or dry sites/periods. We also found that NPP responded more strongly to doubling or halving of P amount and a seasonal shift in P occurrence than that to altered P frequency and intensity at constant annual amounts. The findings were highly robust across the four models especially in terms of the direction of changes and largely consistent with earlier P manipulation experiments and modelling results. Overall, this study underscores the widespread importance of P as a driver of change in ecosystems, although the ultimate response of a particular site will depend on the detailed nature and seasonal timing of P change.

  20. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  1. Integration and Typologies of Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study from Australian Wheat Sheep Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-09-01

    Although the integrated indicator methods have become popular for assessing vulnerability to climate change, their proliferation has introduced a confusing array of scales and indicators that cause a science-policy gap. I argue for a clear adaptation pathway in an “integrative typology” of regional vulnerability that matches appropriate scales, optimal measurements and adaptive strategies in a six-dimensional and multi-level analysis framework of integration and typology inspired by the “5W1H” questions: “Who is concerned about how to adapt to the vulnerability of what to what in some place (where) at some time (when)?” Using the case of the vulnerability of wheat, barley and oats to drought in Australian wheat sheep zones during 1978–1999, I answer the “5W1H” questions through establishing the “six typologies” framework. I then optimize the measurement of vulnerability through contrasting twelve kinds of vulnerability scores with the divergence of crops yields from their regional mean. Through identifying the socioeconomic constraints, I propose seven generic types of crop-drought vulnerability and local adaptive strategy. Our results illustrate that the process of assessing vulnerability and selecting adaptations can be enhanced using a combination of integration, optimization and typology, which emphasize dynamic transitions and transformations between integration and typology.

  2. Integration and Typologies of Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study from Australian Wheat Sheep Zones

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Although the integrated indicator methods have become popular for assessing vulnerability to climate change, their proliferation has introduced a confusing array of scales and indicators that cause a science-policy gap. I argue for a clear adaptation pathway in an “integrative typology” of regional vulnerability that matches appropriate scales, optimal measurements and adaptive strategies in a six-dimensional and multi-level analysis framework of integration and typology inspired by the “5W1H” questions: “Who is concerned about how to adapt to the vulnerability of what to what in some place (where) at some time (when)?” Using the case of the vulnerability of wheat, barley and oats to drought in Australian wheat sheep zones during 1978–1999, I answer the “5W1H” questions through establishing the “six typologies” framework. I then optimize the measurement of vulnerability through contrasting twelve kinds of vulnerability scores with the divergence of crops yields from their regional mean. Through identifying the socioeconomic constraints, I propose seven generic types of crop-drought vulnerability and local adaptive strategy. Our results illustrate that the process of assessing vulnerability and selecting adaptations can be enhanced using a combination of integration, optimization and typology, which emphasize dynamic transitions and transformations between integration and typology. PMID:27670975

  3. Changes in the world rivers' discharge projected from an updated high resolution dataset of current and future climate zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Monia; di Paola, Arianna

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an updated global map of the current climate zoning and of its projections, according to the Köppen-Geiger classification, is first provided. The map at high horizontal resolution (0.5° × 0.5°), representative of the current (i.e. 1961-2005) conditions, is based on the Climate Research Unit dataset holding gridded series of historical observed temperature and precipitation, while projected conditions rely on the simulated series, for the same variables, by the General Circulation Model CMCC-CM. Modeled variables were corrected for their bias and then projections of climate zoning were generated for the medium term (2006-2050) and long term (2056-2100) future periods, under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Results show that Equatorial and Arid climates will spread at the expenses of Snow and Polar climates, with the Warm Temperate experiencing more moderate increase. Maps of climate zones are valuable for a wide range of studies on climate change and its impacts, especially those regarding the water cycle that is strongly regulated by the combined conditions of precipitation and temperature. As example of large scale hydrological applications, in this work we tested and implemented a spatial statistical procedure, the geographically weighted regression among climate zones' surface and mean annual discharge (MAD) at hydrographic basin level, to quantify likely changes in MAD for the main world rivers monitored through the Global Runoff Data Center database. The selected river basins are representative of more than half of both global superficial freshwater resources and world's land area. Globally, a decrease in MAD is projected both in the medium term and long term, while spatial differences highlight how some areas require efforts to avoid consequences of amplified water scarcity, while other areas call for strategies to take the opportunity from the expected increase in water availability. Also the fluctuations of trends between the

  4. Evaluation of the thermal behaviour of different 'local climate zones' in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdonck, Marie-Leen; Demuzere, Matthias; Hooyberghs, Hans; Van Coillie, Frieke

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas are one of the most important human habitats; already 50% of the world's population is living there and this percentage is expected to rise to 70% by 2050. Global warming and the increasing world population will only put more pressure on the living conditions in these habitats. From a thermal comfort point of view it is clear that there is a need for sustainable urban planning that integrates the thermal behaviour of these new developments. To develop sustainable urban planning it is key to know what the influence of a new development will be on the thermal behaviour of the city. Classifying the city according to the local climate zone (LCZ) scheme can provide insights in the thermal behaviour of a city. The WUDAPT LCZ classification framework makes it possible to do so in a spatially explicit manner. This study presents an evaluation of the thermal behaviour of LCZ in three different Belgian cities (Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent) based on modelled air and surface temperature. First LCZ maps were delineated for the three cities. The maps were built based on Landsat and high resolution LiDAR images conform to the WUDAPT LCZ classification framework. Meter- resolution LiDAR images provide useful information on building height and were used to improve the LCZ maps. An accuracy assessment stage was added to confirm the validity of the maps. Secondly, the LCZ maps were used as input data for the URBCLIM model to model air and surface temperature. With the modelling results we characterized the thermal behaviour of every LCZ. In a next step the results for the different cities are compared and the generic character of the WUDAPT LCZ classification framework is evaluated. The main incentive for this study is to investigate whether LCZ maps can be used to foresee the influence of future urban growth scenario's on the thermal comfort in cities in Belgium.

  5. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Carl S.; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Noh, Susan M.; Futse, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  6. Towards Consistent Mapping of Urban Structures - Global Human Settlement Layer and Local Climate Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, B.; Pesaresi, M.; See, L.; Mills, G.; Ching, J.; Alexander, P. J.; Feddema, J. J.; Florczyk, A. J.; Stewart, I.

    2016-06-01

    Although more than half of the Earth's population live in urban areas, we know remarkably little about most cities and what we do know is incomplete (lack of coverage) and inconsistent (varying definitions and scale). While there have been considerable advances in the derivation of a global urban mask using satellite information, the complexity of urban structures, the heterogeneity of materials, and the multiplicity of spectral properties have impeded the derivation of universal urban structural types (UST). Further, the variety of UST typologies severely limits the comparability of such studies and although a common and generic description of urban structures is an essential requirement for the universal mapping of urban structures, such a standard scheme is still lacking. More recently, there have been two developments in urban mapping that have the potential for providing a standard approach: the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) scheme (used by the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools project) and the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) methodology by JRC. In this paper the LCZ scheme and the GHSL LABEL product were compared for selected cities. The comparison between both datasets revealed a good agreement at city and coarse scale, while the contingency at pixel scale was limited due to the mismatch in grid resolution and typology. At a 1 km scale, built-up as well as open and compact classes showed very good agreement in terms of correlation coefficient and mean absolute distance, spatial pattern, and radial distribution as a function of distance from town, which indicates that a decomposition relevant for modelling applications could be derived from both. On the other hand, specific problems were found for both datasets, which are discussed along with their general advantages and disadvantages as a standard for UST classification in urban remote sensing.

  7. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Carl S; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H; Hudak, Andrew T; Noh, Susan M; Futse, James E

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  8. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Carl S; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H; Hudak, Andrew T; Noh, Susan M; Futse, James E

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  9. The impact of climate change on vadose zone pore waters and its implication for long-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Glassley, William E.; Nitao, John J.; Grant, Charles W.; Johnson, James W.; Steefel, Carl I.; Kercher, James R.

    2003-03-01

    Protecting groundwater is of growing interest as pressure on these resources grows. Recharge of groundwater takes place through the vadose zone, where complex interactions between thermal-hydrological-geochemical processes affect water quality. Monitoring processes in the vadose zone is an important means of evaluating the long-term health of aquifer systems, and has become an integral part of many subsurface engineering efforts. Monitoring such systems, however, may be affected by changes in climate that slowly propagate through vadose zone systems. We describe in this paper the use of NUFT-C, a reactive transport simulator designed to run on a high performance, massively parallel computer, to compare quantitatively the evolution of a deep vadose zone with changes expected from an engineered high-level nuclear waste repository. The results suggest that the impacts from waste emplacement are, in some instances, similar to those that would be observed as a result of climate change, whereas others are distinguishable from evolution of the natural system. Such simulations facilitate design of long-term monitoring programs that take account of these complex effects. The results emphasize the importance of developing long-term baseline measurements and control sites, in order to enhance confidence in interpretations of complexly evolving data sets that will be obtained from multi-decade monitoring efforts.

  10. Prediction of Root Zone Soil Moisture using Remote Sensing Products and In-Situ Observation under Climate Change Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Panda, R. K.; Mohanty, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prediction of root zone soil moisture status at field level is vital for developing efficient agricultural water management schemes. In this study, root zone soil moisture was estimated across the Rana watershed in Eastern India, by assimilation of near-surface soil moisture estimate from SMOS satellite into a physically-based Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant (SWAP) model. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique coupled with SWAP model was used for assimilating the satellite soil moisture observation at different spatial scales. The universal triangle concept and artificial intelligence techniques were applied to disaggregate the SMOS satellite monitored near-surface soil moisture at a 40 km resolution to finer scale (1 km resolution), using higher spatial resolution of MODIS derived vegetation indices (NDVI) and land surface temperature (Ts). The disaggregated surface soil moisture were compared to ground-based measurements in diverse landscape using portable impedance probe and gravimetric samples. Simulated root zone soil moisture were compared with continuous soil moisture profile measurements at three monitoring stations. In addition, the impact of projected climate change on root zone soil moisture were also evaluated. The climate change projections of rainfall were analyzed for the Rana watershed from statistically downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCMs). The long-term root zone soil moisture dynamics were estimated by including a rainfall generator of likely scenarios. The predicted long term root zone soil moisture status at finer scale can help in developing efficient agricultural water management schemes to increase crop production, which lead to enhance the water use efficiency.

  11. Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin under two agro climatic zones in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M

    2012-04-01

    Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin was evaluated at two different agro climatic zones i.e. at Bangalore (Zone-1) and Dharwad (Zone-2) in the state of Karnataka, India. Two treatments of the combination formulation (fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50%) were given at the standard dose 150 + 750 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose 300 + 1,500 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of fenamidone were 0.467 and 0.474 mg kg(-1) at Zone-1 and 2, respectively from standard dose treatment. From double dose treatment they were 0.964 and 0.856 mg kg(-1), respectively. Fenamidone residues persisted for 15 and 10 days and dissipated with the half-life of 4 and 3 days at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residue deposits on gherkin were 0.383 and 0.428 mg kg(-1) from standard dose and 0.727 and 0.626 mg kg(-1) from double dose treatment at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residues dissipated with the half-life of 2 and 1 day, respectively. Residues of both fenamidone and mancozeb dissipated faster at Zone-2 compared to Zone-1. The limit of quantification of fenamidone and mancozeb were 0.02 and 0.1 mg kg(-1), respectively in both gherkin and soil. Residues of fenamidone and mancozeb in soil collected on the 20th day from the 2 locations were found to be below quantifiable limit of both fungicides. PMID:22349284

  12. Air Flow Path Dynamics In The Vadose Zone Under Various Land Surface Climate Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Sakaki, T.; Schulte, P. E.; Cihan, A.; Christ, J.

    2010-12-01

    Vapor intrusion (VI) refers to the transport of volatile chemical vapors from subsurface sources to surface and subsurface structures through the vadose zone. Because of the difference in pressure between the inside of the building and the subsurface soil pores, vapor can enter the building through cracks in the foundation, slab and walls and utility openings. The processes that govern the vapor transport in the heterogeneous subsurface “outside the home” are complex, and the sampling to assess potential pathways is subjected to spatial and temporal variability. Spatial variability is a result of a number of factors that include changing soil and soil moisture conditions. Temporal variability is a result of transient heat, wind, ambient pressure and a water flux boundary conditions at the land-atmospheric interface. Fluctuating water table conditions controlled by recharge, pumping, and stream-aquifer interactions will also contribute to the transient vapor flux generation at the sources. When the soil moisture changes as a result of precipitation events and other soil surface boundary conditions, the soil moisture content changes and hence the air permeability. Therefore, the primary pathways for the vapor are preferential channels that change with the transient soil moisture distribution. Both field and laboratory studies have shown that heterogeneity has a significant influence on soil moisture conditions in unsaturated soils. Uncertainties in vapor transport predictions have been attributed to heterogeneity and spatial variability in hydraulic properties. In this study, our goal was to determine the role of soil moisture variability on vapor transport and intrusion as affected by the climate driven boundary conditions on the land surface. A series of experiments were performed to generate a comprehensive data set to understand and evaluate how the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture affected by the mass and heat flux boundary conditions on the

  13. Global Climate Change and Its Potential Impact on Disease Transmission by Salinity-Tolerant Mosquito Vectors in Coastal Zones

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5–30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross–McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for

  14. Global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5-30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross-McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for increased

  15. Emission of methyl chloride from a fern growing in subtropical, temperate, and cool-temperate climate zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokouchi, Yoko; Takenaka, Akio; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Hiura, Tsutom

    2015-06-01

    Tropical and subtropical forests are believed to be the largest source of methyl chloride (CH3Cl), which is a natural stratospheric ozone destroyer. However, very little is known about what controls the rate of emission from these forests or why biogenic CH3Cl emission is concentrated in the tropics and subtropics. In this study, we investigated the seasonal and spatial variations of the rate of CH3Cl emission from the fern Osmunda japonica, which has a broad distribution covering the subtropical, temperate, and subboreal climate zones. The average rates of CH3Cl emission from the fern were similar (~1-4 µg g(dw)-1 h-1) among three areas, and there was no significant seasonal change in the temperate zone, although the rate was highly variable among individual plants. These findings suggest that meteorological climate such as temperature and solar radiation is not a major environmental factor controlling biogenic CH3Cl emission of individual plants, but species with high CH3Cl emission activity are more abundant in tropical and subtropical zones. We also found that developmental stage might be an important factor controlling biogenic CH3Cl emission rates. These results have implications for predicting future global CH3Cl emission budgets and for understanding of the plant-atmosphere interaction.

  16. Urban field classification by "local climate zones" in a medium-sized Central European city: the case of Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Michal; Geletič, Jan; Husák, Jan; Vysoudil, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    The stations of the Metropolitan Station Network in Olomouc (Czech Republic) were assigned to local climatic zones, and the temperature characteristics of the stations were compared. The classification of local climatic zones represents an up-to-date concept for the unification of the characterization of the neighborhoods of climate research sites. This study is one of the first to provide a classification of existing stations within local climate zones. Using a combination of GIS-based analyses and field research, the values of geometric and surface cover properties were calculated, and the stations were subsequently classified into the local climate zones. It turned out that the classification of local climatic zones can be efficiently used for representative documentation of the neighborhood of the climate stations. To achieve a full standardization of the description of the neighborhood of a station, the classification procedures, including the methods used for the processing of spatial data and methods used for the indication of specific local characteristics, must be also standardized. Although the main patterns of temperature differences between the stations with a compact rise, those with an open rise and the stations with no rise or sparsely built areas were evident; the air temperature also showed considerable differences within particular zones. These differences were largely caused by various geometric layout of development and by unstandardized placement of the stations. For the direct comparison of temperatures between zones, particularly those stations which have been placed in such a way that they are as representative as possible for the zone in question should be used in further research.

  17. Patterns of Genetic and Morphometric Diversity in Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Populations Across Different Climatic Zones of Benin (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    ASSOGBADJO, A. E.; KYNDT, T.; SINSIN, B.; GHEYSEN, G.; VAN DAMME, P.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a multi-purpose tree used daily by rural African communities. The present study aimed at investigating the level of morphometric and genetic variation and spatial genetic structure within and between threatened baobab populations from the three climatic zones of Benin. • Methods A total of 137 individuals from six populations were analysed using morphometric data as well as molecular marker data generated using the AFLP technique. • Key Results Five primer pairs resulted in a total of 217 scored bands with 78·34 % of them being polymorphic. A two-level AMOVA of 137 individuals from six baobab populations revealed 82·37 % of the total variation within populations and 17·63 % among populations (P < 0·001)· Analysis of population structure with allele-frequency based F-statistics revealed a global FST of 0·127 ± 0·072 (P < 0·001). The mean gene diversity within populations (HS) and the average gene diversity between populations (DST) were estimated at 0·309 ± 0·000 and 0·045 ± 0·072, respectively. Baobabs in the Sudanian and Sudan-Guinean zones of Benin were short and produced the highest yields of pulp, seeds and kernels, in contrast to the ones in the Guinean zone, which were tall and produced only a small number of fruits with a low pulp, seed and kernel productivity. A statistically significant correlation with the observed patterns of genetic diversity was observed for three morphological characteristics: height of the trees, number of branches and thickness of the capsules. • Conclusions The results indicate some degree of physical isolation of the populations collected in the different climatic zones and suggest a substantial amount of genetic structuring between the analysed populations of baobab. Sampling options of the natural populations are suggested for in or ex situ conservation. PMID:16520343

  18. Halotolerant, alkaliphilic urease-producing bacteria from different climate zones and their application for biocementation of sand.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Chu, Jian; Jian, Chu; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Li, Yishan

    2013-08-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a phenomenon based on urease activity of halotolerant and alkaliphilic microorganisms that can be used for the soil bioclogging and biocementation in geotechnical engineering. However, enrichment cultures produced from indigenous soil bacteria cannot be used for large-scale MICP because their urease activity decreased with the rate about 5 % per one generation. To ensure stability of urease activity in biocement, halotolerant and alkaliphilic strains of urease-producing bacteria for soil biocementation were isolated from either sandy soil or high salinity water in different climate zones. The strain Bacillus sp. VUK5, isolated from soil in Ukraine (continental climate), was phylogenetically close in identity (99 % of 16S rRNA gene sequence) to the strain of Bacillus sp. VS1 isolated from beach sand in Singapore (tropical rainforest climate), as well as to the strains of Bacillus sp. isolated by other researchers in Ghent, Belgium (maritime temperate climate) and Yogyakarta, Indonesia (tropical rainforest climate). Both strains Bacillus sp. VS1 and VUK5 had maximum specific growth rate of 0.09/h and maximum urease activities of 6.2 and 8.8 mM of hydrolysed urea/min, respectively. The halotolerant and alkaliphilic strain of urease-producing bacteria isolated from water of the saline lake Dead Sea in Jordan was presented by Gram-positive cocci close to the species Staphylococcus succinus. However, the strains of this species could be hemolytic and toxigenic, therefore only representatives of alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. were used for the biocementation studies. Unconfined compressive strengths for dry biocemented sand samples after six batch treatments with strains VS1and VUK5 were 765 and 845 kPa, respectively. The content of precipitated calcium and the strength of dry biocemented sand at permeability equals to 1 % of initial value were 12.4 g Ca/kg of dry sand and 454 kPa, respectively, in case of

  19. Evaluation of climate change impacts and adaptation measures for maize cultivation in the western Uganda agro-ecological zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, M. S.; Turyatunga, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the probable climate change impacts and the appropriate adaptation strategies for maize cultivation in the western Uganda agro-ecological zone. Detailed assessments were made using climate and crop models. The Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) v4.2 was used to downscale low resolution future climate data obtained from general circulation model HadCM3 for two SRES scenarios, A2 and B2. The CERES-Maize crop model of DSSAT v4.0.2.0 was used to simulate maize yield for the assessment of climate change impacts. In the western Uganda agro-ecological zone, the annual average temperature is expected to increase by between 0.69-2.46 and 0.66-1.78 °C under the A2 and B2 SRES scenarios, respectively, in the three future periods of 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s relative to the base period (1961-1990). Monthly average temperatures are expected to increase for most of the months but will slightly decrease for the month of November under both scenarios. The annual average rainfall is expected to decrease by between 4.7-16.4 and 4.7-11.8 % under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively, in the three future periods. Monthly average rainfall is expected to decrease for most of the months but will increase for the months of October, November, and December under both scenarios. Crop modeling results show that in the March-May crop season, maize yields will decrease by between 9.6-43.3 and 10.5-28.4 % under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively, relative to the base period in the three future periods. However, in the September-November crop season, maize yields are expected to increase by between 8.1-9.6 and 8.6-10.2 % under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. Supplementary irrigation and shifting of planting dates are found to extenuate the impacts of future climate on maize yields. Irrigation application of 80 mm during the growing season in the March-May season is expected to increase maize yields by as high as 42.1 % under future climate, while planting 16

  20. Halotolerant, alkaliphilic urease-producing bacteria from different climate zones and their application for biocementation of sand.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Chu, Jian; Jian, Chu; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Li, Yishan

    2013-08-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a phenomenon based on urease activity of halotolerant and alkaliphilic microorganisms that can be used for the soil bioclogging and biocementation in geotechnical engineering. However, enrichment cultures produced from indigenous soil bacteria cannot be used for large-scale MICP because their urease activity decreased with the rate about 5 % per one generation. To ensure stability of urease activity in biocement, halotolerant and alkaliphilic strains of urease-producing bacteria for soil biocementation were isolated from either sandy soil or high salinity water in different climate zones. The strain Bacillus sp. VUK5, isolated from soil in Ukraine (continental climate), was phylogenetically close in identity (99 % of 16S rRNA gene sequence) to the strain of Bacillus sp. VS1 isolated from beach sand in Singapore (tropical rainforest climate), as well as to the strains of Bacillus sp. isolated by other researchers in Ghent, Belgium (maritime temperate climate) and Yogyakarta, Indonesia (tropical rainforest climate). Both strains Bacillus sp. VS1 and VUK5 had maximum specific growth rate of 0.09/h and maximum urease activities of 6.2 and 8.8 mM of hydrolysed urea/min, respectively. The halotolerant and alkaliphilic strain of urease-producing bacteria isolated from water of the saline lake Dead Sea in Jordan was presented by Gram-positive cocci close to the species Staphylococcus succinus. However, the strains of this species could be hemolytic and toxigenic, therefore only representatives of alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. were used for the biocementation studies. Unconfined compressive strengths for dry biocemented sand samples after six batch treatments with strains VS1and VUK5 were 765 and 845 kPa, respectively. The content of precipitated calcium and the strength of dry biocemented sand at permeability equals to 1 % of initial value were 12.4 g Ca/kg of dry sand and 454 kPa, respectively, in case of

  1. Backyard of the rich north: the climate change-related vicious circle of the Arctic zone.

    PubMed

    Varis, Olli

    2006-06-01

    The Arctic zone is full of controversies, unknowns, contrasts, and challenges. The following example is enlightening. Saudi Arabia is a country that has been considered to have almost unlimited possibilities because of its enormous oil earnings. The country has US$60 thousand million purchasing power parity oil income each year for its mere 22 million inhabitants. Astonishingly, the Arctic zone's income from oil, gas, and minerals is at least as large as that of Saudi Arabia, modestly estimated, but the Arctic has less than 4 million people. Most money, however, flows away from the tundra, yet social and environmental problems remain there. A part of the side effect of consuming these resources-largely fossil fuels-returns to the Arctic in the form of greenhouse warming and all its consequences. The Arctic zone now warms at approximately double the rate of the world average.

  2. Zoning vulnerability of climate change in variation of amount and trend of precipitation - Case Study: Great Khorasan province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modiri, Ehsan; Modiri, Sadegh

    2015-04-01

    meteorological perspective risk. Finally, after determining the degree of threats, meteorological vulnerability zoning map was produced by kriging interpolation method and utilizing geographic information systems (GIS). It showed most studied areas were in complete level of investigation. Keywords: Vulnerability, Climate threats, GIS, Zoning, Precipitation, Crisis management.

  3. The Arab Vernacular Architecture and its Adaptation to Mediterranean Climatic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Shlomit; Hamza, Efat

    2014-05-01

    Throughout history people have employed building strategies adapted to local climatic conditions in an attempt to achieve thermal comfort in their homes. In the Mediterranean climate, a mixed strategy developed - utilizing positive parameters (e.g. natural lighting), while at the same time addressing negative variables (e.g. high temperatures during summer). This study analyzes the adaptation of construction strategies of traditional Arab houses to Mediterranean climatic conditions. It is based on the assumption that the climate of the eastern Mediterranean led to development of unique architectural patterns. The way in which the inhabitants chose to build their homes was modest but creative in the context of climate awareness, with simple ideas. These were often instinctive responses to climate challenges. Nine traditional Arab houses, built from the mid-19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, were analyzed in three different regions in Israel: the "Meshulash" - an area in the center of the country, and the Lower and Upper Galilees (in the north). In each region three houses were examined. It is important to note that only a few houses from these periods still remain, particularly in light of new construction in many of the villages' core areas. Qualitative research methodologies included documentation of all the elements of these traditional houses which were assumed to be a result of climatic factors, such as - house position (direction), thickness of walls, thermal mass, ceiling height, location of windows, natural ventilation, exterior wall colors and shading strategies. Additionally, air temperatures and relative humidity were measured at selected dates throughout all seasons both inside and immediately outside the houses during morning, noon, evening and night-time hours. The documentation of the architectural elements and strategies demonstrate that climatic considerations were an integral part of the planning and construction process of these

  4. Exposure of trees to drought-induced die-off is defined by a common climatic threshold across different vegetation types

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Hayes, Keith R; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Increases in drought and temperature stress in forest and woodland ecosystems are thought to be responsible for the rise in episodic mortality events observed globally. However, key climatic drivers common to mortality events and the impacts of future extreme droughts on tree survival have not been evaluated. Here, we characterize climatic drivers associated with documented tree die-off events across Australia using standardized climatic indices to represent the key dimensions of drought stress for a range of vegetation types. We identify a common probabilistic threshold associated with an increased risk of die-off across all the sites that we examined. We show that observed die-off events occur when water deficits and maximum temperatures are high and exist outside 98% of the observed range in drought intensity; this threshold was evident at all sites regardless of vegetation type and climate. The observed die-off events also coincided with at least one heat wave (three consecutive days above the 90th percentile for maximum temperature), emphasizing a pivotal role of heat stress in amplifying tree die-off and mortality processes. The joint drought intensity and maximum temperature distributions were modeled for each site to describe the co-occurrence of both hot and dry conditions and evaluate future shifts in climatic thresholds associated with the die-off events. Under a relatively dry and moderate warming scenario, the frequency of droughts capable of inducing significant tree die-off across Australia could increase from 1 in 24 years to 1 in 15 years by 2050, accompanied by a doubling in the occurrence of associated heat waves. By defining commonalities in drought conditions capable of inducing tree die-off, we show a strong interactive effect of water and high temperature stress and provide a consistent approach for assessing changes in the exposure of ecosystems to extreme drought events. PMID:24772285

  5. Exposure of trees to drought-induced die-off is defined by a common climatic threshold across different vegetation types.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Hayes, Keith R; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Increases in drought and temperature stress in forest and woodland ecosystems are thought to be responsible for the rise in episodic mortality events observed globally. However, key climatic drivers common to mortality events and the impacts of future extreme droughts on tree survival have not been evaluated. Here, we characterize climatic drivers associated with documented tree die-off events across Australia using standardized climatic indices to represent the key dimensions of drought stress for a range of vegetation types. We identify a common probabilistic threshold associated with an increased risk of die-off across all the sites that we examined. We show that observed die-off events occur when water deficits and maximum temperatures are high and exist outside 98% of the observed range in drought intensity; this threshold was evident at all sites regardless of vegetation type and climate. The observed die-off events also coincided with at least one heat wave (three consecutive days above the 90th percentile for maximum temperature), emphasizing a pivotal role of heat stress in amplifying tree die-off and mortality processes. The joint drought intensity and maximum temperature distributions were modeled for each site to describe the co-occurrence of both hot and dry conditions and evaluate future shifts in climatic thresholds associated with the die-off events. Under a relatively dry and moderate warming scenario, the frequency of droughts capable of inducing significant tree die-off across Australia could increase from 1 in 24 years to 1 in 15 years by 2050, accompanied by a doubling in the occurrence of associated heat waves. By defining commonalities in drought conditions capable of inducing tree die-off, we show a strong interactive effect of water and high temperature stress and provide a consistent approach for assessing changes in the exposure of ecosystems to extreme drought events.

  6. Climatic Zones, Soil Moisture Seasonality and Biomass Burning and Their Influence On Ozone Precursor Concentrations Over West Africa as Retrieved from Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onojeghuo, A. R.; Balzter, H.; Monks, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    West Africa is a region with six different climatic zones including a rich savannah affected by biomass burning annually, the Niger delta oil producing region with major gas flaring sites and a long coastline. Research on atmospheric pollution using remotely sensed data over West Africa has mostly been conducted at regional scale or for individual countries, with little emphasis on the dynamics of climatic zones and the diversity of land cover types. This study analyses annual seasonal dynamics of emissions of two ozone precursors stratified by climatic zone: nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from OMI and carbon monoxide (CO) from TES. The different sources of these pollutants and their seasonality are explicitly considered. Results indicate that the highest annual wet season NO2 column concentrations were in the semi-arid zone (1.33 x 1015 molecules cm-2) after prolonged periods of low soil moisture while the highest dry season were observed in the wet sub-humid zone (2.62 x 1015 molecules cm-2) where the savannah fires occur annually. The highest annual CO concentrations (> 3.1 x 1018 molecules cm-2) were from the Niger Delta, located in the humid zone. There were indications of atmospheric transport of CO from the southern hemisphere in the west season. Climate change induced soil moisture variability was most prominent in the dry sub-humid and semi-arid climatic zones (±0.015m3m-3) . The causal effects of soil moisture variability on NO2 emissions and their seasonal cycles were tested using the Granger causality test. Causal effects of inter-zonal exchanges/transport of NO2 and CO emissions respectively were inferred using Directed Acyclic Graphs. The results indicate that NO2, CO and their seasonal ratios are strongly affected by changes in soil moisture.

  7. Developing approaches to hindcast and earthcast climate controls on solute fluxes during shale weathering in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, P. L.; Godderis, Y.; Shi, Y.; Schott, J.; Duffy, C.; Brantley, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    To quantify the anthropogenic and climatic controls on regolith formation and global weathering fluxes, it is critical to understand the evolution of weathering profiles and the consumption of CO2 associated with weathering. Using a cascade of global circulation, biota, and weathering models, Goddéris et al. (2010) hindcasted the evolution of weathering profiles over the last 10k years along a loess transect in the Mississippi Valley. After using the weathering code, WITCH, in this way to investigate the dissolution and precipitation of silicate and carbonate minerals in loess along the climosequence, Godderis et al. (2013) then used a similar cascade of models to project the response of weathering of the transect through 2100 - we call this forward projection an 'earthcast'. The effect of projected climate change on the weathering profile was largely dictated by increasing temperature (which slows the rate of advance of the dolomite reaction front but increases silicate weathering) and changes in drainage (variable along the transect). To a lesser extent, changes in soil CO2 affected weathering. The response of the dolomite reaction front acts like a terrestrial lysocline as it responds to changing CO2 and climate. Here, we embark on a similar study of shale weathering. Like the loess formations, shale has high surface area of silicates per unit volume, and can contain carbonate minerals. Shale also comprises 25% of the continental landmass. Specifically, to explore how climate evolution controls shale weathering we are beginning to compare soils along a shale climosequence transect that spans from Wales to Puerto Rico (Dere et al. in press)--i.e., like the loess north-south transect, a climosequence of pedons. For the shales, we will also explore the effects of climate variables by comparing soils on the north- and south-facing hillslopes of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). The eventual goal is to utilize our understanding of the

  8. Late Quaternary Climate and Vegetation of the Sudanian Zone of Northeast Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzmann, Ulrich; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Morczinek, Irena

    2002-07-01

    The Lake Tilla crater lake in northeastern Nigeria (10°23'N, 12°08'E) provides a ca. 17,000 14C yr multiproxy record of the environmental history of a Sudanian savanna in West Africa. Evaluation of pollen, diatoms, and sedimentary geochemistry from cores suggests that dry climatic conditions prevailed throughout the late Pleistocene. Before the onset of the Holocene, the slow rise in lake levels was interrupted by a distinct dry event between ca. 10,900 and 10,500 14C yr B.P., which may coincide with the Younger Dryas episode. The onset of the Holocene is marked by an abrupt increase in lake levels and a subsequent spread of Guinean and Sudanian tree taxa into the open grass savanna that predominated throughout the Late Pleistocene. The dominance of the mountain olive Olea hochstetteri suggests cool climatic conditions prior to ca. 8600 14C yr B.P. The early to mid-Holocene humid period culminated between ca. 8500 and 7000 14C yr B.P. with the establishment of a dense Guinean savanna during high lake levels. Frequent fires were important in promoting the open character of the vegetation. The palynological and palaeolimnological data demonstrate that the humid period terminated after ca. 7000 14C yr B.P. in a gradual decline of the precipitation/evaporation ratio and was not interrupted by abrupt climatic events. The aridification trend intensified after ca. 3800 14C yr B.P. and continued until the present.

  9. Fresh water blue green algae from three agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India: distribution pattern with seasonal variation.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, S; Misra, P K; Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Suseela, M R; Sinha, S; Baghel, V S; Pal, Amit; Dwivedi, C P

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with 45 species of 21 genera of fresh water blue green algae (BGA) from three different agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh. Samples were collected from different habitats varying in physico-chemical properties. Out of 45 species, 13 species belonged to order Chroococcales, 31 to order Nostocales, while only 1 species belonged to order Stigonimatales i.e. Fischerella mucicola. The physico-chemical parameters like pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, nitrate, nitrite and rainfall play an important role in the periodicity of BGA. A positive correlation was found between dissolved oxygen (DO) of different ponds and species diversity, except in the case of western region of Uttar Pradesh (Farukhabad and Mahoba districts) where a positive correlation was found in electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids.

  10. Distributions of Fecal Markers in Wastewater from Different Climatic Zones for Human Fecal Pollution Tracking in Australian Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, J. P. S.; Smith, K.; Beale, D. J.; Gyawali, P.; Toze, S.

    2015-01-01

    Recreational and potable water supplies polluted with human wastewater can pose a direct health risk to humans. Therefore, sensitive detection of human fecal pollution in environmental waters is very important to water quality authorities around the globe. Microbial source tracking (MST) utilizes human fecal markers (HFMs) to detect human wastewater pollution in environmental waters. The concentrations of these markers in raw wastewater are considered important because it is likely that a marker whose concentration is high in wastewater will be more frequently detected in polluted waters. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to determine the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., HFMs Bacteroides HF183, human adenoviruses (HAdVs), and polyomaviruses (HPyVs) in raw municipal wastewater influent from various climatic zones in Australia. E. coli mean concentrations in pooled human wastewater data sets (from various climatic zones) were the highest (3.2 × 106 gene copies per ml), followed by those of HF183 (8.0 × 105 gene copies per ml) and Enterococcus spp. (3.6 × 105 gene copies per ml). HAdV and HPyV concentrations were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those of FIB and HF183. Strong positive and negative correlations were observed between the FIB and HFM concentrations within and across wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To identify the most sensitive marker of human fecal pollution, environmental water samples were seeded with raw human wastewater. The results from the seeding experiments indicated that Bacteroides HF183 was more sensitive for detecting human fecal pollution than HAdVs and HPyVs. Since the HF183 marker can occasionally be present in nontarget animal fecal samples, it is recommended that HF183 along with a viral marker (HAdVs or HPyVs) be used for tracking human fecal pollution in Australian environmental waters. PMID:26682850

  11. Distributions of Fecal Markers in Wastewater from Different Climatic Zones for Human Fecal Pollution Tracking in Australian Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Sidhu, J P S; Smith, K; Beale, D J; Gyawali, P; Toze, S

    2016-02-01

    Recreational and potable water supplies polluted with human wastewater can pose a direct health risk to humans. Therefore, sensitive detection of human fecal pollution in environmental waters is very important to water quality authorities around the globe. Microbial source tracking (MST) utilizes human fecal markers (HFMs) to detect human wastewater pollution in environmental waters. The concentrations of these markers in raw wastewater are considered important because it is likely that a marker whose concentration is high in wastewater will be more frequently detected in polluted waters. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to determine the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., HFMs Bacteroides HF183, human adenoviruses (HAdVs), and polyomaviruses (HPyVs) in raw municipal wastewater influent from various climatic zones in Australia. E. coli mean concentrations in pooled human wastewater data sets (from various climatic zones) were the highest (3.2 × 10(6) gene copies per ml), followed by those of HF183 (8.0 × 10(5) gene copies per ml) and Enterococcus spp. (3.6 × 10(5) gene copies per ml). HAdV and HPyV concentrations were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those of FIB and HF183. Strong positive and negative correlations were observed between the FIB and HFM concentrations within and across wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To identify the most sensitive marker of human fecal pollution, environmental water samples were seeded with raw human wastewater. The results from the seeding experiments indicated that Bacteroides HF183 was more sensitive for detecting human fecal pollution than HAdVs and HPyVs. Since the HF183 marker can occasionally be present in nontarget animal fecal samples, it is recommended that HF183 along with a viral marker (HAdVs or HPyVs) be used for tracking human fecal pollution in Australian environmental waters. PMID:26682850

  12. Influence of climate variability on water partitioning and effective energy and mass transfer in a semi-arid critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, Xavier; Brooks, Paul D.; Troch, Peter A.; McIntosh, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Craig

    2016-03-01

    The critical zone (CZ) is the heterogeneous, near-surface layer of the planet that regulates life-sustaining resources. Previous research has demonstrated that a quantification of the influxes of effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT) to the CZ can predict its structure and function. In this study, we quantify how climate variability in the last 3 decades (1984-2012) has affected water availability and the temporal trends in EEMT. This study takes place in the 1200 km2 upper Jemez River basin in northern New Mexico. The analysis of climate, water availability, and EEMT was based on records from two high-elevation SNOTEL stations, PRISM data, catchment-scale discharge, and satellite-derived net primary productivity (MODIS). Results from this study indicated a decreasing trend in water availability, a reduction in forest productivity (4 g C m-2 per 10 mm of reduction in precipitation), and decreasing EEMT (1.2-1.3 MJ m2 decade-1). Although we do not know the timescales of CZ change, these results suggest an upward migration of CZ/ecosystem structure on the order of 100 m decade-1, and that decadal-scale differences in EEMT are similar to the differences between convergent/hydrologically subsidized and planar/divergent landscapes, which have been shown to be very different in vegetation and CZ structure.

  13. Editorial - Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones, Edward B. Barbier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Michael; Wolanski, Eric

    2015-11-01

    In the Invited Feature Article in this issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, we are extremely grateful to Edward Barbier for performing the major task of increasing our awareness of the hazards and risks faced by all communities on low lying coasts but especially the poor, rural communities (Barbier, 2015). Against a background of climate-induced change, we now have a good and increasing evidence of the way the natural estuarine, coastal and marine system will respond (Elliott et al, 2015). However, more importantly Barbier (2015) highlights the way in which poor, rural coastal communities will be affected and will need to respond or will need help from the developed world to respond. It is axiomatic that while those communities are having less impact than more developed countries on the causes of climate change they are more affected and so have to respond to its consequences, what have been called exogenic unmanaged pressures. Hence they need to rely on mechanisms, techniques, technologies and approaches to help them cope with such change (see also Wolanski and Elliott 2015).

  14. Reaction of the accumulation zone portions of glaciers to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Whillans, I.M.

    1981-05-20

    The response of the accumulation regions of glaciers to changes in accumulation rate and in surface temperature is calculated by considering perturbations to the ice flow. The analysis is limited to glaciers in whch flow is dominated by internal shear and not by bottom sliding and for which flowliners are geographically paralled. In general, glaciers begin to alter thickness immediately after a change in accumulation rate, but the effect of a change in surface temperature is delayed by the time for this temperature change to penetrate to depth in the glacier. A warming leads to glacial thinning. The amount and timing of the response is very different for different glaciers. Characteristic times are on the order of tens of years for mountain glaciers and ten of thousands of years for the east antarctic ice sheet. As an example, the theory is applied to the ice sheet near Byrd Station, Antarctica. For hypothetical changes in surface accumulation rate and temperature, rates and amounts of thickness change are calculated, and it is found that the measured thinning is probably too fast to have been caused by climatic variation alone. The effects of hypothetical climatic variations on the depth-age and depth-temperature relationships through the ice sheet are also calculated. It is hoped that the theory will prove valuable in the interpreation of future drill hole results.

  15. Impacts of climate change on the Senegalese coastal zones: Examples of the Cap Vert peninsula and Saloum estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niang, Isabelle; Dansokho, Mamadou; Faye, Serigne; Gueye, Khadim; Ndiaye, Pape

    2010-07-01

    Following a first study made to assess the impacts of sea level rise on the Senegalese coastline ( Dennis et al., 1995), this vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) study tried to determine the impacts of climate change on two representative coastal zones, the Cap Vert peninsula and the Saloum estuary as well as potential adaptation options. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Methodology ( Carter et al., 1994), completed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Handbook ( Feenstra et al., 1998), were used together with different models (like the Bruun rule, the FEFLOW model), geographical information system and economic data to determine the physical and socio-economic impacts of different climate change scenarios on these coastal zones. Land losses are expected due to sea level rise that will enhance coastal erosion and increase inundation levels, the second phenomenon being responsible for most of these losses, especially in low lying areas like the Saloum estuary (27% of the total area lost with a 1 m inundation level). The combination of sea level rise and decreased precipitation will increase the salt water intrusion in a number of coastal aquifers, especially around Dakar and in the Saloum estuary. Population at risk of inundation in the Cap Vert peninsula could represent between 1 and 12% of the total population of this area. Economic values at risk were estimated by considering socio-economic scenarios and discount rates. For a 1 m inundation level by 2050, this could represent (for the two areas) 14.1% of the actual Gross Domestic Product. While housings represent more than 90% of this value in the Cap Vert peninsula, in the Saloum estuary, it is the agricultural production which represents the dominant form of value at risk (55%). Only two adaptation options, protection works (sea walls and groins) and afforestation of littoral dunes, were evaluated and costed. For a 1 m inundation level by 2050, this will represent 7.3% of the

  16. Dynamic Asia: Coupling of climate, tectonics, rivers, and people defines risk and opportunity for the world's largest human populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Steckler, M. S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ayers, J. C.; Wilson, C.; Small, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    Coupling between the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift and intense Asian monsoon yields tremendous regional runoff and sediment supply. This vigorous mass-transfer system sustains 7 of the world's 10 largest riverine sediment loads, which in turn have constructed vast, fertile fluvial-deltaic lowlands. These environments across south and east Asia host about 1/3 of all people on Earth. Such large and dense populations have flourished amidst the region's generally abundant water supplies, fisheries, and agricultural production. Yet the same environmental attributes that are so rich in resources also define a uniquely dynamic region, where rates of change are rapid and punctuated by frequent, intense events. Indeed, 8 of the world's 10 deadliest natural disasters have occurred in this region, involving a combination of earthquakes, tropical cyclones, river floods, and tsunamis. Other stresses that regularly impact the region include periods of monsoon collapse and drought, widespread arsenic contamination of groundwater, relative sea-level rise and coastal inundation, and groundwater salinization. Thus the communities of this region persistently face the challenge of balancing the carrying capacity of a resource-rich environment with its associated hazards and challenges. One important concept that has become increasingly more apparent is the connection within watersheds that transmits local effects both upstream and downstream within the system. Here we emphasize two additional points that we believe are essential in developing plausible strategies for sustaining health, resilience, and stability of the region. First, problems related to the natural environment are closely coupled with human activities and our concurrent responses to environmental change. Thus resulting issues are complex and multifaceted in ways that require natural scientists to better engage with researchers in the humanities and social sciences. Second, despite similar risks affecting many millions of

  17. Meningococcal meningitis and carriage in western Zaire: a hypoendemic zone related to climate?

    PubMed

    Cheesbrough, J S; Morse, A P; Green, S D

    1995-02-01

    An analysis of bacteria recovered from cerebrospinal fluid over a 16-year period at a rural hospital in western Zaire showed that Neisseria meningitidis accounted for only five (2.2%) isolates. A survey of naso-pharyngeal colonisation with N. meningitidis in 378 healthy children was undertaken to distinguish whether this low frequency was due to lack of carriage or, by inference, lack of the co-factors necessary to permit invasive disease. N. meningitidis was recovered from only three (0.78%) of the children. All isolates were non-typable strains of low pathogenicity. A review of studies examining the aetiology of bacterial meningitis and the geographical location of epidemics of meningococcal meningitis in and around Zaire reveals a 'hypoendemic zone', the limits of which correlate well with the area in which mean absolute humidity remains above 10 g m-3 of air throughout the year. Continuous high absolute humidity appears to reduce the transmission of meningococci. PMID:7867746

  18. Phylogeography of the Coastal Mosquito Aedes togoi across Climatic Zones: Testing an Anthropogenic Dispersal Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Sota, Teiji; Belton, Peter; Tseng, Michelle; Yong, Hoi Sen; Mogi, Motoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The coastal mosquito Aedes togoi occurs more or less continuously from subarctic to subtropic zones along the coasts of the Japanese islands and the East Asian mainland. It occurs also in tropical Southeast Asia and the North American Pacific coast, and the populations there are thought to have been introduced from Japan by ship. To test this hypothesis, the genetic divergence among geographic populations of A. togoi was studied using one mitochondrial and three nuclear gene sequences. We detected 71 mitochondrial haplotypes forming four lineages, with high nucleotide diversity around temperate Japan and declining towards peripheral ranges. The major lineage (L1) comprised 57 haplotypes from temperate and subarctic zones in Japan and Southeast Asia including southern China and Taiwan. Two other lineages were found from subtropical islands (L3) and a subarctic area (L4) of Japan. The Canadian population showed one unique haplotype (L2) diverged from the other lineages. In the combined nuclear gene tree, individuals with mitochondrial L4 haplotypes diverged from those with the other mitochondrial haplotypes L1—L3; although individuals with L1—L3 haplotypes showed shallow divergences in the nuclear gene sequences, individuals from Southeast Asia and Canada each formed a monophyletic group. Overall, the genetic composition of the Southeast Asian populations was closely related to that of temperate Japanese populations, suggesting recent gene flow between these regions. The Canadian population might have originated from anthropogenic introduction from somewhere in Asia, but the possibility that it could have spread across the Beringian land bridge cannot be ruled out. PMID:26107619

  19. Balanced sediment fluxes in southern California’s Mediterranean-climate zone salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosencranz, Jordan A.; Ganju, Neil K.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many Mediterranean-climate salt marshes along southern California, USA coast import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a highly modified, sediment-starved, 1.5-km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1-km2marsh (Mugu) with fluvial sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12,000 and 8800 kg in a western and eastern channel. Western channel storm imports offset 8700 kg exported during 2 months of dry weather, while eastern channel storm imports augmented 9200 kg imported during dry weather. During the storm at Mugu, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1–2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg: 20 % of Mugu’s dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are geomorphically stable during dry weather conditions. Results suggest storms and high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes lead to marsh elevational instability based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  20. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  1. Characteristics and source apportionment of organic matter in PM(2.5) from cities in different climatic zones of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jialiang

    For the first time, the dependency of the characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 on geographical and climatic zones in three metropolitan cities of China was studied. Seasonal samples were collected at suburban and urban sites in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2002 and 2003. To further support the above study, seasonal samples were also collected at Changdao Island, a remote island, in Bohai Sea/Yellow Sea. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC) were analyzed. The characteristics of the n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-fatty acids, n-alkanols and molecular markers such as triterpanes were determined and used for source identification. Source apportionment was complemented by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling using the measured organic species as tracers. The impact of wind speed and wind direction on air quality was studied by back trajectory calculations and analysis. In general, traffic emissions were the largest contributors of OC followed by coal burning, kitchen emissions, vegetative detritus and biomass burning. However, in the space-heating season in Northern China, coal burning was the most important contributor of OC in the suburban areas of Beijing and at Changdao. Beijing had the highest concentration of organic aerosol followed by Guangzhou and Shanghai, while seasonal variation was in reverse order. Dispersion conditions determined by local topographies and meteorology were responsible for this trend. Contrary to common understanding, pollutant concentrations at the suburban sites were higher than the urban sites in all three cities. The main reason was the rapid urbanization of the suburban areas in the immediate vicinity of urban centers since China opened up for economic development, in addition, large numbers of manufacturing plants were relocated from the cities to the countryside in an attempt to clean up the urban

  2. Holocene climate variability in the Winter Rainfall Zone of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeab, S.; Stuut, J.-B. W.; Schneider, R. R.; Siebel, W.

    2013-05-01

    We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes and grain size of terrigenous fraction, and δ18O and δ13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ) of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700-100 yr BP). Wet phases were accompanied by strengthened coastal water upwellings, a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the southern Atlantic, and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) between 9000 and 5500 yr BP parallel with increase of dust deposition over Antarctica and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the southeastern Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and leakage of warm water in southern Atlantic, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies that may result in a decline of rainfall over southwest Africa and a weakened upwelling with implication for phytoplankton productivity and fish stocks. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation that is critical as moisture source for the endemic flora of the Namaqualand.

  3. Holocene climate variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeab, S.; Stuut, J.-B. W.; Schneider, R. R.; Siebel, W.

    2012-06-01

    We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes, grain size of terrigenous fraction, and δ18O and δ13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off Western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ) of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700-100 yr BP). Wet phases were accompanied by strengthened coastal water upwellings, a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the Southern Atlantic, and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the Southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) between 9000 and 5500 yr BP parallel with evidence of a poleward shift of the austral mid-latitude westerlies and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the Southeastern Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and changes in the amount of Agulhas water leakage into the Southern BUS. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies that may result in a decline of rainfall over Southwest Africa and a weakened upwelling with implication for phytoplankton productivity and fish stocks. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the Southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation that is critical as moisture source for the endemic flora of

  4. Balanced Sediment Fluxes in Southern California's Mediterranean-climate Zone Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosencranz, J. A.; Dickhudt, P.; Ganju, N. K.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Ambrose, R. F.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Brosnahan, S.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many southern California, USA salt marshes import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are also potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a sediment starved 1.5 km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1 km2 marsh (Mugu) with a watershed sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12000 and 8800 kg in a western channel. This offset 8700 kg export during two months of dry weather, while landward net fluxes in the eastern channel accounted for 33% of the import. During the storm, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1-2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence at Mugu yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg, accounting for 20% of dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are currently geomorphically stable. Our results suggest that storms and exceptionally high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea-level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes may lead to marsh elevational instability, based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  5. Modeled Interactive Effects of Precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yiqi; Gerten, Dieter; Le Maire, Guerric; Parton, William; Weng, Ensheng; Zhou, Xuhuui; Keough, Cindy; Beier, Claus; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Dukes, Jeff; Emmett, Bridget; Hanson, Paul J; Knapp, Alan; Linder, Sune; Nepstad, Daniel; Rustad, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff.We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the threeway interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor s effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor s effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes.

  6. Permafrost and organic layer interactions over a climate gradient in a discontinuous permafrost zone

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Kristopher D; Harden, Jennifer; McGuire, A. David; Clark, Mark; Yuan, Fengming; Finley, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Permafrost is tightly coupled to the organic layer, an interaction that mediates permafrost degradation in response to regional warming. We analyzed changes in permafrost occurrence (PF) and organic layer thickness (OLT) in more than 3000 soil pedons across a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient. Cause and effect relationships between PF, OLT, and other topographic factors were investigated using structural equation modeling in a multi-group analysis. Groups were defined by slope, soil texture type, and shallow v. deep organic layers. Permafrost probability sharply increased by 0.32 for every 10-cm OLT increase in shallow OLT soils (OLTs) due to an insulation effect, but PF decreased in deep OLT soils (OLTd) by 0.06 for every 10-cm increase. As temperature warmed, sandy soils varied little in PF or OLT, but PF in loamy and sandy soils decreased substantially. The change in OLT was more heterogeneous across soil types in some there was no change while in others OLTs soils thinned and/or OLTd soils thickened as temperature warmed. Furthermore, the rate of thickening with warming for OLTd soils was on average almost 4 times greater than the rate of thinning for OLTs soils across all soil types. If soils follow a trajectory of warming that mimics the spatial gradients found today, then heterogeneities of permafrost degradation and organic layer thinning and thickening should be considered in the regional carbon balance.

  7. Permafrost and organic layer interactions over a climate gradient in a discontinuous permafrost zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kristofer D.; Harden, Jennifer W.; McGuire, A. David; Clark, Mark; Yuan, Fengming; Finley, Andrew O.

    2013-01-01

    Permafrost is tightly coupled to the organic soil layer, an interaction that mediates permafrost degradation in response to regional warming. We analyzed changes in permafrost occurrence and organic layer thickness (OLT) using more than 3000 soil pedons across a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient. Cause and effect relationships between permafrost probability (PF), OLT, and other topographic factors were investigated using structural equation modeling in a multi-group analysis. Groups were defined by slope, soil texture type, and shallow (<28 cm) versus deep organic (≥28 cm) layers. The probability of observing permafrost sharply increased by 0.32 for every 10-cm OLT increase in shallow OLT soils (OLTs) due to an insulation effect, but PF decreased in deep OLT soils (OLTd) by 0.06 for every 10-cm increase. Across the MAT gradient, PF in sandy soils varied little, but PF in loamy and silty soils decreased substantially from cooler to warmer temperatures. The change in OLT was more heterogeneous across soil texture types—in some there was no change while in others OLTs soils thinned and/or OLTd soils thickened at warmer locations. Furthermore, when soil organic carbon was estimated using a relationship with thickness, the average increase in carbon in OLTd soils was almost four times greater compared to the average decrease in carbon in OLTs soils across all soil types. If soils follow a trajectory of warming that mimics the spatial gradients found today, then heterogeneities of permafrost degradation and organic layer thinning and thickening should be considered in the regional carbon balance.

  8. Isolation of strains belonging to the cosmopolitan Polynucleobacter necessarius cluster from freshwater habitats located in three climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Martin W

    2003-09-01

    More than 40 bacterial strains belonging to the cosmopolitan Polynucleobacter necessarius cluster (Betaproteobacteria) were isolated from a broad spectrum of freshwater habitats located in three climatic zones. Sequences affiliated with the freshwater P. necessarius cluster are among the most frequently detected in studies on bacterial diversity in freshwater ecosystems. Despite this frequent detection with culture-independent techniques and the cosmopolitan occurrence of members affiliated with this cluster, no isolates have been reported thus far. The isolated strains have been obtained from lakes, ponds, and rivers in central Europe, the People's Republic of China, and East Africa by use of the filtration-acclimatization method. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates are 98.8 to 100% identical to reference sequences obtained by various authors by use of culture-independent methods. The isolates, aerobic heterotrophs, grew on a wide range of standard complex media and formed visible colonies on agar plates. Thus, the previous lack of isolates cannot be explained by a lack of appropriate media. Most of the isolates possess, under a wide range of culture conditions, very small cells (<0.1 micro m(3)), even when grown in medium containing high concentrations of organic substances. Thus, these strains are obligate ultramicrobacteria. The obtained strains have a C-shaped cell morphology which is very similar to that of recently isolated ultramicrobacterial Luna cluster strains (Actinobacteria) and the SAR11 cluster strains (Alphaproteobacteria).

  9. Late Quaternary slip rate gradient defined using high-resolution topography and 10Be dating of offset landforms on the southern San Jacinto Fault zone, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blisniuk, Kimberly; Rockwell, Thomas; Owen, Lewis A.; Oskin, Michael; Lippincott, Caitlin; Caffee, Marc W.; Dortch, Jason

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies suggest the San Jacinto fault zone may be the dominant structure accommodating PA-NA relative plate motion. However, because the late Quaternary slip history of the southern San Andreas fault system is insufficiently understood, it is difficult to evaluate the partitioning of deformation across the plate boundary and its evolution. Landforms displaced by the Clark fault of the southern San Jacinto fault zone were mapped using high-resolution airborne laser-swath topography and selected offset landforms were dated using cosmogenic 10Be. Beheaded channels at Rockhouse Canyon, displaced by 500 ± 70 m and 220 ± 70 m, have been dated to 47 ± 8 ka and 28 ± 9 ka, respectively. Farther south, near the southern Santa Rosa Mountains, an alluvial deposit displaced by 51 ± 9 m has been dated to 35 ± 7 ka. From these sites, the slip rate of the Clark fault is determined to diminish southward from 8.9 ± 2.0 to 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr. This implies a slip-rate decrease along the Clark fault from Anza southeastward to its surface termination near the Salton Trough, where slip is transferred to the Coyote Creek fault, and additional deformation is compensated by folding and thrusting in the basin. These data suggest that since ˜30 to 50 ka, the slip rate along the southern San Jacinto fault zone has been lower than, or equivalent to, the rate along the southernmost San Andreas fault. Accordingly, either the slip rate of the San Jacinto fault has substantially decreased since fault initiation, or fault slip began earlier than previously suggested.

  10. Relative importance of management, meteorological and environmental factors in the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in a temperate climate zone.

    PubMed

    Bennema, S C; Ducheyne, E; Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E; Hendrickx, G; Charlier, J

    2011-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution, is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. Diagnosis is hampered by the fact that the infection is mostly subclinical. To increase awareness and develop regionally adapted control methods, knowledge on the spatial distribution of economically important infection levels is needed. Previous studies modelling the spatial distribution of F. hepatica are mostly based on single cross-sectional samplings and have focussed on climatic and environmental factors, often ignoring management factors. This study investigated the associations between management, climatic and environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of infection with F. hepatica in dairy herds in a temperate climate zone (Flanders, Belgium) over three consecutive years. A bulk-tank milk antibody ELISA was used to measure F. hepatica infection levels in a random sample of 1762 dairy herds in the autumns of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The infection levels were included in a Geographic Information System together with meteorological, environmental and management parameters. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between possible risk factors and infection levels. The prevalence and spatial distribution of F. hepatica was relatively stable, with small interannual differences in prevalence and location of clusters. The logistic regression model based on both management and climatic/environmental factors included the factors: annual rainfall, mowing of pastures, proportion of grazed grass in the diet and length of grazing season as significant predictors and described the spatial distribution of F. hepatica better than the model based on climatic/environmental factors only (annual rainfall, elevation and slope, soil type), with an Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic of 0.68 compared with 0.62. The results indicate that in temperate climate zones without large climatic

  11. GEOPHYSICS AND SITE CHARACTERIZATION AT THE HANFORD SITE THE SUCCESSFUL USE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TO POSITION BOREHOLES TO DEFINE DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION - 11509

    SciTech Connect

    GANDER MJ; LEARY KD; LEVITT MT; MILLER CW

    2011-01-14

    Historic boreholes confirmed the presence of nitrate and radionuclide contaminants at various intervals throughout a more than 60 m (200 ft) thick vadose zone, and a 2010 electrical resistivity survey mapped the known contamination and indicated areas of similar contaminants, both laterally and at depth; therefore, electrical resistivity mapping can be used to more accurately locate characterization boreholes. At the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington, production of uranium and plutonium resulted in the planned release of large quantities of contaminated wastewater to unlined excavations (cribs). From 1952 until 1960, the 216-U-8 Crib received approximately 379,000,000 L (100,000,000 gal) of wastewater containing 25,500 kg (56,218 lb) uranium; 1,029,000 kg (1,013 tons) of nitrate; 2.7 Ci of technetium-99; and other fission products including strontium-90 and cesium-137. The 216-U-8 Crib reportedly holds the largest inventory of waste uranium of any crib on the Hanford Site. Electrical resistivity is a geophysical technique capable of identifying contrasting physical properties; specifically, electrically conductive material, relative to resistive native soil, can be mapped in the subsurface. At the 216-U-8 Crib, high nitrate concentrations (from the release of nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}] and associated uranium and other fission products) were detected in 1994 and 2004 boreholes at various depths, such as at the base of the Crib at 9 m (30 ft) below ground surface (bgs) and sporadically to depths in excess of 60 m (200 ft) bgs. These contaminant concentrations were directly correlative with the presence of observed low electrical resistivity responses delineated during the summer 2010 geophysical survey. Based on this correlation and the recently completed mapping of the electrically conductive material, additional boreholes are planned for early 2011 to identify nitrate and radionuclide contamination: (a) throughout the entire vertical length of the

  12. Inference of the Arabidopsis Lateral Root Gene Regulatory Network Suggests a Bifurcation Mechanism That Defines Primordia Flanking and Central Zones[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lavenus, Julien; Goh, Tatsuaki; Guyomarc’h, Soazig; Hill, Kristine; Lucas, Mikael; Voß, Ute; Kenobi, Kim; Wilson, Michael H.; Farcot, Etienne; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of genes involved in lateral root (LR) organogenesis have been identified over the last decade using forward and reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nevertheless, how these genes interact to form a LR regulatory network largely remains to be elucidated. In this study, we developed a time-delay correlation algorithm (TDCor) to infer the gene regulatory network (GRN) controlling LR primordium initiation and patterning in Arabidopsis from a time-series transcriptomic data set. The predicted network topology links the very early-activated genes involved in LR initiation to later expressed cell identity markers through a multistep genetic cascade exhibiting both positive and negative feedback loops. The predictions were tested for the key transcriptional regulator AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 node, and over 70% of its targets were validated experimentally. Intriguingly, the predicted GRN revealed a mutual inhibition between the ARF7 and ARF5 modules that would control an early bifurcation between two cell fates. Analyses of the expression pattern of ARF7 and ARF5 targets suggest that this patterning mechanism controls flanking and central zone specification in Arabidopsis LR primordia. PMID:25944102

  13. Impacts of recent climate change on dry-land crop water consumption in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Pan, Xuebiao; Zhao, Peiyi

    2013-08-01

    Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04°C yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1. Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09°C yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1. Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.

  14. Monitoring and Modelling of Soil-Plant Interactions: the Joint Use of ERT, Sap Flow and Eddy Covariance to Define the Volume of Orange Tree Active Root Zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassiani, G.; Boaga, J.; Vanella, D.; Perri, M. T.; Consoli, S.

    2014-12-01

    Mass and energy exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere are key factors controlling a number of environmental processes involving hydrology, biota and climate. The understanding of these exchanges also play a critical role for practical purposes such as precision agriculture. In this contribution we present a methodology based on coupling innovative data collection and models. In particular we propose the use of hydro-geophysical monitoring via 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) in conjunction with measurements of plant transpiration via sap flow and evapotranspiration from Eddy Correlation (EC). This abundance of data are to be fed in spatially distributed soil models in order to comprehend the distribution of active roots. We conducted experiments in an orange orchard in Eastern Sicily (Italy). We installed a 3D electrical tomography apparatus consisting of 4 instrumented micro boreholes placed at the corners of a square (about 1.3 m in side) surrounding an orange tree. During the monitoring, we collected repeated ERT and TDR soil moisture measurements, soil water sampling, sap flow measurements from the orange tree and EC data. Irrigation, precipitation, sap flow and ET data are available for a long period of time allowing knowledge of the long term forcing conditions on the system. This wealth of information was used to calibrate a 1D Richards' equation model representing the dynamics of the volume monitored via 3D ERT. Information on the soil hydraulic properties was collected from laboratory experiments as well as by time-lapse ERT monitoring of irrigation a few months after the main experiment, when the orange tree had been cut. The results of the calibrated modeling exercise allow the quantification of the soil volume interested by root water uptake. This volume is much smaller (an area less than 2 square meters, 40 cm thick) than generally believed and assumed in the design of classical drip irrigation schemes.

  15. Clinal variation in a brown lemur (Eulemur spp.) hybrid zone: combining morphological, genetic and climatic data to examine stability.

    PubMed

    Delmore, K E; Brenneman, R A; Lei, R; Bailey, C A; Brelsford, A; Louis, E E; Johnson, S E

    2013-08-01

    Studies of hybrid zones can inform our understanding of reproductive isolation and speciation. Two species of brown lemur (Eulemur rufifrons and E. cinereiceps) form an apparently stable hybrid zone in the Andringitra region of southeastern Madagascar. The aim of this study was to identify factors that contribute to this stability. We sampled animals at 11 sites along a 90-km transect through the hybrid zone and examined variation in 26 microsatellites, the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA, six pelage and nine morphological traits; we also included samples collected in more distant allopatric sites. Clines in these traits were noncoincident, and there was no increase in either inbreeding coefficients or linkage disequilibrium at the centre of the zone. These results could suggest that the hybrid zone is maintained by weak selection against hybrids, conforming to either the tension zone or geographical selection-gradient model. However, a closer examination of clines in pelage and microsatellites indicates that these clines are not sigmoid or stepped in shape but instead plateau at their centre. Sites within the hybrid zone also occur in a distinct habitat, characterized by greater seasonality in precipitation and lower seasonality in temperature. Together, these findings suggest that the hybrid zone may follow the bounded superiority model, with exogenous selection favouring hybrids within the transitional zone. These findings are noteworthy, as examples supporting the bounded superiority model are rare and may indicate a process of ecologically driven speciation without geographical isolation.

  16. Mortality during a Large-Scale Heat Wave by Place, Demographic Group, Internal and External Causes of Death, and Building Climate Zone

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Lauren; Hoshiko, Sumi; Dobraca, Dina; Jackson, Rebecca; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Smith, Daniel; Harnly, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Mortality increases during periods of elevated heat. Identification of vulnerable subgroups by demographics, causes of death, and geographic regions, including deaths occurring at home, is needed to inform public health prevention efforts. We calculated mortality relative risks (RRs) and excess deaths associated with a large-scale California heat wave in 2006, comparing deaths during the heat wave with reference days. For total (all-place) and at-home mortality, we examined risks by demographic factors, internal and external causes of death, and building climate zones. During the heat wave, 582 excess deaths occurred, a 5% increase over expected (RR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.08). Sixty-six percent of excess deaths were at home (RR = 1.12, CI 1.07–1.16). Total mortality risk was higher among those aged 35–44 years than ≥65, and among Hispanics than whites. Deaths from external causes increased more sharply (RR = 1.18, CI 1.10–1.27) than from internal causes (RR = 1.04, CI 1.02–1.07). Geographically, risk varied by building climate zone; the highest risks of at-home death occurred in the northernmost coastal zone (RR = 1.58, CI 1.01–2.48) and the southernmost zone of California’s Central Valley (RR = 1.43, CI 1.21–1.68). Heat wave mortality risk varied across subpopulations, and some patterns of vulnerability differed from those previously identified. Public health efforts should also address at-home mortality, non-elderly adults, external causes, and at-risk geographic regions. PMID:27005646

  17. Mortality during a Large-Scale Heat Wave by Place, Demographic Group, Internal and External Causes of Death, and Building Climate Zone.

    PubMed

    Joe, Lauren; Hoshiko, Sumi; Dobraca, Dina; Jackson, Rebecca; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Smith, Daniel; Harnly, Martha

    2016-03-09

    Mortality increases during periods of elevated heat. Identification of vulnerable subgroups by demographics, causes of death, and geographic regions, including deaths occurring at home, is needed to inform public health prevention efforts. We calculated mortality relative risks (RRs) and excess deaths associated with a large-scale California heat wave in 2006, comparing deaths during the heat wave with reference days. For total (all-place) and at-home mortality, we examined risks by demographic factors, internal and external causes of death, and building climate zones. During the heat wave, 582 excess deaths occurred, a 5% increase over expected (RR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.08). Sixty-six percent of excess deaths were at home (RR = 1.12, CI 1.07-1.16). Total mortality risk was higher among those aged 35-44 years than ≥ 65, and among Hispanics than whites. Deaths from external causes increased more sharply (RR = 1.18, CI 1.10-1.27) than from internal causes (RR = 1.04, CI 1.02-1.07). Geographically, risk varied by building climate zone; the highest risks of at-home death occurred in the northernmost coastal zone (RR = 1.58, CI 1.01-2.48) and the southernmost zone of California's Central Valley (RR = 1.43, CI 1.21-1.68). Heat wave mortality risk varied across subpopulations, and some patterns of vulnerability differed from those previously identified. Public health efforts should also address at-home mortality, non-elderly adults, external causes, and at-risk geographic regions.

  18. Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Culp, Thomas D.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

  19. Data and Knowledge Base on the Basis of the Expanded Matrix Model of Their Representation for the Intelligent System of Road-Climatic Zoning of Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovskaya, A.; Cherepanov, D.; Selivanikova, O.

    2016-08-01

    An extended matrix model of data and knowledge representation on the investigated area, as well as a matrix model of data representation on the territory under investigation, are proposed for the intelligent system of road-climatic zoning of territories (RCZT) - the main information technology of RCZT. A part of the West Siberian region has been selected as the investigated territory. The extended matrix model of knowledge representation is filled out by knowledge engineers with participation of highly qualified experts in the field of RCZT. The matrix model of data representation on the territory under investigation is filled out by persons concerned in RCZT of the motor-roads management system.

  20. An abrupt centennial-scale drought event and mid-holocene climate change patterns in monsoon marginal zones of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wang, Nai'ang; Zhang, Chengqi

    2014-01-01

    The mid-latitudes of East Asia are characterized by the interaction between the Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds. Understanding long-term climate change in the marginal regions of the Asian monsoon is critical for understanding the millennial-scale interactions between the Asian monsoon and the westerly winds. Abrupt climate events are always associated with changes in large-scale circulation patterns; therefore, investigations into abrupt climate changes provide clues for responses of circulation patterns to extreme climate events. In this paper, we examined the time scale and mid-Holocene climatic background of an abrupt dry mid-Holocene event in the Shiyang River drainage basin in the northwest margin of the Asian monsoon. Mid-Holocene lacustrine records were collected from the middle reaches and the terminal lake of the basin. Using radiocarbon and OSL ages, a centennial-scale drought event, which is characterized by a sand layer in lacustrine sediments both from the middle and lower reaches of the basin, was absolutely dated between 8.0-7.0 cal kyr BP. Grain size data suggest an abrupt decline in lake level and a dry environment in the middle reaches of the basin during the dry interval. Previous studies have shown mid-Holocene drought events in other places of monsoon marginal zones; however, their chronologies are not strong enough to study the mechanism. According to the absolutely dated records, we proposed a new hypothesis that the mid-Holocene dry interval can be related to the weakening Asian summer monsoon and the relatively arid environment in arid Central Asia. Furthermore, abrupt dry climatic events are directly linked to the basin-wide effective moisture change in semi-arid and arid regions. Effective moisture is affected by basin-wide precipitation, evapotranspiration, lake surface evaporation and other geographical settings. As a result, the time scales of the dry interval could vary according to locations due to different geographical

  1. An abrupt centennial-scale drought event and mid-holocene climate change patterns in monsoon marginal zones of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wang, Nai'ang; Zhang, Chengqi

    2014-01-01

    The mid-latitudes of East Asia are characterized by the interaction between the Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds. Understanding long-term climate change in the marginal regions of the Asian monsoon is critical for understanding the millennial-scale interactions between the Asian monsoon and the westerly winds. Abrupt climate events are always associated with changes in large-scale circulation patterns; therefore, investigations into abrupt climate changes provide clues for responses of circulation patterns to extreme climate events. In this paper, we examined the time scale and mid-Holocene climatic background of an abrupt dry mid-Holocene event in the Shiyang River drainage basin in the northwest margin of the Asian monsoon. Mid-Holocene lacustrine records were collected from the middle reaches and the terminal lake of the basin. Using radiocarbon and OSL ages, a centennial-scale drought event, which is characterized by a sand layer in lacustrine sediments both from the middle and lower reaches of the basin, was absolutely dated between 8.0-7.0 cal kyr BP. Grain size data suggest an abrupt decline in lake level and a dry environment in the middle reaches of the basin during the dry interval. Previous studies have shown mid-Holocene drought events in other places of monsoon marginal zones; however, their chronologies are not strong enough to study the mechanism. According to the absolutely dated records, we proposed a new hypothesis that the mid-Holocene dry interval can be related to the weakening Asian summer monsoon and the relatively arid environment in arid Central Asia. Furthermore, abrupt dry climatic events are directly linked to the basin-wide effective moisture change in semi-arid and arid regions. Effective moisture is affected by basin-wide precipitation, evapotranspiration, lake surface evaporation and other geographical settings. As a result, the time scales of the dry interval could vary according to locations due to different geographical

  2. An Abrupt Centennial-Scale Drought Event and Mid-Holocene Climate Change Patterns in Monsoon Marginal Zones of East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wang, Nai'ang; Zhang, Chengqi

    2014-01-01

    The mid-latitudes of East Asia are characterized by the interaction between the Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds. Understanding long-term climate change in the marginal regions of the Asian monsoon is critical for understanding the millennial-scale interactions between the Asian monsoon and the westerly winds. Abrupt climate events are always associated with changes in large-scale circulation patterns; therefore, investigations into abrupt climate changes provide clues for responses of circulation patterns to extreme climate events. In this paper, we examined the time scale and mid-Holocene climatic background of an abrupt dry mid-Holocene event in the Shiyang River drainage basin in the northwest margin of the Asian monsoon. Mid-Holocene lacustrine records were collected from the middle reaches and the terminal lake of the basin. Using radiocarbon and OSL ages, a centennial-scale drought event, which is characterized by a sand layer in lacustrine sediments both from the middle and lower reaches of the basin, was absolutely dated between 8.0–7.0 cal kyr BP. Grain size data suggest an abrupt decline in lake level and a dry environment in the middle reaches of the basin during the dry interval. Previous studies have shown mid-Holocene drought events in other places of monsoon marginal zones; however, their chronologies are not strong enough to study the mechanism. According to the absolutely dated records, we proposed a new hypothesis that the mid-Holocene dry interval can be related to the weakening Asian summer monsoon and the relatively arid environment in arid Central Asia. Furthermore, abrupt dry climatic events are directly linked to the basin-wide effective moisture change in semi-arid and arid regions. Effective moisture is affected by basin-wide precipitation, evapotranspiration, lake surface evaporation and other geographical settings. As a result, the time scales of the dry interval could vary according to locations due to different

  3. Defining "Development".

    PubMed

    Pradeu, Thomas; Laplane, Lucie; Prévot, Karine; Hoquet, Thierry; Reynaud, Valentine; Fusco, Giuseppe; Minelli, Alessandro; Orgogozo, Virginie; Vervoort, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible, and in the first place is it even desirable, to define what "development" means and to determine the scope of the field called "developmental biology"? Though these questions appeared crucial for the founders of "developmental biology" in the 1950s, there seems to be no consensus today about the need to address them. Here, in a combined biological, philosophical, and historical approach, we ask whether it is possible and useful to define biological development, and, if such a definition is indeed possible and useful, which definition(s) can be considered as the most satisfactory.

  4. Defining Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Defining infertility What is infertility? Infertility is “the inability to conceive after 12 months ... to conceive after 6 months is generally considered infertility. How common is it? Infertility affects 10%-15% ...

  5. Altitudinal and latitudinal dependence of future warming in an island of multi climate zones: Taiwan as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan-yao; Chua, Ying-Jea; sheng, Yang-Fan; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Cheng, Chao-Tzuen; Lin, Yi-Yin

    2014-05-01

    In this study, a global model, ECHAM5, and a mesoscale regional model, Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) were combined to perform dynamic downscaling of Taiwan's climate in the recent past (1979-2003) and climate change projection of near and distant future (2015-2039 and 2075-2099, respectively). Simulation results showed close correlation between fine-resolution downscaling by ECHAM5-WRF and the actual observation data for the period 1979-2003. Projection of future climate changes revealed both altitudinal and latitudinal variations in warming trend, with more significant temperature increase in mountain areas than in plain areas toward the end of the 21st century and more obvious warming in the north than in the south of Taiwan. These findings have essential implications on climate impact issues such as mountain ecology and disease transmission. The results obtained in this study can be applied to other regions of similar latitudes and with comparable relief.

  6. Regional variations in the female age at marriage in India: an analysis by agro-climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Mishra, V; Singh, V

    1992-01-01

    "The effect of agro-climatic factors on female age at marriage [in India] is studied by carrying out areal analysis of the 1981 Census data. The study found a close association between agricultural and climatic conditions in an area and corresponding female age at marriage. In general, women in Himalayan regions and coastal areas have higher age at marriage than most hinterland regions. Rainfall, altitude, forest area, land availability and productivity are observed to be associated with female age at marriage. In addition, female age at marriage in rural areas is found to be more sensitive to the agro-climatic conditions. It is hypothesized that with socio-economic and technological development, the agricultural and climatic factors are losing their grip on female age at marriage in India."

  7. Climatic and topographic controls on the style and timing of Late Quaternary glaciation throughout Tibet and the Himalaya defined by 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Finkel, R.C.; Barnard, P.L.; Haizhou, Ma; Asahi, K.; Caffee, M.W.; Derbyshire, E.

    2005-01-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in glacier cover throughout the Late Quaternary in Tibet and the bordering mountains are poorly defined because of the inaccessibility and vastness of the region, and the lack of numerical dating. To help reconstruct the timing and extent of glaciation throughout Tibet and the bordering mountains, we use geomorphic mapping and 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface dating in study areas in southeastern (Gonga Shan), southern (Karola Pass) and central (Western Nyainqentanggulha Shan and Tanggula Shan) Tibet, and we compare these with recently determined numerical chronologies in other parts of the plateau and its borderlands. Each of the study regions receives its precipitation mainly during the south Asian summer monsoon when it falls as snow at high altitudes. Gonga Shan receives the most precipitation (>2000 mm a-1) while, near the margins of monsoon influence, the Karola Pass receives moderate amounts of precipitation (500-600 mm a-1) and, in the interior of the plateau, little precipitation falls on the western Nyainqentanggulha Shan (???300 mm a -1) and the Tanggula Shan (400-700 mm a-1). The higher precipitation values for the Tanggula Shan are due to strong orographic effects. In each region, at least three sets of moraines and associated landforms are preserved, providing evidence for multiple glaciations. The 10Be CRN surface exposure dating shows that the formation of moraines in Gonga Shan occurred during the early-mid Holocene, Neoglacial and Little Ice Age, on the Karola Pass during the Lateglacial, Early Holocene and Neoglacial, in the Nyainqentanggulha Shan date during the early part of the last glacial cycle, global Last Glacial Maximum and Lateglacial, and on the Tanggula Shan during the penultimate glacial cycle and the early part of the last glacial cycle. The oldest moraine succession in each of these regions varies from the early Holocene (Gonga Shan), Lateglacial (Karola Pass), early Last Glacial (western

  8. Climatic and topographic controls on the style and timing of Late Quaternary glaciation throughout Tibet and the Himalaya defined by 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Haizhou, Ma; Asahi, Katsuhiko; Caffee, Marc W.; Derbyshire, Edward

    2005-07-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in glacier cover throughout the Late Quaternary in Tibet and the bordering mountains are poorly defined because of the inaccessibility and vastness of the region, and the lack of numerical dating. To help reconstruct the timing and extent of glaciation throughout Tibet and the bordering mountains, we use geomorphic mapping and 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface dating in study areas in southeastern (Gonga Shan), southern (Karola Pass) and central (Western Nyainqentanggulha Shan and Tanggula Shan) Tibet, and we compare these with recently determined numerical chronologies in other parts of the plateau and its borderlands. Each of the study regions receives its precipitation mainly during the south Asian summer monsoon when it falls as snow at high altitudes. Gonga Shan receives the most precipitation (>2000 mm a -1) while, near the margins of monsoon influence, the Karola Pass receives moderate amounts of precipitation (500-600 mm a -1) and, in the interior of the plateau, little precipitation falls on the western Nyainqentanggulha Shan (˜300 mm a -1) and the Tanggula Shan (400-700 mm a -1). The higher precipitation values for the Tanggula Shan are due to strong orographic effects. In each region, at least three sets of moraines and associated landforms are preserved, providing evidence for multiple glaciations. The 10Be CRN surface exposure dating shows that the formation of moraines in Gonga Shan occurred during the early-mid Holocene, Neoglacial and Little Ice Age, on the Karola Pass during the Lateglacial, Early Holocene and Neoglacial, in the Nyainqentanggulha Shan date during the early part of the last glacial cycle, global Last Glacial Maximum and Lateglacial, and on the Tanggula Shan during the penultimate glacial cycle and the early part of the last glacial cycle. The oldest moraine succession in each of these regions varies from the early Holocene (Gonga Shan), Lateglacial (Karola Pass), early Last Glacial (western

  9. Defining cure.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Paul; Robinson, Dudley

    2011-06-01

    This paper is a summary of the presentations made as Proposal 2-"Defining cure" to the 2nd Annual meeting of the ICI-Research Society, in Bristol, 16th June 2010. It reviews definitions of 'cure' and 'outcome', and considers the impact that varying definition may have on prevalence studies and cure rates. The difference between subjective and objective outcomes is considered, and the significance that these different outcomes may have for different stakeholders (e.g. clinicians, patients, carers, industry etc.) is discussed. The development of patient reported outcome measures and patient defined goals is reviewed, and consideration given to the use of composite end-points. A series of proposals are made by authors and discussants as to how currently validated outcomes should be applied, and where our future research activity in this area might be directed.

  10. Ecological functions of riparian zones in Oregon hydrological landscapes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecological functions of streams and associated riparian zones are strongly influenced by the hydrological attributes of watersheds and landscapes in which they occur. Oregon hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) have been defined based on four types of GIS data: 1) climate, 2) ...

  11. Regional and Large-Scale Climate Influences on Tree-Ring Reconstructed Null Zone Position in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D.; Griffin, D.; Cleaveland, M.; Fye, F.; Meko, D.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Redmond, K.

    2007-05-01

    A new network of 36 moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies has been developed in and near the drainage basins of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The network is based entirely on blue oak (Quercus douglasii), which is a California endemic found from the lower forest border up into the mixed conifer zone in the Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, and Cascades. These blue oak tree-ring chronologies are highly correlated with winter-spring precipitation totals, Sacramento and San Joaquin streamflow, and with seasonal variations in salinity and null zone position in San Francisco Bay. Null zone is the non-tidal bottom water location where density-driven salinity and river-driven freshwater currents balance (zero flow). It is the area of highest turbidity, water residence time, sediment accumulation, and net primary productivity in the estuary. Null zone position is measured by the distance from the Golden Gate of the 2 per mil bottom water isohaline and is primarily controlled by discharge from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers (and ultimately by winter-spring precipitation). The location of the null zone is an estuarine habitat indicator, a policy variable used for ecosystem management, and can have a major impact on biological resources in the San Francisco estuary. Precipitation-sensitive blue oak chronologies can be used to estimate null zone position based on the strong biogeophysical interaction among terrestrial, aquatic, and estuarine ecosystems, orchestrated by precipitation. The null zone reconstruction is 626-years long and provides a unique long term perspective on the interannual to decadal variability of this important estuarine habitat indicator. Consecutive two-year droughts (or longer) allow the null zone to shrink into the confined upper reaches of Suisun Bay, causing a dramatic reduction in phytoplankton production and favoring colonization of the estuary by marine biota. The reconstruction indicates an approximate 10 year recurrence interval

  12. Climatically related millennial-scale fluctuations in strength of California margin oxygen-minimum zone during the past 60 k.y.

    SciTech Connect

    Cannariato, K.G.; Kennett, J.P.

    1999-11-01

    A strong oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) currently exists along the California margin because of a combination of high surface-water productivity and poor intermediate-water ventilation. However, the strength of this OMZ may have been sensitive to late Quaternary ocean-circulation and productivity changes along the margin. Although sediment-lamination strength has been used to trace ocean-oxygenation changes in the past, oxygen levels on the open margin are not sufficiently low for laminations to form. In these regions, benthic foraminifera are highly sensitive monitors of OMZ strength, and their fossil assemblages can be used to reconstruct past fluctuations. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1017, off Point Conception, exhibit major and rapid faunal oscillations in response to late Quaternary millennial-scale climate change (Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles) on the open central California margin. These faunal oscillations can be correlated to and are apparently synchronous with those reported from Santa Barbara Basin. Together they represent major fluctuations in the strength of the OMZ which were intimately associated with global climate change--weakening, perhaps disappearing, during cool periods and strengthening during warm periods. These rapid, major OMZ strength fluctuations were apparently widespread on the Northeast Pacific margin and must have influenced the evolution of margin biota and altered biogeochemical cycles with potential feedbacks to global climate change.

  13. Influence of two different geo-climatic zones on the prevalence and time trends of asthma symptoms among Spanish adolescents and schoolchildren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Marcos, Luis; Batllés-Garrido, José; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo; García-Hernández, Gloria; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Busquets-Monge, Rosa M.; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; López-Silvarrey-Varela, Ángel; García-Andoin, Nekane

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the long-term influence of the climate on the prevalence of asthma. The aim of this study is to establish the influence of geo-climatic conditions on the prevalence of asthma symptoms both in adolescents and schoolchildren, and to discover if this influence is associated with their time trends. Eight centres in Spain performed both ISAAC phases I (1994) and III (2002) in children 13-14 years old. Six of them also surveyed children 6-7 years old. For each age group and phase, about 3,000 children were surveyed per centre. This study examines the prevalence of current wheeze and severe current wheeze in two different geo-climatic zones, coast and plateau, considering their relative humidity and temperature range. In both age groups, the mean asthma prevalence on the coast, for phase I and III, was significantly higher than on the plateau. Living on the plateau was an independent protective factor for current wheeze and severe current wheeze for the two age groups. Within the coastal centres, the increase of the annual relative humidity was a statistical significant risk factor for current wheeze, the same trend existing for current severe wheeze. These effects were independent of the sex and of the phase of the study. The prevalence of asthma and severe asthma symptoms is more frequent on the coast of Spain as compared to the inner plateau. This finding was repeated both in 1994 and in 2002.

  14. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    PubMed

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  15. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    PubMed

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  16. Dynamics and controls of urban heat sink and island phenomena in a desert city: Development of a local climate zone scheme using remotely-sensed inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Ahmed K.; Blackburn, G. Alan; Whyatt, J. Duncan

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine the dynamics and controls of Surface Urban Heat Sinks (SUHS) and Surface Urban Heat Islands (SUHI) in desert cities, using Dubai as a case study. A Local Climate Zone (LCZ) schema was developed to subdivide the city into different zones based on similarities in land cover and urban geometry. Proximity to the Gulf Coast was also determined for each LCZ. The LCZs were then used to sample seasonal and daily imagery from the MODIS thermal sensor to determine Land Surface Temperature (LST) variations relative to desert sand. Canonical correlation techniques were then applied to determine which factors explained the variability between urban and desert LST. Our results indicate that the daytime SUHS effect is greatest during the summer months (typically ∼3.0 °C) with the strongest cooling effects in open high-rise zones of the city. In contrast, the night-time SUHI effect is greatest during the winter months (typically ∼3.5 °C) with the strongest warming effects in compact mid-rise zones of the city. Proximity to the Arabian Gulf had the largest influence on both SUHS and SUHI phenomena, promoting daytime cooling in the summer months and night-time warming in the winter months. However, other parameters associated with the urban environment such as building height had an influence on daytime cooling, with larger buildings promoting shade and variations in airflow. Likewise, other parameters such as sky view factor contributed to night-time warming, with higher temperatures associated with limited views of the sky.

  17. Defining chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Brian R.; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call “expansion entropy,” and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  18. Tradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate-Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin; Migliorati, Massimiliano De Antoni; Cammarano, Davide; Pruneddu, Giovanni; Giunta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer's field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over the

  19. Tradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate-Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin; Migliorati, Massimiliano De Antoni; Cammarano, Davide; Pruneddu, Giovanni; Giunta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over

  20. A Joint Approach to the Study of S-Type and P-Type Habitable Zones in Binary Systems: New Results in the View of 3-D Planetary Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In two previous papers, given by Cuntz (2014a,b) [ApJ 780, A14 (19 pages); arXiv:1409.3796], a comprehensive approach has been provided for the study of S-type and P-type habitable zones in stellar binary systems, P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach considers a variety of aspects, including (1) the consideration of a joint constraint including orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes; (2) the treatment of conservative (CHZ), general (GHZ) and extended zones of habitability (EHZ) [see Paper I for definitions] for the systems as previously defined for the Solar System; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are devised for which kind of system S-type and P-type habitability is realized; and (4) the applications of the theoretical approach to systems with the stars in different kinds of orbits, including elliptical orbits (the most expected case). Particularly, an algebraic formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability is given based on a higher-order polynomial expression. Thus, an a prior specification for the presence or absence of S-type or P-type radiative habitable zones is - from a mathematical point of view - neither necessary nor possible, as those are determined by the adopted formalism. Previously, numerous applications of the method have been given encompassing theoretical star-panet systems and and observations. Most recently, this method has been upgraded to include recent studies of 3-D planetary climate models. Originally, this type of work affects the extent and position of habitable zones around single stars; however, it has also profound consequence for the habitable

  1. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refuges can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refuges. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have little

  2. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refugees based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refugees can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refugees. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have

  3. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refugees based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refugees can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refugees. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have

  4. Influence of climate variability on water partitioning and effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT) in a semi-arid critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, X.; Brooks, P. D.; Troch, P. A.; McIntosh, J.; Rasmussen, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the heterogeneous, near-surface layer of the planet that regulates life-sustaining resources. Previous research has demonstrated that a quantification of the influxes of effective energy and mass (EEMT) to the CZ can predict its structure and function. In this study, we quantify how climate variability in the last three decades (1984-2012) has affected water availability and the temporal trends in EEMT. This study takes place in the 1200 km2 upper Jemez River Basin in northern New Mexico. The analysis of climate, water availability, and EEMT was based on records from two high elevation SNOTEL stations, PRISM data, catchment scale discharge, and satellite derived net primary productivity (MODIS). Records from the two SNOTEL stations showed clear increasing trends in winter and annual temperatures (+1.0-1.3 °C decade-1; +1.2-1.4 °C decade-1, respectively), decreasing trends in winter and annual precipitation (-41.6-51.4 mm decade-1; -69.8-73.2 mm decade-1, respectively) and maximum Snow Water Equivalent (SWE; -33.1-34.7 mm decade-1). The water partitioning fluxes at the basin scale showed statistically significant decreasing trends in precipitation (-61.7 mm decade-1), discharge (-17.6 mm decade-1) and vaporization (-45.7 mm decade-1). Similarly Q50, an indicator of snowmelt timing, is occurring 4.3 days decade-1 earlier. Results from this study indicated a decreasing trend in water availability, a reduction in forest productivity (4 g C m-2 per 10 mm of reduction in Precipitation) and EEMT (1.2-1.3 MJ m2 decade-1). These changes in EEMT point towards a hotter, drier and less productive ecosystem which may alter critical zone processes in high elevation semi-arid systems.

  5. Revisions of the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) for its application in warmer climatic zones, with particular reference to peninsular Florida.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Larry L; Hill, Jeffrey E; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Hardin, Scott; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The initial version (v1) of the Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) was adapted from the Weed Risk Assessment of Pheloung, Williams, and Halloy to assess the potential invasiveness of nonnative freshwater fishes in the United Kingdom. Published applications of FISK v1 have been primarily in temperate-zone countries (Belgium, Belarus, and Japan), so the specificity of this screening tool to that climatic zone was not noted until attempts were made to apply it in peninsular Florida. To remedy this shortcoming, the questions and guidance notes of FISK v1 were reviewed and revised to improve clarity and extend its applicability to broader climatic regions, resulting in changes to 36 of the 49 questions. In addition, upgrades were made to the software architecture of FISK to improve overall computational speed as well as graphical user interface flexibility and friendliness. We demonstrate the process of screening a fish species using FISK v2 in a realistic management scenario by assessing the Barcoo grunter Scortum barcoo (Terapontidae), a species whose management concerns are related to its potential use for aquaponics in Florida. The FISK v2 screening of Barcoo grunter placed the species into the lower range of medium risk (score = 5), suggesting it is a permissible species for use in Florida under current nonnative species regulations. Screening of the Barcoo grunter illustrates the usefulness of FISK v2 as a proactive tool serving to inform risk management decisions, but the low level of confidence associated with the assessment highlighted a dearth of critical information on this species.

  6. Revisions of the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) for its application in warmer climatic zones, with particular reference to peninsular Florida.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Larry L; Hill, Jeffrey E; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Hardin, Scott; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The initial version (v1) of the Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) was adapted from the Weed Risk Assessment of Pheloung, Williams, and Halloy to assess the potential invasiveness of nonnative freshwater fishes in the United Kingdom. Published applications of FISK v1 have been primarily in temperate-zone countries (Belgium, Belarus, and Japan), so the specificity of this screening tool to that climatic zone was not noted until attempts were made to apply it in peninsular Florida. To remedy this shortcoming, the questions and guidance notes of FISK v1 were reviewed and revised to improve clarity and extend its applicability to broader climatic regions, resulting in changes to 36 of the 49 questions. In addition, upgrades were made to the software architecture of FISK to improve overall computational speed as well as graphical user interface flexibility and friendliness. We demonstrate the process of screening a fish species using FISK v2 in a realistic management scenario by assessing the Barcoo grunter Scortum barcoo (Terapontidae), a species whose management concerns are related to its potential use for aquaponics in Florida. The FISK v2 screening of Barcoo grunter placed the species into the lower range of medium risk (score = 5), suggesting it is a permissible species for use in Florida under current nonnative species regulations. Screening of the Barcoo grunter illustrates the usefulness of FISK v2 as a proactive tool serving to inform risk management decisions, but the low level of confidence associated with the assessment highlighted a dearth of critical information on this species. PMID:23035930

  7. Assessment of the influence of climate condition on a migration rate of the 90Sr in the unsaturated zone in the Kirov and Sverdlovsk Region, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurinova, Natalia; Dediulina, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    In this research, the transport of 90Sr with unsaturated flow in the same geological section (0.5 m top soil, from 0.5 to 6.0 m sand) was taken under consideration in two regions: Kirov and Sverdlovsk Region, Russia. The modeling schematization assumed that the nuclide polluted top soil to the depth of 0.2 m and from this point are transported with infiltration of precipitation during 100 year. The modeling were conducted in Hydrus 1D. The climate classification based on the Budyko aridity index (Budyko 1958) was used to define climate differences between regions. According this classification climate in both are temperate continental but the biggest differences is in the wetting degree. The Kirov region has the aridity index about 0.70; there is overwatering conditions, which means that average annual precipitation exceeds the potential evapotranspiration. The Sverdlovsk region has the aridity index about 1.04; there is the optimal watering conditions. The results of modeling of the 90Sr migration process showed the transport dynamic dependence on wetting degree. At the end of the 100-year period, the 90Sr reached the depth of 1.3 m in Kirov region and 1.0 m in Sverdlovsk.

  8. A comparative study of the organic matter in PM 2.5 from three Chinese megacities in three different climatic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jialiang; Hu, Min; Chan, Chak K.; Lau, P. S.; Fang, Ming; He, Lingyan; Tang, Xiaoyan

    Organic matter in PM 2.5 collected in 2002 and 2003 from three megacities in different climatic zones in China, Beijing (40°N), Shanghai (31°N) and Guangzhou (23°N), was characterized. The focus was on solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC), which were used to identify the influences of geography, variation of the season, sources and transport on the concentration and distribution of these homologues. Organic carbon, elemental carbon, and water-soluble organic carbon concentrations were analyzed only for the substantiation of the SEOC findings. Analysis of the fossil fuel residues and the plant wax components in n-alkanes, PAHs, fatty acids and n-alkanols allowed the identification of anthropogenic (coal and petroleum combustion processes, and kitchen emissions) and biogenic (vegetation and microbial) sources. The influence of temperature on the distribution of the SEOC was exemplified by the negative correlation between the relative concentrations of the semivolatile homologues (alkanes and PAHs) and ambient temperature. This is attributable to gas-particle partitioning. Indirectly, ambient temperature dictates the type of vegetation that can grow in a geographical zone. This would influence the distribution of the plant waxes, and finally, it plays a role in the aerosol loading due to energy usage.

  9. Agro-climatic classification systems for estimating the global distribution of livestock numbers and commodities.

    PubMed

    White, D H; Lubulwa, G A; Menz, K; Zuo, H; Wint, W; Slingenbergh, J

    2001-09-01

    Investment in agricultural research in developing countries is being increasingly targeted at those agro-climatic zones and issues where the economic and environmental benefits may be expected to be greatest. This first requires that the zones themselves be defined, along with information on domestic livestock numbers and commodity output within agro-climatic zones in different countries. Different methods for classifying agro-climatic zones were compared. These included methods based on estimated length of growing period (LGP) using rainfall and temperature data, the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (PET), and on more detailed agronomic models, remote sensing data and land use information. Zonation based on LGP has already been linked to existing national livestock data. By defining agro-climatic zones and relating concentrations of livestock populations to those of humans, it is possible to make realistic estimates of livestock populations and the production of livestock commodities for most developing countries. Detailed agro-climatic analyses of Mainland East Asia and Sri Lanka have recently been undertaken using the GROWEST agronomic model. Using this model as the basis of agro-climatic classification appears to be significantly superior, particularly in temperate environments, to approaches based solely on LGP. Different ways of subdividing countries and continents into agro-climatic or agro-ecological zones (AEZs) are reviewed in this paper. In addition, we show how the numbers of production and commodities from domestic livestock can be allocated to such zones. We also indicate how some of this information can be applied. PMID:11697667

  10. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  11. Inter-model diversity of Arctic amplification caused by global warming and its relationship with the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone in CMIP5 climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2016-08-01

    Surface-based Arctic amplification (AA) has experienced a remarkable increase in recent decades. Therefore, it is important to understand how Arctic warming might change in response to global warming. By analyzing the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model dataset, we examine how AA correlates with changes in tropical Pacific precipitation in response to global warming. It is found that that the changes in the latitudinal position of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) are associated to the simulated AA strength in the CMIP5 climate models. Specifically, AA tends to be stronger (weaker) in models where the ITCZ shifts relatively more northward (southward). Further analysis indicates that the inter-model diversity of AA strength in the CMIP5 climate models is related to the changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation associated with the meridional shift of the ITCZ. These results emphasize a close relationship between AA and changes in tropical Pacific precipitation in response to global warming.

  12. [Global climate change and carbon balance in forest ecosystems of boreal zones: imitating modeling as a forecast tool].

    PubMed

    Shanin, V N; Mikhaĭlov, A V; Bykhovets, S S; Komarov, A S

    2010-01-01

    The individually oriented system of the EFIMOD models simulating carbon and nitrogen flows in forest ecosystems has been used for forecasting the response of forest ecosystems to various forest exploitation regimes with climate change. As input data the forest management materials for the Manturovskii forestry of the Kostroma region were used. It has been shown that increase of mid-annual temperatures and rainfall influence the redistribution of carbon and nitrogen supply in organic form: supply increase of these elements in phytomass simultaneously with depletion of them in soil occurred. The most carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest ecosystems occurs in the scenario without felling. In addition, in this scenario only the ecosystems of the modeling territory function as a carbon drain; in the other two scenarios (with selective and total felling) they function as a source of carbon. Climate changes greatly influence the decomposition rate of organic matter in soil, which leads to increased emission of carbonic acid. The second consequence of the increase in the destruction rate is nitrogen increase in the soil in a form available for plants that entails production increase of plantations. PMID:21268870

  13. Scale-dependent interactions between vegetation, landscape, and climate: How critical zone structure influences ecohydrological reslience in a rapidly changing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, P. D.; Barnard, H. R.; Chorover, J.; Fan, Y.; Gallo, E. L.; Godsey, S.; Maxwell, R. M.; McNamara, J. P.; Swetnam, T. L.; Tague, N.

    2015-12-01

    Concurrent changes in climate, land cover, and population are pushing coupled human and natural systems outside of the historical range of natural variability, presenting major challenges to the management of natural and built environments worldwide. A comprehensive understanding of how precipitation is partitioned to ecosystem and societal water resources is central to many of these challenges. Although considerable progress has been made advancing process understanding and developing ecohydrological models, a key challenge remains applying this knowledge to landscape and regional scales of resource management. Approaches to address this challenge, ranging from deterministic to probabilistic models, all face the challenge of identifying scale breaks in the coupling between biotic and abiotic processes. We employ an alternative, complementary approach, combining newer observations (e.g. high resolution aerial LiDAR; isotopes) and established techniques to identify scale breaks and transitions in how ecological processes, occurring on relatively short timescales, are coupled to longer-term development of critical zone, that typically develops over longer time scales. At stand scales, vegetation structure strongly controls the fraction of precipitation partitioned to evaporation by influencing both solar radiation and turbulence with a net change in effective precipitation (water available for transpiration, recharge, or streamflow) of as much as 25%. At hillslope scales, topographic shading or exposure has similar magnitude effects on total evapotranspiration, while topographically driven water subsidy can double carbon storage through increases in both tree size and number. At catchment-scales, the coupling between vegetation, climate, and the physical landscape results in a predictable signature in hydrologic partitioning that reflects regional susceptibility to drought. Importantly, these transitions in biophysical interactions, occurring at scales from 0.01 to

  14. Interdecadal-decadal climate variability from multicoral oxygen isotope records in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region since 1650 A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Zhang, Peipei; Kaplan, Alexey; Howe, Stephen S.; Wellington, Gerard M.

    2008-06-01

    In the South Pacific, interdecadal-decadal oceanic and atmospheric variability, referred to as the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), is most pronounced in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) salinity front region. Here we have used annual average oxygen isotope (δ18O) time series from five coral cores collected from Fiji and Tonga in this region to construct a Fiji-Tonga Interdecadal-Decadal Pacific Oscillation (F-T IDPO) index of low-frequency (>9 and <55 years) climate variability back to 1650 A.D. We first demonstrate the consistency between this F-T IDPO index and a mean sea level (MSL) pressure-based SPCZ position index (SPI) (1891-2000), thus verifying the ability of coral δ18O to record past interdecadal-decadal climatic variations in this region back to 1891. The F-T IDPO index is then shown to be synchronous with the IPO index (1856-2000), suggesting that this coral-based index effectively represents the interdecadal-decadal scale climate variance back to 1650. The regularity of the F-T IDPO index indicates that interdecadal-decadal variability in the SPCZ region has been relatively constant over the past 350 years with a mean frequency of ˜20 years (variance peaks near 11 and 35 years). There is a consistent antiphase correlation of the F-T IDPO index and the interdecadal-decadal components in equatorial Pacific coral δ18O series from Maiana and Palmyra. This observation indicates that the eastward expansion (westward contraction) of the eastern salinity front of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) occurs simultaneously (±<1 year) with the westward (eastward) shift of the SPCZ salinity front during positive IPO (negative IPO) phases. This is the same relationship observed during the phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  15. Climate change induced effects on the predisposition of forests of the water protection zone Wildalpen to disturbances by bark beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, P.; Pennerstorfer, J.; Schopf, A.

    2012-04-01

    The provision of drinking water of high quality is a precious service of forests. Large-scale disturbances like forest fires, wind throws, pest outbreaks and subsequent clear cutting may lead to changes in hydrology (runoff as well as percolation). Furthermore, water quality can be negatively influenced by increased erosion, increased decomposition of litter and humus and leaching of nitrate. Large-scale epidemics of forest pests may induce forest decline at landscape scale with subsequent long-lasting negative effects on water quality. The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.), is one of the most significant sources of mortality in mature spruce forest ecosystems in Eurasia. The objective of this study was to apply a complex predisposition assessment system for hazard rating and for the evaluation of climate change impacts for the water protection forests of the City of Vienna in Wildalpen. The following steps have been done to adapt/apply the bark beetle phenology model and the hazard rating system: -application, adaptation and validation of the bark beetle phenology model PHENIPS concerning start of dispersion, brood initiation, duration of development, beginning of sister broods, voltinism and hibernation - spatial/temporal modelling of the phenology and voltinism of I. typographus using past, present as well as projected climate data - application and validation of the stand- and site related long-term predisposition assessment system using forest stand/site data, annual damage reports and outputs of phenology modelling as data input - mapping of endangered areas and assessment of future susceptibility to infestations by I. typographus and other disturbing agents based on climate scenarios using GIS. The assessment of site- and stand-related predisposition revealed that the forest stands in Wildalpen are highly susceptible to bark beetle infestation. More than 65% of the stands were assigned to the predisposition classes high/very high. Only 10% of

  16. The Climate-Population Nexus in the East African Horn: Emerging Degradation Trends in Rangeland and Pastoral Livelihood Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricope, N. G.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing climate variability and extreme weather conditions along with declining trends in both rainfall and temperature represent major risk factors affecting agricultural production and food security in many regions of the world. We identify regions where significant rainfall decrease from 1979-2011 over the entire continent of Africa couples with significant human population density increase. The rangelands of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia in the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions, yet have significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Vegetation in this region is characterized by a variable mosaic of land covers, generally dominated by grasslands necessary for agro-pastoralism, interspersed by woody vegetation. Recent assessments indicate that widespread degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using two underutilized MODIS products, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade all across the East African Horn. We observe significant vegetation browning trends in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. We also found that the drying precipitation trends only partially statistically explain the vegetation browning trends, further indicating that other factors such as population pressures and land use changes are responsible for the observed declining vegetation health. Furthermore, we show that the general vegetation browning trends persist even during years with normal rainfall conditions such as 2012, indicating potential long-term degradation of rangelands on which approximately 10 million people depend. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting as well as for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected

  17. School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; Mazzarella, Jo Ann

    Chapter 7 of a volume on school leadership, this chapter defines, describes, and suggests ways to improve climate at the school building level. After citing a number of definitions of school climate, the authors conclude that school climate is the feel an individual gets from experiences within a school system, or the global summation of the…

  18. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001). The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha-1 (1 Mg = 106 g) in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration. PMID:25799100

  19. Dissipation and residues of difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in bananas and soil in two agro-climatic zones of China.

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Lv, Daizhu; Xie, Defang; Luo, Jinhui

    2013-12-01

    Residues of a fungicide suspension (12 % difenoconazole, 18 % azoxystrobin) in bananas and soil were studied under tropical and subtropical monsoon climates, in Hainan and Yunnan provinces, respectively. The half-lives in bananas were shorter in Hainan (difenoconazole: 8.4-10.7 days; azoxystrobin: 7.8-8.4 days) than Yunnan (difenoconazole: 11.3-13.0 days; azoxystrobin: 10.4-11.6 days), possibly because of the higher temperatures and solar radiation levels in Hainan. The half-lives in soil were shorter in Yunnan (difenoconazole: 15.5-16.7; azoxystrobin: 11.9-13.9 days) than Hainan (difenoconazole: 23.1-23.2 days; azoxystrobin: 16.0-16.1 days), possibly because the organic carbon content was higher and rainfall lower in Yunnan than Hainan. Their physico-chemical properties suggest difenoconazole and azoxystrobin should be stable in bananas and soil, but both decreased to safe concentrations by the minimum harvest time after spraying the mixture at the recommended dosage and 1.5 times that dosage, through physical, chemical, and biological processes. PMID:24145925

  20. Dissipation and residues of difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in bananas and soil in two agro-climatic zones of China.

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Lv, Daizhu; Xie, Defang; Luo, Jinhui

    2013-12-01

    Residues of a fungicide suspension (12 % difenoconazole, 18 % azoxystrobin) in bananas and soil were studied under tropical and subtropical monsoon climates, in Hainan and Yunnan provinces, respectively. The half-lives in bananas were shorter in Hainan (difenoconazole: 8.4-10.7 days; azoxystrobin: 7.8-8.4 days) than Yunnan (difenoconazole: 11.3-13.0 days; azoxystrobin: 10.4-11.6 days), possibly because of the higher temperatures and solar radiation levels in Hainan. The half-lives in soil were shorter in Yunnan (difenoconazole: 15.5-16.7; azoxystrobin: 11.9-13.9 days) than Hainan (difenoconazole: 23.1-23.2 days; azoxystrobin: 16.0-16.1 days), possibly because the organic carbon content was higher and rainfall lower in Yunnan than Hainan. Their physico-chemical properties suggest difenoconazole and azoxystrobin should be stable in bananas and soil, but both decreased to safe concentrations by the minimum harvest time after spraying the mixture at the recommended dosage and 1.5 times that dosage, through physical, chemical, and biological processes.

  1. Will changes in root-zone temperature in boreal spring affect recovery of photosynthesis in Picea mariana and Populus tremuloides in a future climate?

    PubMed

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Ensminger, Ingo; Bergeron, Yves; Gessler, Arthur; Berninger, Frank

    2011-11-01

    Future climate will alter the soil cover of mosses and snow depths in the boreal forests of eastern Canada. In field manipulation experiments, we assessed the effects of varying moss and snow depths on the physiology of black spruce (Picea -mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in the boreal black spruce forest of western Québec. For 1 year, naturally regenerated 10-year-old spruce and aspen were grown with one of the following treatments: additional N fertilization, addition of sphagnum moss cover, removal of mosses, delayed soil thawing through snow and hay addition, or accelerated soil thawing through springtime snow removal. Treatments that involved the addition of insulating moss or snow in the spring caused lower soil temperature, while removing moss and snow in the spring caused elevated soil temperature and thus had a warming effect. Soil warming treatments were associated with greater temperature variability. Additional soil cover, whether moss or snow, increased the rate of photosynthetic recovery in the spring. Moss and snow removal, on the other hand, had the opposite effect and lowered photosynthetic activity, especially in spruce. Maximal electron transport rate (ETR(max)) was, for spruce, 39.5% lower after moss removal than with moss addition, and 16.3% lower with accelerated thawing than with delayed thawing. Impaired photosynthetic recovery in the absence of insulating moss or snow covers was associated with lower foliar N concentrations. Both species were affected in that way, but trembling aspen generally reacted less strongly to all treatments. Our results indicate that a clear negative response of black spruce to changes in root-zone temperature should be anticipated in a future climate. Reduced moss cover and snow depth could adversely affect the photosynthetic capacities of black spruce, while having only minor effects on trembling aspen. PMID:22021010

  2. Thermal variability within the hyporheic zone of an Alpine stream gravel bar is influenced by solar radiation and other climatic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boodoo, Kyle; Schelker, Jakob; Battin, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Gravel bars with largely unsubmerged surface areas exposed to the atmosphere are recipient to high levels of incoming radiation during the day, particularly during summer months. Transfer of heat from the atmosphere downward into the hyporheic zone (HZ) below a gravel bar (GB) can thus possibly lead to the alteration of the vertical temperature profile within its HZ, with implications for physical and biogeochemical processes therein. Here we present results from the analysis of seasonal, high frequency spatio-temporal data including, vertical hyporheic temperature, physical parameters and climatic data for a GB located within an Alpine cold water stream (Oberer Seebach, Austria). Vertical temperature profiles throughout the GB were analyzed together with corresponding climatic data for different seasons to elucidate the spatio-temporal variability of HZ temperature gradients in relation to air temperature, incoming global radiation and stream discharge.Initial analyses indicate a clear seasonal difference between Summer and Autumn temperature profiles throughout the GB, with a strongly developed, exponentially decreasing temperature-depth gradient throughout the GB during summer months. In contrast, this observed gradient substantially weakened or collapsed during autumn months. Furthermore, the highest absolute temperatures and steepest depth gradients within the HZ occurred during summer days, coinciding with the falling hydrograph,where hyporheic temperatures exceeded that of both surface water and groundwater. These findings point to the effect of solar radiation and/or air temperature as a contributor to GB temperatures, possibly influencing diurnal and seasonal GB temperature profiles.Overall, our results suggest that not only the mixing of groundwater and streamwater, but also heat transfer associated with solar radiation and/or air temperature may act as an important driver of HZ temperature, particularly during summer months. This may have implications

  3. Response of Glacier and Lake Dynamics in Four Inland Basins to Climate Change at the Transition Zone between the Karakorum And Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiguo; Fan, Kuangsheng; Tian, Lide; Shi, Benlin; Zhang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Inland glacier and lake dynamics on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its surroundings over recent decades are good indicators of climate change and have a significant impact on the local water supply and ecosystem. The glacier and lake changes in Karakoram are quite different from those of the Himalayas. The mechanisms of the complex and regionally heterogeneous behavior of the glacier and lake changes between the Karakorum and Himalayas are poorly understood. Based on satellite images and meteorological data of Shiquanhe, Hetian, and Yutian stations, we demonstrate that the overall retreat of glaciers and increase of lake area at the transition zone between the Karakoram and Himalayas (TKH) have occurred since 1968 in response to a significant global climate change. Glacial areas in the Songmuxi Co basin, Zepu Co basin, Mang Co basin and Unnamed Co decreased by -1.98 ± 0.02 km2, -5.39 ± 0.02 km2, -0.01 ± 0.02 km2, and -0.12 ± 0.02 km2 during the study period, corresponding to losses of -1.42%, -2.86%, -1.54%, and -1.57%, respectively. The lake area of the Songmuxi Co, Zepu Co, Mang Co and Unnamed Co increased by 7.57 ± 0.02 km2, 8.53 ± 0.02 km2, 1.35 ± 0.02 km2, and 0.53±0.02 km2, corresponding to growths of 30.22%, 7.55%, 11.39%, and 8.05%, respectively. Increases in temperature was the main reason for glacier retreat, whereas decreases in potential evapotranspiration of lakes, increases in precipitation, and increases in melt water from glaciers and frozen soil all contributed to lake area expansion. PMID:26699717

  4. Response of Glacier and Lake Dynamics in Four Inland Basins to Climate Change at the Transition Zone between the Karakorum And Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Fan, Kuangsheng; Tian, Lide; Shi, Benlin; Zhang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Inland glacier and lake dynamics on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its surroundings over recent decades are good indicators of climate change and have a significant impact on the local water supply and ecosystem. The glacier and lake changes in Karakoram are quite different from those of the Himalayas. The mechanisms of the complex and regionally heterogeneous behavior of the glacier and lake changes between the Karakorum and Himalayas are poorly understood. Based on satellite images and meteorological data of Shiquanhe, Hetian, and Yutian stations, we demonstrate that the overall retreat of glaciers and increase of lake area at the transition zone between the Karakoram and Himalayas (TKH) have occurred since 1968 in response to a significant global climate change. Glacial areas in the Songmuxi Co basin, Zepu Co basin, Mang Co basin and Unnamed Co decreased by -1.98 ± 0.02 km2, -5.39 ± 0.02 km2, -0.01 ± 0.02 km2, and -0.12 ± 0.02 km2 during the study period, corresponding to losses of -1.42%, -2.86%, -1.54%, and -1.57%, respectively. The lake area of the Songmuxi Co, Zepu Co, Mang Co and Unnamed Co increased by 7.57 ± 0.02 km2, 8.53 ± 0.02 km2, 1.35 ± 0.02 km2, and 0.53 ± 0.02 km2, corresponding to growths of 30.22%, 7.55%, 11.39%, and 8.05%, respectively. Increases in temperature was the main reason for glacier retreat, whereas decreases in potential evapotranspiration of lakes, increases in precipitation, and increases in melt water from glaciers and frozen soil all contributed to lake area expansion. PMID:26699717

  5. Will changes in root-zone temperature in boreal spring affect recovery of photosynthesis in Picea mariana and Populus tremuloides in a future climate?

    PubMed

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Ensminger, Ingo; Bergeron, Yves; Gessler, Arthur; Berninger, Frank

    2011-11-01

    Future climate will alter the soil cover of mosses and snow depths in the boreal forests of eastern Canada. In field manipulation experiments, we assessed the effects of varying moss and snow depths on the physiology of black spruce (Picea -mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in the boreal black spruce forest of western Québec. For 1 year, naturally regenerated 10-year-old spruce and aspen were grown with one of the following treatments: additional N fertilization, addition of sphagnum moss cover, removal of mosses, delayed soil thawing through snow and hay addition, or accelerated soil thawing through springtime snow removal. Treatments that involved the addition of insulating moss or snow in the spring caused lower soil temperature, while removing moss and snow in the spring caused elevated soil temperature and thus had a warming effect. Soil warming treatments were associated with greater temperature variability. Additional soil cover, whether moss or snow, increased the rate of photosynthetic recovery in the spring. Moss and snow removal, on the other hand, had the opposite effect and lowered photosynthetic activity, especially in spruce. Maximal electron transport rate (ETR(max)) was, for spruce, 39.5% lower after moss removal than with moss addition, and 16.3% lower with accelerated thawing than with delayed thawing. Impaired photosynthetic recovery in the absence of insulating moss or snow covers was associated with lower foliar N concentrations. Both species were affected in that way, but trembling aspen generally reacted less strongly to all treatments. Our results indicate that a clear negative response of black spruce to changes in root-zone temperature should be anticipated in a future climate. Reduced moss cover and snow depth could adversely affect the photosynthetic capacities of black spruce, while having only minor effects on trembling aspen.

  6. Basal crevasses and suture zones in the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica: Implications for ice shelf stability in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Daniel J.

    Understanding ice shelf structure and processes is paramount to future predictions of sea level rise, as nearly 75% of the ice flux from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) passes through these gates. The breakup of an ice shelf removes the longitudinal back stress acting on the grounded inland ice and leads to flow acceleration, dynamic thinning and frontal retreat, processes that can be sustained for more than a decade. Increased ice discharge to the ocean contributes to global sea level rise. This dissertation investigates basal crevasses and suture zones, two key structural components of ice shelves, in order to understand how the structure of an ice shelf influences its stability in a warming climate. Ground penetrating radar, high-resolution satellite imagery and a variety of modeling approaches are utilized to assess these features on the Larsen C Ice Shelf but in a manner that considers their influence on ice shelf stability around the AIS. Basal crevasses are large-scale (~66% of ice thickness and ten's of kms in length) and abundant features that are significant structural weaknesses. The viscoplastic deformation of the ice shelf in response to the perturbed hydrostatic balance leads to the formation of both surface depressions and crevasses, hence weakening the ice shelf further. Basal crevasses increase the local ice-ocean interface by ~30%, thereby increasing basal roughness and altering ice-ocean interactions. Ice-shelf fractures frequently terminate where they encounter suture zones, regions of material heterogeneity that form at the lateral bounds of meteoric inflows to ice shelves. The termination of a 25 km-long rift in the Churchill Peninsula suture zone is investigated and found to contain ~60 m of accreted marine ice. Steady-state basal melting/freezing rates are determined for the ice shelf and applied to a flowline model to examine the along-flow evolution of ice shelf structure. The thickening surface wedge of locally accumulated meteoric ice

  7. A climate-analog, transport approach to estimating terrestrial carbon-climate responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koven, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change can be thought of in terms of geographical shifts in climate properties. Examples include assessments of shifts in habitat distributions, of the movement needed to maintain constant temperature or precipitation, and of the emergence and disappearance of climate zones. Here I track the movement of analog climates within the set of CMIP5 climate models. From the model simulations, I define a set of vectors that link a historical reference climate for each location to the location in a changed climate whose seasonal temperature and precipitation cycles best match the reference climate. I use these vectors to calculate the change in vegetation carbon storage with climate change due to ecosystems following climate analogues. Comparing the derived carbon content change to direct carbon projections by coupled carbon-climate models reveals two regions of divergence. In the tropical forests, vector projections are fundamentally uncertain because of a lack of close climatic analogues. In the southern boreal forest, carbon losses are projected in the vector perspective because low- carbon ecosystems shift polewards. However, the majority of carbon-climate models--typically without explicit simulation of the disturbance and mortality processes behind such shifts--instead project vegetation carbon gains throughout the boreal region. Southern boreal carbon loss as a result of ecosystem shift is likely to offset carbon gains from northern boreal forest expansion.

  8. The role of fire in the formation of soil organic matter in tropical and subtropical climatic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Molina, Marta; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas, natural and prescribed vegetation fires lead to a considerable input of charcoal into soils. Whereas it is well accepted that an immediate effect of charcoal input represents the enhancement of the aromaticity of the soil organic matter (SOM) in particular of the topsoils, our knowledge about the long-term impact of this material on the humification processes is still scarce. Analyzing the SOM along various profiles of soils in Southern, Central and Northern Brazil indicated an ubiquitous presence of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) down to the C horizons. Interestingly, in several soils lower charcoal contributions were found in the topsoils than in the deeper horizons. Solid-state 13C and 15N NMR revealed that this PyOM is highly carboxylated. Most tentatively, charcoal was efficiently oxidized and biodegraded at the surface turning it into a more humus-like substance. However, some of the degradation products must have been transported into deeper soil regions where they were selectively preserved. Possibly, the oxygen depletion in subsoils or the interaction of oxidized PyOM with the mineral phase have increased its biochemical recalcitrance resulting in a preferential degradation of SOM derived from fire-unaffected sources. Our data clearly show that frequent charcoal addition can have a higher long-term impact on SOM of deeper soil horizons than commonly assumed. It may even represent an essential factor for defining the properties of such subsoil. Considering further that oxidized charcoal residues may also leach into the aquifer, a further evaluation of the impact of such residues on the groundwater is urgently needed.

  9. Final Technical Report for "High-resolution temporal variations in groundwater chemistry: Tracing the links between climate, hydrology, and element mobility in the vadose zone"

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Banner

    2002-04-23

    In spite of a developing emphasis on geochemical methods in studies of modern hydrologic systems, there have been few attempts to examine temporal fluctuations in groundwater chemistry and element mobility in the near-surface environment. Relatively little is known regarding how groundwaters evolve over 10 to 10,000 year scales, yet this knowledge provides a critical framework for understanding the links between climate and hydrology, the evolution of soils, and element migration in the vadose environment. Recent analytical advances allow U-series measurements to be applied to developing high-resolution chronologies of Pleistocene and Holocene carbonates. The potential of these new tools is examined through an analysis of two well-defined, active karst systems in (1) Barbados and (2) Texas. (1) The research effort on Barbados has developed methods of estimating recharge and inferring the spatial and seasonal distribution of recharge to the Pleistocene limestone aquifer on Barbados. A new method has been developed to estimate recharge based on oxygen isotope variations in rainwater and groundwater. Inter-annual recharge variations indicate that recharge is dependent on the distribution of rainfall throughout the year rather than total annual rainfall. Consequently, a year when rainfall occurs primarily during the peak wet season months (August through November) may have more recharge than a year when rainfall is more evenly distributed through the year. These results lay important groundwork for analysis of rainfall/recharge variations over different time scales based on isotopic records presently being constructed using Barbados speleothems from the same aquifer. (2) The chronology of speleothems (cave calcite deposits) from three caves across 130 kilometers in central Texas provides a 71,000-year record of temporal changes in hydrology and climate. Fifty-three ages were determined by mass spectrometric 238U - 230Th and 235U - 231Pa analyses. The accuracy of the

  10. Vertical structure and pH as factors for chitinolytic and pectinolytic microbial community of soils and terrestrial ecosystems of different climatic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukacheva, Evgeniya; Natalia, Manucharova

    2016-04-01

    technique developed that is used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. pH as one of the factors which can have influence on degradation of biopolymers was studied for chitiolytic communities of different zones. And results were compared with direct studyings by method of "sowing" on a Petri dishes. Thus, we compared old classical methods with modern molecular studies. The difference between climatic zones was studied and the mathematical model was created. The mathematic model could be use in different aims, such as prognosis of microbial community composition and their classification.

  11. Sediment Cd and Mo accumulation in the oxygen-minimum zone off western Baja California linked to global climate over the past 52 kyr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Zheng, Yen; Ortiz, J.D.; VanGeen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of organic carbon (orgC), cadmium (Cd), and molybdenum (Mo) were measured in two sediment cores raised from depths of 430 and 700 m within the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) off southern Baja California at a temporal resolution of e10.5 kyr over the past 52 kyr. These records are supplemented with diffuse spectral reflectance (DSR) measurements obtained on board ship soon after collection at a resolution of e10.05 kyr. In the core from 700 m depth, a component extracted from the DSR data and the three geochemical proxies generally vary in concert with each other and over a wide range (4-22% orgC; 1-40 mg/kg Cd; 5-120 mg/kg Mo). Intervals of increased orgC, Cd, and Mo accumulation generally correspond to warm periods recorded in the oxygen-isotopic composition of Greenland ice, with the exception of the Bolling/Allerod which is only weakly expressed off Baja California. Concentrations of the biogenic proxies are higher in the core from 430 m depth, but erratic sediment accumulation before 15 ka precludes dating of the older intervals that are laminated and contain elevated orgC, Cd, and Mo concentrations. The new data provide further evidence of an intimate teleconnection between global climate and the intensity of the OMZ and/or productivity along the western margin of North America. On the basis of a comparison with Cd and Mo records collected elsewhere in the region, we conclude that productivity may actually have varied off southern Baja California by no more than a factor of 2 over the past 52 kyr. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Nevada Monitoring System to Assess Climate Variability and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, D. A.; Arnone, J.; Biondi, F.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; Saito, L.; Young, M.; Riddle, B.; Strachan, S. D.; Bird, B.; McCurdy, G.; Lyles, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Nevada System of Higher Education (University of Nevada Las Vegas, University of Nevada Reno and the Desert Research Institute) was awarded a multiyear NSF EPSCoR grant to support infrastructure associated with regional climate change research. The overall project is comprised of 5 components: education, cyberinfrastructure, policy, climate modeling and water/ecology. The water and ecology components are using their infrastructure funding for the assessment of climate variability and change on ecosystem function and hydrologic services. A series of 10 m tall towers are under construction and are being equipped with a wide array of sensors to monitor atmospheric, soil and plant parameters over time. The towers are located within the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts in two transects; the Mojave Desert transect is located in the southern Nevada Sheep Mountain Range and the Great Basin transect is located in the east central Nevada Snake Mountain Range. The towers are centrally positioned in well-defined vegetation zones. In southern Nevada these zones are represented by the following plant species: Creosote/Bursage (Creosotebush scrub zone); Blackbrush/Joshua Tree (Blackbrush zone); Pinyon/ Juniper (pygmy conifer zone), Ponderosa Pine (montane zone) and Bristlecone Pine (subalpine zone). The Snake Mountain transect incorporates the eastern and western valleys on both sides of the mountain range. The vegetation zones are represented by: Greasewood and mixed shrub (salt desert zone); Big Sage (sagebrush zone); Pinyon/Juniper (pygmy conifer zone); White/Douglas Fir, Ponderosa Pine and Aspen (montane zone); and Bristlecone/Limber Pine and Engelmann Spruce (subalpine zone). We are currently in the third year of funding with a goal of having the majority of towers fully operational by winter 2010. In close collaboration with our cyberinfrastructure component team, all data acquired from the transect monitoring stations will be made available to other researchers and the

  13. Current Climate Variability & Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and

  14. Projected shifts in Köppen climate zones over China and their temporal evolution in CMIP5 multi-model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Duo; Wu, Qigang; Jiang, Guixiang; Dai, Xianglin

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have examined the projected climate types in China by 2100. This study identified the emergence time of climate shifts at a 1◦ scale over China from 1990 to 2100 and investigated the temporal evolution of Köppen-Geiger climate classifications computed from CMIP5 multi-model outputs. Climate shifts were detected in transition regions (7%-8% of China's land area) by 2010, including rapid replacement of mixed forest (Dwb) by deciduous forest (Dwa) over Northeast China, strong shrinkage of alpine climate type (ET) on the Tibetan Plateau, weak northward expansion of subtropical winterdry climate (Cwa) over Southeast China, and contraction of oceanic climate (Cwb) in Southwest China. Under all future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) scenarios, the reduction of Dwb in Northeast China and ET on the Tibetan Plateau was projected to accelerate substantially during 2010-30, and half of the total area occupied by ET in 1990 was projected to be redistributed by 2040. Under the most severe scenario (RCP8.5), sub-polar continental winter dry climate over Northeast China would disappear by 2040-50, ET on the Tibetan Plateau would disappear by 2070, and the climate types in 35.9% and 50.8% of China's land area would change by 2050 and 2100, respectively. The results presented in this paper indicate imperative impacts of anthropogenic climate change on China's ecoregions in future decades.

  15. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  16. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    PubMed Central

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  17. Paleontological evidence for defining the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnosky, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Paleontological criteria formed the basis for defining most of the geological eras, periods, epochs, and ages that are commonly recognized. By the same token, the Anthropocene can be defined by paleontological distinctiveness in accordance with commonly accepted biostratigraphic and biochronologic practice. Here I focus on the utility of defining the Anthropocene by the distinctive fossils (or potential fossils of the future) that have accumulated and are accumulating in the sedimentary record. I discuss what kinds of biostratrigraphic criteria would be of most use in recognizing the Anthropocene's base and temporal extent, including pros and cons of definitions based on range zones, interval zones, lineage zones, assemblage zones, and abundance zones, as well as implications for potential reference sections. Key paleontological criteria useful in formally defining the Anthropocene as a geological epoch include (1) anthropogenic trace fossils such as buildings, roads, plastics, etc; (2) abundance zones based on remains of domesticated species and humans; and (3) assemblage zones based on species transported around the globe by people. The magnitude of paleontologically-recognizable changes that have occurred since humans became the dominant species on Earth is at least as great as the paleontological differences that distinguish other Cenozoic epochs, and supports recognition of the Anthropocene as a formal stratigraphic unit.

  18. Projected Shifts in Köppen Climate Zones over China and Their Temporal Evolution in CMIP5 Multi-Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Chan, D.; Jiang, G.; Dai, X.

    2014-12-01

    This study uses CMIP5 multi-model ensemble projections to calculate Köppen-Geiger climate classifications and changes in China from 1990 to 2100. The projected climate types would shift toward warmer climate types from current climate distribution, changes are characterized by pronounced retreat of alpine (ET) climate type on the Tibetan Plateau, disappearance of sub-polar continental winter dry (Dwc) over Northeast China, expansion of temperate (C-type) climate over eastern China. Projected climate shifts are time-dependent. Large climate shifts are already detected in transition regions (7.5% of total land area) around 2010, including rapid replacement of mixed forest (Dwb) by deciduous forest (Dwa) over Northeast China and strong shrinkage of ET on the Tibetan Plateau, weak northward expansion of subtropical winter-dry (Cwa) over eastern China and contract of oceanic climate (Cwb) in Southwest China. Reduction of Dwb in Northeast China and ET on the Tibetan Plateau accelerates substantially during 2010-2030 under all scenarios. Half of the total area occupied by ET in 1990 is projected to be redistributed by 2040. Under the RCP 8.5 scenario, Dwc over Northeast China disappears by 2040-2050, ET on the Tibetan Plateaus disappears by 2070, shift of subtropical humid (Cfa) climate to Cwa over large parts of southeastern China occurs after 2050 due to decreasing wintertime precipitation, and the coverage of C-type climate increases about 7.6% by 2090. Under the RCP2.6, 4.5, 6 and 8.5 emissions pathways, climate types in 22.8%, 39.0%, 46.4% and 52.6% of China's land area change by 2100, primarily following simulated warming changes.

  19. Efficacy of climate forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2005-09-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such

  20. The gray zone.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  1. Ecological opportunity and the evolution of habitat preferences in an arid-zone bird: implications for speciation in a climate-modified landscape.

    PubMed

    Norman, Janette A; Christidis, Les

    2016-01-20

    Bioclimatic models are widely used to investigate the impacts of climate change on species distributions. Range shifts are expected to occur as species track their current climate niche yet the potential for exploitation of new ecological opportunities that may arise as ecosystems and communities remodel is rarely considered. Here we show that grasswrens of the Amytornis textilis-modestus complex responded to new ecological opportunities in Australia's arid biome through shifts in habitat preference following the development of chenopod shrublands during the late Plio-Pleistocene. We find evidence of spatially explicit responses to climatically driven landscape changes including changes in niche width and patterns of population growth. Conservation of structural and functional aspects of the ancestral niche appear to have facilitated recent habitat shifts, while demographic responses to late Pleistocene climate change provide evidence for the greater resilience of populations inhabiting the recently evolved chenopod shrubland communities. Similar responses could occur under future climate change in species exposed to novel ecological conditions, or those already occupying spatially heterogeneous landscapes. Mechanistic models that consider structural and functional aspects of the niche along with regional hydro-dynamics may be better predictors of future climate responses in Australia's arid biome than bioclimatic models alone.

  2. Ecological opportunity and the evolution of habitat preferences in an arid-zone bird: implications for speciation in a climate-modified landscape

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Janette A.; Christidis, Les

    2016-01-01

    Bioclimatic models are widely used to investigate the impacts of climate change on species distributions. Range shifts are expected to occur as species track their current climate niche yet the potential for exploitation of new ecological opportunities that may arise as ecosystems and communities remodel is rarely considered. Here we show that grasswrens of the Amytornis textilis-modestus complex responded to new ecological opportunities in Australia’s arid biome through shifts in habitat preference following the development of chenopod shrublands during the late Plio-Pleistocene. We find evidence of spatially explicit responses to climatically driven landscape changes including changes in niche width and patterns of population growth. Conservation of structural and functional aspects of the ancestral niche appear to have facilitated recent habitat shifts, while demographic responses to late Pleistocene climate change provide evidence for the greater resilience of populations inhabiting the recently evolved chenopod shrubland communities. Similar responses could occur under future climate change in species exposed to novel ecological conditions, or those already occupying spatially heterogeneous landscapes. Mechanistic models that consider structural and functional aspects of the niche along with regional hydro-dynamics may be better predictors of future climate responses in Australia’s arid biome than bioclimatic models alone. PMID:26787111

  3. Modelling vegetation water-use and groundwater recharge as affected by climate variability in an arid-zone Acacia savanna woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Eamus, Derek; Cleverly, James; Boulain, Nicolas; Cook, Peter; Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Lei; Yu, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    For efficient and sustainable utilisation of limited groundwater resources, improved understanding of how vegetation water-use responds to climate variation and the corresponding controls on recharge is essential. This study investigated these responses using a modelling approach. The biophysically based model WAVES was calibrated and validated with more than two years of field experimental data conducted in Mulga (Acacia aneura) in arid central Australia. The validated model was then applied to simulate vegetation growth (as changes in overstory and understory leaf area index; LAI), vegetation water-use and groundwater recharge using observed climate data for the period 1981-2012. Due to large inter-annual climatic variability, especially precipitation, simulated annual mean LAI ranged from 0.12 to 0.35 for the overstory and 0.07 to 0.21 for the understory. These variations in simulated LAI resulted in vegetation water-use varying greatly from year-to-year, from 64 to 601 mm pa. Simulated vegetation water-use also showed distinct seasonal patterns. Vegetation dynamics affected by climate variability exerted significant controls on simulated annual recharge, which was greatly reduced to 0-48 mm compared to that (58-672 mm) only affected by climate. Understanding how climate variability and land use/land cover change interactively impact on groundwater recharge significantly improves groundwater resources management in arid and semi-arid regions.

  4. Viticultural zoning in Portugal: current conditions and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, H.; Santos, J. A.; Malheiro, A. C.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.

    2012-04-01

    Viticulture and wine production represent a main economic activity of the agro-production sector in Portugal, particularly over some world famous winemaking regions, such as the Port Wine / Douro Valley, Minho and Alentejo. As viticultural zoning provides valuable information regarding the suitability of a given grapevine variety to local climatic conditions, it is thus of great interest to the Portuguese winemaking sector. Furthermore, projected future climates are also likely to have important impacts on this zoning. Therefore, in the current study we aim at 1) discussing the current viticultural zoning in Portugal, and 2) assessing its future changes under anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing (A1B SRES scenario) in the 2011-2070 time period. A set of appropriate bioclimatic indices, computed using temperatures and precipitations defined on a daily basis, is used for viticultural zoning. For the assessment of the recent-past conditions an observational gridded dataset (E-OBS) is used, while for future climate change projections, a 16-member ensemble of model experiments (ENSEMBLES project dataset), is considered. Overall, statistically significant increases (decreases) in the thermally-based (humidity-based) indices are projected to occur in the future throughout the country, particularly over its southern and innermost regions. All these changes are in agreement with the widely accepted projections for warmer and dryer Southern European climates. High impacts are found in the most important winemaking regions in Portugal, highlighting the urgent need for developing suitable adaptation and mitigation measures so as to cope with a changing climate. A reshaping of the viticultural regions is thereby expected to occur within the next decades over Portugal.

  5. Technical Education in the Enterprise Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Howard

    Support is growing for the concept of the enterprise zone. Congress has before it a bill, the Enterprise Zone Tax Act of 1982, that would provide incentives and create a climate in which entrepreneurs and business executives would locate businesses in areas of pervasive poverty and unemployment. A potential urban enterprise zone in New York City…

  6. A Fiji multi-coral δ18O composite approach to obtaining a more accurate reconstruction of the last two-centuries of the ocean-climate variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassié, Emilie P.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Corrège, Thierry; Wu, Henry C.; Lemley, Gavin M.; Howe, Steve; Cabioch, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The limited availability of oceanographic data in the tropical Pacific Ocean prior to the satellite era makes coral-based climate reconstructions a key tool for extending the instrumental record back in time, thereby providing a much needed test for climate models and projections. We have generated a unique regional network consisting of five Porites coral δ18O time series from different locations in the Fijian archipelago. Our results indicate that using a minimum of three Porites coral δ18O records from Fiji is statistically sufficient to obtain a reliable signal for climate reconstruction, and that application of an approach used in tree ring studies is a suitable tool to determine this number. The coral δ18O composite indicates that while sea surface temperature (SST) variability is the primary driver of seasonal δ18O variability in these Fiji corals, annual average coral δ18O is more closely correlated to sea surface salinity (SSS) as previously reported. Our results highlight the importance of water mass advection in controlling Fiji coral δ18O and salinity variability at interannual and decadal time scales despite being located in the heavy rainfall region of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Fiji δ18O composite presents a secular freshening and warming trend since the 1850s coupled with changes in both interannual (IA) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) variance. The changes in IA and D/I variance suggest a re-organization of climatic variability in the SPCZ region beginning in the late 1800s to period of a more dominant interannual variability, which could correspond to a southeast expansion of the SPCZ.

  7. Advances in rainfall-runoff estimation using the NRCS-CN model in a changing climate in semiarid zones in both the northern and southern hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Barroso, Pablo; João Simas Guerreiro, Maria; De Andrade, Eunice Maia; González, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Extreme events runoff is one of the most important variables in water resources management, but its quantification in semiarid watersheds is not easy, especially because of their large retention capacity. In the worldwide used NRCS Curve Number model (CN), retention capacity is conditioned by the initial abstraction parameter, for which this manuscript questions its assessment procedure. We propose a more accurate procedure to compute the initial abstractions based on previous cumulative dry days (CDD). We also analyze the combined effect of initial abstractions and climatic characteristics by analyzing CN in a dry (Walnut Gulch, US) and wet (Ceará, Brazil) semiarid environment. With this new methodology and the evolution of rainfall volumes and CDD analysis, it is possible to suggest consequences of climate change on floods forecast of extreme rainfall-runoff events in a semiarid environment.

  8. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolář, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojtěch; Macek, Martin; Tkáč, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-01

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam.

  9. Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones: Climate Feedback and Trigger Mechanisms for Natural Disasters. An Overview of the Activities of SFB 574.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    The special research program SFB 574 at the University of Kiel investigates the role of fluid and volatile recycling in subduction zones along the Central American convergent margin (Guatemala to Panama) through integrated geophysical, geological, volcanological, geochemical, petrological and oceanographic studies. The work is carried out by over 50 scientists within 12 focussed scientific projects, evenly distributed between the tectonics of the subduction zone, the dewatering through the forearc, and the transfer of fluids from the slab to the atmosphere through the arc. During Phase I (2001-2004), we concentrated on a segment of the erosive subduction zone system onshore and offshore Costa Rica and Nicaragua, one of the focus areas for the MARGIN initiatives SubFac and SEIZE. Along this margin, the dip of subduction, the nature of the incoming plate, and magmatic compositions along the volcanic arc are all known to change significantly. In addition to work carried out during cruises and fieldwork from the 1990s, in the past 4 years we have collected new data during a total 10 months of shiptime on the research vessels SONNE and METEOR, and during 20 man-months of fieldwork, mainly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. In Phase II (2004-2008) we will finish work off Central America, and start working in an accretionary segment of the Chile margin between 32 and 38S. In this presentation I outline some of the main results concentrating on the effect of variable input and on the output at the arc. Key effects include the influence of the Galapagos hotspot on the incoming section (and on the output at the arc), the thickness of the volcanic crust and the effects of mantle serpentinization.

  10. Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

  11. Effect of climate, intra and inter-annual variability, on nutrients emission (C,N, P) in stream water: lessons from an agricultural long term observatory of the temperate zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Remi, Dupas; Patrick, Durand; Ophélie, Fovet; Gerard, Gruau; Anne, Jaffrezic; Guillaume, Humbert; Philippe, Merot; Gu, Sen

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture greatly contributes to modify C, N and P cycles, particularly in animal breeding regions due to high inputs. Climatic conditions, intra and inter-annual variabilities, modify nutrient stream water emissions, acting in time on transfer and transformation, accumulation and mobilization processes, connecting and disconnecting in time different compartments (soil, riparian areas, groundwater). In agricultural catchments, nutrient perturbations are dominated by agricultural land use, and decoupling human activities and climate effects is far from easy. Climate change generally appears as a secondary driver compared to land use. If studied, generally only one nutrient is considered. Only long term, high frequency and multiple element data series can decouple these two drivers. The Kervidy-Naizin watershed belongs to the AgrHyS environmental research observatory (http://www6.inra.fr/ore_agrhys_eng), itself included in RBV (French catchment network of the CZO). On this catchment, 6 years of daily data on DOC, NO3, SRP, TP concentrations allow us to analyze the effect of seasonal and inter-annual climatic variabilities on water quality (C, N, P). Different papers have been published on the effect of climate on nitrate (Molenat et al, 2008), SRP and TP (Dupas et al, 2015) and DOC (Humbert et al, 2015). We will present first results comparing the effect of climate on these three major solute forms of C, N and P. While C and P dynamics are very close and controlled by fluctuation of water table downslope, i.e. in riparian areas, mobilizing C and P in time, nitrate dynamics is controlled by GW dynamics upslope acting as the major N reservoir. As example, the dryness conditions in summer appears a key factor of the C and P emissions in autumn. All the three solute forms interact when anoxic conditions are observed in riparian zones. These basic processes explain how climatic variability can influence and explain interactions between C, N and P emissions in stream

  12. Using multivariate geostatistical methods and geographical clustering to delineate homogeneous winegrowing zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luis L.; García, Abelardo

    2014-05-01

    Characterization of homogeneous zones is difficult because of the complex combination of factors which could affect it. In winegrowing regions, zoning studies not only define areas according to their potential to produce specific wines but also identify the key drivers behind their variability and optimize vineyard management for sustainable viticulture. With the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the main vine-related environmental variables and using this information to determine different zones, climate and topographical data were obtained in Extremadura (southwestern Spain), an important wine region. Thus, accurate maps of all climate indices were produced by using regression-kriging as the most suitable algorithm in which exhaustive secondary information on elevation was incorporated. Maps of topography-derived variables were obtained using GIS tools. Later, principal component analysis and multivariate geographic classification were carried out to define areas of similar characteristics, resulting in three zones. This territory zonification constitutes a basic tool for rational region management, demarcation of production areas, studying new cultivar suitability and its interaction with environment, and it can be the basis for viticultural zoning at larger scales. Finally, the suitability of the territory belonging to the Ribera del Guadiana Denomination of Origin for viticulture was analyzed

  13. Exomoon climate models with the carbonate-silicate cycle and viscoelastic tidal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgan, Duncan; Dobos, Vera

    2016-04-01

    The habitable zone for exomoons with Earth-like properties is a non-trivial manifold, compared to that of Earth-like exoplanets. The presence of tidal heating, eclipses and planetary illumination in the exomoon energy budget combine to produce both circumstellar and circumplanetary habitable regions. Analytical calculations suggest that the circumplanetary habitable region is defined only by an inner edge (with its outer limits determined by orbital stability). Subsequent calculations using 1D latitudinal climate models indicated that the combined effect of eclipses and ice-albedo feedback can produce an outer edge to the circumplanetary habitable zone. But is this outer edge real, or an artefact of the climate model's relative simplicity? We present an upgraded 1D climate model of Earth-like exomoon climates, containing the carbonate-silicate cycle and viscoelastic tidal heating. We conduct parameter surveys of both the circumstellar and circumplanetary habitable zones, and we find that the outer circumplanetary habitable edge remains provided the moon's orbit is not inclined relative to that of the planet. Adding the carbonate-silicate cycle pushes the circumplanetary habitable zone outwards, by allowing increases in atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide to boost the greenhouse effect. Viscoelastic tidal heating widens the habitable zone compared to standard, fixed-Q models. Weakening the tidal heating effect due to melting allows moons to be habitable at higher eccentricity, and pushes the inner circumstellar and circumplanetary habitable zone boundary inwards.

  14. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  15. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Dulen, Deanna M.; Ebersole, Joseph L.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Millar, Constance I.; Maher, Sean P.; Monahan, William B.; Nydick, Koren R.; Redmond, Kelly T.; Sawyer, Sarah C.; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27509088

  16. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27509088

  17. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change.

  18. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model estimates biofuel feedstock crop production across diverse agro-ecological zones within the state, under different future climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaffka, S.; Jenner, M.; Bucaram, S.; George, N.

    2012-12-01

    Both regulators and businesses need realistic estimates for the potential production of biomass feedstocks for biofuels and bioproducts. This includes the need to understand how climate change will affect mid-tem and longer-term crop performance and relative advantage. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model is a partial mathematical programming optimization model that estimates the profit level needed for new crop adoption, and the crop(s) displaced when a biomass feedstock crop is added to the state's diverse set of cropping systems, in diverse regions of the state. Both yield and crop price, as elements of profit, can be varied. Crop adoption is tested against current farmer preferences derived from analysis of 10 years crop production data for all crops produced in California, collected by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Analysis of this extensive data set resulted in 45 distinctive, representative farming systems distributed across the state's diverse agro-ecological regions. Estimated yields and water use are derived from field trials combined with crop simulation, reported elsewhere. Crop simulation is carried out under different weather and climate assumptions. Besides crop adoption and displacement, crop resource use is also accounted, derived from partial budgets used for each crop's cost of production. Systematically increasing biofuel crop price identified areas of the state where different types of crops were most likely to be adopted. Oilseed crops like canola that can be used for biodiesel production had the greatest potential to be grown in the Sacramento Valley and other northern regions, while sugar beets (for ethanol) had the greatest potential in the northern San Joaquin Valley region, and sweet sorghum in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Up to approximately 10% of existing annual cropland in California was available for new crop adoption. New crops are adopted if the entire cropping system becomes more profitable. In

  19. Dentin Caries Zones

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Strother, J.; Darling, C.L.; Fried, D.; Gansky, S.A.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral. PMID:19131321

  20. Disentangling the impacts of climate and human colonization on the flora and fauna of the Australian arid zone over the past 100 ka using stable isotopes in avian eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Magee, John W.; Gagan, Michael K.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the Quaternary, the flora and fauna of Australia evolved and adapted to the high-amplitude, low- and high-frequency climate changes that characterized the ice-age cycles. However, during the last glacial cycle, between ∼120 and 15 ka, unprecedented irreversible changes in flora and fauna occurred, and in that same interval modern humans established their first firm presence in the landscape. Disentangling the impacts of the first-order trend toward a colder, drier planet through the Late Quaternary from the impacts of human colonization has been challenging, from both the chronological and paleoenvironmental perspectives. We utilize the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen preserved in near-continuous time series of Dromaius (emu) eggshell from five regions across Australia to provide independent reconstructions of ecosystem status and climate over the past 100 ka. Carbon isotopes are determined by the diet consumed by the female bird, whereas oxygen isotopes record the status of local moisture balance in the months prior to breeding. Together, δ13C and δ18O provide ecosystem status and climate from the same dated sample, reducing correlation uncertainties between proxies. Combined with recent improvements in the chronologies of Late Quaternary shorelines fringing inland lake basins and deflation during arid times, these data collectively reaffirm that Australia generally became increasingly, albeit irregularly, drier from the last interglaciation through to the last glacial maximum. Dromaius eggshell δ18O documents peak aridity between 30 and 15 ka, but shows no evidence of exceptional climate change between 60 and 40 ka. In contrast, Dromaius δ13Cdiet documents an irreversible loss of the majority of palatable summer-rainfall-related C4 grasses across the Australian arid zone between 50 and 45 ka, about the same time that the giant megafaunal bird, Genyornis, became extinct, and coincident with human dispersal across the continent. Our data

  1. Defining departmental mission.

    PubMed

    Hartman, M D; Barrow, J A; Sawyer, W R

    1990-02-01

    Mission statements have long been recognized by corporate America as a way to define an enterprise. The necessary business orientation of the health care industry requires that hospitals and hospital departments define their scope of services and reason for existence. The accelerating reprofessionalization affecting departments of pharmacy requires the same. "Improving the quality of patient care" can no longer represent a euphemism for simply reacting to external factors or acting on a whim without clear meaningful intent. Professional departments and hospitals must demonstrate a sense of direction and purpose and be able to justify costs to a budget-conscious management and skeptical public. Mission statements are not substitutes for a clearly defined sense of professional mission. However, well-constructed mission statements contribute to clarity of departmental and professional purpose and effective achievement of goals. PMID:10128549

  2. Defining Risk Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts to prevent alcohol-related harm are aimed at reducing risk drinking. This article outlines the many conceptual and methodological challenges to defining risk drinking. It summarizes recent evidence regarding associations of various aspects of alcohol consumption with chronic and acute alcohol-related harms, including mortality, morbidity, injury, and alcohol use disorders, and summarizes the study designs most appropriate to defining risk thresholds for these types of harm. In addition, it presents an international overview of low-risk drinking guidelines from more than 20 countries, illustrating the wide range of interpretations of the scientific evidence related to risk drinking. This article also explores the impact of drink size on defining risk drinking and describes variation in what is considered to be a standard drink across populations. Actual and standard drink sizes differ in the United States, and this discrepancy affects definitions of risk drinking and prevention efforts. PMID:22330212

  3. Defining the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Ursell, Luke K; Metcalf, Jessica L; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Knight, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly developing sequencing methods and analytical techniques are enhancing our ability to understand the human microbiome, and, indeed, how we define the microbiome and its constituents. In this review we highlight recent research that expands our ability to understand the human microbiome on different spatial and temporal scales, including daily timeseries datasets spanning months. Furthermore, we discuss emerging concepts related to defining operational taxonomic units, diversity indices, core versus transient microbiomes and the possibility of enterotypes. Additional advances in sequencing technology and in our understanding of the microbiome will provide exciting prospects for exploiting the microbiota for personalized medicine. PMID:22861806

  4. Assessment of Iranian Agroclimatological Zone Classification by Using TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Ebrahim; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo; Kouzehgaran, Saeedeh; Haghighat, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural zoning is an important tool for authorities to plan and decide about development of the agricultural sector, environmental sustainability issues and plan and provide irrigation and rural infrastructures. Previous different methods have suggested the definition of agroclimatological zones in big areas in Iran, but most of them are not easy to be validated or there are not clear criteria to evaluate whether the zones are correctly defined or not. The current {it Iranian Meteorological Organisation} classification is composed of six significant agroclimatological zones defined using the fundamental climate elements of temperature and precipitation obtained from 30 years data from 180 synoptic stations interpolated using regression kriging methods. Elevation was derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) digital elevation model of 90 m resolution. In this paper we assess the homogeneity of each of these conventionally defined agroclimatological zones using {bf TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)} values obtained from MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI operational products of the last three years between 2013 and 2015.

  5. Decadal and lower frequency changes in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) salinity front gradient over the last 210 years and relationship to Pacific-wide climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, B. K.; Dassie, E. P.; Wu, H. C.; Wellington, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the southeastern edge of the SPCZ near 170°W and 15°-20°S a surface ocean salinity frontal zone exists that separates fresher water under the SPCZ from significantly saltier and cooler waters to the east in the South Pacific central gyre. Instrumental sea surface salinity (SSS) data from this region indicate that temporal variability in the SSS difference between Fiji and Tonga is closely coupled to the phase of ENSO. The SSS difference increases by 1.0 to 1.5 p.s.s. during La Niña events and decreases by a comparable magnitude to no difference (0.0 p.s.s.) during El Niño events. The cause of this gradient change is directly related to the position of the salinity front. During La Niña events the salinity front shifts SE as the S. Equatorial Current (SEC) weakens and the zone of maximum rainfall in the SPCZ moves over Fiji, making Fiji fresher than Tonga. During El Niño events, the SEC advects higher salinity water from the east and the SPCZ shifts NE making the SSS difference between Fiji and Tonga close to zero. Using replicated coral δ18O and SSS records over the last 50 years, (Dassie et al., 2010, this meeting) demonstrate that Porites corals from Fiji and Tonga accurately record interannual changes in this SSS difference across the salinity front. Here we evaluate decadal-scale and lower frequency changes in the coral δ18O difference between Fiji and Tonga using replicated Porites coral δ18O records from Fiji (Savusavu Bay, n=2; Vanua Balavu (200km E. of Savusavu Bay, n=2) and Tonga (n=2). Our previous work with coral δ18O records from the region indicates that interannual and lower frequency changes in δ18O are predominantly driven by changes in SSS (Linsley et al., 2006, G^3). Earlier evidence from instrumental salinity data and coral δ18O records indicate that the SPCZ has been expanding SE since the mid 19th century. Our new coral δ18O reconstruction of the SSS gradient provides more details and indicates a reduced or non

  6. Defining Faculty Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter J.; Diamond, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    A process of planned change is proposed for redefining college faculty work. Legitimate faculty work is defined in broad terms, and information sources and methods for collecting information to support redefinition are identified. The final step in the redefinition process is the development of new mission statements for the institution and its…

  7. Defining Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannoni, Jeanne M.; Becerra, Rosina M.

    In seeking to clarify the meaning of the terms "child abuse" and "child neglect" it has been assumed that, like other forms of social deviance, they are socially defined phenomena. Interviews were conducted with those professionals (lawyers, pediatricians, police officers, and social workers) who daily handle the problems of abuse and neglect for…

  8. Defined by Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, Sonya; Murphy, Katy

    2010-01-01

    Undocumented students are a population defined by limitations. Their lack of legal residency and any supporting paperwork (e.g., Social Security number, government issued identification) renders them essentially invisible to the American and state governments. They cannot legally work. In many states, they cannot legally drive. After the age of…

  9. Defining Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  10. Defining and Assessing Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    The seven papers in this monograph focus on defining and assessing quality. The paper are: (1) "Reflections on Design Ideals" (E. Grady Bogue), which addresses some "governing ideals" of collegiate quality; (2) "Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Investment and Quality in Higher Education" (Sven Groennings), which sees the competitive quality of…

  11. On Defining Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherritt, Caroline A.

    Defining literacy is a compelling challenge to educators. They generally use three models: instrumental, functional, and empowerment. The latter two approaches, which were increasingly evident in the 1980s, identify literacy by the social functions required in a given context or by the qualities needed for illiterate people to take control of…

  12. On Defining Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  13. Defining Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ronald E.

    1977-01-01

    Defines equality of education in three areas: 1) by the degree of integration of school systems; 2) by a comparison of material resources and assets in education; and 3) by the effects of schooling as measured by the mean scores of groups on standardized tests. Available from: College of Education, 107 Quadrangle, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa…

  14. Viticultural zoning of Graciosa island of the Azores archipelago - Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, João; Reis, Francisco; Felipe, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The management and sustainability of the traditional vineyards of the Azores settled on lava field terrains is strongly affected by practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of the vineyards. In a recent macrozoning approach study Madruga et al (2015) showed that besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the Azores islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics indicate a potential for the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed viticultural zoning at the level of the small mapscale (smaller than 1:25,000), for the island of Graciosa where, besides the traditional lava field terroir, there are also some localized experiences of grapevine production over normal soils, offering thus some comparative information on this type of production conditions. The zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate and topography which was then combined with the soil mapping units fulfilling the suitable criteria concerning the soil properties taken as the most relevant for viticulture, being the result a map of homogeneous environmental units. The climatic zoning examined the direct quantitative variables (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) in relation to climate index, bioclimatic and viticultural specific values. Topography (elevation, slope, aspect, orientation) was analyzed based on the tridimensional models of the islands in GIS to include the best slopes for the mechanization of the vineyard cultural operations (0-15%). Soils were analyzed based on data and soil map units as defined in the soil surveys of the Azores archipelago. The soil properties taken for the analysis and definition of the potential vineyard areas were drainage, water holding capacity

  15. Changes in the soil properties under differently directed climatic fluctuations of the late holocene in the semidesert zone (by the example of the Palasa-Syrt burial mounds in Dagestan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, O. S.; Khokhlov, A. A.; Kuznetsova, A. M.; Malashev, V. Yu.; Magomedov, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    A chronosequence of soils in the area of the Palasa-Syrt burial mounds in the Republic of Dagestan is examined. It includes one paleosol under a kurgan of the Middle Bronze Age (end of the third-beginning of the second millennium BC), twelve paleosols buried at the end of the Late Sarmatian period-the beginning of the Great Migration period (second half of the fourth-first half of the fifth centuries AD), and two background soils. As shown by our study, desertification processes during the Middle Bronze period resulted in the replacement of the light chestnut soil by the brown semidesert soil. In the second studied chronointerval, the soils developed in the semidesert zone; however, the first half of this chronointerval was relatively humid, whereas the second half (in the fifth century AD) was more arid, which was reflected in the soil properties. The grouping of the Late Sarmatian paleosols with respect to their properties made it possible to arrange their chronosequence and, thus, to judge the time of their burial, which was confirmed by the archaeological data. The sequence of changes in the soil properties upon changes in the climatic conditions is identified. The first features that disappear upon humidization and reappear upon aridization of the climate are the features of salinization and solonetzic processes and the character of the biological activity. The 14C age of carbonates also changes. These relatively quick processes are realized in 10-20 years, whereas the changes in the reserves of humus and carbonates require longer periods (supposedly, about 50-100 years).

  16. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.; Wilson, L.G.; Hoylman, E.W.

    1983-10-01

    This book describes the applicability of vadose zone monitoring techniques to hazardous waste site investigations. More than 70 different sampling and nonsampling vadose zone monitoring techniques are described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Physical, chemical, geologic, topographic, geohydrologic, and climatic constraints for vadose zone monitoring are quantitatively determined. Vadose zone monitoring techniques are categorized for premonitoring, active, and postclosure site assessments. Waste disposal methods are categorized for piles, landfills, impoundments, and land treatment. Conceptual vadose zone monitoring approaches are developed for specific waste disposal method categories.

  17. Organic matter recycling in a shallow coastal zone (NW Mediterranean): The influence of local and global climatic forcing and organic matter lability on hydrolytic enzyme activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misic, Cristina; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2008-12-01

    Seawater and sediment were collected on a monthly basis from a shallow (10.5 m depth) coastal site in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean) from November 1993 to December 1994 to determine the main environmental forces that influenced the biogeochemical processes and to study the relationships between the availability and lability of the organic matter (OM) and hydrolytic enzymatic activity. The current direction throughout the sampling year was influenced by the climatic conditions, which showed significant correlations with north atlantic oscillation (NAO) index values. The current generally flowed northwards in spring. This could cause significantly lower transparency values than in the summer, when an eastward current probably reduced the allochthonous input of material from the main local watercourse and contributed to turning the conditions from mesotrophic to oligotrophic. Spring and summer were separated by transitional periods more than by the canonical autumn and winter seasons. These transitions were characterised by a reduction in salinity values and by resuspension caused by water column mixing and a current flowing towards the southwest. The significant inverse correlations of the chlorophyll- a and protein concentrations, bacterial abundance and proteolysis of the bottom seawater and transparency showed the direct influence of resuspension on the organic matter dynamics. Moreover, OM trophic quality influenced the bacterial parameters and the enzymatic activities. The glycolytic β glucosidase and chitinase activities and their bacterial cell-specific hydrolytic rates were higher when substrates such as hydrolysable proteins were available, while they decreased when refractory compounds were abundant. The low leucine aminopeptidase: β glucosidase ratio values observed in the water column were presumably related to the potential ease with which microbes obtained protein-derived materials and energy, the protein hydrolysable fraction being estimated at

  18. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  19. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    .... Regulated Navigation Areas are water areas within a defined boundary for which regulations for vessels.../2011 USCG-2011-0596 Grande Isle, LA Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/2/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/4/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/24/2011...

  20. Handbook for Conducting School Climate Improvement Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Eugene; And Others

    This book discusses practical ways to improve a school's climate by increasing both productivity and satisfaction concurrently. Chapter 1, "Defining School Climate," identifies the overarching goals of school climate improvement, the basic human needs that school climate must address, the factors that make up a school's climate and determine its…

  1. Defining periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the periodontium has relied exclusively on a variety of physical measurements (e.g., attachment level, probing depth, bone loss, mobility, recession, degree of inflammation, etc.) in relation to various case definitions of periodontal disease. Periodontal health was often an afterthought and was simply defined as the absence of the signs and symptoms of a periodontal disease. Accordingly, these strict and sometimes disparate definitions of periodontal disease have resulted in an idealistic requirement of a pristine periodontium for periodontal health, which makes us all diseased in one way or another. Furthermore, the consequence of not having a realistic definition of health has resulted in potentially questionable recommendations. The aim of this manuscript was to assess the biological, environmental, sociological, economic, educational and psychological relationships that are germane to constructing a paradigm that defines periodontal health using a modified wellness model. The paradigm includes four cardinal characteristics, i.e., 1) a functional dentition, 2) the painless function of a dentition, 3) the stability of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and 4) the psychological and social well-being of the individual. Finally, strategies and policies that advocate periodontal health were appraised. I'm not sick but I'm not well, and it's a sin to live so well. Flagpole Sitta, Harvey Danger PMID:26390888

  2. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  3. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  4. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  5. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  6. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  7. 33 CFR 165.773 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... zone. Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard assets or other Federal, State, or local law... within Captain of the Port Zone, Jacksonville, Florida as defined in 33 CFR 3.35-20. (c) Security zone....

  8. 33 CFR 165.773 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... zone. Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard assets or other Federal, State, or local law... within Captain of the Port Zone, Jacksonville, Florida as defined in 33 CFR 3.35-20. (c) Security zone....

  9. 33 CFR 165.773 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... zone. Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard assets or other Federal, State, or local law... within Captain of the Port Zone, Jacksonville, Florida as defined in 33 CFR 3.35-20. (c) Security zone....

  10. 33 CFR 165.769 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Charleston, South Carolina, Captain of the Port Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is... wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Charleston, South Carolina 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A 300-yard security zone...

  11. 33 CFR 165.769 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Charleston, South Carolina, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is... wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Charleston, South Carolina 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A 300-yard security zone...

  12. 33 CFR 165.773 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... zone. Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard assets or other Federal, State, or local law... within Captain of the Port Zone, Jacksonville, Florida as defined in 33 CFR 3.35-20. (c) Security zone....

  13. 33 CFR 165.773 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... zone. Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard assets or other Federal, State, or local law... within Captain of the Port Zone, Jacksonville, Florida as defined in 33 CFR 3.35-20. (c) Security zone....

  14. 33 CFR 165.769 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Charleston, South Carolina, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is... wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Charleston, South Carolina 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A 300-yard security zone...

  15. 33 CFR 165.769 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Charleston, South Carolina, Captain of the Port Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is... wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Charleston, South Carolina 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A 300-yard security zone...

  16. Past equable climates, mixed assemblages, and the regression fallacy

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Equable climates are often invoked to account for Pleistocene mixed (disharmonious) assemblages of plants or animals. However, mixed assemblages are defined by comparison with only modern distributions. Many modern assemblages, such as the western ponderosa pine and the northern hardwoods forests, are mixed assemblages when compared to Pleistocene distributions. Thus, explaining past assemblages with no modern analog by invoking a past equable climate ignores the fact that many modern assemblages have no past analog, yet the modern climate is not considered equable. This logical error is analogous to the regression fallacy in statistics. A change in the variability within assemblages through time cannot be detected if only the presence (and not the absence) of extreme species are considered. Because species also respond to historical and other non-climatic variables, interpretations will inevitably be biased toward equable paleoclimates. A more direct approach is to count those species that presently reside in equable climatic zones. If the species typical of modern equable zones are absent, then the proposed equable paleoclimate becomes tenuous.

  17. Defining Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Amy; Seidel, Dian; Hardiman, Steven; Butchart, Neal; Birner, Thomas; Match, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    The general form of the definition for Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) is largely agreed to be a reversal of the temperature gradient and of the zonal circulation polewards of 60° latitude at the 10 hPa level, as developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the details of the definition and its calculation are ambiguous, resulting in inconsistent classifications of SSW events. These discrepancies are problematic for understanding the observed frequency and statistical relationships with SSWs, and for maintaining a robust metric with which to assess wintertime stratospheric variability in observations and climate models. To provide a basis for community-wide discussion, we examine how the SSW definition has changed over time and how sensitive the detection of SSWs is to the definition used. We argue that the general form of the SSW definition should be clarified to ensure that it serves current research and forecasting purposes, and propose possible ways to update the definition.

  18. TAPERED DEFINING SLOT

    DOEpatents

    Pressey, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    An improvement is reported in the shape and formation of the slot or opening in the collimating slot member which forms part of an ion source of the type wherein a vapor of the material to be ionized is bombarded by electrons in a magnetic field to strike an arc-producing ionization. The defining slot is formed so as to have a substantial taper away from the cathode, causing the electron bombardment from the cathode to be dispersed over a greater area reducing its temperature and at the same time bringing the principal concentration of heat from the electron bombardment nearer the anode side of the slot, thus reducing deterioration and prolonging the life of the slot member during operation.

  19. Defining the mobilome.

    PubMed

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  20. Defining critical thoughts.

    PubMed

    Lovatt, Abbie

    2014-05-01

    Nursing education has long struggled to define critical thinking and explain how the process of critical thinking fits into the context of nursing. Despite this long time struggle, nurses and nurse educators continue to strive to foster critical thinking skills in nursing students as intuitively most nurses believe that critical thinking is necessary to function competently in the workplace. This article explores the most recent work of Dr. Stephen Brookfield and ties the concepts which are explored in Brookfield's work to nursing practice. Brookfield identifies that learners understand the meaning of critical thinking the best when the process is first demonstrated. Role modeling is a method educators can use to demonstrate critical thinking and is a strategy which nurses often use in the clinical area to train and mentor new nursing staff. Although it is not a new strategy in nursing education, it is a valuable strategy to engage learners in critical thinking activities. PMID:24418065

  1. Defining clinical 'workstation'.

    PubMed

    Safran, C

    1994-01-01

    Interest in the physician's workstation has increased, yet often seems to focus on technological issues. At Boston's Beth Israel Hospital, the Center for Clinical Computing includes heavily used clinical workstations. Their evolution over the past 20 years suggests design criteria: the workstation must be patient-centered, the interface must be uniform, and data acquisition must be addressed at a system level. However, it is clinical function that really defines a workstation. The workstation should do the following: display patient information rapidly and flexibly; assist with administrative tasks; facilitate communication; and provide four important types of decision support: access to literature, access to databases, clinical calculation, and 'synthetic vision,' or different views of patient data. The solutions to our healthcare problems are not in 'workboxes' we can buy, but in creative approaches we can imagine. We need a patient-centered infrastructure and a reduced workload for the clinician-perhaps a 'worklesstation'. PMID:8125637

  2. What Is Climate Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Adele

    2007-01-01

    Weather consists of those meteorological events, such as rain, wind and sunshine, which can change day-by-day or even hour-by-hour. Climate is the average of all these events, taken over a period of time. The climate varies over different parts of the world. Climate is usually defined as the average of the weather over a 30-year period. It is when…

  3. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Captain of the Port zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-15, one mile ahead, one half mile astern, and 1000... Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone, Portsmouth Harbor, Portsmouth, New... and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone,...

  4. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Captain of the Port zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-15, one mile ahead, one half mile astern, and 1000... Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone, Portsmouth Harbor, Portsmouth, New... and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone,...

  5. Creating Indices Representing the Atmospheric Conditions throughout Japan by Using Frontal Zone Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of Japan exhibits mid-latitude and east coast condition characteristics within the continent, which leads to the large meridional range of the frontal migration and the resultant large annual seasonal change. Therefore, describing the long-term behavior of frontal zones is important for understanding the seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations of the Japanese climate. The purpose of this work is to create indices representing the atmospheric conditions throughout Japan by using frontal zone data created by an objective method at pentad intervals for the period 1948-2013. The indexation was conducted by principal component analyses on the distribution maps of the frontal frequencies near frontal zones, which are defined as the latitude indicating the maximum of the frontal frequencies along each longitude in the climatological mean field. This work focuses on the first four factors, PC1-4, which indicate high contribution rates. The distribution maps of factor loadings were interpreted in the following manner as variations of the frontal zone: PC1, north-south variations in the locations of the frontal zone; PC2, frontal frequencies around the frontal zone; PC3, the running direction of the frontal zone, whether northwest-southeast or southwest-northeast; and PC4, west-east variations of the frontal frequencies. These factors could be regarded as the indices representing the atmospheric conditions throughout Japan. The result of correlation analysis among the indices in this work and those representing global climatic phenomena such as Niño3 sea surface temperature (SST), in addition to Pacific decadal and Arctic oscillations, indicated the comprehensive relationships revealed in previous research. Furthermore, several long-term trend characteristics were exhibited, such as the southward shift of frontal zones in mid- and late spring and the increase of frontal frequencies around frontal zones in mid- and late summer. Thus, the simple indices

  6. Defining the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  7. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  8. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  9. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  10. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  11. Future Climate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    James Houseworth

    2001-10-12

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure 1), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Revision 00 of this AMR was prepared in accordance with the ''Work Direction and Planning Document for Future Climate Analysis'' (Peterman 1999) under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The planning document for the technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department''. (BSC 2001b, Addendum B

  12. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  13. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  14. "Dangerous" Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrandrea, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Current climate change mitigation policy decisions must be made despite layers of uncertainty. Modeling of future climate, projections for future economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions, and characterizations of the interactions and feedbacks within the coupled social-natural system all contain uncertain components. Researchers communicating with policymakers have learned that, instead of presenting "best guesses" or other point estimates, uncertainty assignments require such techniques as probability distributions of outcomes and quantitatively defined descriptions of subjective confidence. We present a quantification of "dangerous" climate change, a term important in policy discussions. Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change expresses the opinion of the signing Parties that steps be taken to "prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system," but the Convention did not specify what constitutes the value judgment of being "dangerous." We present one possible definition. A threshold for "dangerous" climate change is a clear tool for evaluating the need for and impact of proposed climate policy. Monte Carlo analyses with a simple integrated assessment model demonstrate that endogenously calculated climate policy controls appreciably reduce the probability of "dangerous" climate change. Under mid-range assumptions, climate policy reduces the probability of "dangerous" climate change by 30-50%.

  15. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section— Certain dangerous cargo or CDC means a material defined as CDC in 33 CFR 160.204. Designated.... Passenger vessel means a vessel defined as a passenger vessel in 46 CFR part 70. (b) Location. All navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Hampton Roads zone (defined in 33 CFR 3.25-10) within 500 yards...

  16. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section— Certain dangerous cargo or CDC means a material defined as CDC in 33 CFR 160.204. Designated.... Passenger vessel means a vessel defined as a passenger vessel in 46 CFR part 70. (b) Location. All navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Hampton Roads zone (defined in 33 CFR 3.25-10) within 500 yards...

  17. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section— Certain dangerous cargo or CDC means a material defined as CDC in 33 CFR 160.204. Designated.... Passenger vessel means a vessel defined as a passenger vessel in 46 CFR part 70. (b) Location. All navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Hampton Roads zone (defined in 33 CFR 3.25-10) within 500 yards...

  18. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section— Certain dangerous cargo or CDC means a material defined as CDC in 33 CFR 160.204. Designated.... Passenger vessel means a vessel defined as a passenger vessel in 46 CFR part 70. (b) Location. All navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Hampton Roads zone (defined in 33 CFR 3.25-10) within 500 yards...

  19. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section— Certain dangerous cargo or CDC means a material defined as CDC in 33 CFR 160.204. Designated.... Passenger vessel means a vessel defined as a passenger vessel in 46 CFR part 70. (b) Location. All navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Hampton Roads zone (defined in 33 CFR 3.25-10) within 500 yards...

  20. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  1. Application of agroclimatic indices for viticultural zoning at macroscale level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, H.; Malheiro, A. C.; Santos, J. A.; Pinto, J. G.

    2009-09-01

    Viticultural zoning not only gives valuable information about the suitability of a particular region for wine production, but also helps in determining the most adequate varieties for a local site, or even to identify constraints for grapevine production. In addition, regarding the socio-economic relevance of this crop in a context of new challenges enforced by a changing climate, a thorough assessment of its potential future adaptation can only be achieved through scientific analyses. The demarcation of new wine regions is also critically dependent on these studies. Therefore, the present research was focused on developing a computer based model of agroclimatic grapevine zoning at a macroclimate (global) scale. For that purpose, several agroclimatic indices (e.g., thermal and heliothermal indices) were calculated worldwide. In fact, agroclimatic indices are widely used when relating the viticultural climate and the elements of grape and wine quality. Their calculation was carried out by, first, using climatic variables (mostly daily maximum and minimum temperatures and daily precipitation amounts) from the NCEP reanalysis dataset and, second, using data from a general circulation atmospheric model for a specific future emission scenario (A1B). A bioclimatic atlas showing the global fields of the different indices was then produced for two separate recent-past periods (1961-1990 and 1990-2008) and for a future scenario (2030-2050). The comparison between the bioclimatic fields defined for the two different recent-past periods enables the detection of long-term trends, while the comparison of these two periods with the future period allows the isolation of projected changes. Based on the results of these agroclimatic indices and to simplify the analysis, the dimensionality of the problem was reduced by considering a composite index. This provides a macro-characterization of worldwide areas where this crop may preferentially grow, as well as an identification of

  2. Climatic Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, David S.; Menou, K.; Scharf, C. A.

    2008-05-01

    It is likely that, in the next several years, the Corot and Kepler satellites will find many terrestrial planets around other stars. In order to judge what fraction of these planets are likely to be hospitable to life, it is important to reassess the notion of the habitable zone. Classical considerations of habitability, in the context of extrasolar planets, have often regarded it as a binary property (either a planet is or is not habitable). But according to the standard liquid water definition, the Earth itself is only partially habitable. I will describe a way to use energy balance climate models to assess the spatial and temporal habitability of terrestrial planets that are not too different from the Earth. Initial investigations of model planets' temperature distributions indicate that climate varies with observable features of planets (e.g., how far they are from their star) and unobservable features (e.g., how fast they are spinning, how much surface water they have, what their obliquity is). The habitability of model pseudo-Earths with different rotation rates or land-ocean fractions, for instance, generally differs significantly from that of the Earth itself.

  3. Use of GIS to Define Agro-ecosystems & Climate Change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bread wheat and durum wheat occupy an estimated 200 million ha globally, are grown from sea-level to over 3500 masl, and from the equator to above 60N latitude in Canada, Europe & Asia. For an organization like CIMMYT, charged with improving wheat for the entire developing world, an understanding of...

  4. Competencies Framework for Climate Services.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Conference-3 (Geneva, 2009) established the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) to enable better management of the risks of climate variability and change and adaptation to climate change at all levels, through development and incorporation of science-based climate information and prediction into planning, policy and practice. The GFCS defines Climate Services as the result of transforming climate data into climate information in a way that responds to user needs and assists decision-making by individuals and organizations. Capacity Development is a cross-cutting pillar of the GFCS to ensure that services are provided by institutions with professionals whom achieved the adequate set of competencies recommended by WMO, which are yet to be fully defined. The WMO-Commission for Climatology Expert Team on Education and Training, ET-ETR, has been working to define a Competencies Framework for Climate Services to help the institutions to deliver high quality climate services in compliance with WMO standards and regulations, specifically those defined by WMO's Commission for Climatology and the GFCS. This framework is based in 5 areas or competence, closely associated to the areas of work of climate services providers: create and manage climate data sets; derive products from climate data; create and/or interpret climate forecasts and model output; ensure the quality of climate information and services; communicate climatological information with users. With this contribution, we intend to introduce to a wider audience the rationale behind these 5 top-level competency statements and the performance criteria associated with them, as well as the plans of the ET-ETR for further developing them into an instrument to support education and training within the WMO members, specially the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services.

  5. An interactive method for digitizing zone maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.; Thompson, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for digitizing maps that consist of zones, such as contour or climatic zone maps. A color-coded map is prepared by any convenient process. The map is then read into memory of an Image 100 computer by means of its table scanner, using colored filters. Zones are separated and stored in themes, using standard classification procedures. Thematic data are written on magnetic tape and these data, appropriately coded, are combined to make a digitized image on tape. Step-by-step procedures are given for digitization of crop moisture index maps with this procedure. In addition, a complete example of the digitization of a climatic zone map is given.

  6. Pyroclastic passage zones in glaciovolcanic sequences.

    PubMed

    Russell, James K; Edwards, Benjamin R; Porritt, Lucy A

    2013-01-01

    Volcanoes are increasingly recognized as agents and recorders of global climate variability, although deciphering the linkages between planetary climate and volcanism is still in its infancy. The growth and emergence of subaqueous volcanoes produce passage zones, which are stratigraphic surfaces marking major transitions in depositional environments. In glaciovolcanic settings, they record the elevations of syn-eruptive englacial lakes. Thus, they allow for forensic recovery of minimum ice thicknesses. Here we present the first description of a passage zone preserved entirely within pyroclastic deposits, marking the growth of a tephra cone above the englacial lake level. Our discovery requires extension of the passage-zone concept to accommodate explosive volcanism and guides future studies of hundreds of glaciovolcanic edifices on Earth and Mars. Our recognition of pyroclastic passage zones increases the potential for recovering transient paleolake levels, improving estimates of paleo-ice thicknesses and providing new constraints on paleoclimate models that consider the extents and timing of planetary glaciations.

  7. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Climate as a problem of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monin, A. S.; Shishkov, Yu A.

    2000-04-01

    The logical fundamentals of the theory of climate are outlined: (1) the climate system OLA (ocean-land-atmosphere) is defined; (2) analogously to the theory of turbulence, the notion of climate is defined as a multicomponent random function in the OLA space-time (or, equivalently, as a statistical ensemble of states the OLA system passes through in a period of several decades); (3) the solar climate, i.e. the distribution of solar radiation at the upper atmosphere boundary, is determined, to be employed as the boundary condition for the OLA system; (4) the 'horizontal' heat and mass transfer processes between the equatorial and polar zones are described; (5) the 'vertical' processes of radiative-convective heat and mass transfer, among them the greenhouse effect of water vapor and small gas admixtures, are discussed; (6) the 'vertical' radiative heat transfer processes in an aerosol-containing atmosphere is considered, including the anti-greenhouse effect of volcanic and smoke aerosols, and the 'nuclear night' and 'nuclear winter' scenarios.

  8. How big is the Ocean Dead Zone off the Coast of California?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. F.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Brewer, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    The term “Ocean Dead Zone”, generally referring to a zone that is devoid of aerobic marine life of value to humans, is now widely used in the press and scientific literature but it appears to be not universally defined. The global assessment and monitoring of ocean dead zones, however, is of high public concern due to the considerable economic value associated with impacted fisheries and with questions over the growth of these zones forced by climate change. We report on the existence of a zone at ~850m depth off Santa Monica, California where dissolved oxygen (DO) levels are 1 μmol/kg; an order of magnitude below any existing definition of an “Ocean Dead Zone”. ROV dives show the region to be visually devoid of all aerobic marine life. But how large is this dead zone, and how may its boundaries be defined? Without an accepted definition we cannot report this nor can we compare it to other dead zones reported elsewhere in the world. “Dead zones” are now assessed solely by DO levels. A multitude of values in different units are used (Fig 1), which are clearly not universally applicable. This seriously hampers an integrated global monitoring and management effort and frustrates the development of valid connections with climate change and assessment of the consequences. Furthermore, input of anthropogenic CO2 can also stress marine life. Recent work supported by classical data suggests that higher pCO2 influences the thermodynamic energy efficiency of oxic respiration (CH2O + O2 -> CO2 + H2O). The ratio pO2/pCO2, called the respiration index (RI), emerges as the critical variable, combining the impacts of warming on DO and rising CO2 levels within a single, well defined quantity. We advocate that future monitoring efforts report pO2 and pCO2 concurrently, thus making it possible to classify, monitor and manage “dead zones” within a standard reference system that may include, as with e.g, hurricanes, differing categories of intensity. Fig.1. A DO

  9. Wonderland climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Lacis, A.; Russell, G.; Sato, M.; Lerner, J.; Rind, D.; Stone, P.

    1997-03-01

    We obtain a highly efficient global climate model by defining a sector version (120° of longitude) of the coarse resolution Goddard Institute for Space Studies model II. The geography of Wonderland is chosen such that the amount of land as a function of latitude is the same as on Earth. We show that the zonal mean climate of the Wonderland model is very similar to that of the parent model II.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1335 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-15 and the COTP Columbia River determines that a security zone is... REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1335 Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo,...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1335 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-15 and the COTP Columbia River determines that a security zone is... REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1335 Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo,...

  12. Future Climate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    C. G. Cambell

    2004-09-03

    approaches could include simulation of climate over the 10,000-year period; however, this modeling extrapolation is well beyond the bounds of current scientific practice and would not provide results with better confidence. A corroborative alternative approach may be found in ''Future Climate Analysis-10,000 Years to 1,000,000 Years After Present'' (Sharpe 2003 [DIRS 161591]). The current revision of this report is prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]).

  13. Defined Syllabuses in Modern Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Ann; Honnor, Sylvia

    1974-01-01

    The advantages of a defined syllabus in second language teaching, especially in relation to public examinations, are discussed. The origin and development of the York defined syllabuses are described, and extracts are given from the introductory document and the French and Russian syllabuses. (RM)

  14. Clarifying and Defining Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Joseph F., Ed.; Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This issue presents articles which, in some way, help to clarify and define library services. It is hoped that this clarification in library service will serve to secure the resources libraries need to serve the people of New York. The following articles are presented: (1) Introduction: "Clarifying and Defining Library Services" (Joseph F.…

  15. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  16. New climatic classification of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Ramchandra; Talchabhadel, Rocky; Aalto, Juha; Baidya, Saraju Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Although it is evident that Nepal has an extremely wide range of climates within a short latitudinal distance, there is a lack of comprehensive research in this field. The climatic zoning in a topographically complex country like Nepal has important implications for the selection of scientific station network design and climate model verification, as well as for studies examining the effects of climate change in terms of shifting climatic boundaries and vegetation in highly sensitive environments. This study presents a new high-resolution climate map of Nepal on the basis of long-term (1981-2010) monthly precipitation data for 240 stations and mean air temperature data for 74 stations, using original and modified Köppen-Geiger climate classification systems. Climatic variables used in Köppen-Geiger system were calculated (i) at each station and (ii) interpolated to 1-km spatial resolution using kriging which accounted for latitude, longitude, and elevation. The original Köppen-Geiger scheme could not identify all five types of climate (including tropical) observed in Nepal. Hence, the original scheme was slightly modified by changing the boundary of coldest month mean air temperature value from 18 °C to 14.5 °C in order to delineate the realistic climatic condition of Nepal. With this modification, all five types of climate (including tropical) were identified. The most common dominant type of climate for Nepal is temperate with dry winter and hot summer (Cwa).

  17. Functional homogeneous zones (fHZs) in viticultural zoning procedure: an Italian case study on Aglianico vine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, A.; Agrillo, A.; Albrizio, R.; Basile, A.; Buonomo, R.; De Mascellis, R.; Gambuti, A.; Giorio, P.; Guida, G.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Minieri, L.; Moio, L.; Siani, T.; Terribile, F.

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to test a new physically oriented approach to viticulture zoning at farm scale that is strongly rooted in hydropedology and aims to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirements and wine production. The physics of our approach are defined by the use of soil-plant-atmosphere simulation models, applying physically based equations to describe the soil hydrological processes and solve soil-plant water status. This study (part of the ZOVISA project) was conducted on a farm devoted to production of high-quality wines (Aglianico DOC), located in southern Italy (Campania region, Mirabella Eclano, AV). The soil spatial distribution was obtained after standard soil survey informed by geophysical survey. Two homogeneous zones (HZs) were identified; in each one a physically based model was applied to solve the soil water balance and estimate the soil functional behaviour (crop water stress index, CWSI) defining the functional homogeneous zones (fHZs). For the second process, experimental plots were established and monitored for investigating soil-plant water status, crop development (biometric and physiological parameters) and daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind). The effects of crop water status on crop response over must and wine quality were then evaluated in the fHZs. This was performed by comparing crop water stress with (i) crop physiological measurement (leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI) measurement), (ii) grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and (iii) wine quality (aromatic response). This experiment proved the usefulness of the physically based approach, also in the case of mapping viticulture microzoning.

  18. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones.

  19. Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    Climate is the average weather in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. ...

  20. Root apex transition zone as oscillatory zone.

    PubMed

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

  1. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  2. Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones

  3. Concepts of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenegger, L.

    2012-04-01

    The HZ around a single star has been calculated by several authors. Two concepts are commonly used throughout the literature for cloud free (see Kasting et al.1993, Underwood et al.2003) and cloudy atmospheres (Selsis et al.2007) which have been derived from the same model originally proposed by Kasting et al.(1993). The main differences among studies of the HZ are the imposed climatic constraints such as a CO2/H2O/N2 atmosphere with varying CO2/H2O/N2 concentrations (e.g., Earth's), or model atmospheres with high H2 concentrations (Gaidos&Pierrehumbert 2010) or limited water supply (Abe et al.2011). We discuss the implication of these constraints on the Habitable Zone and its resulting limits as well as detectable spectral features in a planet's rocky atmosphere that could be used to test our concept of the Habitable Zone.

  4. The Problem of Defining Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubar, David

    1981-01-01

    The major philosophical issues surrounding the concept of intelligence are reviewed with respect to the problems surrounding the process of defining and developing artificial intelligence (AI) in computers. Various current definitions and problems with these definitions are presented. (MP)

  5. Predicting Pleistocene climate from vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehle, C.

    2006-10-01

    Climates at the Last Glacial Maximum have been inferred from fossil pollen assemblages, but these inferred climates are colder than those produced by climate simulations. Biogeographic evidence also argues against these inferred cold climates. The recolonization of glaciated zones in eastern North America following the last ice age produced distinct biogeographic patterns. It has been assumed that a wide zone south of the ice was tundra or boreal parkland (Boreal-Parkland Zone or BPZ), which would have been recolonized from southern refugia as the ice melted, but the patterns in this zone differ from those in the glaciated zone, which creates a major biogeographic anomaly. In the glacial zone, there are few endemics but in the BPZ there are many across multiple taxa. In the glacial zone, there are the expected gradients of genetic diversity with distance from the ice-free zone, but no evidence of this is found in the BPZ. Many races and related species exist in the BPZ which would have merged or hybridized if confined to the same refugia. Evidence for distinct southern refugia for most temperate species is lacking. Extinctions of temperate flora were rare. The interpretation of spruce as a boreal climate indicator may be mistaken over much of the region if the spruce was actually an extinct temperate species. All of these anomalies call into question the concept that climates in the zone south of the ice were very cold or that temperate species had to migrate far to the south. Similar anomalies exist in Europe and on tropical mountains. An alternate hypothesis is that low CO2 levels gave an advantage to pine and spruce, which are the dominant trees in the BPZ, and to herbaceous species over trees, which also fits the observed pattern. Most temperate species could have survived across their current ranges at lower abundance by retreating to moist microsites. These would be microrefugia not easily detected by pollen records, especially if most species became rare

  6. Organizational climate and culture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research.

  7. Using of Spatial multi criteria evaluation for landslide zoning Case study Malach Aram basin -north of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeimi-Nezamabad, A.; Hoseini Sarrafi, N.; Sadat Mousavi, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Land slide is one of the major disasters which usually happens in specific area and causes different kinds of financial damage and loss of lives. Different places in IRAN are susceptible for occurring landslide. The study area, Malach Aram basin in Ramian County which is located in north part of Iran, is extended about 3500 hectare. Ever different methods are using for zoning and evaluation this natural disaster. Spatial multi criteria evaluation (SMCE) is a structure that implements statistical analysis of multi criteria evaluation on the Georefrence data. This model can be implemented on the GIS software, Ilwis and ArcGIS are major software for running this study. With defining criterion and sub criteria that are effective in occurring landslide and also specifying in groups and inter groups weight of values on the data layers and defining objectives in this classification and with using different effective criteria that are related to this issue, landslide zoning in the case study area has been prepared. The most important criteria that have been used for running this model are Topography, Slope, Aspect, Hillshade,landuse, climate (mouthy, seasonal and annual precipitation during 15 years ago from 2001 until 2007), state of earth dynamic ( earthquake density, distance of faults and others factors), state of existing flora ( density and percentage flora, kind of specious) geomorphology (geomorphology unit , landforms and fancies geomorphologic). After running the this model, output of this model is classification and part of area defined with height potential of landslide occurring. Output of classification landslide zoning with survey GPS pointes that defined real position landslide used in artificial neural network with supervised learning (Multi-Layer Perceptions) . Recently have defined that 5 area of total of suitable area with height potential landslide occurring are important areas with highly positional landslide occurring. Key words: Land slide- Natural

  8. Deficiencies in the simulation of the geographic distribution of climate types by global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianliang; Yan, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    The performances of General Circulation Models (GCMs) when checked with conventional methods (i.e. correlation, bias, root-mean-square error) can only be evaluated for each variable individually. The geographic distribution of climate type in GCM simulations, which reflects the spatial attributes of models and is related closely to the terrestrial biosphere, has not yet been evaluated. Thus, whether the geographic distribution of climate types was well simulated by GCMs was evaluated in this study for nine GCMs. The results showed that large areas of climate zones classified by the GCMs were allocated incorrectly when compared to the basic climate zones established by observed data. The percentages of wrong areas covered approximately 30-50 % of the total land area for most models. In addition, the temporal shift in the distribution of climate zones according to the GCMs was found to be inaccurate. Not only were the locations of shifts poorly simulated, but also the areas of shift in climate zones. Overall, the geographic distribution of climate types was not simulated well by the GCMs, nor was the temporal shift in the distribution of climate zones. Thus, a new method on how to evaluate the simulated distribution of climate types for GCMs was provided in this study.

  9. Fire regime zonation under current and future climate over eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Yan; Gauthier, Sylvie; Gray, David R; Le Goff, Héloïse; Lefort, Patrick; Morissette, Jacques

    2013-06-01

    Fire is a major disturbance in Canadian forests. Along with fuel and ignition characteristics, climatic conditions are seen as one of the main drivers of fire regimes. Projected changes in climate are expected to significantly influence fire regimes in Canada. As fire regime greatly shapes large-scale patterns in biodiversity, carbon, and vegetation, as well as forest and fire management strategies, it becomes necessary to define regions where current and future fire regimes are homogeneous. Random Forests (RF) modeling was used to relate fire regime attributes prevailing between 1961 and 1990 in eastern Canada with climatic/fire-weather and environmental variables. Using climatic normals outputs from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), we delineated current (1961-1990) and future (2011-2040, 2040-2070, 2071 2100) homogeneous fire regime (HFR) zones. Heterogeneous response of fire regime to climate changes is projected for eastern Canada with some areas (e.g., western Quebec) experiencing very small alterations while others (e.g., southeastern Ontario) are facing great shifts. Overall, models predicted a 2.2- and 2.4-fold increase in the number of fires and the annual area burned respectively mostly as a result of an increase in extreme fire-weather normals and mean drought code. As extreme fire danger would occur later in the fire season on average, the fire season would shift slightly later (5-20 days) in the summer for much of the study area while remaining relatively stable elsewhere. Although fire regime values would change significantly over time, most zone boundaries would remain relatively stable. The information resulting from HFR zonations is clearly of interest for forest and fire management agencies as it reveals zones with peculiar fire regimes that would have been hidden otherwise using predefined administrative or ecological stratifications.

  10. [Characteristics of agricultural climate resources in three provinces of northeast China under global climate change].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-juan; Yang, Xiao-guang; Wang, Wen-feng; Li, Ke-nan; Zhang, Xiao-yu

    2009-09-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 weather data from 72 meteorological stations in three provinces of Northeast China, the change characteristics of agricultural climatic factors including yearly and temperature-defined growing season's mean air temperature, > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature, precipitation, reference evapotranspiration, and sunshine hours were analyzed. In 1961-2007, the yearly mean air temperature in the three provinces had an increasing trend, with a rate of 0.38 degrees C x 10 a(-1). The > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature in temperature-defined growing season also had an increasing trend, and the border of > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature belt moved northward and eastward. The area of > or =3200 degrees C x d accumulated temperature increased by 2.2 x 10(4) km2. The belt of 2800-3200 degrees C x d moved northward about 0.85 degrees and eastward about 0.67 degrees, while that of 2400-2800 degrees C x d moved northward about 1.1 degrees. The sunshine hours decreased significantly, especially in the east part of Songnen Plain, central and west plains of Jilin Province, and west part of Liaohe River Plain. The area with sunshine hours > 2800 h decreased from 13.6 x 10(4) km2 to 4. 1 x 10(4) km2, and the zone with sunshine hours 2600-2800 h moved westward about 1.5 degrees. The average sunshine hour in temperature-defined growing season was 1174 h. Comparing with that in 1961-1980, the region with more sunshine hours in temperature-defined growing season in 1981-2007 narrowed significantly, and the zone with sunshine hours 1200-1400 h moved westward about 0.9 degrees. In 1961-2007, both the yearly and the temperature-defined growing season's precipitation decreased, and the yearly reference evapotranspiration increased in Heilongjiang Province and in the eastern mountain areas of Jilin Province but decreased in the central and west plains of Jilin Province and in Liaoning Province. Comparing with that in 1961-1980, the zone of

  11. 33 CFR 165.836 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Mobile, Alabama, Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard... navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Mobile, Alabama, as described in 33 CFR 3.40-10. (c) Security zone. A 500-yard security zone is established around each...

  12. 33 CFR 165.836 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Mobile, Alabama, Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard... navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Mobile, Alabama, as described in 33 CFR 3.40-10. (c) Security zone. A 500-yard security zone is established around each...

  13. 33 CFR 165.836 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Mobile, Alabama, Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard... navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Mobile, Alabama, as described in 33 CFR 3.40-10. (c) Security zone. A 500-yard security zone is established around each...

  14. 33 CFR 165.836 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Mobile, Alabama, Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard... navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Mobile, Alabama, as described in 33 CFR 3.40-10. (c) Security zone. A 500-yard security zone is established around each...

  15. 33 CFR 165.836 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Mobile, Alabama, Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied by one or more Coast Guard... navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Mobile, Alabama, as described in 33 CFR 3.40-10. (c) Security zone. A 500-yard security zone is established around each...

  16. Defining the states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tassi, P; Muzet, A

    2001-03-01

    Consciousness remains an elusive concept due to the difficulty to define what has been regarded for many years as a subjective experience, therefore irrelevant for scientific study. Recent development in this field of research has allowed to provide some new insight to a possible way to define consciousness. Going through the extensive literature in this domain, several perspectives are proposed to define this concept. (1) Consciousness and Attention may not reflect the same process. (2) Consciousness during wake and sleep may not involve the same mechanisms. (3) Besides physiological states of consciousness, human beings can experience modified states of consciousness either by self-training (transcendental meditation, hypnosis, etc.) or by drug intake (hallucinogens, anaesthetics, etc.). Altogether, we address the question of a more precise terminology, given the theoretical weight words can convey. To this respect, we propose different definitions for concepts like consciousness, vigilance, arousal and alertness as candidates to separate functional entities.

  17. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  18. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  19. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Boris RM; Frijns, Arjan JH; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached. PMID:27583296

  20. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Boris RM; Frijns, Arjan JH; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached.

  1. Observed climate change hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Palazzi, E.; Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.

    2015-05-01

    We quantify climate change hotspots from observations, taking into account the differences in precipitation and temperature statistics (mean, variability, and extremes) between 1981-2010 and 1951-1980. Areas in the Amazon, the Sahel, tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and central eastern Asia emerge as primary observed hotspots. The main contributing factors are the global increase in mean temperatures, the intensification of extreme hot-season occurrence in low-latitude regions and the decrease of precipitation over central Africa. Temperature and precipitation variability have been substantially stable over the past decades, with only a few areas showing significant changes against the background climate variability. The regions identified from the observations are remarkably similar to those defined from projections of global climate models under a "business-as-usual" scenario, indicating that climate change hotspots are robust and persistent over time. These results provide a useful background to develop global policy decisions on adaptation and mitigation priorities over near-time horizons.

  2. Cluster analysis of Southeastern U.S. climate stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stooksbury, D. E.; Michaels, P. J.

    1991-09-01

    A two-step cluster analysis of 449 Southeastern climate stations is used to objectively determine general climate clusters (groups of climate stations) for eight southeastern states. The purpose is objectively to define regions of climatic homogeneity that should perform more robustly in subsequent climatic impact models. This type of analysis has been successfully used in many related climate research problems including the determination of corn/climate districts in Iowa (Ortiz-Valdez, 1985) and the classification of synoptic climate types (Davis, 1988). These general climate clusters may be more appropriate for climate research than the standard climate divisions (CD) groupings of climate stations, which are modifications of the agro-economic United States Department of Agriculture crop reporting districts. Unlike the CD's, these objectively determined climate clusters are not restricted by state borders and thus have reduced multicollinearity which makes them more appropriate for the study of the impact of climate and climatic change.

  3. The "Basics" Relative to School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallich, Lynn R.

    School climate is defined as the norms, beliefs, and attitudes reflected in institutional patterns and practices that enhance or impede student achievement. Research findings support the notion that school learning climate is an important factor in determining academic outcomes. School climate is largely dependent on the leadership of the…

  4. 26 CFR 1.1397E-1 - Qualified zone academy bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1397E-1 Qualified zone... empowerment zone or enterprise community (as defined in section 1393), or there is a reasonable expectation... located in an empowerment zone or enterprise community for the entire term of the issue if the...

  5. Defining "Folklore" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falke, Anne

    Folklore, a body of traditional beliefs of a people conveyed orally or by means of custom, is very much alive, involves all people, and is not the study of popular culture. In studying folklore, the principal tasks of the folklorist have been defined as determining definition, classification, source (the folk), origin (who composed folklore),…

  6. Defining and Measuring Psychomotor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autio, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    Psychomotor performance is fundamental to human existence. It is important in many real world activities and nowadays psychomotor tests are used in several fields of industry, army, and medical sciences in employee selection. This article tries to define psychomotor activity by introducing some psychomotor theories. Furthermore the…

  7. Water Balance Defines a Threshold in Soil Chemistry at a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slessarev, E.; Bingham, N.; Lin, Y.; Schimel, J.; Chadwick, O.

    2015-12-01

    Carefully constrained studies in model landscapes demonstrate the existence of pedogenic thresholds, where small changes in external forcing lead to large changes in soil properties. One important threshold defines the relationship between water balance, the availability of nutrient cations, and soil pH. Across rainfall gradients, the loss of alkali and alkaline earth cations occurs abruptly at a critical water-balance. At this threshold, the removal of exchangeable base cations by leaching outstrips their production from weathering, causing a drop in soil pH. This leaching threshold has never been characterized at a global scale, in part because of the tremendous sampling effort required to overcome the confounding effects of rock chemistry, soil age, and topography outside of carefully constrained environmental gradients. We compile an extensive database of soil pH measurements to show that there is a mean global leaching threshold near an annual water balance of zero. Where evaporative demand exceeds precipitation, soil pH is buffered near values of 8.1, but where precipitation exceeds evaporative demand, soil pH rapidly collapses to values near 5.0. Deviations from the threshold can be explained in terms of climatic variability, soil age, and rock chemistry. Regions with arid climates and acid soil pH correspond to zones of intense, periodic leaching (e.g. strongly monsoonal climates), or to highly weathered continental surfaces that have permanently lost their stock of cations (e.g. Australia). Regions with humid climates and neutral soil pH correspond to young landscapes, or to soils derived from base-rich rock (e.g. the Pacific Rim volcanic belt). These results demonstrate that the leaching threshold is a dominant feature of the Earth's surface, with the potential to affect both natural and human-dominated ecosystems. For instance: the leaching threshold might impose a step-function on the terrestrial response to CO2 fertilization, the capacity of soils to

  8. Noise-induced generation of saw-tooth type transitions between climate attractors and stochastic excitability of paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Dmitri V.; Bashkirtseva, Irina A.; Ryashko, Lev B.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by important paleoclimate applications we study a three dimensional model of the Quaternary climatic variations in the presence of stochastic forcing. It is shown that the deterministic system exhibits a limit cycle and two stable system equilibria. We demonstrate that the closer paleoclimate system to its bifurcation points (lying either in its monostable or bistable zone) the smaller noise generates small or large amplitude stochastic oscillations, respectively. In the bistable zone with two stable equilibria, noise induces a complex multimodal stochastic regime with intermittency of small and large amplitude stochastic fluctuations. In the monostable zone, the small amplitude stochastic oscillations localized in the vicinity of unstable equilibrium appear along with the large amplitude oscillations near the stable limit cycle. For the analysis of these noise-induced effects, we develop the stochastic sensitivity technique and use the Mahalanobis metric in the three-dimensional case. To approximate the distribution of random trajectories in Poincare sections, we use a method of confidence ellipses. A spatial configuration of these ellipses is defined by the stochastic sensitivity and noise intensity. The glaciation/deglaciation transitions going between two polar Earth's states with the warm and cold climate become easier and quicker with increasing the noise intensity. Our stochastic analysis demonstrates a near 100 ky saw-tooth type climate self fluctuations known from paleoclimate records. In addition, the enhancement of noise intensity blurs the sharp climate cycles and reduces the glaciation-deglaciation periods of the Earth's paleoclimate.

  9. The Climate Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, William

    1999-10-01

    El Niño, La Niña, global warming--terms that crop up frequently in current media coverage of anomalous weather conditions: a spring thaw in January in New York City...a snowstorm in Bakersfield, California...winterlike temperatures in Miami. Such phenomena as these and reports of devastating droughts, floods, and storms around the world bring home the fact of how deeply climate affects our daily lives--and of our inability to control the consequences of climatic events. Extraordinarily timely, The Climate Revealed explores the human-climate "relationship" in all its fascinating complexity. Packed with 250 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume travels the globe to provide a detailed portrait of individual climate zones from the polar icecaps to the fiercest deserts. The expert and highly accessible text uncovers the essential elements--earth, air, fire and water--that make up the world's various climates. William Burroughs reveals the dramatic discoveries and techniques of historians and archaeologists in their search to understand climates of the past. In the book's conclusion he considers the future and presents every facet of the current environmental debate. With its detailed coverage of the past, present, and future, this marvelous work is essential reading for all those who want to understand one of the most critical facets of life, climate. William Burroughs is a well known and successful science author who has written four books on the weather including Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997), Weather Cycles: Real or Imaginary (1992), and Watching the World's Weather (1991), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  10. Preparing for climate change.

    PubMed

    Holdgate, M

    1989-01-01

    There is a distinct probability that humankind is changing the climate and at the same time raising the sea level of the world. The most plausible projections we have now suggest a rise in mean world temperature of between 1 degree Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius by 2030--just 40 years hence. This is a bigger change in a smaller period than we know of in the experience of the earth's ecosystems and human societies. It implies that by 2030 the earth will be warmer than at any time in the past 120,000 years. In the same period, we are likely to see a rise of 15-30 centimeters in sea level, partly due to the melting of mountain glaciers and partly to the expansion of the warmer seas. This may not seem much--but it comes on top of the 12-centimeter rise in the past century and we should recall that over 1/2 the world's population lives in zones on or near coasts. A quarter meter rise in sea level could have drastic consequences for countries like the Maldives or the Netherlands, where much of the land lies below the 2-meter contour. The cause of climate change is known as the 'greenhouse effect'. Greenhouse glass has the property that it is transparent to radiation coming in from the sun, but holds back radiation to space from the warmed surfaces inside the greenhouse. Certain gases affect the atmosphere in the same way. There are 5 'greenhouse gases' and we have been roofing ourselves with them all: carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have increased 25% above preindustrial levels and are likely to double within a century, due to tropical forest clearance and especially to the burning of increasing quantities of coal and other fossil fuels; methane concentrations are now twice their preindustrial levels as a result of releases from agriculture; nitrous oxide has increased due to land clearance for agriculture, use of fertilizers, and fossil fuel combustion; ozone levels near the earth's surface have increased due mainly to pollution from motor vehicles; and

  11. Defining the Polar Field Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The polar fields on the Sun are directly related to solar cycle variability. Recently there has been interest in studying an important characteristic of the polar fields: the timing of the polar field reversals. However this characteristic has been poorly defined, mostly due to the limitations of early observations. In the past, the reversals have been calculated by averaging the flux above some latitude (i.e. 55deg or 75deg). Alternatively, the reversal could be defined by the time in which the previous polarity is completely canceled and replaced by the new polarity at 90de, precisely at the pole. We will use a surface flux transport model to illustrate the differences in the timing of the polar field reversal based on each of these definitions and propose standardization in the definition of the polar field reversal. The ability to predict the timing of the polar field reversal using a surface flux transport model will also be discussed.

  12. Linking climate change and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Projected global change includes groundwater systems, which are linked with changes in climate over space and time. Consequently, global change affects key aspects of subsurface hydrology (including soil water, deeper vadose zone water, and unconfined and confined aquifer waters), surface-groundwat...

  13. Zone Refining by Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    System developed for studying use of laser beam for zone-refining semiconductors and metals. Specimen scanned with focused CO2 laser beam in such way that thin zone of molten material moves along specimen sweeps impurities with it. Zone-melting system comprises microcomputer, laser, electromechanical and optical components for beam control, vacuum chamber that holds specimen, and sensor for determining specimen temperature.

  14. How do people define moderation?

    PubMed

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. PMID:26964691

  15. How do people define moderation?

    PubMed

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight.

  16. Climate Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monteleoni, Claire; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Alexander, Francis J.; Niculescu-Mizil, Alexandru; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Tippett, Michael; Banerjee, Arindam; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Tedesco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of present and potential future climate change will be one of the most important scientific and societal challenges in the 21st century. Given observed changes in temperature, sea ice, and sea level, improving our understanding of the climate system is an international priority. This system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. But with an ever-growing supply of climate data from satellites and environmental sensors, the magnitude of data and climate model output is beginning to overwhelm the relatively simple tools currently used to analyze them. A computational approach will therefore be indispensable for these analysis challenges. This chapter introduces the fledgling research discipline climate informatics: collaborations between climate scientists and machine learning researchers in order to bridge this gap between data and understanding. We hope that the study of climate informatics will accelerate discovery in answering pressing questions in climate science.

  17. Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.

    2007-12-01

    Discussion of climate sensitivity requires careful definition of forcings, feedbacks and response times, indeed, foggy definitions have produced flawed assessments of climate sensitivity. The best information available on climate sensitivity comes from insightful interpretation of the Earth's history aided by quantitative information from climate models and understanding of climate processes. Climate sensitivity is a strong function of time scale, in part because of the nature of climate feedbacks. Unfortunately for humanity, the preponderance of feedbacks on the century time scale appears to be positive. The chief implication is the need for a sharp reversal in the trend of human-made climate forcing, if we are to avoid creating a planet that is dramatically different than the one on which civilization developed.

  18. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR part 105, including those designated as “Public Access Facilities” as defined in 33 CFR... may transit through any portion of the zone that extends into the navigable channel for the sole purpose of direct and expeditious transit so long as they remain within the navigable channel,...

  19. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR part 105, including those designated as “Public Access Facilities” as defined in 33 CFR... may transit through any portion of the zone that extends into the navigable channel for the sole purpose of direct and expeditious transit so long as they remain within the navigable channel,...

  20. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR part 105, including those designated as “Public Access Facilities” as defined in 33 CFR... may transit through any portion of the zone that extends into the navigable channel for the sole purpose of direct and expeditious transit so long as they remain within the navigable channel,...

  1. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR part 105, including those designated as “Public Access Facilities” as defined in 33 CFR... permission to enter within a particular zone for official business other than authorized passenger, cargo...)(6) of this section for official business other than authorized passenger, cargo, provision,...

  2. Integrated Research Approaches to Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandini Menon, N.; Singh, Tanya; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal zones around the world are extremely vulnerable today because of the unprecedented pressures of industrial and urban development as well as climate change related devastations, such as the growing intensities of cyclonic storms, the rise in sea surface temperature, sea surges, and sea level rise. In India, where about 35% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the coastline, fisheries are a major driver and safety net for economic development and coastal livelihoods. Coastal ecosystems are closely linked with socio-economic systems, which require carefully planned coastal zone management (CZM) actions.

  3. The Effect of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) Ice Cloud Condensation on the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincowski, Andrew; Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler D.; Crisp, David

    2016-10-01

    The currently accepted outer limit of the habitable zone (OHZ) is defined by the "maximum greenhouse" limit, where Rayleigh scattering from additional CO2 gas overwhelms greenhouse warming. However, this long-standing definition neglects the radiative effects of CO2 clouds (Kopparapu, 2013); this omission was justified based on studies using the two-stream approximation, which found CO2 clouds to be highly likely to produce a net warming. However, recent comparisons of the radiative effect of CO2 clouds using both a two-stream and multi-stream radiative transfer model (Kitzmann et al, 2013; Kitzmann, 2016) found that the warming effect was reduced when the more sophisticated multi-stream models were used. In many cases CO2 clouds caused a cooling effect, meaning that their impact on climate could not be neglected when calculating the outer edge of the habitable zone. To better understand the impact of CO2 ice clouds on the OHZ, we have integrated CO2 cloud condensation into a versatile 1-D climate model for terrestrial planets (Robinson et al, 2012) that uses the validated multi-stream SMART radiative transfer code (Meadows & Crisp, 1996; Crisp, 1997) with a simple microphysical model. We present preliminary results on the habitable zone with self-consistent CO2 clouds for a range of atmospheric masses, compositions and host star spectra, and the subsequent effect on surface temperature. In particular, we evaluate the habitable zone for TRAPPIST-1d (Gillon et al, 2016) with a variety of atmospheric compositions and masses. We present reflectance and transit spectra of these cold terrestrial planets. We identify any consequences for the OHZ in general and TRAPPIST-1d in particular. This more comprehensive treatment of the OHZ could impact our understanding of the distribution of habitable planets in the universe, and provide better constraints for statistical target selection techniques, such as the habitability index (Barnes et al, 2015), for missions like JWST

  4. Climate data management system

    SciTech Connect

    Drach, R

    1999-07-13

    The Climate Data Management System is an object-oriented data management system, specialized for organizing multidimensional, gridded data used in climate analysis and simulation. The building blocks of CDMS are variables, container classes, structural classes, and links. All gridded data stored in CDMS is associated with variables. The container objects group variables and structural objects. Variables are defined in terms of structural objects. Most CDMS objects can have attributes, which are scalar or one-dimensional metadata items. Attributes which are stored in the database, that is are persistent, are called external attributes. Some attributes are internal; they are associated with an object but do not appear explicitly in the database.

  5. A Way Forward: Cooperative Solutions to Our Climate Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, L. J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Solving the global climate crisis is a multidisciplinary challenge. The world is seeking solutions to climate change. The climate research and education community must move beyond the realm of debating the science - we MUST provide the solutions. The research community understands the science and many of the solutions very well. This project will address the specifics of solutions involving social, political and science disciplines. The content is targeted to multidisciplinary education at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels in universities and colleges. Humanity has already changed the climate and current greenhouse gas emission (GHG) projections indicate our world will warm 2-6° C within a young person's lifetime. We must coordinate societal mitigation and adaptation policies, programs and technology transformations. There is now a dramatic need for many, many highly trained multidisciplinary climate change solutions professionals that understand the complexities of the challenges and can work through the social, political and science tribulations needed to sustain communities around the world. This proposed education project: Provides an introduction to the social, political, technical, health and well-being challenges of climate change; Defines and describes the unprecedented changes to personal and community lifestyle, and consumption of energy and other resources; Examines ways and means for rapid transition of energy systems from fossil fuels to clean renewable technologies. Evaluates redevelopment of our infrastructure to withstand increasing weather extremes; Inventories possible abandonment and/or protection of infrastructure that cannot be redeveloped or reworked, particularly with respect to coastal zones where substantial populations currently live. We propose an online living textbook project. Chapter contributions will be invited from outstanding solutions research professionals from around the world. The online presence is the best means

  6. Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate

  7. English Higher Education and Its Vocational Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Distinctions between academic, vocational and professional education inform but do not define the divisions of English higher education. Nevertheless, there are zones where courses, qualifications and institutions are specifically oriented to the world of work. These include most short-cycle higher education, large parts of undergraduate and…

  8. Presynaptic active zones in invertebrates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Frauke; Waites, Clarissa L; Garner, Craig C

    2015-08-01

    The regulated release of neurotransmitter occurs via the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane called active zones (AZs). These regions are defined by a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at AZs (CAZ), which functions to direct SVs toward docking and fusion sites and supports their maturation into the readily releasable pool. In addition, CAZ proteins localize voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels at SV release sites, bringing the fusion machinery in close proximity to the calcium source. Proteins of the CAZ therefore ensure that vesicle fusion is temporally and spatially organized, allowing for the precise and reliable release of neurotransmitter. Importantly, AZs are highly dynamic structures, supporting presynaptic remodeling, changes in neurotransmitter release efficacy, and thus presynaptic forms of plasticity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the study of active zones, highlighting how the CAZ molecularly defines sites of neurotransmitter release, endocytic zones, and the integrity of synapses.

  9. Presynaptic active zones in invertebrates and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Frauke; Waites, Clarissa L; Garner, Craig C

    2015-01-01

    The regulated release of neurotransmitter occurs via the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane called active zones (AZs). These regions are defined by a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at AZs (CAZ), which functions to direct SVs toward docking and fusion sites and supports their maturation into the readily releasable pool. In addition, CAZ proteins localize voltage-gated Ca2+ channels at SV release sites, bringing the fusion machinery in close proximity to the calcium source. Proteins of the CAZ therefore ensure that vesicle fusion is temporally and spatially organized, allowing for the precise and reliable release of neurotransmitter. Importantly, AZs are highly dynamic structures, supporting presynaptic remodeling, changes in neurotransmitter release efficacy, and thus presynaptic forms of plasticity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the study of active zones, highlighting how the CAZ molecularly defines sites of neurotransmitter release, endocytic zones, and the integrity of synapses. PMID:26160654

  10. Evaluating the laws defining blindness.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, E

    1992-06-01

    The law defining legal blindness was written in 1935, and has not been updated since. A historical view of the background in the development of this law and a comparison to laws used in other countries helps to point out some problems with the current definition. As the population gets older, the prevalence of visual impairment will be increasing. To administer programs, distribute funding, and ensure adequate care, the problems inherent in the definition of legal blindness must be addressed, and the law must be revised. PMID:1634739

  11. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    SciTech Connect

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  12. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical studies have resulted in remarkable advances in characterization of critical zone. The geophysics applications uncover the relationships between structure and function in subsurface as they seek to define subsurface structural units with individual properties of retention and trans...

  13. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  14. Defining life: the virus viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  15. Evidence for a late Holocene warm and humid climate period and environmental characteristics in the arid zones of northwest China during 2.2 ˜ 1.8 kyr B.P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yang; Braeuning, Achim; Yafeng, Shi; Fahu, Chen

    2004-01-01

    Natural archives like ice cores, tree rings, river and lake sediments, lake terraces, and paleosols and also historical documents witness aspects of climate change in northwestern China during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties (206 B.C.-220 A.D.). Reconstructions of decadal averages of annual mean temperature and precipitation fluctuations were derived from variations of δ18O and net accumulation rates in the Guliya ice core. They revealed a period of higher temperatures and higher precipitation than today, which affected vast areas of northwestern China during the period of interest until the fifth century A.D. These conditions resulted in a marked increase in the discharge of big endorheic river systems, such as the Tarim, the Keriya and the Manas rivers. As a consequence, water levels in appendant terminal lakes rose, e.g., at Lop Nor, Manas Lake, and Baijian Hu. Lake surface areas expanded, and lake desalting occurred also at lakes in intermontane basins, such as Balikun Hu and Qinghai Lake. The warm and moist conditions during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties might have been responsible for the large-scale agricultural production and the local socioeconomic boom that is documented by the occurrence of the famous ruin groups of Loulan, Niya, and Keriya. The following desiccation phase led to a deterioration of water resources, and most oases tended to dry out and were finally abandoned. The appearance, development, flourishing, and final abandonment of each great ruin group are closely associated with regional climate change at that time.

  16. Testing two potential fates for coastal marshes: Greenhouse gas emissions from native, Phragmites australis-invaded, and permanently inundated zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Martin, R.; Tang, J.; Morkeski, K.; China, I.; Brannon, E.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Global changes such as biological invasions and sea level rise can significantly affect GHG emissions from coastal wetlands by changing plant community composition and/or environmental conditions. To first characterize GHG fluxes across major plant-defined marsh zones, CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes were compared between S. patens- dominated high marsh and S. alterniflora low marsh during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in 3 New England marshes. To test how these fluxes may change in response to biological invasions and sea level rise, GHG fluxes were then compared between native, P.australis- invaded, and permanently inundated marsh zones at these sites in 2013 and 2014. GHG emissions were analyzed simultaneously from marsh ecosystems using infrared-based spectrometers connected to static flux chambers. Daytime CO2 uptake rates (ranging on average between -2 and -21 μmol CO2 m-2s-1) were generally greater in S. alterniflora low marsh zones than in S. patens high marsh among all 3 sites. Methane fluxes were generally low in both native marsh zones (< 50 μmol CH4 m-2 h-1) and N2O emissions were rare. However, CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions from P. australis zones were typically more than an order of magnitude greater than those of either native marsh zone. In contrast, permanently inundated marsh soils had similar GHG emissions to native marsh zones. . Though large, the P. australis CH4 emissions are estimated to offset less than 5% of observed CO2 uptake rates based on a global warming potential of 25 (100 years). These results suggest that two alternative fates for coastal marshes in the future- conversion to P. australis marshes or to standing water with sea level rise- will substantially affect CO2 and CH4 emissions. Net impacts on climatic forcing of these ecosystems will depend on how long term C sequestration is affected as these emissions shift.

  17. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  18. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  19. Defining groundwater age: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, T.; Purtschert, R.; Phillips, F.M.; Plummer, L.N.; Sanford, W.E.; Suckow, A.

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates applications of selected chemical and isotopic substances that can be used to recognize and interpret age information pertaining to ‘old’ groundwater (defined as water that was recharged on a timescale from approximately 1000 to more than 1 000 000 a). However, as discussed below, only estimates of the ‘age’ of water extracted from wells can be inferred. These groundwater age estimates are interpreted from measured concentrations of chemical and isotopic substances in the groundwater. Even then, there are many complicating factors, as discussed in this book. In spite of these limitations, much can be learned about the physics of groundwater flow and about the temporal aspects of groundwater systems from age interpretations of measured concentrations of environmental tracers in groundwater systems. This chapter puts the concept of ‘age’ into context, including its meaning and interpretation, and attempts to provide a unifying usage for the rest of the book.

  20. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  1. Effects of climate and socio-economic changes on water availability, use and management at the regional scale - a case study in the dry inner-alpine zone of Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingartner, Rolf; Reynard, Emmanuel; Graefe, Olivier; Liniger, Hanspeter; Rist, Stephan; Schaedler, Bruno; Schneider, Flurina

    2014-05-01

    The research program NRP 61 "Sustainable Water Management" of the Swiss National Science Foundation had set the goal to provide a basis for sustainable water management in Switzerland. As part of this research program the effects of climate and socio-economic changes on water availability, water use and water management were investigated in the Crans-Montana-Sierre region, situated in the dry inner-alpine Valais (project MontanAqua). The project followed an inter- and trans-disciplinary approach; stakeholders were involved from the very beginning. We assessed the current water situation with quantitative and qualitative methods: A dense hydro-meteorological network was built-up, tracer experiments were conducted and communal water uses as well as the current water management system were analyzed. These investigations paved the way to develop models to simulate possible changes in the near and far future. For this purpose, we applied existing regional climate change scenarios and developed socio-economic scenarios together with the stakeholders. The findings of MontanAqua can be summarized into five messages, each with a short recommendation: 1 - The socio-economic changes have a greater impact on the water situation in 2050 than climate change: A territorial development that limits water needs is recommended. This requires important changes of current water- and land-management practices. 2 - The water quantities available now and in 2050 are generally sufficient. However, shortages are possible in some areas and seasonally: We recommend establishing a regional water management which goes beyond the development of technical infrastructure such as storage facilities or connections between water supply networks. This measure should be accompanied by a clarification and negotiation of water rights at the regional level. 3 - Water issues are primarily regional management problems: We advocate for better cooperation between the eleven municipalities of the region and

  2. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  3. 33 CFR 165.1412 - Security Zone; escorted U.S. Navy submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.70-10, and that (2) Is being escorted by... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; escorted U.S. Navy submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1412 Section 165.1412 Navigation and...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1412 - Security Zone; escorted U.S. Navy submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.70-10, and that (2) Is being escorted by... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; escorted U.S. Navy submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1412 Section 165.1412 Navigation and...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1412 - Security Zone; escorted U.S. Navy submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.70-10, and that (2) Is being escorted by... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; escorted U.S. Navy submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1412 Section 165.1412 Navigation and...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1412 - Security Zone; escorted U.S. Navy submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.70-10, and that (2) Is being escorted by... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; escorted U.S. Navy submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1412 Section 165.1412 Navigation and...

  7. A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Price, Jonathan; Jacobi, James; Vorsino, Adam; Burgett, Jeff; Brinck, Kevin W.; Amidon, Fred; Miller, Steve; `Ohukani`ohi`a Gon, Sam; Koob, Gregory; Paxton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    In Hawaiʽi and elsewhere, research efforts have focused on two main approaches to determine the potential impacts of climate change on individual species: estimating species vulnerabilities and projecting responses of species to expected changes. We integrated these approaches by defining vulnerability as the inability of species to exhibit any of the responses necessary for persistence under climate change (i.e., tolerate projected changes, endure in microrefugia, or migrate to new climate-compatible areas, but excluding evolutionary adaptation). To operationalize this response-based definition of species vulnerability within a landscape-based analysis, we used current and future climate envelopes for each species to define zones across the landscape: the toleration zone; the microrefugia zone; and the migration zone. Using these response zones we calculated a diverse set of factors related to habitat area, quality, and distribution for each species, including the amount of habitat protection and fragmentation and areas projected to be lost to sea-level rise. We then calculated the probabilities of each species exhibiting these responses using a Bayesian network model and determined the overall climate change vulnerability of each species by using a vulnerability index. As a first iteration of a response-based species vulnerability assessment (VA), our landscape-based analysis effectively integrates species-distribution models into a Bayesian network-based VA that can be updated with improved models and data for more refined analyses in the future. Our results show that the species most vulnerable to climate change also tend to be species of conservation concern due to non-climatic threats (e.g., competition and predation from invasive species, land-use change). Also, many of Hawaiʽi’s taxa that are most vulnerable to climate change share characteristics with species that in the past were found to be at risk of extinction due to non-climatic threats (e

  8. Satellite-based climate information within the WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obregón, A.; Nitsche, H.; Körber, M.; Kreis, A.; Bissolli, P.; Friedrich, K.; Rösner, S.

    2014-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) established Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) around the world to create science-based climate information on a regional scale within the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The paper introduces the satellite component of the WMO Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring (RCC-CM) for Europe and the Middle East. The RCC-CM product portfolio is based on essential climate variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), spanning the atmospheric (radiation, clouds, water vapour) and terrestrial domains (snow cover, soil moisture). In the first part, the input data sets are briefly described, which are provided by the EUMETSAT (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Satellite Application Facilities (SAF), in particular CM SAF, and by the ESA (European Space Agency) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). In the second part, the derived RCC-CM products are presented, which are divided into two groups: (i) operational monitoring products (e.g. monthly means and anomalies) based on near-real-time environmental data records (EDRs) and (ii) climate information records (e.g. climatologies, time series, trend maps) based on long-term thematic climate data records (TCDRs) with adequate stability, accuracy and homogeneity. The products are provided as maps, statistical plots and gridded data, which are made available through the RCC-CM website (www.dwd.de/rcc-cm).

  9. Climate change impacts on the design of stormwater drainage infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Macário, Eduarda; Gaspar, Sónia; Fernandes, Luís; Pinto, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    In Portugal, as in many other countries of the world, the design of stormwater drainage infrastructure relies on the implicit assumption that the intense precipitation distribution is statistically stationary and based on the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. However, observed changes in recent past climate and projections for future climate suggest differences in precipitation regime in Portugal, in particular, in what respects to the frequency and intensity of extreme events, thus leading to the need to evaluate the impact of potential climate change on IDF curves. The objective of this study is to assess the potential consequences of climate change in the design of drainage systems for rainwater and hence the need to review rules and legislation on this design, based on a comparative analysis between Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves defined in the Regulatory Decree n ° 23/95 of 23rd August, proposed by Matos and Silva (1986), and those obtained with observed data in meteorological stations representing the three rainfall zones recommended for Portugal and with data simulated by the COSMO-CLM regional climate model for recent past (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios. The methodology adopted for the delineation of IDF curves, is based on study of Brandão et al. (2001) and includes: (i) precipitation disaggregation process for sub-daily (method fragments) and sub-hourly (disaggregation coefficients suggested by Brandão et al. 2001) scales; (ii) preliminary statistical exploratory analysis and fitting of the Gumbel distribution function to time series of maximum precipitation intensity for each of the ten durations; (iii) the use of the Gumbel inverse probability distribution to estimate maximum precipitation intensity values for eight return periods; (iv) linearization of IDF curves with logarithms and the estimation of the parameters a and b with robust regression after; and (v) correction of the bias introduced by the COSMO

  10. Glossary: Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This Glossary contains definitions of selected CO{sub 2}-related terms as well as tables containing information related to CO{sub 2} and climate. Each term is defined with an emphasis on its relationship to CO{sub 2} and climate. Many of the definitions are then followed by a more detailed description of the term and its use. References to the literature from which the definitions were taken are listed at the end of the Glossary.

  11. 10 CFR 300.3 - Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. 300.3 Section 300.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.3 Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. (a) A...

  12. 10 CFR 300.3 - Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. 300.3 Section 300.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.3 Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. (a) A...

  13. 10 CFR 300.3 - Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. 300.3 Section 300.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.3 Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. (a) A...

  14. 10 CFR 300.3 - Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. 300.3 Section 300.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.3 Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. (a) A...

  15. 10 CFR 300.3 - Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. 300.3 Section 300.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.3 Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. (a) A...

  16. Temporal Hyporheic Zone Response to Water Table Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Jonathan M; Anseeuw, Sierra K; Lowry, Christopher S; Allen-King, Richelle

    2016-03-01

    Expansion and contraction of the hyporheic zone due to temporal hydrologic changes between stream and riparian aquifer influence the biogeochemical cycling capacity of streams. Theoretical studies have quantified the control of groundwater discharge on the depth of the hyporheic zone; however, observations of temporal groundwater controls are limited. In this study, we develop the concept of groundwater-dominated differential hyporheic zone expansion to explain the temporal control of groundwater discharge on the hyporheic zone in a third-order stream reach flowing through glacially derived terrain typical of the Great Lakes region. We define groundwater-dominated differential expansion of the hyporheic zone as: differing rates and magnitudes of hyporheic zone expansion in response to seasonal vs. storm-related water table fluctuation. Specific conductance and vertical hydraulic gradient measurements were used to map changes in the hyporheic zone during seasonal water table decline and storm events. Planar and riffle beds were monitored in order to distinguish the cause of increasing hyporheic zone depth. Planar bed seasonal expansion of the hyporheic zone was of a greater magnitude and longer in duration (weeks to months) than storm event expansion (hours to days). In contrast, the hyporheic zone beneath the riffle bed exhibited minimal expansion in response to seasonal groundwater decline compared to storm related expansion. Results indicated that fluctuation in the riparian water table controlled seasonal expansion of the hyporheic zone along the planar bed. This groundwater induced hyporheic zone expansion could increase the potential for biogeochemical cycling and natural attenuation.

  17. Multispectral measurements in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon S.; Dirbas, Joseph; Gilbert, Gary

    2004-09-01

    Over the past year an index has been defined which quantifies the surf zone with respect to an electro-optical (EO) system"s ability to find targets. The purpose of this index is to both normalize the EO Mine Counter Measure (MCM) systems performance expectations to the environment in which it is tested and to assess the value of its performance in an operational environment. For example, if a given system has a Probability of Detection (PD) requirement of 90% in a clear water surf zone and is tested in murky waters the surf zone index of the murky water is used to determine what PD is required in the murky water to yield the 90% PD clear water requirement. The surf zone index is defined in this paper and expanded from the deterministic contrast transmittance as reported in earlier papers to a probabilistic approach. Examples of how to measure the index using readily available low cost spectral imagers such as PAR Government Systems Corporation"s Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Spectrometer (MANTIS) system are given. Finally, the surf zone index usage is discussed and demonstrated.

  18. Defining the Stimulus - A Memoir

    PubMed Central

    Terrace, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The eminent psychophysicist, S. S. Stevens, once remarked that, “the basic problem of psychology was the definition of the stimulus” (Stevens, 1951, p. 46). By expanding the traditional definition of the stimulus, the study of animal learning has metamorphosed into animal cognition. The main impetus for that change was the recognition that it is often necessary to postulate a representation between the traditional S and R of learning theory. Representations allow a subject to re-present a stimulus it learned previously that is currently absent. Thus, in delayed-matching-to-sample, one has to assume that a subject responds to a representation of the sample during test if it responds correctly. Other examples, to name but a few, include concept formation, spatial memory, serial memory, learning a numerical rule, imitation and metacognition. Whereas a representation used to be regarded as a mentalistic phenomenon that was unworthy of scientific inquiry, it can now be operationally defined. To accommodate representations, the traditional discriminative stimulus has to be expanded to allow for the role of representations. The resulting composite can account for a significantly larger portion of the variance of performance measures than the exteroceptive stimulus could by itself. PMID:19969047

  19. Defining, Navigating, and Negotiating Success

    PubMed Central

    Kalet, Adina L; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; Ferdman, Dina J; Bickell, Nina A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND We studied female graduates of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program (CSP, Class of 1984 to 1989) to explore and describe the complexity of creating balance in the life of mid-career academic woman physicians. METHODS We conducted and qualitatively analyzed (κ 0.35 to 1.0 for theme identification among rater pairs) data from a semi-structured survey of 21 women and obtained their curricula vitae to quantify publications and grant support, measures of academic productivity. RESULTS Sixteen of 21 (76%) women completed the survey. Mean age was 48 (range: 45 to 56). Three were full professors, 10 were associate professors, and 3 had left academic medicine. Eleven women had had children (mean 2.4; range: 1 to 3) and 3 worked part-time. From these data, the conceptual model expands on 3 key themes: (1) defining, navigating, and negotiating success, (2) making life work, and (3) making work work. The women who described themselves as satisfied with their careers (10/16) had clarity of values and goals and a sense of control over their time. Those less satisfied with their careers (6/16) emphasized the personal and professional costs of the struggle to balance their lives and described explicit institutional barriers to fulfillment of their potential. CONCLUSION For this group of fellowship-prepared academic women physicians satisfaction is achieving professional and personal balance. PMID:16918735

  20. The LAPS Project : A live 1D Radiative-Convective Model to explore the possible climates of terrestrial planets and exoplanets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbet, Martin; Forget, Francois; Schott, Cédric

    2016-10-01

    The LAPS (Live Atmospheres-of-Planets Simulator) is a live 1D version of the LMD Global Climate Model that provides an accelerated and interactive simulation of the climate of terrestrial planets and exoplanets.This tool was designed for students to explore the «Classical Habitable Zone», defined as the range of orbital distances within which a planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. The model faithfully reproduces both the inner edge and the outer edge limits of the Habitable Zone, and their dependencies to the type of star and the gas composition.Furthermore, it provides a "hands on" experiment by showing how the surface and atmospheric temperatures as well as the profile of water vapor evolve through time when the external forcing (insolation, star spectrum, ...) or the planet (quantity of CO2, initial amount of water reservoir, ...) is modified.The tool is available at http://laps.lmd.jussieu.fr/ .

  1. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  2. Disentangling the driving mechanism of streamflow trends using runoff senstivity to land use and climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, N. L.; Moore, J. N.; Maneta, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The majority of watersheds within the United States have been disturbed by anthropogenic land use change. On top of this, there is strong evidence of (historic and projected) climatic changes that affect earth's hydrologic cycle. Streamflow measurements integrate the effects of land use and climate change on watershed hydrology. Therefore, when temporal trends are present, teasing out the cause is challenging due to the overlying climate and land use signals. In this study, we develop an analytical framework for distinguishing trends in streamflow that are driven by climate change from those that are driven by land use change. This framework is based on the theory that during wetter years runoff is affected more by changes in climate than during drier years. Whereas, the inverse is true for land use change. During wetter years runoff is affected less by land use change than during drier years. This difference can be seen in the quantile regression of the 75th and 25th percentile annual stream flows which represent wetter and drier years, respectively. This creates a defining characteristic in how these two forcing mechanisms manifest within the streamflow record. We empirically test this framework and show that the sensitivity of runoff to climate and land use change is uniquely dependent on the spatiotemporal water and energy limitations of a catchment. Finally we apply the framework using 1,566 watersheds across the contiguous United States. We use gages from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) network. The gages are selected because they have continuous and complete data from the years 1950 to 2009 and represent watersheds which are characterized by a range of disturbances. Our results show that the driving mechanisms of streamflow change across the U.S. are regionally coherent and correspond with land management activities and climate zones. This methodology provides a simple means of classifying watershed to

  3. Defining Socially-Based Spatial Boundaries in the Region of Peel, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the project was to delineate a series of contiguous neighbourhood-based "Data Zones" within the Region of Peel (Ontario) for the purpose of health data analysis and dissemination. Zones were to be built on Census Tracts (N = 205) and obey a series of requirements defined by the Region of Peel. This paper explores a method that combines statistical analysis with ground-truthing, consultation, and the use of a decision tree. Data Census Tract data for Peel were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census Master file. Methods Following correlation analysis to reduce the data set, Principal Component Analysis was applied to the data set to reduce the complexity and derive an index. The Getis-Ord Gi*statistic was then applied to look for statistically significant clusters of like Census Tracts. A detailed decision tree for the amalgamation of remaining zones and ground-truthing with Peel staff verified the resulting zones. Results A total of 15 Data Zones that are similar with respect to socioeconomic and sociodemographic attributes and that met criteria defined by Peel were derived for the region. Conclusion The approach used in this analysis, which was bolstered by a series of checks and balances throughout the process, gives statistical validity to the defined zones and resulted in a robust series of Data Zones for use by Peel Public Health. We conclude by offering insight into alternative uses of the methodology, and limitations. PMID:21600012

  4. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A resistance heated zoner, suitable for early zoning experiments with silicon, was designed and put into operation. The initial power usage and size was designed for an shown to be compatible with payload carriers contemplated for the Shuttle. This equipment will be used in the definition and development of flight experiments and apparatus for float zoning silicon and other materials in microgravity.

  5. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  6. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  7. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  8. Subduction of fracture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  9. Climate Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids NASA's Eyes on the Earth Global Climate Change Home Play Make Know Keep up Watch Dream Teach Hide Subjects Browse by Subject Guided Tour of the Big Questions Or, go to menu. Weather & Climate Air Ocean Fresh Water Carbon Travels Energy Plants & Animals Technology 10 Things About Air Learn about ...

  10. Climate Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2014-01-01

    More than 250 higher education leaders from campuses across the U.S. met last week in Boston for the 2014 Presidential Summit on Climate Leadership. The summit was organized by Second Nature, the supporting organization for the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). Almost 700 colleges and universities have…

  11. Climate Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Space, William

    2007-01-01

    Numerous connections exist between climate science and topics normally covered in physics and physical science courses. For instance, lessons on heat and light can be used to introduce basic climate science, and the study of electric circuits provides a context for studying the relationship between electricity consumption and carbon pollution. To…

  12. Dentin caries zones: mineral, structure, and properties.

    PubMed

    Pugach, M K; Strother, J; Darling, C L; Fried, D; Gansky, S A; Marshall, S J; Marshall, G W

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral.

  13. A hierarchical approach to defining marine heatwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobday, Alistair J.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Perkins, Sarah E.; Smale, Dan A.; Straub, Sandra C.; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Burrows, Michael T.; Donat, Markus G.; Feng, Ming; Holbrook, Neil J.; Moore, Pippa J.; Scannell, Hillary A.; Sen Gupta, Alex; Wernberg, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Marine heatwaves (MHWs) have been observed around the world and are expected to increase in intensity and frequency under anthropogenic climate change. A variety of impacts have been associated with these anomalous events, including shifts in species ranges, local extinctions and economic impacts on seafood industries through declines in important fishery species and impacts on aquaculture. Extreme temperatures are increasingly seen as important influences on biological systems, yet a consistent definition of MHWs does not exist. A clear definition will facilitate retrospective comparisons between MHWs, enabling the synthesis and a mechanistic understanding of the role of MHWs in marine ecosystems. Building on research into atmospheric heatwaves, we propose both a general and specific definition for MHWs, based on a hierarchy of metrics that allow for different data sets to be used in identifying MHWs. We generally define a MHW as a prolonged discrete anomalously warm water event that can be described by its duration, intensity, rate of evolution, and spatial extent. Specifically, we consider an anomalously warm event to be a MHW if it lasts for five or more days, with temperatures warmer than the 90th percentile based on a 30-year historical baseline period. This structure provides flexibility with regard to the description of MHWs and transparency in communicating MHWs to a general audience. The use of these metrics is illustrated for three 21st century MHWs; the northern Mediterranean event in 2003, the Western Australia 'Ningaloo Niño' in 2011, and the northwest Atlantic event in 2012. We recommend a specific quantitative definition for MHWs to facilitate global comparisons and to advance our understanding of these phenomena.

  14. Evaluating CMIP5 Simulations of Historical Continental Climate with Koeppen Bioclimatic Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. J.; Bonfils, C.

    2013-12-01

    The classic Koeppen bioclimatic classification scheme associates generic vegetation types (e.g. grassland, tundra, broadleaf or evergreen forests, etc.) with regional climate zones defined by their annual cycles of continental temperature (T) and precipitation (P), considered together. The locations or areas of Koeppen vegetation types derived from observational data thus can provide concise metrical standards for simultaneously evaluating climate simulations of T and P in naturally defined regions. The CMIP5 models' collective ability to correctly represent two variables that are critically important for living organisms at regional scales is therefore central to this evaluation. For this study, 14 Koeppen vegetation types are derived from annual-cycle climatologies of T and P in some 3 dozen CMIP5 simulations of the 1980-1999 period. Metrics for evaluating the ability of the CMIP5 models to simulate the correct locations and areas of each vegetation type, as well as measures of overall model performance, also are developed. It is found that the CMIP5 models are generally most deficient in simulating: 1) climates of drier Koeppen zones (e.g. desert, savanna, grassland, steppe vegetation types) located in the southwestern U.S. and Mexico, eastern Europe, southern Africa, and central Australia; 2) climates of regions such as central Asia and western South America where topography plays a key role. Details of regional T or P biases in selected simulations that exemplify general model performance problems also will be presented. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and was performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Map of Koeppen vegetation types derived from observed T and P.

  15. Mesopelagic zone ecology and biogeochemistry - a synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Carol; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Arístegui, Javier; Carlson, Craig A.; Frost, Jessica R.; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Hernández-León, Santiago; Jackson, George A.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Quéguiner, Bernard; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rassoulzadegan, Fereidoun; Robison, Bruce H.; Tamburini, Christian; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Wishner, Karen F.; Zhang, Jing

    2010-08-01

    The mesopelagic zone is the oceanic region through which carbon and other elements must pass in order to reach deeper waters or the sea floor. However, the food web interactions that occur in the mesopelagic zone are difficult to measure and so, despite their crucial importance to global elemental cycles, are not very well known. Recent developments in technology and new approaches have advanced the study of the variability in and controls upon the distribution and diversity of organisms in the mesopelagic zone, including the roles of respiration, recycling, and repackaging of particulate and dissolved organic material. However, there are remarkably few syntheses of the ecology and biogeochemistry of the microbes and metazoa that permanently reside or habitually visit this 'twilight zone'. Without this synthesis, it is difficult to assess the impact of ongoing changes in ocean hydrography and chemistry, due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, on the biological carbon pump. This paper reviews what is known about the distribution of microbes and metazoa in the mesopelagic zone in relation to their activity and impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Thus, gaps in our knowledge are identified and suggestions made for priority research programmes that will improve our ability to predict the effects of climate change on carbon sequestration.

  16. Rising temperatures and dwindling water supplies? Perception of climate change among residents of the Spanish Mediterranean tourist coastal areas.

    PubMed

    March, Hug; Saurí, David; Olcina, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the results of a survey on the perception of climate change in the 14 "tourist zones" (as defined by the Spanish Statistical Institute, INE) that stretch from the French border to Gibraltar alongside the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including the Balearic Islands. Our sample consisted of 1,014 telephone interviews stratified according to the number of tourists staying in each zone. Respondents showed concern for the likely impacts of climate change on jobs and thought that climate change would reduce the economic activity of their areas. Responses were also pessimistic regarding future water availability but agreed with the development of alternative sources such as desalination and water re-use. Household size, educational levels, and employment tended to be the most significant statistical explanatory factors regarding attitudes toward climate change. Respondents in larger households (a variable not tested in the literature as far as we know), respondents with higher education, and respondents working for a wage tended to express more concerns than the rest.

  17. Rising Temperatures and Dwindling Water Supplies? Perception of Climate Change Among Residents of the Spanish Mediterranean Tourist Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Hug; Saurí, David; Olcina, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the results of a survey on the perception of climate change in the 14 "tourist zones" (as defined by the Spanish Statistical Institute, INE) that stretch from the French border to Gibraltar alongside the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including the Balearic Islands. Our sample consisted of 1,014 telephone interviews stratified according to the number of tourists staying in each zone. Respondents showed concern for the likely impacts of climate change on jobs and thought that climate change would reduce the economic activity of their areas. Responses were also pessimistic regarding future water availability but agreed with the development of alternative sources such as desalination and water re-use. Household size, educational levels, and employment tended to be the most significant statistical explanatory factors regarding attitudes toward climate change. Respondents in larger households (a variable not tested in the literature as far as we know), respondents with higher education, and respondents working for a wage tended to express more concerns than the rest.

  18. Multi-zone furnace system

    SciTech Connect

    Orbeck, G.A.

    1986-05-06

    A multi-zone furnace is described which consists of: a furnace chamber having at least one heat zone and at least one zone adjacent to the heat zone and disposed along the length of the furnace chamber; the heat zone having a hearth at a level different from the hearth level of the adjacent zone; a walking beam conveyor disposed in the furnace chamber and operative in a short stroke mode to convey a product along the hearth of the heat zone, and in a long stroke mode to convey a product from the heat zone to the adjacent zone.

  19. Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory: integrating water cycle and biogeochemical processes across the rain-snow transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, R.; Boyer, B.; Conklin, M.; Goulden, M.; Hopmans, J.; Hunsaker, C.; Johnson, D.; Kirchner, J.; Tague, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) is establishing a rain-snow transition research platform for research by investigators from multiple disciplines and a research program aimed at yielding general knowledge and tools for understanding the interactions between water, atmosphere, ecosystems and landforms in the critical zone. A primary, overarching goal is to understand how critical zone processes control fluxes and stores of water across the landscape, and how the water cycle modulates (bio)geochemical, biological, geomorphological and soil processes in the critical zone. Five science questions define and focus the core measurement and research program: i) how do coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes vary across the rain-snow transition, ii) what is the role of extreme hydrologic events in water and biogeochemical balances, iii) to what extent does vegetation modulate or actively control the primary subsurface fluxes of water and nutrients, iv) over what time and space scales, and during what seasons, are short-circuit pathways dominant in the critical zone, and v) how does the presence of a seasonal snowpack affect the subsurface, critical zone, soils, geomorphology, biogeochemistry and hydrology, and how will the system respond as climate warms and snowpacks recede. Some unique features of the Sierra Nevada system as compared to more mesic sites include: i) hydrophobic soils, ii) islands of fertility in soils, iii) dominant role of catastrophic events, e.g. fire, and iv) spatial decoupling of decomposition from root uptake in soil profile. The rationale for measurement design, including the value of high-frequency data will be illustrated, as will the strategy for providing community data and information, and educational programs.

  20. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    In climate change science the term ‘Arctic amplification’ has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the ‘Ratio of Means’ and ‘Mean Ratio’ approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases. PMID:27461918

  1. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    In climate change science the term ‘Arctic amplification’ has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the ‘Ratio of Means’ and ‘Mean Ratio’ approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases.

  2. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio.

    PubMed

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    In climate change science the term 'Arctic amplification' has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the 'Ratio of Means' and 'Mean Ratio' approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases. PMID:27461918

  3. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, C.; Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Titov, D. V.

    This chapter reviews the theory of the greenhouse effect and climate feedback. It also compares the theory with observations, using examples taken from all four known terrestrial worlds with substantial atmospheres: Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. The greenhouse effect traps infrared radiation in the atmosphere, thereby increasing surface temperature. It is one of many factors that affect a world's climate. (Others include solar luminosity and the atmospheric scattering and absorption of solar radiation.) A change in these factors — defined as climate forcing — may change the climate in a way that brings other processes — defined as feedbacks — into play. For example, when Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, warming the surface, the water vapor content of the atmosphere increases. This is a positive feedback on global warming because water vapor is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Many positive and negative feedback processes are significant in determining Earth's climate, and probably the climates of our terrestrial neighbors.

  4. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  5. Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Jonathan

    2001-05-01

    In recent years climate change has become recognised as the foremost environmental problem of the twenty-first century. Not only will climate change potentially affect the multibillion dollar energy strategies of countries worldwide, but it also could seriously affect many species, including our own. A fascinating introduction to the subject, this textbook provides a broad review of past, present and likely future climate change from the viewpoints of biology, ecology and human ecology. It will be of interest to a wide range of people, from students in the life sciences who need a brief overview of the basics of climate science, to atmospheric science, geography, and environmental science students who need to understand the biological and human ecological implications of climate change. It will also be a valuable reference for those involved in environmental monitoring, conservation, policy-making and policy lobbying. The first book to cover not only the human impacts on climate, but how climate change will affect humans and the species that we rely on Written in an accessible style, with specialist terms used only when necessary and thoroughly explained The author has years of experience conveying the views of biological science learned societies to policy-makers

  6. 14 CFR 417.411 - Safety clear zones for hazardous operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety clear zones for hazardous operations... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.411 Safety clear zones for hazardous operations. (a) A launch operator must define a safety clear zone that confines...

  7. Global Projects as pre-cursers to cryospheric essential climate variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Frank Martin; Bojkov, B.; Paul, F.; Pulliainen, J.; Baker, S.; Bartsch, A.

    2010-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is running within its Data User Element a series of projects with global dimension addressing mapping and monitoring of various geophysical parameters. The GLOB series has been a sound baseline for ESA's Initiative on Climate Change (CCI) for "Global Monitoring of Essential Climate Variables" (ECV). Projects like GlobGlacier, GlobSnow, GlobIce and DUE Permafrost are pre-cursers in achieving a long term monitoring of cryogenic ECVs. • The GlobGlacier project will establish a service for glacier monitoring from space, which aims at providing a global picture of glaciers and ice caps, and their role as ECVs. • The GlobSnow project aims at generating 15-year global datasets of the Area Snow Extent and the Snow Water Equivalent from existing satellite ESA data records. • The GlobIce project explores ESA's SAR archive and develops an information system on high resolution sea ice dynamic. Validated sea ice motion, deformation and flux measurements will be produced over large areas. • The DUE Permafrost project defines, demonstrates and validates, permafrost monitoring information service from local to large scale, mainly towards climate change studies addressing the pan-boreal/arctic zone. During the last decade the Parties to the UNFCCC have placed responsibility for defining and specifying the requirements for observations relevant to climate change with the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). GCOS has issued two Adequacy Reports to the UNFCCC on the global climate observing systems, and in its second report in 2003 GCOS established a list of Essential Climate Variables (ECV) that are both feasible and have a high impact on the UNFCCC requirements. Each ECV is derived from a Fundamental Climate Data Record (FCDR). The FCDR is a long-term data record, involving a series of instruments, with potentially changing measurement approaches, but with overlaps and calibrations necessary to allow the generation of homogenous products

  8. Growth recovery zones.

    PubMed

    Siffert, R S; Katz, J F

    1983-05-01

    Growth arrest lines and zones have been reinvestigated. Sequential studies after dietary deprivation reveal transformations of the physis with diminution in formation of the zone of cell columns, resorption of previously formed bone, and cessation of new bone formation. At 6 weeks post diet restriction, the physis is prominently narrowed with transversely oriented, thin bone plaque sealing it from the subjacent marrow. Initially, restoration of stock diet thickens the bony plaque, creating a growth arrest line. Later the zone of osteogenesis adds new bone as a dense metaphyseal band.

  9. Model Interpretation of Climate Signals: Application to the Asian Monsoon Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2002-01-01

    This is an invited review paper intended to be published as a Chapter in a book entitled "The Global Climate System: Patterns, Processes and Teleconnections" Cambridge University Press. The author begins with an introduction followed by a primer of climate models, including a description of various modeling strategies and methodologies used for climate diagnostics and predictability studies. Results from the CLIVAR Monsoon Model Intercomparison Project (MMIP) were used to illustrate the application of the strategies to modeling the Asian monsoon. It is shown that state-of-the art atmospheric GCMs have reasonable capability in simulating the seasonal mean large scale monsoon circulation, and response to El Nino. However, most models fail to capture the climatological as well as interannual anomalies of regional scale features of the Asian monsoon. These include in general over-estimating the intensity and/or misplacing the locations of the monsoon convection over the Bay of Bengal, and the zones of heavy rainfall near steep topography of the Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, and Indo-China and the Philippines. The intensity of convection in the equatorial Indian Ocean is generally weaker in models compared to observations. Most important, an endemic problem in all models is the weakness and the lack of definition of the Mei-yu rainbelt of the East Asia, in particular the part of the Mei-yu rainbelt over the East China Sea and southern Japan are under-represented. All models seem to possess certain amount of intraseasonal variability, but the monsoon transitions, such as the onset and breaks are less defined compared with the observed. Evidences are provided that a better simulation of the annual cycle and intraseasonal variability is a pre-requisite for better simulation and better prediction of interannual anomalies.

  10. Climate Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lindzen, Richard

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  11. Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Records (CDRs) are high level Landsat data products that support land surface change studies. Climate Data Records, as defined by the National Research Council, are a time series of measurements with sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to identify climate variability and change. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is using the valuable 40-year Landsat archive to create CDRs that can be used to document changes to Earth’s terrestrial environment.

  12. Poverty and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Franco, E.; Fuckar, N. S.; Kalmbach, E. R.; Kayatta, E.; Lankester, K.; Rothschild, R. E.; Sarma, A.; Wall, M. L.

    2008-05-01

    The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify populations that are most vulnerable to poverty and poverty traps due to environmental change. We define vulnerability as consisting of risk (probability of event and exposed elements), resiliency, and capacity to respond. Resiliency captures the social system's ability to absorb a natural disaster while retaining the same basic structure, organization, and ways of functioning, as well as its general capacity to adapt to stress and change. Capacity to respond is a surrogate for technical skills, institutional capabilities, and efficacy within countries and their economies. We use a "climate change multiplier" to account for possible increases in the frequency and severity of natural events due to climate change. Through various analytical methods, we quantify the social, political, economic, and environmental factors that contribute to poverty or poverty traps. These data sets are then used to determine vulnerability through raster multiplication in geospatial analysis. The vulnerability of a particular location to climate change is then mapped, with areas of high vulnerability clearly delineated. The success of this methodology indicates that it is indeed possible to quantify the effects of climate change on global vulnerability to natural disasters, and can be used as a mechanism to identify areas where proactive measures, such as improving adaptation or capacity to respond, can reduce the humanitarian and economic impacts of climate change.

  13. Clustering of contact zones, hybrid zones, and phylogeographic breaks in North America.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Howard, Daniel J

    2005-11-01

    A recent test for the existence of suture zones in North America, based on hybrid zones studied since 1970, found support for only two of the 13 suture zones identified by Remington in 1968 (Swenson and Howard 2004). One limitation of that recent study was the relatively small number of hybrid zones available for mapping. In this study, we search for evidence of clustering of contact zones between closely related taxa using data not only from hybrid zones but from species range maps of trees, birds, and mammals and from the position of phylogeographic breaks within species. Digital geographic range maps and a geographic information system approach allowed for accurate and rapid mapping of distributional data. Areas of contact between closely related species and phylogeographic breaks within species clustered into areas characterized by common physiographic features or predicted by previously hypothesized glacial refugia. The results underscore the general importance of geographic barriers to dispersal (mountain chains) and climate change (periods of cooling alternating with periods of warming, which lead to the contraction and expansion of species ranges) in species evolution. PMID:16224723

  14. Basin scale assessment of gas hydrate dissociation in response to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Cameron-Smith, P.

    2011-07-01

    Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating climate. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those now occurring in the arctic and those predicted under future climate change scenarios, has only recently been investigated. Field investigations have discovered substantial methane gas plumes exiting the seafloor along the Arctic Ocean margin, and the plumes appear at depths corresponding to the upper limit of a receding gas hydrate stability zone. It has been suggested that these plumes may be the first visible signs of the dissociation of shallow hydrate deposits due to ongoing climate change in the arctic. We simulate the release of methane from oceanic deposits, including the effects of fully-coupled heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate dissociation, and other thermodynamic processes, for systems representative of segments of the Arctic Ocean margins. The modeling encompasses a range of shallow hydrate deposits from the landward limit of the hydrate stability zone down to water depths beyond the expected range of century-scale temperature changes. We impose temperature changes corresponding to predicted rates of climate change-related ocean warming and examine the possibility of hydrate dissociation and the release of methane. The assessment is performed at local-, regional-, and basin-scales. The simulation results are consistent with the hypothesis that dissociating shallow hydrates alone can result in significant methane fluxes at the seafloor. However, the methane release is likely to be confined to a narrow region of high dissociation susceptibility, defined by depth and temperature, and that any release will be continuous and controlled, rather than explosive. This modeling also establishes the first realistic bounds for methane release along the arctic continental shelf for potential hydrate

  15. Saltwater upconing zone of influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovovic, Danica; Werner, Adrian D.; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we define and characterize the saltwater upconing zone of influence (SUZI). The SUZI is the region around a pumping well within which significant rise in the saltwater-freshwater interface occurs. While the zone of influence of a pumping well can be clearly defined in terms of hydraulics (e.g., drawdown), the SUZI has not been recognised and characterised, despite its importance for groundwater decision-making in coastal regions. We explore the SUZI under various conditions and compare common methods of investigation using both axisymmetric (1D and 2D vertical cross-section) and 3D simulations of saltwater upconing at the field scale, based on a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. The SUZI was found to be dependent on the relative magnitudes of pumping, regional flow, distance of the well from the coast, and position of the well above the interface, as expected. The three-dimensional coastal setting simulations revealed an asymmetric shape of the lateral extent of the SUZI, which is largest in the direction parallel to the coast. This occurs because the ocean and the inland extent of the seawater wedge limit the propagation of the SUZI perpendicular to the coast. Predictions of the SUZI using the Ghyben-Herzberg approximation, including cases where sloping interfaces occur (i.e., in contrast to the artificiality of horizontal interfaces used in axisymmetric approaches), provide reasonable first approximations of the SUZI. Numerical modelling of dispersive upconing in the 3D inclined interface case is influenced by practical limits to the model domain size and grid resolution. For example, the no-flow boundary condition at 1500 m from the pumping well elongates the SUZI in the direction parallel to the coast. This study extends previous concepts of well interference, which have previously been based on hydraulics only, by introducing the SUZI and characterising its extent, with consideration given to differences in commonly adopted

  16. Aquarius: Climate

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea surface salinity has a massive influence on Earth’s climate. With Aquarius, scientists will have a new way to measure that influence in a consistent way. With its unprecedented accurate and ...

  17. Climate catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budyko, Mikhail

    1999-05-01

    Climate catastrophes, which many times occurred in the geological past, caused the extinction of large or small populations of animals and plants. Changes in the terrestrial and marine biota caused by the catastrophic climate changes undoubtedly resulted in considerable fluctuations in global carbon cycle and atmospheric gas composition. Primarily, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas contents were affected. The study of these catastrophes allows a conclusion that climate system is very sensitive to relatively small changes in climate-forcing factors (transparency of the atmosphere, changes in large glaciations, etc.). It is important to take this conclusion into account while estimating the possible consequences of now occurring anthropogenic warming caused by the increase in greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere.

  18. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  19. Rural Productivity Zones (RPZs) for microenterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the concept of rural productivity zones (RPZs) which are defined as a business incubator to foster income-producing opportunities for the rural poor. The essential ingredients of such a program include: electric power; business development assistance; office services; and quality work space. The electric power source must be a good quality system, consisting of a diesel/wind/photovoltaic hybrid type system, providing reliable service, with a local maintenance program and a functional load management program.

  20. Northwest Climate Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, P.; Dalton, M. M.; Snover, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the US National Climate Assessment, the Northwest region undertook a process of climate risk assessment. This process included an expert evaluation of previously identified impacts, their likelihoods, and consequences, and engaged experts from both academia and natural resource management practice (federal, tribal, state, local, private, and non-profit) in a workshop setting. An important input was a list of 11 risks compiled by state agencies in Oregon and similar adaptation efforts in Washington. By considering jointly the likelihoods, consequences, and adaptive capacity, participants arrived at an approximately ranked list of risks which was further assessed and prioritized through a series of risk scoring exercises to arrive at the top three climate risks facing the Northwest: 1) changes in amount and timing of streamflow related to snowmelt, causing far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences; 2) coastal erosion and inundation, and changing ocean acidity, combined with low adaptive capacity in the coastal zone to create large risks; and 3) the combined effects of wildfire, insect outbreaks, and diseases will cause large areas of forest mortality and long-term transformation of forest landscapes.

  1. Defining the Core of Positive School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Justin T.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the traits and leadership tactics of an effective leader that influenced the climate and culture of a school. This study examined changes a principal made to the climate in order to establish leadership and cultivate positive school culture. The purpose of this study was to examine leadership and culture together by observing…

  2. Evolution of a Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how Earth's surface might have evolved with time and to examine in a more general way the initiation and continuance of subduction zones and the possible formation of continents on an Earth-like planet. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life, and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), but may also depend on the biosphere. Employing the Fortran convection code CHIC (developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium), we simulate a subduction zone with a pre-defined weak zone (between oceanic and continental crust) and a fixed plate velocity for the subducting oceanic plate (Quinquis et al. in preparation). In our study we first investigate the main factors that influence the subduction process. We simulate the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate (Noack et al., 2013). The crust is separated into an upper crust and a lower crust. We apply mixed Newtonian/non-Newtonian rheology and vary the parameters that are most likely to influence the subduction of the ocanic plate, as for example density of the crust/mantle, surface temperature, plate velocity and subduction angle. The second part of our study concentrates on the long-term evolution of a subduction zone. Even though we model only the upper mantle (until a depth of 670km), the subducted crust is allowed to flow into the lower mantle, where it is no longer subject to our investigation. This way we can model the subduction zone over long time spans, for which we assume a continuous inflow of the oceanic plate into the investigated domain. We include variations in mantle temperatures (via secular cooling and decay of radioactive heat sources) and dehydration of silicates (leading to stiffening of the material). We investigate how the mantle environment influences

  3. Applied Climate-Change Analysis: The Climate Wizard Tool

    PubMed Central

    Girvetz, Evan H.; Zganjar, Chris; Raber, George T.; Maurer, Edwin P.; Kareiva, Peter; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the message of “global climate change” is catalyzing international action, it is local and regional changes that directly affect people and ecosystems and are of immediate concern to scientists, managers, and policy makers. A major barrier preventing informed climate-change adaptation planning is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting climate-change information. To address this problem, we developed a powerful, yet easy to use, web-based tool called Climate Wizard (http://ClimateWizard.org) that provides non-climate specialists with simple analyses and innovative graphical depictions for conveying how climate has and is projected to change within specific geographic areas throughout the world. Methodology/Principal Findings To demonstrate the Climate Wizard, we explored historic trends and future departures (anomalies) in temperature and precipitation globally, and within specific latitudinal zones and countries. We found the greatest temperature increases during 1951–2002 occurred in northern hemisphere countries (especially during January–April), but the latitude of greatest temperature change varied throughout the year, sinusoidally ranging from approximately 50°N during February-March to 10°N during August-September. Precipitation decreases occurred most commonly in countries between 0–20°N, and increases mostly occurred outside of this latitudinal region. Similarly, a quantile ensemble analysis based on projections from 16 General Circulation Models (GCMs) for 2070–2099 identified the median projected change within countries, which showed both latitudinal and regional patterns in projected temperature and precipitation change. Conclusions/Significance The results of these analyses are consistent with those reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but at the same time, they provide examples of how Climate Wizard can be used to explore regionally- and temporally-specific analyses of climate

  4. Present-day climatic equivalents of European Cenozoic climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utescher, Torsten; Mosbrugger, Volker; Ivanov, Dimiter; Dilcher, David L.

    2009-07-01

    Recently, continental climate evolution in Central Europe over the last 45 Ma has been reconstructed from the palaeobotanical record using a Nearest Living Relative methodology (Coexistence Approach; CA). The reconstructed climate curves document in detail the transition from almost tropical conditions in the Mid-Eocene to a temperate climate at the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition. The observed climatic shifts are primarily expressed as non-proportional changes of the different variables taken into account. In the present study a published palaeoclimate data set for a total of 42 macrofloras complemented by new calculations is used as base to analyse the climatic space in which a fossil flora existed. To define these spaces CA intervals calculated for 3 temperature (mean annual temperature, cold and warm month mean) and 3 precipitation variables (mean annual precipitation, mean monthly precipitation of the driest and of the wettest month) are combined. Using a global gridded climatology (10' resolution), this climate space is then utilized to identify Recent climate analogues with respect to the variables regarded. For 18 macrofloras climatic analogue regions with respect to 6 variables are identified on the globe. For 16 macrofloras, analogues exist when three temperature parameters and mean annual precipitation are regarded. No Recent equivalents are found in 8 cases. This corroborates the assumption of the temporary existence of non-analogue climates in the Cenozoic. As shown by multivariate statistics the observed anomalies with respect to present-day conditions basically refer to high winter temperatures. Deploying a GIS, the Recent climate analogues can be presented as sets of grid cells for each flora that can be mapped on a globe. Once identified, these regions can be merged with adequate thematic layers to assess additional proxy data for the palaeofloras. To exemplify the procedure Koeppen climate type, numbers of days with ground frost, as well as

  5. Volcanism-Climate Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Louis S. (Editor); Desilva, Shanaka (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The range of disciplines in the study of volcanism-climate interactions includes paleoclimate, volcanology, petrology, tectonics, cloud physics and chemistry, and climate and radiation modeling. Questions encountered in understanding the interactions include: the source and evolution of sulfur and sulfur-gaseous species in magmas; their entrainment in volcanic plumes and injection into the stratosphere; their dissipation rates; and their radiative effects. Other issues include modeling and measuring regional and global effects of such large, dense clouds. A broad-range plan of research designed to answer these questions was defined. The plan includes observations of volcanoes, rocks, trees, and ice cores, as well as satellite and aircraft observations of erupting volcanoes and resulting lumes and clouds.