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Sample records for definitive sox control

  1. Zebrafish Sox7 and Sox18 function together to control arterial-venous identity.

    PubMed

    Pendeville, Hélène; Winandy, Marie; Manfroid, Isabelle; Nivelles, Olivier; Motte, Patrick; Pasque, Vincent; Peers, Bernard; Struman, Ingrid; Martial, Joseph A; Voz, Marianne L

    2008-05-15

    Sox7 and Sox18 are members of the F-subgroup of Sox transcription factors family and are mostly expressed in endothelial compartments. In humans, dominant mutations in Sox18 are the underlying cause of the severe hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia disorder characterized by vascular defects. However little is known about which vasculogenic processes Sox7 and Sox18 regulate in vivo. We cloned the orthologs of Sox7 and Sox18 in zebrafish, analysed their expression pattern and performed functional analyses. Both genes are expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm during somitogenesis. At later stages, Sox18 is expressed in all axial vessels whereas Sox7 expression is mainly restricted to the dorsal aorta. Knockdown of Sox7 or Sox18 alone failed to reveal any phenotype. In contrast, blocking the two genes simultaneously led to embryos displaying dysmorphogenesis of the proximal aorta and arteriovenous shunts, all of which can account for the lack of circulation observed in the trunk and tail. Gene expression analyses performed with general endothelial markers on double morphants revealed that Sox7 and Sox18 are dispensable for the initial specification and positioning of the major trunk vessels. However, morphants display ectopic expression of the venous Flt4 marker in the dorsal aorta and a concomitant reduction of the artery-specific markers EphrinB2a and Gridlock. The striking similarities between the phenotype of Sox7/Sox18 morphants and Gridlock mutants strongly suggest that Sox7 and Sox18 control arterial-venous identity by regulating Gridlock expression.

  2. Two-stage control of an oxidative stress regulon: the Escherichia coli SoxR protein triggers redox-inducible expression of the soxS regulatory gene.

    PubMed Central

    Nunoshiba, T; Hidalgo, E; Amábile Cuevas, C F; Demple, B

    1992-01-01

    Escherichia coli responds to the redox stress imposed by superoxide-generating agents such as paraquat by activating the synthesis of as many as 80 polypeptides. Expression of a key group of these inducible proteins is controlled at the transcriptional level by the soxRS locus (the soxRS regulon). A two-stage control system was hypothesized for soxRS, in which an intracellular redox signal would trigger the SoxR protein as a transcriptional activator of the soxS gene and the resulting increased levels of SoxS protein would activate transcription of the various soxRS regulon genes (B. Demple and C.F. Amábile Cuevas, Cell 67:837-839, 1990). We have constructed operon fusions of the E. coli lac genes to the soxS promoter to monitor soxS transcription. Expression from the soxS promoter is strongly inducible by paraquat in a manner strictly dependent on a functional soxR gene. Several other superoxide-generating agents also trigger soxR(+)-dependent soxS expression, and the inductions by paraquat and phenazine methosulfate were dependent on the presence of oxygen. Numerous other oxidative stress agents (H2O2, gamma rays, heat shock, etc.) failed to induce soxS, while aerobic growth of superoxide dismutase-deficient bacteria triggered soxR-dependent soxS expression. These results indicate a specific redox signal for soxS induction. A direct role for SoxR protein in the activation of the soxS gene is indicated by band-shift and DNase I footprinting experiments that demonstrate specific binding of the SoxR protein in cell extracts to the soxS promoter. The mode of SoxR binding to DNA appears to be similar to that of its homolog MerR in that the SoxR footprint spans the -10 to -35 region of the soxS promoter. Images PMID:1400156

  3. Transcription factors SOX4 and SOX9 cooperatively control development of bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Poncy, Alexis; Antoniou, Aline; Cordi, Sabine; Pierreux, Christophe E; Jacquemin, Patrick; Lemaigre, Frédéric P

    2015-08-15

    In developing liver, cholangiocytes derive from the hepatoblasts and organize to form the bile ducts. Earlier work has shown that the SRY-related High Mobility Group box transcription factor 9 (SOX9) is transiently required for bile duct development, raising the question of the potential involvement of other SOX family members in biliary morphogenesis. Here we identify SOX4 as a new regulator of cholangiocyte development. Liver-specific inactivation of SOX4, combined or not with inactivation of SOX9, affects cholangiocyte differentiation, apico-basal polarity and bile duct formation. Both factors cooperate to control the expression of mediators of the Transforming Growth Factor-β, Notch, and Hippo-Yap signaling pathways, which are required for normal development of the bile ducts. In addition, SOX4 and SOX9 control formation of primary cilia, which are known signaling regulators. The two factors also stimulate secretion of laminin α5, an extracellular matrix component promoting bile duct maturation. We conclude that SOX4 is a new regulator of liver development and that it exerts a pleiotropic control on bile duct development in cooperation with SOX9.

  4. SOX6 controls dorsal progenitor identity and interneuron diversity during neocortical development.

    PubMed

    Azim, Eiman; Jabaudon, Denis; Fame, Ryann M; Macklis, Jeffrey D

    2009-10-01

    The neuronal diversity of the CNS emerges largely from controlled spatial and temporal segregation of cell type-specific molecular regulators. We found that the transcription factor SOX6 controls the molecular segregation of dorsal (pallial) from ventral (subpallial) telencephalic progenitors and the differentiation of cortical interneurons, regulating forebrain progenitor and interneuron heterogeneity. During corticogenesis in mice, SOX6 and SOX5 were largely mutually exclusively expressed in pallial and subpallial progenitors, respectively, and remained mutually exclusive in a reverse pattern in postmitotic neuronal progeny. Loss of SOX6 from pallial progenitors caused their inappropriate expression of normally subpallium-restricted developmental controls, conferring mixed dorsal-ventral identity. In postmitotic cortical interneurons, loss of SOX6 disrupted the differentiation and diversity of cortical interneuron subtypes, analogous to SOX5 control over cortical projection neuron development. These data indicate that SOX6 is a central regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development.

  5. Antagonistic Cross-Regulation between Sox9 and Sox10 Controls an Anti-tumorigenic Program in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Shakhova, Olga; Cheng, Phil; Mishra, Pravin J.; Zingg, Daniel; Schaefer, Simon M.; Debbache, Julien; Häusel, Jessica; Matter, Claudia; Guo, Theresa; Davis, Sean; Meltzer, Paul; Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Moch, Holger; Wegner, Michael; Merlino, Glenn; Levesque, Mitchell P.; Dummer, Reinhard; Santoro, Raffaella; Cinelli, Paolo; Sommer, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most fatal skin cancer, but the etiology of this devastating disease is still poorly understood. Recently, the transcription factor Sox10 has been shown to promote both melanoma initiation and progression. Reducing SOX10 expression levels in human melanoma cells and in a genetic melanoma mouse model, efficiently abolishes tumorigenesis by inducing cell cycle exit and apoptosis. Here, we show that this anti-tumorigenic effect functionally involves SOX9, a factor related to SOX10 and upregulated in melanoma cells upon loss of SOX10. Unlike SOX10, SOX9 is not required for normal melanocyte stem cell function, the formation of hyperplastic lesions, and melanoma initiation. To the contrary, SOX9 overexpression results in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and a gene expression profile shared by melanoma cells with reduced SOX10 expression. Moreover, SOX9 binds to the SOX10 promoter and induces downregulation of SOX10 expression, revealing a feedback loop reinforcing the SOX10 low/SOX9 high ant,m/ii-tumorigenic program. Finally, SOX9 is required in vitro and in vivo for the anti-tumorigenic effect achieved by reducing SOX10 expression. Thus, SOX10 and SOX9 are functionally antagonistic regulators of melanoma development. PMID:25629959

  6. A highly conserved SOX6 double binding site mediates SOX6 gene downregulation in erythroid cells

    PubMed Central

    Cantu', Claudio; Grande, Vito; Alborelli, Ilaria; Cassinelli, Letizia; Cantu’, Ileana; Colzani, Maria Teresa; Ierardi, Rossella; Ronzoni, Luisa; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Ferrari, Giuliana; Ottolenghi, Sergio; Ronchi, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    The Sox6 transcription factor plays critical roles in various cell types, including erythroid cells. Sox6-deficient mice are anemic due to impaired red cell maturation and show inappropriate globin gene expression in definitive erythrocytes. To identify new Sox6 target genes in erythroid cells, we used the known repressive double Sox6 consensus within the εy-globin promoter to perform a bioinformatic genome-wide search for similar, evolutionarily conserved motifs located within genes whose expression changes during erythropoiesis. We found a highly conserved Sox6 consensus within the Sox6 human gene promoter itself. This sequence is bound by Sox6 in vitro and in vivo, and mediates transcriptional repression in transient transfections in human erythroleukemic K562 cells and in primary erythroblasts. The binding of a lentiviral transduced Sox6FLAG protein to the endogenous Sox6 promoter is accompanied, in erythroid cells, by strong downregulation of the endogenous Sox6 transcript and by decreased in vivo chromatin accessibility of this region to the PstI restriction enzyme. These observations suggest that the negative Sox6 autoregulation, mediated by the double Sox6 binding site within its own promoter, may be relevant to control the Sox6 transcriptional downregulation that we observe in human erythroid cultures and in mouse bone marrow cells in late erythroid maturation. PMID:20852263

  7. SOX6 controls dorsal-ventral progenitor parcellation and interneuron diversity during neocortical development

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Eiman; Jabaudon, Denis; Fame, Ryann; Macklis, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The extraordinary neuronal diversity of the central nervous system emerges largely from controlled spatial and temporal segregation of cell type-specific molecular regulators. Here, we report that the transcription factor SOX6 controls the molecular segregation of dorsal (pallial) from ventral (subpallial) telencephalic progenitors, and the differentiation of cortical interneurons, regulating forebrain progenitor and interneuron heterogeneity. During corticogenesis in mice, SOX6 and highly related SOX5 expression is largely mutually exclusive in pallial and subpallial progenitors, respectively, and remains mutually exclusive in a reverse pattern in postmitotic neuronal progeny. Loss of SOX6 from pallial progenitors causes their inappropriate expression of normally subpallium-restricted developmental controls, conferring mixed dorsal-ventral identity. In postmitotic cortical interneurons, loss of SOX6 dramatically disrupts the differentiation and diversity of cortical interneuron subtypes, analogous to SOX5 control over cortical projection neuron development. These data reveal SOX6 as a novel transcription factor regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development. PMID:19657336

  8. Data Acquisition, Control, Communication and Computation System of Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Amish B.; Vadher, N. M.; Jain, Rajma; Dave, Hemant; Shah, Vishal; Manian, K. S. B.; Kayasth, Satish; Patel, Vinod; Ubale, Girish; Shah, Kirit; Solanki, Chirag; Deshpande, M. R.; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Umapathy, C. N.; Viswanath, N.; Kulkarni, Ravi; Kumar, P. S.

    2006-09-01

    The Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission onboardGSAT- 2 Indian Spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 using GSLV-D2 rocket by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). SOXS aims to study solar flares, which are the most violent and energetic phenomena in the solar system, in the energy range of 4-56 keV with high spectral and temporal resolution. SOXS employs state-of-the-art semiconductor devices, viz., Si-Pin and CZT detectors to achieve sub-keV energy resolution requirements. In this paper, we present an overview of data acquisition, control,communication and computation of low energy payload of the SOXS mission.

  9. Novel Tfap2-mediated control of soxE expression facilitated the evolutionary emergence of the neural crest.

    PubMed

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Li, Wei; Garnett, Aaron; Cattell, Maria; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans; Cornell, Robert A

    2012-02-01

    Gene duplication has been proposed to drive the evolution of novel morphologies. After gene duplication, it is unclear whether changes in the resulting paralogs' coding-regions, or in their cis-regulatory elements, contribute most significantly to the assembly of novel gene regulatory networks. The Transcription Factor Activator Protein 2 (Tfap2) was duplicated in the chordate lineage and is essential for development of the neural crest, a tissue that emerged with vertebrates. Using a tfap2-depleted zebrafish background, we test the ability of available gnathostome, agnathan, cephalochordate and insect tfap2 paralogs to drive neural crest development. With the exception of tfap2d (lamprey and zebrafish), all are able to do so. Together with expression analyses, these results indicate that sub-functionalization has occurred among Tfap2 paralogs, but that neo-functionalization of the Tfap2 protein did not drive the emergence of the neural crest. We investigate whether acquisition of novel target genes for Tfap2 might have done so. We show that in neural crest cells Tfap2 directly activates expression of sox10, which encodes a transcription factor essential for neural crest development. The appearance of this regulatory interaction is likely to have coincided with that of the neural crest, because AP2 and SoxE are not co-expressed in amphioxus, and because neural crest enhancers are not detected proximal to amphioxus soxE. We find that sox10 has limited ability to restore the neural crest in Tfap2-deficient embryos. Together, these results show that mutations resulting in novel Tfap2-mediated regulation of sox10 and other targets contributed to the evolution of the neural crest.

  10. Novel Tfap2-mediated control of soxE expression facilitated the evolutionary emergence of the neural crest

    PubMed Central

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Li, Wei; Garnett, Aaron; Cattell, Maria; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans; Cornell, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication has been proposed to drive the evolution of novel morphologies. After gene duplication, it is unclear whether changes in the resulting paralogs’ coding-regions, or in their cis-regulatory elements, contribute most significantly to the assembly of novel gene regulatory networks. The Transcription Factor Activator Protein 2 (Tfap2) was duplicated in the chordate lineage and is essential for development of the neural crest, a tissue that emerged with vertebrates. Using a tfap2-depleted zebrafish background, we test the ability of available gnathostome, agnathan, cephalochordate and insect tfap2 paralogs to drive neural crest development. With the exception of tfap2d (lamprey and zebrafish), all are able to do so. Together with expression analyses, these results indicate that sub-functionalization has occurred among Tfap2 paralogs, but that neo-functionalization of the Tfap2 protein did not drive the emergence of the neural crest. We investigate whether acquisition of novel target genes for Tfap2 might have done so. We show that in neural crest cells Tfap2 directly activates expression of sox10, which encodes a transcription factor essential for neural crest development. The appearance of this regulatory interaction is likely to have coincided with that of the neural crest, because AP2 and SoxE are not co-expressed in amphioxus, and because neural crest enhancers are not detected proximal to amphioxus soxE. We find that sox10 has limited ability to restore the neural crest in Tfap2-deficient embryos. Together, these results show that mutations resulting in novel Tfap2-mediated regulation of sox10 and other targets contributed to the evolution of the neural crest. PMID:22241841

  11. Generation of Immortalized Equine Chondrocytes With Inducible Sox9 Expression Allows Control of Hypertrophic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gurusinghe, Saliya; Hilbert, Bryan; Trope, Gareth; Wang, Lexin; Bandara, Nadeeka; Strappe, Padraig

    2016-10-27

    Immortalization of chondrocytes enables long term in vitro culture; however, the chondrogenic capacity of transformed cells varies, thus highlighting the need to develop a proliferative and tuneable chondrocyte cell line where hypertrophic differentiation can be controlled. In this study the SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase reverse transcriptase were employed to immortalize pooled equine chondrocytes through lentiviral vector mediated transduction either singly or on combination. Transformed chondrocytes proliferated stably over multiple passages, but resulted in significantly lower expression of chondrocyte specific collagen II mRNA (P < 0.0001) and up regulation of the hypertrophic marker collagen X (P < 0.0001) in three dimensional cultures. A Col2a1 promoter driven GFP reporter was constructed for real time monitoring of chondrogenic differentiation and a significant increase in promoter activation was observed in cultures treated with the growth factor TGFβ-3 (P < 0.05). To recapitulate the native articular chondrocyte phenotype we further transduced large T antigen immortalized chondrocytes with lentiviral vectors allowing either constitutive or doxycycline inducible expression of Sox9. In 3D cultures, the Sox9 over-expressing chondrocytes secreted significantly higher levels of extracellular matrix polysaccharide glycosaminoglycan (P < 0.05), while up-regulating collagen II and Aggrecan mRNA (P < 0.05) in both expression systems with a similar patterns observed with imunohistochemical staining. High levels of collagen X mRNA and protein were maintained with constitutive sox9 reflecting hypetrophic differentiation but significantly lower expression could be achieved with inducible Sox9. In conclusion, immortalization of equine chondrocytes results in stable proliferation but a reduction of chondrogenic potential whilst modulation of sox9 expression enabled control of hypertrophic characteristics. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1

  12. The Roles of the Stem Cell-Controlling Sox2 Transcription Factor: from Neuroectoderm Development to Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed

    Sarlak, Golmaryam; Vincent, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Sox2 is a component of the core transcriptional regulatory network which maintains the totipotency of the cells during embryonic preimplantation period, the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, and the multipotency of neural stem cells. This maintenance is controlled by internal loops between Sox2 and other transcription factors of the core such as Oct4, Nanog, Dax1, and Klf4, downstream proteins of extracellular ligands, epigenetic modifiers, and miRNAs. As Sox2 plays an important role in the balance between stem cells maintenance and commitment to differentiated lineages throughout the lifetime, it is supposed that Sox2 could regulate stem cells aging processes. In this review, we provide an update concerning the involvement of Sox2 in neurogenesis during normal aging and discuss its possible role in Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Sox17-Mediated Maintenance of Fetal Intra-Aortic Hematopoietic Cell Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Mitsujiro; Uemura, Mami; Kishikawa, Yoko; Anani, Maha; Harada, Kaho; Takagi, Haruna; Saito, Kiyoka; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Iwama, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    During mouse development, definitive hematopoiesis is first detected around embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, which exhibits intra-aortic cell clusters. These clusters are known to contain hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). On the other hand, it is not clear how the cells in such clusters maintain their HSC phenotype and how they are triggered to differentiate. Here we found that an endodermal transcription factor marker, Sox17, and other F-group (SoxF) proteins, Sox7 and Sox18, were expressed in E10.5 intra-aortic cell clusters. Forced expression of any of these SoxF proteins, particularly Sox17, in E10.5 AGM CD45low c-Kithigh cells, which are the major component of intra-aortic clusters, led to consistent formation of cell clusters in vitro during several passages of cocultures with stromal cells. Cluster-forming cells with constitutive Sox17 expression retained long-term bone marrow reconstitution activity in vivo. Notably, shutdown of exogenously introduced Sox17 gene expression resulted in immediate hematopoietic differentiation. These results indicate that SoxF proteins, especially Sox17, contribute to the maintenance of cell clusters containing HSCs in the midgestation AGM region. Furthermore, SoxF proteins play a pivotal role in controlling the HSC fate decision between indefinite self-renewal and differentiation during fetal hematopoiesis. PMID:24662049

  14. The transcription factor SOX17 is involved in the transcriptional control of the uteroglobin gene in rabbit endometrium.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos; Calvo, Enrique; Nieto, Antonio

    2007-10-15

    The transcription of the uteroglobin gene (ug) is induced by progesterone in the rabbit endometrium, primarily through the binding of the progesterone receptor to the distal region of the ug promoter. However, other transcription factors participate in the progesterone action. The proximal ug promoter contains several putative consensus sequences for the binding of various progesterone-dependent endometrial nuclear factors (Perez Martinez et al. [1996] Arch Biochem Biophys 333: 12-18), suggesting that several transcription factors might be implicated in the hormonal induction of ug. We report here that one of these progesterone-dependent factors specifically binds to the sequence CACAATG (-183/-177) of the rabbit ug promoter. This sequence (hereafter called element G') is very similar to the consensus sequence for binding of the SOX family of transcription factors. Mutation of the element G' reduced transcription from the ug promoter in transient expression experiments. The endometrial factor was purified and analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography and ion trap coupled mass spectrometry yielding two partial amino acid sequences corresponding to a region of SOX17 that is highly conserved inter-species. This identification was confirmed by immunological techniques using a specific anti-SOX17 antibody. In agreement with the above findings, overexpression of SOX17 in transfected endometrial cells increased transcription from the ug promoter. SOX17 gradually accumulated in the nucleus in vivo concomitant with the induction of ug expression by progesterone in the endometrium. Thus, these findings implicate, for the first time, SOX17 in the transcriptional control of rabbit ug.

  15. SOX genes: architects of development.

    PubMed

    Prior, H M; Walter, M A

    1996-07-01

    Development in higher organisms involves complex genetic regulation at the molecular level. The emerging picture of development control includes several families of master regulatory genes which can affect the expression of down-stream target genes in developmental cascade pathways. One new family of such development regulators is the SOX gene family. The SOX genes are named for a shared motif called the SRY box a region homologous to the DNA-binding domain of SRY, the mammalian sex determining gene. Like SRY, SOX genes play important roles in chordate development. At least a dozen human SOX genes have been identified and partially characterized (Tables 1 and 2). Mutations in SOX9 have recently been linked to campomelic dysplasia and autosomal sex reversal, and other SOX genes may also be associated with human disease.

  16. Impact of Sox9 Dosage and Hes1-mediated Notch Signaling in Controlling the Plasticity of Adult Pancreatic Duct Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Shinichi; Furuyama, Kenichiro; Horiguchi, Masashi; Aoyama, Yoshiki; Tsuboi, Kunihiko; Sakikubo, Morito; Goto, Toshihiko; Hirata, Koji; Tanabe, Wataru; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Uemoto, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    In the adult pancreas, there has been a long-standing dispute as to whether stem/precursor populations that retain plasticity to differentiate into endocrine or acinar cell types exist in ducts. We previously reported that adult Sox9-expressing duct cells are sufficiently plastic to supply new acinar cells in Sox9-IRES-CreERT2 knock-in mice. In the present study, using Sox9-IRES-CreERT2 knock-in mice as a model, we aimed to analyze how plasticity is controlled in adult ducts. Adult duct cells in these mice express less Sox9 than do wild-type mice but Hes1 equally. Acinar cell differentiation was accelerated by Hes1 inactivation, but suppressed by NICD induction in adult Sox9-expressing cells. Quantitative analyses showed that Sox9 expression increased with the induction of NICD but did not change with Hes1 inactivation, suggesting that Notch regulates Hes1 and Sox9 in parallel. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hes1-mediated Notch activity determines the plasticity of adult pancreatic duct cells and that there may exist a dosage requirement of Sox9 for keeping the duct cell identity in the adult pancreas. In contrast to the extended capability of acinar cell differentiation by Hes1 inactivation, we obtained no evidence of islet neogenesis from Hes1-depleted duct cells in physiological or PDL-induced injured conditions. PMID:25687338

  17. Fumarase C, the stable fumarase of Escherichia coli, is controlled by the soxRS regulon.

    PubMed Central

    Liochev, S I; Fridovich, I

    1992-01-01

    Fumarase C was strongly induced by paraquat in a parental strain of Escherichia coli but was not induced in a strain lacking the soxRS response. Moreover, a strain that constitutively expresses the soxRS regulon contained more fumarase C than did the parental strain. The Mn-containing superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, members of the soxRS regulon, were similarly induced by paraquat. Mutational defects in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased the induction of fumarase C by paraquat. For Mn-containing superoxide dismutase, responsiveness to paraquat was also enhanced in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-defective strains. Overproduction of the Mn-containing superoxide dismutase, elicited by isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside in a tac-sodA fusion strain, did not diminish induction of fumarase C or of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by paraquat, and induction of these enzymes was more sensitive to paraquat when the cells were growing on succinate rather than on LB medium. These results indicate that fumarase C is a member of the soxRS regulon and that this regulon does not respond to changes in O2- concentration but perhaps does respond to some consequence of a decrease in the ratio of NADPH to NADP+. PMID:1631070

  18. Sox2 in the dermal papilla niche controls hair growth by fine-tuning Bmp signaling in differentiating hair shaft progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, Carlos; Grisanti, Laura; Zemla, Roland; Rezza, Amelie; Barros, Rita; Sennett, Rachel; Mazloom, Amin; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Chen-Leng; Pevny, Larysa; Nicolis, Silvia; Ma’ayan, Avi; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY How dermal papilla (DP) niche cells regulate hair follicle progenitors to control hair growth remains unclear. Using Tbx18Cre to target embryonic DP precursors, we ablate the transcription factor Sox2 early and efficiently, resulting in diminished hair shaft outgrowth. We find that DP niche expression of Sox2 controls the migration rate of differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Transcriptional profiling of Sox2 null DPs reveals increased Bmp6 and decreased Bmp inhibitor Sostdc1, a direct Sox2 transcriptional target. Subsequently, we identify upregulated Bmp signaling in knockout hair shaft progenitors and demonstrate that Bmps inhibit cell migration, an effect that can be attenuated by Sostdc1. A shorter and Sox2-negative hair type lacks Sostdc1 in the DP and shows reduced migration and increased Bmp activity of hair shaft progenitors. Collectively, our data identify Sox2 as a key regulator of hair growth that controls progenitor migration by fine-tuning Bmp-mediated mesenchymal-epithelial crosstalk. PMID:23153495

  19. Sox2 in the dermal papilla niche controls hair growth by fine-tuning BMP signaling in differentiating hair shaft progenitors.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Carlos; Grisanti, Laura; Zemla, Roland; Rezza, Amelie; Barros, Rita; Sennett, Rachel; Mazloom, Amin Reza; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Chen-Leng; Pevny, Larysa; Nicolis, Silvia; Ma'ayan, Avi; Rendl, Michael

    2012-11-13

    How dermal papilla (DP) niche cells regulate hair follicle progenitors to control hair growth remains unclear. Using Tbx18(Cre) to target embryonic DP precursors, we ablate the transcription factor Sox2 early and efficiently, resulting in diminished hair shaft outgrowth. We find that DP niche expression of Sox2 controls the migration speed of differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Transcriptional profiling of Sox2 null DPs reveals increased Bmp6 and decreased BMP inhibitor Sostdc1, a direct Sox2 transcriptional target. Subsequently, we identify upregulated BMP signaling in knockout hair shaft progenitors and demonstrate that Bmp6 inhibits cell migration, an effect that can be attenuated by Sostdc1. A shorter and Sox2-negative hair type lacks Sostdc1 in the DP and shows reduced migration and increased BMP activity of hair shaft progenitors. Collectively, our data identify Sox2 as a key regulator of hair growth that controls progenitor migration by fine-tuning BMP-mediated mesenchymal-epithelial crosstalk.

  20. NR2F1 controls tumor cell dormancy via SOX9 and RARβ driven quiescence programs

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Maria Soledad; Parikh, Falguni; Maia, Alexandre Gaspar; Estrada, Yeriel; Bosch, Almudena; Bragado, Paloma; Ekpin, Esther; George, Ajish; Zheng, Yang; Lam, Hung-Ming; Morrissey, Colm; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Farias, Eduardo F.; Bernstein, Emily; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases can originate from disseminated tumor cells (DTCs), which may be dormant for years before reactivation. Here we find that the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1 is epigenetically upregulated in experimental HNSCC dormancy models and in DTCs from prostate cancer patients carrying dormant disease for 7–18 years. NR2F1-dependent dormancy is recapitulated by a co-treatment with the DNA demethylating agent 5-Aza-C and retinoic acid across various cancer types. NR2F1-induced quiescence is dependent on SOX9, RARβ and CDK inhibitors. Intriguingly, NR2F1 induces global chromatin repression and the pluripotency gene NANOG, which contributes to dormancy of DTCs in the bone marrow. When NR2F1 is blocked in vivo, growth arrest or survival of dormant DTCs is interrupted in different organs. We conclude that NR2F1 is a critical node in dormancy induction and maintenance by integrating epigenetic programs of quiescence and survival in DTCs. PMID:25636082

  1. Elevated FOXG1 and SOX2 in glioblastoma enforces neural stem cell identity through transcriptional control of cell cycle and epigenetic regulators

    PubMed Central

    Bulstrode, Harry; Johnstone, Ewan; Marques-Torrejon, Maria Angeles; Ferguson, Kirsty M.; Bressan, Raul Bardini; Blin, Carla; Grant, Vivien; Gogolok, Sabine; Gangoso, Ester; Gagrica, Sladjana; Ender, Christine; Fotaki, Vassiliki; Sproul, Duncan; Bertone, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor driven by cells with hallmarks of neural stem (NS) cells. GBM stem cells frequently express high levels of the transcription factors FOXG1 and SOX2. Here we show that increased expression of these factors restricts astrocyte differentiation and can trigger dedifferentiation to a proliferative NS cell state. Transcriptional targets include cell cycle and epigenetic regulators (e.g., Foxo3, Plk1, Mycn, Dnmt1, Dnmt3b, and Tet3). Foxo3 is a critical repressed downstream effector that is controlled via a conserved FOXG1/SOX2-bound cis-regulatory element. Foxo3 loss, combined with exposure to the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine, enforces astrocyte dedifferentiation. DNA methylation profiling in differentiating astrocytes identifies changes at multiple polycomb targets, including the promoter of Foxo3. In patient-derived GBM stem cells, CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of FOXG1 does not impact proliferation in vitro; however, upon transplantation in vivo, FOXG1-null cells display increased astrocyte differentiation and up-regulate FOXO3. In contrast, SOX2 ablation attenuates proliferation, and mutant cells cannot be expanded in vitro. Thus, FOXG1 and SOX2 operate in complementary but distinct roles to fuel unconstrained self-renewal in GBM stem cells via transcriptional control of core cell cycle and epigenetic regulators. PMID:28465359

  2. Elevated FOXG1 and SOX2 in glioblastoma enforces neural stem cell identity through transcriptional control of cell cycle and epigenetic regulators.

    PubMed

    Bulstrode, Harry; Johnstone, Ewan; Marques-Torrejon, Maria Angeles; Ferguson, Kirsty M; Bressan, Raul Bardini; Blin, Carla; Grant, Vivien; Gogolok, Sabine; Gangoso, Ester; Gagrica, Sladjana; Ender, Christine; Fotaki, Vassiliki; Sproul, Duncan; Bertone, Paul; Pollard, Steven M

    2017-04-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor driven by cells with hallmarks of neural stem (NS) cells. GBM stem cells frequently express high levels of the transcription factors FOXG1 and SOX2. Here we show that increased expression of these factors restricts astrocyte differentiation and can trigger dedifferentiation to a proliferative NS cell state. Transcriptional targets include cell cycle and epigenetic regulators (e.g., Foxo3, Plk1, Mycn, Dnmt1, Dnmt3b, and Tet3). Foxo3 is a critical repressed downstream effector that is controlled via a conserved FOXG1/SOX2-bound cis-regulatory element. Foxo3 loss, combined with exposure to the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine, enforces astrocyte dedifferentiation. DNA methylation profiling in differentiating astrocytes identifies changes at multiple polycomb targets, including the promoter of Foxo3 In patient-derived GBM stem cells, CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of FOXG1 does not impact proliferation in vitro; however, upon transplantation in vivo, FOXG1-null cells display increased astrocyte differentiation and up-regulate FOXO3. In contrast, SOX2 ablation attenuates proliferation, and mutant cells cannot be expanded in vitro. Thus, FOXG1 and SOX2 operate in complementary but distinct roles to fuel unconstrained self-renewal in GBM stem cells via transcriptional control of core cell cycle and epigenetic regulators. © 2017 Bulstrode et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Parrilla, Marta; León-Lobera, Fernando; Lillo, Concepción; Arévalo, Rosario; Aijón, José; Lara, Juan Manuel; Velasco, Almudena

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP), as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes. PMID:27149509

  4. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Marta; León-Lobera, Fernando; Lillo, Concepción; Arévalo, Rosario; Aijón, José; Lara, Juan Manuel; Velasco, Almudena

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP), as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  5. Sox17-dependent gene expression and early heart and gut development in Sox17-deficient mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Sabine; Jones, Vanessa J; Power, Melinda; Truisi, Germaine L; Khoo, Poh-Lynn; Steiner, Kirsten A; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Tam, Patrick P L; Loebel, David A F

    2011-01-01

    Sox17 is a transcription factor that is required for maintenance of the definitive endoderm in mouse embryos. By expression profiling of wild-type and mutant embryos and Sox17-overexpressing hepatoma cells, we identified genes with Sox17-dependent expression. Among the genes that were up-regulated in Sox17-null embryos and down-regulated by Sox17 expressing HepG2 cells is a set of genes that are expressed in the developing liver, suggesting that one function of Sox17 is the repression of liver gene expression, which is compatible with a role for Sox17 in maintaining the definitive endoderm in a progenitor state. Consistent with these findings, Sox17(-/-) cells display a diminished capacity to contribute to the definitive endoderm when transplanted into wild-type hosts. Analysis of gene ontology further revealed that many genes related to heart development were downregulated in Sox17-null embryos. This is associated with the defective development of the heart in the mutant embryos, which is accompanied by localised loss of Myocd-expressing cardiogenic progenitors and the malformation of the anterior intestinal portal.

  6. New POU dimer configuration mediates antagonistic control of an osteopontin preimplantation enhancer by Oct-4 and Sox-2

    PubMed Central

    Botquin, Valérie; Hess, Heike; Fuhrmann, Guy; Anastassiadis, Constantinos; Gross, Michael K.; Vriend, Gerrit; Schöler, Hans R.

    1998-01-01

    The POU transcription factor Oct-4 is expressed specifically in the germ line, pluripotent cells of the pregastrulation embryo and stem cell lines derived from the early embryo. Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein secreted by cells of the preimplantation embryo and contains a GRGDS motif that can bind to specific integrin subtypes and modulate cell adhesion/migration. We show that Oct-4 and OPN are coexpressed in the preimplantation mouse embryo and during differentiation of embryonal cell lines. Immunoprecipitation of the first intron of OPN (i-opn) from covalently fixed chromatin of embryonal stem cells by Oct-4-specific antibodies indicates that Oct-4 binds to this fragment in vivo. The i-opn fragment functions as an enhancer in cell lines that resemble cells of the preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, it contains a novel palindromic Oct factor recognition element (PORE) that is composed of an inverted pair of homeodomain-binding sites separated by exactly 5 bp (ATTTG +5 CAAAT). POU proteins can homo- and heterodimerize on the PORE in a configuration that has not been described previously. Strong transcriptional activation of the OPN element requires an intact PORE. In contrast, the canonical octamer overlapping with the downstream half of the PORE is not essential. Sox-2 is a transcription factor that contains an HMG box and is coexpressed with Oct-4 in the early mouse embryo. Sox-2 represses Oct-4 mediated activation of i-opn by way of a canonical Sox element that is located close to the PORE. Repression depends on a carboxy-terminal region of Sox-2 that is outside of the HMG box. Expression, DNA binding, and transactivation data are consistent with the hypothesis that OPN expression is regulated by Oct-4 and Sox-2 in preimplantation development. PMID:9649510

  7. Mesoderm-specific Stat3 deletion affects expression of Sox9 yielding Sox9-dependent phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael D.; Murray, Caroline A.; Perantoni, Alan O.

    2017-01-01

    To date, mutations within the coding region and translocations around the SOX9 gene both constitute the majority of genetic lesions underpinning human campomelic dysplasia (CD). While pathological coding-region mutations typically result in a non-functional SOX9 protein, little is known about what mechanism(s) controls normal SOX9 expression, and subsequently, which signaling pathways may be interrupted by alterations occurring around the SOX9 gene. Here, we report the identification of Stat3 as a key modulator of Sox9 expression in nascent cartilage and developing chondrocytes. Stat3 expression is predominant in tissues of mesodermal origin, and its conditional ablation using mesoderm-specific TCre, in vivo, causes dwarfism and skeletal defects characteristic of CD. Specifically, Stat3 loss results in the expansion of growth plate hypertrophic chondrocytes and deregulation of normal endochondral ossification in all bones examined. Conditional deletion of Stat3 with a Sox9Cre driver produces palate and tracheal irregularities similar to those described in Sox9+/- mice. Furthermore, mesodermal deletion of Stat3 causes global embryonic down regulation of Sox9 expression and function in vivo. Mechanistic experiments ex vivo suggest Stat3 can directly activate the expression of Sox9 by binding to its proximal promoter following activation. These findings illuminate a novel role for Stat3 in chondrocytes during skeletal development through modulation of a critical factor, Sox9. Importantly, they further provide the first evidence for the modulation of a gene product other than Sox9 itself which is capable of modeling pathological aspects of CD and underscore a potentially valuable therapeutic target for patients with the disorder. PMID:28166224

  8. ompW is cooperatively upregulated by MarA and SoxS in response to menadione.

    PubMed

    Collao, B; Morales, E H; Gil, F; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P

    2013-04-01

    OmpW is a minor porin whose biological function has not been clearly defined. Evidence obtained in our laboratory indicates that in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium the expression of OmpW is activated by SoxS upon exposure to paraquat and it is required for resistance. SoxS belongs to the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, like MarA and Rob. Due to their high structural similarity, the genes under their control have been grouped in the mar/sox/rob regulon, which presents a DNA-binding consensus sequence denominated the marsox box. In this work, we evaluated the role of the transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in regulating ompW expression in response to menadione. We determined the transcript and protein levels of OmpW in different genetic backgrounds; in the wild-type and Δrob strains ompW was upregulated in response to menadione, while in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS strains the induction was abolished. In a double marA soxS mutant, ompW transcript levels were lowered after exposure to menadione, and only complementation in trans with both genes restored the positive regulation. Using transcriptional fusions and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with mutant versions of the promoter region we demonstrated that two of the predicted sites were functional. Additionally, we demonstrated that MarA increases the affinity of SoxS for the ompW promoter region. In conclusion, our study shows that ompW is upregulated in response to menadione in a cooperative manner by MarA and SoxS through a direct interaction with the promoter region.

  9. Generation of transgenic mice for conditional overexpression of Sox9

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngwoo; Murao, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Koji; Deng, Jian Min; Behringer, Richard R.; Nakamura, Takashi; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    Sox9 belongs to the family of Sry-related high-mobility group box transcription factors controlling cell fate, cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including cartilage, testis, the central nervous system, kidney, and gastrointestine. Mice conditionally lacking Sox9 have revealed essential roles for Sox9 in these tissues. To gain further insight into the role of Sox9 in different tissues and at different stages of development, we have generated a transgenic mouse line to express Sox9 in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. The construct contained the human cytomegalovirus enhancer and chicken β-actin promoter, and a floxed monomeric red fluorescence protein 1 (mRFP1) cassette to direct ubiquitous expression of mRFP1. Cre expression removed the mRFP1 gene, allowing expression of Sox9 and enhanced green fluorescent protein. Expectedly, overexpression of Sox9 in chondrocytes using Col2a1-Cre mice suppressed chondrocyte hypertrophy, and delayed terminal differentiation and subsequent ossification. Misexpression of Sox9 in hypertrophic chondrocytes using Col10a1-Cre knock-in mice also delayed terminal differentiation. This Sox9 conditional transgenic mouse line will be a valuable tool to uncover tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific functions of Sox9. PMID:20676705

  10. Time for a second look at SOX compliance.

    PubMed

    Bigalke, John T; Burrill, Stephen J

    2007-08-01

    Incentives for tax-exempt healthcare organizations to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) abound from many quarters, including government, various associations, and the capital markets. New proposals from the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Public Company Accountability Oversight Board will streamline the processes of SOX compliance, even as the cost of compliance is dropping. Voluntary SOX compliance can best be achieved by adopting a four-phased control rationalization approach to implementation and maintenance.

  11. Failure of SOX9 Regulation in 46XY Disorders of Sex Development with SRY, SOX9 and SF1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Knower, Kevin C.; Kelly, Sabine; Ludbrook, Louisa M.; Bagheri-Fam, Stefan; Sim, Helena; Bernard, Pascal; Sekido, Ryohei; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Harley, Vincent R.

    2011-01-01

    Background In human embryogenesis, loss of SRY (sex determining region on Y), SOX9 (SRY-related HMG box 9) or SF1 (steroidogenic factor 1) function causes disorders of sex development (DSD). A defining event of vertebrate sex determination is male-specific upregulation and maintenance of SOX9 expression in gonadal pre-Sertoli cells, which is preceded by transient SRY expression in mammals. In mice, Sox9 regulation is under the transcriptional control of SRY, SF1 and SOX9 via a conserved testis-specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES). Regulation of SOX9 in human sex determination is however poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that a human embryonal carcinoma cell line (NT2/D1) can model events in presumptive Sertoli cells that initiate human sex determination. SRY associates with transcriptionally active chromatin in NT2/D1 cells and over-expression increases endogenous SOX9 expression. SRY and SF1 co-operate to activate the human SOX9 homologous TES (hTES), a process dependent on phosphorylated SF1. SOX9 also activates hTES, augmented by SF1, suggesting a mechanism for maintenance of SOX9 expression by auto-regulation. Analysis of mutant SRY, SF1 and SOX9 proteins encoded by thirteen separate 46,XY DSD gonadal dysgenesis individuals reveals a reduced ability to activate hTES. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate how three human sex-determining factors are likely to function during gonadal development around SOX9 as a hub gene, with different genetic causes of 46,XY DSD due a common failure to upregulate SOX9 transcription. PMID:21412441

  12. MarA, SoxS and Rob function as virulence factors in an Escherichia coli murine model of ascending pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Casaz, Paul; Garrity-Ryan, Lynne K; McKenney, David; Jackson, Caroline; Levy, Stuart B; Tanaka, S Ken; Alekshun, Michael N

    2006-12-01

    MarA, SoxS and Rob are transcription factors belonging to the AraC family. While these proteins have been associated historically with control of multiple antibiotic resistance, and tolerance to oxidative stress agents and organic solvents, only a paucity of experimental data support a role in regulating virulence. Clinical Escherichia coli isolates, and isogenic strains lacking marA, soxS and rob, were studied in a murine model of ascending pyelonephritis, which is a clinically relevant model of urinary tract infection. Organisms lacking all three transcription factors (triple knockouts) were significantly less virulent than parental strains, and complementation studies demonstrated that the addition of marA, soxS and rob individually restored wild-type virulence in the triple-knockout strain. Deletion of soxS or rob alone was more detrimental than the removal of marA. Thus, all three proteins contribute to virulence in vivo.

  13. C. elegans SoxB genes are dispensable for embryonic neurogenesis but required for terminal differentiation of specific neuron types

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Berta; Santella, Anthony; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Bao, Zhirong; Chuang, Chiou-Fen; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis involves deeply conserved patterning molecules, such as the proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Sox proteins and specifically members of the SoxB and SoxC groups are another class of conserved transcription factors with an important role in neuronal fate commitment and differentiation in various species. In this study, we examine the expression of all five Sox genes of the nematode C. elegans and analyze the effect of null mutant alleles of all members of the SoxB and SoxC groups on nervous system development. Surprisingly, we find that, unlike in other systems, neither of the two C. elegans SoxB genes sox-2 (SoxB1) and sox-3 (SoxB2), nor the sole C. elegans SoxC gene sem-2, is broadly expressed throughout the embryonic or adult nervous system and that all three genes are mostly dispensable for embryonic neurogenesis. Instead, sox-2 is required to maintain the developmental potential of blast cells that are generated in the embryo but divide only postembryonically to give rise to differentiated neuronal cell types. Moreover, sox-2 and sox-3 have selective roles in the terminal differentiation of specific neuronal cell types. Our findings suggest that the common themes of SoxB gene function across phylogeny lie in specifying developmental potential and, later on, in selectively controlling terminal differentiation programs of specific neuron types, but not in broadly controlling neurogenesis. PMID:26153233

  14. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8-/- mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15635.001 PMID:27328324

  15. Sox proteins in melanocyte development and melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Melissa L.; Baxter, Laura L.; Loftus, Stacie K.; Pavan, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Over ten years has passed since the first Sox gene was implicated in melanocyte development. Since then, we have discovered that SOX5, SOX9, SOX10 and SOX18 all participate as transcription factors that affect key melanocytic genes in both regulatory and modulatory fashions. Both SOX9 and SOX10 play major roles in the establishment and normal function of the melanocyte; SOX10 has been shown to heavily influence melanocyte development and SOX9 has been implicated in melanogenesis in the adult. Despite these advances, the precise cellular and molecular details of how these SOX proteins are regulated and interact during all stages of the melanocyte life cycle remain unknown. Improper regulation of SOX9 or SOX10 is also associated with cancerous transformation, and thus understanding the normal function of SOX proteins in the melanocyte will be key to revealing how these proteins contribute to melanoma. PMID:20444197

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa SoxR does not conform to the archetypal paradigm for SoxR-dependent regulation of the bacterial oxidative stress adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Palma, Marco; Zurita, Juan; Ferreras, Julian A; Worgall, Stefan; Larone, Davise H; Shi, Lei; Campagne, Fabien; Quadri, Luis E N

    2005-05-01

    SoxR is a transcriptional regulator that controls an oxidative stress response in Escherichia coli. The regulator is primarily activated by superoxide anion-dependent oxidation. Activated SoxR turns on transcription of a single gene, soxS, which encodes a transcriptional regulator that activates a regulon that includes dozens of oxidative stress response genes. SoxR homologues have been identified in many bacterial species, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the expected SoxR partner, SoxS, has not been found in P. aeruginosa. Thus, the primary gene target(s) of P. aeruginosa SoxR is unknown and the involvement of this regulator in the oxidative stress response of the bacterium remains unclear. We utilized transcriptome profiling to identify the P. aeruginosa SoxR regulon and constructed and characterized an unmarked P. aeruginosa DeltasoxR mutant. We provide evidence indicating that P. aeruginosa SoxR activates a six-gene regulon in response to O(2)(.-)-induced stress. The regulon includes three transcriptional units: (i) the recently identified mexGHI-ompD four-gene operon, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump system involved in quorum-sensing signal homeostasis; (ii) gene PA3718, encoding a probable efflux pump; and (iii) gene PA2274, encoding a probable monooxygenase. We also demonstrate that P. aeruginosa SoxR is not a key regulatory player in the oxidative stress response. Finally, we show that P. aeruginosa SoxR is required for virulence in a mouse model of intrapulmonary infection. These results demonstrate that the E. coli-based SoxRS paradigm does not hold in P. aeruginosa and foster new hypotheses for the possible physiological role of P. aeruginosa SoxR.

  17. A new long form of Sox5 (L-Sox5), Sox6 and Sox9 are coexpressed in chondrogenesis and cooperatively activate the type II collagen gene.

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, V; Li, P; de Crombrugghe, B

    1998-01-01

    Transcripts for a new form of Sox5, called L-Sox5, and Sox6 are coexpressed with Sox9 in all chondrogenic sites of mouse embryos. A coiled-coil domain located in the N-terminal part of L-Sox5, and absent in Sox5, showed >90% identity with a similar domain in Sox6 and mediated homodimerization and heterodimerization with Sox6. Dimerization of L-Sox5/Sox6 greatly increased efficiency of binding of the two Sox proteins to DNA containing adjacent HMG sites. L-Sox5, Sox6 and Sox9 cooperatively activated expression of the chondrocyte differentiation marker Col2a1 in 10T1/2 and MC615 cells. A 48 bp chondrocyte-specific enhancer in this gene, which contains several HMG-like sites that are necessary for enhancer activity, bound the three Sox proteins and was cooperatively activated by the three Sox proteins in non-chondrogenic cells. Our data suggest that L-Sox5/Sox6 and Sox9, which belong to two different classes of Sox transcription factors, cooperate with each other in expression of Col2a1 and possibly other genes of the chondrocytic program. PMID:9755172

  18. The Function of HMG-Box Transcription Factors Sox4a and Sox4b in Zebrafish Bone Development and Homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, J.; Motte, P.; Martial, J. A.; Muller, M.

    2008-06-01

    In mammals, the Sox4 gene is involved in development of endocardial crests, the brain, the lung, teeth, gonads and lymphocytes. Recently, Sox4 was shown to control bone mass and mineralization in mice. In zebrafish, two homologs for the mammalian Sox4 are present, sox4a and sox4b. Here we investigate the function of the sox4a and sox4b genes in cartilage and bone development in zebrafish. Therefore, we focus our attention on the first bone structures to be formed, the head skeleton and more precisely the pharyngeal cartilage. We show that both genes are expressed in the pharyngeal region, albeit at different time points during development. Double in situ hybridization experiments are used to exactly define the particular tissues where they are expressed. Furthermore, microinjection experiments of antisense oligonucleotides are used to block translation of these specific genes and to define their precise function during cartilage and bone development.

  19. A Unilateral Negative Feedback Loop Between miR-200 microRNAs and Sox2/E2F3 Controls Neural Progenitor Cell-Cycle Exit and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Changgeng; Li, Na; Ng, Yen-Kar; Zhang, Jingzhong; Meier, Florian; Theis, Fabian J.; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression during vertebrate development. We show that the miR-200 family plays a crucial role for the proper generation and survival of ventral neuronal populations in the murine midbrain/hindbrain region, including midbrain dopaminergic neurons, by directly targeting the pluripotency factor Sox2 and the cell-cycle regulator E2F3 in neural stem/progenitor cells. The lack of a negative regulation of Sox2 and E2F3 by miR-200 in conditional Dicer1 mutants (En1+/Cre; Dicer1flox/flox mice) and after miR-200 knockdown in vitro leads to a strongly reduced cell-cycle exit and neuronal differentiation of ventral midbrain/hindbrain (vMH) neural progenitors, whereas the opposite effect is seen after miR-200 overexpression in primary vMH cells. Expression of miR-200 is in turn directly regulated by Sox2 and E2F3, thereby establishing a unilateral negative feedback loop required for the cell-cycle exit and neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. Our findings suggest that the posttranscriptional regulation of Sox2 and E2F3 by miR-200 family members might be a general mechanism to control the transition from a pluripotent/multipotent stem/progenitor cell to a postmitotic and more differentiated cell. PMID:22993445

  20. No backbone but lots of Sox: Invertebrate Sox genes.

    PubMed

    Phochanukul, Nichanun; Russell, Steven

    2010-03-01

    Sox transcription factors are intimately involved in the development of multicellular organisms and accordingly understanding the role Sox genes play in diverse species of metazoans will hopefully shed light on the evolution of multicellularity. Here we review our current knowledge of the Sox genes isolated and characterised in invertebrates, ranging from the very simplest organisms through to complex chordates. While Sox genes have been identified in many invertebrate species, comparatively little is known about their functions outside the well-studied models, Drosophila, sea urchin and nematode. Consequently, we centre this review around the Sox family in Drosophila, comparing this with what is known about orthologous genes in other invertebrate species. We highlight several conserved themes that emerge when looking at the roles Sox proteins appear to play during embryogenesis, including early functions in CNS development and widespread interactions with the Wnt signalling pathway. Comparing the expression of Sox genes in insect species, where genome organisation is conserved but expression is apparently not, highlights the need for more functional data on the roles that related Sox proteins play in organisms outside the well-characterised models.

  1. The Postnatal Role of Sox9 in Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Stephen P.; Liang, Shoudan; Akdemir, Kadir C; de Crombrugghe, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Sox9 is an essential transcription factor for the differentiation of the chondrocytic lineage during embryonic development. To test whether Sox9 continues to play a critical role in cartilaginous tissues in the adult mice, we used an inducible, genetic strategy to disrupt the Sox9 gene postnatally in these tissues. The postnatal inactivation of Sox9 led to stunted growth characterized by decreased proliferation, increased cell death, and de-differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Upon postnatal Sox9 inactivation in the articular cartilage, the sulfated proteoglycan and aggrecan content of the uncalcified cartilage were rapidly depleted and the degradation of aggrecan was accompanied by higher ADAMTS5 immunostaining and increased detection of the aggrecan neoepitope, NITEGE. In spite of the severe loss of Collagen 2a1 mRNA, the Collagen II protein persisted in the articular cartilage, and no histopathological signs of osteoarthritis were observed. The homeostasis of the intervertebral disk (IVD) was dramatically altered upon Sox9 depletion, resulting in disk compression and subsequent degeneration. Inactivation of Sox9 in the IVD markedly reduced the expression of several genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, as well as some of the enzymes responsible for their posttranslational modification. Furthermore, the loss of Sox9 in the IVD decreased the expression of cytokines, cell surface receptors, and ion channels suggesting that Sox9 coordinates a large genetic program that is instrumental for the proper homeostasis of the cells contained in the intervertebral disk postnatally. Our results indicate that Sox9 has an essential role in the physiological control of cartilaginous tissues in adult mice. PMID:22777888

  2. 33 CFR 2.5 - Specific definitions control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territories and possessions of the United States. The definitions in §§ 2.36 and 2.38 should be considered as... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific definitions control. 2.5... JURISDICTION General § 2.5 Specific definitions control. In cases where a particular statute, regulation...

  3. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Watanabe, Momoko; Idrus, Erik; Nagai, Takahiro; Oommen, Shelly; Maeda, Takeyasu; Hagiwara, Nobuko; Que, Jianwen; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development.

  4. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development

    PubMed Central

    KAWASAKI, KATSUSHIGE; KAWASAKI, MAIKO; WATANABE, MOMOKO; IDRUS, ERIK; NAGAI, TAKAHIRO; OOMMEN, SHELLY; MAEDA, TAKEYASU; HAGIWARA, NOBUKO; QUE, JIANWEN; SHARPE, PAUL T.; OHAZAMA, ATSUSHI

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development. PMID:26864488

  5. Sox2 acts as a rheostat of epithelial to mesenchymal transition during neural crest development

    PubMed Central

    Mandalos, Nikolaos; Rhinn, Muriel; Granchi, Zoraide; Karampelas, Ioannis; Mitsiadis, Thimios; Economides, Aris N.; Dollé, Pascal; Remboutsika, Eumorphia

    2014-01-01

    Precise control of self-renewal and differentiation of progenitor cells into the cranial neural crest (CNC) pool ensures proper head development, guided by signaling pathways such as BMPs, FGFs, Shh and Notch. Here, we show that murine Sox2 plays an essential role in controlling progenitor cell behavior during craniofacial development. A “Conditional by Inversion” Sox2 allele (Sox2COIN) has been employed to generate an epiblast ablation of Sox2 function (Sox2EpINV). Sox2EpINV/+(H) haploinsufficient and conditional (Sox2EpINV/mosaic) mutant embryos proceed beyond gastrulation and die around E11. These mutant embryos exhibit severe anterior malformations, with hydrocephaly and frontonasal truncations, which could be attributed to the deregulation of CNC progenitor cells during their epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This irregularity results in an exacerbated and aberrant migration of Sox10+ NCC in the branchial arches and frontonasal process of the Sox2 mutant embryos. These results suggest a novel role for Sox2 as a regulator of the epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMT) that are important for the cell flow in the developing head. PMID:25309446

  6. SoxC Transcription Factors Are Required for Neuronal Differentiation in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lifang; Berti, Lucia; Masserdotti, Giacomo; Covic, Marcela; Michaelidis, Theologos M.; Doberauer, Kathrin; Merz, Katharina; Rehfeld, Frederick; Haslinger, Anja; Wegner, Michael; Sock, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Veronique; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Aigner, Ludwig; Berninger, Benedikt; Lie, D. Chichung

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new hippocampal dentate granule neurons throughout adulthood. The genetic programs controlling neuronal differentiation of adult NSCs are only poorly understood. Here we show that, in the adult mouse hippocampus, expression of the SoxC transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 is initiated around the time of neuronal commitment of adult NSCs and is maintained in immature neurons. Overexpression of Sox4 and Sox11 strongly promotes in vitro neurogenesis from adult NSCs, whereas ablation of Sox4/Sox11 prevents in vitro and in vivo neurogenesis from adult NSCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that SoxC transcription factors target the promoters of genes that are induced on neuronal differentiation of adult NSCs. Finally, we show that reprogramming of astroglia into neurons is dependent on the presence of SoxC factors. These data identify SoxC proteins as essential contributors to the genetic network controlling neuronal differentiation in adult neurogenesis and neuronal reprogramming of somatic cells. PMID:22378879

  7. SOX9 modulates the expression of key transcription factors required for heart valve development.

    PubMed

    Garside, Victoria C; Cullum, Rebecca; Alder, Olivia; Lu, Daphne Y; Vander Werff, Ryan; Bilenky, Mikhail; Zhao, Yongjun; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Underhill, T Michael; Hoodless, Pamela A

    2015-12-15

    Heart valve formation initiates when endothelial cells of the heart transform into mesenchyme and populate the cardiac cushions. The transcription factor SOX9 is highly expressed in the cardiac cushion mesenchyme, and is essential for heart valve development. Loss of Sox9 in mouse cardiac cushion mesenchyme alters cell proliferation, embryonic survival, and valve formation. Despite this important role, little is known about how SOX9 regulates heart valve formation or its transcriptional targets. Therefore, we mapped putative SOX9 binding sites by ChIP-Seq in E12.5 heart valves, a stage at which the valve mesenchyme is actively proliferating and initiating differentiation. Embryonic heart valves have been shown to express a high number of genes that are associated with chondrogenesis, including several extracellular matrix proteins and transcription factors that regulate chondrogenesis. Therefore, we compared regions of putative SOX9 DNA binding between E12.5 heart valves and E12.5 limb buds. We identified context-dependent and context-independent SOX9-interacting regions throughout the genome. Analysis of context-independent SOX9 binding suggests an extensive role for SOX9 across tissues in regulating proliferation-associated genes including key components of the AP-1 complex. Integrative analysis of tissue-specific SOX9-interacting regions and gene expression profiles on Sox9-deficient heart valves demonstrated that SOX9 controls the expression of several transcription factors with previously identified roles in heart valve development, including Twist1, Sox4, Mecom and Pitx2. Together, our data identify SOX9-coordinated transcriptional hierarchies that control cell proliferation and differentiation during valve formation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Analysis of SOX2-Regulated Transcriptome in Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acanda de la Rocha, Arlet M.; López-Bertoni, Hernando; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; González-Huarriz, Marisol; Martínez-Vélez, Naiara; Xipell, Enric; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with poor survival despite multimodal treatments. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are cells functionally defined by their self-renewal potential and the ability to reconstitute the original tumor upon orthotopic implantation. They have been postulated to be the culprit of glioma chemo- and radio-resistance ultimately leading to relapse. Understanding the molecular circuits governing the GSC compartment is essential. SOX2, a critical transcription regulator of embryonic and neural stem cell function, is deregulated in GSCs however; the precise molecular pathways regulated by this gene in GSCs remain poorly understood. Results We performed a genome-wide analysis of SOX2-regulated transcripts in GSCs, using a microarray. We identified a total of 2048 differentially expressed coding transcripts and 261 non-coding transcripts. Cell adhesion and cell-cell signaling are among the most enriched terms using Gene Ontology (GO) classification. The pathways altered after SOX2 down-modulation includes multiple cellular processes such as amino-acid metabolism and intercellular signaling cascades. We also defined and classified the set of non-coding transcripts differentially expressed regulated by SOX2 in GSCs, and validated two of them. Conclusions We present a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome controlled by SOX2 in GSCs, gaining insights in the understanding of the potential roles of SOX2 in glioblastoma. PMID:27669421

  9. SOX9 Maintains Reserve Stem Cells and Preserves Radioresistance in Mouse Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Kyle C.; Gracz, Adam D.; Liu, Xiao Fu; Newton, Victoria; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Magness, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Reserve intestinal stem cells (rISCs) are quiescent/slowly cycling under homeostatic conditions, allowing for their identification with label-retention assays. rISCs mediate epithelial regeneration after tissue damage by converting to actively proliferating stem cells (aISCs) that self renew and demonstrate multipotency, which are defining properties of stem cells. Little is known about the genetic mechanisms that regulate the production and maintenance of rISCs. High expression levels of the transcription factor Sox9 (Sox9high) are associated with rISCs. This study investigates the role of SOX9 in regulating the rISC state. METHODS We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate cells defined as aISCs (Lgr5high) and rISCs (Sox9high) from Lgr5EGFP and Sox9EGFP reporter mice. Expression of additional markers associated with active and reserve ISCs were assessed in Lgr5high and Sox9high populations by single-cell gene expression analyses. We used label-retention assays to identify whether Sox9high cells were label-retatining cells (LRCs). Lineage-tracing experiments were performed in Sox9-CreERT2 mice to measure the stem cell capacities and radioresistance of Sox9-expressing cells. Conditional SOX9 knockout mice and inducible-conditional SOX9 knockout mice were used to determine whether SOX9 was required to maintain LRCs and rISC function. RESULTS Lgr5high and a subset of crypt-based Sox9high cells co-express markers of aISC and rISC (Lgr5. Bmi1. Lrig1, and Hopx). LRCs express high levels of Sox9 and are lost in SOX9-knockout mice. SOX9 is required for epithelial regeneration after high-dose irradiation. Crypts from SOX9-knockout mice have increased sensitivity to radiation, compared with control mice, which could not be attributed to impaired cell-cycle arrest or DNA repair. CONCLUSIONS SOX9 limits proliferation in LRCs and imparts radiation resistance to rISCs in mice. PMID:26170137

  10. Establishment and initial characterization of SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones.

    PubMed

    Drakulic, D; Krstic, A; Stevanovic, M

    2012-05-15

    SOX2, a universal marker of pluripotent stem cells, is a transcription factor that helps control embryonic development in vertebrates; its expression persists in neural stem/progenitor cells into adulthood. Considering the critical role of the SOX2 transcription factor in the regulation of genes required for self-renewal and pluripotency of stem cells, we developed and characterized SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones. Using Southern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed integration and expression of exogenous SOX2 in three NT2/D1 cell clones. Overexpression of the SOX2 gene was detected in two of these clones. SOX2 overexpression in NT2/D1 cell clones resulted in altered expression of key pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG. Furthermore, SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones entered into retinoic acid-dependent neural differentiation, even when there was elevated SOX2 expression. After 21 days of induction by retinoic acid, expression of neural markers (neuroD1 and synaptophysin) was higher in induced cell clones than in induced parental cells. The cell clone with SOX2 overexpression had an approximately 1.3-fold higher growth rate compared to parental cells. SOX2 overexpression did not increase the population of cells undergoing apoptosis. Taken together, we developed two SOX2-overexpressing cell clones, with constitutive SOX2 expression after three weeks of retinoic acid treatment. SOX2 overexpression resulted in altered expression of pluripotency-related genes, increased proliferation, and altered expression of neural markers after three weeks of retinoic acid treatment.

  11. SOX2 promotes dedifferentiation and imparts stem cell-like features to pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, M; Zhang, J-S; Koenig, A; Abel, E V; Smyrk, T C; Bamlet, W R; de Narvajas, A A-M; Gomez, T S; Simeone, D M; Bujanda, L; Billadeau, D D

    2013-01-01

    SOX2 (Sex-determining region Y (SRY)-Box2) has important functions during embryonic development and is involved in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance, in which it impairs cell growth and tumorigenicity. However, the function of SOX2 in pancreatic cancer cells is unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze SOX2 expression in human pancreatic tumors and determine the role of SOX2 in pancreatic cancer cells regulating CSC properties. In this report, we show that SOX2 is not expressed in normal pancreatic acinar or ductal cells. However, ectopic expression of SOX2 is observed in 19.3% of human pancreatic tumors. SOX2 knockdown in pancreatic cancer cells results in cell growth inhibition via cell cycle arrest associated with p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 induction, whereas SOX2 overexpression promotes S-phase entry and cell proliferation associated with cyclin D3 induction. SOX2 expression is associated with increased levels of the pancreatic CSC markers ALDH1, ESA and CD44. Importantly, we show that SOX2 is enriched in the ESA+/CD44+ CSC population from two different patient samples. Moreover, we show that SOX2 directly binds to the Snail, Slug and Twist promoters, leading to a loss of E-Cadherin and ZO-1 expression. Taken together, our findings show that SOX2 is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic cancer and contributes to cell proliferation and stemness/dedifferentiation through the regulation of a set of genes controlling G1/S transition and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, suggesting that targeting SOX2-positive cancer cells could be a promising therapeutic strategy. PMID:23917223

  12. [Definition and Control Indicators of Volatile Organic Compounds in China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Che, Fei; Zhao, Guo-hua; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the most complex of a wide range of pollutants that harms human health and ecological environment. However, various countries around the world differ on its definition and control indicators. Its definition, control indicators and monitoring methods of our country and local standards were also different. Based on detailed analysis of the definitions and control indicators of VOCs, the recommendations were proposed: the definition of VOCs should be different according to the different concerns between "air quality management" and "pollution emissions management"; base on different control way from production source, technological process, terminal emission, total discharge control, the control indicators system consists of 10 indicators; to formulate industry VOCs emissions standards, the most effective control way and indicators should be chosen according to characteristics of production process, way of VOCs emissions and possible control measures, etc.

  13. A Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Hemogenic Endothelium Reveals Differential Regulation of Hematopoiesis by SOX17

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Raedun L.; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Moon, Randall T.; Keller, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Summary The in vitro derivation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is complicated by the existence of multiple overlapping embryonic blood cell programs called primitive, erythromyeloid progenitor (EMP), and definitive. As HSCs are only generated during the definitive stage of hematopoiesis, deciphering the regulatory pathways that control the emergence of this program and identifying markers that distinguish it from the other programs are essential. To identify definitive specific pathways and marker sets, we used label-free proteomics to determine the proteome of embryo-derived and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived VE-CADHERIN+CD45− definitive hematopoietic progenitors. With this approach, we identified Stat1 as a marker that distinguishes the definitive erythroid lineage from the primitive- and EMP-derived lineages. Additionally, we provide evidence that the generation of the Stat1+ definitive lineage is dependent on Sox17. These findings establish an approach for monitoring the emergence of definitive hematopoiesis in the PSC differentiation cultures. PMID:26267830

  14. SOX2 overexpression affects neural differentiation of human pluripotent NT2/D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Klajn, A; Drakulic, D; Tosic, M; Pavkovic, Z; Schwirtlich, M; Stevanovic, M

    2014-11-01

    SOX2 is one of the key transcription factors involved in maintenance of neural progenitor identity. However, its function during the process of neural differentiation, including phases of lineage-specification and terminal differentiation, is still poorly understood. Considering growing evidence indicating that SOX2 expression level must be tightly controlled for proper neural development, the aim of this research was to analyze the effects of constitutive SOX2 overexpression on outcome of retinoic acid-induced neural differentiation of pluripotent NT2/D1 cells. We demonstrated that in spite of constitutive SOX2 overexpression, NT2/D1 cells were able to reach final phases of neural differentiation yielding both neuronal and glial cells. However, SOX2 overexpression reduced the number of mature MAP2-positive neurons while no difference in the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes was detected. In-depth analysis at single-cell level showed that SOX2 downregulation was in correlation with both neuronal and glial phenotype acquisitions. Interestingly, while in mature neurons SOX2 was completely downregulated, astrocytes with low level of SOX2 expression were detected. Nevertheless, cells with high level of SOX2 expression were incapable of entering in either of two differentiation pathways, neurogenesis or gliogenesis. Accordingly, our results indicate that fine balance between undifferentiated state and neural differentiation depends on SOX2 expression level. Unlike neurons, astrocytes could maintain low level of SOX2 expression after they acquired glial fate. Further studies are needed to determine whether differences in the level of SOX2 expression in GFAP-positive astrocytes are in correlation with their self-renewal capacity, differentiation status, and/or their phenotypic characteristics.

  15. Protein-protein interactions between sigma(70) region 4 of RNA polymerase and Escherichia coli SoxS, a transcription activator that functions by the prerecruitment mechanism: evidence for "off-DNA" and "on-DNA" interactions.

    PubMed

    Zafar, M Ammar; Shah, Ishita M; Wolf, Richard E

    2010-08-06

    According to the prerecruitment hypothesis, Escherichia coli SoxS activates the transcription of the genes of the SoxRS regulon by forming binary complexes with RNA polymerase (RNAP) that scan the chromosome for class I and class II SoxS-dependent promoters. We showed previously that the alpha subunit's C-terminal domain plays a role in activating both classes of promoter by making protein-protein contacts with SoxS; some of these contacts are made in solution in the absence of promoter DNA, a critical prediction of the prerecruitment hypothesis. Here, we identified seven single-alanine substitutions of the region 4 of sigma(70) (sigma(70) R4) of RNAP that reduce SoxS activation of class II promoters. With genetic epistasis tests between these sigma(70) R4 mutants and positive control mutants of SoxS, we identified 10 pairs of amino acids that interact with each other in E. coli. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and affinity immobilization assays, we showed that SoxS and sigma(70) R4 can interact in solution (i.e., "off-DNA"). The interaction requires amino acids of the class I/II (but not the class II) positive control surface of SoxS, and five amino acids of sigma(70) R4 that reduce activation in E. coli also reduce the SoxS-sigma(70) R4 interaction in yeast. One of the epistatic interactions that occur in E. coli also occurs in the yeast two-hybrid system (i.e., off-DNA). Importantly, we infer that the five epistatic interactions occurring in E. coli that require an amino acid of the class II surface occur "on-DNA" at class II promoters. Finding that SoxS contacts sigma(70) R4 both off-DNA and on-DNA is consistent with the prerecruitment hypothesis. Moreover, SoxS is now the first example of an E. coli transcriptional activator that uses a single positive control surface to make specific protein-protein contacts with two different subunits of RNAP.

  16. Restructurable Controls Problem Definition and Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Restructurable controls, failure classification, airframe design, failure type, control system type, post failure mission, plant identification, controller design techniques, and restructurable control concept validation tools are considered.

  17. The bacterial SoxAX cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Kappler, Ulrike; Maher, Megan J

    2013-03-01

    SoxAX cytochromes are heme-thiolate proteins that play a key role in bacterial thiosulfate oxidation, where they initiate the reaction cycle of a multi-enzyme complex by catalyzing the attachment of sulfur substrates such as thiosulfate to a conserved cysteine present in a carrier protein. SoxAX proteins have a wide phylogenetic distribution and form a family with at least three distinct types of SoxAX protein. The types of SoxAX cytochromes differ in terms of the number of heme groups present in the proteins (there are diheme and triheme versions) as well as in their subunit structure. While two of the SoxAX protein types are heterodimers, the third group contains an additional subunit, SoxK, that stabilizes the complex of the SoxA and SoxX proteins. Crystal structures are available for representatives of the two heterodimeric SoxAX protein types and both of these have shown that the cysteine ligand to the SoxA active site heme carries a modification to a cysteine persulfide that implicates this ligand in catalysis. EPR studies of SoxAX proteins have also revealed a high complexity of heme dependent signals associated with this active site heme; however, the exact mechanism of catalysis is still unclear at present, as is the exact number and types of redox centres involved in the reaction.

  18. Energy efficient engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  19. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  20. The Roles of Sox Family Genes in Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingyuan; Shen, Jacson; Wang, Kunzheng; Hornicek, Francis; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    Sox (SRY-related HMG-box) family genes are important regulators of cell development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Deregulation of certain members of the Sox gene family has been implicated in a number of human malignancies, including in sarcoma. Accumulating evidence suggests that Sox genes play crucial roles in sarcoma cell pathogenesis, growth, and proliferation. Here, we review the biological relevance of Sox2 and Sox9 genes in osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and chordoma; Sox2, Sox6, and Sox17 genes in Ewing's sarcoma; Sox2, Sox9, and Sox10 genes in synovial sarcoma; Sox2 gene in fibrosarcoma; and Sox21 gene in liposarcoma. These findings potentiate the targeting of Sox genes for novel therapeutic interventions in sarcoma and may also hold valuable clinical potential to improve the care of patients with sarcoma.

  1. Sox2 transduction enhances cardiovascular repair capacity of blood-derived mesoangioblasts.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Masamichi; Iwasaki, Masayoshi; Rupp, Stefan; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Trauth, Janina; Schütz, Corina; Ohtani, Kisho; Goetz, Rebekka; Iekushi, Kazuma; Bushoven, Philipp; Momma, Stefan; Mummery, Christine; Passier, Robert; Henschler, Reinhard; Akintuerk, Hakan; Schranz, Dietmar; Urbich, Carmen; Galvez, Beatriz G; Cossu, Giulio; Zeiher, Andreas M; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2010-04-16

    Complementation of pluripotency genes may improve adult stem cell functions. Here we show that clonally expandable, telomerase expressing progenitor cells can be isolated from peripheral blood of children. The surface marker profile of the clonally expanded cells is distinct from hematopoietic or mesenchymal stromal cells, and resembles that of embryonic multipotent mesoangioblasts. Cell numbers and proliferative capacity correlated with donor age. Isolated circulating mesoangioblasts (cMABs) express the pluripotency markers Klf4, c-Myc, as well as low levels of Oct3/4, but lack Sox2. Therefore, we tested whether overexpression of Sox2 enhances pluripotency and facilitates differentiation of cMABs in cardiovascular lineages. Lentiviral transduction of Sox2 (Sox-MABs) enhanced the capacity of cMABs to differentiate into endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes in vitro. Furthermore, the number of smooth muscle actin positive cells was higher in Sox-MABs. In addition, pluripotency of Sox-MABs was shown by demonstrating the generation of endodermal and ectodermal progenies. To test whether Sox-MABs may exhibit improved therapeutic potential, we injected Sox-MABs into nude mice after acute myocardial infarction. Four weeks after cell therapy with Sox-MABs, cardiac function was significantly improved compared to mice treated with control cMABs. Furthermore, cell therapy with Sox-MABs resulted in increased number of differentiated cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells in vivo. The complementation of Sox2 in Oct3/4-, Klf4-, and c-Myc-expressing cMABs enhanced the differentiation into all 3 cardiovascular lineages and improved the functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Sox11 Is Required to Maintain Proper Levels of Hedgehog Signaling during Vertebrate Ocular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pillai-Kastoori, Lakshmi; Wen, Wen; Wilson, Stephen G.; Strachan, Erin; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Fichera, Marco; Musumeci, Sebastiano A.; Lehmann, Ordan J.; Morris, Ann C.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular coloboma is a sight-threatening malformation caused by failure of the choroid fissure to close during morphogenesis of the eye, and is frequently associated with additional anomalies, including microphthalmia and cataracts. Although Hedgehog signaling is known to play a critical role in choroid fissure closure, genetic regulation of this pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor Sox11 is required to maintain specific levels of Hedgehog signaling during ocular development. Sox11-deficient zebrafish embryos displayed delayed and abnormal lens formation, coloboma, and a specific reduction in rod photoreceptors, all of which could be rescued by treatment with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor cyclopamine. We further demonstrate that the elevated Hedgehog signaling in Sox11-deficient zebrafish was caused by a large increase in shha transcription; indeed, suppressing Shha expression rescued the ocular phenotypes of sox11 morphants. Conversely, over-expression of sox11 induced cyclopia, a phenotype consistent with reduced levels of Sonic hedgehog. We screened DNA samples from 79 patients with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, or coloboma (MAC) and identified two novel heterozygous SOX11 variants in individuals with coloboma. In contrast to wild type human SOX11 mRNA, mRNA containing either variant failed to rescue the lens and coloboma phenotypes of Sox11-deficient zebrafish, and both exhibited significantly reduced transactivation ability in a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, decreased gene dosage from a segmental deletion encompassing the SOX11 locus resulted in microphthalmia and related ocular phenotypes. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role for Sox11 in controlling Hedgehog signaling, and suggests that SOX11 variants contribute to pediatric eye disorders. PMID:25010521

  3. Redundant roles of Sox17 and Sox18 in early cardiovascular development of mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Youhei; Hara, Kenshiro; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Matsui, Toshiyasu; Miura, Yutaroh; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Saijoh, Yukio; Koopman, Peter; Kanai, Yoshiakira . E-mail: aykanai@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-08-31

    Sox7, -17 and -18 constitute the Sox subgroup F (SoxF) of HMG box transcription factor genes, which all are co-expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells in mice. Here we characterized cardiovascular phenotypes of Sox17/Sox18-double and Sox17-single null embryos during early-somite stages. Whole-mount PECAM staining demonstrated the aberrant heart looping, enlarged cardinal vein and mild defects in anterior dorsal aorta formation in Sox17 single-null embryos. The Sox17/Sox18 double-null embryos showed more severe defects in formation of anterior dorsal aorta and head/cervical microvasculature, and in some cases, aberrant differentiation of endocardial cells and defective fusion of the endocardial tube. However, the posterior dorsal aorta and allantoic microvasculature was properly formed in all of the Sox17/Sox18 double-null embryos. The anomalies in both anterior dorsal aorta and head/cervical vasculature corresponded with the weak Sox7 expression sites. This suggests the region-specific redundant activities of three SoxF members along the anteroposterior axis of embryonic vascular network.

  4. HMG-box sequences from microbats homologous to the human SOX30 HMG-box.

    PubMed

    Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Barragán, M J; Sánchez, A

    2000-01-01

    SOX genes are a family of genes that encode for proteins which are characterised by the presence of a HMG-domain related to that of the mammalian sex-determining gene (SRY). By definition, the DNA binding domain of SOX genes is at least 50% identical to the 79 amino acid HMG domain of the SRY gene. We report here two HMG-box sequences from two microbat species (R. ferrumequinum and P. Pipistrellus) which were PCR amplified using a primer pair specific to the mouse Sry HMG-box. The high percentage of identity of this sequences with the human and mouse SOX30 HMG-box suggests that they are the SOX30 HMG-box for these two bat species.

  5. Mouse Sox17 haploinsufficiency leads to female subfertility due to impaired implantation

    PubMed Central

    Hirate, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Hitomi; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Takase, Hinako M.; Igarashi, Hitomi; Naquet, Philippe; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kanai-Azuma, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic implantation comprises a dynamic and complicated series of events, which takes place only when the maternal uterine endometrium is in a receptive state. Blastocysts reaching the uterus communicate with the uterine endometrium to implant within a narrow time window. Interplay among various signalling molecules and transcription factors under the control of ovarian hormones is necessary for successful establishment of pregnancy. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow embryonic implantation in the receptive endometrium are still largely unknown. Here, we show that Sry-related HMG box gene-17 (Sox17) heterozygous mutant female mice exhibit subfertility due to implantation failure. Sox17 was expressed in the oviduct, uterine luminal epithelium, and blood vessels. Sox17 heterozygosity caused no appreciable defects in ovulation, fertilisation, blastocyst formation, and gross morphology of the oviduct and uterus. Another group F Sox transcription factor, Sox7, was also expressed in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium relatively weakly. Despite uterine Sox7 expression, a significant reduction in the number of implantation sites was observed in Sox17 heterozygous mutant females due to haploinsufficiency. Our findings revealed a novel role of Sox17 in uterine receptivity to embryo implantation. PMID:27053385

  6. Expression of Sox4 and Sox11 is regulated by multiple mechanisms during retinal development.

    PubMed

    Usui, Ayumi; Iwagawa, Toshiro; Mochizuki, Yujin; Iida, Atsumi; Wegner, Michael; Murakami, Akira; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2013-02-14

    Sox11 and Sox4 play critical roles in retinal development, during which they display specific and unique expression patterns. The expression of Sox11 and Sox4 is temporally sequential, albeit spatially overlapping in some retinal subtypes. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses suggested that Notch signaling suppresses Sox4 expression in the early developing retina but not during the later period of development. The levels of histone H3-acetylation and H3-lysine 4 tri-methylation at the Sox11 locus declined during development, as did the levels of Sox11. A similar but less marked change was seen for Sox4. For both genes, histone H3-lysine 27 methylation was low during development and increased markedly in the adult.

  7. SOX7 co-regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling with Axin-2: both expressed at low levels in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huidi; Mastriani, Emilio; Yan, Zi-Qiao; Yin, Si-Yuan; Zeng, Zheng; Wang, Hong; Li, Qing-Hai; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bao, Hong-Xia; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Kou, Jun-Jie; Li, Dongsheng; Li, Ting; Liu, Jianrui; Liu, Yongfang; Yin, Lin; Qiu, Li; Gong, Liling; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    SOX7 as a tumor suppressor belongs to the SOX F gene subfamily and is associated with a variety of human cancers, including breast cancer, but the mechanisms involved are largely unclear. In the current study, we investigated the interactions between SOX7 and AXIN2 in their co-regulation on the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway, using clinical specimens and microarray gene expression data from the GEO database, for their roles in breast cancer. We compared the expression levels of SOX7 and other co-expressed genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and found that the expression of SOX7, SOX17 and SOX18 was all reduced significantly in the breast cancer tissues compared to normal controls. AXIN2 had the highest co-relativity with SOX7 in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Clinicopathological analysis demonstrated that the down-regulated SOX7 was significantly correlated with advanced stages and poorly differentiated breast cancers. Consistent with bioinformatics predictions, SOX7 was correlated positively with AXIN2 and negatively with β-catenin, suggesting that SOX7 and AXIN2 might play important roles as co-regulators through the Wnt-β-catenin pathway in the breast tissue to affect the carcinogenesis process. Our results also showed Smad7 as the target of SOX7 and AXIN2 in controlling breast cancer progression through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27188720

  8. SOX2 as a New Regulator of HPV16 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ramírez, Imelda; del-Castillo-Falconi, Víctor; Mitre-Aguilar, Irma B.; Amador-Molina, Alfredo; Carrillo-García, Adela; Langley, Elizabeth; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Herrera, Luis A.; Lizano, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Persistent infections with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) constitute the main risk factor for cervical cancer development. HPV16 is the most frequent type associated to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), followed by HPV18. The long control region (LCR) in the HPV genome contains the replication origin and sequences recognized by cellular transcription factors (TFs) controlling viral transcription. Altered expression of E6 and E7 viral oncogenes, modulated by the LCR, causes modifications in cellular pathways such as proliferation, leading to malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to identify specific TFs that could contribute to the modulation of high-risk HPV transcriptional activity, related to the cellular histological origin. We identified sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) response elements present in HPV16-LCR. SOX2 binding to the LCR was demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro assays. The overexpression of this TF repressed HPV16-LCR transcriptional activity, as shown through reporter plasmid assays and by the down-regulation of endogenous HPV oncogenes. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that three putative SOX2 binding sites are involved in the repression of the LCR activity. We propose that SOX2 acts as a transcriptional repressor of HPV16-LCR, decreasing the expression of E6 and E7 oncogenes in a SCC context. PMID:28678184

  9. Deletions and de novo mutations of SOX11 are associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder with features of Coffin–Siris syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Annmarie; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Blyth, Moira; Mansour, Sahar; McConnell, Vivienne; Kou, Ikuyo; Ikegawa, Shiro; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Plessis, Ghislaine; Albrecht, Beate; Battaglia, Agatino; Taylor, Jenny C; Howard, Malcolm F; Keays, David; Sohal, Aman Singh; Kühl, Susanne J; Kini, Usha; McNeill, Alisdair

    2016-01-01

    Background SOX11 is a transcription factor proposed to play a role in brain development. The relevance of SOX11 to human developmental disorders was suggested by a recent report of SOX11 mutations in two patients with Coffin–Siris syndrome. Here we further investigate the role of SOX11 variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods We used array based comparative genomic hybridisation and trio exome sequencing to identify children with intellectual disability who have deletions or de novo point mutations disrupting SOX11. The pathogenicity of the SOX11 mutations was assessed using an in vitro gene expression reporter system. Loss-of-function experiments were performed in xenopus by knockdown of Sox11 expression. Results We identified seven individuals with chromosome 2p25 deletions involving SOX11. Trio exome sequencing identified three de novo SOX11 variants, two missense (p.K50N; p.P120H) and one nonsense (p.C29*). The biological consequences of the missense mutations were assessed using an in vitro gene expression system. These individuals had microcephaly, developmental delay and shared dysmorphic features compatible with mild Coffin–Siris syndrome. To further investigate the function of SOX11, we knocked down the orthologous gene in xenopus. Morphants had significant reduction in head size compared with controls. This suggests that SOX11 loss of function can be associated with microcephaly. Conclusions We thus propose that SOX11 deletion or mutation can present with a Coffin–Siris phenotype. PMID:26543203

  10. Clonal Growth of Dermal Papilla Cells in Hydrogels Reveals Intrinsic Differences between Sox2-Positive and -Negative Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Driskell, Ryan R; Juneja, Vikram R; Connelly, John T; Kretzschmar, Kai; Tan, David W -M; Watt, Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    In neonatal mouse skin, two types of dermal papilla (DP) are distinguished by Sox2 expression: CD133+Sox2+ DP are associated with guard/awl/auchene hairs, whereas CD133+Sox2− DP are associated with zigzag (ZZ) hairs. We describe a three-dimensional hydrogel culture system that supports clonal growth of CD133+Sox2+, CD133+Sox2−, and CD133−Sox2− (non-DP) neonatal dermal cells. All three cell populations formed spheres that expressed the DP markers alkaline phosphatase, α8 integrin, and CD133. Nevertheless, spheres formed by CD133− cells did not efficiently support hair follicle formation in skin reconstitution assays. In the presence of freshly isolated P2 dermal cells, CD133+Sox2+ and CD133+Sox2− spheres contributed to the DP of both AA and ZZ hairs. Hair type did not correlate with sphere size. Sox2 expression was maintained in culture, but not induced significantly in Sox2− cells in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that Sox2+ cells are a distinct cellular lineage. Although Sox2+ cells were least efficient at forming spheres, they had the greatest ability to contribute to DP and non-DP dermis in reconstituted skin. As the culture system supports clonal growth of DP cells and maintenance of distinct DP cell types, it will be useful for further analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic signals controlling DP function. PMID:22189784

  11. Control definition study for advanced vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, M.; Martorella, R. P.; Klein, R. W.; Meyer, R. C.; Sturm, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The low speed, high angle of attack flight mechanics of an advanced, canard-configured, supersonic tactical aircraft designed with moderate longitudinal relaxed static stability (Static Margin, SM = 16% C sub W at M = 0.4) was investigated. Control laws were developed for the longitudinal axis (""G'' or maneuver and angle of attack command systems) and for the lateral/directional axes. The performance of these control laws was examined in engineering simulation. A canard deflection/rate requirement study was performed as part of the ""G'' command law evaluation at low angles of attack. Simulated coupled maneuvers revealed the need for command limiters in all three aircraft axes to prevent departure from controlled flight. When modified with command/maneuver limiters, the control laws were shown to be adequate to prevent aircraft departure during aggressive air combat maneuvering.

  12. Status of the SOX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maricic, Jelena; SOX/Borexino Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Observation of the oscillation pattern as a function of distance from the neutrino source will provide a very strong argument in favor of neutrino mixing with sterile neutrinos and their existence. SOX experiment will perform such measurement. A strong antineutrino generator 144Ce-144Pr (CeANG) with the activity between 3.7-5.5 PBq will be placed below the Borexino detector, measuring the electron antineutrino rate and spectrum as a function of distance from the generator. Borexino is a large 300 ton detector located at the Gran Sasso national laboratory in Italy. The antineutrino generator will be placed under the detector in a dedicated pit providing the continuous oscillation sampling distance from 4 - 12 m. The CeANG will be produced at a dedicated facility called Mayak in Russia, while the 2.2 ton tungsten shield has been produced at the Xiamen company in China. Details of the experiment, source production and sensitivity to neutrino oscillations in SOX will be presented. The project is made possible thanks to DOE, NSF, INFN, and several others.

  13. Sox2 Suppresses Gastric Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Abby; Huebner, Aaron J; Sulahian, Rita; Anselmo, Anthony; Xu, Xinsen; Flattery, Kyle; Desai, Niyati; Sebastian, Carlos; Yram, Mary Anna; Arnold, Katrin; Rivera, Miguel; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bronson, Roderick; Bass, Adam J; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2016-08-16

    Sox2 expression marks gastric stem and progenitor cells, raising important questions regarding the genes regulated by Sox2 and the role of Sox2 itself during stomach homeostasis and disease. By using ChIP-seq analysis, we have found that the majority of Sox2 targets in gastric epithelial cells are tissue specific and related to functions such as endoderm development, Wnt signaling, and gastric cancer. Unexpectedly, we found that Sox2 itself is dispensable for gastric stem cell and epithelial self-renewal, yet Sox2(+) cells are highly susceptible to tumorigenesis in an Apc/Wnt-driven mouse model. Moreover, Sox2 loss enhances, rather than impairs, tumor formation in Apc-deficient gastric cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription and upregulating intestinal metaplasia-associated genes, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed phenotype. Together, these data identify Sox2 as a context-dependent tumor suppressor protein that is dispensable for normal tissue regeneration but restrains stomach adenoma formation through modulation of Wnt-responsive and intestinal genes. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping platypus SOX genes; autosomal location of SOX9 excludes it from sex determining role.

    PubMed

    Wallis, M C; Delbridge, M L; Pask, A J; Alsop, A E; Grutzner, F; O'Brien, P C M; Rens, W; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Graves, J A M

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of an SRY orthologue the platypus sex determining gene is unknown, so genes in the human testis determining pathway are of particular interest as candidates. SOX9 is an attractive choice because SOX9 deletions cause male-to-female sex reversal in humans and mice, and SOX9 duplications cause female-to-male sex reversal. We have localized platypus SOX9, as well as the related SOX10, to platypus chromosomes 15 and 10, respectively, the first assignments to these platypus chromosomes, and the first comparative mapping markers from human chromosomes 17 and 22. The autosomal localization of platypus SOX9 in this study contradicts the hypothesis that SOX9 acts as the sex determining switch in platypus.

  15. Sox9 plays multiple roles in the lung epithelium during branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rockich, Briana E; Hrycaj, Steven M; Shih, Hung Ping; Nagy, Melinda S; Ferguson, Michael A H; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Wellik, Deneen M; Spence, Jason R

    2013-11-19

    Lung branching morphogenesis is a highly orchestrated process that gives rise to the complex network of gas-exchanging units in the adult lung. Intricate regulation of signaling pathways, transcription factors, and epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk are critical to ensuring branching morphogenesis occurs properly. Here, we describe a role for the transcription factor Sox9 during lung branching morphogenesis. Sox9 is expressed at the distal tips of the branching epithelium in a highly dynamic manner as branching occurs and is down-regulated starting at embryonic day 16.5, concurrent with the onset of terminal differentiation of type 1 and type 2 alveolar cells. Using epithelial-specific genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches, our results demonstrate that Sox9 controls multiple aspects of lung branching. Fine regulation of Sox9 levels is required to balance proliferation and differentiation of epithelial tip progenitor cells, and loss of Sox9 leads to direct and indirect cellular defects including extracellular matrix defects, cytoskeletal disorganization, and aberrant epithelial movement. Our evidence shows that unlike other endoderm-derived epithelial tissues, such as the intestine, Wnt/β-catenin signaling does not regulate Sox9 expression in the lung. We conclude that Sox9 collectively promotes proper branching morphogenesis by controlling the balance between proliferation and differentiation and regulating the extracellular matrix.

  16. mTOR inhibition decreases SOX2-SOX9 mediated glioma stem cell activity and temozolomide resistance

    PubMed Central

    Garros-Regulez, Laura; Aldaz, Paula; Arrizabalaga, Olatz; Moncho-Amor, Veronica; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Manterola, Lorea; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Barrena, Cristina; Villanua, Jorge; Ruiz, Irune; Pollard, Steven; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Sampron, Nicolas; Garcia, Idoia; Matheu, Ander

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: SOX2 and SOX9 are commonly overexpressed in glioblastoma, and regulate the activity of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Their specific and overlapping roles in GSCs and glioma treatment remain unclear. Methods: SOX2 and SOX9 levels were examined in human biopsies. Gain and loss of function determined the impact of altering SOX2 and SOX9 on cell proliferation, senescence, stem cell activity, tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. Results: SOX2 and SOX9 expression correlates positively in glioma cells and glioblastoma biopsies. High levels of SOX2 bypass cellular senescence and promote resistance to temozolomide. Mechanistic investigations revealed that SOX2 acts upstream of SOX9. mTOR genetic and pharmacologic (rapamycin) inhibition decreased SOX2 and SOX9 expression, and reversed chemoresistance. Conclusions: Our findings reveal SOX2-SOX9 as an oncogenic axis that regulates stem cell properties and chemoresistance. We identify that rapamycin abrogate SOX protein expression and provide evidence that a combination of rapamycin and temozolomide inhibits tumor growth in cells with high SOX2/SOX9. PMID:26878385

  17. Integrated product definition representation for agile numerical control applications

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, W.R. Jr.; Brooks, S.L.; Kirk, W.J. III; Brown, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    Realization of agile manufacturing capabilities for a virtual enterprise requires the integration of technology, management, and work force into a coordinated, interdependent system. This paper is focused on technology enabling tools for agile manufacturing within a virtual enterprise specifically relating to Numerical Control (N/C) manufacturing activities and product definition requirements for these activities.

  18. 21 CFR 1300.01 - Definitions relating to controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions relating to controlled substances. 1300.01 Section 1300.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...). Administration means the Drug Enforcement Administration. Administrator means the Administrator of the Drug...

  19. 21 CFR 1300.01 - Definitions relating to controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions relating to controlled substances. 1300.01 Section 1300.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...). Administration means the Drug Enforcement Administration. Administrator means the Administrator of the Drug...

  20. 21 CFR 1300.01 - Definitions relating to controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions relating to controlled substances. 1300.01 Section 1300.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...). Administration means the Drug Enforcement Administration. Administrator means the Administrator of the Drug...

  1. Profiling of Sox4-dependent transcriptome in skin links tumour suppression and adult stem cell activation.

    PubMed

    Foronda, Miguel; Morgado-Palacin, Lucia; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Domínguez, Orlando; Pisano, David G; Blasco, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) reside in specific niches in a quiescent state in adult mammals. Upon specific cues they become activated and respond by self-renewing and differentiating into newly generated specialised cells that ensure appropriate tissue fitness. ASC quiescence also serves as a tumour suppression mechanism by hampering cellular transformation and expansion (White AC et al., 2014). Some genes restricted to early embryonic development and adult stem cell niches are often potent modulators of stem cell quiescence, and derailed expression of these is commonly associated to cancer (Vervoort SJ et al., 2013). Among them, it has been shown that recommissioned Sox4 expression facilitates proliferation, survival and migration of malignant cells. By generating a conditional Knockout mouse model in stratified epithelia (Sox4 (cKO) mice), we demonstrated a delayed plucking-induced Anagen in the absence of Sox4. Skin global transcriptome analysis revealed a prominent defect in the induction of transcriptional networks that control hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) activation such as those regulated by Wnt/Ctnnb1, Shh, Myc or Sox9, cell cycle and DNA damage response-associated pathways. Besides, Sox4 (cKO) mice are resistant to skin carcinogenesis, thus linking Sox4 to both normal and pathological HFSC activation (Foronda M et al., 2014). Here we provide additional details on the analysis of Sox4-regulated transcriptome in Telogen and Anagen skin. The raw and processed microarray data is deposited in GEO under GSE58155.

  2. The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist Noggin is regulated by Sox9 during endochondral differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zehentner, Barbara Katharina; Haussmann, Anja; Burtscher, Helmut

    2002-02-01

    Noggin has been described to be capable of binding bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and inhibiting BMP signaling by preventing the interactions of BMP with their receptors. Noggin expression during endochondral differentiation was analyzed to elucidate its potential role during chondrogenesis. Throughout mouse development, Noggin was expressed abundantly in the chondrocytic lineage as early as collagen type II RNA was detectable. In addition, a strong correlation was detected between Noggin expression and the expression profile of Sox9 during chondrogenesis. Sox9 (known to play an important role during chondrogenesis) and Noggin expression were investigated in the pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2, stimulated by BMP-2. BMP-2 caused significant upregulation of Sox9 and Noggin expression in these cells. The upregulation of Noggin could be inhibited by introducing antisense oligonucleotides against Sox9 mRNA into the cells. Using mouse limb bud cultures, the role of Sox9 and Noggin during endochondral tissue differentiation was further studied. Treatment of cultures with Sox9 antisense oligonucleotides and/or Noggin protein caused significant alterations in limb morphogenesis and endochondral development. The data suggest that the transcriptional control of Noggin by Sox9 is a potent regulatory mechanism in chondrocyte differentiation.

  3. Sox10 regulates skin melanocyte proliferation by activating the DNA replication licensing factor MCM5.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhongyuan; Zheng, Xiaozi; Zhang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yipin; Zhu, Shanpu; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia; Hou, Ling

    2017-03-01

    The control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. A cell type that illustrates this point particularly well is the neural crest-derived melanocyte, the pigment cell of vertebrates, as melanocytes can be followed easily during development and their pigment is directly visible in the integument of the adult. In mammals, melanocytes undergo physiological cycles of loss and proliferative regeneration during the hair cycle, and their proliferation is also critical during wound healing, repigmentation of depigmented lesions, and in melanoma formation and progression. Hence, a thorough analysis of the molecular parameters controlling melanocyte proliferation is crucial for our understanding of the physiology of this cell type both in health and disease. SOX10 is a critical regulator in melanocytes and melanoma cells, but its specific role in their proliferation is far from clear. In this study we analyze the role of SOX10 in regulating mammalian melanocyte proliferation in a mouse model. The role of SOX10 in melanoblast proliferation was analyzed in Sox10/+ mice by co-staining for melanocyte-specific markers and cell proliferation. In vitro, the role of SOX10 was studied by manipulating its levels using RNAi and analyzing the effects on DNA synthesis and cell growth and on gene expression at the RNA and protein levels. Reduction of Sox10 gene dose led to a reduction in the number of melanoblasts. Knockdown of Sox10 in melanocytes led to inhibition of cell proliferation and a decrease in the expression of the minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 (MCM5). In fact, SOX10 directly activated MCM5 transcription by binding to conserved SOX10 consensus DNA sequences in the MCM5 promoter. Furthermore, the defect in cell proliferation could be rescued partially by overexpression of MCM5 in Sox10 knockdown melanocytes. The results suggest that the SOX10-MCM5 axis plays an important role in controlling melanocyte

  4. Cloning and characterization of SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderle, V.M.; Critcher, R.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Ashworth, A.

    1996-09-01

    The mammalian Y-linked testis determining gene, SRY, encodes a protein with a DNA binding motif known as the HMG box. A large family of genes sharing a high similarity with the SRY HMG box and named Sox (Sry-related HMG box) in mouse and SOX in human has been identified from various organisms. We have cloned SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family. SOX5 cDNAs isolated from a human adult testis cDNA library show a high similarity with the mouse Sox5 transcript over a large region identical in all the human cDNAs. However, comparison of the 5{prime} unique sequences of the cDNAs suggests that the SOX5 gene is subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analysis identified a SOX5 pseudogene located on 8q21.1, whereas the SOX5 gene itself, which contains a minimum of five introns, maps to 12p12.1. In contrast to the mouse gene, the human SOX5 gene is expressed in a variety of human tissues, and different size transcripts are observed in adult testis and fetal brain. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Oncogenic activity of SOX1 in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Idoia; Aldaregia, Juncal; Marjanovic Vicentic, Jelena; Aldaz, Paula; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Torres-Bayona, Sergio; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Garros-Regulez, Laura; Egaña, Larraitz; Rubio, Angel; Pollard, Steven; Stevanovic, Milena; Sampron, Nicolas; Matheu, Ander

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma remains the most common and deadliest type of brain tumor and contains a population of self-renewing, highly tumorigenic glioma stem cells (GSCs), which contributes to tumor initiation and treatment resistance. Developmental programs participating in tissue development and homeostasis re-emerge in GSCs, supporting the development and progression of glioblastoma. SOX1 plays an important role in neural development and neural progenitor pool maintenance. Its impact on glioblastoma remains largely unknown. In this study, we have found that high levels of SOX1 observed in a subset of patients correlate with lower overall survival. At the cellular level, SOX1 expression is elevated in patient-derived GSCs and it is also higher in oncosphere culture compared to differentiation conditions in conventional glioblastoma cell lines. Moreover, genetic inhibition of SOX1 in patient-derived GSCs and conventional cell lines decreases self-renewal and proliferative capacity in vitro and tumor initiation and growth in vivo. Contrarily, SOX1 over-expression moderately promotes self-renewal and proliferation in GSCs. These functions seem to be independent of its activity as Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulator. In summary, these results identify a functional role for SOX1 in regulating glioma cell heterogeneity and plasticity, and suggest SOX1 as a potential target in the GSC population in glioblastoma. PMID:28425506

  6. SOX11 contributes to the regulation of GDF5 in joint maintenance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individual skeletal elements of the vertebrate limbs arise through a segmentation process introducing joints in specific locations. However, the molecular pathways controlling joint formation and subsequent joint maintenance are largely unknown. In this study, we focused on SOX11, and its contribution to the regulation of GDF5, a secreted signal necessary for proper joint formation and postnatal joint homeostasis. Results Sox11 is initially expressed broadly in the murine cartilage condensations at early stages of skeletal development, but its expression is specifically increased in the forming joint interzone as is forms. SOX11 overexpression can directly activate GDF5 expression both in vitro and in micromass cell cultures prepared from chick limb buds. Conserved SOX family binding sites are present in the 5’ UTR region of the GDF5 gene and we show SOX11 can specifically bind to one of them. While misexpression of Sox11 in developing chick limbs through RCAS virus infection does not induce Gdf5 expression in ectopic locations, it does enhance its expression. To explore the roles of Sox11 in joint homeostasis, we analyzed adult knee joints in an osteoarthritis mouse model where the medial meniscus and the medial collateral ligament were removed. We also analyzed knee joints from human subjects who underwent total knee replacement surgery. We find that SOX11 is mainly expressed in the weight-bearing areas of knee joints, and its expression is decreased in degraded cartilage during progression of knee osteoarthritis in both mice and humans. Conclusions This work implicates SOX11 as a potential regulator of GDF5 expression in joint maintenance and suggests a possible role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. PMID:23356643

  7. Hyperosmolarity regulates SOX9 mRNA posttranscriptionally in human articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Peffers, Mandy J.; McKay, Tristan R.; Lowe, Emma T.; Khan, Wasim S.; Hardingham, Timothy E.; Clegg, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX9 regulates cartilage extracellular matrix gene expression and is essential for chondrocyte differentiation. We previously showed that activation of p38 MAPK by cycloheximide in human chondrocytes leads to stabilization of SOX9 mRNA (Tew SR and Hardingham TE. J Biol Chem 281: 39471–39479, 2006). In this study we investigated whether regulation of p38 MAPK caused by changes in osmotic pressure could control SOX9 mRNA levels expression by a similar mechanism. Primary human articular chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic cartilage at passage 2-4 showed significantly raised SOX9 mRNA levels when exposed to hyperosmotic conditions for 5 h. The effect was strongest and most reproducible when actin stress fibers were disrupted by the Rho effector kinase inhibitor Y27632, or by culturing the cells within alginate beads. Freshly isolated chondrocytes, used within 24–48 h of isolation, did not contain actin stress fibers and upregulated SOX9 mRNA in response to hyperosmolarity in the presence and absence of Y27632. In these freshly isolated chondrocytes, hyperosmolarity led to an increase in the half-life of SOX9 mRNA, which was sensitive to the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190. SOX9 protein levels were increased by hyperosmotic culture over 24 h, and, in passaged chondrocytes, the activity of a COL2A1 enhancer driven luciferase assay was upregulated. However, in freshly isolated chondrocytes, COL2A1 mRNA levels were reduced by hyperosmotic conditions and the half-life was decreased. The results showed that the osmotic environment regulated both SOX9 and COL2A1 mRNA posttranscriptionally, but in fresh cells resulted in increased SOX9, but decreased COL2A1. PMID:19657054

  8. SOX2 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene: This intronless gene encodes a member of the SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate. The product of this gene is required for stem-cell maintenance in the central nervous system, and also regulates gene expression in the stomach. Mutations in this gene have been associated with optic nerve hypoplasia and with syndromic microphthalmia, a severe form of structural eye malformation. This gene lies within an intron of another gene called SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008

  9. Training Manual for Elements of Interface Definition and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Kastner, Robert E. (Editor); Hartt, Henry N. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The primary thrust of this manual is to ensure that the format and information needed to control interfaces between equipment are clear and understandable. The emphasis is on controlling the engineering design of the interface and not on the functional performance requirements of the system or the internal workings of the interfacing equipment. Interface control should take place, with rare exception, at the interfacing elements and no further. There are two essential sections of the manual. Chapter 2, Principles of Interface Control, discusses how interfaces are defined. It describes different types of interfaces to be considered and recommends a format for the documentation necessary for adequate interface control. Chapter 3, The Process: Through the Design Phases, provides tailored guidance for interface definition and control. This manual can be used to improve planned or existing interface control processes during system design and development. It can also be used to refresh and update the corporate knowledge base. The information presented herein will reduce the amount of paper and data required in interface definition and control processes by as much as 50 percent and will shorten the time required to prepare an interface control document. It also highlights the essential technical parameters that ensure that flight subsystems will indeed fit together and function as intended after assembly and checkout.

  10. Effect of Transcriptional Activators SoxS, RobA, and RamA on Expression of Multidrug Efflux Pump AcrAB-TolC in Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Astrid; Poza, Margarita; Aranda, Jesús; Latasa, Cristina; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Tomás, María; Romero, Antonio; Lasa, Iñigo

    2012-01-01

    Control of membrane permeability is a key step in regulating the intracellular concentration of antibiotics. Efflux pumps confer innate resistance to a wide range of toxic compounds such as antibiotics, dyes, detergents, and disinfectants in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is involved in multidrug resistance in Enterobacter cloacae. However, the underlying mechanism that regulates the system in this microorganism remains unknown. In Escherichia coli, the transcription of acrAB is upregulated under global stress conditions by proteins such as MarA, SoxS, and Rob. In the present study, two clinical isolates of E. cloacae, EcDC64 (a multidrug-resistant strain overexpressing the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump) and Jc194 (a strain with a basal AcrAB-TolC expression level), were used to determine whether similar global stress responses operate in E. cloacae and also to establish the molecular mechanisms underlying this response. A decrease in susceptibility to erythromycin, tetracycline, telithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol was observed in clinical isolate Jc194 and, to a lesser extent in EcDC64, in the presence of salicylate, decanoate, tetracycline, and paraquat. Increased expression of the acrAB promoter in the presence of the above-described conditions was observed by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-PCR, by using a reporter fusion protein (green fluorescent protein). The expression level of the AcrAB promoter decreased in E. cloacae EcDC64 derivates deficient in SoxS, RobA, and RamA. Accordingly, the expression level of the AcrAB promoter was higher in E. cloacae Jc194 strains overproducing SoxS, RobA, and RamA. Overall, the data showed that SoxS, RobA, and RamA regulators were associated with the upregulation of acrAB, thus conferring antimicrobial resistance as well as a stress response in E. cloacae. In summary, the regulatory proteins SoxS, RobA, and RamA were cloned and sequenced for the first time in this species. The

  11. Global genome analysis of the downstream binding targets of testis determining factor SRY and SOX9.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ramji K; Haque, Md M; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    A major event in mammalian male sex determination is the induction of the testis determining factor Sry and its downstream gene Sox9. The current study provides one of the first genome wide analyses of the downstream gene binding targets for SRY and SOX9 to help elucidate the molecular control of Sertoli cell differentiation and testis development. A modified ChIP-Chip analysis using a comparative hybridization was used to identify 71 direct downstream binding targets for SRY and 109 binding targets for SOX9. Interestingly, only 5 gene targets overlapped between SRY and SOX9. In addition to the direct response element binding gene targets, a large number of atypical binding gene targets were identified for both SRY and SOX9. Bioinformatic analysis of the downstream binding targets identified gene networks and cellular pathways potentially involved in the induction of Sertoli cell differentiation and testis development. The specific DNA sequence binding site motifs for both SRY and SOX9 were identified. Observations provide insights into the molecular control of male gonadal sex determination.

  12. Global Genome Analysis of the Downstream Binding Targets of Testis Determining Factor SRY and SOX9

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ramji K.; Haque, Md. M.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    A major event in mammalian male sex determination is the induction of the testis determining factor Sry and its downstream gene Sox9. The current study provides one of the first genome wide analyses of the downstream gene binding targets for SRY and SOX9 to help elucidate the molecular control of Sertoli cell differentiation and testis development. A modified ChIP-Chip analysis using a comparative hybridization was used to identify 71 direct downstream binding targets for SRY and 109 binding targets for SOX9. Interestingly, only 5 gene targets overlapped between SRY and SOX9. In addition to the direct response element binding gene targets, a large number of atypical binding gene targets were identified for both SRY and SOX9. Bioinformatic analysis of the downstream binding targets identified gene networks and cellular pathways potentially involved in the induction of Sertoli cell differentiation and testis development. The specific DNA sequence binding site motifs for both SRY and SOX9 were identified. Observations provide insights into the molecular control of male gonadal sex determination. PMID:22984422

  13. Insights into the early evolution of SOX genes from expression analyses in a ctenophore.

    PubMed

    Jager, Muriel; Quéinnec, Eric; Chiori, Roxane; Le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël

    2008-12-15

    SOX genes encode transcription factors acting in various developmental processes in bilaterian animals, such as stem cell maintenance and the control of specification and differentiation of cell types in a variety of contexts, notably in the developing nervous system. To gain insights into the early evolution of this important family of developmental regulators, we investigated the expression of one subgroup B, two subgroup E, one subgroup F and two divergent SOX genes in the cydippid larva and in the adult of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus. Transcripts of the two unclassified SOX (PpiSOX2/12) were detected in the female germ line and in various populations of putative somatic stem cells/undifferentiated progenitors. The remaining genes had spatially restricted expression patterns in ciliated epithelial cells, notably within neuro-sensory territories. These data are compatible with an ancient involvement of SOX proteins in controlling aspects of stem cell maintenance, cellular differentiation and specification, notably within neuro-sensory epithelia. In addition, the results highlight the complexity of the ctenophore anatomy and suggest that the SOX played an important role in the elaboration of the unique ctenophore body plan during evolution, through multiple gene co-option. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Sox17 modulates Wnt3A/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of the Lef-1 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoming; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Wells, James M.; Goodheart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin-dependent activation of lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (Lef-1) plays an important role in numerous developmental processes. In this context, transcription of the Lef-1 gene is increased by Wnt-mediated TCF4/β-catenin activation on the Lef-1 promoter through mechanisms that remain poorly defined. In mouse airway submucosal gland progenitor cells, Wnt3A transiently induces Lef-1 gene expression, and this process is required for epithelial cell proliferation and glandular morphogenesis. In the present study, we sought to identify additional candidate transcriptional regulators of the Lef-1 gene during glandular morphogenesis. To this end, we found that Sox17 expression is dramatically downregulated in early glandular progenitor cells that induce Lef-1 expression. Wnt stimulation of undifferentiated primary airway epithelial cells induced similar changes in Sox17 and Lef-1 expression. Reporter assays revealed that ectopic expression of Sox17 suppresses Wnt3A/β-catenin activation of the Lef-1 promoter in cell lines. EMSA and ChIP analyses defined several Sox17- and TCF4-binding sites that collaborate in transcriptional control of the Lef-1 promoter. More specifically, Sox17 bound to four sites in the Lef-1 promoter, either directly or indirectly through TCF complexes. The DNA- or β-catenin-binding domains of Sox17 controlled context-specific binding of Sox17/TCF complexes on the Lef-1 promoter. Combinatorial site-directed mutagenesis of Sox17- or TCF-binding sites in the Lef-1 promoter demonstrated that these sites control Wnt/β-catenin-mediated induction and/or repression. These findings demonstrate for the first time that Sox17 can directly regulate Wnt/β-catenin-dependent transcription of the Lef-1 promoter and reveal new context-dependent binding sites in the Lef-1 promoter that facilitate protein-protein interactions between Sox17 and TCF4. PMID:20802155

  15. Lentiviral vector-mediated over-expression of Sox9 protected chondrocytes from IL-1β induced degeneration and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huading; Zeng, Chun; Chen, Mingwei; Lian, Liyi; Dai, Yuhu; Zhao, Huiqing

    2015-01-01

    To explore whether the over-expression of Sry-related HMG box (Sox9) in degenerative chondrocytes is able to improve cell regeneration and protects cells from inflammation induced apoptosis, we generated a Sox9 over-expressing vector delivery system in which the Sox9 gene was inserted into a lentiviral vector. After infecting mouse chondrocytes with the Sox9-encoding vector, we observed a high level of gene transduction efficiency and achieved a high level of Sox9 expression in the infected chondrocytes. To explore whether over-expression of Sox9 is able to induce cell regeneration and improve cell survival, we induced Sox9 over-expression by lentiviral vector infection 48 hours before IL-1β treatment. The cells were infected with the reporter gene GFP-encoded lentiviral vector as a negative control or left uninfected. 48-hours after IL-1β treatment, the chrondrocytes treated with IL-1β alone, underwent a degenerative process, with elevated expression of MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5 and ALP, but the cell specific anabolic proteins collagen II and aggrecan were significantly suppressed. The cells infected with the GFP reporter vector had no increased regeneration after IL-1β treatment. The results indicated that Sox9 is an important chondrocyte transcription factor, promoting chondrocyte regeneration and cell survival, which were mediated through affecting multiple cell differentiation as well as anti-apoptotic signaling pathways.

  16. Functional constraints on SoxE proteins in neural crest development: The importance of differential expression for evolution of protein activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eric M; Yuan, Tian; Ballim, Reyna D; Nguyen, Kristy; Kelsh, Robert N; Medeiros, Daniel M; McCauley, David W

    2016-10-01

    Vertebrate SoxE genes (Sox8, 9, and 10) are key regulators of neural crest cell (NCC) development. These genes arose by duplication from a single SoxE gene in the vertebrate ancestor. Although SoxE paralogs are coexpressed early in NCC development, later, Sox9 is restricted to skeletogenic lineages in the head, and Sox10 to non-skeletogenic NCC in the trunk and head. When this subfunctionalization evolved and its possible role in the evolution of the neural crest are unknown. Sea lampreys are basal vertebrates that also possess three SoxE genes, while only a single SoxE is present in the cephalochordate amphioxus. In order to address the functional divergence of SoxE genes, and to determine if differences in their biochemical functions may be linked to changes in neural crest developmental potential, we examined the ability of lamprey and amphioxus SoxE genes to regulate differentiation of NCC derivatives in zebrafish colourless (cls) mutants lacking expression of sox10. Our findings suggest that the proto-vertebrate SoxE gene possessed both melanogenic and neurogenic capabilities prior to SoxE gene duplication. Following the agnathan-gnathostome split, lamprey SoxE1 and SoxE3 largely lost their melanogenic and/or enteric neurogenic properties, while gnathostome SoxE paralogs have retained functional conservation. We posit that this difference in protein subfunctionalization is a direct consequence of the independent regulation of SoxE paralog expression between the two lineages. Specifically, we propose that the overlapping expression of gnathostome SoxE paralogs in early neural crest largely constrained the function of gnathostome SoxE proteins. In contrast, the largely non-overlapping expression of lamprey SoxE paralogs allowed them to specialize with regard to their DNA-binding and/or protein interaction properties. Restriction of developmental potential among cranial and trunk neural crest in lampreys may be related to constraints on SoxE activity among

  17. A Sox9/Fgf feed-forward loop maintains pancreatic organ identity

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Philip A.; Shih, Hung Ping; Patel, Nisha A.; Freude, Kristine K.; Xie, Ruiyu; Lim, Christopher J.; Sander, Maike

    2012-01-01

    All mature pancreatic cell types arise from organ-specific multipotent progenitor cells. Although previous studies have identified cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic cues for progenitor cell expansion, it is unclear how these cues are integrated within the niche of the developing organ. Here, we present genetic evidence in mice that the transcription factor Sox9 forms the centerpiece of a gene regulatory network that is crucial for proper organ growth and maintenance of organ identity. We show that pancreatic progenitor-specific ablation of Sox9 during early pancreas development causes pancreas-to-liver cell fate conversion. Sox9 deficiency results in cell-autonomous loss of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (Fgfr) 2b, which is required for transducing mesenchymal Fgf10 signals. Likewise, Fgf10 is required to maintain expression of Sox9 and Fgfr2 in epithelial progenitors, showing that Sox9, Fgfr2 and Fgf10 form a feed-forward expression loop in the early pancreatic organ niche. Mirroring Sox9 deficiency, perturbation of Fgfr signaling in pancreatic explants or genetic inactivation of Fgf10 also result in hepatic cell fate conversion. Combined with previous findings that Fgfr2b or Fgf10 are necessary for pancreatic progenitor cell proliferation, our results demonstrate that organ fate commitment and progenitor cell expansion are coordinately controlled by the activity of a Sox9/Fgf10/Fgfr2b feed-forward loop in the pancreatic niche. This self-promoting Sox9/Fgf10/Fgfr2b loop may regulate cell identity and organ size in a broad spectrum of developmental and regenerative contexts. PMID:22874919

  18. Comprehensive profiling reveals mechanisms of SOX2-mediated cell fate specification in human ESCs and NPCs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenlin; Yang, Xiaoqin; Sun, Yiyang; Yu, Hongyao; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ying

    2016-02-01

    SOX2 is a key regulator of multiple types of stem cells, especially embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Understanding the mechanism underlying the function of SOX2 is of great importance for realizing the full potential of ESCs and NPCs. Here, through genome-wide comparative studies, we show that SOX2 executes its distinct functions in human ESCs (hESCs) and hESC-derived NPCs (hNPCs) through cell type- and stage-dependent transcription programs. Importantly, SOX2 suppresses non-neural lineages in hESCs and regulates neurogenesis from hNPCs by inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. In hESCs, SOX2 achieves such inhibition by direct transcriptional regulation of important Wnt signaling modulators, WLS and SFRP2. Moreover, SOX2 ensures pluripotent epigenetic landscapes via interacting with histone variant H2A.Z and recruiting polycomb repressor complex 2 to poise developmental genes in hESCs. Together, our results advance our understanding of the mechanism by which cell type-specific transcription factors control lineage-specific gene expression programs and specify cell fate.

  19. Comprehensive profiling reveals mechanisms of SOX2-mediated cell fate specification in human ESCs and NPCs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenlin; Yang, Xiaoqin; Sun, Yiyang; Yu, Hongyao; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ying

    2016-01-01

    SOX2 is a key regulator of multiple types of stem cells, especially embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Understanding the mechanism underlying the function of SOX2 is of great importance for realizing the full potential of ESCs and NPCs. Here, through genome-wide comparative studies, we show that SOX2 executes its distinct functions in human ESCs (hESCs) and hESC-derived NPCs (hNPCs) through cell type- and stage-dependent transcription programs. Importantly, SOX2 suppresses non-neural lineages in hESCs and regulates neurogenesis from hNPCs by inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. In hESCs, SOX2 achieves such inhibition by direct transcriptional regulation of important Wnt signaling modulators, WLS and SFRP2. Moreover, SOX2 ensures pluripotent epigenetic landscapes via interacting with histone variant H2A.Z and recruiting polycomb repressor complex 2 to poise developmental genes in hESCs. Together, our results advance our understanding of the mechanism by which cell type-specific transcription factors control lineage-specific gene expression programs and specify cell fate. PMID:26809499

  20. [Expression of SOX11 transcription factor. Its implication in mantle cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Roisman, Alejandro; Slavutsky, Irma

    2014-01-01

    SOX11, belonging to the family of genes SOXC, is a transcript factor involved in the embryonic neurogenesis and tissue remodeling, also participating in the control of cell proliferation. Its role in lymphomagenesis still remains unknown. Recent studies have shown aberrant SOX11 nuclear protein expression as well as mRNA levels in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Although the majority of these lymphomas have an aggressive clinical course, there is a subgroup of patients with an indolent clinical evolution, suggesting a greater heterogeneity of this disease. Currently, there are contradictions regarding the association of SOX11 gene expression and outcome in MCL, while some authors have related the lack of SOX11 expression with good prognosis, others find it associated with an adverse clinical course. This difference in the gene expression could be associated to epigenetic mechanisms such as modifications at the histone level and DNA methylation that would allow the aberrant expression of this gene in some lymphoid neoplasias, including LCM. More knowledge of gene SOX11 in LCM will lead to a greater understanding of those mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of this lymphoma, also the involvement of SOX11 in these processes.

  1. SOX15 regulates proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yun; Jiang, Xiping; Guo, Caixia; Jiang, Jingting

    2017-08-18

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of SOX15 on proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer (EC) cells. Immunohistochemistry was applied to determine the expression of SOX15 in EC tissues and adjacent tissues. We used cell transfection method to construct the HEC-1-A and Ishikawa cell lines with stable overexpression and low-expression SOX15 Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot were performed to examine expression of SOX15 mRNA and SOX15 protein respectively. By conducting a series of cell proliferation assay and migration assay, we analyzed the influence of SOX15 overexpression or low-expression on EC cell proliferation and migration. The expression of SOX15 mRNA and protein in EC tissues was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues. After lentivirus-transfecting SOX15 , the expression level of SOX15 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in cells of SOX15 group, and decreased in sh- SOX15 group. Overexpression of SOX15 could suppress cell proliferation, while downregulation of SOX15 increased cell proliferation. Flow cytometry results indicated that overexpression of SOX15 induced the ratio of cell cycle arrest in G1 stage. In addition, transwell migration assay results showed that SOX15 overexpression significantly inhibited cell migration, and also downregulation of SOX15 promoted the migration. As a whole, SOX15 could regulate the proliferation and migration of EC cells and upregulation of SOX15 could be valuable for EC treatment. ©2017 The Author(s).

  2. Intermediates in the Sox sulfur oxidation pathway are bound to a sulfane conjugate of the carrier protein SoxYZ

    PubMed Central

    Grabarczyk, Daniel B.; Berks, Ben C.

    2017-01-01

    The Sox pathway found in many sulfur bacteria oxidizes thiosulfate to sulfate. Pathway intermediates are covalently bound to a cysteine residue in the carrier protein SoxYZ. We have used biochemical complementation by SoxYZ-conjugates to probe the identity of the intermediates in the Sox pathway. We find that unconjugated SoxYZ and SoxYZ-S-sulfonate are unlikely to be intermediates during normal turnover in disagreement with current models. By contrast, conjugates with multiple sulfane atoms are readily metabolised by the Sox pathway. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the true carrier species in the Sox pathway is a SoxYZ-S-sulfane adduct. PMID:28257465

  3. sRNA roles in regulating transcriptional regulators: Lrp and SoxS regulation by sRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Gottesman, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of transcription factors contributes to regulatory circuits. We created translational reporter fusions for multiple central regulators in Escherichia coli and examined the effect of Hfq-dependent non-coding RNAs on these fusions. This approach yields an ‘RNA landscape,’ identifying Hfq-dependent sRNAs that regulate a given fusion. No significant sRNA regulation of crp or fnr was detected. hns was regulated only by DsrA, as previously reported. Lrp and SoxS were both found to be regulated post-transcriptionally. Lrp, ‘leucine-responsive regulatory protein,’ regulates genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and catabolism and other cellular functions. sRNAs DsrA, MicF and GcvB each independently downregulate the lrp translational fusion, confirming previous reports for MicF and GcvB. MicF and DsrA interact with an overlapping site early in the lrp ORF, while GcvB acts upstream at two independent sites in the long lrp leader. Surprisingly, GcvB was found to be responsible for significant downregulation of lrp after oxidative stress; MicF also contributed. SoxS, an activator of genes used to combat oxidative stress, is negatively regulated by sRNA MgrR. This study demonstrates that while not all global regulators are subject to sRNA regulation, post-transcriptional control by sRNAs allows multiple environmental signals to affect synthesis of the transcriptional regulator. PMID:27137887

  4. Structural insight into the interactions of SoxV, SoxW and SoxS in the process of transport of reductants during sulfur oxidation by the novel global sulfur oxidation reaction cycle.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Angshuman; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2006-01-01

    Microbial redox reactions involving inorganic sulfur compounds, mainly the sulfur anions, are one of the vital reactions responsible for the environmental sulfur balance. These reactions are mediated by phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes, some of which also take part in the extraction of metal ions from their sulfur containing ores. These sulfur oxidizers oxidize inorganic sulfur compounds like sulfide, thiosulfate etc. to produce reductants that are used for carbon dioxide fixation or in respiratory electron transfer chains. The sulfur oxidizing gene cluster (sox) of alpha-Proteobacteria comprises of at least 15 genes, forming two transcriptional units, viz., soxSR and soxVWXYZABCDEFGH. SoxV is known to be a CcdA homolog involved in the transport of reductants from cytoplasm to periplasm. SoxW and SoxS are periplasmic thioredoxins, which (SoxW) interact with SoxV and thereby help in the redox reactions. We have employed homology modeling to construct the three-dimensional structures of the SoxV, SoxW and SoxS proteins from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum. With the help of docking and molecular dynamics simulations we have identified the amino acid residues of these proteins involved in the interaction. The probable biochemical mechanism of the transport of reductants through the interactions of these proteins has also been investigated. Our study provides a rational basis to interpret the molecular mechanism of the biochemistry of sulfur anion oxidation reactions by these ecologically important organisms.

  5. Decreased Expression of Sox-1 in Cerebellum of Rat with Generalized Seizures Induced by Kindling Model.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Osornio, Carmen; Eguiluz-Meléndez, Aldo; Trejo-Solís, Cristina; Custodio, Veronica; Rubio-Osornio, Moises; Rosiles-Abonce, Artemio; Martínez-Lazcano, Juan C; González, Edith; Paz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The single feature of all malformations in cortical development is the clinical association with epilepsy. It has been proven that Sox-1 expression is essential during neurodevelopment and it is reported that Sox-1 knockout mice present spontaneous generalized seizures. Particularly in cerebellum, Sox-1 plays a key role in the Bergmann´s glia (BG) function, which allows the correct function of the Purkinje cells (PC). The targets of PC are the dentate and interpositus nuclei, which form the main cerebellar efferents involved in the physiopathology of epilepsy. Here we present the Sox-1 expression in cerebellum of rats during electric amygdala-kindling. We obtained seizures and once they had 3, 15 and 45 electric stimuli, the animals were sacrificed; the cerebellum was processed for inmunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis was performed to determine Sox-1 expression. Liquid chromatography was performed to examine gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate concentration. According to the literature, a progressive increase was observed in the electrographic and behavioral parameters. We found that Sox-1 expression in 15 and 45-stimuli groups had a statistically significant decrease as compared with controls, while the 3-stimuli group was similar to the control group. The concentration of glutamate was increased in rats with 45 stimuli. We can conclude that Sox-1 expression decreases as the number of seizures increases, and this is probably due to an altered glutamate regulation by a dysfunctional BG. In this way, we can suggest this mechanism as a one possible explanation of how the cerebellum participates in the pathophysiology of epilepsy.

  6. Controlled direct and mediated effects: definition, identification and bounds

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2014-01-01

    Results are given which provide bounds for controlled direct effects when the no-unmeasured-confounding assumptions required for the identification of these effects do not hold. Previous results concerning bounds for controlled direct effects rely on monotonicity relationships between the treatment, mediator and the outcome themselves; the results presented in this paper instead assume that monotonicity relationships hold between the unmeasured confounding variable or variables and the treatment, mediator and outcome. Whereas prior results give bounds that contain the null hypothesis of no direct effect, the results presented here will in many instances yield bounds that do not contain the null hypothesis of no direct effect. For contexts in which a set of variables intercepts all paths between a treatment and an outcome, it is possible to provide a definition for a controlled mediated effect. We discuss the identification of these controlled mediated effects; the bounds for controlled direct effects are applicable also to controlled mediated effects. An example is given to illustrate how the results in the paper can be used to draw inferences about direct and mediated effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding variables. PMID:25309023

  7. Deletions and de novo mutations of SOX11 are associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder with features of Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Annmarie; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Blyth, Moira; Mansour, Sahar; McConnell, Vivienne; Kou, Ikuyo; Ikegawa, Shiro; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Plessis, Ghislaine; Albrecht, Beate; Battaglia, Agatino; Taylor, Jenny C; Howard, Malcolm F; Keays, David; Sohal, Aman Singh; Kühl, Susanne J; Kini, Usha; McNeill, Alisdair

    2016-03-01

    SOX11 is a transcription factor proposed to play a role in brain development. The relevance of SOX11 to human developmental disorders was suggested by a recent report of SOX11 mutations in two patients with Coffin-Siris syndrome. Here we further investigate the role of SOX11 variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. We used array based comparative genomic hybridisation and trio exome sequencing to identify children with intellectual disability who have deletions or de novo point mutations disrupting SOX11. The pathogenicity of the SOX11 mutations was assessed using an in vitro gene expression reporter system. Loss-of-function experiments were performed in xenopus by knockdown of Sox11 expression. We identified seven individuals with chromosome 2p25 deletions involving SOX11. Trio exome sequencing identified three de novo SOX11 variants, two missense (p.K50N; p.P120H) and one nonsense (p.C29*). The biological consequences of the missense mutations were assessed using an in vitro gene expression system. These individuals had microcephaly, developmental delay and shared dysmorphic features compatible with mild Coffin-Siris syndrome. To further investigate the function of SOX11, we knocked down the orthologous gene in xenopus. Morphants had significant reduction in head size compared with controls. This suggests that SOX11 loss of function can be associated with microcephaly. We thus propose that SOX11 deletion or mutation can present with a Coffin-Siris phenotype. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. 26 CFR 1.957-1 - Definition of controlled foreign corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of controlled foreign corporation. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.957-1 Definition of controlled foreign corporation. (a) In general. The term controlled foreign corporation means any foreign...

  9. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of SOX11-Binding Proteins in Head and Neck Cancer Cells Demonstrates the Interaction of SOX11 and HSP90α.

    PubMed

    Elzakra, Naseim; Cui, Li; Liu, Tong; Li, Hong; Huang, Junwei; Hu, Shen

    2017-10-02

    Deregulated expression of SOX11 has been shown to be involved in the progression of various types of cancer. However, the role of SOX11 in head and neck cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were performed to identify the proteins that bind to SOX11 at significantly higher levels in head and neck cancer cells than in normal human oral keratinocytes. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses indicated that many potential SOX11-binding partners were associated with protein synthesis, cell metabolism, and cell-cell adhesion. One of the identified proteins, heat shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90α), was selected for further investigation. The binding of HSP90α with SOX11 in head and neck cancer cells was validated by Co-IP with western blotting. In addition, HSP90α was found to be remarkably overexpressed in head and neck cancer cell lines when compared to its level in normal human oral keratinocytes, and knockdown of HSP90α inhibited the proliferation and invasion capacity of these cancer cells. On the basis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data analysis, HSP90AA1 gene was overexpressed in head and neck cancer tissues compared to normal controls and increased HSP90AA1 gene expression was positively associated with extracapsular spread and clinical stage. Head and neck cancer patients with higher HSP90AA1 expression had significantly poorer long-term overall and disease-free survival rates than those with lower HSP90AA1 expression. Collectively, our studies indicate that SOX11 binds to HSP90α, a highly overexpressed protein that may promote invasion and progression of head and neck cancer cells.

  10. Analyses of Sox-B and Sox-E Family Genes in the Cephalopod Sepia officinalis: Revealing the Conserved and the Unusual

    PubMed Central

    Focareta, Laura; Cole, Alison G.

    2016-01-01

    Cephalopods provide an unprecedented opportunity for comparative studies of the developmental genetics of organ systems that are convergent with analogous vertebrate structures. The Sox-family of transcription factors is an important class of DNA-binding proteins that are known to be involved in many aspects of differentiation, but have been largely unstudied in lophotrochozoan systems. Using a degenerate primer strategy we have isolated coding sequence for three members of the Sox family of transcription factors from a cephalopod mollusk, the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: Sof-SoxE, Sof-SoxB1, and Sof-SoxB2. Analyses of their expression patterns during organogenesis reveals distinct spatial and temporal expression domains. Sof-SoxB1 shows early ectodermal expression throughout the developing epithelium, which is gradually restricted to presumptive sensory epithelia. Expression within the nervous system appears by mid-embryogenesis. Sof-SoxB2 expression is similar to Sof-SoxB1 within the developing epithelia in early embryogenesis, however appears in largely non-overlapping expression domains within the central nervous system and is not expressed in the maturing sensory epithelium. In contrast, Sof-SoxE is expressed throughout the presumptive mesodermal territories at the onset of organogenesis. As development proceeds, Sof-SoxE expression is elevated throughout the developing peripheral circulatory system. This expression disappears as the circulatory system matures, but expression is maintained within undifferentiated connective tissues throughout the animal, and appears within the nervous system near the end of embryogenesis. SoxB proteins are widely known for their role in neural specification in numerous phylogenetic lineages. Our data suggests that Sof-SoxB genes play similar roles in cephalopods. In contrast, Sof-SoxE appears to be involved in the early stages of vasculogenesis of the cephalopod closed circulatory system, a novel role for a member of

  11. Identification of novel craniofacial regulatory domains located far upstream of SOX9 and disrupted in Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher T.; Attanasio, Catia; Bhatia, Shipra; Benko, Sabina; Ansari, Morad; Tan, Tiong Y.; Munnich, Arnold; Pennacchio, Len A.; Abadie, Véronique; Temple, I. Karen; Goldenberg, Alice; van Heyningen, Veronica; Amiel, Jeanne; FitzPatrick, David; Kleinjan, Dirk A.; Visel, Axel; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia (CD), a disorder of skeletal development associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs). Translocations, deletions and duplications within a ~2 Mb region upstream of SOX9 can recapitulate the CD-DSD phenotype fully or partially, suggesting the existence of an unusually large cis-regulatory control region. Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a craniofacial disorder that is frequently an endophenotype of CD and a locus for isolated PRS at ~1.2-1.5 Mb upstream of SOX9 has been previously reported. The craniofacial regulatory potential within this locus, and within the greater genomic domain surrounding SOX9, remains poorly defined. We report two novel deletions upstream of SOX9 in families with PRS, allowing refinement of the regions harbouring candidate craniofacial regulatory elements. In parallel, ChIP-Seq for p300 binding sites in mouse craniofacial tissue led to the identification of several novel craniofacial enhancers at the SOX9 locus, which were validated in transgenic reporter mice and zebrafish. Notably, some of the functionally validated elements fall within the PRS deletions. These studies suggest that multiple non-coding elements contribute to the craniofacial regulation of SOX9 expression, and that their disruption results in PRS. PMID:24934569

  12. CRISPR reveals a distal super-enhancer required for Sox2 expression in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Rivera, Chloe M; Ishii, Haruhiko; Jin, Fulai; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Lee, Ah Young; Dixon, Jesse R; Ren, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is maintained by a small group of master transcription factors including Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. These core factors form a regulatory circuit controlling the transcription of a number of pluripotency factors including themselves. Although previous studies have identified transcriptional regulators of this core network, the cis-regulatory DNA sequences required for the transcription of these key pluripotency factors remain to be defined. We analyzed epigenomic data within the 1.5 Mb gene-desert regions around the Sox2 gene and identified a 13kb-long super-enhancer (SE) located 100kb downstream of Sox2 in mouse ESCs. This SE is occupied by Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and the mediator complex, and physically interacts with the Sox2 locus via DNA looping. Using a simple and highly efficient double-CRISPR genome editing strategy we deleted the entire 13-kb SE and characterized transcriptional defects in the resulting monoallelic and biallelic deletion clones with RNA-seq. We showed that the SE is responsible for over 90% of Sox2 expression, and Sox2 is the only target gene along the chromosome. Our results support the functional significance of a SE in maintaining the pluripotency transcription program in mouse ESCs.

  13. CRISPR Reveals a Distal Super-Enhancer Required for Sox2 Expression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fulai; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Lee, Ah Young; Dixon, Jesse R.; Ren, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is maintained by a small group of master transcription factors including Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. These core factors form a regulatory circuit controlling the transcription of a number of pluripotency factors including themselves. Although previous studies have identified transcriptional regulators of this core network, the cis-regulatory DNA sequences required for the transcription of these key pluripotency factors remain to be defined. We analyzed epigenomic data within the 1.5 Mb gene-desert regions around the Sox2 gene and identified a 13kb-long super-enhancer (SE) located 100kb downstream of Sox2 in mouse ESCs. This SE is occupied by Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and the mediator complex, and physically interacts with the Sox2 locus via DNA looping. Using a simple and highly efficient double-CRISPR genome editing strategy we deleted the entire 13-kb SE and characterized transcriptional defects in the resulting monoallelic and biallelic deletion clones with RNA-seq. We showed that the SE is responsible for over 90% of Sox2 expression, and Sox2 is the only target gene along the chromosome. Our results support the functional significance of a SE in maintaining the pluripotency transcription program in mouse ESCs. PMID:25486255

  14. Heterozygous deletion at the SOX10 gene locus in two patients from a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Wenzhi, He; Ruijin, Wen; Jieliang, Li; Xiaoyan, Ma; Haibo, Liu; Xiaoman, Wang; Jiajia, Xian; Shaoying, Li; Shuanglin, Li; Qing, Li

    2015-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disease characterized by sensorineural deafness and pigment disturbance. To date, almost 100 mutations have been reported, but few reports on cases with SOX10 gene deletion. The inheritance pattern of SOX10 gene deletion is still unclear. Our objective was to identify the genetic causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II in a two-generation Chinese family. Clinical evaluations were conducted in both of the patients. Microarray analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were performed to identify disease-related copy number variants (CNVs). DNA sequencing of the SOX10, MITF and SNAI2 genes was performed to identify the pathogenic mutation responsible for WS2. A 280kb heterozygous deletion at the 22q13.1 chromosome region (including SOX10) was detected in both of the patients. No mutation was found in the patients, unaffected family members and 30 unrelated healthy controls. This report is the first to describe SOX10 heterozygous deletions in Chinese WS2 patients. Our result conform the thesis that heterozygous deletions at SOX10 is an important pathogenicity for WS, and present as autosomal dominant inheritance. Nevertheless, heterozygous deletion of the SOX10 gene would be worth investigating to understand their functions and contributions to neurologic phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Positive feedback loop between Sox2 and Sox6 inhibits neuronal differentiation in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Seo, Jihae; Shin, Jiheon; Ji, Eun Hye; Roh, Jiwon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Sun, Woong; Muhr, Jonas; Lee, Sanghyuk; Kim, Jaesang

    2014-02-18

    How a pool of undifferentiated neural progenitor cells is maintained in the developing nervous system is an issue that remains unresolved. One of the key transcription factors for self-renewal of these cells is Sox2, the forced expression of which has been shown to inhibit neuronal differentiation in vivo. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of Sox2 activity, a ChIP-on-chip assay has been carried out for Sox2, and multiple candidate direct target genes have been isolated. In this report, we provide evidence indicating that Sox6, which like Sox2 belongs to the SRY-related HMG box transcription factor family, is a bona-fide direct regulatory target of Sox2. In vivo, Sox6 expression is seen with a temporal lag in Sox2-positive neural precursor cells in the ventricular zone, and Sox2 promotes expression of Sox6 as a transcriptional activator. Interestingly, gain- and loss-of-function assays indicate that Sox6 in turn is required for the maintenance of Sox2 expression, suggesting that a positive feedback loop, which functions to inhibit premature neuronal differentiation, exists between the two transcription factors.

  16. Constitutive SoxS expression in a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain with a truncated SoxR protein and identification of a new member of the marA-soxS-rob regulon, mdtG.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Anna; Martin, Robert G; Rosner, Judah L; Tavio, M Mar; Vila, Jordi

    2010-03-01

    Elevated levels of fluoroquinolone resistance are frequently found among Escherichia coli clinical isolates. This study investigated the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of strain NorE5, derived in vitro by exposing an E. coli clinical isolate, PS5, to two selection steps with increasing concentrations of norfloxacin. In addition to the amino acid substitution in GyrA (S83L) present in PS5, NorE5 has an amino acid change in ParC (S80R). Furthermore, we now find by Western blotting that NorE5 has a multidrug resistance phenotype resulting from the overexpression of the antibiotic resistance efflux pump AcrAB-TolC. Microarray and gene fusion analyses revealed significantly increased expression in NorE5 of soxS, a transcriptional activator of acrAB and tolC. The high soxS activity is attributable to a frameshift mutation that truncates SoxR, rendering it a constitutive transcriptional activator of soxS. Furthermore, microarray and reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that mdtG (yceE), encoding a putative efflux pump, is overexpressed in the resistant strain. SoxS, MarA, and Rob activated an mdtG::lacZ fusion, and SoxS was shown to bind to the mdtG promoter, showing that mdtG is a member of the marA-soxS-rob regulon. The mdtG marbox sequence is in the backward or class I orientation within the promoter, and its disruption resulted in a loss of inducibility by MarA, SoxS, and Rob. Thus, chromosomal mutations in parC and soxR are responsible for the increased antibiotic resistance of NorE5.

  17. MicroRNA-132 inhibits cell growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma cell lines possibly by targeting Sox4

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YULONG; LI, YE; LIU, JINGCHEN; WU, YUNTAO; ZHU, QINGSAN

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has confirmed that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can contribute to the progression and metastasis of human tumors. Previous studies have shown that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can contribute to the progression and metastasis of human tumors. However, the precise mechanisms of miR-132 in osteosarcoma have not been well clarified. Real-time PCR was performed to detect the expression of miR-132 in osteosarcoma cell lines. miR-132 mimic, miR-132 inhibitor and negative control were transfected into osteosarcoma cells and the effects of miR-132 on the cell growth and metastasis were investigated. Furthermore, protein level of Sox4 was measured by western blotting. Luciferase assays were performed to validate Sox4 as miR-132 target in osteosarcoma cells. We found that miR-132 was downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines. Introduction of miR-132 significantly inhibited proliferation, arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells. Besides, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of osteosarcoma cells was suppressed by overexpressing miR-132. However, downregulation of miR-132 promoted cell growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma cells. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that Sox4 was a potential target gene of miR-132. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-132 could directly target Sox4. Moreover, the low level of miR-132 was associated with increased expression of Sox4 in osteosarcoma cells. Sox4 inhibition suppressed cell malignant behaviors. Overexpression of Sox4 in osteosarcoma cells transfected with miR-132 mimic partially reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-132. In conclusion, miR-132 inhibited cell growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma cells by downregulation of Sox4, and knockdown of Sox4 was essential for the miR-132-inhibited cell growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma cells. PMID:26352673

  18. Evolution of the Sox gene family within the chordate phylum.

    PubMed

    Heenan, Phoebe; Zondag, Lisa; Wilson, Megan J

    2016-01-10

    The ancient Sox gene family is a group of related transcription factors that perform a number of essential functions during embryonic development. During evolution, this family has undergone considerable expansion, particularly within the vertebrate lineage. In vertebrates SOX proteins are required for the specification, development and/or morphogenesis of most vertebrate innovations. Tunicates and lancelets are evolutionarily positioned as the closest invertebrate relatives to the vertebrate group. By identifying their Sox gene complement we can begin to reconstruct the gene set of the last common chordate ancestor before the split into invertebrates and vertebrate groups. We have identified core SOX family members from the genomes of six invertebrate chordates. Using phylogenetic analysis we determined their evolutionary relationships. We propose that the last common ancestor of chordates had at least seven Sox genes, including the core suite of SoxB, C, D, E and F as well as SoxH.

  19. Synovial joint morphogenesis requires the chondrogenic action of Sox5 and Sox6 in growth plate and articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Peter; Smits, Patrick; Silvester, Amber; Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Han, Yu; de la Motte, Carol A.; Kingsley, David M.; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying synovial joint development remain poorly understood. Here we use complete and cell-specific gene inactivation to identify the roles of the redundant chondrogenic transcription factors Sox5 and Sox6 in this process. We show that joint development aborts early in complete mutants (Sox5−/−6−/−). Gdf5 and Wnt9a expression is punctual in articular progenitor cells, but Sox9 downregulation and cell condensation in joint interzones are late. Joint cell differentiation is unsuccessful, regardless of lineage, and cavitation fails. Sox5 and Sox6 restricted expression to chondrocytes in wild-type embryos and continued Erg expression and weak Ihh expression in Sox5−/−6−/− growth plates suggest that growth plate failure contribute to this Sox5−/−6−/− joint morphogenesis block. Sox5/6 inactivation in specified joint cells and chondrocytes (Sox5fl/fl6fl/flCol2Cre) also results in a joint morphogenesis block, whereas Sox5/6 inactivation in specified joint cells only (Sox5fl/fl6fl/flGdf5Cre) results in milder joint defects and normal growth plates. Sox5fl/fl6fl/flGdf5Cre articular chondrocytes remain undifferentiated, as shown by continued Gdf5 expression and pancartilaginous gene downregulation. Along with Prg4 downregulation, these defects likely account for joint tissue overgrowth and incomplete cavitation in adult mice. Together, these data suggest that synovial joint morphogenesis relies on essential roles for Sox5/6 in promoting both growth plate and articular chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:20206616

  20. Oncogenicity of the developmental transcription factor Sox9

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Ander; Collado, Manuel; Wise, Clare; Manterola, Lorea; Cekaite, Lina; Tye, Angela J.; Canamero, Marta; Bujanda, Luis; Schedl, Andreas; Cheah, Kathryn S.E.; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; de Munain, Adolfo López; Briscoe, James; Serrano, Manuel; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2012-01-01

    SOX9, a high mobility group (HMG) box transcription factor, plays critical roles during embryogenesis and its activity is required for development, differentiation and lineage commitment in various tissues including the intestinal epithelium. Here, we present functional and clinical data of a broadly important role for SOX9 in tumorigenesis. SOX9 was overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers, where its expression correlated with malignant character and progression. Gain of SOX9 copy number is detected in some primary colorectal cancers. SOX9 exhibited several pro-oncogenic properties, including the ability to promote proliferation, inhibit senescence and collaborate with other oncogenes in neoplastic transformation. In primary MEFs and colorectal cancer cells, SOX9 expression facilitated tumor growth and progression whilst its inactivation reduced tumorigenicity. Mechanistically, we have found that Sox9 directly binds and activates the promoter of the polycomb protein Bmi1, whose upregulation represses the tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf locus. In agreement with this, human colorectal cancers showed a positive correlation between expression levels of SOX9 and BMI1 and a negative correlation between SOX9 and ARF in clinical samples. Taken together, our findings provide direct mechanistic evidence of the involvement of SOX9 in neoplastic pathobiology, particularly in colorectal cancer. PMID:22246670

  1. Differential expression of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS of Salmonella Typhimurium in response to sodium hypochlorite: down-regulation of rob by MarA and SoxS.

    PubMed

    Collao, B; Morales, E H; Gil, F; Polanco, R; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P

    2012-11-01

    To survive, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) must sense signals found in phagocytic cells and modulate gene expression. In the present work, we evaluated the expression and cross-regulation of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS in response to NaOCl. We generated strains ΔsoxS and ΔmarA, which were 20 times more sensitive to NaOCl as compared to the wild-type strain; while Δrob only 5 times. Subsequently, we determined that marA and soxS transcript and protein levels were increased while those of rob decreased in a wild-type strain treated with NaOCl. To assess if changes in S. Typhimurium after exposure to NaOCl were due to a cross-regulation, as in Escherichia coli, we evaluated the expression of marA, soxS, and rob in the different genetic backgrounds. The positive regulation observed in the wild-type strain of marA and soxS was retained in the Δrob strain. As in the wild-type strain, rob was down-regulated in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS treated with NaOCl; however, this effect was decreased. Since rob was down-regulated by both factors, we generated a ΔmarA ΔsoxS strain finding that the negative regulation was abolished, confirming our hypothesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using MarA and SoxS confirmed an interaction with the promoter of rob.

  2. Conditional Sox9 ablation reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan levels and improves motor function following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    McKillop, William M; Dragan, Magdalena; Schedl, Andreas; Brown, Arthur

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) found in perineuronal nets and in the glial scar after spinal cord injury have been shown to inhibit axonal growth and plasticity. Since we have previously identified SOX9 as a transcription factor that upregulates the expression of a battery of genes associated with glial scar formation in primary astrocyte cultures, we predicted that conditional Sox9 ablation would result in reduced CSPG expression after spinal cord injury and that this would lead to increased neuroplasticity and improved locomotor recovery. Control and Sox9 conditional knock-out mice were subject to a 70 kdyne contusion spinal cord injury at thoracic level 9. One week after injury, Sox9 conditional knock-out mice expressed reduced levels of CSPG biosynthetic enzymes (Xt-1 and C4st), CSPG core proteins (brevican, neurocan, and aggrecan), collagens 2a1 and 4a1, and Gfap, a marker of astrocyte activation, in the injured spinal cord compared with controls. These changes in gene expression were accompanied by improved hind limb function and locomotor recovery as evaluated by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) and rodent activity boxes. Histological assessments confirmed reduced CSPG deposition and collagenous scarring at the lesion of Sox9 conditional knock-out mice, and demonstrated increased neurofilament-positive fibers in the lesion penumbra and increased serotonin immunoreactivity caudal to the site of injury. These results suggest that SOX9 inhibition is a potential strategy for the treatment of SCI.

  3. Sensor-web Operations Explorer (SOX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Weidner, R.; Bowman, K.; Sandu, A.; Singh, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Sensor-web Operations Explorer (SOX) is a research task under the Advanced Information Systems Technology project of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The objective of SOX is to develop an integrated software infrastructure (combining air-quality observations with models and data- assimilation tools) that permits a focused analysis of the chemical state and that can adapt to meteorological and chemical "events" over daily time scales. Processes governing the distribution and evolution of trace gases and aerosols have a profound impact on air quality and climate. Trace gases and aerosols do not only affect air quality, but they may also impact regional and global climate through longer-lived greenhouse gases, e.g., O3, CO2, and CH4 Aerosols can have a net cooling or heating effect depending on their type and vertical distribution. The quantification of these processes requires an integrated approach that combines observations from satellites, aircraft, sondes, and surface measurements with chemistry and transport models acting on both regional and global scales. The integrated observation is approached in two modes, an exploratory observation mode and a targeted observation mode. Currently, the exploratory observation mode is fully supported by the SOX on-line service employing a concept-design and an observing system simulation experiments (OSSE) framework. The exploration process needs to be iterated for maturation of a complex sensor-web operation scenario design. For the targeted observation mode, a 4D-variational adjoint framework is being developed in collaboration with the Global Earth Observation System for Chemistry (GEOS-Chem) research teams at Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Havard University. In addition to remote sensing, advances in global chemistry and transport models (along with 4-D variational assimilation techniques) provide powerful tools for the development of sensor webs that could, in principle, be deployed at

  4. Control of communicable diseases: foreign; scope and definitions. Direct final rule and request for comments.

    PubMed

    2012-12-26

    Through this Direct Final Rule, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is updating and reorganizing the Scope and Definitions for foreign quarantine regulations and add a new section to contain definitions for Importations. This Direct Final Rule (DFR) will update the scope and definitions to reflect modern terminology and plain language used globally by industry and public health partners. As part of the update, we are updating five existing definitions; adding thirteen new definitions to help clarify existing provisions; creating a new scope and definitions section for Importations under a new section by reorganizing existing definitions into this new section; and updating regulations to reflect the language used by the most recent Executive Order regarding quarantinable communicable diseases.

  5. Molecular basis for the genome engagement by Sox proteins.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linlin; Srivastava, Yogesh; Jauch, Ralf

    2017-03-01

    The Sox transcription factor family consists of 20 members in the human genome. Many of them are key determinants of cellular identities and possess the capacity to reprogram cell fates by pioneering the epigenetic remodeling of the genome. This activity is intimately tied to their ability to specifically bind and bend DNA alone or with other proteins. Here we discuss our current knowledge on how Sox transcription factors such as Sox2, Sox17, Sox18 and Sox9 'read' the genome to find and regulate their target genes and highlight the roles of partner factors including Pax6, Nanog, Oct4 and Brn2. We integrate insights from structural and biochemical studies as well as high-throughput assays to probe DNA specificity in vitro as well as in cells and tissues.

  6. SOX-mediated molecular crosstalk during the progression of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-Ru; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2017-03-01

    SOX family transcription factor has emerged as a double-edged sword relating to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Multiple studies have revealed different expression patterns and contradictory roles of SOX factors in the tumor initiation and progression. The aberrant expression of SOX factors is regulated by copy number alteration, methylation modulation, microRNAs, transcription factors and post-translational modification. This review summarizes the role of SOX factors in molecular interactions and signaling pathways during different steps of carcinogenesis, such as CSCs stemness maintenance, EMT occurrence, cell invasion, cell proliferation and apoptosis. The Wnt signaling pathway is also shown to provide vital intermediate signaling transduction. We believe that SOX family proteins may be used as prognostic markers for human clinical therapy, and novel therapy strategies targeting SOX factors should be explored in future clinical applications.

  7. Sequence requirements for Lon-dependent degradation of the Escherichia coli transcription activator SoxS: identification of the SoxS residues critical to proteolysis and specific inhibition of in vitro degradation by a peptide comprised of the N-terminal 21 amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ishita M; Wolf, Richard E

    2006-03-31

    When Escherichia coli encounter redox-cycling compounds that endogenously generate superoxide, the cell's defense response is initiated by the de novo synthesis of SoxS, which then activates transcription of the genes of the SoxRS regulon. Recently, we showed that after the oxidative stress is relieved, the SoxRS system resets by an active process wherein SoxS synthesis ceases and the intrinsically unstable SoxS protein is rapidly degraded, primarily by Lon protease. Here, we use deletion mutants and a library of alanine-stretch mutants of the entire protein to identify the SoxS features responsible for Lon-dependent proteolysis in vivo. We found that the 17 amino acid residues at the SoxS N terminus play the primary role in protease recognition and that the addition of the N-terminal 21 residues of SoxS to the otherwise stable green fluorescent protein is sufficient to signal the chimera for Lon-dependent degradation. With a minimal in vitro degradation system, we confirm the intrinsic instability of SoxS and the sequence requirements for Lon-dependent degradation. Lastly, we demonstrate that the addition of a peptide comprised of the 21 N-terminal amino acid residues of SoxS is able to inhibit specifically the in vitro proteolysis of SoxS.

  8. The transcription factor Sox11 promotes nerve regeneration through activation of the regeneration-associated gene Sprr1a.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaotang; Wang, Ting; Huang, Shaohua; Glorioso, Joseph C; Albers, Kathryn M

    2012-01-01

    Factors that enhance the intrinsic growth potential of adult neurons are key players in the successful repair and regeneration of neurons following injury. Injury-induced activation of transcription factors has a central role in this process because they regulate expression of regeneration-associated genes. Sox11 is a developmentally expressed transcription factor that is significantly induced in adult neurons in response to injury. Its function in injured neurons is however undefined. Here, we report studies that use herpes simplex virus (HSV)-vector-mediated expression of Sox11 in adult sensory neurons to assess the effect of Sox11 overexpression on neuron regeneration. Cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons transfected with HSV-Sox11 exhibited increased neurite elongation and branching relative to naïve and HSV-vector control treated neurons. Neurons from mice injected in foot skin with HSV-Sox11 exhibited accelerated regeneration of crushed saphenous nerves as indicated by faster regrowth of axons and nerve fibers to the skin, increased myelin thickness and faster return of nerve and skin sensitivity. Downstream targets of HSV-Sox11 were examined by analyzing changes in gene expression of known regeneration-associated genes. This analysis in combination with mutational and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicates that the ability of Sox11 to accelerate in vivo nerve regeneration is dependent on its transcriptional activation of the regeneration-associated gene, small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a). This finding reveals a new functional linkage between Sox11 and Sprr1a in adult peripheral neuron regeneration.

  9. Sox transcription factors require selective interactions with Oct4 and specific transactivation functions to mediate reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Irene; Jauch, Ralf; Eras, Volker; Chng, Wen-Bin Alfred; Chen, Jiaxuan; Divakar, Ushashree; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Kolatkar, Prasanna R; Stanton, Lawrence W

    2013-12-01

    The unique ability of Sox2 to cooperate with Oct4 at selective binding sites in the genome is critical for reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We have recently demonstrated that Sox17 can be converted into a reprogramming factor by alteration of a single amino acid (Sox17EK) within its DNA binding HMG domain. Here we expanded this study by introducing analogous mutations to 10 other Sox proteins and interrogated the role of N-and C-termini on the reprogramming efficiency. We found that point-mutated Sox7 and Sox17 can convert human and mouse fibroblasts into iPSCs, but Sox4, Sox5, Sox6, Sox8, Sox9, Sox11, Sox12, Sox13, and Sox18 cannot. Next we studied regions outside the HMG domain and found that the C-terminal transactivation domain of Sox17 and Sox7 enhances the potency of Sox2 in iPSC assays and confers weak reprogramming potential to the otherwise inactive Sox4EK and Sox18EK proteins. These results suggest that the glutamate (E) to lysine (K) mutation in the HMG domain is necessary but insufficient to swap the function of Sox factors. Moreover, the HMG domain alone fused to the VP16 transactivation domain is able to induce reprogramming, albeit at low efficiency. By molecular dissection of the C-terminus of Sox17, we found that the β-catenin interaction region contributes to the enhanced reprogramming efficiency of Sox17EK. To mechanistically understand the enhanced reprogramming potential of Sox17EK, we analyzed ChIP-sequencing and expression data and identified a subset of candidate genes specifically regulated by Sox17EK and not by Sox2. © AlphaMed Press.

  10. A tetracycline expression system in combination with Sox9 for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi; He, Yu; Guan, Qian; Wu, Qiong

    2014-02-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering using controllable transcriptional therapy together with synthetic biopolymer scaffolds shows higher potential for overcoming chondrocyte degradation and constructing artificial cartilages both in vivo and in vitro. Here, the potential regulating tetracycline expression (Tet-on) system was used to express Sox9 both in vivo and in vitro. Chondrocyte degradation was measured in vitro and overcome by Soxf9 expression. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of the combined use of Sox9 and Tet-on system in cartilage tissue engineering. Engineered poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) scaffolds were seeded with recombinant chondrocytes which were transfected with Tet-induced Sox9 expression; the scaffolds were implanted under the skin of 8-week-old rats. The experimental group was injected with Dox in the abdomen, while the control group was injected with normal saline. After 4 or 8 days of implantation in vivo, the newly formed pieces of articular chondrocytes were taken out and measured. Dox injection in vivo showed positive effect on recombinant chondrocytes, in which Sox9 expression was up-regulated by an inducible system with specific matrix proteins. The results demonstrate this controllable transcriptional therapy is a potential approach for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RepSox improves viability and regulates gene expression in rhesus monkey-pig interspecies cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Luo, Zhao-Bo; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Xing, Xiao-Xu; Xuan, Mei-Fu; Zhang, Guang-Lei; Luo, Qi-Rong; Wang, Jun-Xia; Cui, Cheng-Du; Li, Wen-Xue; Cui, Zheng-Yun; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the small molecule, RepSox, on the expression of developmentally important genes and the pre-implantation development of rhesus monkey-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos. Rhesus monkey cells expressing the monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 which have a normal (42) chromosome complement, were used as donor cells to generate iSCNT embryos. RepSox increased the expression levels of the pluripotency-related genes, Oct4 and Nanog (p < 0.05), but not of Sox2 compared with untreated embryos at the 2-4-cell stage. Expression of the anti-apoptotic gene, Bcl2, and the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was also affected at the 2-4-cell stage. RepSox treatment also increased the immunostaining intensity of Oct4 at the blastocyst stage (p < 0.05). Although the blastocyst developmental rate was higher in the group treated with 25 µM RepSox for 24 h than in the untreated control group (2.4 vs. 1.2%, p > 0.05), this was not significant. RepSox can improve the developmental potential of rhesus monkey-pig iSCNT embryos by regulating the expression of pluripotency-related genes.

  12. A novel luciferase knock-in reporter system for studying transcriptional regulation of the human Sox2 gene.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dan; Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Yan; Liu, Kuan; Zhao, Junli; Sun, Xiaohong; Shan, Linlin; Mao, Qinwen; Xia, Haibin

    2016-02-10

    Sox2 is an important transcriptional factor that has multiple functions in stem cell maintenance and tumorigenesis. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of the Sox2 gene, a luciferase knock-in reporter system was established in HEK293 cells by placing the luciferase gene in the genome under the control of the Sox2 gene promoter using a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome editing technique. PCR and Southern blot results confirmed the site-specific integration of a single copy of the exogenous luciferase gene into the genome. To prove the reliability and sensitivity of this novel luciferase knock-in system, a CRISPR/Cas transcription activation system for the Sox2 gene was constructed and applied to the knock-in system. The results indicated that luciferase activity was directly correlated with the activity of the Sox2 endogenous promoter. This novel system will be a useful tool to study the transcriptional regulation of Sox2, and has great potential in medical and industrial applications.

  13. SoxE gene duplication and development of the lamprey branchial skeleton: Insights into development and evolution of the neural crest.

    PubMed

    Lakiza, Olga; Miller, Sarah; Bunce, Ashley; Lee, Eric Myung-Jae; McCauley, David W

    2011-11-01

    SoxE genes are multifunctional transcriptional regulators that play key roles in specification and differentiation of neural crest. Three members (Sox8, Sox9, Sox10) are expressed in the neural crest and are thought to modulate the expression and activity of each other. In addition to regulating the expression of other early neural crest marker genes, SoxE genes are required for development of cartilage. Here we investigated the role of SoxE genes in development of the neural crest-derived branchial skeleton in the sea lamprey. Using a morpholino knockdown approach, we show that all three SoxE genes described in lamprey are required for branchial basket development. Our results suggest that SoxE1 and SoxE2 are required for specification of the chondrogenic neural crest. SoxE3 plays a morphogenetic role in patterning of the branchial basket and may be required for the development of mucocartilage, a tissue unique to larval lampreys. While the lamprey branchial basket develops primarily from an elastin-like major extracellular matrix protein that is specific to lampreys, fibrillar collagen is also expressed in developing branchial cartilage and may be regulated by the lamprey SoxE genes. Our data suggest that the regulation of Type II collagen by Sox9 might have been co-opted by the neural crest in development of the branchial skeleton following the divergence of agnathan and gnathostome vertebrates. Finally, our results also have implications for understanding the independent evolution of duplicated SoxE genes among agnathan and gnathostome vertebrates.

  14. SOX17 is a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongli; Bao, Wei; Wang, Kai; Lu, Wen; Wang, Huihui; Tong, Huan; Wan, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    β-catenin is a key regulatory factor for the Wnt signaling pathway. SOX17 is an important β-catenin inhibitor, while MAML3 is a co-activator of β-catenin-mediated transcription. Out of 120 endometrial cancer (EC) patients, we found that those with tumors expressing higher SOX17 (n=68) had longer recurrence-free survival (P=0.024), while higher MAML3 expression (n=76) was associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.022). Immunohistochemical and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SOX17 and MAML3 co-localized in EC cell nuclei, and the MAML3 C-terminal region was necessary for SOX17 binding. SOX17 regulated MAML3 transcription via binding to the MAML3 promoter, decreasing Wnt pathway protein expression and suppressing EC cell growth and colony formation in vitro. In nude mice, SOX17 over-expression inhibited tumor growth, and co-inhibition or co-overexpression of SOX17 and MAML3 rescued this response. Our results suggest that decreasing SOX17 levels may promote EC development and progression, and that by downregulating MAML3 expression and Wnt signaling, SOX17 acts as a tumor suppressor that may improve outcome in patients with EC. PMID:27738313

  15. SOX17 is a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Bao, Wei; Wang, Kai; Lu, Wen; Wang, Huihui; Tong, Huan; Wan, Xiaoping

    2016-11-15

    β-catenin is a key regulatory factor for the Wnt signaling pathway. SOX17 is an important β-catenin inhibitor, while MAML3 is a co-activator of β-catenin-mediated transcription. Out of 120 endometrial cancer (EC) patients, we found that those with tumors expressing higher SOX17 (n=68) had longer recurrence-free survival (P=0.024), while higher MAML3 expression (n=76) was associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.022). Immunohistochemical and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SOX17 and MAML3 co-localized in EC cell nuclei, and the MAML3 C-terminal region was necessary for SOX17 binding. SOX17 regulated MAML3 transcription via binding to the MAML3 promoter, decreasing Wnt pathway protein expression and suppressing EC cell growth and colony formation in vitro. In nude mice, SOX17 over-expression inhibited tumor growth, and co-inhibition or co-overexpression of SOX17 and MAML3 rescued this response. Our results suggest that decreasing SOX17 levels may promote EC development and progression, and that by downregulating MAML3 expression and Wnt signaling, SOX17 acts as a tumor suppressor that may improve outcome in patients with EC.

  16. Increased Sox2 copy number in lung squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, HIDEFUMI; YOKOTA, KEISUKE; HIKOSAKA, YU; MORIYAMA, SATORU; YANO, MOTOKI; FUJII, YOSHITAKA

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 is necessary for foregut morphogenesis. Sox2 is also required for the normal development of the trachea and lung. Recently, Sox2 amplifications were investigated using large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in esophageal and lung cancer. We hypothesized that Sox2 overexpression might be correlated with clinicopathological features of lung cancers. The increased copy number of the Sox2 gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplifications in 127 surgically treated non-small cell lung cancer cases from Nagoya City University Hospital, Japan. A total of 87 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases were involved. An increased Sox2 gene copy number was found in 42 (33.1%) lung cancer patients. Increased Sox2 copy number status was significantly correlated with gender (females, 9.5% vs. males, 34.1%; p=0.0026), smoking status (never smoker, 4.8% vs. smoker, 32.9%; p=0.0003) and pathological subtypes (squamous cell carcinoma, 44.8% vs. non-squamous cell carcinoma, 7.5%; p<0.0001). However, among the SCCs, the Sox2 copy number status was not significantly correlated with gender, smoking status, pathological stage or differentiation status. An increased Sox2 copy number is common within SCC. PMID:22969842

  17. Quality control for terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Jacob; Munn, Katherine; Rüegg, Alexander; Skusa, Andre; Smith, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Background Ontologies and taxonomies are among the most important computational resources for molecular biology and bioinformatics. A series of recent papers has shown that the Gene Ontology (GO), the most prominent taxonomic resource in these fields, is marked by flaws of certain characteristic types, which flow from a failure to address basic ontological principles. As yet, no methods have been proposed which would allow ontology curators to pinpoint flawed terms or definitions in ontologies in a systematic way. Results We present computational methods that automatically identify terms and definitions which are defined in a circular or unintelligible way. We further demonstrate the potential of these methods by applying them to isolate a subset of 6001 problematic GO terms. By automatically aligning GO with other ontologies and taxonomies we were able to propose alternative synonyms and definitions for some of these problematic terms. This allows us to demonstrate that these other resources do not contain definitions superior to those supplied by GO. Conclusion Our methods provide reliable indications of the quality of terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies. Further, they are well suited to assist ontology curators in drawing their attention to those terms that are ill-defined. We have further shown the limitations of ontology mapping and alignment in assisting ontology curators in rectifying problems, thus pointing to the need for manual curation. PMID:16623942

  18. Sry and SoxE genes: How they participate in mammalian sex determination and gonadal development?

    PubMed

    She, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2017-03-01

    In mammals, sex determination defines the differentiation of the bipotential genital ridge into either testes or ovaries. Sry, the mammalian Y-chromosomal testis-determining gene, is a master regulator of male sex determination. It acts to switch the undifferentiated genital ridge towards testis development, triggering the adoption of a male fate. Sry initiates a cascade of gene networks through the direct regulation of Sox9 expression and promotes supporting cell differentiation, Leydig cell specification, vasculature formation and testis cord development. In the absence of Sry, alternative genetic cascades, including female sex-determining genes RSPO1, Wnt4/β-catenin and Foxl2, are involved in the formation of female genitalia and the maintenance of female ovarian development. The mutual antagonisms between male and female sex-determining pathways are crucial in not just the initiation but also the maintenance of the somatic sex of the gonad throughout the organism's lifetime. Any imbalances in above sex-determining genes can cause disorders of sex development in humans and mice. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of the expression profiles, biochemical properties and developmental functions of Sry and SoxE genes in embryonic testis development and adult gonadal development. We also briefly summarize the dedicate balances between male and female sex-determining genes in mammalian sex development, with particular highlights on the molecular actions of Sry and Sox9 transcription factors.

  19. 76 FR 4724 - Catawba Sox, LLC Formerly Known as Catawba Sox, Inc. Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Whose Unemployment Insurance UI) Wages Are Paid Through Ellis Hosiery Mill, LLC, Newton, NC; Amended... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Ellis Hosiery Mill, LLC, formerly known as Catawba Sox... workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through Ellis Hosiery Mill, LLC, Newton, North...

  20. Oct4 switches partnering from Sox2 to Sox17 to reinterpret the enhancer code and specify endoderm.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Irene; Jauch, Ralf; Chen, Jiaxuan; Dyla, Mateusz; Divakar, Ushashree; Bogu, Gireesh K; Teo, Roy; Leng Ng, Calista Keow; Herath, Wishva; Lili, Sun; Hutchins, Andrew P; Robson, Paul; Kolatkar, Prasanna R; Stanton, Lawrence W

    2013-04-03

    How regulatory information is encoded in the genome is poorly understood and poses a challenge when studying biological processes. We demonstrate here that genomic redistribution of Oct4 by alternative partnering with Sox2 and Sox17 is a fundamental regulatory event of endodermal specification. We show that Sox17 partners with Oct4 and binds to a unique 'compressed' Sox/Oct motif that earmarks endodermal genes. This is in contrast to the pluripotent state where Oct4 selectively partners with Sox2 at 'canonical' binding sites. The distinct selection of binding sites by alternative Sox/Oct partnering is underscored by our demonstration that rationally point-mutated Sox17 partners with Oct4 on pluripotency genes earmarked by the canonical Sox/Oct motif. In an endodermal differentiation assay, we demonstrate that the compressed motif is required for proper expression of endodermal genes. Evidently, Oct4 drives alternative developmental programs by switching Sox partners that affects enhancer selection, leading to either an endodermal or pluripotent cell fate. This work provides insights in understanding cell fate transcriptional regulation by highlighting the direct link between the DNA sequence of an enhancer and a developmental outcome.

  1. SOX9 is an astrocyte-specific nuclear marker in the adult brain outside the neurogenic regions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Cornwell, Adam; Li, Jiashu; Peng, Sisi; Osorio, M Joana; Su Wanga, Nadia Aalling; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Lou, Nanhong; Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2017-03-23

    Astrocytes have in recent years become the focus of intense experimental interest, yet markers for their definitive identification remain both scarce and imperfect. Astrocytes may be recognized as such by their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)quaporin-4 (AQP4)ldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1)nd other proteins. Yet these proteins may all be regulated both developmentally and functionally, restricting their utility. To identify a nuclear marker pathognomonic of astrocytic phenotype, we assessed differential RNA expression by FACS-purified adult astrocytesnd on that basis evaluated the expression of the transcription factor SOX9 in both mouse and human brain. We found that SOX9 is almost selectively expressed by astrocytes in the adult brain except for ependymal cells and in the neurogenic regions, where SOX9 is also expressed by neural progenitor cells. Transcriptome comparisons of SOX9+ cells with GLT1+ cells showed that the two populations of cells exhibit largely overlapping gene expression. Expression of SOX9 did not decrease during agingnd was instead upregulated by reactive astrocytes in a number of settings, including a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SOD1G93A), middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)nd multiple mini-strokes. We quantified the relative number of astrocytes using the isotropic fractionator technique in combination with SOX9 immunolabeling. The analysis showed that SOX9+ astrocytes constitute 10%∼20% of the total cell number in most CNS regions smaller fraction of total cell number than previously estimated in the normal adult brain.Significance Statement Astrocytes are traditionally identified immuno-histochemically by antibodies that target cell-specific antigens in the cytosol or plasma membrane. We show here that SOX9 is an astrocyte-specific nuclear marker in all major areas of the central nervous system outside of the neurogenic

  2. TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa B activator (TANK) expression increases in injured sensory neurons and is transcriptionally regulated by Sox11

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Kathleen M.; Jing, Xiaotang; Diges, Charlotte M.; Davis, Brian M.; Albers, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury evokes rapid and complex changes in gene transcription and cellular signaling pathways. Understanding how these changes are functionally related is essential for developing new approaches that accelerate and improve nerve regeneration. Towards this goal we found that nerve injury induces a rapid and significant up-regulation of the transcription factor Sox11 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Gain and loss of function studies have shown this increase is essential for normal axon regeneration. To determine how Sox11 impacts neuronal gene expression, DRG neurons were treated with Sox11 siRNA to identify potential transcriptional targets. One gene significantly reduced by Sox11 knockdown was TRAF (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor)-associated NF-κB activator (TANK). Here we show that TANK is expressed in DRG neurons, that TANK expression is increased in response to peripheral nerve injury and that Sox11 overexpression in vitro increases TANK expression. Injury and in vitro overexpression were also found to preferentially increase TANK transcript variant 3 and a larger TANK protein isoform. To determine if Sox11 regulates TANK transcription bioinformatic analysis was used to identify potential Sox binding motifs within 5 kbp of the TANK 5’ untranslated region (UTR) across several mammalian genomes. Two sites in the mouse TANK gene were examined. Luciferase expression assays coupled with site-directed mutagenesis showed each site contributes to enhanced TANK promoter activity. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed direct Sox11 binding in regions containing the two identified Sox motifs in the mouse TANK 5’-UTR. These studies are the first to show that TANK is expressed in DRG neurons, that TANK is increased by peripheral nerve injury and that the regulation of TANK expression is, at least in part, controlled by the injury-associated transcription factor Sox11. PMID:23201825

  3. Overexpression of microRNA-194 suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in targeting stem cell transcription factor Sox3 in endometrial carcinoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Baolan; Yue, Yan; Wang, Renxiao; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Quanfang; Zhou, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the key process driving cancer metastasis. MicroRNA-194 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers and its downregulation indicates a poor prognosis in human endometrial carcinoma. Self-renewal factor Sox3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition at gastrulation and is also involved epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers. We intended to determine the roles of Sox3 in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer stem cells and the possible role of microRNA-194 in controlling Sox3 expression. Firstly, we found that Sox3 and microRNA-194 expressions were associated with the status of endometrial cancer stem cells in a panel of endometrial carcinoma tissue, the CD133+ cell was higher in tumorsphere than in differentiated cells, and overexpression of microRNA-194 would decrease CD133+ cell expression. Silencing of Sox3 in endometrial cancer stem cell upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin, downregulated the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and significantly reduced cell invasion in vitro; overexpression of Sox3 reversed these phenotypes. Furthermore, we discovered that the expression of Sox3 was suppressed by microRNA-194 through direct binding to the Sox3 3'-untranslated region. Ectopic expression of microRNA-194 in endometrial cancer stem cells induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition by restoring E-cadherin expression, decreasing vimentin expression, and inhibiting cell invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of microRNA-194 inhibited endometrial cancer stem cell invasion or metastasis in vivo by injection of adenovirus microRNA-194. These findings demonstrate the novel mechanism by which Sox3 contributes to endometrial cancer stem cell invasion and suggest that repression of Sox3 by microRNA-194 may have therapeutic potential to suppress endometrial carcinoma metastasis. The cancer stem cell marker, CD133, might be the surface marker of endometrial cancer stem

  4. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    PubMed

    Vashist, Praveen; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Noopur; Kumar, Atul

    2017-02-01

    A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB), Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.

  5. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    PubMed Central

    Vashist, Praveen; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Noopur; Kumar, Atul

    2017-01-01

    A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB), Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition. PMID:28345562

  6. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Bertolotto, Antonio; Berven, Frode S; Brundin, Lou; Comabella, Manuel; Degn, Matilde; Deisenhammer, Florian; Fazekas, Franz; Franciotta, Diego; Frederiksen, Jette L; Galimberti, Daniela; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hintzen, Rogier; Hughes, Steve; Iacobaeus, Ellen; Kroksveen, Ann C; Kuhle, Jens; Richert, John; Tumani, Hayrettin; Villar, Luisa M; Drulovic, Jelena; Dujmovic, Irena; Khalil, Michael; Bartos, Ales

    2013-11-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use of available resources. This will lead to improved quality of CSF biomarker research in MS and related disorders.

  7. The 144Ce source for SOX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durero, M.; Vivier, M.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, T.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonqueres, N.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Veyssiére, C.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    The SOX (Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino) project aims at testing the light sterile neutrino hypothesis. To do so, two artificials sources of antineutrinos and neutrinos respectively will be consecutively deployed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in close vicinity to Borexino, a large liquid scintillator detector. This document reports on the source production and transportation. The source should exhibit a long lifetime and a high decay energy, a requirement fullfilled by the 144Ce-144Pr pair at secular equilibrium. It will be produced at FSUE “Mayak” PA using spent nuclear fuel. It will then be shielded and packed according to international regulation and shipped to LNGS across Europe. Knowledge of the Cerium antineutrino generator (CeANG) parameters is crucial for SOX as it can strongly impact the experiment sensitivity. Several apparatuses are being used or designed to characterize CeANG activity, radioactive emission and content. An overview of the measurements performed so far is presented here.

  8. NOx SOx Secondary NAAQS: Integrated Review Plan ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NOx SOx Secondary NAAQS Integrated Review Plan is the first document generated as part of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process. The Plan presents background information, the schedule for the review, the process to be used in conducting the review, and the key policy-relevant science issues that will guide the review. The integrated review plan also discusses the frameworks for the various assessment documents to be prepared by the EPA as part of the review, including an Integrated Science Assessment (ISA), and as warranted, a Risk/Exposure Assessment (REA), and a Policy Assessment (PA). The primary purpose of the NOx SOx Secondary NAAQS Integrated Review Plan is to highlight the key policy-relevant issues to be considered in the Review of the Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur Secondary NAAQS. A draft of the integrated review plan will be the subject of an advisory review with the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) and made available to the public for review and comment.

  9. NOx SOx Secondary NAAQS: Integrated Review Plan ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NOx SOx Secondary NAAQS Integrated Review Plan is the first document generated as part of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process. The Plan presents background information, the schedule for the review, the process to be used in conducting the review, and the key policy-relevant science issues that will guide the review. The integrated review plan also discusses the frameworks for the various assessment documents to be prepared by the EPA as part of the review, including an Integrated Science Assessment (ISA), and as warranted, a Risk/Exposure Assessment (REA), and a Policy Assessment (PA). The primary purpose of the NOx SOx Secondary NAAQS Integrated Review Plan is to highlight the key policy-relevant issues to be considered in the Review of the Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur Secondary NAAQS. A draft of the integrated review plan will be the subject of an advisory review with the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) and made available to the public for review and comment.

  10. Dual Function of Sox1 in Telencephalic Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Lixin; Jalali, Ali; Zhao, Li-Ru; Zhou, Xiaojing; McGuire, Tammy; Kazanis, Ilias; Episkopou, Vasso; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Kessler, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor, Sox1 has been implicated in the maintenance of neural progenitor cell status, but accumulating evidence suggests that this is only part of its function. This study examined the role of Sox1 expression in proliferation, lineage commitment, and differentiation by telencephalic neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo, and further clarified the pattern of Sox1 expression in postnatal and adult mouse brain. Telencephalic neural progenitor cells isolated from Sox1 null embryos formed neurospheres normally, but were specifically deficient in neuronal differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of Sox1 in the embryonic telencephalon in vivo both expanded the progenitor pool and biased neural progenitor cells towards neuronal lineage commitment. Sox1 mRNA and protein were found to be persistently expressed in the postnatal and adult brain in both differentiated and neurogenic regions. Importantly, in differentiated regions Sox1 co-labeled only with neuronal markers. These observations, coupled with previous studies, suggest that Sox1 expression by early embryonic progenitor cells initially helps to maintain the cells in cell cycle, but that continued expression subsequently promotes neuronal lineage commitment. PMID:17719572

  11. SOX9 drives WNT pathway activation in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fen; Ye, Huihui; He, Housheng Hansen; Gerrin, Sean J.; Chen, Sen; Tanenbaum, Benjamin A.; Sowalsky, Adam G.; He, Lingfeng; Wang, Hongyun; Balk, Steven P.; Yuan, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX9 is critical for prostate development, and dysregulation of SOX9 is implicated in prostate cancer (PCa). However, the SOX9-dependent genes and pathways involved in both normal and neoplastic prostate epithelium are largely unknown. Here, we performed SOX9 ChIP sequencing analysis and transcriptome profiling of PCa cells and determined that SOX9 positively regulates multiple WNT pathway genes, including those encoding WNT receptors (frizzled [FZD] and lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP] family members) and the downstream β-catenin effector TCF4. Analyses of PCa xenografts and clinical samples both revealed an association between the expression of SOX9 and WNT pathway components in PCa. Finally, treatment of SOX9-expressing PCa cells with a WNT synthesis inhibitor (LGK974) reduced WNT pathway signaling in vitro and tumor growth in murine xenograft models. Together, our data indicate that SOX9 expression drives PCa by reactivating the WNT/β−catenin signaling that mediates ductal morphogenesis in fetal prostate and define a subgroup of patients who would benefit from WNT-targeted therapy. PMID:27043282

  12. Nitrogen oxides/sulfur oxides (NOx/SOx) Secondary NAAQS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document assesses the policy basis for setting the secondary NOx/SOx NAAQS. To provide the policy assessment information for the Administrator to make a more informed decision about the basis for retaining or revising the secondary NOx/SOx NAAQS.

  13. Site-specific Disruption of the Oct4/Sox2 Protein Interaction Reveals Coordinated Mesendodermal Differentiation and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao; Cang, Xiaohui; Dan, Songsong; Li, Jingchao; Cheng, Jie; Kang, Bo; Duan, Xiaotao; Shen, Binghui; Wang, Ying-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Although the Oct4/Sox2 complex is crucial for maintaining the pluripotency of stem cells, the molecular basis underlying its regulation during lineage-specific differentiation remains unknown. Here, we revealed that the highly conserved Oct4/Lys-156 is important for maintaining the stability of the Oct4 protein and the intermolecular salt bridge between Oct4/Lys-151 and Sox2/Asp-107 that contributes to the Oct4/Sox2 interaction. Post-translational modifications at Lys-156 and K156N, a somatic mutation detected in bladder cancer patients, both impaired the Lys-151–Asp-107 salt bridge and the Oct4/Sox2 interaction. When produced as a recombinant protein or overexpressed in pluripotent stem cells, Oct4/K156N, with reduced binding to Sox2, significantly down-regulated the stemness genes that are cooperatively controlled by the Oct4/Sox2 complex and specifically up-regulated the mesendodermal genes and the SNAIL family genes that promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, we conclude that Oct4/Lys-156-modulated Oct4/Sox2 interaction coordinately controls the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and mesendoderm specification induced by specific differentiation signals. PMID:27369080

  14. SOX12: a novel potential target for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haixia; Cai, Jiayi; Chen, Fangyuan; Zhu, Jianyi; Zhong, Jihua; Zhong, Hua

    2017-02-01

    The role of SRY-related high-mobility-group box (SOX) 12 in leukaemia progression and haematopoiesis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the expression and function of SOX12 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) using human myeloid leukaemia samples and the acute myeloid cell line THP1. Mononuclear cells were isolated from the bone marrow of AML patients and healthy donors. SOX12 expression in haematopoietic cells was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SOX12 short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were transduced into THP1 cells, and gene knockdown was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. SOX12 was preferentially expressed in CD34(+) cells in AML patients. The THP1 cells transduced with SOX12 shRNAs exhibited significantly reduced SOX12 expression and cell proliferation. SOX12 knockdown had no effect on apoptosis, but it induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and reduced the number of colonies. The transduced THP1 and primary AML cells were reconstituted in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice, and their numbers were significantly reduced 6-12 weeks after transplantation. The mRNA and protein levels of β-catenin were significantly diminished following SOX12 knockdown, accompanied by a decrease in TCF/Wnt activity. SOX12 may be involved in leukaemia progression by regulating the expression of β-catenin and then interfering with TCF/Wnt pathway, which may be a target for AML. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sox10 is an active nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein, and shuttling is crucial for Sox10-mediated transactivation.

    PubMed

    Rehberg, Stephan; Lischka, Peter; Glaser, Gabi; Stamminger, Thomas; Wegner, Michael; Rosorius, Olaf

    2002-08-01

    Sox10 belongs to a family of transcription regulators characterized by a DNA-binding domain known as the HMG box. It plays fundamental roles in neural crest development, peripheral gliogenesis, and terminal differentiation of oligodendrocytes. In accord with its function as transcription factor, Sox10 contains two nuclear localization signals and is most frequently detected in the nucleus. In this study, we report that Sox10 is an active nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein, competent of both entering and exiting the nucleus. We identified a functional Rev-type nuclear export signal within the DNA-binding domain of Sox10. Mutational inactivation of this nuclear export signal or treatment of cells with the CRM1-specific export inhibitor leptomycin B inhibited nuclear export and consequently nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Sox10. Importantly, the inhibition of the nuclear export of Sox10 led to decreased transactivation of transfected reporters and endogenous target genes, arguing that continuous nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is essential for the function of Sox10. To our knowledge this is the first time that nuclear export has been reported and shown to be functionally relevant for any Sox protein.

  16. Efficacy and safety of SOX chemotherapy with or without surgery in AFP-producing advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Hou, Xu; Chen, Juan; Sun, Huidong; Mi, Yuetang; Sui, Yongling; Li, Yuhong; Xie, Jiaping; Qiao, Yingli; Lei, Xiaofeng; Che, Xiaoshuang; Liu, Jun

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the clinical efficacy of S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) regimen, with or without surgery in α-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer (APGC) with liver metastasis. A total of 24 patients with APGC treated at the Liaocheng People's Hospital between January 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical efficacy and patient safety were compared between the two groups. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the SOX group were 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.6-8.4] and 13.5 (95% CI, 8.1-18.9) months, respectively. The corresponding indicators in the SOX and surgery group were 7.0 (95% CI, 5.7-8.3) and 14 (95% CI, 11.0-17.1) months, respectively. There was no significant difference in PFS and OS between the two groups (P=0.703 and 0.710, respectively). The adverse effects of leucopenia, neutropenia, anemia and diarrhea occurred in ~10% of patients in the SOX group and in 14.3% (2/14), 7.14% (1/14), 14.3% (2/14) and 7.14% (1/14), respectively, in the surgery group. No significant difference was identified between groups in terms of overall incidence of adverse effects (P=0.17). However, severe adverse events, including gastroplegia, pancreatic fistula, pulmonary infection and refractory ascites, occurred only in the SOX plus surgery group [incidence rate for severe adverse events, 7.14% (1/14); P<0.001 between groups]. In conclusion, SOX chemotherapy is safe and effective in patients with APGC and liver metastasis. However, the addition of surgery to SOX chemotherapy may not improve the disease control rate and may increase the adverse effects.

  17. Connexin 50 modulates Sox2 expression in spinal-cord-derived ependymal stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Jimenez, Francisco Javier; Alastrue, Ana; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Erceg, Slaven; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria

    2016-08-01

    Ion channels included in the family of Connexins (Cx) have been reported to influence the secondary expansion of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and neuropathic pain following SCI. However, Cxs also contribute to spinal cord neurogenesis during the remyelinating process and functional recovery after SCI. Certain Cxs have been recently related to the control of cell proliferation and the differentiation of neuronal progenitors. Adult spinal-cord-derived ependymal stem progenitor cells (epSPC) show high expression levels of Cx50 in non-pathological conditions and lower expression when they actively proliferate after injury (epSPCi). We explore the role of Cx50 in the ependymal population in the modulation of Sox2, a crucial factor of neural progenitor self-renewal and a promising target for promoting neuronal-cell-fate induction for neuronal tissue repair. Short-interfering-RNA ablation or over-expression of Cx50 regulates the expression of Sox2 in both epSPC and epSPCi. Interestingly, Cx50 and Sox2 co-localize at the nucleus indicating a potential role for this ion channel beyond cell-to-cell communication in the spinal cord. In vivo and in vitro experiments with Clotrimazole, a specific pharmacological modulator of Cx50, show the convergent higher expression of Cx50 and Sox2 in the isolated epSPC/epSPCi and in spinal cord tissue. Therefore, the pharmacological modulation of Cx50 might constitute an interesting mechanism for Sox2 induction to modulate the endogenous regenerative potential of neuronal tissue with a potential application in regenerative therapies.

  18. Transcriptome Dynamics and Potential Roles of Sox6 in the Postnatal Heart

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jie; Sinha, Neelima R.; Hagiwara, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal heart undergoes highly coordinated developmental processes culminating in the complex physiologic properties of the adult heart. The molecular mechanisms of postnatal heart development remain largely unexplored despite their important clinical implications. To gain an integrated view of the dynamic changes in gene expression during postnatal heart development at the organ level, time-series transcriptome analyses of the postnatal hearts of neonatal through adult mice (P1, P7, P14, P30, and P60) were performed using a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline. We identified functional gene clusters by principal component analysis with self-organizing map clustering which revealed organized, discrete gene expression patterns corresponding to biological functions associated with the neonatal, juvenile and adult stages of postnatal heart development. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis with bootstrap inference for each of these functional gene clusters, highly robust hub genes were identified which likely play key roles in regulating expression of co-expressed, functionally linked genes. Additionally, motivated by the role of the transcription factor Sox6 in the functional maturation of skeletal muscle, the role of Sox6 in the postnatal maturation of cardiac muscle was investigated. Differentially expressed transcriptome analyses between Sox6 knockout (KO) and control hearts uncovered significant upregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation at postnatal day 7 (P7) in the Sox6 KO heart. This result was validated by detecting mitotically active cells in the P7 Sox6 KO heart. The current report provides a framework for the complex molecular processes of postnatal heart development, thus enabling systematic dissection of the developmental regression observed in the stressed and failing adult heart. PMID:27832192

  19. Transcriptome Dynamics and Potential Roles of Sox6 in the Postnatal Heart.

    PubMed

    An, Chung-Il; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Peng, Jie; Sinha, Neelima R; Hagiwara, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal heart undergoes highly coordinated developmental processes culminating in the complex physiologic properties of the adult heart. The molecular mechanisms of postnatal heart development remain largely unexplored despite their important clinical implications. To gain an integrated view of the dynamic changes in gene expression during postnatal heart development at the organ level, time-series transcriptome analyses of the postnatal hearts of neonatal through adult mice (P1, P7, P14, P30, and P60) were performed using a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline. We identified functional gene clusters by principal component analysis with self-organizing map clustering which revealed organized, discrete gene expression patterns corresponding to biological functions associated with the neonatal, juvenile and adult stages of postnatal heart development. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis with bootstrap inference for each of these functional gene clusters, highly robust hub genes were identified which likely play key roles in regulating expression of co-expressed, functionally linked genes. Additionally, motivated by the role of the transcription factor Sox6 in the functional maturation of skeletal muscle, the role of Sox6 in the postnatal maturation of cardiac muscle was investigated. Differentially expressed transcriptome analyses between Sox6 knockout (KO) and control hearts uncovered significant upregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation at postnatal day 7 (P7) in the Sox6 KO heart. This result was validated by detecting mitotically active cells in the P7 Sox6 KO heart. The current report provides a framework for the complex molecular processes of postnatal heart development, thus enabling systematic dissection of the developmental regression observed in the stressed and failing adult heart.

  20. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    1974-01-01

    Pupil control is regarded as an integrative theme to explain the collection of extensive observations made in schools. This report attempts to define and measure pupil control behavior, a companion concept to pupil control ideology. (Author/WM)

  1. Railing for safety: job demands, job control, and safety citizenship role definition.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Walls, Melanie

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated job demands and job control as predictors of safety citizenship role definition, that is, employees' role orientation toward improving workplace safety. Data from a survey of 334 trackside workers were framed in the context of R. A. Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model. High job demands were negatively related to safety citizenship role definition, whereas high job control was positively related to this construct. Safety citizenship role definition of employees with high job control was buffered from the influence of high job demands, unlike that of employees with low job control, for whom high job demands were related to lower levels of the construct. Employees facing both high job demands and low job control were less likely than other employees to view improving safety as part of their role orientation. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 75880 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 70 RIN 0920-AA22 Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the Department of Health and...

  3. 78 FR 12622 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 71 RIN 0920-AA12 Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)...

  4. 78 FR 12621 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 70 RIN 0920-AA22 Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)...

  5. 77 FR 75936 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 70 RIN 0920-AA22 Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within...

  6. 77 FR 75885 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 71 RIN 0920-AA12 Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human..., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the Department of Health...

  7. 77 FR 75939 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 71 RIN 0920-AA12 Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),...

  8. Comparative cytogenetic mapping of Sox2 and Sox14 in cichlid fishes and inferences on the genomic organization of both genes in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuchelli, Juliana; Yang, Fengtang; Kocher, Thomas D.; Martins, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the genomic organization and evolution of Sox genes in vertebrates, we cytogenetically mapped Sox2 and Sox14 genes in cichlid fishes and performed comparative analyses of their orthologs in several vertebrate species. The genomic regions neighbouring Sox2 and Sox14 have been conserved during vertebrate diversification. Although cichlids seem to have undergone high rates of genomic rearrangements, Sox2 and Sox14 are linked in the same chromosome in the Etroplinae Etroplus maculatus that represents the sister group of all remaining cichlids. However, this genes are located on different chromosomes in several species of the sister group Pseudocrenilabrinae. Similarly the ancestral synteny of Sox2 and Sox14 has been maintained in several vertebrates, but this synteny has been broken independently in all major groups as a consequence of karyotype rearrangements that took place during the vertebrate evolution. PMID:21691861

  9. Use of methanol as cryoprotectant and its effect on sox genes and proteins in chilled zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kunjan; Spikings, Emma; Zhang, Tiantian

    2015-08-01

    Methanol is a widely used cryoprotectant (CPA) in cryopreservation of fish embryos, however little is known about its effect at the molecular level. This study investigated the effect of methanol on sox gene and protein expression in zebrafish embryos (50% epiboly) when they were chilled for 3 h and subsequently warmed and cultured to the hatching stages. Initial experiments were carried out to evaluate the chilling tolerance of 50% epiboly embryos which showed no significant differences in hatching rates for up to 6 h chilling in methanol (0.2-, 0.5- and 1 M). Subsequent experiments in embryos that had been chilled for 3 h in 1 M methanol and warmed and cultured up to the hatching stages found that sox2 and sox3 gene expression were increased significantly in hatched embryos that had been chilled compared to non-chilled controls. Sox19a gene expression also remained above control levels in the chilled embryos at all developmental stages tested. Whilst stable sox2 protein expression was observed between non-chilled controls and embryos chilled for 3 h with or without MeOH, a surge in sox19a protein expression was observed in embryos chilled for 3 h in the presence of 1 M MeOH compared to non-chilled controls and then returned to control levels by the hatching stage. The protective effect of MeOH was increased with increasing concentrations. Effect of methanol at molecular level during chilling was reported here first time which could add new parameter in selection of cryoprotectant while designing cryopreservation protocol.

  10. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) software system definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Propulsion Flight Control Integration Technology (PROFIT) program is designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The control software for PROFIT is defined. Maximum flexibility, needed for long term use of the flight facility, is achieved through a modular design. The Host program, processes inputs from the telemetry uplink, aircraft central computer, cockpit computer control and plant sensors to form an input data base for use by the control algorithms. The control algorithms, programmed as application modules, process the input data to generate an output data base. The Host program formats the data for output to the telemetry downlink, the cockpit computer control, and the control effectors. Two applications modules are defined - the bill of materials F-100 engine control and the bill of materials F-15 inlet control.

  11. Molecular Interactions, Structural Transitions and Alterations in SoxB Protein Due to SoxYZ Interaction from Two Distinct β-Proteobacteria: An In silico Approach Towards the Thiosulfate Oxidation and Recycling of SoxY Protein.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sujay; Ghosh, Semanti; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2016-11-28

    Microbial oxidation-reduction reactions utilizing the environmental thiosulfate ions and mediated mainly by the sox operon are very much essential to maintain the sulfur balance in the environment. Majority of the previously documented wet laboratory studies show genetics behind the functionality of Sox proteins encoded by the sox operon. However, the molecular details of the involvements of the essential SoxB, SoxY and SoxZ proteins in the beta-proteobacteria have not yet been elucidated. In this work, an attempt was made to analyze the interaction profiles of the aforementioned SoxB, SoxY and SoxZ proteins to predict their roles in biological sulfur oxidation process. In order to establish the possible roles of these Sox proteins, we built the homology models of these proteins from the two different beta-proteobacteria Dechloromonas aromatica and Thiobacillus denitrificans. We then used molecular docking and simulation studies to further analyze the interaction profiles of these sox proteins. Our analyses revealed that SoxB protein from T. denitrificans exhibited steadier and stronger interactions with SoxYZ protein complex. On the other hand, SoxB protein from D. aromatica was found to exhibit a spontaneous interaction with greater ΔG values and therefore was well documented to exhibit a dual role. This is the first research article to discern the molecular level of interaction profiles of SoxB with SoxYZ protein complex in the beta-proteobacteria D. aromatica and T. denitrificans during the oxidations of thiosulfate. It would further prompt the future investigation into the mutational impact on the sequential interaction pattern in sox operon.

  12. Sox2 is dispensable for primary melanoma and metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, S M; Segalada, C; Cheng, P F; Bonalli, M; Parfejevs, V; Levesque, M P; Dummer, R; Nicolis, S K; Sommer, L

    2017-04-03

    Tumor initiation and metastasis formation in many cancers have been associated with emergence of a gene expression program normally active in embryonic or organ-specific stem cells. In particular, the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 is not only expressed in a variety of tumors, but is also required for their formation. Melanoma, the most aggressive skin tumor, derives from melanocytes that during development originate from neural crest stem cells. While neural crest stem cells do not express Sox2, expression of this transcription factor has been reported in melanoma. However, the role of Sox2 in melanoma is controversial. To study the requirement of Sox2 for melanoma formation, we therefore performed CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene inactivation in human melanoma cells. In addition, we conditionally inactivated Sox2 in a genetically engineered mouse model, in which melanoma spontaneously develops in the context of an intact stroma and immune system. Surprisingly, in both models, loss of Sox2 did neither affect melanoma initiation, nor growth, nor metastasis formation. The lack of a tumorigenic role of Sox2 in melanoma might reflect a distinct stem cell program active in neural crest stem cells and during melanoma formation.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.55.

  13. Sox9: A Master Regulator of the Pancreatic Program

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, it has been discovered that the transcription factor Sox9 plays several critical roles in governing the development of the embryonic pancreas and the homeostasis of the mature organ. While analysis of pancreata from patients affected by the Sox9 haploinsufficiency syndrome campomelic dysplasia initially alluded to a functional role of Sox9 in pancreatic morphogenesis, transgenic mouse models have been instrumental in mechanistically dissecting such roles. Although initially defined as a marker and maintenance factor for pancreatic progenitors, Sox9 is now considered to fulfill additional indispensable functions during pancreogenesis and in the postnatal organ through its interactions with other transcription factors and signaling pathways such as Fgf and Notch. In addition to maintaining both multipotent and bipotent pancreatic progenitors, Sox9 is also required for initiating endocrine differentiation and maintaining pancreatic ductal identity, and it has recently been unveiled as a key player in the initiation of pancreatic cancer. These functions of Sox9 are discussed in this article, with special emphasis on the knowledge gained from various loss-of-function and lineage tracing mouse models. Also, current controversies regarding Sox9 function in healthy and injured adult pancreas and unanswered questions and avenues of future study are discussed. PMID:25148367

  14. Propofol Suppresses Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Migration and Invasion by Down-Regulation of Sex-Determining Region Y-box 4 (SOX4)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chun-li; Li, Jing-jing; Ji, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Background This study was done to verify whether propofol could inhibit esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line EC9706 cell migration and invasion by targeting SOX4. Material/Methods Different concentrations of propofol were co-incubated with EC9706 cells. The pcDNA-SOX4 or SOX4 siRNA plasmid was transfected into cells before the treatment with propofol 5 μg/L. The migratory and invasion ability of EC9706 cells were tested by wound-healing assay and Transwell chambers. Western blotting was used to investigate the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and SOX4. Gelatin zymography was employed to detect the activity of MMP2 and MMP-9. Results Compared with the control, the migration and invasion activity of EC9706 cells were decreased after incubation with different concentrations of propofol (P<0.01). The expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and SOX4 was decreased and that of TIMP-1 was increased in the propofol-treated EC9706 cells (P<0.01). Down-regulation of SOX4 by SOX4-siRNA had the same effect as propofol on EC9706 cells, including suppressing cell migration and invasion, inhibiting the expression and activity of MMP-2/9, and increasing the expression TIMP-1. Over-expression of SOX4 could partly abrogated propofol-mediated inhibition of EC9706 cell migration and invasion. Conclusions Propofol inhibits EC9706 cell migration and invasion by down-regulation of SOX4. PMID:28118321

  15. Co-motif discovery identifies an Esrrb-Sox2-DNA ternary complex as a mediator of transcriptional differences between mouse embryonic and epiblast stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Choo, Siew Hua; Mistri, Tapan Kumar; Rahmani, Mehran; Woon, Chow Thai; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Jauch, Ralf; Robson, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Transcription factors (TF) often bind in heterodimeric complexes with each TF recognizing a specific neighboring cis element in the regulatory region of the genome. Comprehension of this DNA motif grammar is opaque, yet recent developments have allowed the interrogation of genome-wide TF binding sites. We reasoned that within this data novel motif grammars could be identified that controlled distinct biological programs. For this purpose, we developed a novel motif-discovery tool termed fexcom that systematically interrogates ChIP-seq data to discover spatially constrained TF-TF composite motifs occurring over short DNA distances. We applied this to the extensive ChIP-seq data available from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In addition to the well-known and most prevalent sox-oct motif, we also discovered a novel constrained spacer motif for Esrrb and Sox2 with a gap of between 2 and 8 bps that Essrb and Sox2 cobind in a selective fashion. Through the use of knockdown experiments, we argue that the Esrrb-Sox2 complex is an arbiter of gene expression differences between ESCs and epiblast stem cells (EpiSC). A number of genes downregulated upon dual Esrrb/Sox2 knockdown (e.g., Klf4, Klf5, Jam2, Pecam1) are similarly downregulated in the ESC to EpiSC transition and contain the esrrb-sox motif. The prototypical Esrrb-Sox2 target gene, containing an esrrb-sox element conserved throughout eutherian and metatherian mammals, is Nr0b1. Through positive regulation of this transcriptional repressor, we argue the Esrrb-Sox2 complex promotes the ESC state through inhibition of the EpiSC transcriptional program and the same trio may also function to maintain trophoblast stem cells. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  16. Superhydrophilic and superwetting surfaces: definition and mechanisms of control.

    PubMed

    Drelich, Jaroslaw; Chibowski, Emil

    2010-12-21

    The term superhydrophobicity was introduced in 1996 to describe water-repellent fractal surfaces, made of a hydrophobic material, on which water drops remain as almost perfect spheres and roll off such surfaces leaving no residue. Today, superhydrophobic surfaces are defined as textured materials (and coatings) on (nonsmooth) surfaces on which water forms contact angles 150° and larger, with only a few degrees of contact angle hysteresis (or sliding angle). The terms superhydrophilicity and superwetting were introduced a few years after the term superhydrophobicity to describe the complete spreading of water or liquid on substrates. The definition of superhydrophilic and superwetting substrates has not been clarified yet, and unrestricted use of these terms sometimes stirs controversy. This Letter briefly reviews the superwetting phenomenon and offers a suggestion on defining superhydrophilic and superwetting substrates and surfaces.

  17. Expression of OCT-4 and SOX-2 in Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Matic, Igor; Antunovic, Maja; Brkic, Sime; Josipovic, Pavle; Mihalic, Katarina Caput; Karlak, Ivan; Ivkovic, Alan; Marijanovic, Inga

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Determine the levels of expression of pluripotency genes OCT-4 and SOX-2 before and after osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). METHODS: Human MSCs were derived from the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts. The analyses were performed on days 0 and 14 of the cell culture. In vitro differentiation was evaluated due to bone markers – alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of AP and bone sialoprotein (BSP). The OCT-4 and SOX-2 expression was evaluated at mRNA level by real-time qPCR and at protein level by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: In vitro cultures on day 14 showed an increase in AP activity and upregulation of AP and BSP gene expression. OCT-4 and SOX-2 in undifferentiated hMSCs on day 0 is detectable and very low compared to tumor cell lines as a positive control. Immunocytochemistry detected OCT-4 in the cell nuclei prior (day 0) and post differentiation (day 14). On the same time points, cultures were negative for SOX-2 protein. CONCLUSION: Messenger RNA for pluripotency markers OCT-4 and SOX-2 isolated from hMSCs was less present, while OCT-4 protein was detected in cell nuclei prior and post differentiation into osteoblast lineage. PMID:27275321

  18. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    An attempt is made to define and measure pupil control "behavior." In order to measure pupil control behavior, an instrument called the Pupil Control Behavior (PCB) Form was developed and tested. The 31 custodial and 34 humanistic items were randomized, and the initial version of the PCB Form was administered in 20 schools in Illinois…

  19. Porcine SOX9 Gene Expression Is Influenced by an 18 bp Indel in the 5'-Untranslated Region.

    PubMed

    Brenig, Bertram; Duan, Yanyu; Xing, Yuyun; Ding, Nengshui; Huang, Lusheng; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) is an important regulator of sex and skeletal development and is expressed in a variety of embryonal and adult tissues. Loss or gain of function resulting from mutations within the coding region or chromosomal aberrations of the SOX9 locus lead to a plethora of detrimental phenotypes in humans and animals. One of these phenotypes is the so-called male-to-female or female-to-male sex-reversal which has been observed in several mammals including pig, dog, cat, goat, horse, and deer. In 38,XX sex-reversal French Large White pigs, a genome-wide association study suggested SOX9 as the causal gene, although no functional mutations were identified in affected animals. However, besides others an 18 bp indel had been detected in the 5'-untranslated region of the SOX9 gene by comparing affected animals and controls. We have identified the same indel (Δ18) between position +247 bp and +266 bp downstream the transcription start site of the porcine SOX9 gene in four other pig breeds; i.e., German Large White, Laiwu Black, Bamei, and Erhualian. These animals have been genotyped in an attempt to identify candidate genes for porcine inguinal and/or scrotal hernia. Because the 18 bp segment in the wild type 5'-UTR harbours a highly conserved cAMP-response element (CRE) half-site, we analysed its role in SOX9 expression in vitro. Competition and immunodepletion electromobility shift assays demonstrate that the CRE half-site is specifically recognized by CREB. Both binding of CREB to the wild type as well as the absence of the CRE half-site in Δ18 reduced expression efficiency in HEK293T, PK-15, and ATDC5 cells significantly. Transfection experiments of wild type and Δ18 SOX9 promoter luciferase constructs show a significant reduction of RNA and protein levels depending on the presence or absence of the 18 bp segment. Hence, the data presented here demonstrate that the 18 bp indel in the porcine SOX9 5'-UTR is of functional importance and may

  20. miR-625 down-regulation promotes proliferation and invasion in esophageal cancer by targeting Sox2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Qiao, Qiao; Chen, Min; Li, Xianhua; Wang, Zhenjun; Liu, Chuanxin; Xie, Zongtao

    2014-03-18

    miR-625 has been reported to exhibit abnormal expression in esophageal cancer (EC), but the mechanism and functions of miR-625 in esophageal cancer remain unclear. miR-625 down-regulation and Sox2 up-regulation were validated by qRT-PCR in 158 EC samples. Low expression of miR-625 promotes cell proliferation and invasion, while high expression of miR-625 has the opposite effect. Sox2, a target gene of miR-625, was examined by luciferase assay and western blot. Our data suggest that miR-625 may regulate the biological processes of EC via controlling Sox2 expression.

  1. 78 FR 12702 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 70 RIN 0920-AA22 Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease...

  2. 78 FR 12702 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 71 RIN 0920-AA12 Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease...

  3. Quality-controlled Subject Gateways: Definitions, Typologies, Empirical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Traugott

    2000-01-01

    "Quality-controlled subject gateways" are Internet services which apply quality measures to support systematic resource discovery. A main goal is to provide high quality subject access through indexing resources using controlled vocabularies and by offering a deep classification structure for advanced searching and browsing. Provides an…

  4. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Definition Report

    SciTech Connect

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-03-16

    The system description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem establishes the system boundaries and describes the interface of the DST Monitor and Control Subsystem with new and existing systems that are required to accomplish the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission.

  5. Paradoxical role of SOX2 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Santos, Juliana C; Garcia, Idoia; Brianti, Mitsue; García-Puga, Mikel; Pedrazzoli, José Jr; Matheu, Ander; Ribeiro, Marcelo L

    2016-01-01

    Sox2 is a critical regulator of embryogenesis and necessary for cellular reprogramming. It also plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, maintaining the population of undifferentiated adult stem cells. Like various developmental and stem cell genes, SOX2 is aberrantly expressed and amplified in several human cancers. Moreover, functional studies have shown that it regulates many biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, self-renewal and invasion. While it is oncogenic in most cancers, SOX2 activity is controversial in gastric cancer, where it might behave as a tumor suppressor in some situations. In this review, we discuss its role in cancer biology, with particular attention to what is known about the involvement of SOX2 in gastric cancer biology. PMID:27186426

  6. Expression of Sox family genes in early lamprey development

    PubMed Central

    UY, BENJAMIN R.; SIMOES-COSTA, MARCOS; SAUKA-SPENGLER, TATJANA; BRONNER, MARIANNE E.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Sox (Sry-related high mobility group box) family of transcription factors play a variety of roles during development of both vertebrates and invertebrates. A marked expansion in gene number occurred during emergence of vertebrates, apparently via gene duplication events that are thought to have facilitated new functions. By screening a macroarrayed library as well as the lamprey genome, we have isolated genes of the Sox B, D, E and F subfamilies in the basal jawless vertebrate, lamprey. The expression patterns of all identified Sox genes were examined from gastrulation through early organogenesis (embryonic day 4–14), with particular emphasis on the neural crest, a vertebrate innovation. Coupled with phylogenetic analysis of these Sox genes, the results provide insight into gene duplication and divergence in paralog deployment occurring during early vertebrate evolution. PMID:22811271

  7. Complex architecture and regulated expression of the Sox2ot locus during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Paulo P.; Neyt, Christine; Wilkins, Simon J.; Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Perkins, Andrew C.; Mattick, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sox2 gene is a key regulator of pluripotency embedded within an intron of a long noncoding RNA (ncRNA), termed Sox2 overlapping transcript (Sox2ot), which is transcribed in the same orientation. However, this ncRNA remains uncharacterized. Here we show that Sox2ot has multiple transcription start sites associated with genomic features that indicate regulated expression, including highly conserved elements (HCEs) and chromatin marks characteristic of gene promoters. To identify biological processes in which Sox2ot may be involved, we analyzed its expression in several developmental systems, compared to expression of Sox2. We show that Sox2ot is a stable transcript expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, which, like Sox2, is down-regulated upon induction of embryoid body (EB) differentiation. However, in contrast to Sox2, Sox2ot is up-regulated during EB mesoderm-lineage differentiation. In adult mouse, Sox2ot isoforms were detected in tissues where Sox2 is expressed, as well as in different tissues, supporting independent regulation of expression of the ncRNA. Sox2dot, an isoform of Sox2ot transcribed from a distal HCE located >500 kb upstream of Sox2, was detected exclusively in the mouse brain, with enrichment in regions of adult neurogenesis. In addition, Sox2ot isoforms are transcribed from HCEs upstream of Sox2 in other vertebrates, including in several regions of the human brain. We also show that Sox2ot is dynamically regulated during chicken and zebrafish embryogenesis, consistently associated with central nervous system structures. These observations provide insight into the structure and regulation of the Sox2ot gene, and suggest conserved roles for Sox2ot orthologs during vertebrate development. PMID:19767420

  8. SOX9 Is a Progressive Factor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    implicated in supporting stem cells in small intestine and hair follicle (52–54). Recent lineage tracing studies found that SOX9 marks the adult stem cell... target . 15. SUBJECT TERMS SOX9, caner stem cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...proliferate despite the castration level of circulating testosterone. Although enthusiasm for androgen receptor targeting approaches remains high

  9. Isolation and sequence analysis of sox genes from lizard Eremias multiocellata.

    PubMed

    Xin, Y; Tang, X; Yue, F; Zhang, D; Yan, X; Wang, C; Chen, Q

    2012-01-01

    The Sox (SRY-related high-mobility-group box) family of genes shares a conserved HMG box and is involved in a diverse range of developmental processes and sex determination in vertebrates. Twenty Sox genes are present in the genomes of humans and mice, but far less is known about the Sox gene family in reptiles. Using two pairs of highly degenerate primers designed from a multiple alignment of Sox amino acid sequences in several species, different positive clones were obtained from male and female Eremias multiocellata, a viviparous lizard which is subject to TSD (temperature-dependent sex determination). These clones were sequenced and identified. They are members of the SoxB (Sox2, Sox14), SoxC (Sox11, Sox12) and SoxE (Sox9a, Sox9b, Sox10) groups. No sex-specific differences were observed. Based on the amino acid sequence similarities, the phylogenetic analysis was carried out and these genes clustered with their orthologues. In addition, we found the gene duplication in E. multiocellata, it may be a mechanism to produce new functional genes.

  10. Sox2 promotes tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Marco; Domenici, Giacomo; Iriondo, Oihana; Rábano, Miriam; Simões, Bruno M; Comaills, Valentine; Barredo, Inmaculada; López-Ruiz, Jose A; Zabalza, Ignacio; Kypta, Robert; Vivanco, Maria d M

    2014-01-01

    Development of resistance to therapy continues to be a serious clinical problem in breast cancer management. Cancer stem/progenitor cells have been shown to play roles in resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. Here, we examined their role in the development of resistance to the oestrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. Tamoxifen-resistant cells were enriched for stem/progenitors and expressed high levels of the stem cell marker Sox2. Silencing of the SOX2 gene reduced the size of the stem/progenitor cell population and restored sensitivity to tamoxifen. Conversely, ectopic expression of Sox2 reduced tamoxifen sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression profiling revealed activation of the Wnt signalling pathway in Sox2-expressing cells, and inhibition of Wnt signalling sensitized resistant cells to tamoxifen. Examination of patient tumours indicated that Sox2 levels are higher in patients after endocrine therapy failure, and also in the primary tumours of these patients, compared to those of responders. Together, these results suggest that development of tamoxifen resistance is driven by Sox2-dependent activation of Wnt signalling in cancer stem/progenitor cells. PMID:24178749

  11. Cooperative binding of Sox10 to DNA: requirements and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Schlierf, Beate; Ludwig, Andreas; Klenovsek, Karin; Wegner, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The high-mobility-group (HMG) domain containing transcription factor Sox10 is an important regulator of various processes including the development of neural crest cells and glial cells. Target gene promoters contain multiple Sox10-binding sites, which either support monomeric or cooperative, dimeric binding. The latter is unusual for Sox proteins and might contribute to functional specificity of Sox10. We find that specific amino acid residues in a conserved region immediately preceding the HMG domain of Sox10 are required for cooperative binding. These residues cooperate with the HMG domain during dimeric binding in a manner dependent on specific determinants within the first two α-helices of the HMG domain. Cooperativity of DNA binding is surprisingly refractory to changes in the overall conformation of the DNA-bound dimer. Whereas maintenance of cooperativity is essential for full activation of the promoter of the myelin protein zero target gene, dimer-dependent conformational changes such as the exact bending angle introduced into the promoter appear to be less important, shedding new light on the architectural function of Sox proteins. PMID:12490719

  12. Wnt/β-catenin signalling regulates Sox17 expression and is essential for organizer and endoderm formation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Engert, Silvia; Burtscher, Ingo; Liao, W Perry; Dulev, Stanimir; Schotta, Gunnar; Lickert, Heiko

    2013-08-01

    Several signalling cascades are implicated in the formation and patterning of the three principal germ layers, but their precise temporal-spatial mode of action in progenitor populations remains undefined. We have used conditional gene deletion of mouse β-catenin in Sox17-positive embryonic and extra-embryonic endoderm as well as vascular endothelial progenitors to address the function of canonical Wnt signalling in cell lineage formation and patterning. Conditional mutants fail to form anterior brain structures and exhibit posterior body axis truncations, whereas initial blood vessel formation appears normal. Tetraploid rescue experiments reveal that lack of β-catenin in the anterior visceral endoderm results in defects in head organizer formation. Sox17 lineage tracing in the definitive endoderm (DE) shows a cell-autonomous requirement for β-catenin in midgut and hindgut formation. Surprisingly, wild-type posterior visceral endoderm (PVE) in midgut- and hindgut-deficient tetraploid chimera rescues the posterior body axis truncation, indicating that the PVE is important for tail organizer formation. Upon loss of β-catenin in the visceral endoderm and DE lineages, but not in the vascular endothelial lineage, Sox17 expression is not maintained, suggesting downstream regulation by canonical Wnt signalling. Strikingly, Tcf4/β-catenin transactivation complexes accumulated on Sox17 cis-regulatory elements specifically upon endoderm induction in an embryonic stem cell differentiation system. Together, these results indicate that the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway regulates Sox17 expression for visceral endoderm pattering and DE formation and provide the first functional evidence that the PVE is necessary for gastrula organizer gene induction and posterior axis development.

  13. Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (LunaSOX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natasha; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon offers a unique vantage point from which to investigate the Sun and its interaction via the solar wind magnetic fields, plasma, and energetic particles with the geospace system including the Moon itself. The lunar surface and exosphere provide in part a record of solar coronal plasma material input and resultant space weathering over billions of years. The structure and dynamics of solar wind interactions with the Moon provide an accessible near-Earth laboratory environment for study of general solar wind interactions with the vast multitude of airless asteroidal bodies of the inner solar system. Spacecraft in lunar orbit have the often simultaneous opportunity, except when in the Earth's magnetosphere, to make in-situ compositional measurements of the solar wind plasma and to carry out remote observations from the Moon of the solar corona, potentially enabled by lunar limb occultation of the solar disk. The LunaSOX project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is addressing these heliophysical science objectives from and of the Moon with support from NASA's Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research (LASER) program: (1) specify history of solar wind parameters at and sunward of the Moon through enhanced access (http://lunasox.gsfc.nasa.gov/) to legacy and operational mission data products from the Apollo era to the present, (2) model field and plasma interactions with the lunar surface, exosphere, and wake, as constrained by the available data, through hybrid kinetic code simulations, and (3) advance mission concepts for heliophysics from and of the Moon.

  14. Definition of ground test for Large Space Structure (LSS) control verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, H. B.; Doane, G. B., III; Tollison, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    An overview for the definition of a ground test for the verification of Large Space Structure (LSS) control is given. The definition contains information on the description of the LSS ground verification experiment, the project management scheme, the design, development, fabrication and checkout of the subsystems, the systems engineering and integration, the hardware subsystems, the software, and a summary which includes future LSS ground test plans. Upon completion of these items, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center will have an LSS ground test facility which will provide sufficient data on dynamics and control verification of LSS so that LSS flight system operations can be reasonably ensured.

  15. On Intraverbal Control and the Definition of the Intraverbal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior analysts should distinguish between the intraverbal, as a class of verbal operants, and intraverbal control, the potentiating effect, however slight, of a verbal antecedent on a verbal response. If it is to serve an explanatory function, the term intraverbal, as a class of verbal operants, should be restricted to those cases in which a…

  16. An evaluation of HIV elite controller definitions within a large seroconverter cohort collaboration.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ashley D; Meyer, Laurence; Prins, Maria; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Gurdasani, Deepti; Guiguet, Marguerite; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Amornkul, Pauli; Babiker, Abdel; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Porter, Kholoud

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying viral control is highly relevant to vaccine studies and elite control (EC) of HIV infection. Although numerous definitions of EC exist, it is not clear which, if any, best identify this rare phenotype. We assessed a number of EC definitions used in the literature using CASCADE data of 25,692 HIV seroconverters. We estimated proportions maintaining EC of total ART-naïve follow-up time, and disease progression, comparing to non-EC. We also examined HIV-RNA and CD4 values and CD4 slope during EC and beyond (while ART naïve). Most definitions classify ∼ 1% as ECs with median HIV-RNA 43-903 copies/ml and median CD4>500 cells/mm(3). Beyond EC status, median HIV-RNA levels remained low, although often detectable, and CD4 values high but with strong evidence of decline for all definitions. Median % ART-naïve time as EC was ≥ 92% although overlap between definitions was low. EC definitions with consecutive HIV-RNA measurements <75 copies/ml with follow-up ≥ six months, or with 90% of measurements <400 copies/ml over ≥ 10 year follow-up preformed best overall. Individuals thus defined were less likely to progress to endpoint (hazard ratios ranged from 12.5-19.0 for non-ECs compared to ECs). ECs are rare, less likely to progress to clinical disease, but may eventually lose control. We suggest definitions requiring individuals to have consecutive undetectable HIV-RNA measurements for ≥ six months or otherwise with >90% of measurements <400 copies/ml over ≥ 10 years be used to define this phenotype.

  17. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  18. Artificial Induction of Sox21 Regulates Sensory Cell Formation in the Embryonic Chicken Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Stephen D.; Daudet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    During embryonic development, hair cells and support cells in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear derive from progenitors that express Sox2, a member of the SoxB1 family of transcription factors. Sox2 is essential for sensory specification, but high levels of Sox2 expression appear to inhibit hair cell differentiation, suggesting that factors regulating Sox2 activity could be critical for both processes. Antagonistic interactions between SoxB1 and SoxB2 factors are known to regulate cell differentiation in neural tissue, which led us to investigate the potential roles of the SoxB2 member Sox21 during chicken inner ear development. Sox21 is normally expressed by sensory progenitors within vestibular and auditory regions of the early embryonic chicken inner ear. At later stages, Sox21 is differentially expressed in the vestibular and auditory organs. Sox21 is restricted to the support cell layer of the auditory epithelium, while it is enriched in the hair cell layer of the vestibular organs. To test Sox21 function, we used two temporally distinct gain-of-function approaches. Sustained over-expression of Sox21 from early developmental stages prevented prosensory specification, and abolished the formation of both hair cells and support cells. However, later induction of Sox21 expression at the time of hair cell formation in organotypic cultures of vestibular epithelia inhibited endogenous Sox2 expression and Notch activity, and biased progenitor cells towards a hair cell fate. Interestingly, Sox21 did not promote hair cell differentiation in the immature auditory epithelium, which fits with the expression of endogenous Sox21 within mature support cells in this tissue. These results suggest that interactions among endogenous SoxB family transcription factors may regulate sensory cell formation in the inner ear, but in a context-dependent manner. PMID:23071561

  19. Definition study for temperature control in advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyce, Thomas A.; Rosenberger, Franz; Sowers, Jennifer W.; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the technical requirements for an expedient application of temperature control to advanced protein crystal growth activities are defined. Lysozome was used to study the effects of temperature ramping and temperature gradients for nucleation/dissolution and consecutive growth of sizable crystals and, to determine a prototype temperature program. The solubility study was conducted using equine serum albumin (ESA) which is an extremely stable, clinically important protein due to its capability to bind and transport many different small ions and molecules.

  20. Definition study for temperature control in advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyce, Thomas A.; Rosenberger, Franz; Sowers, Jennifer W.; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1990-09-01

    Some of the technical requirements for an expedient application of temperature control to advanced protein crystal growth activities are defined. Lysozome was used to study the effects of temperature ramping and temperature gradients for nucleation/dissolution and consecutive growth of sizable crystals and, to determine a prototype temperature program. The solubility study was conducted using equine serum albumin (ESA) which is an extremely stable, clinically important protein due to its capability to bind and transport many different small ions and molecules.

  1. Semantic definitions of space flight control center languages using the hierarchical graph technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaghloul, M. E.; Truszkowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper a method is described by which the semantic definitions of the Goddard Space Flight Control Center Command Languages can be specified. The semantic modeling facility used is an extension of the hierarchical graph technique, which has a major benefit of supporting a variety of data structures and a variety of control structures. It is particularly suited for the semantic descriptions of such types of languages where the detailed separation between the underlying operating system and the command language system is system dependent. These definitions were used in the definition of the Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) of the Goddard Space Flight Center which is a command language that provides means for the user to communicate with payloads, application programs, and other ground system elements.

  2. Semantic definitions of space flight control center languages using the hierarchical graph technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaghloul, M. E.; Truszkowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper a method is described by which the semantic definitions of the Goddard Space Flight Control Center Command Languages can be specified. The semantic modeling facility used is an extension of the hierarchical graph technique, which has a major benefit of supporting a variety of data structures and a variety of control structures. It is particularly suited for the semantic descriptions of such types of languages where the detailed separation between the underlying operating system and the command language system is system dependent. These definitions were used in the definition of the Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) of the Goddard Space Flight Center which is a command language that provides means for the user to communicate with payloads, application programs, and other ground system elements.

  3. Definition of "positional isomer" as it pertains to the control of schedule I controlled substances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-12-03

    On May 25, 2006, DEA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking which proposed the addition of a specific definition for the term "positional isomer" to allow for the systematic determination of which isomers of schedule I substances would be considered to be "positional," and therefore, subject to schedule I control. This rulemaking finalizes that definition. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and its implementing regulations specify which hallucinogenic substances are considered schedule I controlled substances. The CSA states that all salts, isomers, and salts of isomers of these substances are also schedule I controlled substances. In non-technical terms, an isomer of a substance is a different compound, but a compound which has the same number and kind of atoms. The terms "optical isomer" and "geometric isomer" are specific scientific terms and it is easy to determine whether one substance is an optical or geometric isomer of another. The term "positional isomer," however, is subject to scientific interpretation. The addition of a definition for the term "positional isomer" will assist legitimate research[ers] and industry in determining the control status of materials that are "positional isomers" of schedule I hallucinogens. While the DEA will remain the authority for ultimately determining the control status of a given material, providing a specific definition for "positional isomer" will ensure consistent criteria are utilized in making these determinations. This rule does not change existing laws, regulations, policies, processes, and procedures regarding the determination of control status for schedule I hallucinogenic substances. This rule merely makes available to the public the longstanding definition of "positional isomer" which DEA has used when making these scheduling determinations. This rule is relevant only to specialized forensic or research chemists. Most of these individuals are existing DEA registrants who are authorized by the DEA to handle

  4. Similarities and differences of X and Y chromosome homologous genes, SRY and SOX3, in regulating the renin-angiotensin system promoters.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Fabiano C; Milsted, Amy; Watanabe, Ingrid K M; Del Puerto, Helen L; Santos, Robson A S; Lazar, Jozef; Reis, Fernando M; Prokop, Jeremy W

    2015-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is subject to sex-specific modulation by hormones and gene products. However, sex differences in the balance between the vasoconstrictor/proliferative ACE/ANG II/AT1 axis, and the vasodilator/antiproliferative ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/MAS axis are poorly known. Data in the rat have suggested the male-specific Y-chromosome gene Sry to contribute to balance between these two axes, but why the testis-determining gene has these functions remains unknown. A combination of in silico genetic/protein comparisons, functional luciferase assays for promoters of the human RAS, and RNA-Seq profiling in rat were used to address if regulation of Sry on the RAS is conserved in the homologous X-chromosome gene, Sox3. Both SRY and SOX3 upregulated the promoter of Angiotensinogen (AGT) and downregulated the promoters of ACE2, AT2, and MAS, likely through overlapping mechanisms. The regulation by both SRY and SOX3 on the MAS promoter indicates a cis regulation through multiple SOX binding sites. The Renin (REN) promoter is upregulated by SRY and downregulated by SOX3, likely through trans and cis mechanisms, respectively. Sry transcripts are found in all analyzed male rat tissues including the kidney, while Sox3 transcripts are found only in the brain and testis, suggesting that the primary tissue for renin production (kidney) can only be regulated by SRY and not SOX3. These results suggest that SRY regulation of the RAS is partially shared with its X-chromosome homolog SOX3, but SRY gained a sex-specific control in the kidney for the rate-limiting step of the RAS, potentially resulting in male-specific blood pressure regulation.

  5. Sox17 Regulates Insulin Secretion in the Normal and Pathologic Mouse β Cell

    PubMed Central

    Jonatan, Diva; Spence, Jason R.; Method, Anna M.; Kofron, Matthew; Sinagoga, Katie; Haataja, Leena; Arvan, Peter; Deutsch, Gail H.; Wells, James M.

    2014-01-01

    SOX17 is a key transcriptional regulator that can act by regulating other transcription factors including HNF1β and FOXA2, which are known to regulate postnatal β cell function. Given this, we investigated the role of SOX17 in the developing and postnatal pancreas and found a novel role for SOX17 in regulating insulin secretion. Deletion of the Sox17 gene in the pancreas (Sox17-paLOF) had no observable impact on pancreas development. However, Sox17-paLOF mice had higher islet proinsulin protein content, abnormal trafficking of proinsulin, and dilated secretory organelles suggesting that Sox17-paLOF adult mice are prediabetic. Consistant with this, Sox17-paLOF mice were more susceptible to aged-related and high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and diabetes. Overexpression of Sox17 in mature β cells using Ins2-rtTA driver mice resulted in precocious secretion of proinsulin. Transcriptionally, SOX17 appears to broadly regulate secretory networks since a 24-hour pulse of SOX17 expression resulted in global transcriptional changes in factors that regulate hormone transport and secretion. Lastly, transient SOX17 overexpression was able to reverse the insulin secretory defects observed in MODY4 animals and restored euglycemia. Together, these data demonstrate a critical new role for SOX17 in regulating insulin trafficking and secretion and that modulation of Sox17-regulated pathways might be used therapeutically to improve cell function in the context of diabetes. PMID:25144761

  6. Structural basis for the SOX-dependent genomic redistribution of OCT4 in stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Merino, Felipe; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Veerapandian, Veeramohan; Schöler, Hans Robert; Jauch, Ralf; Cojocaru, Vlad

    2014-09-02

    In pluripotent cells, OCT4 associates with SOX2 to maintain pluripotency or with SOX17 to induce primitive endoderm commitment. The OCT4-SOX2 and OCT4-SOX17 combinations bind mutually exclusive to two distinct composite DNA elements, known as the "canonical" and "compressed" motifs, respectively. The structural basis for the OCT4-SOX17 cooperativity is unknown. Whereas SOX17 has been engineered to replace SOX2 in the pluripotency circuitry, all generated SOX2 mutants have failed to act like SOX17. From molecular simulations, we revealed the OCT4-SOX17 interaction interface and elucidated the SOX-dependent motif preference of OCT4. Moreover, we designed a SOX2 mutant that we predicted and confirmed experimentally to bind cooperatively with OCT4 to the compressed motif. Ultimately, we found a strong correlation between the experimental and calculated relative cooperative-binding free energies of 12 OCT4-SOX-DNA complexes. Therefore, we validated the OCT4-SOX interfaces and demonstrated that in silico design of DNA-binding cooperativity is suitable for altering transcriptional circuitries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N.; Lewis, L.C.

    1998-07-07

    The US investigated the use of {sup 233}U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use {sup 233}U on a large scale. Most of the {sup 233}U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some {sup 233}U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with {sup 233}U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when {sup 233}U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns.

  8. Transcription Mapping of Embryonic Rat Brain Reveals EGR-1 Induction in SOX2 Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Rough, Kirsty; Carter, David A

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal expression of the early growth response-1 (EGR-1; NGFI-A/Zif268) transcription factor has been extensively studied in the adult mammalian brain and linked to aspects of mature physiological/behavioral function. In contrast, this factor has not been studied in detail in the embryonic brain. Here, we used a fluorescent protein-encoding Egr-1 transgene to map the cellular distribution of Egr-1 transcription in embryonic rat brain. We identified a novel, widely distributed population of GFP(+) cells, characterized as a precursor/stem cell phenotype by co-localization with SOX2/nestin/vimentin/S-100β and exclusion from other known cellular markers including DCX/BLBP/TBR2/NURR1. At both E18 and E20, these cells were located across the developing brain but concentrated in the subplate and intermediate zones. The transgene was also highly expressed in developing (NeuN(+)) striatal neurons. The authentic expression pattern that we observed for the rEgr-1 transgene sequence indicates that restriction to neuronal/precursor cells is largely driven by proximal 5(') sequence. Deletion of conserved Egr-1 silencer (neuron restrictive silencer factor) elements did not markedly alter transcriptional activity in transfected cells; this is consistent with a dominant role for positive factors in the control of cell-specific Egr-1 expression. Induction of Egr-1 in a population of SOX2(+) cells indicates a co-incidence of extrinsic (EGR-1) and cell-intrinsic (SOX2) cellular signals that may form a novel level of progenitor cell regulation. The wide distribution of EGR-1 signaling in SOX2(+) cells suggests an organizational role during late embryonic brain development.

  9. SOX15 governs transcription in human stratified epithelia and a subset of esophageal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sulahian, Rita; Chen, Justina; Arany, Zoltan; Jadhav, Unmesh; Peng, Shouyong; Rustgi, Anil K; Bass, Adam J; Srivastava, Amitabh; Hornick, Jason L; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal metaplasia (Barrett's esophagus, BE) is the principal risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Study of the basis for BE has centered on intestinal factors, but loss of esophageal identity likely also reflects absence of key squamous-cell factors. As few determinants of stratified epithelial cell-specific gene expression are characterized, it is important to identify the necessary transcription factors. We tested regional expression of mRNAs for all putative DNA-binding proteins in the mouse digestive tract and verified esophagus-specific factors in human tissues and cell lines. Integration of diverse data defined a human squamous esophagus-specific transcriptome. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) to locate transcription factor binding sites, computational approaches to profile transcripts in cancer datasets, and immunohistochemistry to reveal protein expression. The transcription factor SOX15 is restricted to esophageal and other murine and human stratified epithelia. SOX15 mRNA levels are attenuated in BE and its depletion in human esophageal cells reduced esophageal transcripts significantly and specifically. SOX15 binding is highly enriched near esophagus-expressed genes, indicating direct transcriptional control. SOX15 and hundreds of genes co-expressed in squamous cells are reactivated in up to 30% of EAC specimens. Genes normally confined to the esophagus or intestine appear in different cells within the same malignant glands. These data identify a novel transcriptional regulator of stratified epithelial cells and a subtype of EAC with bi-lineage gene expression. Broad activation of squamous-cell genes may shed light on whether EACs arise in the native stratified epithelium or in ectopic columnar cells.

  10. Transcription Mapping of Embryonic Rat Brain Reveals EGR-1 Induction in SOX2+ Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Timothy; Rough, Kirsty; Carter, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal expression of the early growth response-1 (EGR-1; NGFI-A/Zif268) transcription factor has been extensively studied in the adult mammalian brain and linked to aspects of mature physiological/behavioral function. In contrast, this factor has not been studied in detail in the embryonic brain. Here, we used a fluorescent protein-encoding Egr-1 transgene to map the cellular distribution of Egr-1 transcription in embryonic rat brain. We identified a novel, widely distributed population of GFP+ cells, characterized as a precursor/stem cell phenotype by co-localization with SOX2/nestin/vimentin/S-100β and exclusion from other known cellular markers including DCX/BLBP/TBR2/NURR1. At both E18 and E20, these cells were located across the developing brain but concentrated in the subplate and intermediate zones. The transgene was also highly expressed in developing (NeuN+) striatal neurons. The authentic expression pattern that we observed for the rEgr-1 transgene sequence indicates that restriction to neuronal/precursor cells is largely driven by proximal 5′ sequence. Deletion of conserved Egr-1 silencer (neuron restrictive silencer factor) elements did not markedly alter transcriptional activity in transfected cells; this is consistent with a dominant role for positive factors in the control of cell-specific Egr-1 expression. Induction of Egr-1 in a population of SOX2+ cells indicates a co-incidence of extrinsic (EGR-1) and cell-intrinsic (SOX2) cellular signals that may form a novel level of progenitor cell regulation. The wide distribution of EGR-1 signaling in SOX2+ cells suggests an organizational role during late embryonic brain development. PMID:21629823

  11. Genetic variants of SOX9 contribute to susceptibility of gliomas among Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Xiaoshan; Qi, Jing; Ren, Dongni; Zhang, Pengxing; Zhang, Yongsheng; Tu, Yanyang

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas make up about 80% of all malignant brain tumors, and cause serious public health problem. Genetic factors and environmental factors jointly caused the development of gliomas, and understanding of the genetic basis is a key component of preventive oncology. However, most genetic factors underlying carcinogenesis of gliomas remain largely unclear. In current study, we systematically evaluated whether genetic variants of SOX9 gene, a transcription factor that plays a central role in the development and differentiation of tumors, contribute to susceptibility of gliomas among Chinese population using a two-stage, case–control study. Results showed that SOX9 rs1042667 was significant associated with increased gliomas risk after adjusted by age, gender, family history of cancer, smoking status and alcohol status (Allele C vs A: OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.11-1.40; P=1.2×10−4). Compared with the carriers of genotype AA, both those of genotype AC (OR=1.37; 95% CI=1.13-1.66) and CC (OR=1.53; 95% CI=1.22-1.91) had significantly increased gliomas risk. This should be the first genetic association study which aims to evaluated the association between genetic variants of SOX9 and susceptibility of gliomas. Additional functional and association studies with different ethnic groups included are needed to further confirm our results. PMID:27589569

  12. Hypochlorous acid activates the heat shock and soxRS systems of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dukan, S; Dadon, S; Smulski, D R; Belkin, S

    1996-11-01

    A series of plasmids, containing fusions of different stress promoters to lux reporter genes, was used in an attempt to monitor the defense circuits activated upon exposure of Escherichia coli to sublethal doses of free chlorine. A significant level of activation was exhibited by promoters of three heat shock genes (grpE, dnaK, and lon), in an rpoH-dependent manner. The promoter of micF, a gene under the control of the soxRS regulon, was also strongly induced, but not in a soxR mutant. This induction was not affected by sodA and sodB mutations, implying that it did not involve oxygen radical activity. Free-chlorine activation of both heat shock and soxRS regulons required an exposure of less then I s in duration. The oxyR or the SOS regulons were apparently not induced by free chlorine (as judged by lack of activation of katG and recA, respectively), and neither was the universal stress (uspA) protein.

  13. 76 FR 34577 - Wassenaar Arrangement 2010 Plenary Agreements Implementation: Commerce Control List, Definitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Friday, May 20, 2011 that revised the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by amending entries for..., 6, 7, 8, and 9; adding and amending definitions to the EAR; and revising reporting requirements....5 of the EAR. License requirements and license review policy for AT controlled items are set...

  14. Genes expressed in mouse cortical progenitors are enriched in Pax, Lhx, and Sox transcription factor putative binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bery, Amandine; Mérot, Yohann; Rétaux, Sylvie

    2016-02-15

    Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling the development of the mammalian cortex. The proliferative and neurogenic properties of cortical progenitors located in the ventricular germinal zone start being understood. Little is known however on the cis-regulatory control that finely tunes gene expression in these progenitors. Here, we undertook an in silico-based approach to address this question, followed by some functional validation. Using the Eurexpress database, we established a list of 30 genes specifically expressed in the cortical germinal zone, we selected mouse/human conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) around these genes and we performed motif-enrichment search in these CNEs. We found an over-representation of motifs corresponding to binding sites for Pax, Sox, and Lhx transcription factors, often found as pairs and located within 100bp windows. A small subset of CNEs (n=7) was tested for enhancer activity, by ex-vivo and in utero electroporation assays. Two showed strong enhancer activity in the germinal zone progenitors. Mutagenesis experiments on a selected CNE showed the functional importance of the Pax, Sox, and Lhx TFBS for conferring enhancer activity to the CNE. Overall, from a cis-regulatory viewpoint, our data suggest an input from Pax, Sox and Lhx transcription factors to orchestrate corticogenesis. These results are discussed with regards to the known functional roles of Pax6, Sox2 and Lhx2 in cortical development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting SOX2 as a Therapeutic Strategy in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Garros-Regulez, Laura; Garcia, Idoia; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Lantero, Aquilino; Aldaz, Paula; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Arrizabalaga, Olatz; Undabeitia, Jose; Torres-Bayona, Sergio; Villanua, Jorge; Ruiz, Irune; Egaña, Larraitz; Sampron, Nicolas; Matheu, Ander

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain cancer in adults. Current therapy consisting of surgery followed by radiation and temozolomide has a moderate success rate and the tumor reappears. Among the features that a cancer cell must have to survive the therapeutic treatment and reconstitute the tumor is the ability of self-renewal. Therefore, it is vital to identify the molecular mechanisms that regulate this activity. Sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) is a transcription factor whose activity has been associated with the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of cancer stem cells in several tissues, including the brain. Several groups have detected increased SOX2 levels in biopsies of glioblastoma patients, with the highest levels associated with poor outcome. Therefore, SOX2 silencing might be a novel therapeutic approach to combat cancer and particularly brain tumors. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about SOX2 in glioblastoma and recapitulate several strategies that have recently been described targeting SOX2 in this malignancy. PMID:27822457

  16. Identification and characterization of the human SOX6 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Toshiyuki; Saito, Taku; Ushita, Masahiro; Yano, Fumiko; Kan, Akinori; Itaka, Keiji; Moro, Toru; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Chung, Ung-il . E-mail: uichung-tky@umin.ac.jp

    2007-06-01

    The present study attempted to identify and characterize the embryonic promoter of Sox6, a determinant regulator of chondrogenic differentiation. A common transcription start region for human and mouse Sox6 was initially identified, which contained a highly conserved sequence, A-box. Tandem repeats of A-box had a strong transcriptional activity both at the basal level and in response to Sox9. Cells carrying the 4xA-box-DsRed2 reporter fluoresced only upon chondrogenic differentiation. The 46-bp core enhancer region (CES6) was then identified in the 3' half of A-box, within which a C/EBP-binding motif was identified. Overexpressed C/EBP{beta} activated the Sox6 promoter, and mutant 4xCES6 constructs lacking the C/EBP motif lost their basal activity. CES6 and nuclear extracts formed a specific complex, which was supershifted by anti-C/EBP{beta} antibody, and in vitro translated C/EBP{beta} specifically bound to CES6. Thus, we successfully identified the Sox6 promoter and its core enhancer and characterized the interactions with regulatory transcription factors.

  17. Exome sequencing expands the mechanism of SOX5-associated intellectual disability: A case presentation with review of sox-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Addie; Bhoj, Elizabeth J; McDonald Gibson, Kristin; Yu, Zhenming; Denenberg, Elizabeth; Sarmady, Mahdi; Tischler, Tanya; Cao, Kajia; Dubbs, Holly; Zackai, Elaine H; Santani, Avni

    2015-11-01

    The SOX5 haploinsufficiency syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, language and motor impairment, and distinct facial features. The smallest deletion encompassed only one gene, SOX5 (OMIM 604975), indicating that haploinsufficiency of SOX5 contributes to neuro developmental delay. Although multiple deletions of the SOX5 gene have been reported in patients, none are strictly intragenic point mutations. Here, we report the identification of a de novo loss of function variant in SOX5 identified through whole exome sequencing. The proband presented with moderate developmental delay, bilateral optic atrophy, mildly dysmorphic features, and scoliosis, which correlates with the previously-described SOX5-associated phenotype. These results broaden the diagnostic spectrum of SOX5-related intellectual disability. Furthermore it highlights the utility of exome sequencing in establishing an etiological basis in clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions such as intellectual disability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Characterization and expression analysis of Lc-Sox4 in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yonghua; Han, Kunhuang; Chen, Shihai; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2016-01-01

    The characterization and expression of Sox4 in large yellow croaker (Lc-Sox4) were studied in this paper. Lc-Sox4 contains a protein of 371 amino acids with a conserved high mobility group box. Quantitative real-time PCR displayed that the expression of Lc-Sox4 had tissue and gender specificity existing in brain, gonad, heart, intestine, and head kidney with male>female, in eye with female>male. During embryogenesis, Lc-Sox4 was expressed highest in one-day-post-hatching stage, next in formation-of-eye-lens stage. The expression pattern of Lc-Sox4 was different from that of Lc-Sox11a. The expression of Lc-Sox4 was significantly lower than that of Lc-Sox11a in the all tested tissues and embryonic stages except in heart, spleen, mutiple-cell, formation-of-eye-lens, and one-day-post-hatching stages (with Lc-Sox4 higher than Lc-Sox11a). There was overlapping expression between Lc-Sox4 and Lc-Sox11a in brain, gill, female eye, testis, formation-of-eye-lens stage and one-day post hatching stage. The whole mount in situ hybridization results indicated that Lc-Sox4 was expressed at all embryonic stages except 2-cell stage. The positive signals were mainly distributed in the central nervous system and notochord at one-day-post-hatching stage. In short, we first identified and analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Lc-Sox4 to elucidate its important influence on the development of nervous system, visual system and heart. We also detected the overlapping expression between Lc-Sox4 and Lc-Sox11a which may reveal the functional redundancy of them. These data would shed light on the molecular mechanism of development in large yellow croaker. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Recombinant Sox Enzymes from Paracoccus pantotrophus Degrade Hydrogen Sulfide, a Major Component of Oral Malodor

    PubMed Central

    Ramadhani, Atik; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Oho, Takahiko

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emitted from industrial activities, and several chemotrophs possessing Sox enzymes are used for its removal. Oral malodor is a common issue in the dental field and major malodorous components are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including H2S and methyl mercaptan. Paracoccus pantotrophus is an aerobic, neutrophilic facultatively autotrophic bacterium that possesses sulfur-oxidizing (Sox) enzymes in order to use sulfur compounds as an energy source. In the present study, we cloned the Sox enzymes of P. pantotrophus GB17 and evaluated their VSC-degrading activities for the prevention of oral malodor. Six genes, soxX, soxY, soxZ, soxA, soxB, and soxCD, were amplified from P. pantotrophus GB17. Each fragment was cloned into a vector for the expression of 6×His-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Sox (rSox) proteins were purified from whole-cell extracts of E. coli using nickel affinity chromatography. The enzyme mixture was investigated for the degradation of VSCs using gas chromatography. Each of the rSox enzymes was purified to apparent homogeneity, as confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The rSox enzyme mixture degraded H2S in dose- and time-dependent manners. All rSox enzymes were necessary for degrading H2S. The H2S-degrading activities of rSox enzymes were stable at 25–80°C, and the optimum pH was 7.0. The amount of H2S produced by periodontopathic bacteria or oral bacteria collected from human subjects decreased after an incubation with rSox enzymes. These results suggest that the combination of rSox enzymes from P. pantotrophus GB17 is useful for the prevention of oral malodor. PMID:28260736

  20. Recombinant Sox Enzymes from Paracoccus pantotrophus Degrade Hydrogen Sulfide, a Major Component of Oral Malodor.

    PubMed

    Ramadhani, Atik; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Oho, Takahiko

    2017-03-31

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emitted from industrial activities, and several chemotrophs possessing Sox enzymes are used for its removal. Oral malodor is a common issue in the dental field and major malodorous components are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including H2S and methyl mercaptan. Paracoccus pantotrophus is an aerobic, neutrophilic facultatively autotrophic bacterium that possesses sulfur-oxidizing (Sox) enzymes in order to use sulfur compounds as an energy source. In the present study, we cloned the Sox enzymes of P. pantotrophus GB17 and evaluated their VSC-degrading activities for the prevention of oral malodor. Six genes, soxX, soxY, soxZ, soxA, soxB, and soxCD, were amplified from P. pantotrophus GB17. Each fragment was cloned into a vector for the expression of 6×His-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Sox (rSox) proteins were purified from whole-cell extracts of E. coli using nickel affinity chromatography. The enzyme mixture was investigated for the degradation of VSCs using gas chromatography. Each of the rSox enzymes was purified to apparent homogeneity, as confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The rSox enzyme mixture degraded H2S in dose- and time-dependent manners. All rSox enzymes were necessary for degrading H2S. The H2S-degrading activities of rSox enzymes were stable at 25-80°C, and the optimum pH was 7.0. The amount of H2S produced by periodontopathic bacteria or oral bacteria collected from human subjects decreased after an incubation with rSox enzymes. These results suggest that the combination of rSox enzymes from P. pantotrophus GB17 is useful for the prevention of oral malodor.

  1. Divergent expression patterns of Sox9 duplicates in teleosts indicate a lineage specific subfunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; Kondo, Mariko; Herpin, Amaury; Mitani, Hiroshi; Schartl, Manfred

    2005-06-01

    Sry-related HMG-box genes are key regulators of several developmental processes. Sox9 encodes a transcription factor required for cartilage formation and testis determination in mammals. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) and stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) two co-orthologs of Sox9 are present. To date, only one Sox9 had been identified in medaka (Oryzias latipes). We have now isolated the second Sox9 gene. Sequence analysis, phylogenetic data, linkage mapping as well as expression pattern all together suggest that the medaka Sox9a and Sox9b are co-orthologs. During embryogenesis, the expression pattern of Sox9a and Sox9b are distinct but overlap considerably in craniofacial cartilage elements. Comparing the zebrafish Sox9a and Sox9b expression patterns with medaka Sox9a and Sox9b expression domains revealed that some are identical but others are clearly different. We conclude that Sox9 regulatory subfunctions were not partitioned before divergence of the teleosts and evolved to lineage-specific expression domains.

  2. SOXE neofunctionalization and elaboration of the neural crest during chordate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Andrew; Cheung, Martin; Huang, Yong-Heng; Jauch, Ralf; Bronner, Marianne E.; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.

    2016-01-01

    During chordate evolution, two genome-wide duplications facilitated acquisition of vertebrate traits, including emergence of neural crest cells (NCCs), in which neofunctionalization of the duplicated genes are thought to have facilitated development of craniofacial structures and the peripheral nervous system. How these duplicated genes evolve and acquire the ability to specify NC and their derivatives are largely unknown. Vertebrate SoxE paralogues, most notably Sox9/10, are essential for NC induction, delamination and lineage specification. In contrast, the basal chordate, amphioxus, has a single SoxE gene and lacks NC-like cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that duplication and divergence of an ancestral SoxE gene may have facilitated elaboration of NC lineages. By using an in vivo expression assay to compare effects of AmphiSoxE and vertebrate Sox9 on NC development, we demonstrate that all SOXE proteins possess similar DNA binding and homodimerization properties and can induce NCCs. However, AmphiSOXE is less efficient than SOX9 in transactivation activity and in the ability to preferentially promote glial over neuronal fate, a difference that lies within the combined properties of amino terminal and transactivation domains. We propose that acquisition of AmphiSoxE expression in the neural plate border led to NCC emergence while duplication and divergence produced advantageous mutations in vertebrate homologues, promoting elaboration of NC traits. PMID:27734831

  3. SOX9 Overexpression Promotes Glioma Metastasis via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Zhixiong; Jiang, Bing; Peng, Renjun; Ma, Zhiming; Lu, Jingchen

    2015-09-01

    SOX9 gene encodes a transcription factor essential for a central role in the development and differentiation of multiple cell lineages, such as in neurogenesis, neural crest development, etc. Recent study reported that overexpression of SOX9 mRNA is closely associated with poor clinical outcome of patients with malignant gliomas. In the present study, we have explored the regulatory role of SOX9 in glioma metastasis. To investigate the role of SOX9 in glioma metastasis, SOX9 overexpressed in human glioma cell line U251 on cell migration and invasion was evaluated via wound scratch, Transwell assay without or with Matrigel. SOX9-induced changes in EMT process were evaluated by Western blot. Furthermore, the role of β-catenin in the regulatory effect of SOX9 on cell migration and invasion, and EMT process was explored by suppressing β-catenin expression in SOX9-overexpressed U251 cells. SOX9 overexpression in U251 cells resulted in a significant increase in cell migration and invasion. SOX9 overexpression also markedly promoted the EMT process. More importantly, our results revealed that SOX9 stimulated metastasis through activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In summary, this study indicated that the promoting effect of SOX9 on glioma metastasis was, at least in part, through Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The findings in this study highlight the effectiveness and therapeutic potential to utilize SOX9 targeted strategies in the treatment of glioma.

  4. Sox9 and programming of liver and pancreatic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiya

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in developmental biology have greatly expanded our understanding of progenitor cell programming and the fundamental roles that Sox9 plays in liver and pancreas organogenesis. In the last 2 years, several studies have dissected the behavior of the Sox9+ duct cells in adult organs, but conflicting results have left unanswered the long-standing question of whether physiologically functioning progenitors exist in adult liver and pancreas. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that duct cells function as progenitors in the tissue restoration process after injury, during which embryonic programs are sometimes reactivated. This article discusses the role of Sox9 in programming liver and pancreatic progenitors as well as controversies in the field. PMID:23635786

  5. Copy Number Variation in Intron 1 of SOX5 Causes the Pea-comb Phenotype in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Dominic; Boije, Henrik; Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Vieaud, Agathe; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Imsland, Freyja; Hallböök, Finn; Andersson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Pea-comb is a dominant mutation in chickens that drastically reduces the size of the comb and wattles. It is an adaptive trait in cold climates as it reduces heat loss and makes the chicken less susceptible to frost lesions. Here we report that Pea-comb is caused by a massive amplification of a duplicated sequence located near evolutionary conserved non-coding sequences in intron 1 of the gene encoding the SOX5 transcription factor. This must be the causative mutation since all other polymorphisms associated with the Pea-comb allele were excluded by genetic analysis. SOX5 controls cell fate and differentiation and is essential for skeletal development, chondrocyte differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. Immunostaining in early embryos demonstrated that Pea-comb is associated with ectopic expression of SOX5 in mesenchymal cells located just beneath the surface ectoderm where the comb and wattles will subsequently develop. The results imply that the duplication expansion interferes with the regulation of SOX5 expression during the differentiation of cells crucial for the development of comb and wattles. The study provides novel insight into the nature of mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution and is the first description of a spontaneous and fully viable mutation in this developmentally important gene. PMID:19521496

  6. SOX family transcription factors involved in diverse cellular events during development.

    PubMed

    She, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2015-12-01

    In metazoa, SOX family transcription factors play many diverse roles. In vertebrate, they are well-known regulators of numerous developmental processes. Wide-ranging studies have demonstrated the co-expression of SOX proteins in various developing tissues and that they occur in an overlapping manner and show functional redundancy. In particular, studies focusing on the HMG box of SOX proteins have revealed that the HMG box regulates DNA-binding properties, and mediates both the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SOX proteins and their physical interactions with partner proteins. Posttranslational modifications are further implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional activities of SOX proteins. In this review, we discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the SOX-partner factor interactions and the functional modes of SOX-partner complexes during development. We particularly emphasize the representative roles of the SOX group proteins in major tissues during developmental and physiological processes.

  7. Sox2+ adult stem/progenitor cells are important for tissue regeneration and survival of mice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Katrin; Sarkar, Abby; Yram, Mary Anna; Polo, Jose M.; Bronson, Rod; Sengupta, Sumitra; Seandel, Marco; Geijsen, Niels; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor Sox2 maintains the pluripotency of early embryonic cells and regulates the formation of several epithelia during fetal development. Whether Sox2 continues to play a role in adult tissues remains largely unknown. We here show that Sox2 marks adult cells in several epithelial tissues where its expression has not previously been characterized, including the stomach, cervix, anus, testes, lens and multiple glands. Genetic lineage tracing and transplantation experiments demonstrate that Sox2-expressing cells continuously give rise to mature cell types within these tissues, documenting their self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Consistent with these findings, ablation of Sox2+ cells in mice results in a disruption of epithelial tissue homeostasis and lethality. Developmental fate mapping reveals that Sox2+ adult stem cells originate from fetal Sox2+ tissue progenitors. Thus, our results identify Sox2 expression in numerous adult ectodermal and endodermal stem cell compartments, which are critical for normal tissue regeneration and survival. PMID:21982232

  8. Significant Associations of SOX9 Gene Polymorphism and Gene Expression with the Risk of Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in a Han Population in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Ren, Ming; Yang, Qiwei; Sui, Yujie; Wang, Qingyu; Wang, Ao; Zhao, Haiyue

    2016-01-01

    Sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) is a key transcription factor involved in cartilage formation during the embryonic development stage and cartilage growth and repair after birth. To explore the roles of polymorphism and expression of the SOX9 gene in the development of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), we analyzed the polymorphism of rs12601701 [A/G] and rs1042667 [A/C] and the serum protein expression of the SOX9 gene in 182 patients with ONFH and 179 healthy control subjects. Results revealed that the A-A haplotype of SOX9 gene as well as the GG and AA genotypes of rs12601701 was significantly associated with increased ONFH risk (P = 0.038) and the risk of bilateral hip lesions of ONFH (P = 0.009), respectively. The C-A, A-A, and A-G haplotypes were also statistically associated with the decreased and increased risk of bilateral hip lesions of ONFH (P = 0.03, P = 0.048, and P = 0.013), respectively, while the A-A haplotype closely related to the clinical stages of ONFH (P = 0.041). More importantly, the serum SOX9 protein expression of the ONFH group was greatly decreased compared to control group (P = 0.0001). Our results first showed that the gene polymorphism and gene expression of SOX9 were significantly associated with the risk and clinical phenotypes of ONFH and also indicate that the SOX9 gene may play a key role in the development of ONFH. PMID:28090537

  9. The effect of steroid hormones on the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in uterine tissue of the ovariectomized mice model of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Marzieh; Zavareh, Saeed; Ghorbanian, Mohammad Taghi; Paylakhi, Seyed Hassan; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The uterus is a dynamic tissue responding to hormonal changes during reproductive cycles. As such, uterine stem cells have been studied in recent years. Transcription factors oct4 and sox2 are critical for effective maintenance of pluripotent cell identity. Objective: The present research evaluated the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in the uterine tissues of ovariectomized mice treated with steroid hormones. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, adult virgin female mice were ovariectomized and treated with estradiol 17β (E2), progesterone (P4), and a combination of E2 and P4 (E2 & P4) for 5 days. Uterine tissues were removed, and immunofluorescent (IF) staining and quantitative real-time PCR of oct4 and sox2 markers were performed. Results: IF showed oct4 and sox2 expression in the uterine endometrium and myometrium among all groups. The mRNA expression of oct4 (p=0.022) and sox2 (p=0.042) in the E2-treated group significantly were decreased compared to that in the control group. By contrast, the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in the P4 (p=0.641 and 0.489 respectively) and E2 & P4-treated groups (p=0.267 and 0.264 respectively) did not show significant differences compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results indicate ovarian steroid hormones change the expression of oct4 and sox2 in the mice uterine tissues, which suggest the involvement of steroid hormonal regulation in uterine stem cells. PMID:27525332

  10. Sox5 and Sox6 are needed to develop and maintain source, columnar, and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the cartilage growth plate.

    PubMed

    Smits, Patrick; Dy, Peter; Mitra, Srijeet; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2004-03-01

    Sox5 and Sox6 encode Sry-related transcription factors that redundantly promote early chondroblast differentiation. Using mouse embryos with three or four null alleles of Sox5 and Sox6, we show that they are also essential and redundant in major steps of growth plate chondrocyte differentiation. Sox5 and Sox6 promote the development of a highly proliferating pool of chondroblasts between the epiphyses and metaphyses of future long bones. This pool is the likely cellular source of growth plates. Sox5 and Sox6 permit formation of growth plate columnar zones by keeping chondroblasts proliferating and by delaying chondrocyte prehypertrophy. They allow induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy and permit formation of prehypertrophic and hypertrophic zones by delaying chondrocyte terminal differentiation induced by ossification fronts. They act, at least in part, by down-regulating Ihh signaling, Fgfr3, and Runx2 and by up-regulating Bmp6. In conclusion, Sox5 and Sox6 are needed for the establishment of multilayered growth plates, and thereby for proper and timely development of endochondral bones.

  11. Molecular analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of the soxB gene among sulfur-oxidizing bacteria - evolution of the Sox sulfur oxidation enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kuever, Jan

    2007-12-01

    The soxB gene encodes the SoxB component of the periplasmic thiosulfate-oxidizing Sox enzyme complex, which has been proposed to be widespread among the various phylogenetic groups of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) that convert thiosulfate to sulfate with and without the formation of sulfur globules as intermediate. Indeed, the comprehensive genetic and genomic analyses presented in the present study identified the soxB gene in 121 phylogenetically and physiologically divergent SOB, including several species for which thiosulfate utilization has not been reported yet. In first support of the previously postulated general involvement of components of the Sox enzyme complex in the thiosulfate oxidation process of sulfur-storing SOB, the soxB gene was detected in all investigated photo- and chemotrophic species that form sulfur globules during thiosulfate oxidation (Chromatiaceae, Chlorobiaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, Thiothrix, Beggiatoa, Thiobacillus, invertebrate symbionts and free-living relatives). The SoxB phylogeny reflected the major 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic lineages of the investigated SOB, although topological discrepancies indicated several events of lateral soxB gene transfer among the SOB, e.g. its independent acquisition by the anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic lineages from different chemotrophic donor lineages. A putative scenario for the proteobacterial origin and evolution of the Sox enzyme system in SOB is presented considering the phylogenetic, genomic (sox gene cluster composition) and geochemical data.

  12. Activation of SoxR-dependent transcription in vitro by noncatalytic or NifS-mediated assembly of [2Fe-2S] clusters into apo-SoxR.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, E; Demple, B

    1996-03-29

    SoxR is a transcriptional activator that senses superoxide and nitric oxide stress in Escherichia coli. The active protein isolated from E. coli contains a pair of [2Fe-2S] clusters per SoxR dimer. We previously demonstrated that the iron-free protein (apo-SoxR), isolated during purification in thiol-containing buffers, binds soxS promoter DNA with an affinity equal to that of the metalloprotein (Fe-SoxR), but lacks significant ability to activate transcription in vitro. Here we demonstrate the reversibility of this process: the full transcriptional activity of SoxR can be restored by in vitro assembly of iron-sulfur clusters into the apoprotein. Two methods were used to synthesize the metallocenters of SoxR: (i) nonenzymatic, in which apo-SoxR, incubated in the presence of iron, inorganic sulfide, and a reducing agent, regained full transcriptional activity in 5-6 h; (ii) enzymatic, in which NifS protein of Azotobacter vinelandii regenerated active Fe-SoxR in as little as 2 min. Analysis by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated that binuclear [2Fe-2S] clusters were restored by both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic reconstitutions. A mutant SoxR protein missing one of its four cysteine residues failed to undergo either transcriptional activation or the formation of [2Fe-2S] centers, even in the presence of NifS. Thus, only the presence of an iron-sulfur center is required to restore transcriptional activity to apo-SoxR. Moreover, the catalytic generation of [2Fe-2S] centers extends the known specificity of this enzyme beyond that already shown for [4Fe-4S] centers. Catalytic generation of [2Fe-2S]-containing SoxR could allow for rapid activation of this transcription factor in vivo.

  13. sox9b Is a Key Regulator of Pancreaticobiliary Ductal System Development

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Donghun; Ninov, Nikolay; Debrito Carten, Juliana; Pan, Luyuan; Ma, Taylur P.; Farber, Steven A.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    The pancreaticobiliary ductal system connects the liver and pancreas to the intestine. It is composed of the hepatopancreatic ductal (HPD) system as well as the intrahepatic biliary ducts and the intrapancreatic ducts. Despite its physiological importance, the development of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system remains poorly understood. The SRY-related transcription factor SOX9 is expressed in the mammalian pancreaticobiliary ductal system, but the perinatal lethality of Sox9 heterozygous mice makes loss-of-function analyses challenging. We turned to the zebrafish to assess the role of SOX9 in pancreaticobiliary ductal system development. We first show that zebrafish sox9b recapitulates the expression pattern of mouse Sox9 in the pancreaticobiliary ductal system and use a nonsense allele of sox9b, sox9bfh313, to dissect its function in the morphogenesis of this structure. Strikingly, sox9bfh313 homozygous mutants survive to adulthood and exhibit cholestasis associated with hepatic and pancreatic duct proliferation, cyst formation, and fibrosis. Analysis of sox9bfh313 mutant embryos and larvae reveals that the HPD cells appear to mis-differentiate towards hepatic and/or pancreatic fates, resulting in a dysmorphic structure. The intrahepatic biliary cells are specified but fail to assemble into a functional network. Similarly, intrapancreatic duct formation is severely impaired in sox9bfh313 mutants, while the embryonic endocrine and acinar compartments appear unaffected. The defects in the intrahepatic and intrapancreatic ducts of sox9bfh313 mutants worsen during larval and juvenile stages, prompting the adult phenotype. We further show that Sox9b interacts with Notch signaling to regulate intrahepatic biliary network formation: sox9b expression is positively regulated by Notch signaling, while Sox9b function is required to maintain Notch signaling in the intrahepatic biliary cells. Together, these data reveal key roles for SOX9 in the morphogenesis of the

  14. Identification of the Transformational Properties and Transcriptional Targets of the Oncogenic SRY Transcription Factor SOX4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Scharer, C.D. McCabe, M. Ali-Seyed, M.F. Berger, M.L. Bulyk, and C.S. Moreno. Genome-wide Location Analysis of the SOX4 Transcriptional Network in...analysis showing the biological function of SOX4 target genes. (B) Ingenuity Pathway Assist analysis showing SOX4�s transcriptional network . Christopher

  15. Expression profiles of Dax1, Dmrt1, and Sox9 during temperature sex determination in gonads of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea.

    PubMed

    Torres Maldonado, L C; Landa Piedra, A; Moreno Mendoza, N; Marmolejo Valencia, A; Meza Martínez, A; Merchant Larios, H

    2002-10-15

    Sex determination is controlled either by genetic or environmental factors. In mammals Sry initiates determination but no homologue of this gene exists in non-mammalian species. Other genes of the mammalian sex-determining pathway have been identified in gonads of different vertebrates. Sox9, Dax1, and Dmrt1 are expressed at the onset of gonadal development in birds and reptiles. In the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, a species with temperature sex determination (TSD), Sox9 is expressed in undifferentiated gonads at male- (MPT) or female-promoting temperatures (FPT). At MPT, Sox9 remains expressed in male gonads, but at FPT it is downregulated coinciding with the onset of the ovarian morphologic differentiation and female sex determination. At MPT however, male sex is determined early than at FPT in still undifferentiated gonads suggesting that other genes maintain Sox9 expression in testis. Here we used RT-PCR to study the expression profiles of Dax1, Dmrt1, and Sox9 in gonads of embryos of L. olivacea incubated at MPT or at FPT. The profiles were correlated with sex determination during and after the temperature-sensitive period (TSP). Dax1 maintained similar levels at both temperatures during the TSP. The Dax1 expression level increased significantly in ovaries compared to testes at stage 27, once they were morphologically distinct. The expression levels of Dmrt1 were higher at MPT than at FPT at all stages, in contrast with Sox9 levels which were similar at both temperatures at stages 23-25. Together, current results suggest that, whereas Dax1 is not involved in TSD in L. olivacea, upregulation of Dmrt1 and downregulation of Sox9 may play a role in male and female sex determination, respectively.

  16. Sox9, a master regulator of chondrogenesis, distinguishes mesenchymal chondrosarcoma from other small blue round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Wehrli, Bret Michael; Huang, Wendong; De Crombrugghe, Benoit; Ayala, Alberto G; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2003-03-01

    Over the last decade, a number of "master regulator" genes that control distinct pathways of mesenchymal differentiation have been discovered. These genes are expressed early during embryogenesis and initiate a cascade of gene expression responsible for specific cell lineage commitment. Thus, identification of their products may allow the classification of seemingly primitive, morphologically uncommitted tumors such as small blue round cell tumors. The transcription factor Sox9 has been demonstrated to be a master regulator of the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes. For this reason, we examined the utility of Sox9 in distinguishing mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (a small cell malignancy thought to be derived from primitive chondroprogenitor cells) from other primitive small cell malignancies. Representative sections from 90 cases of small blue round cell tumors (22 mesenchymal chodrosarcoma, 10 neuroblastomas, 11 rhabdomyosarcomas, 9 Ewing's sarcomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 5 desmoplastic small round cell tumors, 7 small cell carcinomas, 6 Merkel cell carcinomas, 6 small cell osteosarcomas, 7 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 7 lymphoblastic leukemias/lymphomas, and 5 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas) were immunohistochemically stained with antibodies to Sox9 protein. All but 1 mesenchymal chondrosarcoma showed positive nuclear staining in both primitive mesenchymal and cartilaginous components of the tumor. All other types of small blue round cell tumors, as well as the lymphomas and leukemias, were negative for Sox9 protein. These findings confirm that mesenchymal chondrosarcoma has phenotypic features corresponding to the early condensational phase of cartilaginous differentiation. More important, Sox9 may serve as a useful tool in the differentiation of small cell malignancies.

  17. SOX: search for short baseline neutrino oscillations with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivier, M.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffliot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, T.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquàres, N.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Veyssiére, C.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Borexino detector has convincingly shown its outstanding performances in the low energy regime through its accomplishments in the observation and study of the solar and geo neutrinos. It is then an ideal tool to perform a state of the art source-based experiment for testing the longstanding hypothesis of a fourth sterile neutrino with ~ eV2 mass, as suggested by several anomalies accumulated over the past three decades in source, reactor, and accelerator-based experiments. The SOX project aims at successively deploying two intense radioactive sources, made of Cerium (antineutrino) and Chromium (neutrino), respectively, in a dedicated pit located beneath the detector. The existence of such an ~ eV2 sterile neutrino would then show up as an unambiguous spatial and energy distortion in the count rate of neutrinos interacting within the active detector volume. This article reports on the latest developments about the first phase of the SOX experiment, namely CeSOX, and gives a realistic projection of CeSOX sensitivity to light sterile neutrinos in a simple (3+1) model.

  18. Neuronal death or dismemberment mediated by Sox14

    PubMed Central

    Osterloh, Jeannette M; Freeman, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    The pruning of unneeded axons and dendrites is crucial for circuitry maturation, but poorly understood on the molecular level. During Drosophila metamorphosis, the transcription factor Sox14 acts as a context-dependent mediator of death, axonal or dendritic pruning. Its transcriptional target Mical acts specifically in dendrite pruning. PMID:19935724

  19. NOx SOx Secondary NAAQS: Integrated Review Plan - CASAC Advisory

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NOx SOx Secondary NAAQS Integrated Review Plan is the first document generated as part of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process. The Plan presents background information, the schedule for the review, the process to be used in conducting the review,...

  20. Sequential EMT-MET induces neuronal conversion through Sox2.

    PubMed

    He, Songwei; Chen, Jinlong; Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Mengdan; Yang, Xiao; Li, Yuan; Sun, Hao; Lin, Lilong; Fan, Ke; Liang, Lining; Feng, Chengqian; Wang, Fuhui; Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Yiping; Pei, Duanqing; Zheng, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Direct neuronal conversion can be achieved with combinations of small-molecule compounds and growth factors. Here, by studying the first or induction phase of the neuronal conversion induced by defined 5C medium, we show that the Sox2-mediated switch from early epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to late mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) within a high proliferation context is essential and sufficient for the conversion from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to TuJ(+) cells. At the early stage, insulin and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced cell proliferation, early EMT, the up-regulation of Stat3 and Sox2, and the subsequent activation of neuron projection. Up-regulated Sox2 then induced MET and directed cells towards a neuronal fate at the late stage. Inhibiting either stage of this sequential EMT-MET impaired the conversion. In addition, Sox2 could replace sequential EMT-MET to induce a similar conversion within a high proliferation context, and its functions were confirmed with other neuronal conversion protocols and MEFs reprogramming. Therefore, the critical roles of the sequential EMT-MET were implicated in direct cell fate conversion in addition to reprogramming, embryonic development and cancer progression.

  1. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Sox4 regulates choroid fissure closure by limiting Hedgehog signaling during ocular morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wen; Pillai-Kastoori, Lakshmi; Wilson, Stephen G.; Morris, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    SoxC transcription factors play critical roles in many developmental processes, including neurogenesis, cardiac formation, and skeletal differentiation. In vitro and in vivo loss-of-function studies have suggested that SoxC genes are required for oculogenesis, however the mechanism was poorly understood. Here, we have explored the function of the SoxC factor Sox4 during zebrafish eye development. We show that sox4a and sox4b are expressed in the forebrain and periocular mesenchyme adjacent to the optic stalk during early eye development. Knockdown of sox4 in zebrafish resulted in coloboma, a structural malformation of the eye that is a significant cause of pediatric visual impairment in humans, in which the choroid fissure fails to close. Sox4 morphants displayed altered proximo-distal patterning of the optic vesicle, including expanded pax2 expression in the optic stalk, as well as ectopic cell proliferation in the retina. We show that the abnormal ocular morphogenesis observed in Sox4-deficient zebrafish is caused by elevated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, and this is due to increased expression of the Hh pathway ligand Indian hedgehog b (ihhb). Consistent with these results, coloboma in sox4 morphants could be rescued by pharmacological treatment with the Hh inhibitor cyclopamine, or by co-knockdown of ihhb. Conversely, overexpression of sox4 reduced Hh signaling and ihhb expression, resulting in cyclopia. Finally, we demonstrate that sox4 and sox11 have overlapping, but not completely redundant, functions in regulating ocular morphogenesis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Sox4 is required to limit the extent of Hh signaling during eye development, and suggest that mutations in SoxC factors could contribute to the development of coloboma. PMID:25557621

  3. MarA, SoxS and Rob of Escherichia coli - Global regulators of multidrug resistance, virulence and stress response.

    PubMed

    Duval, Valérie; Lister, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria have a great capacity for adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental changes by linking extracellular stimuli to the regulation of genes by transcription factors. By working in a co-operative manner, transcription factors provide a rapid response to external threats, allowing the bacteria to survive. This review will focus on transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob in Escherichia coli, three members of the AraC family of proteins. These homologous proteins exemplify the ability to respond to multiple threats such as oxidative stress, drugs and toxic compounds, acidic pH, and host antimicrobial peptides. MarA, SoxS and Rob recognize similar DNA sequences in the promoter region of more than 40 regulatory target genes. As their regulons overlap, a finely tuned adaptive response allows E. coli to survive in the presence of different assaults in a co-ordinated manner. These regulators are well conserved amongst Enterobacteriaceae and due to their broad involvement in bacterial adaptation in the host, have recently been explored as targets to develop new anti-virulence agents. The regulators are also being examined for their roles in novel technologies such as biofuel production.

  4. Definition of a Robust Supervisory Control Scheme for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ponciroli, Roberto; Passerini, Stefano; Vilim, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an innovative control approach for metal-fueled Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors is proposed. With respect to the classical approach adopted for base-load Nuclear Power Plants, an alternative control strategy for operating the reactor at different power levels by respecting the system physical constraints is presented. In order to achieve a higher operational flexibility along with ensuring that the implemented control loops do not influence the system inherent passive safety features, a dedicated supervisory control scheme for the dynamic definition of the corresponding set-points to be supplied to the PID controllers is designed. In particular, the traditional approach based on the adoption of tabulated lookup tables for the set-point definition is found not to be robust enough when failures of the implemented SISO (Single Input Single Output) actuators occur. Therefore, a feedback algorithm based on the Reference Governor approach, which allows for the optimization of reference signals according to the system operating conditions, is proposed.

  5. Definition of a Robust Supervisory Control Scheme for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ponciroli, R.; Passerini, S.; Vilim, R. B.

    2016-04-17

    In this work, an innovative control approach for metal-fueled Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors is proposed. With respect to the classical approach adopted for base-load Nuclear Power Plants, an alternative control strategy for operating the reactor at different power levels by respecting the system physical constraints is presented. In order to achieve a higher operational flexibility along with ensuring that the implemented control loops do not influence the system inherent passive safety features, a dedicated supervisory control scheme for the dynamic definition of the corresponding set-points to be supplied to the PID controllers is designed. In particular, the traditional approach based on the adoption of tabulated lookup tables for the set-point definition is found not to be robust enough when failures of the implemented SISO (Single Input Single Output) actuators occur. Therefore, a feedback algorithm based on the Reference Governor approach, which allows for the optimization of reference signals according to the system operating conditions, is proposed.

  6. SUMO represses transcriptional activity of the Drosophila SoxNeuro and human Sox3 central nervous system-specific transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Savare, Jean; Bonneaud, Nathalie; Girard, Franck

    2005-06-01

    Sry high mobility group (HMG) box (Sox) transcription factors are involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) in all metazoans. Little is known on the molecular mechanisms that regulate their transcriptional activity. Covalent posttranslational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates several nuclear events, including the transcriptional activity of transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that SoxNeuro, an HMG box-containing transcription factor involved in neuroblast formation in Drosophila, is a substrate for SUMO modification. SUMOylation assays in HeLa cells and Drosophila S2 cells reveal that lysine 439 is the major SUMO acceptor site. The sequence in SoxNeuro targeted for SUMOylation, IKSE, is part of a small inhibitory domain, able to repress in cis the activity of two adjacent transcriptional activation domains. Our data show that SUMO modification represses SoxNeuro transcriptional activity in transfected cells. Overexpression in Drosophila embryos of a SoxN form that cannot be targeted for SUMOylation strongly impairs the development of the CNS, suggesting that SUMO modification of SoxN is crucial for regulating its activity in vivo. Finally, we present evidence that SUMO modification of group B1 Sox factors was conserved during evolution, because Sox3, the human counterpart of SoxN, is also negatively regulated through SUMO modification.

  7. SOX9: a stem cell transcriptional regulator of secreted niche signaling factors.

    PubMed

    Kadaja, Meelis; Keyes, Brice E; Lin, Mingyan; Pasolli, H Amalia; Genander, Maria; Polak, Lisa; Stokes, Nicole; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-02-15

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cyclical periods of growth, which are fueled by stem cells (SCs) at the base of the resting follicle. HF-SC formation occurs during HF development and requires transcription factor SOX9. Whether and how SOX9 functions in HF-SC maintenance remain unknown. By conditionally targeting Sox9 in adult HF-SCs, we show that SOX9 is essential for maintaining them. SOX9-deficient HF-SCs still transition from quiescence to proliferation and launch the subsequent hair cycle. However, once activated, bulge HF-SCs begin to differentiate into epidermal cells, which naturally lack SOX9. In addition, as HF-SC numbers dwindle, outer root sheath production is not sustained, and HF downgrowth arrests prematurely. Probing the mechanism, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify SOX9-dependent transcriptional changes and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify SOX9-bound genes in HF-SCs. Intriguingly, a large cohort of SOX9-sensitive targets encode extracellular factors, most notably enhancers of Activin/pSMAD2 signaling. Moreover, compromising Activin signaling recapitulates SOX9-dependent defects, and Activin partially rescues them. Overall, our findings reveal roles for SOX9 in regulating adult HF-SC maintenance and suppressing epidermal differentiation in the niche. In addition, our studies expose a role for SCs in coordinating their own behavior in part through non-cell-autonomous signaling within the niche.

  8. Organogenesis relies on SoxC transcription factors for the survival of neural and mesenchymal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Bhattaram, Pallavi; Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo; Sock, Elisabeth; Colmenares, Clemencia; Kaneko, Kotaro J.; Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L.; Wegner, Michael; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    During organogenesis, neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells give rise to many cell lineages, but their molecular requirements for self-renewal and lineage decisions are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that their survival critically relies on the redundantly acting SoxC transcription factors Sox4, Sox11 and Sox12. The more SoxC alleles that are deleted in mouse embryos, the more severe and widespread organ hypoplasia is. SoxC triple-null embryos die at midgestation unturned and tiny, with normal patterning and lineage specification, but with massively dying neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Specific inactivation of SoxC genes in neural and mesenchymal cells leads to selective apoptosis of these cells, suggesting SoxC cell-autonomous roles. Tead2 functionally interacts with SoxC genes in embryonic development, and is a direct target of SoxC proteins. SoxC genes therefore ensure neural and mesenchymal progenitor cell survival, and function in part by activating this transcriptional mediator of the Hippo signalling pathway. PMID:20596238

  9. Organogenesis relies on SoxC transcription factors for the survival of neural and mesenchymal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Bhattaram, Pallavi; Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo; Sock, Elisabeth; Colmenares, Clemencia; Kaneko, Kotaro J; Vassilev, Alex; Depamphilis, Melvin L; Wegner, Michael; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2010-04-12

    During organogenesis, neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells give rise to many cell lineages, but their molecular requirements for self-renewal and lineage decisions are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that their survival critically relies on the redundantly acting SoxC transcription factors Sox4, Sox11 and Sox12. The more SoxC alleles that are deleted in mouse embryos, the more severe and widespread organ hypoplasia is. SoxC triple-null embryos die at midgestation unturned and tiny, with normal patterning and lineage specification, but with massively dying neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Specific inactivation of SoxC genes in neural and mesenchymal cells leads to selective apoptosis of these cells, suggesting SoxC cell-autonomous roles. Tead2 functionally interacts with SoxC genes in embryonic development, and is a direct target of SoxC proteins. SoxC genes therefore ensure neural and mesenchymal progenitor cell survival, and function in part by activating this transcriptional mediator of the Hippo signalling pathway.

  10. Identification of SOX3 as an XX male sex reversal gene in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Edwina; Hughes, James; White, Stefan; Sekido, Ryohei; Tan, Jacqueline; Arboleda, Valerie; Rogers, Nicholas; Knower, Kevin; Rowley, Lynn; Eyre, Helen; Rizzoti, Karine; McAninch, Dale; Goncalves, Joao; Slee, Jennie; Turbitt, Erin; Bruno, Damien; Bengtsson, Henrik; Harley, Vincent; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Sex in mammals is genetically determined and is defined at the cellular level by sex chromosome complement (XY males and XX females). The Y chromosome–linked gene sex-determining region Y (SRY) is believed to be the master initiator of male sex determination in almost all eutherian and metatherian mammals, functioning to upregulate expression of its direct target gene Sry-related HMG box–containing gene 9 (SOX9). Data suggest that SRY evolved from SOX3, although there is no direct functional evidence to support this hypothesis. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations in SOX3 do not affect sex determination in mice or humans. To further investigate Sox3 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Sox3. Here, we report that in one of these transgenic lines, Sox3 was ectopically expressed in the bipotential gonad and that this led to frequent complete XX male sex reversal. Further analysis indicated that Sox3 induced testis differentiation in this particular line of mice by upregulating expression of Sox9 via a similar mechanism to Sry. Importantly, we also identified genomic rearrangements within the SOX3 regulatory region in three patients with XX male sex reversal. Together, these data suggest that SOX3 and SRY are functionally interchangeable in sex determination and support the notion that SRY evolved from SOX3 via a regulatory mutation that led to its de novo expression in the early gonad. PMID:21183788

  11. Regulation of human chondrocyte function through direct inhibition of cartilage master regulator SOX9 by microRNA-145 (miRNA-145).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Aida; Dudek, Katarzyna A; Murphy, Chris L

    2012-01-06

    Articular cartilage enables weight bearing and near friction-free movement in the joints. Critical to its function is the production of a specialized, mechanocompetent extracellular matrix controlled by master regulator transcription factor SOX9. Mutations in SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia, a haploinsufficiency disorder resulting in severe skeletal defects and dwarfism. Although much is understood about how SOX9 regulates cartilage matrix synthesis and hence joint function, how this master regulator is itself regulated remains largely unknown. Here we identify a specific microRNA, miR-145, as a direct regulator of SOX9 in normal healthy human articular chondrocytes. We show that miR-145 directly represses SOX9 expression in human cells through a unique binding site in its 3'-UTR not conserved in mice. Modulation of miR-145 induced profound changes in the human chondrocyte phenotype. Specifically, increased miR-145 levels cause greatly reduced expression of critical cartilage extracellular matrix genes (COL2A1 and aggrecan) and tissue-specific microRNAs (miR-675 and miR-140) and increased levels of the hypertrophic markers RUNX2 and MMP13, characteristic of changes occurring in osteoarthritis. We propose miR-145 as an important regulator of human chondrocyte function and a new target for cartilage repair.

  12. Effects of SOX2 on Proliferation, Migration and Adhesion of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Cai, Jinglei; Dong, Delu; Chen, Yaoyu; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Yulai

    2015-01-01

    As a key factor for cell pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes, SOX2 has attracted scientists' attention gradually in recent years. However, its exact effects in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are still unclear. In this study, we mainly investigated whether SOX2 could affect some biological functions of DPSCs. DPSCs were isolated from the dental pulp of human impacted third molar. SOX2 overexpressing DPSCs (DPSCs-SOX2) were established through retroviral infection. The effect of SOX2 on cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability was evaluated with CCK-8, trans-well system and fibronectin-induced cell attachment experiment respectively. Whole genome expression of DPSCs-SOX2 was analyzed with RNA microarray. Furthermore, a rescue experiment was performed with SOX2-siRNA in DPSC-SOX2 to confirm the effect of SOX2 overexpression in DPSCs. We found that SOX2 overexpression could result in the enhancement of cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion in DPSCs obviously. RNA microarray analysis indicated that some key genes in the signal pathways associated with cell cycle, migration and adhesion were upregulated in different degree, and the results were further confirmed with qPCR and western-blot. Finally, DPSC-SOX2 transfected with SOX2-siRNA showed a decrease of cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability, which further confirmed the biological effect of SOX2 in human DPSCs. This study indicated that SOX2 could improve the cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability of DPSCs through regulating gene expression about cell cycle, migration and adhesion, and provided a novel strategy to develop seed cells with strong proliferation, migration and adhesion ability for tissue engineering.

  13. A FUEL-RICH PRECOMBUSTOR. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS - VOLUME IV. ALTERNATE CON- CEPTS FOR SOX, NOX, AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results a study of the use of precombustors for the simultaneous control of S02, NOx, and ash emissions from coal combustion. In Phase 1, exploratory testing was conducted on a small pilot scale--293 kW (million Btu/hr)-pulverized-coal-fired precombustor to ident...

  14. A FUEL-RICH PRECOMBUSTOR. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS - VOLUME IV. ALTERNATE CON- CEPTS FOR SOX, NOX, AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results a study of the use of precombustors for the simultaneous control of S02, NOx, and ash emissions from coal combustion. In Phase 1, exploratory testing was conducted on a small pilot scale--293 kW (million Btu/hr)-pulverized-coal-fired precombustor to ident...

  15. Nestin-positive/SOX2-negative cells mediate adult neurogenesis of nigral dopaminergic neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Albright, Joshua E; Stojkovska, Iva; Rahman, Abir A; Brown, Connor J; Morrison, Brad E

    2016-02-26

    The primary clinical motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) result from loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Consequently, neurogenesis of this group of neurons in the adult brain has drawn considerable interest for the purpose of harnessing endogenous neurogenerative potential as well as devising better strategies for stem cell therapy for PD. However, the existence of adult neurogenesis for DA neurons within the SN remains controversial. To overcome technical and design limitations associated with previous studies, our group has developed a novel genetic mouse model for assessing adult nigral DA neurogenesis. This system utilizes transgenic mice that express a tamoxifen-activatable Cre recombinase (Cre(ERT2)) under the control of the neuronal progenitor cell promoters nestin or Sox2 leading to suppression of the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) via excision of exon 1 by flanking loxP sites in adult animals. This study reports that six months following initiation of a six week treatment with tamoxifen mice with nestin-mediated Th excision displayed a significant reduction in TH+ neurons in the SN. This finding indicates that nestin-expressing cells regenerate DA neurons within the SN of adult animals. Interestingly, no reduction was observed in TH+ cells following Sox2-mediated Th excision suggesting that a nestin+/SOX2- precursor cell population drives DA neurogenesis in the adult SN. This information represents a substantial leap in current knowledge of adult DA neurogenesis, will enable improved in vitro and in vivo modeling, as well as facilitate the harnessing of this process for therapeutic intervention for PD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. A potential relationship among beta-defensins haplotype, SOX7 duplication and cardiac defects.

    PubMed

    Long, Fei; Wang, Xike; Fang, Shaohai; Xu, Yuejuan; Sun, Kun; Chen, Sun; Xu, Rang

    2013-01-01

    To determine the pathogenesis of a patient born with congenital heart defects, who had appeared normal in prenatal screening. In routine prenatal screening, G-banding was performed to analyse the karyotypes of the family and fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to investigate the 22q11.2 deletion in the fetus. After birth, the child was found to be suffering from heart defects by transthoracic echocardiography. In the following study, sequencing was used to search for potential mutations in pivotal genes. SNP-array was employed for fine mapping of the aberrant region and quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the results. Furthermore, other patients with a similar phenotype were screened for the same genetic variations. To compare with a control, these variations were also assessed in the general population. The child and his mother each had a region that was deleted in the beta-defensin repeats, which are usually duplicated in the general population. Besides, the child carried a SOX7-gene duplication. While this duplication was not detected in his mother, it was found in two other patients with cardiac defects who also had the similar deletion in the beta-defensin repeats. The congenital heart defects of the child were probably caused by a SOX7-gene duplication, which may be a consequence of the partial haplotype of beta-defensin regions at 8p23.1. To our knowledge, this is the first congenital heart defect case found to have the haplotype of beta-defensin and the duplication of SOX7.

  17. A Potential Relationship among Beta-Defensins Haplotype, SOX7 Duplication and Cardiac Defects

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shaohai; Xu, Yuejuan; Sun, Kun; Chen, Sun; Xu, Rang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the pathogenesis of a patient born with congenital heart defects, who had appeared normal in prenatal screening. Methods In routine prenatal screening, G-banding was performed to analyse the karyotypes of the family and fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to investigate the 22q11.2 deletion in the fetus. After birth, the child was found to be suffering from heart defects by transthoracic echocardiography. In the following study, sequencing was used to search for potential mutations in pivotal genes. SNP-array was employed for fine mapping of the aberrant region and quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the results. Furthermore, other patients with a similar phenotype were screened for the same genetic variations. To compare with a control, these variations were also assessed in the general population. Results The child and his mother each had a region that was deleted in the beta-defensin repeats, which are usually duplicated in the general population. Besides, the child carried a SOX7-gene duplication. While this duplication was not detected in his mother, it was found in two other patients with cardiac defects who also had the similar deletion in the beta-defensin repeats. Conclusion The congenital heart defects of the child were probably caused by a SOX7-gene duplication, which may be a consequence of the partial haplotype of beta-defensin regions at 8p23.1. To our knowledge, this is the first congenital heart defect case found to have the haplotype of beta-defensin and the duplication of SOX7. PMID:24009689

  18. Trps1 and its target gene Sox9 regulate epithelial proliferation in the developing hair follicle and are associated with hypertrichosis.

    PubMed

    Fantauzzo, Katherine A; Kurban, Mazen; Levy, Brynn; Christiano, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary hypertrichoses are a group of hair overgrowth syndromes that are extremely rare in humans. We have previously demonstrated that a position effect on TRPS1 is associated with hypertrichosis in humans and mice. To gain insight into the functional role of Trps1, we analyzed the late morphogenesis vibrissae phenotype of Trps1(Δgt) mutant mice, which is characterized by follicle degeneration after peg downgrowth has been initiated. We found that Trps1 directly represses expression of the hair follicle stem cell regulator Sox9 to control proliferation of the follicle epithelium. Furthermore, we identified a copy number variation upstream of SOX9 in a family with hypertrichosis that significantly decreases expression of the gene in the hair follicle, providing new insights into the long-range regulation of SOX9. Our findings uncover a novel transcriptional hierarchy that regulates epithelial proliferation in the developing hair follicle and contributes to the pathology of hypertrichosis.

  19. Software solutions manage the definition, operation, maintenance and configuration control of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, D; Churby, A; Krieger, E; Maloy, D; White, K

    2011-07-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest laser composed of millions of individual parts brought together to form one massive assembly. Maintaining control of the physical definition, status and configuration of this structure is a monumental undertaking yet critical to the validity of the shot experiment data and the safe operation of the facility. The NIF business application suite of software provides the means to effectively manage the definition, build, operation, maintenance and configuration control of all components of the National Ignition Facility. State of the art Computer Aided Design software applications are used to generate a virtual model and assemblies. Engineering bills of material are controlled through the Enterprise Configuration Management System. This data structure is passed to the Enterprise Resource Planning system to create a manufacturing bill of material. Specific parts are serialized then tracked along their entire lifecycle providing visibility to the location and status of optical, target and diagnostic components that are key to assessing pre-shot machine readiness. Nearly forty thousand items requiring preventive, reactive and calibration maintenance are tracked through the System Maintenance & Reliability Tracking application to ensure proper operation. Radiological tracking applications ensure proper stewardship of radiological and hazardous materials and help provide a safe working environment for NIF personnel.

  20. Two distinct subgroups of Group B Sox genes for transcriptional activators and repressors: their expression during embryonic organogenesis of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Uchikawa, M; Kamachi, Y; Kondoh, H

    1999-06-01

    Group B Sox genes, Sox1, -2 and -3 are known to activate crystallin genes and to be involved in differentiation of lens and neural tissues. Screening of chicken genomic sequences for more Group B Sox genes identified two additional genes, Sox14 and Sox21. Proteins encoded by Sox14 and Sox21 genes are similar to each other but distinct from those coded by Sox1-3 (subgroup B1) except for the HMG domain and Group B homology immediately C-proximal of the HMG domain. C-terminal domains of SOX21 and SOX14 proteins function as strong and weak repression domains, respectively, when linked to the GAL4 DNA binding domain. These SOX proteins strongly (SOX21) or moderately (SOX14) inhibited activation of delta1-crystallin DC5 enhancer by SOX1 or SOX2, establishing that Sox14 and Sox21 are repressing subgroup (B2) of Group B Sox genes. This provides the first evidence for the occurrence of repressor SOX proteins. Activating (B1) and repressing (B2) subgroups of Group B Sox genes display interesting overlaps of expression domains in developing tissues (e.g. optic tectum, spinal cord, inner ear, alimentary tract, branchial arches). Within each subgroup, most expression domains of Sox1 and -3 are included in those of Sox2 (e.g. CNS, PNS, inner ear), while co-expression of Sox14 and Sox21 occurs in highly restricted sites of the CNS, with the likely temporal order of Sox21 preceding Sox14 (e.g. interneurons of the spinal cord). These expression patterns suggest that target genes of Group B SOX proteins are finely regulated by the counterbalance of activating and repressing SOX proteins.

  1. Chaperonin 60 regulation of SOX9 ubiquitination mitigates the development of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jih-Yang; Sun, Yi-Chih; Li, Wen-Chin; Wang, Feng-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    relevant to the existence of end-stage knee osteoarthritis. HSP60 overexpression attenuates cartilage matrix loss of inflammatory chondrocytes. HSP60 transgenic mice showed mild articular injury during knee osteoarthritis. HSP60 maintains knee joint homeostasis through reducing SOX9 ubiquitination. Control of cartilage-anabolic regulator HSP60 ameliorates knee osteoarthritis.

  2. The co-expression of Neogenin with SOX2 in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Hong, Namgue; Kim, Mi-Hye; Min, Churl K; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Jae Ho

    2017-08-19

    Dementia has been shown to be closely related with neuronal degeneration and/or a decrease in the activity of neural stem cells in many brain regions, including the hippocampus. It has been recently established that Neogenin is involved in the cell fate determination by regulating Oct3/4, SOX and Nanog, notable embryonic cell markers, expressions in pre-implantation mouse embryos. Further, Neogenin expression at both mRNA and protein levels is manifest in many brain regions in mice, but it remains unclear whether Neogenin expression is prerequisite for the maintenance of neural stem cells, particularly, playing a critical role in the hippocampus, a brain region known to be involved in memory generation and consolidation. Here, we provide evidence that supports that Neogenin is implicated in the maintenance of neural stem cells in the hippocampus by enhancing PCNA expressions. We have performed RT-PCR analysis, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry with fetal rat brain tissues at E18 for Neogenin mRNA and protein profiling. Neuronal cells obtained from the hippocampus were subjected to FACS analysis for the identification of Neogenin-positive and/or neuronal stem cell marker-positive cells. Western blotting results showed that Neogenin expression was higher in the hippocampal region compared to the cortical region. FACS analysis results indicated that a significant population of fetal rat neuronal cells exhibiting Neogenin expression also displayed SOX2 expression, implying co-expression of Neogenin and SOX2 in the hippocampus. Next, we investigated the role of Neogenin through gain- and loss-of-function studies with cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neogenin down-regulation by small hairpin RNAs led to a dramatic decrease in SOX2 expression while its up-regulation by overexpression caused an increase in PCNA expression, a cell proliferation marker, compared with none-transfected cells. From this study, we propose a model whereby Neogenin could maintain neural

  3. A high precision calorimeter for the SOX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, L.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Caminata, A.; Cereseto, R.; Di Noto, L.; Farinon, S.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Schönert, S.; Testera, G.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    The SOX (Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino) experiment is being built to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos by observing short baseline oscillations of active-to-sterile neutrinos [1]. For this purpose, a 100 kCi 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino generator (CeSOX) will be placed under the BOREXINO detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Thanks to its large size and very low background, BOREXINO is an ideal detector to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos. To reach the maximal sensitivity, we aim at determining the neutrino flux emitted by the antineutrino generator with a < 1 % accuracy. With this goal, TU München and INFN Genova are developing a vacuum calorimeter, which is designed to measure the source-generated heat with high accuracy.

  4. Antagonistic regulation of Cyp26b1 by transcription factors SOX9/SF1 and FOXL2 during gonadal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kashimada, Kenichi; Svingen, Terje; Feng, Chun-Wei; Pelosi, Emanuele; Bagheri-Fam, Stefan; Harley, Vincent R.; Schlessinger, David; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sex determination in fetal germ cells depends on a balance between exposure to retinoic acid (RA) and the degradation of RA achieved by the testis-specific expression of the catabolic cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP26B1. Therefore, identification of factors regulating the expression of the Cyp26b1 gene is an important goal in reproductive biology. We used in situ hybridization to demonstrate that Cyp26b1 and transcription factor genes steroidogenic factor-1 (Sf1) and Sry-related HMG box 9 (Sox9) are coexpressed in Sertoli cells, whereas Cyp26b1 and Sf1 are coexpressed in Leydig cells in mouse fetal testes. In the mouse gonadal somatic cell line TM3, transfection of constructs expressing SOX9 and SF1 activated Cyp26b1 expression, independently of the positive regulator RA. In embryonic gonads deficient in SOX9 or SF1, Cyp26b1 expression was decreased relative to wild-type (WT) controls, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, qRT-PCR showed that Cyp26b1 up-regulation by SOX9/SF1 was attenuated by the ovarian transcription factor Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) in TM3 cells, whereas in Foxl2-null mice, Cyp26b1 expression in XX gonads was increased ∼20-fold relative to WT controls. These data support the hypothesis that SOX9 and SF1 ensure the male fate of germ cells by up-regulating Cyp26b1 and that FOXL2 acts to antagonize Cyp26b1 expression in ovaries.—Kashimada, K., Svingen, T., Feng, C.-W., Pelosi, E., Bagheri-Fam, S., Harley, V. R., Schlessinger, D., Bowles, J., Koopman, P. Antagonistic regulation of Cyp26b1 by transcription factors SOX9/SF1 and FOXL2 during gonadal development in mice. PMID:21757499

  5. SOX17 regulates cholangiocyte differentiation and acts as a tumor suppressor in cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Merino-Azpitarte, Maite; Lozano, Elisa; Perugorria, María J; Esparza-Baquer, Aitor; Erice, Oihane; Santos-Laso, Álvaro; O'Rourke, Colm J; Andersen, Jesper B; Jiménez-Agüero, Raúl; Lacasta, Adelaida; D'Amato, Mauro; Briz, Óscar; Jalan-Sakrikar, Nidhi; Huebert, Robert C; Thelen, Kristen M; Gradilone, Sergio A; Aransay, Ana M; Lavín, José L; Fernández-Barrena, Maite G; Matheu, Ander; Marzioni, Marco; Gores, Gregory J; Bujanda, Luis; Marin, José J G; Banales, Jesús M

    2017-07-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a biliary malignancy linked to genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, such as hypermethylation of SOX17 promoter. Here, the role of SOX17 in cholangiocyte differentiation and cholangiocarcinogenesis was studied. SOX17 expression/function was evaluated along the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) into cholangiocytes, in the dedifferentiation process of normal human cholangiocytes (NHC) in culture and in cholangiocarcinogenesis. Lentiviruses for SOX17 overexpression or knockdown were used. Gene expression and DNA methylation profiling were performed. SOX17 expression is induced in the last stage of cholangiocyte differentiation from iPSC and regulates the acquisition of biliary markers. SOX17 becomes downregulated in NHC undergoing dedifferentiation; experimental SOX17 knockdown in differentiated NHC downregulated biliary markers and promoted baseline and Wnt-dependent proliferation. SOX17 expression is lower in human CCA than in healthy tissue, which correlates with worse survival after tumor resection. In CCA cells, SOX17 overexpression decreased their tumorigenic capacity in murine xenograft models, which was related to increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. In contrast, SOX17 overexpression in NHC did not affect their survival but inhibited their baseline proliferation. In CCA cells, SOX17 inhibited migration, anchorage-independent growth and Wnt/β-catenin-dependent proliferation, and restored the expression of biliary markers and primary cilium length. In human CCA, SOX17 promoter was found hypermethylated and its expression inversely correlates with the methylation grade. In NHC, Wnt3a decreased SOX17 expression in a DNMT-dependent manner, whereas in CCA, DNMT1 inhibition or silencing upregulated SOX17. SOX17 regulates the differentiation and maintenance of the biliary phenotype and functions as a tumor suppressor for CCA, being a potential prognostic marker and a promising therapeutic target

  6. Genetic and Epigenetic Modifications of Sox2 Contribute to the Invasive Phenotype of Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Marta M.; Diez-Valle, Ricardo; Manterola, Lorea; Rubio, Angel; Liu, Dan; Cortes-Santiago, Nahir; Urquiza, Leire; Jauregi, Patricia; de Munain, Adolfo Lopez; Sampron, Nicolás; Aramburu, Ander; Tejada-Solís, Sonia; Vicente, Carmen; Odero, María D.; Bandrés, Eva; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Idoate, Miguel A.; Lang, Frederick F.; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2011-01-01

    We undertook this study to understand how the transcription factor Sox2 contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumor. We initially looked for unbalanced genomic rearrangements in the Sox2 locus in 42 GBM samples and found that Sox2 was amplified in 11.5% and overexpressed in all the samples. These results prompted us to further investigate the mechanisms involved in Sox2 overexpression in GBM. We analyzed the methylation status of the Sox2 promoter because high CpG density promoters are associated with key developmental genes. The Sox2 promoter presented a CpG island that was hypomethylated in all the patient samples when compared to normal cell lines. Treatment of Sox2-negative glioma cell lines with 5-azacitidine resulted in the re-expression of Sox2 and in a change in the methylation status of the Sox2 promoter. We further confirmed these results by analyzing data from GBM cases generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas project. We observed Sox2 overexpression (86%; N = 414), Sox2 gene amplification (8.5%; N = 492), and Sox 2 promoter hypomethylation (100%; N = 258), suggesting the relevance of this factor in the malignant phenotype of GBMs. To further explore the role of Sox2, we performed in vitro analysis with brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) and established glioma cell lines. Downmodulation of Sox2 in BTSCs resulted in the loss of their self-renewal properties. Surprisingly, ectopic expression of Sox2 in established glioma cells was not sufficient to support self-renewal, suggesting that additional factors are required. Furthermore, we observed that ectopic Sox2 expression was sufficient to induce invasion and migration of glioma cells, and knockdown experiments demonstrated that Sox2 was essential for maintaining these properties. Altogether, our data underscore the importance of a pleiotropic role of Sox2 and suggest that it could be used as a therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:22069467

  7. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... corporations which is— (A) A parent-subsidiary controlled group (as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section....1563-2. (2) Parent-subsidiary controlled group—(i) Definition. The term parent-subsidiary controlled group means one or more chains of corporations connected through stock ownership with a common...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... group of corporations which is— (A) A parent-subsidiary controlled group (as defined in paragraph (a)(2....1563-2. (2) Parent-subsidiary controlled group—(i) Definition. The term parent-subsidiary controlled group means one or more chains of corporations connected through stock ownership with a common parent...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... group of corporations which is— (A) A parent-subsidiary controlled group (as defined in paragraph (a)(2....1563-2. (2) Parent-subsidiary controlled group—(i) Definition. The term parent-subsidiary controlled group means one or more chains of corporations connected through stock ownership with a common parent...

  10. SOX9 is expressed in normal stomach, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric carcinoma in humans.

    PubMed

    Sashikawa Kimura, Miho; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Sugano, Kentaro

    2011-11-01

    SOX9 is a marker for stem cells in the intestine and overexpression of SOX9 is found in some types of cancer. However, the expression of SOX9 in normal stomach, precancerous intestinal metaplasia, and gastric carcinoma has not yet been clarified. This study aimed to investigate SOX9 expression in the corpus and pyloric regions of the normal human stomach, premalignant intestinal metaplasia, and gastric carcinoma by using immunohistochemistry. We evaluated SOX9 expression in 46 clinical samples (early gastric well-differentiated adenocarcinoma including surrounding intestinal metaplasia) resected under esophagogastroduodenoscopy. A small amount of SOX9 was expressed in the neck/isthmus of the corpus region and SOX9 expression was predominantly restricted to the neck/isthmus of the pyloric region in normal human stomach. In the intestinal metaplastic mucosa, SOX9- and PCNA-positive cells were located at the base of the intestinal metaplastic mucosa. Almost all of the gastric carcinoma cells expressed SOX9. SOX9 is expressed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric carcinoma in humans.

  11. Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition by transactivation of Twist1

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Xin-Hong; Lv, Xin-Quan; Li, Hui-Xiang

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion. • Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. • Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition through transactivation of Twist1 expression. - Abstract: The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a highly conserved cellular program, plays an important role in normal embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Twist1, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, is overexpressed in breast cancer and contributes to metastasis by promoting EMT. In exploring the mechanism underlying the increased Twist1 in breast cancer cells, we found that the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 5(Sox5) is up-regulation in breast cancer cells and depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, depletion of Sox5 in breast cancer cells caused a dramatic decrease in Twist1 and chromosome immunoprecipitation assay showed that Sox5 can bind directly to the Twist1 promoter, suggesting that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. We further demonstrated that knockdown of Sox5 up-regulated epithelial phenotype cell biomarker (E-cadherin) and down-regulated mesenchymal phenotype cell biomarkers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Fibronectin 1), resulting in suppression of EMT. Our study suggests that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression and plays an important role in the regulation of breast cancer progression.

  12. Oncogenic Sox2 regulates and cooperates with VRK1 in cell cycle progression and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Moura, David S.; Fernández, Isabel F.; Marín-Royo, Gema; López-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Martín-Doncel, Elena; Vega, Francisco M.; Lazo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Sox2 is a pluripotency transcription factor that as an oncogene can also regulate cell proliferation. Therefore, genes implicated in several different aspects of cell proliferation, such as the VRK1 chromatin-kinase, are candidates to be targets of Sox2. Sox 2 and VRK1 colocalize in nuclei of proliferating cells forming a stable complex. Sox2 knockdown abrogates VRK1 gene expression. Depletion of either Sox2 or VRK1 caused a reduction of cell proliferation. Sox2 up-regulates VRK1 expression and both proteins cooperate in the activation of CCND1. The accumulation of VRK1 protein downregulates SOX2 expression and both proteins are lost in terminally differentiated cells. Induction of neural differentiation with retinoic acid resulted in downregulation of Sox2 and VRK1 that inversely correlated with the expression of differentiation markers such as N-cadherin, Pax6, mH2A1.2 and mH2A2. Differentiation-associated macro histones mH2A1.2and mH2A2 inhibit CCND1 and VRK1 expression and also block the activation of the VRK1 promoter by Sox2. VRK1 is a downstream target of Sox2 and both form an autoregulatory loop in epithelial cell differentiation. PMID:27334688

  13. SOX9 has both conserved and novel roles in marsupial sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew J; Harry, Jenny L; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; O'Neill, Rachel J Waugh; Layfield, Sharon L; Shaw, Geoffrey; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2002-07-01

    In addition to an essential role in chondrogenesis, SOX9 is a highly conserved and integral part of the testis determining pathway in human and mouse. To determine whether SOX9 is involved in sex determination in noneutherian mammals we cloned a marsupial orthologue and studied its expression. The tammar wallaby SOX9 gene proved to be highly conserved, and maps to a region of the tammar genome syntenic to human chromosome 17. Marsupial SOX9 transcripts were detected by RT-PCR in the developing limb buds and both the developing ovary and testis from the first sign of gonadal development through to adulthood. Northern blot, in situ hybridisation, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that SOX9 reaches high levels of expression in the developing testis, where it is confined to the Sertoli cell nuclei, and the brain. This is similar to the expression pattern seen in human and mouse embryos and is consistent with a conserved role for SOX9 in vertebrate brain, skeletal, and gonadal development. In addition, SOX9 was expressed in the developing scrotum and mammary gland primordium regions of the tammar up to the time of birth. SOX9 protein was also detected in the developing Wolffian duct epithelium in the male mesonephros. These previously undescribed locations of SOX9 expression suggest that SOX9 may play additional roles in the differentiation of the marsupial reproductive system.

  14. AP-1 family members act with Sox9 to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    He, Xinjun; Ohba, Shinsuke; Hojo, Hironori; McMahon, Andrew P

    2016-08-15

    An analysis of Sox9 binding profiles in developing chondrocytes identified marked enrichment of an AP-1-like motif. Here, we have explored the functional interplay between Sox9 and AP-1 in mammalian chondrocyte development. Among AP-1 family members, Jun and Fosl2 were highly expressed within prehypertrophic and early hypertrophic chondrocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) showed a striking overlap in Jun- and Sox9-bound regions throughout the chondrocyte genome, reflecting direct binding of each factor to the same enhancers and a potential for protein-protein interactions within AP-1- and Sox9-containing complexes. In vitro reporter analysis indicated that direct co-binding of Sox9 and AP-1 at target motifs promoted gene activity. By contrast, where only one factor can engage its DNA target, the presence of the other factor suppresses target activation consistent with protein-protein interactions attenuating transcription. Analysis of prehypertrophic chondrocyte removal of Sox9 confirmed the requirement of Sox9 for hypertrophic chondrocyte development, and in vitro and ex vivo analyses showed that AP-1 promotes chondrocyte hypertrophy. Sox9 and Jun co-bound and co-activated a Col10a1 enhancer in Sox9 and AP-1 motif-dependent manners consistent with their combined action promoting hypertrophic gene expression. Together, the data support a model in which AP-1 family members contribute to Sox9 action in the transition of chondrocytes to the hypertrophic program.

  15. Genomic analysis reveals distinct mechanisms and functional classes of SOX10-regulated genes in melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fufa, Temesgen D.; Harris, Melissa L.; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E.; Levy, Denise; Gorkin, David U.; Gildea, Derek E.; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Mccallion, Andrew S.; Loftus, Stacie K.; Pavan, William J.

    2015-01-01

    SOX10 is required for melanocyte development and maintenance, and has been linked to melanoma initiation and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which SOX10 guides the appropriate gene expression programs necessary to promote the melanocyte lineage are not fully understood. Here we employ genetic and epigenomic analysis approaches to uncover novel genomic targets and previously unappreciated molecular roles of SOX10 in melanocytes. Through global analysis of SOX10-binding sites and epigenetic characteristics of chromatin states, we uncover an extensive catalog of SOX10 targets genome-wide. Our findings reveal that SOX10 predominantly engages ‘open’ chromatin regions and binds to distal regulatory elements, including novel and previously known melanocyte enhancers. Integrated chromatin occupancy and transcriptome analysis suggest a role for SOX10 in both transcriptional activation and repression to regulate functionally distinct classes of genes. We demonstrate that distinct epigenetic signatures and cis-regulatory sequence motifs predicted to bind putative co-regulatory transcription factors define SOX10-activated and SOX10-repressed target genes. Collectively, these findings uncover a central role of SOX10 as a global regulator of gene expression in the melanocyte lineage by targeting diverse regulatory pathways. PMID:26206884

  16. SOX18 Is a Novel Target Gene of Hedgehog Signaling in Cervical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Jelena; Schwirtlich, Marija; Rankovic, Branislava; Stevanovic, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Although there is much evidence showing functional relationship between Hedgehog pathway, in particular Sonic hedgehog, and SOX transcription factors during embryonic development, scarce data are available regarding their crosstalk in cancer cells. SOX18 protein plays an important role in promoting tumor angiogenesis and therefore emerged as a promising potential target in antiangiogenic tumor therapy. Recently it became evident that expression of SOX18 gene in tumors is not restricted to endothelium of accompanying blood and lymphatic vessels, but in tumor cells as well.In this paper we have identified human SOX18 gene as a novel target gene of Hedgehog signaling in cervical carcinoma cell lines. We have presented data showing that expression of SOX18 gene is regulated by GLI1 and GLI2 transcription factors, final effectors of Hedgehog signaling, and that modulation of Hedgehog signaling activity in considerably influence SOX18 expression. We consider important that Hedgehog pathway inhibitors reduced SOX18 expression, thus showing, for the first time, possibility for manipulationwith SOX18 gene expression. In addition, we analyzed the role of SOX18 in malignant potential of cervical carcinoma cell line, and showed that its overexpression has no influence on cells proliferation and viability, but substantially promotes migration and invasion of cells in vitro. Pro-migratory effect of SOX18 suggests its role in promoting malignant spreading, possibly in response to Hedgehog activation. PMID:26588701

  17. Oncogenic Sox2 regulates and cooperates with VRK1 in cell cycle progression and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Moura, David S; Fernández, Isabel F; Marín-Royo, Gema; López-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Martín-Doncel, Elena; Vega, Francisco M; Lazo, Pedro A

    2016-06-23

    Sox2 is a pluripotency transcription factor that as an oncogene can also regulate cell proliferation. Therefore, genes implicated in several different aspects of cell proliferation, such as the VRK1 chromatin-kinase, are candidates to be targets of Sox2. Sox 2 and VRK1 colocalize in nuclei of proliferating cells forming a stable complex. Sox2 knockdown abrogates VRK1 gene expression. Depletion of either Sox2 or VRK1 caused a reduction of cell proliferation. Sox2 up-regulates VRK1 expression and both proteins cooperate in the activation of CCND1. The accumulation of VRK1 protein downregulates SOX2 expression and both proteins are lost in terminally differentiated cells. Induction of neural differentiation with retinoic acid resulted in downregulation of Sox2 and VRK1 that inversely correlated with the expression of differentiation markers such as N-cadherin, Pax6, mH2A1.2 and mH2A2. Differentiation-associated macro histones mH2A1.2and mH2A2 inhibit CCND1 and VRK1 expression and also block the activation of the VRK1 promoter by Sox2. VRK1 is a downstream target of Sox2 and both form an autoregulatory loop in epithelial cell differentiation.

  18. Results of one year of observations of Solar Flares made by "Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)" Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, R.; Dave, H.; Kumar, S.; Deshpande, M. R.

    The first space borne solar astronomy experiment of India namely ``Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission has completed one year of its successful operation in geostationary orbit. The SOXS mission onboard GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft was launched successfully by GSLV-D2 rocket on 08 May 2003 to study the energy release and particle acceleration in solar flares. We briefly present the scientific objectives and instrumentation of the SOXS mission. The SOXS is composed of two independent payloads viz. SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload, and SOXS High Energy Detector (SHD) payload. We restrict our presentation to SLD payload that designed, developed and fabricated by Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in collaboration with Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad and ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The SLD payload employs the state-of-the-art solid state detectors viz. Si PIN and Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) devices that operate at near room temperature (-20 ^0 C). The dynamic energy range of Si PIN and CZT detectors are 4-25 and 4-56 keV. The Si PIN provides sub-keV energy resolution while CZT reveals ˜ 2 keV energy resolution throughout the dynamic range. The instrument has onboard flare triggering logic software and 5 MB-memory bank. The data is transmitted to Master Control Facility (MCF), Hasan with 8 kbps telemetry rate. The observations are made in fixed energy windows (temporal) mode and in spectral mode with 100ms cadence during the flare. The SLD has observed more than 140 flares of C and M class since its commissioning in the orbit. We present the preliminary results and the X-ray emission characteristics of these flares, and a detailed study of a few typical solar flares, which are impulsive but associated with CMEs, in view of energy release and particle emission by them. The high sensitivity of the SLD and sub-keV energy resolution of Si PIN detector allows the intensity and mean energy of the Fe

  19. NFATc1 Links EGFR Signaling to Induction of Sox9 Transcription and Acinar–Ductal Transdifferentiation in the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nai-Ming; Singh, Garima; Koenig, Alexander; Liou, Geou-Yarh; Storz, Peter; Zhang, Jin-San; Regul, Lisanne; Nagarajan, Sankari; Kühnemuth, Benjamin; Johnsen, Steven A.; Hebrok, Matthias; Siveke, Jens; Billadeau, Daniel D; Ellenrieder, Volker; Hessmann, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Oncogenic Kras mutation is a defining genetic alteration in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but is not sufficient to promote cancer formation on ist own. Secondary events, such as inflammation-induced signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and expression of the SOX9 gene, are required for tumor formation. In this study we sought to identify the underlying mechanisms which link EGFR signaling to Sox9 gene induction during acinar–ductal metaplasia (ADM), a transdifferentiation process that precedes pancreatic carcinogenesis. Methods We analyzed pancreatic tissues from KrasG12D;pdx1-Cre and KrasG12D;NFATc1Δ/Δ;pdx1-Cre mice after intraperitoneal administration of caerulein or dimethyl suloxide (controls). Pharmacological inhibition of NFATc1 activation was achieved by application of cyclosporin A. Induction of EGFR signaling and its effects on expression of NFATc1 or SOX9 were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses of mouse and human tissues and acinar cell explants. Interactions between NFATc1 and partner proteins and effects on DNA binding or chromatin modifications were studied using co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in acinar cell explants and mouse tissue. Results EGFR activation induced NFATc1 expression in metaplastic tissues from patients with chronic pancreatitis and in pancreatic tissues from KrasG12D mice and promoted complex-formation with c-Jun in dedifferentiating acinar cells, thereby stimulating the transcription of ductal gene signatures to provoke ADM. This process involved NFATc1:c-Jun-mediated activation of Sox9 transcription in converting acinar cells. Pharmacological inhibition of NFATc1 or disruption of the Nfatc1 gene inhibited EGFR-mediated induction of Sox9 transcription and blocked acinar–ductal transdifferentiation and pancreatic cancer initiation. Conclusion Our findings identify an EGFR-NFATc1-Sox9

  20. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Taro Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-08-14

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling.

  1. SOX4 Promotes Progression in OLP-Associated Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Cui, Li; Huang, Junwei; Ji, Eoon Hye; Chen, Wei; Messadi, Diana; Hu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a multistep process that involves in both genetic alterations and epigenetic modifications. Previous studies suggest SOX4 might function as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in different types of cancers. However, whether SOX4 involves in promoting the progression of oral precancer to cancer is unknown. Methods: Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify the proteins that may be differentially expressed between oral lichen planus (OLP) and OLP-associated OSCC (OLP-OSCC) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting were performed to evaluate SOX4 expression between OLP and OLP-OSCC tissues and among oral cancer cell lines and normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOKs). SOX4 siRNA was used to knock down the expression of SOX4 in UM1 oral cancer cells. MTT, cell counting, migration and Matrigel invasion assays were utilized to examine the effect of SOX4 down-regulation on proliferation, migration and invasion capacity of UM1 cells. Results: LC-MS/MS analysis showed that 88 proteins including SOX4 were only identified in OLP-OSCC FFPE tissues when compared to OLP FFPE tissues. IHC confirmed that SOX4 expression was significantly higher in OLP-OSCC than OLP and Western blot analysis indicated that SOX4 was over-expressed in UM1/UM2 cells when compared to NHOKs. Knockdown of SOX4 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of UM1 cells (P<0.01). Conclusions: Our study indicated that SOX4 is significantly upregulated in OLP-OSCC versus OLP tissues. In addition, down-regulation of SOX4 led to significantly reduced proliferation, migration and invasion capability of oral cancer cells. These findings suggest that SOX4 might be actively involved in the progression of OLP to OSCC. PMID:27471569

  2. Sox2 Is an Androgen Receptor-Repressed Gene That Promotes Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kregel, Steven; Kiriluk, Kyle J.; Rosen, Alex M.; Cai, Yi; Reyes, Edwin E.; Otto, Kristen B.; Tom, Westin; Paner, Gladell P.; Szmulewitz, Russell Z.; Vander Griend, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in detection and therapy, castration-resistant prostate cancer continues to be a major clinical problem. The aberrant activity of stem cell pathways, and their regulation by the Androgen Receptor (AR), has the potential to provide insight into novel mechanisms and pathways to prevent and treat advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancers. To this end, we investigated the role of the embryonic stem cell regulator Sox2 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2] in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. In the normal prostate, Sox2 is expressed in a portion of basal epithelial cells. Prostate tumors were either Sox2-positive or Sox2-negative, with the percentage of Sox2-positive tumors increasing with Gleason Score and metastases. In the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1, endogenous expression of Sox2 was repressed by AR signaling, and AR chromatin-IP shows that AR binds the enhancer element within the Sox2 promoter. Likewise, in normal prostate epithelial cells and human embryonic stem cells, increased AR signaling also decreases Sox2 expression. Resistance to the anti-androgen MDV3100 results in a marked increase in Sox2 expression within three prostate cancer cell lines, and in the castration-sensitive LAPC-4 prostate cancer cell line ectopic expression of Sox2 was sufficient to promote castration-resistant tumor formation. Loss of Sox2 expression in the castration-resistant CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line inhibited cell growth. Up-regulation of Sox2 was not associated with increased CD133 expression but was associated with increased FGF5 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 5) expression. These data propose a model of elevated Sox2 expression due to loss of AR-mediated repression during castration, and consequent castration-resistance via mechanisms not involving induction of canonical embryonic stem cell pathways. PMID:23326489

  3. Sox17 regulates liver lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting.

    PubMed

    Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Gensollen, Thomas; Andreoletti, Pierre; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Bourges, Christophe; Escalière, Bertrand; Du, Xin; Xia, Yu; Imbert, Jean; Beutler, Bruce; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Liver is a major regulator of lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting, a process involving PPARalpha activation. We recently showed that the Vnn1 gene is a PPARalpha target gene in liver and that release of the Vanin-1 pantetheinase in serum is a biomarker of PPARalpha activation. Here we set up a screen to identify new regulators of adaptation to fasting using the serum Vanin-1 as a marker of PPARalpha activation. Mutagenized mice were screened for low serum Vanin-1 expression. Functional interactions with PPARalpha were investigated by combining transcriptomic, biochemical and metabolic approaches. We characterized a new mutant mouse in which hepatic and serum expression of Vanin-1 is depressed. This mouse carries a mutation in the HMG domain of the Sox17 transcription factor. Mutant mice display a metabolic phenotype featuring lipid abnormalities and inefficient adaptation to fasting. Upon fasting, a fraction of the PPARα-driven transcriptional program is no longer induced and associated with impaired fatty acid oxidation. The transcriptional phenotype is partially observed in heterozygous Sox17+/- mice. In mutant mice, the fasting phenotype but not all transcriptomic signature is rescued by the administration of the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate. These results identify a novel role for Sox17 in adult liver as a modulator of the metabolic adaptation to fasting.

  4. Sox17 Regulates Liver Lipid Metabolism and Adaptation to Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Gensollen, Thomas; Andreoletti, Pierre; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Bourges, Christophe; Escalière, Bertrand; Du, Xin; Xia, Yu; Imbert, Jean; Beutler, Bruce; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Liver is a major regulator of lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting, a process involving PPARalpha activation. We recently showed that the Vnn1 gene is a PPARalpha target gene in liver and that release of the Vanin-1 pantetheinase in serum is a biomarker of PPARalpha activation. Here we set up a screen to identify new regulators of adaptation to fasting using the serum Vanin-1 as a marker of PPARalpha activation. Mutagenized mice were screened for low serum Vanin-1 expression. Functional interactions with PPARalpha were investigated by combining transcriptomic, biochemical and metabolic approaches. We characterized a new mutant mouse in which hepatic and serum expression of Vanin-1 is depressed. This mouse carries a mutation in the HMG domain of the Sox17 transcription factor. Mutant mice display a metabolic phenotype featuring lipid abnormalities and inefficient adaptation to fasting. Upon fasting, a fraction of the PPARα-driven transcriptional program is no longer induced and associated with impaired fatty acid oxidation. The transcriptional phenotype is partially observed in heterozygous Sox17+/− mice. In mutant mice, the fasting phenotype but not all transcriptomic signature is rescued by the administration of the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate. These results identify a novel role for Sox17 in adult liver as a modulator of the metabolic adaptation to fasting. PMID:25141153

  5. [Strategies for sustainable management of commensal rodents. Definitions of control objectives at communal level].

    PubMed

    Plenge-Bönig, A; Schmolz, E

    2014-05-01

    The German Act on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in Man (Infektionsschutzgesetz, IfSG) provides a legal framework for activities and responsibilities concerning communal rodent control. However, actual governance of communal rodent control is relatively heterogeneous, as federal states (Bundesländer) have different or even no regulations for prevention and management of commensal rodent infestations (e.g. brown rats, roof rats and house mice). Control targets and control requirements are rarely precisely defined and often do not go beyond general measures and objectives. Although relevant regulations provide information about agreed preventive measures against rodents, the concept of sustainability is not expressed as such. A centrally managed database-supported municipal rodent control is a key factor for sustainability because it allows a systematic and analytical approach to identify and reduce rodent populations. The definition of control objectives and their establishment in legal decrees is mandatory for the implementation of a sustainable management strategy of rodent populations at a local level. Systematic recording of rodent infestations through municipal-operated monitoring provides the essential data foundation for a targeted rodent management which is already implemented in some German and European cities and nationwide in Denmark. A sustainable rodent management includes a more targeted rodenticide application which in the long-term will lead to an overall reduction of rodenticide use. Thus, the benefits of sustainable rodent management will be a reduction of rodenticide exposure to the environment, prevention of resistance and long-term economical savings.

  6. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review. PMID:22510239

  7. Downregulation of the Genes Involved in Reprogramming (SOX2, c-MYC, miR-302, miR-145, and P21) in Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Mitra; Vasei, Mohammad; Khalili, Davood; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2015-09-01

    Many cell signaling pathways essential for normal stem cell development are involved in cancer initiation and progression. In the present study, motivated by a possible contribution of reprogramming process in induction of cancer, we compared the expression level of main genes involved in iPS generation, i.e., miR-302, miR-145, SOX2, c-MYC, and P21, in a series of tumor and non-tumor tissues of stomach. A total number of 34 tumors and their matched non-tumor (as control) gastric surgical specimens were obtained. The expression of the candidate genes was evaluated by using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques. Our data revealed a significant downregulation of miR-302b, P21, and miR-145 genes in intestinal and SOX2 gene in diffuse type of tumor samples. SOX2, but not the other genes, showed a significant downregulation in both proximal (cardia and fundus) and distal (body and antrum) sites of stomach. Based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, the highest total area under the curve (AUC) was found for SOX2 (AUC = 82 %, P < 0.001). Interestingly, all tumor samples revealed a negative signal for c-MYC expression, while non-tumor samples represented an intense cytoplasmic staining. Despite the fact that some hESC-specific genes are upregulated in tumors, our data revealed a significant downregulation of all candidate genes, except for c-MYC, in tumor samples of stomach. Moreover, ROC data demonstrated that SOX2 gene expression index is a better potential biomarker of gastric cancer, compared to other tested genes. SOX2 expression has a good sensitivity and specificity to discriminate correctly between tumor/non-tumor and also high/low grades of tumor malignancy. It seems downregulation of miR-302b, miR-145, and P21 could contribute to gastric tumor initiation and progression.

  8. A genetic pathway composed of Sox14 and Mical governs severing of dendrites during pruning

    PubMed Central

    Kirilly, Daniel; Gu, Ying; Huang, Yafen; Wu, Zhuhao; Bashirullah, Arash; Low, Boon Chuan; Kolodkin, Alex L; Wang, Hongyan; Yu, Fengwei

    2011-01-01

    Pruning that selectively eliminates neuronal processes is crucial for the refinement of neural circuits during development. In Drosophila, the class IV dendritic arborization neuron (ddaC) undergoes pruning to remove its larval dendrites during metamorphosis. We identified Sox14 as a transcription factor that was necessary and sufficient to mediate dendrite severing during pruning in response to ecdysone signaling. We found that Sox14 mediated dendrite pruning by directly regulating the expression of the target gene mical. mical encodes a large cytosolic protein with multiple domains that are known to associate with cytoskeletal components. mical mutants had marked severing defects during dendrite pruning that were similar to those of sox14 mutants. Overexpression of Mical could significantly rescue pruning defects in sox14 mutants, suggesting that Mical is a major downstream target of Sox14 during pruning. Thus, our findings indicate that a previously unknown pathway composed of Sox14 and its cytoskeletal target Mical governs dendrite severing. PMID:19881505

  9. Quiescent Sox2+ Cells Drive Hierarchical Growth and Relapse in Sonic Hedgehog Subgroup Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Vanner, Robert J.; Remke, Marc; Gallo, Marco; Selvadurai, Hayden J.; Coutinho, Fiona; Lee, Lilian; Kushida, Michelle; Head, Renee; Morrissy, Sorana; Zhu, Xueming; Aviv, Tzvi; Voisin, Veronique; Clarke, Ian D.; Li, Yisu; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Ma, Yussanne; Jones, Steven J.M.; Marra, Marco A.; Malkin, David; Northcott, Paul A.; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan M.; Bader, Gary; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D.; Dirks, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Functional heterogeneity within tumors presents a significant therapeutic challenge. Here we show that quiescent, therapy-resistant Sox2+ cells propagate sonic hedgehog subgroup medulloblastoma by a mechanism that mirrors a neurogenic program. Rare Sox2+ cells produce rapidly cycling doublecortin+ progenitors that, together with their postmitotic progeny expressing NeuN, comprise tumor bulk. Sox2+ cells are enriched following anti-mitotic chemotherapy and Smoothened inhibition, creating a reservoir for tumor regrowth. Lineage traces from Sox2+ cells increase following treatment, suggesting that this population is responsible for relapse. Targeting Sox2+ cells with the antineoplastic mithramycin abrogated tumor growth. Addressing functional heterogeneity and eliminating Sox2+ cells presents a promising therapeutic paradigm for treatment of sonic hedgehog subgroup medulloblastoma. PMID:24954133

  10. Quiescent sox2(+) cells drive hierarchical growth and relapse in sonic hedgehog subgroup medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Vanner, Robert J; Remke, Marc; Gallo, Marco; Selvadurai, Hayden J; Coutinho, Fiona; Lee, Lilian; Kushida, Michelle; Head, Renee; Morrissy, Sorana; Zhu, Xueming; Aviv, Tzvi; Voisin, Veronique; Clarke, Ian D; Li, Yisu; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard A; Ma, Yussanne; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Malkin, David; Northcott, Paul A; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan M; Bader, Gary; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D; Dirks, Peter B

    2014-07-14

    Functional heterogeneity within tumors presents a significant therapeutic challenge. Here we show that quiescent, therapy-resistant Sox2(+) cells propagate sonic hedgehog subgroup medulloblastoma by a mechanism that mirrors a neurogenic program. Rare Sox2(+) cells produce rapidly cycling doublecortin(+) progenitors that, together with their postmitotic progeny expressing NeuN, comprise tumor bulk. Sox2(+) cells are enriched following anti-mitotic chemotherapy and Smoothened inhibition, creating a reservoir for tumor regrowth. Lineage traces from Sox2(+) cells increase following treatment, suggesting that this population is responsible for relapse. Targeting Sox2(+) cells with the antineoplastic mithramycin abrogated tumor growth. Addressing functional heterogeneity and eliminating Sox2(+) cells presents a promising therapeutic paradigm for treatment of sonic hedgehog subgroup medulloblastoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The human SOX11 gene: Cloning, chromosomal assignment and tissue expression

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, P.; Goze, C.; Marsollier, C.; Taviaux, S.

    1995-09-20

    The mammalian testis determining gene SRY contains an HMG box-related DNA binding motif. By analogy a family of genes related to SRY in the HMG domain have been called SOX (SRY box-related genes). We have cloned and characterized the human SOX11 gene using the partial cloning of both human and mouse SOX11 genes and mapped it to chromosome 2p25. The SOX11 sequence is strongly conserved with the chicken homologue and is related to SOX4. It contains several putative transcriptional either activator or repressor domains. SOX11 expression pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that this gene is important in the developing nervous system. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Expression and function of a novel isoform of Sox5 in malignant B cells

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Shanique K.E.; Desai, Anand; Liu, Yan; Moore, Carissa R.; Xie, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Using a mouse model with the tumor suppressor TRAF3 deleted from B cells, we identified Sox5 as a gene strikingly up-regulated in B lymphomas. Sox5 proteins were not detected in normal or premalignant TRAF3-/-B cells even after treatment with B cell stimuli. The Sox5 expressed in TRAF3-/-B lymphomas represents a novel isoform of Sox5, and was localized in the nucleus of malignant B cells. Overexpression of Sox5 inhibited cell cycle progression, and up-regulated the protein levels of p27 and β-catenin in human multiple myeloma cells. Together, our findings indicate that Sox5 regulates the proliferation of malignant B cells. PMID:24418753

  13. Decreased expression of SOX17 is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, De-Yuan; Tan, Hao-Sheng; Wei, Jin-Li; Zhu, Chang-Ren; Jiang, Ji-Xin; Zhu, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Feng-Lin; Chong, Mei-Hong; Ren, Chuan-Li

    2015-09-01

    The SOX17 (SRY-related HMG-box) transcription factor is involved in a variety of biological processes and is related to the tumorigenesis and progression of multiple tumors. However, the clinical application of SOX17 for breast cancer prognosis is currently limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of SOX17 expression in human breast cancer. qPCR and western blot assays were performed to measure the expression of SOX17 in breast cancer cell lines and 30 matched pairs of breast cancer and corresponding noncancerous tissues. A SOX17 overexpression cell model was used to examine changes in cell growth in vitro. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to retrospectively examine the prognostic impact of SOX17 expression in 187 additional breast cancer patients. Our results showed that SOX17 expression was decreased at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in the breast cancer cell lines and tissues, and that SOX17 overexpression could strongly suppress cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, the lack of SOX17 protein expression was strongly correlated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.002), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.001) and had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to normal SOX17 expression (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that lower SOX17 expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (P = 0.007; HR = 2.854; 95 % CI 1.326-6.147) and OS (P = 0.005; HR = 5.035; 95 % CI 1.648-15.385) for breast cancer. Our findings indicate that SOX17 expression is a useful prognostic biomarker for breast cancer.

  14. [Enhanced chemosensitivity of Hep-2 through down-regulating expression of SOX2 by RNAi].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Hui, Lian; Yang, Huijun; Jiang, Xuejun

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of SOX2 on chemotherapy sensitivity of human laryngeal epithelial cells Hep-2. We designed and synthesized RNAis for silencing the expression of SOX2 in Hep-2 cells and selected the most effective RNAi by Western blot analysis. Then the recombinant plasmids of pGCsi-H1-SOX2 and pGCsi-H1-NC were constructed and transfected into Hep-2 cells to build cell lines of psiSOX2-Hep-2 and psiNC-Hep-2. CCK-8 assay had been used to test the sensitivity of Hep-2 cells to 5-FU and PTX after silencing SOX2 expression. Hoechst staining had been used to exam the changes of Hep-2 cells apoptosis treatment by 5-FU and PTX after silencing SOX2 expression. Furthermore, the changes of apoptosis-related genes expressions were detected by Western blotting. The cell lines of psiSOX2-Hep-2 and psiNC-Hep-2 were successfully established, and the expression of SOX2 protein was decreased 78% in psiSOX2-Hep-2 cells compared with psiNC-Hep-2 cells. After reducing SOX2 expression, the sensitivity of Hep-2 cells to 5-FU and PTX were increased and the IC50 values for 48 h were decreased to 8.12 μg/ml and 5.16 μg/ml. Meanwhile, the apoptosis rate and the expression of apoptotic gene Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression were dramatically increased and anti-apoptotic genes survivin and Bcl-2 were significantly decreased in psiSOX2-Hep-2 cells compared with psiNC-Hep-2 cells. Down-regulating the protein expression of SOX2 by RNAi will significantly enhance the sensitivity of human laryngeal epithelial cells Hep-2 to 5-FU and PTX.

  15. Induction and selection of Sox17-expressing endoderm cells generated from murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Insa S; Sulzbacher, Sabine; Nolden, Tobias; Fuchs, Joerg; Czarnota, Judith; Meisterfeld, Ronny; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Wobus, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells offer a valuable source for generating insulin-producing cells. However, current differentiation protocols often result in heterogeneous cell populations of various developmental stages. Here we show the activin A-induced differentiation of mouse ES cells carrying a homologous dsRed-IRES-puromycin knock-in within the Sox17 locus into the endoderm lineage. Sox17-expressing cells were selected by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting (FACS) and characterized at the transcript and protein level. Treatment of ES cells with high concentrations of activin A for 10 days resulted in up to 19% Sox17-positive cells selected by FACS. Isolated Sox17-positive cells were characterized by defini- tive endoderm-specific Sox17/Cxcr4/Foxa2 transcripts, but lacked pluripotency-associated Oct4 mRNA and protein. The Sox17-expressing cells showed downregulation of extraembryonic endoderm (Sox7, Afp, Sdf1)-, mesoderm (Foxf1, Meox1)- and ectoderm (Pax6, NeuroD6)-specific transcripts. The presence of Hnf4α, Hes1 and Pdx1 mRNA demonstrated the expression of primitive gut/foregut cell-specific markers. Ngn3, Nkx6.1 and Nkx2.2 transcripts in Sox17-positive cells were determined as properties of pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Immunocytochemistry of activin A-induced Sox17-positive embryoid bodies revealed coexpression of Cxcr4 and Foxa2. Moreover, the histochemical demonstration of E-cadherin-, Cxcr4-, Sox9-, Hnf1β- and Ngn3-positive epithelial-like structures underlined the potential of Sox17-positive cells to further differentiate into the pancreatic lineage. By reducing the heterogeneity of the ES cell progeny, Sox17-expressing cells are a suitable model to evaluate the effects of growth and differentiation factors and of culture conditions to delineate the differentiation process for the generation of pancreatic cells in vitro. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Forced expression of Sox2 or Nanog in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells maintains their expansion and differentiation capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Go, Masahiro J. Takenaka, Chiemi; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2008-03-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrow have capability to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage. The cells have already been applied in various clinical situations because of their expansion and differentiation capabilities. The cells lose their capabilities after several passages, however. With the aim of conferring higher capability on human bone marrow MSCs, we introduced the Sox2 or Nanog gene into the cells. Sox2 and Nanog are not only essential for pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, but also expressed in somatic stem cells that have superior expansion and differentiation potentials. We found that Sox2-expressing MSCs showed consistent proliferation and osteogenic capability in culture media containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) compared to control cells. Significantly, in the presence of bFGF in culture media, most of the Sox2-expressing cells were small, whereas the control cells were elongated in shape. We also found that Nanog-expressing cells even in the absence of bFGF had much higher capabilities for expansion and osteogenesis than control cells. These results demonstrate not only an effective way to maintain proliferation and differentiation potentials of MSCs but also an important implication about the function of bFGF for self-renewal of stem cells including MSCs.

  17. Forced expression of Sox2 or Nanog in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells maintains their expansion and differentiation capabilities.

    PubMed

    Go, Masahiro J; Takenaka, Chiemi; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2008-03-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrow have capability to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage. The cells have already been applied in various clinical situations because of their expansion and differentiation capabilities. The cells lose their capabilities after several passages, however. With the aim of conferring higher capability on human bone marrow MSCs, we introduced the Sox2 or Nanog gene into the cells. Sox2 and Nanog are not only essential for pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, but also expressed in somatic stem cells that have superior expansion and differentiation potentials. We found that Sox2-expressing MSCs showed consistent proliferation and osteogenic capability in culture media containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) compared to control cells. Significantly, in the presence of bFGF in culture media, most of the Sox2-expressing cells were small, whereas the control cells were elongated in shape. We also found that Nanog-expressing cells even in the absence of bFGF had much higher capabilities for expansion and osteogenesis than control cells. These results demonstrate not only an effective way to maintain proliferation and differentiation potentials of MSCs but also an important implication about the function of bFGF for self-renewal of stem cells including MSCs.

  18. Dysregulation of CDX1, CDX2 and SOX2 in patients with gastric cancer also affects the non-malignant mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bornschein, Jan; Tóth, Kinga; Selgrad, Michael; Kuester, Doerthe; Wex, Thomas; Molnár, Béla; Tulassay, Zsolt; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The interplay between gastric and intestinal transcription factors has an important impact on gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gene expression of CDX1, CDX2, SOX2 and related downstream genes in tumour and tumour surrounding gastric tissue of 48 gastric cancer patients with 30 healthy controls. There was no difference of gene expression of CDX1 and CDX2 between tumour or tumour-adjacent and tumour-distant mucosa, but both factors were significantly higher expressed in cancer patients compared with controls (p<0.01). SOX2 was downregulated in tumour tissue compared to controls, whereas tumour-adjacent and tumour-distant mucosa showed intermediate SOX2 expression. Laurén type and Helicobacter pylori infection had no significant impact on expression of the transcription factors. Expression of CDX1 and CDX2 was higher in the presence of intestinal metaplasia. The differential regulation of the gene expression of CDX1, CDX2 and SOX2 in patients with gastric cancer affects not only the tumour but also the non-neoplastic tumour-distant mucosa.

  19. Long non-coding RNA SOX2OT: expression signature, splicing patterns, and emerging roles in pluripotency and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shahryari, Alireza; Jazi, Marie Saghaeian; Samaei, Nader M.; Mowla, Seyed J.

    2015-01-01

    SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT) is a long non-coding RNA which harbors one of the major regulators of pluripotency, SOX2 gene, in its intronic region. SOX2OT gene is mapped to human chromosome 3q26.3 (Chr3q26.3) locus and is extended in a high conserved region of over 700 kb. Little is known about the exact role of SOX2OT; however, recent studies have demonstrated a positive role for it in transcription regulation of SOX2 gene. Similar to SOX2, SOX2OT is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells and down-regulated upon the induction of differentiation. SOX2OT is dynamically regulated during the embryogenesis of vertebrates, and delimited to the brain in adult mice and human. Recently, the disregulation of SOX2OT expression and its concomitant expression with SOX2 have become highlighted in some somatic cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, and breast cancer. Interestingly, SOX2OT is differentially spliced into multiple mRNA-like transcripts in stem and cancer cells. In this review, we are describing the structural and functional features of SOX2OT, with an emphasis on its expression signature, its splicing patterns and its critical function in the regulation of SOX2 expression during development and tumorigenesis. PMID:26136768

  20. Toward a better definition of massive transfusion: focus on the interval of hemorrhage control.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, John P; Weinberg, Jordan A; Magnotti, Louis J; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    In clinical research, massive transfusion (MT) is commonly defined as transfusion of 10 or more red blood cell (RBC) units within 24 hours. However, the clinical relevance of this definition remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated whether patients who reach the MT threshold during hemorrhage control differ clinically from those who reach it after hemorrhage control (i.e., after intensive care unit [ICU] arrival) but before 24 hours. Prospective data were collected on all Level I trauma resuscitations within 5.5 years. Patients transfused 10 or more RBCs in the first 24 hours of hospitalization were identified and stratified according to when the MT threshold was achieved: before ICU arrival (Pre-ICU) versus after ICU arrival but before 24 hours of hospitalization (Post-ICU). Clinical characteristics between groups were compared. Three hundred five patients received 10 or more units before ICU arrival, and 46 reached the MT threshold after ICU arrival but before 24 hours. Both groups were clinically similar with respect to age, sex, and Injury Severity Score, but the Post-ICU group had a larger proportion of blunt injuries (71 vs. 53%, p < 0.05), lower mean admission lactate (5.9 vs. 8.1 mmol/L, p < 0.05), and higher systolic blood pressure (112 vs. 96 mm Hg, p < 0.05) compared with the Pre-ICU group. Twenty-four-hour mortality was significantly lower in the Post-ICU group compared with the Pre-ICU group (9 vs. 33%, p < 0.05). In-hospital mortality was not significantly different between groups (33 vs. 46%, p = 0.11). Patients reaching the MT threshold after ICU arrival comprise a relatively small proportion of those that would be included by the traditional MT definition. However, they have a significantly decreased mortality risk at 24 hours and the potential to dilute the study cohort. For research purposes, restricting the MT definition to 10 or more RBCs during hemorrhage control may result in study cohorts with relatively more uniform mortality

  1. Targeted resequencing identifies PTCH1 as a major contributor to ocular developmental anomalies and extends the SOX2 regulatory network

    PubMed Central

    Chassaing, Nicolas; Davis, Erica E.; McKnight, Kelly L.; Niederriter, Adrienne R.; Causse, Alexandre; David, Véronique; Desmaison, Annaïck; Lamarre, Sophie; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Pasquier, Laurent; Coubes, Christine; Lacombe, Didier; Rossi, Massimiliano; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Dollfus, Helene; Kaplan, Josseline; Katsanis, Nicholas; Etchevers, Heather C.; Faguer, Stanislas; Calvas, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Ocular developmental anomalies (ODA) such as anophthalmia/microphthalmia (AM) or anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) have an estimated combined prevalence of 3.7 in 10,000 births. Mutations in SOX2 are the most frequent contributors to severe ODA, yet account for a minority of the genetic drivers. To identify novel ODA loci, we conducted targeted high-throughput sequencing of 407 candidate genes in an initial cohort of 22 sporadic ODA patients. Patched 1 (PTCH1), an inhibitor of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, harbored an enrichment of rare heterozygous variants in comparison to either controls, or to the other candidate genes (four missense and one frameshift); targeted resequencing of PTCH1 in a second cohort of 48 ODA patients identified two additional rare nonsynonymous changes. Using multiple transient models and a CRISPR/Cas9-generated mutant, we show physiologically relevant phenotypes altering SHH signaling and eye development upon abrogation of ptch1 in zebrafish for which in vivo complementation assays using these models showed that all six patient missense mutations affect SHH signaling. Finally, through transcriptomic and ChIP analyses, we show that SOX2 binds to an intronic domain of the PTCH1 locus to regulate PTCH1 expression, findings that were validated both in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results demonstrate that PTCH1 mutations contribute to as much as 10% of ODA, identify the SHH signaling pathway as a novel effector of SOX2 activity during human ocular development, and indicate that ODA is likely the result of overactive SHH signaling in humans harboring mutations in either PTCH1 or SOX2. PMID:26893459

  2. A de novo deletion mutation in SOX10 in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type 4

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Yaowu; Shen, Na; Peng, Jing; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Haiyi; Lu, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) or Waardenburg-Shah syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with a prevalence of <1/1,000,000 and characterized by the association of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities, and intestinal aganglionosis. There are three types of WS4 (WS4A–C) caused by mutations in endothelin receptor type B, endothelin 3, and SRY-box 10 (SOX10), respectively. This study investigated a genetic mutation in a Chinese family with one WS4 patient in order to improve genetic counselling. Genomic DNA was extracted, and mutation analysis of the three WS4 related genes was performed using Sanger sequencing. We detected a de novo heterozygous deletion mutation [c.1333delT (p.Ser445Glnfs*57)] in SOX10 in the patient; however, this mutation was absent in the unaffected parents and 40 ethnicity matched healthy controls. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis and three-dimensional modelling of the SOX10 protein confirmed that the c.1333delT heterozygous mutation was pathogenic, indicating that this mutation might constitute a candidate disease-causing mutation. PMID:28128317

  3. Identification of a de novo mutation of SOX10 in a Chinese patient with Waardenburg syndrome type IV.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fenghe; Zhao, Min; Fan, Lynn; Zhang, Hongyan; Shi, Yang; Han, Rui; Qu, Chunyan

    2016-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by the association of sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation abnormalities. Four subtypes have been classified. The present study aimed to analyze the clinical feature and investigate the genetic cause for a Chinese case of Waardenburg type IV (WS4). The patient and his family members were subjected to mutation detection in the candidate gene SOX10 by Sanger sequencing. The patient has the clinical features of WS4, including sensorineural hearing loss, bright blue irides, premature graying of the hair and Hirschsprung disease. A novel heterozygous frameshift mutation, c.752_753ins7 (p.Gly252Alafs*31) in the exon 5 of SOX10 was detected in the patient, but not found in the unaffected family members and 100 normal controls. This mutation results in a premature stop codon 31 amino acid downstream. The novel mutation c.752_753ins7 (p.Gly252Alafs*31) arose de novo and was considered as the cause of WS4 in the proband. This study further characterized the molecular complexity of WS4 and provided a clinical case for genotype-phenotype correlation studies of different phenotypes caused by SOX10 mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. BMP-Smad4 signaling is required for precartilaginous mesenchymal condensation independent of Sox9 in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joohyun; Tu, Xiaolin; Choi, Kyunghee; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mishina, Yuji; Long, Fanxin

    2015-04-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate multiple aspects of skeletal development in vertebrates. Although exogenously applied BMPs can induce chondrogenesis de novo, the role and mechanism of physiologic BMP signaling during precartilaginous mesenchymal condensation is not well understood. By deleting the type I BMP receptors or the transcription factor Smad4 in the limb bud mesenchyme, we find that loss of BMP-Smad signaling abolishes skeletal development due to a failure in mesenchymal condensation. In the absence of Smad4, expression of Sox9, an essential transcription factor for chondrogenesis, initiates normally in the proximal mesenchyme of the limb bud, but fails to maintain its level or expand to the more distal territory at the later stages. However, forced-expression of Sox9 does not restore cartilage formation in the Smad4-deficeint embryo. In vitro micromass cultures show that the Smad4-deficient cells fail to condense in a cell-autonomous manner, even though they express several cell adhesion molecules either normally or even at a higher level. Thus, BMP-Smad signaling critically controls mesenchymal condensation to initiate skeletal development likely through a Sox9-independent mechanism.

  5. Spinal cord regeneration in Xenopus tadpoles proceeds through activation of Sox2-positive cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast to mammals, amphibians, such as adult urodeles (for example, newts) and anuran larvae (for example, Xenopus) can regenerate their spinal cord after injury. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still poorly understood. Results Here, we report that tail amputation results in a global increase of Sox2 levels and proliferation of Sox2+ cells. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 diminished proliferation of spinal cord resident cells affecting tail regeneration after amputation, suggesting that spinal cord regeneration is crucial for the whole process. After spinal cord transection, Sox2+ cells are found in the ablation gap forming aggregates. Furthermore, Sox2 levels correlated with regenerative capabilities during metamorphosis, observing a decrease in Sox2 levels at non-regenerative stages. Conclusions Sox2+ cells contribute to the regeneration of spinal cord after tail amputation and transection. Sox2 levels decreases during metamorphosis concomitantly with the lost of regenerative capabilities. Our results lead to a working hypothesis in which spinal cord damage activates proliferation and/or migration of Sox2+ cells, thus allowing regeneration of the spinal cord after tail amputation or reconstitution of the ependymal epithelium after spinal cord transection. PMID:22537391

  6. SOX10 Transactivates S100B to Suppress Schwann Cell Proliferation and to Promote Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Sayaka; Hoshikawa, Shinya; Ueno, Takaaki; Hirata, Makoto; Saito, Taku; Ikeda, Toshiyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells are an important cell source for regenerative therapy for neural disorders. We investigated the role of the transcription factor sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 10 (SOX10) in the proliferation and myelination of Schwann cells. SOX10 is predominantly expressed in rat sciatic nerve-derived Schwann cells and is induced shortly after birth. Among transcription factors known to be important for the differentiation of Schwann cells, SOX10 potently transactivates the S100B promoter. In cultures of Schwann cells, overexpressing SOX10 dramatically induces S100B expression, while knocking down SOX10 with shRNA suppresses S100B expression. Here, we identify three core response elements of SOX10 in the S100B promoter and intron 1 with a putative SOX motif. Knockdown of either SOX10 or S100B enhances the proliferation of Schwann cells. In addition, using dissociated cultures of dorsal root ganglia, we demonstrate that suppressing S100B with shRNA impairs myelination of Schwann cells. These results suggest that the SOX10-S100B signaling axis critically regulates Schwann cell proliferation and myelination, and therefore is a putative therapeutic target for neuronal disorders. PMID:25536222

  7. Suppression of SOX7 by DNA methylation and its tumor suppressor function in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Man, Cheuk Him; Fung, Tsz Kan; Wan, Haixia; Cher, Chae Yin; Fan, August; Ng, Nelson; Ho, Christa; Wan, Thomas S K; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; So, Chi Wai Eric; Kwong, Yok Lam; Leung, Anskar Y H

    2015-06-18

    SOX7 belongs to the SOX (Sry-related high-mobility group [HMG] box) gene family, a group of transcription factors containing in common a HMG box domain. Its role in hematologic malignancies and, in particular, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is completely unknown. Here, we showed that SOX7 expression was regulated by DNA hypermethylation in AML but not in acute lymphoblastic leukemia or normal bone marrow cells. In cell lines (KG1, ML2, and K562) and in primary CD34(+) AML samples, SOX7 expression could be induced by the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Overexpression of SOX7 in K562 cells inhibited cell proliferation, with cell cycle delay in S/G2/M phases and reduced clonogenic activity. Apoptosis was unaffected. Ectopic expression of SOX7 in K562 and THP-1 cells, as well as primary CD33(+)CD34(+) AML cells, abrogated leukemia engraftment in xenogeneic transplantation. SOX7 expression inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through direct protein binding to β-catenin, and the antileukemia effects of SOX7 in THP-1 cells were significantly reduced by deletion of its β-catenin binding site. The results provided unequivocal evidence for a novel tumor suppressor role of SOX7 in AML via a negative modulatory effect on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. SOX2 is sequentially required for progenitor proliferation and lineage specification in the developing pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Sox2 mutations are associated with pituitary hormone deficiencies and the protein is required for pituitary progenitor proliferation, but its function has not been well characterized in this context. SOX2 is known to activate expression of Six6, encoding a homeodomain transcription factor, in the ventral diencephalon. Here, we find that the same relationship likely exists in the pituitary. Moreover, because Six6 deletion is associated with a similar phenotype as described here for loss of Sox2, Six6 appears to be an essential downstream target of SOX2 in the gland. We also uncover a second role for SOX2. Whereas cell differentiation is reduced in Sox2 mutants, some endocrine cells are generated, such as POMC-positive cells in the intermediate lobe. However, loss of SOX2 here results in complete downregulation of the melanotroph pioneer factor PAX7, and subsequently a switch of identity from melanotrophs to ectopic corticotrophs. Rescuing proliferation by ablating the cell cycle negative regulator p27 (also known as Cdkn1b) in Sox2 mutants does not restore melanotroph emergence. Therefore, SOX2 has two independent roles during pituitary morphogenesis; firstly, promotion of progenitor proliferation, and subsequently, acquisition of melanotroph identity. PMID:27226320

  9. Transcription factors from Sox family regulate expression of zebrafish Gla-rich protein 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Fazenda, C; Conceição, N; Cancela, M L

    2015-11-01

    GRP is a vitamin K-dependent protein with orthologs in all vertebrate taxonomic groups and two paralogs in teleosts. However, no data is available about GRP transcriptional gene regulation. We report a functional promoter for zebrafish grp2 gene regulated by Sox9b, Sox10, Ets1 and Mef2ca as determined by in vitro assays. This was confirmed in vivo for Sox9b and Sox10. Due to the high conservation between human GRP and grp2, its zebrafish ortholog, our results are relevant for the study of human GRP gene regulation and provide new insights towards understanding GRP function.

  10. Sox2 marks epithelial competence to generate teeth in mammals and reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Juuri, Emma; Jussila, Maria; Seidel, Kerstin; Holmes, Scott; Wu, Ping; Richman, Joy; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Arnold, Katrin; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Klein, Ophir; Michon, Frederic; Thesleff, Irma

    2013-01-01

    Tooth renewal is initiated from epithelium associated with existing teeth. The development of new teeth requires dental epithelial cells that have competence for tooth formation, but specific marker genes for these cells have not been identified. Here, we analyzed expression patterns of the transcription factor Sox2 in two different modes of successional tooth formation: tooth replacement and serial addition of primary teeth. We observed specific Sox2 expression in the dental lamina that gives rise to successional teeth in mammals with one round of tooth replacement as well as in reptiles with continuous tooth replacement. Sox2 was also expressed in the dental lamina during serial addition of mammalian molars, and genetic lineage tracing indicated that Sox2+ cells of the first molar give rise to the epithelial cell lineages of the second and third molars. Moreover, conditional deletion of Sox2 resulted in hyperplastic epithelium in the forming posterior molars. Our results indicate that the Sox2+ dental epithelium has competence for successional tooth formation and that Sox2 regulates the progenitor state of dental epithelial cells. The findings imply that the function of Sox2 has been conserved during evolution and that tooth replacement and serial addition of primary teeth represent variations of the same developmental process. The expression patterns of Sox2 support the hypothesis that dormant capacity for continuous tooth renewal exists in mammals. PMID:23462476

  11. Transcriptional regulation of Sox2 by the retinoblastoma family of pocket proteins

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Carmen; Morey, Lluis; Silva-Álvarez, Sabela Da; Fernandes, Tânia; Abad, María; Croce, Luciano Di; García-Caballero, Tomás; Serrano, Manuel; Rivas, Carmen; Vidal, Anxo; Collado, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Cellular reprogramming to iPSCs has uncovered unsuspected links between tumor suppressors and pluripotency factors. Using this system, it was possible to identify tumor suppressor p27 as a repressor of Sox2 during differentiation. This led to the demonstration that defects in the repression of Sox2 can contribute to tumor development. The members of the retinoblastoma family of pocket proteins, pRb, p107 and p130, are negative regulators of the cell cycle with tumor suppressor activity and with roles in differentiation. In this work we studied the relative contribution of the retinoblastoma family members to the regulation of Sox2 expression. We found that deletion of Rb or p130 leads to impaired repression of Sox2, a deffect amplified by inactivation of p53. We also identified binding of pRb and p130 to an enhancer with crucial regulatory activity on Sox2 expression. Using cellular reprogramming we tested the impact of the defective repression of Sox2 and confirmed that Rb deficiency allows the generation of iPSCs in the absence of exogenous Sox2. Finally, partial depletion of Sox2 positive cells reduced the pituitary tumor development initiated by Rb loss in vivo. In summary, our results show that Sox2 repression by pRb is a relevant mechanism of tumor suppression. PMID:25576924

  12. Stringent comparative sequence analysis reveals SOX10 as a putative inhibitor of glial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Chetna; Law, William D; Rodríguez-Molina, José F; Prasad, Arjun B; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Mullikin, James C; Svaren, John; Antonellis, Anthony

    2016-11-07

    The transcription factor SOX10 is essential for all stages of Schwann cell development including myelination. SOX10 cooperates with other transcription factors to activate the expression of key myelin genes in Schwann cells and is therefore a context-dependent, pro-myelination transcription factor. As such, the identification of genes regulated by SOX10 will provide insight into Schwann cell biology and related diseases. While genome-wide studies have successfully revealed SOX10 target genes, these efforts mainly focused on myelinating stages of Schwann cell development. We propose that less-biased approaches will reveal novel functions of SOX10 outside of myelination. We developed a stringent, computational-based screen for genome-wide identification of SOX10 response elements. Experimental validation of a pilot set of predicted binding sites in multiple systems revealed that SOX10 directly regulates a previously unreported alternative promoter at SOX6, which encodes a transcription factor that inhibits glial cell differentiation. We further explored the utility of our computational approach by combining it with DNase-seq analysis in cultured Schwann cells and previously published SOX10 ChIP-seq data from rat sciatic nerve. Remarkably, this analysis enriched for genomic segments that map to loci involved in the negative regulation of gliogenesis including SOX5, SOX6, NOTCH1, HMGA2, HES1, MYCN, ID4, and ID2. Functional studies in Schwann cells revealed that: (1) all eight loci are expressed prior to myelination and down-regulated subsequent to myelination; (2) seven of the eight loci harbor validated SOX10 binding sites; and (3) seven of the eight loci are down-regulated upon repressing SOX10 function. Our computational strategy revealed a putative novel function for SOX10 in Schwann cells, which suggests a model where SOX10 activates the expression of genes that inhibit myelination during non-myelinating stages of Schwann cell development. Importantly, the

  13. Regulation of Sox6 by cyclin dependent kinase 5 in brain.

    PubMed

    Rudrabhatla, Parvathi; Utreras, Elias; Jaffe, Howard; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase involved in various biological functions during normal brain development and neurodegeneration. In brain, Cdk5 activity is specific to post-mitotic neurons, due to neuronal specific expression of its activator p35. The biological functions of Cdk5 have been ascribed to its cytoplasmic substrates, however not much is known in nucleus. Here, we show that nuclear transcription factor Sox6 is a direct nuclear target of Cdk5. Sox6 is expressed in Tuj1 positive neurons, suggesting that Sox6 is expressed in differentiating neurons. The expression of Sox6 is high in mitotic nuclei during embryonic day 12 (E12) and gradually decreases during development into adult. On the other hand, Cdk5 expression gradually increases during its development. We show that Sox6 is expressed in mitotic nuclei in embryonic day 12 (E12) and in migrating neurons of E16. Sox6 is phosphorylated in vivo. Sox6 was detected by phospho-Ser/Thr and phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro and MPM-2 (Mitotic protein #2) antibodies in brain. Furthermore, calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) digestion resulted in faster migration of Sox6 band. The GST-Sox6 was phosphorylated by Cdk5/p35. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Sox6 is phosphorylated at T119PER motif. We show that Sox6 steady state levels are regulated by Cdk5. Cdk5 knockout mice die in utero and Sox6 protein expression is remarkably high in Cdk5-/- brain, however, there is no change in mRNA expression, suggesting a post-translational regulation of Sox6 by Cdk5. Transfection of primary cortical neurons with WT Cdk5 reduced Sox6 levels, while dominant negative (DN) Cdk5 and p35 increased Sox6 levels. Thus, our results indicate that Cdk5 regulates Sox6 steady state protein level that has an important role in brain development and function.

  14. LncSox4 promotes the self-renewal of liver tumour-initiating cells through Stat3-mediated Sox4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen-zhen; Huang, Lan; Wu, Ya-hong; Zhai, Wen-jie; Zhu, Ping-ping; Gao, Yan-feng

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer has a tendency to develop asymptomatically in patients, so most patients are diagnosed at a later stage. Accumulating evidence implicates that liver tumour-initiating cells (TICs) as being responsible for liver cancer initiation and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanism of liver TIC self-renewal is poorly understood. Here we discover that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) termed LncSox4 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and in liver TICs. We find that LncSox4 is required for liver TIC self-renewal and tumour initiation. LncSox4 interacts with and recruits Stat3 to the Sox4 promoter to initiate the expression of Sox4, which is highly expressed in liver TICs and required for liver TIC self-renewal. The expression level of Sox4 correlates with HCC development, clinical severity and prognosis of patients. Altogether, we find that LncSox4 is highly expressed in liver TICs and is required for their self-renewal. PMID:27553854

  15. Ultrahigh-definition dynamic 3D holographic display by active control of volume speckle fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Lee, Kyeoreh; Park, Jongchan; Park, Yongkeun

    2017-01-01

    Holographic displays generate realistic 3D images that can be viewed without the need for any visual aids. They operate by generating carefully tailored light fields that replicate how humans see an actual environment. However, the realization of high-performance, dynamic 3D holographic displays has been hindered by the capabilities of present wavefront modulator technology. In particular, spatial light modulators have a small diffraction angle range and limited pixel number limiting the viewing angle and image size of a holographic 3D display. Here, we present an alternative method to generate dynamic 3D images by controlling volume speckle fields significantly enhancing image definition. We use this approach to demonstrate a dynamic display of micrometre-sized optical foci in a volume of 8 mm × 8 mm × 20 mm.

  16. AraC/XylS Family Stress Response Regulators Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA in the Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the AraC/XylS family have been associated with multidrug resistance, organic solvent tolerance, oxidative stress, and virulence in clinically relevant enterobacteria. In the present study, we identified four homologous AraC/XylS regulators, Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA, from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. Previous studies have shown that the regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS from Escherichia coli mediate multiple-antibiotic resistance, primarily by upregulating the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. However, none of the four AraC/XylS regulators from E. amylovora was able to induce a multidrug resistance phenotype in the plant pathogen. Overexpression of rob led to a 2-fold increased expression of the acrA gene. However, the rob-overexpressing strain showed increased resistance to only a limited number of antibiotics. Furthermore, Rob was able to induce tolerance to organic solvents in E. amylovora by mechanisms other than efflux. We demonstrated that SoxS from E. amylovora is involved in superoxide resistance. A soxS-deficient mutant of Ea1189 was not able to grow on agar plates supplemented with the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. Furthermore, expression of soxS was induced by redox cycling agents. We identified two novel members of the AraC/XylS family in E. amylovora. PliA was highly upregulated during the early infection phase in apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. Multiple compounds were able to induce the expression of pliA, including apple leaf extracts, phenolic compounds, redox cycling agents, heavy metals, and decanoate. OpiA was shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic and alkaline pH stress responses. PMID:24936054

  17. AraC/XylS family stress response regulators Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel; Weingart, Helge

    2014-09-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the AraC/XylS family have been associated with multidrug resistance, organic solvent tolerance, oxidative stress, and virulence in clinically relevant enterobacteria. In the present study, we identified four homologous AraC/XylS regulators, Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA, from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. Previous studies have shown that the regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS from Escherichia coli mediate multiple-antibiotic resistance, primarily by upregulating the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. However, none of the four AraC/XylS regulators from E. amylovora was able to induce a multidrug resistance phenotype in the plant pathogen. Overexpression of rob led to a 2-fold increased expression of the acrA gene. However, the rob-overexpressing strain showed increased resistance to only a limited number of antibiotics. Furthermore, Rob was able to induce tolerance to organic solvents in E. amylovora by mechanisms other than efflux. We demonstrated that SoxS from E. amylovora is involved in superoxide resistance. A soxS-deficient mutant of Ea1189 was not able to grow on agar plates supplemented with the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. Furthermore, expression of soxS was induced by redox cycling agents. We identified two novel members of the AraC/XylS family in E. amylovora. PliA was highly upregulated during the early infection phase in apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. Multiple compounds were able to induce the expression of pliA, including apple leaf extracts, phenolic compounds, redox cycling agents, heavy metals, and decanoate. OpiA was shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic and alkaline pH stress responses.

  18. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A ceRNA Analysis Pointed to a Crosstalk between SOX2, TP53, and microRNA Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carina, Valeria; Tomasello, Laura; Pitrone, Maria; Baiamonte, Concetta; Amato, Marco Calogero

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that cancer stem cells (CSC) may play a central role in oncogenesis, especially in undifferentiated tumours. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has characteristics suggestive of a tumour enriched in CSC. Previous studies suggested that the stem cell factor SOX2 has a preeminent hierarchical role in determining the characteristics of stem cells in SW1736 ATC cell line. In detail, silencing SOX2 in SW1736 is able to suppress the expression of the stem markers analysed, strongly sensitizing the line to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, in order to further investigate the role of SOX2 in ATC, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) analysis was conducted in order to isolate new functional partners of SOX2. Among the interactors, of particular interest are genes involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs (DICER1, RNASEN, and EIF2C2), in the control cell cycle (TP53, CCND1), and in mitochondrial activity (COX8A). The data suggest that stemness, microRNA biogenesis and functions, p53 regulatory network, cyclin D1, and cell cycle control, together with mitochondrial activity, might be coregulated. PMID:25705224

  19. Cotransfected human chondrocytes: over-expression of IGF-I and SOX9 enhances the synthesis of cartilage matrix components collagen-II and glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Simental-Mendía, M; Lara-Arias, J; Álvarez-Lozano, E; Said-Fernández, S; Soto-Domínguez, A; Padilla-Rivas, G R; Martínez-Rodríguez, H G

    2015-12-01

    Damage to cartilage causes a loss of type II collagen (Col-II) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG). To restore the original cartilage architecture, cell factors that stimulate Col-II and GAG production are needed. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and transcription factor SOX9are essential for the synthesis of cartilage matrix, chondrocyte proliferation, and phenotype maintenance. We evaluated the combined effect of IGF-I and SOX9 transgene expression on Col-II and GAG production by cultured human articular chondrocytes. Transient transfection and cotransfection were performed using two mammalian expression plasmids (pCMV-SPORT6), one for each transgene. At day 9 post-transfection, the chondrocytes that were over-expressing IGF-I/SOX9 showed 2-fold increased mRNA expression of the Col-II gene, as well as a 57% increase in Col-II protein, whereas type I collagen expression (Col-I) was decreased by 59.3% compared with controls. The production of GAG by these cells increased significantly compared with the controls at day 9 (3.3- vs 1.8-times, an increase of almost 83%). Thus, IGF-I/SOX9 cotransfected chondrocytes may be useful for cell-based articular cartilage therapies.

  20. The search for sterile neutrinos with SOX-Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Altenmüller, K. Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cribier, M.; D’Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Noto, L. di; Drachnev, I.; and others

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the SOX-Borexino project is to verify or falsify the existence of eV-scale sterile neutrinos. The existence of sterile neutrinos is suspected because of several anomalies, which were observed in previous experiments. A ~3.7 PBq electron antineutrino source made of {sup 144}Ce will be installed below the Borexino detector at LNGS, Italy, to search for short-baseline oscillations of active-to-sterile neutrinos within the detector volume. Source delivery and beginning of data acquisition is planned for end of 2016, preliminary results are expected already in 2017.

  1. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1995-05-09

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths. 3 figs.

  2. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1995-01-01

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  3. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1995-06-27

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  4. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  5. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1996-12-17

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  6. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  7. The search for sterile neutrinos with SOX-Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenmüller, K.; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonqures, N.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Roncin, R.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Veyssière, C.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the SOX-Borexino project is to verify or falsify the existence of eV-scale sterile neutrinos. The existence of sterile neutrinos is suspected because of several anomalies, which were observed in previous experiments. A 3.7 PBq electron antineutrino source made of 144Ce will be installed below the Borexino detector at LNGS, Italy, to search for short-baseline oscillations of active-to-sterile neutrinos within the detector volume. Source delivery and beginning of data acquisition is planned for end of 2016, preliminary results are expected already in 2017.

  8. Estrogen induces androgen-repressed SOX4 expression to promote progression of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Muyi; Wang, Jing; Wang, Lin; Shen, Chengwu; Su, Bo; Qi, Mei; Hu, Jing; Gao, Wei; Tan, Weiwei; Han, Bo

    2015-09-01

    The sex determing region Y-box 4 (SOX4) gene is a critical developmental transcriptional factor that is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa). While we and others have investigated the role of SOX4 overexpression in PCa, the molecular mechanism underlying its aberrant expression remains unclear. Immunohistochemistry were utilized to detect SOX4 expression and the correlation between estrogen receptor β (ERβ), androgen receptor (AR) and SOX4 in a cohort of 94 clinical specimens. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to study the transcript and protein expression levels. Immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation were performed to assess the interaction and subcellular location of ERβ and AR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and Luciferase reporter assays were performed to explore the binding and transcriptional activities of ERβ and AR to the SOX4 promoter. Cellular function was evaluated by MTS, invasion and wound healing assays. SOX4 expression is up-regulated in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) tumors compared to hormone-dependent PCa (HDPC) cases. Increased expression was also observed in PCa cells after long-term androgen-deprivation treatment (ADT). In vitro data indicated that SOX4 is an AR transcriptional target and down-regulated by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via AR. 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulates SOX4 expression in the absence of androgen through the formation of a protein complex between ERβ and AR. Knockdown of AR or ERβ blocks the E2-induced SOX4 expression. ChIP assays confirmed that both ERβ and AR bind to the SOX4 promoter in response to E2. Functionally, silencing SOX4 significantly attenuates the proliferative effect, as well as the capacity of migration and invasion of E2 on PCa cells. Clinically, overexpression of SOX4 is significantly associated with ERβ expression in PCa. In addition, this association is still retained in CRPC patients with poor prognosis. These findings suggest

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of SoxB2 gene from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan; Bao, Zhenmin; Guo, Huihui; Zhang, Yueyue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Jingjie; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-11-01

    The Sox proteins play critical roles during the development of animals, including sex determination and central nervous system development. In this study, the SoxB2 gene was cloned from a mollusk, the Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri), and characterized with respect to phylogeny and tissue distribution. The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of C. farreri SoxB2 ( Cf SoxB2) were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and genome walking, respectively, using a partial cDNA fragment from the highly conserved DNA-binding domain, i.e., the High Mobility Group (HMG) box. The full-length cDNA sequence of Cf SoxB2 was 2 048 bp and encoded 268 amino acids protein. The genomic sequence was 5 551 bp in length with only one exon. Several conserved elements, such as the TATA-box, GC-box, CAAT-box, GATA-box, and Sox/sry-sex/testis-determining and related HMG box factors, were found in the promoter region. Furthermore, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays were carried out to assess the mRNA expression of Cf SoxB 2 in different tissues. SoxB2 was highly expressed in the mantle, moderately in the digestive gland and gill, and weakly expressed in the gonad, kidney and adductor muscle. In male and female gonads at different developmental stages of reproduction, the expression levels of Cf SoxB2 were similar. Considering the specific expression and roles of SoxB 2 in other animals, in particular vertebrates, and the fact that there are many pallial nerves in the mantle, cerebral ganglia in the digestive gland and gill nerves in gill, we propose a possible essential role in nervous tissue function for Sox B 2 in C. farreri.

  10. Sox2 is not required for melanomagenesis, melanoma growth and melanoma metastasis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cesarini, V; Guida, E; Todaro, F; Di Agostino, S; Tassinari, V; Nicolis, S; Favaro, R; Caporali, S; Lacal, P M; Botti, E; Costanzo, A; Rossi, P; Jannini, E A; Dolci, S

    2017-08-01

    Melanoma is a dangerous form of skin cancer derived from the malignant transformation of melanocytes. The transcription factor SOX2 is not expressed in melanocytes, however, it has been shown to be differentially expressed between benign nevi and malignant melanomas and to be essential for melanoma stem cell maintenance and expansion in vitro and in xenograft models. By using a mouse model in which BRaf(V600E) mutation cooperates with Pten loss to induce the development of metastatic melanoma, we investigated if Sox2 is required during the process of melanomagenesis, melanoma growth and metastasis and in the acquisition of resistance to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) treatments. We found that deletion of Sox2 specifically in Pten null and BRafV600E-expressing melanocytes did not prevent tumor formation and did not modify the temporal kinetics of melanoma occurrence compared to Sox2 wt mice. In addition, tumor growth was similar between Sox2 wt and Sox2 deleted (del) melanomas. By querying publicly available databases, we did not find statistically significant differences in SOX2 expression levels between benign nevi and melanomas, and analysis on two melanoma patient cohorts confirmed that Sox2 levels did not significantly change between primary and metastatic melanomas. Melanoma cell lines derived from both Sox2 genotypes showed a similar sensitivity to vemurafenib treatment and the same ability to develop vemurafenib resistance in long-term cultures. Development of vemurafenib resistance was not dependent on SOX2 expression also in human melanoma cell lines in vitro. Our findings exclude an oncogenic function for Sox2 during melanoma development and do not support a role for this transcription factor in the acquisition of resistance to BRAFi treatments.

  11. Dimerization and Transactivation Domains as Candidates for Functional Modulation and Diversity of Sox9

    PubMed Central

    Geraldo, Marcos Tadeu; Valente, Guilherme Targino; Nakajima, Rafael Takahiro; Martins, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Sox9 plays an important role in a large variety of developmental pathways in vertebrates. It is composed of three domains: high-mobility group box (HMG box), dimerization (DIM) and transactivation (TAD). One of the main processes for regulation and variability of the pathways involving Sox9 is the self-gene expression regulation of Sox9. However, the subsequent roles of the Sox9 domains can also generate regulatory modulations. Studies have shown that TADs can bind to different types of proteins and its function seems to be influenced by DIM. Therefore, we hypothesized that both domains are directly associated and can be responsible for the functional variability of Sox9. We applied a method based on a broad phylogenetic context, using sequences of the HMG box domain, to ensure the homology of all the Sox9 copies used herein. The data obtained included 4,921 sequences relative to 657 metazoan species. Based on coevolutionary and selective pressure analyses of the Sox9 sequences, we observed coevolutions involving DIM and TADs. These data, along with the experimental data from literature, indicate a functional relationship between these domains. Moreover, DIM and TADs may be responsible for the functional plasticity of Sox9 because they are more tolerant for molecular changes (higher Ka/Ks ratio than the HMG box domain). This tolerance could allow a differential regulation of target genes or promote novel targets during transcriptional activation. In conclusion, we suggest that DIM and TADs functional association may regulate differentially the target genes or even promote novel targets during transcription activation mediated by Sox9 paralogs, contributing to the subfunctionalization of Sox9a and Sox9b in teleosts. PMID:27196604

  12. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaohua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Qiyan; Chang, Zhongjie

    2010-08-01

    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads.

  13. Structural Basis for the Oxidation of Protein-bound Sulfur by the Sulfur Cycle Molybdohemo-Enzyme Sulfane Dehydrogenase SoxCD*

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Ulrich; Faust, Annette; Klink, Björn U.; de Sanctis, Daniele; Panjikar, Santosh; Quentmeier, Armin; Bardischewsky, Frank; Friedrich, Cornelius G.; Scheidig, Axel J.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur cycle enzyme sulfane dehydrogenase SoxCD is an essential component of the sulfur oxidation (Sox) enzyme system of Paracoccus pantotrophus. SoxCD catalyzes a six-electron oxidation reaction within the Sox cycle. SoxCD is an α2β2 heterotetrameric complex of the molybdenum cofactor-containing SoxC protein and the diheme c-type cytochrome SoxD with the heme domains D1 and D2. SoxCD1 misses the heme-2 domain D2 and is catalytically as active as SoxCD. The crystal structure of SoxCD1 was solved at 1.33 Å. The substrate of SoxCD is the outer (sulfane) sulfur of Cys-110-persulfide located at the C-terminal peptide swinging arm of SoxY of the SoxYZ carrier complex. The SoxCD1 substrate funnel toward the molybdopterin is narrow and partially shielded by side-chain residues of SoxD1. For access of the sulfane-sulfur of SoxY-Cys-110 persulfide we propose that (i) the blockage by SoxD-Arg-98 is opened via interaction with the C terminus of SoxY and (ii) the C-terminal peptide VTIGGCGG of SoxY provides interactions with the entrance path such that the cysteine-bound persulfide is optimally positioned near the molybdenum atom. The subsequent oxidation reactions of the sulfane-sulfur are initiated by the nucleophilic attack of the persulfide anion on the molybdenum atom that is, in turn, reduced. The close proximity of heme-1 to the molybdopterin allows easy acceptance of the electrons. Because SoxYZ, SoxXA, and SoxB are already structurally characterized, with SoxCD1 the structures of all key enzymes of the Sox cycle are known with atomic resolution. PMID:21147779

  14. Prospective validation of Baveno V definitions and criteria for failure to control bleeding in portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sun Young; Park, Soo Young; Tak, Won Young; Lee, Yu Rim; Kang, Eun Jeong; Park, Jung Gil; Lee, Won Kee; Lee, Kwan; Kweon, Young Oh

    2015-03-01

    New definitions and criteria were released at the Baveno V consensus meeting. The purposes of this study were to verify Baveno V definitions and criteria for failure to control bleeding and to determine the usefulness of the combined use of the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index [ABRI: (number of blood units)/(final hematocrit-initial hematocrit)+0.01] with Baveno V criteria. In all, 246 consecutive liver cirrhosis patients with acute bleeding associated with portal hypertension were enrolled prospectively between January 2010 and October 2012. The treatment outcome on day 5 was assessed by endoscopy. For the ABRI calculation, two hematocrit levels were used as the initial hematocrit: the first level measured upon patient arrival (ABRI-A) and the lowest level measured before transfusion (ABRI-B). Treatment failures were identified in 53 patients, of whom 24 died. Based on repeated endoscopic findings, 29 patients were identified as treatment failures, while according to Baveno V criteria, 47 patients were regarded as treatment failures. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of Baveno V criteria was 0.906, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 83.0%, 98.4%, 93.6%, 95.5%, 53.41, and 0.17, respectively. The AUROC of Baveno V criteria was significantly greater than those of Baveno IV (P=0.0001) and Baveno II/III (P<0.0001) criteria. Adding ABRI-A or -B to Baveno V criteria resulted in a significant reduction of the AUROC (P<0.05). The Baveno V criteria are good predictors of treatment failure of early-stage acute gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension, while the addition of ARBI does not improve the prediction accuracy of the outcome of bleeding. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Perlecan is required for the chondrogenic differentiation of synovial mesenchymal cells through regulation of Sox9 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sadatsuki, Ryo; Kaneko, Haruka; Kinoshita, Mayuko; Futami, Ippei; Nonaka, Risa; Culley, Kirsty L; Otero, Miguel; Hada, Shinnosuke; Goldring, Mary B; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Kaneko, Kazuo; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Ishijima, Muneaki

    2017-04-01

    We previously reported that perlecan, a heparan-sulfate proteoglycan (Hspg2), expressed in the synovium at the cartilage-synovial junction, is required for osteophyte formation in knee osteoarthritis. To examine the mechanism underlying this process, we examined the role of perlecan in the proliferation and differentiation of synovial mesenchymal cells (SMCs), using a recently established mouse synovial cell culture method. Primary SMCs isolated from Hspg2(-/-) -Tg (Hspg2(-/-) ;Col2a1-Hspg2(Tg/-) ) mice, in which the perlecan-knockout was rescued from perinatal lethality, lack perlecan. The chondrogenic-, osteogenic-, and adipogenic-potentials were examined in the Hspg2(-/-) -Tg SMCs compared to the control SMCs prepared from wild-type Hspg2(+/+) -Tg (Hspg2(+/+) ;Col2a1-Hspg2(Tg/-) ) littermates. In a culture condition permitting proliferation, both control and Hspg2(-/-) -Tg SMCs showed similar rates of proliferation and expression of cell surface markers. However, in micromass cultures, the cartilage matrix production and Sox9 and Col2a1 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in Hspg2(-/-) -Tg SMCs, compared with control SMCs. The reduced level of Sox9 mRNA was restored by the supplementation with exogenous perlecan protein. There was no difference in osteogenic differentiation between the control and Hspg2(-/-) -Tg SMCs, as measured by the levels of Runx2 and Col1a1 mRNA. The adipogenic induction and PPARγ mRNA levels were significantly reduced in Hspg2(-/-) -Tg SMCs compared to control SMCs. The reduction of PPARγ mRNA levels in Hspg2(-/-) -Tg SMCs was restored by supplementation of perlecan. Perlecan is required for the chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation from SMCs via its regulation of the Sox9 and PPARγ gene expression, but not for osteogenic differentiation via Runx2. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:837-846, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Expression pattern of Chlamys farreri sox2 in eggs, embryos and larvae of various stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shaoshuai; Ma, Xiaoshi; Han, Tiantian; Yang, Dandan; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2015-08-01

    The SOX2 protein is an important transcription factor functioning during the early development of animals. In this study, we isolated a full-length cDNA sequence of scallop Chlamys farreri sox2, Cf-sox2 which was 2194 bp in length with a 981 bp open reading frame encoding 327 amino acids. With real-time PCR analysis, it was detected that Cf-sox2 was expressed in unfertilized oocytes, fertilized eggs and all the tested embryos and larvae. The expression level increased significantly ( P < 0.01) in embryos from 2-cell to blastula, and then decreased significantly ( P < 0.01) and reached the minimum in umbo larva. Moreover, location of the Cf-sox2 expression was revealed using whole mount in situ hybridization technique. Positive hybridization signal could be detected in the central region of unfertilized oocytes and fertilized eggs, and then strong signals dispersed throughout the embryos from 2-cell to gastrula. During larval development, the signals were concentrated and strong signals were restricted to 4 regions of viscera mass in veliger larva. In umbo larva, weak signals could be detected in regions where presumptive visceral and pedal ganglia may be formed. The expression pattern of Cf-sox2 during embryogenesis was similar to that of mammal sox2, which implied that Cf-SOX2 may participate in the regulation of early development of C. farreri.

  17. A cohesin–OCT4 complex mediates Sox enhancers to prime an early embryonic lineage

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Nesrine; Moore-Morris, Thomas; Hiriart, Emilye; Yang, Henry; Bezerra, Hudson; Gualazzi, Maria-Giovanna; Stefanovic, Sonia; Guénantin, Anne-Claire; Evans, Sylvia M.; Pucéat, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Short- and long-scales intra-and inter-chromosomal interactions are linked to gene transcription, but the molecular events underlying these structures and how they affect cell fate decision during embryonic development are poorly understood. One of the first embryonic cell fate decisions (that is, mesendoderm determination) is driven by the POU factor OCT4, acting in concert with the high-mobility group genes Sox-2 and Sox-17. Here we report a chromatin-remodelling mechanism and enhancer function that mediate cell fate switching. OCT4 alters the higher-order chromatin structure at both Sox-2 and Sox-17 loci. OCT4 titrates out cohesin and switches the Sox-17 enhancer from a locked (within an interchromosomal Sox-2 enhancer/CCCTC-binding factor CTCF/cohesin loop) to an active (within an intra-chromosomal Sox-17 promoter/enhancer/cohesin loop) state. SALL4 concomitantly mobilizes the polycomb complexes at the Soxs loci. Thus, OCT4/SALL4-driven cohesin- and polycombs-mediated changes in higher-order chromatin structure mediate instruction of early cell fate in embryonic cells. PMID:25851587

  18. Structural Mechanism behind Distinct Efficiency of Oct4/Sox2 Proteins in Differentially Spaced DNA Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Yesudhas, Dhanusha; Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Panneerselvam, Suresh; Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Shah, Masaud; Choi, Sangdun

    2016-01-01

    The octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (Sox2) proteins induce various transcriptional regulators to maintain cellular pluripotency. Most Oct4/Sox2 complexes have either 0 base pairs (Oct4/Sox20bp) or 3 base pairs (Oct4/Sox23bp) separation between their DNA-binding sites. Results from previous biochemical studies have shown that the complexes separated by 0 base pairs are associated with a higher pluripotency rate than those separated by 3 base pairs. Here, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and calculations to determine the binding free energy and per-residue free energy for the Oct4/Sox20bp and Oct4/Sox23bp complexes to identify structural differences that contribute to differences in induction rate. Our MD simulation results showed substantial differences in Oct4/Sox2 domain movements, as well as secondary-structure changes in the Oct4 linker region, suggesting a potential reason underlying the distinct efficiencies of these complexes during reprogramming. Moreover, we identified key residues and hydrogen bonds that potentially facilitate protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, in agreement with previous experimental findings. Consequently, our results confess that differential spacing of the Oct4/Sox2 DNA binding sites can determine the magnitude of transcription of the targeted genes during reprogramming. PMID:26790000

  19. [SOX10 mutation is relevant to inner ear malformation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Xu, G Y; Hao, Q Q; Zhong, L L; Ren, W; Yan, Y; Liu, R Y; Li, J N; Guo, W W; Zhao, H; Yang, S M

    2016-11-07

    Objective: To determine the relevance between the SOX10 mutation and Waardenburg syndrome (WS) accompanied with inner ear abnormality by analyzing the inner ear imaging results and molecular and genetic results of the WS patients with the SOX10 mutation. Methods: This study included 36 WS in patients during 2001 and 2015 in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery, Chinese Peoples's Liberation Army General Hospital. The condition of the inner ear of each patient was assessed by analyzing HRCT scans of the temporal bone and MRI scans of the brain and internal auditory canal. Meanwhile, the possible pathogenic genes of WS, including SOX10, MITF, and PAX3, were also screened. Patients were divided into two groups according to SOX10 mutation.The Fisher accuracy test was used to determine statistical difference of inner ear deformation incidence between the two groups. Results: Among all 36 patients, 12 were found to have inner ear abnormality. Most abnormalities were posterior semicircular canal deformations, some accompanied with cochlear deformation and an enlarged vestibule. Among all patients, 9 patients were SOX10 heterozygous mutation carriers, among which six showed bilateral inner ear abnormality. Fisher accuracy test results suggested a significant correlation between the SOX10 mutation and inner ear abnormality in WS patients (P=0.036). Conclusion: This study found that WS patients with the SOX10 mutation are more likely to have deformed inner ears when compared to WS patients without the SOX10 mutation.

  20. SOX7 Is Required for Muscle Satellite Cell Development and Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rajgara, Rashida F; Lala-Tabbert, Neena; Marchildon, François; Lamarche, Émilie; MacDonald, Jennifer K; Scott, Daryl A; Blais, Alexandre; Skerjanc, Ilona S; Wiper-Bergeron, Nadine

    2017-10-10

    Satellite cells are skeletal-muscle-specific stem cells that are activated by injury to proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to enable repair. SOX7, a member of the SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors is expressed in quiescent satellite cells. To elucidate SOX7 function in skeletal muscle, we knocked down Sox7 expression in embryonic stem cells and primary myoblasts and generated a conditional knockout mouse in which Sox7 is excised in PAX3(+) cells. Loss of Sox7 in embryonic stem cells reduced Pax3 and Pax7 expression. In vivo, conditional knockdown of Sox7 reduced the satellite cell population from birth, reduced myofiber caliber, and impaired regeneration after acute injury. Although Sox7-deficient primary myoblasts differentiated normally, impaired myoblast fusion and increased sensitivity to apoptosis in culture and in vivo were observed. Taken together, these results indicate that SOX7 is dispensable for myogenesis but is necessary to promote satellite cell development and survival. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression and functional role of Sox9 in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ge; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Li, Zhengjun; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Park, Young Min; Kim, Jin-Hwa; Fan, Yi-Ming; Nam, Yong Hee; Kim, Sooyeon; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the expression and putative role of Sox9 in epidermal keratinocyte. Immunohistochemical staining showed that Sox9 is predominantly expressed in the basal layer of normal human skin epidermis, and highly expressed in several skin diseases including psoriasis, basal cell carcinoma, keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma. In calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation model, the expression of Sox9 was decreased in a time dependent manner. When Sox9 was overexpressed using a recombinant adenovirus, cell growth was enhanced, while the expression of differentiation-related genes such as loricrin and involucrin was markedly decreased. Similarly, when rat skin was intradermally injected with the adenovirus expressing Sox9, the epidermis was thickened with increase of PCNA positive cells, while the epidermal differentiation was decreased. Finally, UVB irradiation induced Sox9 expression in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes, and keratinocytes are protected from UVB-induced apoptosis by Sox9 overexpression. Together, these results suggest that Sox9 is an important regulator of epidermal keratinocytes with putative pro-proliferation and/or pro-survival functions, and may be related to several cutaneous diseases that are characterized by abnormal differentiation and hyperproliferation.

  2. A Model for Dimerization of the SOX Group E Transcription Factor Family.

    PubMed

    Ramsook, Sarah N; Ni, Joyce; Shahangian, Shokofeh; Vakiloroayaei, Ana; Khan, Naveen; Kwan, Jamie J; Donaldson, Logan W

    2016-01-01

    Group E members of the SOX transcription factor family include SOX8, SOX9, and SOX10. Preceding the high mobility group (HMG) domain in each of these proteins is a thirty-eight amino acid region that supports the formation of dimers on promoters containing tandemly inverted sites. The purpose of this study was to obtain new structural insights into how the dimerization region functions with the HMG domain. From a mutagenic scan of the dimerization region, the most essential amino acids of the dimerization region were clustered on the hydrophobic face of a single, predicted amphipathic helix. Consistent with our hypothesis that the dimerization region directly contacts the HMG domain, a peptide corresponding to the dimerization region bound a preassembled HMG-DNA complex. Sequence conservation among Group E members served as a basis to identify two surface exposed amino acids in the HMG domain of SOX9 that were necessary for dimerization. These data were combined to make a molecular model that places the dimerization region of one SOX9 protein onto the HMG domain of another SOX9 protein situated at the opposing site of a tandem promoter. The model provides a detailed foundation for assessing the impact of mutations on SOX Group E transcription factors.

  3. SOX4 induces tumor invasion by targeting EMT-related pathway in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifan; Zeng, Shan; Jiang, Xianhan; Lai, Dehui; Su, Zhengming

    2017-05-01

    SOX4 (sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility group box 4) is associated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcome in several cancers. This study aims to evaluate whether SOX4 affects the biological behaviors of prostate cancer and further elucidate whether this effect works through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway. We investigated the expression of SOX4 in a series of prostate cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues, as well as in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were evaluated in SOX4 knockdown prostate cancer cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Transwell assay. Our results showed that the expression of SOX4 was remarkably upregulated both in prostate cancer tissues and in cell lines. Knockdown of SOX4 repressed the ability of cell proliferation and migration of DU145 cells. Moreover, inhibition of SOX4 could reverse the epithelial-mesenchymal transition processes through upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of vimentin. This study provided evidence that SOX4 could serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

  4. Primate DAX1, SRY, and SOX9: Evolutionary Stratification of Sex-Determination Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Megha; Dorman, Karin S.; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Huang, Bing-Ling; Arnold, Arthur P.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Vilain, Eric; McCabe, Edward R. B.

    2001-01-01

    The molecular evolution of DAX1, SRY, and SOX9, genes involved in mammalian sex determination, was examined in six primate species. DAX1 and SRY have been added to the X and Y chromosomes, respectively, during mammalian evolution, whereas SOX9 remains autosomal. We determined the genomic sequences of DAX1, SRY, and SOX9 in all six species, and calculated Ka, the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site, and compared this with the Ks, the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by means of the DAX1, SRY, and SOX9 coding sequences, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using maximum likelihood. Overall measures of gene and protein similarity were closer for DAX1 and SOX9, but DAX1 exhibited nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions at an accelerated frequency relative to synonymous changes, similar to SRY and significantly higher than SOX9. We conclude that, at the protein level, DAX1 and SRY are under less selective pressure to remain conserved than SOX9, and, therefore, diverge more across species than does SOX9. These results are consistent with evolutionary stratification of the mammalian sex determination pathway, analogous to that for sex chromosomes. PMID:11112659

  5. SOX10 induced Nestin expression regulates cancer stem cell properties of TNBC cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wen; Liu, Sihai; Zhu, Ruixia; Li, Baojian; Zhu, Zhu; Yang, Jinshan; Song, Chunhui

    2017-04-01

    The mechanisms modulating the cancer stem cell (CSC) properties of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells were not fully understood. In this study, we performed data mining in Breast Cancer Gene-Expression Miner v4.0 and found that TNBC tumors had significantly higher NES mRNA expression than other breast cancer subtypes. Pooled data suggested that NES mRNA expression is associated worse metastatic relapse (MR) free survival and also worse any event (AE) free survival in TNBC patients. Following data mining in multiple big data databases confirmed a positive correlation between SOX10 mRNA expression and NES mRNA expression in breast cancer tissues. In addition, the expression of SOX10 mRNA is significantly higher in TNBC tissues than in other breast cancer subtypes. SOX10 overexpression resulted in Nestin upregulation at both mRNA and protein levels. Bioinformatic analysis predicted a SOX10 binding site in NES promoter and the following dual luciferase assay verified the binding site. Functionally, SOX10 overexpression substantially increased CSC properties of TNBC cells, while SOX10 knockdown decreased the CSC properties, in terms of CD24(-)/CD44(+) cell ratio and tumorsphere-forming capabilities. Enforced Nestin expression partly counteracted the effect of SOX10 knockdown on reducing the CSC properties. Based on these findings, we infer that SOX10 regulates cancer stem cell properties of TNBC cells via inducing Nestin expression.

  6. Sox10+ adult stem cells contribute to biomaterial encapsulation and microvascularization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Aijun; Wu, Fan; Qiu, Xuefeng; Li, Ye; Chu, Julia; Huang, Wen-Chin; Xu, Kang; Gong, Xiaohua; Li, Song

    2017-01-01

    Implanted biomaterials and biomedical devices generally induce foreign body reaction and end up with encapsulation by a dense avascular fibrous layer enriched in extracellular matrix. Fibroblasts/myofibroblasts are thought to be the major cell type involved in encapsulation, but it is unclear whether and how stem cells contribute to this process. Here we show, for the first time, that Sox10+ adult stem cells contribute to both encapsulation and microvessel formation. Sox10+ adult stem cells were found sparsely in the stroma of subcutaneous loose connective tissues. Upon subcutaneous biomaterial implantation, Sox10+ stem cells were activated and recruited to the biomaterial scaffold, and differentiated into fibroblasts and then myofibroblasts. This differentiation process from Sox10+ stem cells to myofibroblasts could be recapitulated in vitro. On the other hand, Sox10+ stem cells could differentiate into perivascular cells to stabilize newly formed microvessels. Sox10+ stem cells and endothelial cells in three-dimensional co-culture self-assembled into microvessels, and platelet-derived growth factor had chemotactic effect on Sox10+ stem cells. Transplanted Sox10+ stem cells differentiated into smooth muscle cells to stabilize functional microvessels. These findings demonstrate the critical role of adult stem cells in tissue remodeling and unravel the complexity of stem cell fate determination. PMID:28071739

  7. Cloning and study of adult-tissue-specific expression of Sox9 in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-Yan; Wang, Feng-Yu; Hua, Hui-Ying; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2007-08-01

    The Sox9 gene is one of the important transcription factors in the development of many tissues and organs, particularly in sex determination and chondrogenesis. We amplified the genomic DNA of Cyprinus carpio using degenerate primers, and found that there were two versions of Sox9 in this species: Sox9a and Sox9b, that differ in having an intron of different length (704 bp and 616 bp, respectively) in the conserved HMG box region that codes for identical amino acid sequences. We used a two-phase rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for the isolation of full-length cDNA of Sox9b. Sequence analyses revealed a 2447-bp cDNA containing 233-bp 5' untranslated region, a 927-bp 3' untranslated region, including poly(A), and a 1287 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 428 amino acids. The HMG box of 79 amino acid motif was confirmed from positions 96-174. Sequence alignment showed that the identity of amino acids of Sox9 among ten animal species, including C. carpio, is 75%, indicating that the Sox9 gene is evolutionarily quite conserved. The expression level of Sox9b gene varied among several organs of adult C. carpio, with the level of expression being highest in the brain and testis.

  8. SOX9-mediated upregulation of LGR5 is important for glioblastoma tumorigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraoka, Koji; Hayashi, Tomoatsu; Kaneko, Ryusuke; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Koyama-Nasu, Ryo; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2015-05-01

    LGR5 plays an important role in the self-renewal of stem cells and is used as a marker identifying self-renewing stem cells in small intestine and hair follicles. Moreover, LGR5 has been reported to be overexpressed in several cancers. SOX9 is a transcription factor that plays a key role in development, differentiation and lineage commitment in various tissues. It has also been reported that SOX9 is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and contributes to their malignant phenotype. Here we show that LGR5 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. We further show that SOX9 is upregulated in glioblastoma cells and directly enhances the expression of LGR5. We also demonstrate that knockdown of SOX9 suppresses the proliferation and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. These results suggest that SOX9-mediated transcriptional regulation of LGR5 is critical for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. We speculate that the SOX9-LGR5 pathway could be a potentially promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • LGR5 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. • SOX9 directly enhances the expression of LGR5. • SOX9 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells.

  9. Identification of novel mutations and sequence variants in the SOX2 and CHX10 genes in patients with anophthalmia/microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Kherani, Femida; Bardakjian, Tanya M; Katowitz, James; Hughes, Nkecha; Schimmenti, Lisa A; Schneider, Adele; Young, Terri L

    2008-03-24

    Mutations in the SOX2 and CHX10 genes have been reported in patients with anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia. In this study, we evaluated 34 anophthalmic/microphthalmic patient DNA samples (two sets of siblings included) for mutations and sequence variants in SOX2 and CHX10. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) was used for the initial SOX2 and CHX10 screening of 34 affected individuals (two sets of siblings), five unaffected family members, and 80 healthy controls. Patient samples containing heteroduplexes were selected for sequence analysis. Base pair changes in SOX2 and CHX10 were confirmed by sequencing bidirectionally in patient samples. Two novel heterozygous mutations and two sequence variants (one known) in SOX2 were identified in this cohort. Mutation c.310 G>T (p. Glu104X), found in one patient, was in the region encoding the high mobility group (HMG) DNA-binding domain and resulted in a change from glutamic acid to a stop codon. The second mutation, noted in two affected siblings, was a single nucleotide deletion c.549delC (p. Pro184ArgfsX19) in the region encoding the activation domain, resulting in a frameshift and premature termination of the coding sequence. The shortened protein products may result in the loss of function. In addition, a novel nucleotide substitution c.*557G>A was identified in the 3'-untranslated region in one patient. The relationship between the nucleotide change and the protein function is indeterminate. A known single nucleotide polymorphism (c. *469 C>A, SNP rs11915160) was also detected in 2 of the 34 patients. Screening of CHX10 identified two synonymous sequence variants, c.471 C>T (p.Ser157Ser, rs35435463) and c.579 G>A (p. Gln193Gln, novel SNP), and one non-synonymous sequence variant, c.871 G>A (p. Asp291Asn, novel SNP). The non-synonymous polymorphism was also present in healthy controls, suggesting non-causality. These results support the role of SOX2 in ocular development. Loss of SOX2 function results

  10. A soxA Gene, Encoding a Diheme Cytochrome c, and a sox Locus, Essential for Sulfur Oxidation in a New Sulfur Lithotrophic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap N.; Deb, Chirajyoti; Lahiri, Chandrajit; Roy, Pradosh

    2000-01-01

    A mobilizable suicide vector, pSUP5011, was used to introduce Tn5-mob in a new facultative sulfur lithotrophic bacterium, KCT001, to generate mutants defective in sulfur oxidation (Sox−). The Sox− mutants were unable to oxidize thiosulfate while grown mixotrophically in the presence of thiosulfate and succinate. The mutants were also impaired in oxidizing other reduced sulfur compounds and elemental sulfur as evident from the study of substrate oxidation by the whole cells. Sulfite oxidase activity was significantly diminished in the cell extracts of all the mutants. A soxA gene was identified from the transposon-adjacent genomic DNA of a Sox− mutant strain. The sequence analysis revealed that the soxA open reading frame (ORF) is preceded by a potential ribosome binding site and promoter region with −10- and −35-like sequences. The deduced nucleotide sequence of the soxA gene was predicted to code for a protein of 286 amino acids. It had a signal peptide of 26 N-terminal amino acids. The amino acid sequence showed similarity with a putative gene product of Aquifex aeolicus, soluble cytochrome c551 of Chlorobium limicola, and the available partial SoxA sequence of Paracoccus denitrificans. The soxA-encoded product seems to be a diheme cytochrome c for KCT001 and A. aeolicus, but the amino acid sequence of C. limicola cytochrome c551 revealed a single heme-binding region. Another transposon insertion mutation was mapped within the soxA ORF. Four other independent transposon insertion mutations were mapped in the 4.4-kb soxA contiguous genomic DNA region. The results thus suggest that a sox locus of KCT001, essential for sulfur oxidation, was affected by all these six independent insertion mutations. PMID:10894738

  11. The SOX17/miR-371-5p/SOX2 axis inhibits EMT, stem cell properties and metastasis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuling; Lv, Zhenbing; He, Guoyang; Wang, Jianmei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Lu, Guifeng; Ren, Xiaoli; Wang, Feifei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Ding, Yi; Liao, Wenting; Ding, Yanqing; Liang, Li

    2015-04-20

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and EMT-type cells, which share molecular characteristics with CSCs, have been believed to play critical roles in tumor metastasis. Although much progress has been garnered in elucidating the molecular pathways that trigger EMT, stemness and metastasis, a number of key mechanistic gaps remain elusive. In the study, miR-371-5p was obviously down-regulated in primary CRC tissues compared with matched adjacent normal mucosa and correlated significantly with differentiation, tumor size, lymphatic and liver metastases. MiR-371-5p could attenuate proliferation, invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo in CRC cells. It also suppressed EMT by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling and strongly decreased the CRC stemness phenotypes. Moreover, demethylation of SOX17 induced miR-371-5p expression and consequently suppressed its direct target SOX2 in CRC cells. MiR-371-5p was necessary for SOX17 mediated cancer-related traits and SOX2 was a functional target of miR-371-5p. A positive relationship between SOX17 and miR-371-5p expression and a negative one between miR-371-5p and SOX2 expression were observed in CRC cell lines and tissues. In conclusion, we identified miR-371-5p as an important "oncosuppressor" in CRC progression and elucidated a novel mechanism of the SOX17/miR-371-5p/SOX2 axis in the regulation of EMT, stemness and metastasis, which may be a potential therapeutic target.

  12. Sulfite leads to neuron loss in the hippocampus of both normal and SOX-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Kocamaz, Erdogan; Adiguzel, Esat; Er, Buket; Gundogdu, Gulşah; Kucukatay, Vural

    2012-08-01

    Sulfites are compounds commonly used as preservatives in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals. Sulfite is also endogenously generated during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and drugs. It has been shown that sulfite is a highly toxic molecule. Many studies have examined the effects of sulfite toxicity, but the effect of ingested sulfite on the number of neurons in the hippocampus has not yet been reported. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ingested sulfite on pyramidal neurons by counting cells in CA1 and CA3-2 subdivisions of the rat hippocampus. For this purpose, rats were assigned to one of four groups (6 rats per group): control (C), sulfite (S), deficient (D) and deficient+sulfite (DS). Sulfite oxidase deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding 200ppm tungsten (W) to their drinking water. Sulfite (70mg/kg) was also administered to the animals via their drinking water. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed by exsanguination under anesthesia, and their brains and livers quickly removed. The livers were used for a SOX activity assay, and the brains were used for neuronal counts in a known fraction of the CA1 and CA3-2 subdivisions of the left hippocampus using the optical fractionator method, which is a stereological method. The results showed that sulfite treatment caused a significant decrease in the total number of pyramidal neurons in three subdivisions of the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3-2) in the S, D and DS groups compared with the control group. It is concluded that exogenous administration of sulfite causes loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3-2 subdivisions in both normal and SOX deficient rat hippocampus. This finding provides supporting evidence that sulfite is a neurotoxic molecule.

  13. Function of Sox2 in ependymal cells of lesioned spinal cords in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ogai, Kazuhiro; Nakatani, Kumi; Hisano, Suguru; Sugitani, Kayo; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Kato, Satoru

    2014-11-01

    The sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) is related not only to pluripotency, but also to cell proliferation. Zebrafish can regain their motor function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Following SCI, new motor neurons are produced from proliferating ependymal cells. Here, we investigated the expression and function of Sox2 after SCI in zebrafish. Sox2 was upregulated as early as 1 day post-lesion (dpl) in ependymal cells, which was followed by cell proliferation. Sox2 knockdown significantly decreased the number of proliferating cells at 5dpl. The results of this study suggest a role of Sox2 as one of the proliferation initiators in ependymal cells after SCI.

  14. Sox17 is indispensable for acquisition and maintenance of arterial identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corada, Monica; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Morini, Marco Francesco; Pitulescu, Mara Elena; Bhat, Ganesh; Nyqvist, Daniel; Breviario, Ferruccio; Conti, Valentina; Briot, Anais; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Adams, Ralf H.; Dejana, Elisabetta

    2013-10-01

    The functional diversity of the arterial and venous endothelia is regulated through a complex system of signalling pathways and downstream transcription factors. Here we report that the transcription factor Sox17, which is known as a regulator of endoderm and hemopoietic differentiation, is selectively expressed in arteries, and not in veins, in the mouse embryo and in mouse postnatal retina and adult. Endothelial cell-specific inactivation of Sox17 in the mouse embryo is accompanied by a lack of arterial differentiation and vascular remodelling that results in embryo death in utero. In mouse postnatal retina, abrogation of Sox17 expression in endothelial cells leads to strong vascular hypersprouting, loss of arterial identity and large arteriovenous malformations. Mechanistically, Sox17 acts upstream of the Notch system and downstream of the canonical Wnt system. These data introduce Sox17 as a component of the complex signalling network that orchestrates arterial/venous specification.

  15. Pairing-up SOX to kick-start beta cell genesis.

    PubMed

    Grapin-Botton, Anne; Seymour, Philip Allan; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2015-05-01

    The transcription factor SOX9 is regarded as a crucial player in pancreas development, both maintaining progenitors and later being required for beta cell differentiation. However, very little is known about the possible involvement of other SOX family members in such processes. In this issue, the work of Xu et al (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3507-x ) shines a spotlight on SOX4, revealing this factor to be a major player in the beta cell program. Using conditional inactivation in mice, they show that SOX4 shares some functions in progenitors with SOX9, but also plays a distinct role at a later stage of development, during the maturation of endocrine cells. This information is timely as this final maturation process is currently the most challenging to reproduce in vitro when coaxing pluripotent stem cells to convert into beta cells.

  16. Effects of mutations in active site heme ligands on the spectroscopic and catalytic properties of SoxAX cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Kilmartin, James R; Bernhardt, Paul V; Dhouib, Rabeb; Hanson, Graeme R; Riley, Mark J; Kappler, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    By attaching a sulfur substrate to a conserved cysteine of the SoxYZ carrier protein SoxAX cytochromes initiate the reaction cycle of the Sox (sulfur oxidation) multienzyme complex, which is the major pathway for microbial reoxidation of sulfur compounds in the environment. Despite their important role in this process, the reaction mechanism of the SoxAX cytochromes has not been fully elucidated. Here we report the effects of several active site mutations on the spectroscopic and enzymatic properties of the type II SoxAX protein from Starkeya novella, which in addition to two heme groups also contains a Cu redox centre. All substituted proteins contained these redox centres except for His231Ala which was unable to bind Cu(II). Substitution of the SoxA active site heme cysteine ligand with histidine resulted in increased microheterogeneity around the SoxA heme as determined by CW-EPR, while a SnSoxAX(C236A) substituted protein revealed a completely new, nitrogenous SoxA heme ligand. The same novel ligand was present in SnSoxAX(H231A) CW-EPR spectra, the first time that a ligand switch of the SoxA heme involving a nearby amino acid has been demonstrated. Kinetically, SnSoxAX(C236A) and SnSoxAX(C236H) showed reduced turnover, and in assays containing SoxYZ these mutants retained only ~25% of the wildtype activity. Together, these data indicate that the Cu redox centre can mediate a low level of activity, and that a possible ligand switch can occur during catalysis. It also appears that the SoxA heme cysteine ligand (and possibly the low redox potential) is important for an efficient reaction with SnSoxYZ/thiosulfate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sox2 and Pax6 Play Counteracting Roles in Regulating Neurogenesis within the Murine Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Adam I.; Lin, Brian; Schwob, James E.

    2016-01-01

    In the adult olfactory epithelium, the transcription factors Pax6 and Sox2 are co-expressed in sustentacular cells, horizontal basal cells (HBCs), and less-differentiated globose basal cells (GBCs)–both multipotent and transit amplifying categories—but are absent from immediate neuronal precursor GBCs and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). We used retroviral-vector transduction to over-express Pax6 and Sox2 individually and together during post-lesion recovery to determine how they regulate neuronal differentiation. Both Pax6 and Sox2, separately and together, can suppress the production of OSNs, as fewer clones contain neurons than with empty vector (EV), although this effect is not absolute. In this regard, Pax6 has the strongest effect when acting alone. In clones where neurons form, Pax6 reduces neuron numbers by comparison with EV, while Sox2 expands their numbers. Co-transduction with Pax6 and Sox2 produces an intermediate result. The increased production of OSNs driven by Sox2 is due to the expansion of neuronal progenitors, since proliferation and the numbers of Ascl1, Neurog1, and NeuroD1-expressing GBCs are increased. Conversely, Pax6 seems to accelerate neuronal differentiation, since Ascl1 labeling is reduced, while Neurog1- and NeuroD1-labeled GBCs are enriched. As a complement to the over-expression experiments, elimination of Sox2 in spared cells of floxed Sox2 mice, by retroviral Cre or by K5-driven CreERT2, reduces the production of OSNs and non-neuronal cells during OE regeneration. These data suggest that Pax6 and Sox2 have counteracting roles in regulating neurogenesis, in which Pax6 accelerates neuronal production, while Sox2 retards it and expands the pool of neuronal progenitors. PMID:27171428

  18. Regeneration of Xenopus laevis spinal cord requires Sox2/3 expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Rosana; Edwards-Faret, Gabriela; Moreno, Mauricio; Zuñiga, Nikole; Cline, Hollis; Larraín, Juan

    2015-12-15

    Spinal cord regeneration is very inefficient in humans, causing paraplegia and quadriplegia. Studying model organisms that can regenerate the spinal cord in response to injury could be useful for understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain why this process fails in humans. Here, we use Xenopus laevis as a model organism to study spinal cord repair. Histological and functional analyses showed that larvae at pre-metamorphic stages restore anatomical continuity of the spinal cord and recover swimming after complete spinal cord transection. These regenerative capabilities decrease with onset of metamorphosis. The ability to study regenerative and non-regenerative stages in Xenopus laevis makes it a unique model system to study regeneration. We studied the response of Sox2(/)3 expressing cells to spinal cord injury and their function in the regenerative process. We found that cells expressing Sox2 and/or Sox3 are present in the ventricular zone of regenerative animals and decrease in non-regenerative froglets. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) experiments and in vivo time-lapse imaging studies using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Sox3 promoter showed a rapid, transient and massive proliferation of Sox2(/)3(+) cells in response to injury in the regenerative stages. The in vivo imaging also demonstrated that Sox2(/)3(+) neural progenitor cells generate neurons in response to injury. In contrast, these cells showed a delayed and very limited response in non-regenerative froglets. Sox2 knockdown and overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 disrupts locomotor and anatomical-histological recovery. We also found that neurogenesis markers increase in response to injury in regenerative but not in non-regenerative animals. We conclude that Sox2 is necessary for spinal cord regeneration and suggest a model whereby spinal cord injury activates proliferation of Sox2/3 expressing cells and their differentiation into neurons, a mechanism

  19. EXPRESSION OF PAX6 AND SOX2 IN ADULT OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhen; Packard, Adam; Krolewski, Richard C.; Harris, Margaret T.; Manglapus, Glen L.; Schwob, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium maintains stem and progenitor cells that support the neuroepithelium’s life-long capacity to reconstitute after injury. However, the identity of the stem cells – and their regulation – remain poorly defined. The transcription factors Pax6 and Sox2 are characteristic of stem cells in many tissues, including the brain. Therefore, we assessed the expression of Pax6 and Sox2 in normal olfactory epithelium and during epithelial regeneration after methyl bromide lesion or olfactory bulbectomy. Sox2 is found in multiple kinds of cells in normal epithelium, including sustentacular cells, horizontal basal cells, and some globose basal cells. Pax6 is co-expressed with Sox2 in all these, but is also found in duct/gland cells as well as olfactory neurons that innervate necklace glomeruli. Most of the Sox2/Pax6-positive globose basal cells are actively cycling, but some express the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1, and are presumably mitotically quiescent. Among globose basal cells, Sox2 and Pax6 are co-expressed by putatively multipotent progenitors (labeled by neither anti-Mash1 nor anti-Neurog1) and neuron-committed transit amplifying cells (which express Mash1). However, Sox2 and Pax6 are expressed by only a minority of immediate neuronal precursors (Neurog1- and NeuroD1-expressing). The assignment of Sox2 and Pax6 to these categories of globose basal cells is confirmed by a temporal analysis of transcription factor expression during the recovery of the epithelium from methyl bromide-induced injury. Each of the Sox2/Pax6-colabeled cell types is at a remove from the birth of neurons; thus, suppressing their differentiation may be among the roles of Sox2/Pax6 in the olfactory epithelium. PMID:20852734

  20. Sry-Independent Overexpression of Sox9 Supports Spermatogenesis and Fertility in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Egle A; Ruthig, Victor A; Ward, Monika A

    2015-12-01

    The Y chromosome gene Sry is responsible for sex determination in mammals and initiates a cascade of events that direct differentiation of bipotential genital ridges toward male-specific fate. Sox9 is an autosomal gene and a primary downstream target of SRY. The activation of Sox9 in the absence of Sry is sufficient for initiation of male-specific sex determination. Sry-to-Sox9 replacement has mostly been studied in the context of sex determination during early embryogenesis. Here, we tested whether Sry-to-Sox9 replacement affects male fertility in adulthood. We examined males with the Y chromosome carrying a deletion removing the endogenous Sry, with testes determination driven either by the Sox9 (XY(Tdym1)Sox9) or the Sry (XY(Tdym1)Sry) transgenes as well as wild-type males (XY). XY(Tdym1)Sox9 males had reduced testes size, altered testes shape and vasculature, and increased incidence of defects in seminiferous epithelium underlying the coelomic blood vessel region when compared to XY(Tdym1)Sry and XY. There were no differences between XY(Tdym1)Sry and XY(Tdym1)Sox9 males in respect to sperm number, motility, morphology, and ability to fertilize oocytes in vitro, but for some parameters, transgenic males were impaired when compared to XY. In fecundity trials, XY(Tdym1)Sry, XY(Tdym1)Sox9, and XY males yielded similar average numbers of pups and litters. Overall, our findings support that males lacking the testis determinant Sry can be fertile and reinforce the notion that Sry does not play a role in mature gonads. Although transgenic Sox9 overexpression in the absence of Sry results in certain testicular abnormalities, it does not translate into fertility impairment.

  1. Regeneration of Xenopus laevis spinal cord requires Sox2/3 expressing cells

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Rosana; Edwards-Faret, Gabriela; Moreno, Mauricio; Zuñiga, Nikole; Cline, Hollis; Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord regeneration is very inefficient in humans, causing paraplegia and quadriplegia. Studying model organisms that can regenerate the spinal cord in response to injury could be useful for understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain why this process fails in humans. Here, we use Xenopus laevis as a model organism to study spinal cord repair. Histological and functional analyses showed that larvae at pre-metamorphic stages restore anatomical continuity of the spinal cord and recover swimming after complete spinal cord transection. These regenerative capabilities decrease with onset of metamorphosis. The ability to study regenerative and non-regenerative stages in Xenopus laevis makes it a unique model system to study regeneration. We studied the response of Sox2/3 expressing cells to spinal cord injury and their function in the regenerative process. We found that cells expressing Sox2 and/or Sox3 are present in the ventricular zone of regenerative animals and decrease in non-regenerative froglets. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) experiments and in vivo time-lapse imaging studies using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Sox3 promoter showed a rapid, transient and massive proliferation of Sox2/3+ cells in response to injury in the regenerative stages. The in vivo imaging also demonstrated that Sox2/3+ neural progenitor cells generate neurons in response to injury. In contrast, these cells showed a delayed and very limited response in non-regenerative froglets. Sox2 knockdown and overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 disrupts locomotor and anatomical-histological recovery. We also found that neurogenesis markers increase in response to injury in regenerative but not in non-regenerative animals. We conclude that Sox2 is necessary for spinal cord regeneration and suggest a model whereby spinal cord injury activates proliferation of Sox2/3 expressing cells and their differentiation into neurons, a mechanism that is

  2. Sox9 modulates cell survival and adipogenic differentiation of multipotent adult rat mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Sabine; Bauer, Richard J; Bosserhoff, Anja K; Göttl, Claudia; Grifka, Joachim; Grässel, Susanne

    2013-07-01

    Sox9 is a key transcription factor in early chondrogenesis with distinct roles in differentiation processes and during embryonic development. Here, we report that Sox9 modulates cell survival and contributes to the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation lineages. We found that the Sox9 activity level affects the expression of the key transcription factor in adipogenic differentiation, C/EBPβ, and that cyclin D1 mediates the expression of the osteogenic marker osteocalcin in undifferentiated adult bone-marrow-derived rat MSC. Introducing a stable Sox9 knockdown into undifferentiated rat MSC resulted in a marked decrease in proliferation rate and an increase in apoptotic activity. This was linked to a profound upregulation of p21 and cyclin D1 gene and protein expression accompanied by an induction of caspase 3/7 activity and an inhibition of Bcl-2. We observed that Sox9 silencing provoked a delayed S-phase progression and an increased nuclear localization of p21. The protein stability of cyclin D1 was induced in the absence of Sox9 presumably as a function of altered p38 signalling. In addition, the major transcription factor for adipogenic differentiation, C/EBPβ, was repressed after silencing Sox9. The nearly complete absence of C/EBPβ protein as a result of increased destabilization of the C/EBPβ mRNA and the impact on osteocalcin gene expression and protein synthesis, suggests that a delicate balance of Sox9 level is not only imperative for proper chondrogenic differentiation of progenitor cells, but also affects the adipogenic and probably osteogenic differentiation pathways of MSC. Our results identified Sox9 as an important link between differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis in undifferentiated adult rat mesenchymal stem cells, emphasizing the importance of the delicate balance of a precisely regulated Sox9 activity in MSC not only for proper skeletal development during embryogenesis but probably also

  3. Direct Oxidation of the [2Fe-2S] Cluster in SoxR Protein by Superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Mayu; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The [2Fe-2S] transcription factor SoxR is activated by reversible one-electron oxidation of its [2Fe-2S] cluster, leading to enhanced production of various antioxidant proteins through induction of the soxRS regulon in Escherichia coli. Recently, there has been considerable debate about whether superoxide (O2˙̄) activates SoxR directly. To elucidate the underlying activation mechanism, we investigated SoxR interaction with O2˙̄ using pulse radiolysis. Radiolytically generated hydrated electrons reduced the oxidized form of the [2Fe-2S] cluster of SoxR within 2 μs. A subsequent increase in absorption in the visible region corresponding to reoxidation of the [2Fe-2S] cluster was observed on a time scale of milliseconds. Addition of human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase inhibited this delayed oxidation in a concentration-dependent fashion (I50 = 1.0 μm), indicating that O2˙̄ oxidized the reduced form of SoxR directly. The second-order rate constant of this process was estimated to be 5 × 108 m−1 s−1. A similar result was observed after pulse radiolysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa SoxR. However, superoxide dismutase inhibited the oxidation of reduced SoxR much more effectively in P. aeruginosa, even at a lower concentration (I50 = 80 nm), indicating that the soxRS response is much more sensitive to O2˙̄ in E. coli than in P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that SoxR proteins play a distinct regulatory role in the activation of O2˙̄. PMID:22908228

  4. Using Transmission Control Protocol in the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Satellite Communication Experiment - the Next Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, E.

    1998-01-01

    Ths paper describes a future Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) test which was planned as a part of the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Satellite Communications Experiment. The TCP test portion of the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Satellite Communications Experiment intends to examine the correlation between the underlying assumptions of come TCP algorithms and the performance shortfalls observed when the algorithms are used in a stellite-based environment, and to make experimental changes to existing TCP variants to study the effects of the modifications.

  5. Parallel Expansions of Sox Transcription Factor Group B Predating the Diversifications of the Arthropods and Jawed Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lei; Wang, Dengqiang; Gan, Xiaoni; Yang, Tong; He, Shunping

    2011-01-01

    Group B of the Sox transcription factor family is crucial in embryo development in the insects and vertebrates. Sox group B, unlike the other Sox groups, has an unusually enlarged functional repertoire in insects, but the timing and mechanism of the expansion of this group were unclear. We collected and analyzed data for Sox group B from 36 species of 12 phyla representing the major metazoan clades, with an emphasis on arthropods, to reconstruct the evolutionary history of SoxB in bilaterians and to date the expansion of Sox group B in insects. We found that the genome of the bilaterian last common ancestor probably contained one SoxB1 and one SoxB2 gene only and that tandem duplications of SoxB2 occurred before the arthropod diversification but after the arthropod-nematode divergence, resulting in the basal repertoire of Sox group B in diverse arthropod lineages. The arthropod Sox group B repertoire expanded differently from the vertebrate repertoire, which resulted from genome duplications. The parallel increases in the Sox group B repertoires of the arthropods and vertebrates are consistent with the parallel increases in the complexity and diversification of these two important organismal groups. PMID:21305035

  6. SOX4 contributes to the progression of cervical cancer and the resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug through ABCG2

    PubMed Central

    Sun, R; Jiang, B; Qi, H; Zhang, X; Yang, J; Duan, J; Li, Y; Li, G

    2015-01-01

    SOX4, a member of the SOX (sex-determining region Y-related HMG box) transcription factor family, has been reported to be abnormally expressed in a wide variety of cancers, and to exert a pleiotropic function. However, its function in progression of cervical cancer (CC) remains unknown. In this study, we found that SOX4 was highly expressed in CC cells and tissues, and overexpression of SOX4 in CC CaSki cells enhanced tumor clone formation and cell proliferation, and accelerated cell cycle progress. Meanwhile, downregulation of SOX4 by shRNA in CaSki cells inhibited cell proliferation, and slowed cell cycle progress, indicating that SOX4 contributes to the development of CC. In addition, SOX4 overexpression by gene transfer reduced the sensitivity of CaSki cells in response to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin, and SOX4 downregulation by RNA interference increased the sensitivity of CaSki cells in response to cisplatin. Moreover, SOX4 overexpression upregulated multiple drug resistant gene ABCG2, and SOX4 downregulation inhibited ABCG2 expression. Taken together, these results suggested that SOX4 functions to modulate cancer proliferation by regulation of cell cycle, and inhibit cancer cell sensitivity to therapeutic drug via upregulation of ABCG2. Thus, SOX4 may be a target for CC chemotherapy. PMID:26583330

  7. SOX7 expression is critically required in FLK1-expressing cells for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during mouse embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Andrew J; Mazan, Andrzej; Scott, Daryl A; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie

    2017-08-01

    The transcriptional program that regulates the differentiation of endothelial precursor cells into a highly organized vascular network is still poorly understood. Here we explore the role of SOX7 during this process, performing a detailed analysis of the vascular defects resulting from either a complete deficiency in Sox7 expression or from the conditional deletion of Sox7 in FLK1-expressing cells. We analysed the consequence of Sox7 deficiency from E7.5 onward to determine from which stage of development the effect of Sox7 deficiency can be observed. We show that while Sox7 is expressed at the onset of endothelial specification from mesoderm, Sox7 deficiency does not impact the emergence of the first endothelial progenitors. However, by E8.5, clear signs of defective vascular development are already observed with the presence of highly unorganised endothelial cords rather than distinct paired dorsal aorta. By E10.5, both Sox7 complete knockout and FLK1-specific deletion of Sox7 lead to widespread vascular defects. In contrast, while SOX7 is expressed in the earliest specified blood progenitors, the VAV-specific deletion of Sox7 does not affect the hematopoietic system. Together, our data reveal the unique role of SOX7 in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during embryonic development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: current and advanced act control system definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability (2) angle of attack limiting (3) lateral/directional augmented stability (4) gust load alleviation (5) maneuver load control and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  9. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  10. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-05-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact that a given central blood volume may be associated with markedly different central vascular pressures. The central blood volume varies with posture and, consequently, stroke volume and cardiac output (Q) are affected, but with the increased central blood volume during head-down tilt, stroke volume and Q do not increase further indicating that in the supine resting position the heart operates on the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve which, therefore, may be taken as a functional definition of normovolaemia. Since the capacity of the vascular system surpasses the blood volume, orthostatic and environmental stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow redistribution becomes dependent on sympathetic activation affecting not only skin and splanchnic blood flow, but also flow to skeletal muscles and the brain. This review addresses the hypothesis that deviations from normovolaemia significantly influence these cardiovascular responses.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ inhibits human neuroblastoma cell tumorigenesis by inducing p53- and SOX2-mediated cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei-Li; Chen, Liping; Dobrzański, Tomasz P; Zhu, Bokai; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Müller, Rolf; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-12-20

    Neuroblastoma is a common childhood cancer typically treated by inducing differentiation with retinoic acid (RA). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ, (PPARβ/δ) is known to promote terminal differentiation of many cell types. In the present study, PPARβ/δ was over-expressed in three human neuroblastoma cell lines, NGP, SK-N-BE(2), and IMR-32, that exhibit high, medium, and low sensitivity, respectively, to retinoic acid-induced differentiation to determine if PPARβ/δ and retinoic acid receptors (RARs) could be jointly targeted to increase the efficacy of treatment. All-trans-RA (atRA) decreased expression of SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), a stem cell regulator and marker of de-differentiation, in NGP and SK-N-BE(2) cells with inactive or mutant tumor suppressor p53, respectively. However, atRA did not suppress SOX2 expression in IMR-32 cells carrying wild-type p53. Over-expression and/or ligand activation of PPARβ/δ reduced the average volume and weight of ectopic tumor xenografts from NGP, SK-N-BE(2), or IMR-32 cells compared to controls. Compared with that found with atRA, PPARβ/δ suppressed SOX2 expression in NGP and SK-N-BE(2) cells and ectopic xenografts, and was also effective in suppressing SOX2 expression in IMR-32 cells that exhibit higher p53 expression compared to the former cell lines. Combined, these observations demonstrate that activating or over-expressing PPARβ/δ induces cell differentiation through p53- and SOX2-dependent signaling pathways in neuroblastoma cells and tumors. This suggests that combinatorial activation of both RARα and PPARβ/δ may be suitable as an alternative therapeutic approach for RA-resistant neuroblastoma patients.

  12. LHX2 Interacts with the NuRD Complex and Regulates Cortical Neuron Subtype Determinants Fezf2 and Sox11

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Bhavana; Khatri, Zeba; Maheshwari, Upasana; Gupta, Ritika; Roy, Basabdatta; Pradhan, Saurabh J.; Karmodiya, Krishanpal; Padmanabhan, Hari; Shetty, Ashwin S.; Balaji, Chinthapalli; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Macklis, Jeffrey D.; Galande, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    In the developing cerebral cortex, sequential transcriptional programs take neuroepithelial cells from proliferating progenitors to differentiated neurons with unique molecular identities. The regulatory changes that occur in the chromatin of the progenitors are not well understood. During deep layer neurogenesis, we show that transcription factor LHX2 binds to distal regulatory elements of Fezf2 and Sox11, critical determinants of neuron subtype identity in the mouse neocortex. We demonstrate that LHX2 binds to the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase histone remodeling complex subunits LSD1, HDAC2, and RBBP4, which are proximal regulators of the epigenetic state of chromatin. When LHX2 is absent, active histone marks at the Fezf2 and Sox11 loci are increased. Loss of LHX2 produces an increase, and overexpression of LHX2 causes a decrease, in layer 5 Fezf2 and CTIP2-expressing neurons. Our results provide mechanistic insight into how LHX2 acts as a necessary and sufficient regulator of genes that control cortical neuronal subtype identity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The functional complexity of the cerebral cortex arises from an array of distinct neuronal subtypes with unique connectivity patterns that are produced from common progenitors. This study reveals that transcription factor LHX2 regulates the numbers of specific cortical output neuron subtypes by controlling the genes that are required to produce them. Loss or increase in LHX2 during neurogenesis is sufficient to increase or decrease, respectively, a particular subcerebrally projecting population. Mechanistically, LHX2 interacts with chromatin modifying protein complexes to edit the chromatin landscape of its targets Fezf2 and Sox11, which regulates their expression and consequently the identities of the neurons produced. Thus, LHX2 is a key component of the control network for producing neurons that will participate in cortical circuitry. PMID:28053041

  13. SWI/SNF enzymes promote SOX10- mediated activation of myelin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Himangi G; Mehta, Gaurav; Zhang, Xiaolu; Datar, Ila; Mehrotra, Aanchal; Yeung, Kam C; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2013-01-01

    SOX10 is a Sry-related high mobility (HMG)-box transcriptional regulator that promotes differentiation of neural crest precursors into Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, and melanocytes. Myelin, formed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, is essential for propagation of nerve impulses. SWI/SNF complexes are ATP dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes that are critical for cellular differentiation. It was recently demonstrated that the BRG1 subunit of SWI/SNF complexes activates SOX10 expression and also interacts with SOX10 to activate expression of OCT6 and KROX20, two transcriptional regulators of Schwann cell differentiation. To determine the requirement for SWI/SNF enzymes in the regulation of genes that encode components of myelin, which are downstream of these transcriptional regulators, we introduced SOX10 into fibroblasts that inducibly express dominant negative versions of the SWI/SNF ATPases, BRM or BRG1. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 have mutations in the ATP binding site and inhibit gene activation events that require SWI/SNF function. Ectopic expression of SOX10 in cells derived from NIH 3T3 fibroblasts led to the activation of the endogenous Schwann cell specific gene, myelin protein zero (MPZ) and the gene that encodes myelin basic protein (MBP). Thus, SOX10 reprogrammed these cells into myelin gene expressing cells. Ectopic expression of KROX20 was not sufficient for activation of these myelin genes. However, KROX20 together with SOX10 synergistically activated MPZ and MBP expression. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 abrogated SOX10 mediated activation of MPZ and MBP and synergistic activation of these genes by SOX10 and KROX20. SOX10 was required to recruit BRG1 to the MPZ locus. Similarly, in immortalized Schwann cells, BRG1 recruitment to SOX10 binding sites at the MPZ locus was dependent on SOX10 and expression of dominant negative BRG1 inhibited expression of MPZ and MBP in these cells. Thus, SWI/SNF enzymes cooperate with SOX10 to

  14. Sox2 regulates cholinergic amacrine cell positioning and dendritic stratification in the retina.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Irene E; Keeley, Patrick W; St John, Ace J; Kautzman, Amanda G; Kay, Jeremy N; Reese, Benjamin E

    2014-07-23

    The retina contains two populations of cholinergic amacrine cells, one positioned in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the other in the inner nuclear layer (INL), that together comprise ∼1/2 of a percent of all retinal neurons. The present study examined the genetic control of cholinergic amacrine cell number and distribution between these two layers. The total number of cholinergic amacrine cells was quantified in the C57BL/6J and A/J inbred mouse strains, and in 25 recombinant inbred strains derived from them, and variations in their number and ratio (GCL/INL) across these strains were mapped to genomic loci. The total cholinergic amacrine cell number was found to vary across the strains, from 27,000 to 40,000 cells, despite little variation within individual strains. The number of cells was always lower within the GCL relative to the INL, and the sizes of the two populations were strongly correlated, yet there was variation in their ratio between the strains. Approximately 1/3 of that variation in cell ratio was mapped to a locus on chromosome 3, where Sex determining region Y box 2 (Sox2) was identified as a candidate gene due to the presence of a 6-nucleotide insertion in the protein-coding sequence in C57BL/6J and because of robust and selective expression in cholinergic amacrine cells. Conditionally deleting Sox2 from the population of nascent cholinergic amacrine cells perturbed the normal ratio of cells situated in the GCL versus the INL and induced a bistratifying morphology, with dendrites distributed to both ON and OFF strata within the inner plexiform layer.

  15. Sox2 Regulates Cholinergic Amacrine Cell Positioning and Dendritic Stratification in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Irene E.; Keeley, Patrick W.; St. John, Ace J.; Kautzman, Amanda G.; Kay, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    The retina contains two populations of cholinergic amacrine cells, one positioned in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the other in the inner nuclear layer (INL), that together comprise ∼1/2 of a percent of all retinal neurons. The present study examined the genetic control of cholinergic amacrine cell number and distribution between these two layers. The total number of cholinergic amacrine cells was quantified in the C57BL/6J and A/J inbred mouse strains, and in 25 recombinant inbred strains derived from them, and variations in their number and ratio (GCL/INL) across these strains were mapped to genomic loci. The total cholinergic amacrine cell number was found to vary across the strains, from 27,000 to 40,000 cells, despite little variation within individual strains. The number of cells was always lower within the GCL relative to the INL, and the sizes of the two populations were strongly correlated, yet there was variation in their ratio between the strains. Approximately 1/3 of that variation in cell ratio was mapped to a locus on chromosome 3, where Sex determining region Y box 2 (Sox2) was identified as a candidate gene due to the presence of a 6-nucleotide insertion in the protein-coding sequence in C57BL/6J and because of robust and selective expression in cholinergic amacrine cells. Conditionally deleting Sox2 from the population of nascent cholinergic amacrine cells perturbed the normal ratio of cells situated in the GCL versus the INL and induced a bistratifying morphology, with dendrites distributed to both ON and OFF strata within the inner plexiform layer. PMID:25057212

  16. SOXE transcription factors form selective dimers on non-compact DNA motifs through multifaceted interactions between dimerization and high-mobility group domains.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Jankowski, Aleksander; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Prabhakar, Shyam; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-05-27

    The SOXE transcription factors SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10 are master regulators of mammalian development directing sex determination, gliogenesis, pancreas specification and neural crest development. We identified a set of palindromic SOX binding sites specifically enriched in regulatory regions of melanoma cells. SOXE proteins homodimerize on these sequences with high cooperativity. In contrast to other transcription factor dimers, which are typically rigidly spaced, SOXE group proteins can bind cooperatively at a wide range of dimer spacings. Using truncated forms of SOXE proteins, we show that a single dimerization (DIM) domain, that precedes the DNA binding high mobility group (HMG) domain, is sufficient for dimer formation, suggesting that DIM : HMG rather than DIM:DIM interactions mediate the dimerization. All SOXE members can also heterodimerize in this fashion, whereas SOXE heterodimers with SOX2, SOX4, SOX6 and SOX18 are not supported. We propose a structural model where SOXE-specific intramolecular DIM:HMG interactions are allosterically communicated to the HMG of juxtaposed molecules. Collectively, SOXE factors evolved a unique mode to combinatorially regulate their target genes that relies on a multifaceted interplay between the HMG and DIM domains. This property potentially extends further the diversity of target genes and cell-specific functions that are regulated by SOXE proteins.

  17. A Novel Regulatory Mechanism of Type II Collagen Expression via a SOX9-dependent Enhancer in Intron 6.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hideyo; Oh, Chun-do; Chen, Di; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2017-01-13

    Type II collagen α1 is specific for cartilaginous tissues, and mutations in its gene are associated with skeletal diseases. Its expression has been shown to be dependent on SOX9, a master transcription factor required for chondrogenesis that binds to an enhancer region in intron 1. However, ChIP sequencing revealed that SOX9 does not strongly bind to intron 1, but rather it binds to intron 6 and a site 30 kb upstream of the transcription start site. Here, we aimed to determine the role of the novel SOX9-binding site in intron 6. We prepared reporter constructs that contain a Col2a1 promoter, intron 1 with or without intron 6, and the luciferase gene. Although the reporter constructs were not activated by SOX9 alone, the construct that contained both introns 1 and 6 was activated 5-10-fold by the SOX9/SOX5 or the SOX9/SOX6 combination in transient-transfection assays in 293T cells. This enhancement was also observed in rat chondrosarcoma cells that stably expressed the construct. CRISPR/Cas9-induced deletion of intron 6 in RCS cells revealed that a 10-bp region of intron 6 is necessary both for Col2a1 expression and SOX9 binding. Furthermore, SOX9, but not SOX5, binds to this region as demonstrated in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, although both SOX9 and SOX5 bind to a larger 325-bp fragment of intron 6 containing this small sequence. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of action of SOX5/6; namely, the SOX9/5/6 combination enhances Col2a1 transcription through a novel enhancer in intron 6 together with the enhancer in intron 1.

  18. Sox genes in the coral Acropora millepora: divergent expression patterns reflect differences in developmental mechanisms within the Anthozoa.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Chuya; Iguchi, Akira; Hayward, David C; Technau, Ulrich; Ball, Eldon E; Miller, David J

    2008-11-12

    Sox genes encode transcription factors that function in a wide range of developmental processes across the animal kingdom. To better understand both the evolution of the Sox family and the roles of these genes in cnidarians, we are studying the Sox gene complement of the coral, Acropora millepora (Class Anthozoa). Based on overall domain structures and HMG box sequences, the Acropora Sox genes considered here clearly fall into four of the five major Sox classes. AmSoxC is expressed in the ectoderm during development, in cells whose morphology is consistent with their assignment as sensory neurons. The expression pattern of the Nematostella ortholog of this gene is broadly similar to that of AmSoxC, but there are subtle differences--for example, expression begins significantly earlier in Acropora than in Nematostella. During gastrulation, AmSoxBb and AmSoxB1 transcripts are detected only in the presumptive ectoderm while AmSoxE1 transcription is restricted to the presumptive endoderm, suggesting that these Sox genes might play roles in germ layer specification. A third type B Sox gene, AmSoxBa, and a Sox F gene AmSoxF also have complex and specific expression patterns during early development. Each of these genes has a clear Nematostella ortholog, but in several cases the expression pattern observed in Acropora differs significantly from that reported in Nematostella. These differences in expression patterns between Acropora and Nematostella largely reflect fundamental differences in developmental processes, underscoring the diversity of mechanisms within the anthozoan Sub-Class Hexacorallia (Zoantharia).

  19. Sox genes in the coral Acropora millepora: divergent expression patterns reflect differences in developmental mechanisms within the Anthozoa

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Sox genes encode transcription factors that function in a wide range of developmental processes across the animal kingdom. To better understand both the evolution of the Sox family and the roles of these genes in cnidarians, we are studying the Sox gene complement of the coral, Acropora millepora (Class Anthozoa). Results Based on overall domain structures and HMG box sequences, the Acropora Sox genes considered here clearly fall into four of the five major Sox classes. AmSoxC is expressed in the ectoderm during development, in cells whose morphology is consistent with their assignment as sensory neurons. The expression pattern of the Nematostella ortholog of this gene is broadly similar to that of AmSoxC, but there are subtle differences – for example, expression begins significantly earlier in Acropora than in Nematostella. During gastrulation, AmSoxBb and AmSoxB1 transcripts are detected only in the presumptive ectoderm while AmSoxE1 transcription is restricted to the presumptive endoderm, suggesting that these Sox genes might play roles in germ layer specification. A third type B Sox gene, AmSoxBa, and a Sox F gene AmSoxF also have complex and specific expression patterns during early development. Each of these genes has a clear Nematostella ortholog, but in several cases the expression pattern observed in Acropora differs significantly from that reported in Nematostella. Conclusion These differences in expression patterns between Acropora and Nematostella largely reflect fundamental differences in developmental processes, underscoring the diversity of mechanisms within the anthozoan Sub-Class Hexacorallia (Zoantharia). PMID:19014479

  20. E6-AP/UBE3A protein acts as a ubiquitin ligase toward SOX9 protein.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Takako; Kishino, Tetsuya; Stephen, Shelley; Eberspaecher, Heidi; Maki, Sayumi; Takigawa, Masaharu; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

    2013-12-06

    SOX9 is a transcription factor that acts as a key regulator at various stages of cartilage differentiation. There is ample evidence that intracellular SOX9 protein levels are tightly regulated both by sumoylation and by degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Using a proteomics approach, here we report the identification of a SOX9-binding protein, E6-AP/UBE3A, that may act as a ubiquitin ligase toward Sox9. E6-AP bound SOX9 through the region consisting mostly of its high mobility group domain in vitro. In nuclear lysates, FLAG-tagged E6-AP coprecipitated with Sox9 and its high mobility group domain. This finding was estimated using nuclear lysates from a chondrocytic cell line that endogenously expresses E6-AP and SOX9. Accordingly, ectopically expressed E6-AP and SOX9 colocalized in the nucleus. We show that E6-AP ubiquitinates SOX9 in vitro and in vivo and that SOX9 levels are enhanced after addition of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Similar, siRNA knockdown of E6-AP and the E2 ligase Ubc9 increased cellular SOX9 amounts, supporting the notion that SOX9 may be ubiquitinated in hypertrophic chondrocytes by E6-AP and degraded by proteasomes. This is in accordance with the distribution of SOX9 levels, which are high in proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes but low in hypertrophic chondrocytes, whereas E6-AP levels are high in hypertrophic chondrocytes and low in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Furthermore, E6-AP-deficient mice showed SOX9 accumulation in chondrocytes and the brain. These findings support the concept that E6-AP regulates SOX9 levels in developing cartilage by acting as a ubiquitin ligase.

  1. Search for sterile neutrinos with the SOX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminata, A.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquères, N.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Veyssière, C.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the Borexino detector has proven its outstanding performances in detecting neutrinos and antineutrinos in the low energy regime. Consequently, it is an ideal tool to investigate the existence of sterile neutrinos, whose presence has been suggested by several anomalies over the past two decades. The SOX ( Short distance neutrino Oscillations with boreXino) project will investigate the presence of sterile neutrinos placing a neutrino and an antineutrino sources in a location under the detector foreseen for this purpose since the construction of Borexino. Interacting in the detector active volume, each beam would create a well detectable spatial wave pattern in case of oscillation of neutrino or antineutrino in a sterile state. Otherwise, the experiment will set a very stringent limit on the existence of a sterile state.

  2. Zebrafish sox9b is crucial for hepatopancreatic duct development and pancreatic endocrine cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Manfroid, Isabelle; Ghaye, Aurelie; Naye, François; Detry, Nathalie; Palm, Sarah; Pan, Luyuan; Ma, Taylur P.; Huang, Wei; Rovira, Meritxell; Martial, Joseph A.; Parsons, Michael J.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Voz, Marianne L.; Peers, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Recent zebrafish studies have shown that the late appearing pancreatic endocrine cells derive from pancreatic ducts but the regulatory factors involved are still largely unknown. Here, we show that the zebrafish sox9b gene is expressed in pancreatic ducts where it labels the pancreatic Notch-responsive cells previously shown to be progenitors. Inactivation of sox9b disturbs duct formation and impairs regeneration of beta cells from these ducts in larvae. sox9b expression in the midtrunk endoderm appears at the junction of the hepatic and ventral pancreatic buds and, by the end of embryogenesis, labels the hepatopancreatic ductal system as well as the intrapancreatic and intrahepatic ducts. Ductal morphogenesis and differentiation are specifically disrupted in sox9b mutants, with the dysmorphic hepatopancreatic ducts containing misdifferentiated hepatocyte-like and pancreatic-like cells. We also show that maintenance of sox9b expression in the extrapancreatic and intrapancreatic ducts requires FGF and Notch activity, respectively, both pathways known to prevent excessive endocrine differentiation in these ducts. Furthermore, beta cell recovery after specific ablation is severely compromised in sox9b mutant larvae. Our data position sox9b as a key player in the generation of secondary endocrine cells deriving from pancreatic ducts in zebrafish. PMID:22537488

  3. Zebrafish sox9b is crucial for hepatopancreatic duct development and pancreatic endocrine cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Manfroid, Isabelle; Ghaye, Aurélie; Naye, François; Detry, Nathalie; Palm, Sarah; Pan, Luyuan; Ma, Taylur P; Huang, Wei; Rovira, Meritxell; Martial, Joseph A; Parsons, Michael J; Moens, Cecilia B; Voz, Marianne L; Peers, Bernard

    2012-06-15

    Recent zebrafish studies have shown that the late appearing pancreatic endocrine cells are derived from pancreatic ducts but the regulatory factors involved are still largely unknown. Here, we show that the zebrafish sox9b gene is expressed in pancreatic ducts where it labels the pancreatic Notch-responsive cells previously shown to be progenitors. Inactivation of sox9b disturbs duct formation and impairs regeneration of beta cells from these ducts in larvae. sox9b expression in the midtrunk endoderm appears at the junction of the hepatic and ventral pancreatic buds and, by the end of embryogenesis, labels the hepatopancreatic ductal system as well as the intrapancreatic and intrahepatic ducts. Ductal morphogenesis and differentiation are specifically disrupted in sox9b mutants, with the dysmorphic hepatopancreatic ducts containing misdifferentiated hepatocyte-like and pancreatic-like cells. We also show that maintenance of sox9b expression in the extrapancreatic and intrapancreatic ducts requires FGF and Notch activity, respectively, both pathways known to prevent excessive endocrine differentiation in these ducts. Furthermore, beta cell recovery after specific ablation is severely compromised in sox9b mutant larvae. Our data position sox9b as a key player in the generation of secondary endocrine cells deriving from pancreatic ducts in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of the stem cell marker, SOX2, in ameloblastoma and dental epithelium.

    PubMed

    Juuri, Emma; Isaksson, Sanna; Jussila, Maria; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Thesleff, Irma

    2013-12-01

    Ameloblastomas are locally invasive odontogenic tumors that exhibit a high rate of recurrence and often associate with the third molars. They are suggested to originate from dental epithelium because the tumor cells resemble epithelial cells of developing teeth. Expression of the transcription factor SOX2 has been previously localized in epithelial stem and progenitor cells in developing teeth as well as in various tumors. Here, we show that SOX2 is expressed in the epithelial cells of follicular and plexiform ameloblastomas. SOX2 was localized in the dental lamina of developing human primary molars. It was also expressed in the fragmented dental lamina associated with the third molars and in the epithelium budding from its posterior aspect in mice. However, no SOX2 expression was detected in either Hertwig's epithelial root sheath directing the formation of roots or in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez covering the completed roots. SOX2 was associated with supernumerary tooth formation in odontoma-like tumors induced by Wnt signal activation in mice. We propose that SOX2 functions in maintaining the progenitor state of epithelium in ameloblastomas and that ameloblastomas may originate from SOX2-expressing dental lamina epithelium. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  5. SOX9-regulated cell plasticity in colorectal metastasis is attenuated by rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Lopez, Lidia; Aldaz, Paula; Arevalo, Sara; Aldaregia, Juncal; Egaña, Larraitz; Bujanda, Luis; Cheung, Martin; Sampron, Nicolas; Garcia, Idoia; Matheu, Ander

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes a hierarchical organization of tumors, in which stem-like cells sustain tumors and drive metastasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition of CSCs and metastatic traits are not well understood. SOX9 is a transcription factor linked to stem cell maintenance and commonly overexpressed in solid cancers including colorectal cancer. In this study, we show that SOX9 levels are higher in metastatic (SW620) than in primary colorectal cancer cells (SW480) derived from the same patient. This elevated expression correlated with enhanced self-renewal activity. By gain and loss-of-function studies in SW480 and SW620 cells respectively, we reveal that SOX9 levels modulate tumorsphere formation and self-renewal ability in vitro and tumor initiation in vivo. Moreover, SOX9 regulates migration and invasion and triggers the transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states. These activities are partially dependent on SOX9 post-transcriptional modifications. Importantly, treatment with rapamycin inhibits self-renewal and tumor growth in a SOX9-dependent manner. These results identify a functional role for SOX9 in regulating colorectal cancer cell plasticity and metastasis, and provide a strong rationale for a rapamycin-based therapeutic strategy. PMID:27571710

  6. Analysis of SOX2 expression in developing human testis and germ cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Si B; Perrett, Rebecca M; Nielsen, John E; Baxter, Melissa A; Kristensen, David M; Leffers, Henrik; Hanley, Neil A; Rajpert-De-Meyts, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional regulators of pluripotency, POU5F1 (OCT4), NANOG and SOX2, are highly expressed in embryonal carcinoma (EC). In contrast to OCT4 and NANOG, SOX2 has not been demonstrated in the early human germ cell lineage or carcinoma in situ (CIS), the precursor for testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). Here, we have analysed SOX2 expression in CIS and overt TGCTs, as well as normal second and third trimester fetal, prepubertal and adult testes by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry using three different antibodies. In contrast to earlier studies, we detected SOX2 mRNA in most CIS cells. We also detected speckled nuclear SOX2 immunoreactivity in CIS cells with one primary antibody, which was not apparent with other primary antibodies. The results demonstrate SOX2 gene expression in CIS for the first time and raise the possibility of post-transcriptional regulation, most likely sumoylation as a mechanism for limiting SOX2 action in these cells.

  7. Expansion of the SOX gene family predated the emergence of the Bilateria.

    PubMed

    Jager, Muriel; Quéinnec, Eric; Houliston, Evelyn; Manuel, Michaël

    2006-05-01

    Members of the SOX gene family are involved in regulating many developmental processes including neuronal determination and differentiation, and in carcinogenesis. So far they have only been identified in species from the Bilateria (deuterostomes and protostomes). To understand the origins of the SOX family, we used a PCR-based strategy to obtain 28 new sequences of SOX gene HMG domains from four non-bilaterian Metazoa: two sponge species, one ctenophore and one cnidarian. One additional SOX sequence was retrieved from EST sequences of the cnidarian species Clytia hemisphaerica. Unexpected SOX gene diversity was found in these species, especially in the cnidarian and the ctenophore. The topology of gene relationships deduced by Maximum Likelihood analysis, although not supported by bootstrap values, suggested that the SOX family started to diversify in the metazoan stem branch prior to the divergence of demosponges, and that further diversification occurred in the eumetazoan branch, as well as later in calcisponges, ctenophores, cnidarians and vertebrates. In contrast, gene loss appears to have occurred in the nematode and probably in other protostome lineages, explaining their lower number of SOX genes.

  8. SOX17 increases the cisplatin sensitivity of an endometrial cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Jiang, FeiZhou; Bao, Wei; Zhang, Huilin; He, XiaoYing; Wang, Huihui; Wan, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common form of malignant gynecological tumor. Treatment with cisplatin (CDDP) is the mainstay of EC chemotherapy. The apoptotic machinery is regarded as an important etiological factor in chemoresistance. Recent evidence has suggested that overexpression of the transcription factor SOX17 prevented apoptosis in tumor cell lines. The effect of SOX17 on apoptosis in EC cisplatin chemoresistance remains unclear. Immunohistochemistry and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were employed to detect gene expression in paraffin-embedded EC tissues and blood samples. The anti-proliferative ability of SOX17 on EC cells was assessed by MTT. Flow cytometric analysis was used to detect cell apoptosis by annexin V/PI double-staining. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was analyzed by western blot. In the in vivo study, nude mice were subcutaneously injected with EC cells, and received cisplatin treatment through intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Apoptosis of in vivo samples was analyzed by TUNEL assay. SOX17 expression decreased the chemical resistance of EC cells to CDDP. HEC-1B cells with an elevated expression of SOX17 had a lower cell viability and higher apoptosis rate after cisplatin exposure. Overexpression SOX17 up-regulated wild type p53 after being exposed to cisplatin, while the expression of BCL2-associated X protein and cleaved caspase-3 simultaneously increased. Caspase-9 inhibitor reduced the efficacy of SOX17 in HEC-1B cells after cisplatin treatment. In the in vivo study, SOX17 overexpression clearly restrained the tumor growth and increased the cisplatin toxicity and apoptosis of tumor cells. SOX17 is involved in the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway, and increases the sensitivity of HEC-1B cells to cisplatin.

  9. Characterisation and expression of Sox9 in the Leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Valleley, E M; Cartwright, E J; Croft, N J; Markham, A F; Coletta, P L

    2001-04-15

    Since the discovery of the sex-determining gene, Sry, a number of genes have been identified which are involved in sex determination and gonadogenesis in mammals. Although Sry is known to be the testis-determining factor in mammals, this is not the case in non-mammalian vertebrates. Sox9 is another gene that has been shown to have a male-specific role in sex determination, but, unlike Sry, Sox9 has been shown to be involved in sex determination in mammals, birds, and reptiles. This is the first gene to be described that has a conserved role in sex determination in species with either chromosomal or environmental sex-determining mechanisms. Many reptiles do not have sex chromosomes but exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Sox9 has been shown to be expressed in both turtle and alligator during gonadogenesis. To determine if Sox9 also has a role in a gecko species with TSD, we studied gonadal expression of Sox9 during embryonic development of the Leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Gecko Sox9 was found to be highly conserved at the nucleotide level when compared to other vertebrate species including human, chick, alligator, and turtle. Sox9 was found to be expressed in embryos incubated at the male-producing temperature (32.5 degrees C) as well as in embryos incubated at the female-producing temperatures (26 and 34 degrees C), Northern blot analysis showed that Sox9 was expressed at both temperatures from morphological stages 31 to 37. mRNA in situ hybridisation on isolated urogenital systems showed expression at both female- and male-producing temperatures up to stage 36. After this stage, no expression was seen in the female gonads but expression remained in the male. These data provide further evidence that Sox9 is an essential component of a testis-determining pathway that is conserved in species with differing sex-determining mechanisms.

  10. Sox2 Promotes Malignancy in Glioblastoma by Regulating Plasticity and Astrocytic Differentiation12

    PubMed Central

    Berezovsky, Artem D.; Poisson, Laila M.; Cherba, David; Webb, Craig P.; Transou, Andrea D.; Lemke, Nancy W.; Hong, Xin; Hasselbach, Laura A.; Irtenkauf, Susan M.; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    The high-mobility group–box transcription factor sex-determining region Y–box 2 (Sox2) is essential for the maintenance of stem cells from early development to adult tissues. Sox2 can reprogram differentiated cells into pluripotent cells in concert with other factors and is overexpressed in various cancers. In glioblastoma (GBM), Sox2 is a marker of cancer stemlike cells (CSCs) in neurosphere cultures and is associated with the proneural molecular subtype. Here, we report that Sox2 expression pattern in GBM tumors and patient-derived mouse xenografts is not restricted to a small percentage of cells and is coexpressed with various lineage markers, suggesting that its expression extends beyond CSCs to encompass more differentiated neoplastic cells across molecular subtypes. Employing a CSC derived from a patient with GBM and isogenic differentiated cell model, we show that Sox2 knockdown in the differentiated state abolished dedifferentiation and acquisition of CSC phenotype. Furthermore, Sox2 deficiency specifically impaired the astrocytic component of a biphasic gliosarcoma xenograft model while allowing the formation of tumors with sarcomatous phenotype. The expression of genes associated with stem cells and malignancy were commonly downregulated in both CSCs and serum-differentiated cells on Sox2 knockdown. Genes previously shown to be associated with pluripontency and CSCs were only affected in the CSC state, whereas embryonic stem cell self-renewal genes and cytokine signaling were downregulated, and the Wnt pathway activated in differentiated Sox2-deficient cells. Our results indicate that Sox2 regulates the expression of key genes and pathways involved in GBM malignancy, in both cancer stemlike and differentiated cells, and maintains plasticity for bidirectional conversion between the two states, with significant clinical implications. PMID:24726753

  11. Sox2 promotes malignancy in glioblastoma by regulating plasticity and astrocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berezovsky, Artem D; Poisson, Laila M; Cherba, David; Webb, Craig P; Transou, Andrea D; Lemke, Nancy W; Hong, Xin; Hasselbach, Laura A; Irtenkauf, Susan M; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C

    2014-03-01

    The high-mobility group-box transcription factor sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) is essential for the maintenance of stem cells from early development to adult tissues. Sox2 can reprogram differentiated cells into pluripotent cells in concert with other factors and is overexpressed in various cancers. In glioblastoma (GBM), Sox2 is a marker of cancer stemlike cells (CSCs) in neurosphere cultures and is associated with the proneural molecular subtype. Here, we report that Sox2 expression pattern in GBM tumors and patient-derived mouse xenografts is not restricted to a small percentage of cells and is coexpressed with various lineage markers, suggesting that its expression extends beyond CSCs to encompass more differentiated neoplastic cells across molecular subtypes. Employing a CSC derived from a patient with GBM and isogenic differentiated cell model, we show that Sox2 knockdown in the differentiated state abolished dedifferentiation and acquisition of CSC phenotype. Furthermore, Sox2 deficiency specifically impaired the astrocytic component of a biphasic gliosarcoma xenograft model while allowing the formation of tumors with sarcomatous phenotype. The expression of genes associated with stem cells and malignancy were commonly downregulated in both CSCs and serum-differentiated cells on Sox2 knockdown. Genes previously shown to be associated with pluripontency and CSCs were only affected in the CSC state, whereas embryonic stem cell self-renewal genes and cytokine signaling were downregulated, and the Wnt pathway activated in differentiated Sox2-deficient cells. Our results indicate that Sox2 regulates the expression of key genes and pathways involved in GBM malignancy, in both cancer stemlike and differentiated cells, and maintains plasticity for bidirectional conversion between the two states, with significant clinical implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SOX6 binds CtBP2 to repress transcription from the Fgf-3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Ishida, S; Thurlow, J; Revest, J M; Dickson, C

    2001-08-15

    Fgf-3 is expressed in a complex pattern during mouse development. Previously, an essential regulatory element PS4A was identified in the promoter region, and shown to bind at least three factors. To identify the transcription factor(s), we used a yeast one-hybrid screen and obtained a novel Sox6 cDNA (SOX6D). When introduced into cells it strongly repressed activity from both an Fgf-3 reporter gene as well as an artificial promoter containing three PS4A elements. In situ hybridisation analysis showed that Sox6 and Fgf-3 are co-expressed in the otic vesicle of E9.5 mouse embryos in a mutually exclusive pattern, consistent with a repression of Fgf-3 transcription by SOX6. To characterise additional factor(s) involved in Fgf-3 gene repression, a yeast two-hybrid screen was used with the N-terminal portion of SOX6D. Mouse CtBP2 cDNA clones were isolated and shown to bind SOX6 in yeast and mammalian cells. Furthermore, mutational analysis of SOX6 showed that binding to CtBP2, and its responsiveness to this co-repressor, were dependent on a short amino acid sequence motif PLNLSS. Co-expression studies in NIH3T3 cells showed that SOX6 and CtBP2 co-operate to repress activity from the Fgf-3 promoter through the enhancer element PS4A. These results show that SOX6 can recruit CtBP2 to repress transcription from the Fgf-3 promoter.

  13. Dominant-negative Sox18 function inhibits dermal papilla maturation and differentiation in all murine hair types.

    PubMed

    Villani, Rehan; Hodgson, Samantha; Legrand, Julien; Greaney, Jessica; Wong, Ho Yi; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Adolphe, Christelle; Wainwight, Brandon; Francois, Mathias; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2017-05-15

    SOX family proteins SOX2 and SOX18 have been reported as being essential in determining hair follicle type; however, the role they play during development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Sox18 regulates the normal differentiation of the dermal papilla of all hair types. In guard (primary) hair dermal condensate (DC) cells, we identified transient Sox18 in addition to SOX2 expression at E14.5, which allowed fate tracing of primary DC cells until birth. Similarly, expression of Sox18 was detected in the DC cells of secondary hairs at E16.5 and in tertiary hair at E18.5. Dominant-negative Sox18 mutation (opposum) did not prevent DC formation in any hair type. However, it affected dermal papilla differentiation, restricting hair formation especially in secondary and tertiary hairs. This Sox18 mutation also prevented neonatal dermal cells or dermal papilla spheres from inducing hair in regeneration assays. Microarray expression studies identified WNT5A and TNC as potential downstream effectors of SOX18 that are important for epidermal WNT signalling. In conclusion, SOX18 acts as a mesenchymal molecular switch necessary for the formation and function of the dermal papilla in all hair types. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. SOX9 is targeted for proteasomal degradation by the E3 ligase FBW7 in response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xuehui; Liu, Wenyu; Song, Ruipeng; Shah, Jamie J.; Feng, Xing; Tsang, Chi Kwan; Morgan, Katherine M.; Bunting, Samuel F.; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Zheng, X. F. Steven; Shen, Zhiyuan; Sabaawy, Hatem E.; Liu, LianXin; Pine, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    SOX9 encodes a transcription factor that governs cell fate specification throughout development and tissue homeostasis. Elevated SOX9 is implicated in the genesis and progression of human tumors by increasing cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We found that in response to UV irradiation or genotoxic chemotherapeutics, SOX9 is actively degraded in various cancer types and in normal epithelial cells, through a pathway independent of p53, ATM, ATR and DNA-PK. SOX9 is phosphorylated by GSK3β, facilitating the binding of SOX9 to the F-box protein FBW7α, an E3 ligase that functions in the DNA damage response pathway. The binding of FBW7α to the SOX9 K2 domain at T236-T240 targets SOX9 for subsequent ubiquitination and proteasomal destruction. Exogenous overexpression of SOX9 after genotoxic stress increases cell survival. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for SOX9 stability and uncover a unique function of SOX9 in the cellular response to DNA damage. This new mechanism underlying a FBW7-SOX9 axis in cancer could have implications in therapy resistance. PMID:27566146

  15. SOX9 is targeted for proteasomal degradation by the E3 ligase FBW7 in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xuehui; Liu, Wenyu; Song, Ruipeng; Shah, Jamie J; Feng, Xing; Tsang, Chi Kwan; Morgan, Katherine M; Bunting, Samuel F; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Zheng, X F Steven; Shen, Zhiyuan; Sabaawy, Hatem E; Liu, LianXin; Pine, Sharon R

    2016-10-14

    SOX9 encodes a transcription factor that governs cell fate specification throughout development and tissue homeostasis. Elevated SOX9 is implicated in the genesis and progression of human tumors by increasing cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We found that in response to UV irradiation or genotoxic chemotherapeutics, SOX9 is actively degraded in various cancer types and in normal epithelial cells, through a pathway independent of p53, ATM, ATR and DNA-PK. SOX9 is phosphorylated by GSK3β, facilitating the binding of SOX9 to the F-box protein FBW7α, an E3 ligase that functions in the DNA damage response pathway. The binding of FBW7α to the SOX9 K2 domain at T236-T240 targets SOX9 for subsequent ubiquitination and proteasomal destruction. Exogenous overexpression of SOX9 after genotoxic stress increases cell survival. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for SOX9 stability and uncover a unique function of SOX9 in the cellular response to DNA damage. This new mechanism underlying a FBW7-SOX9 axis in cancer could have implications in therapy resistance.

  16. The glial transcription factor Sox10 binds to DNA both as monomer and dimer with different functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Peirano, R I; Wegner, M

    2000-08-15

    Sox10 is an important transcriptional regulator in the neural crest and various neural-crest derived lineages, such as the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we identified the gene for myelin Protein zero (P(0)) as a transcriptional target of Sox10 in Schwann cells, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of Sox10 responsive elements and their functional interaction with Sox10. Here we show that Sox10 functions through two different types of DNA response elements, one that allows binding of monomers, and a second that favors cooperative binding of two molecules. This dimeric binding required the presence of two heptameric Sox binding sites in a specific orientation and spacing, and was mediated by an N-terminal region of Sox10 with high conservation in the related Sox9, which also exhibited dimeric binding. This argues that the conserved region has the capacity to function as a DNA-dependent dimerization domain. The interaction between Sox10 dimers and DNA differed dramatically from that of Sox10 monomers, as it drastically reduced the protein's off-rate and increased the protein-induced angle of DNA bending. These results indicate that functionally relevant interactions between Sox10 and DNA occur through completely different modes of binding.

  17. SOX14 is a candidate gene for limb defects associated with BPES and Möbius syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, H P; Smith, M J; Wilcox, S A; Bell, K M; Sinclair, A H

    2000-03-01

    Members of the SOX gene family encode proteins with homology to the HMG box DNA-binding domain of SRY, the Y-linked testis-determining gene. SOX genes are expressed during embryogenesis and are involved in the development of a wide range of different tissues. Mutations in SRY, SOX9 and SOX10 have been shown to be responsible for XY sex reversal, campomelic dysplasia and Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease, respectively. It is likely that mutations in other SOX genes are responsible for a variety of human genetic diseases. SOX14 has been identified from a human genomic library and the mouse and chicken sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The SOX14 amino acid sequence is highly conserved across these species, suggesting an important role for this protein in vertebrate development. SOX14 is expressed in the neural tube and apical ectodermal ridge of the developing chicken limb. This is the only SOX gene known to be expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge, a structure that directs outgrowth of the embryonic limb bud. Human SOX14 is localised to a 1.15-Mb yeast artificial chromosome on chromosome 3q23, close to loci for BPES (blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus syndrome) and Mobius syndrome. Although SOX14 maps outside these loci, its expression pattern and chromosomal localisation suggest that it is a candidate gene for the limb defects frequently associated with these syndromes.

  18. [Microdeletion 12p12 involving SOX5 gene: a new syndrome with developmental delay].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Carrera, Ignacio; de Zaldívar-Tristancho, M Solo; Martín-Fernández, Rebeca; Hernández-Martín, Raquel; López-Lafuente, Amparo; Rodríguez-Revenga, Laia

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. El gen SOX5 codifica un factor de transcripcion implicado en la regulacion de la condrogenia y el desarrollo del sistema nervioso. Caso clinico. Niña de 10 anos con discapacidad intelectual, alteracion conductual y malformaciones menores de este nuevo sindrome con alteracion en el neurodesarrollo, con una delecion 12p12 que incluye el gen SOX5. Conclusiones. Se revisan los casos publicados tanto de deleciones intragenicas de SOX5 como de deleciones mas grandes que incluyen este gen, y se analizan las correlaciones genotipo-fenotipo y los genes implicados en esta paciente.

  19. RevSex duplication-induced and sex-related differences in the SOX9 regulatory region chromatin landscape in human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lybæk, Helle; de Bruijn, Diederik; den Engelsman-van Dijk, Anke HA; Vanichkina, Darya; Nepal, Chirag; Brendehaug, Atle; Houge, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    It was recently shown that duplications of the RevSex element, located 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9, cause XX-disorder of sex development (DSD), and that deletions cause XY-DSD. To explore how a 148 kb RevSex duplication could have turned on gonadal SOX9 expression in the absence of SRY in an XX-male, we examined the chromatin landscape in primary skin fibroblast cultures from the index, his RevSex duplication-carrier father and six controls. The ENCODE project supports the notion that chromatin state maps show overlap between different cell types, i.e., that our study of fibroblasts could be of biological relevance. We examined the SOX9 regulatory region by high-resolution ChIP-on-chip experiments (a kind of “chromatin-CGH”) and DNA methylation investigations. The RevSex duplication was associated with chromatin changes predicting better accessibility of the SRY-responsive TESCO enhancer region 14–15 kb upstream of SOX9. Four kb downstream of the TESCO evolutionary conserved region, a peak of the enhancer/promoter-associated H3K4me3 mark was found together with a major dip of the repressive H3K9me3 chromatin mark. Similar differences were also found when three control males were compared with three control females. A marked male/female difference was a more open chromatin signature in males starting ~400 kb upstream of SOX9 and increasing toward the SOX9 promoter. In the RevSex duplication-carrier father, two positions of DNA hypomethylation were also found, one corresponding to the H3K4me3 peak mentioned above. Our results suggest that the RevSex duplication could operate by inducing long-range epigenetic changes. Furthermore, the differences in chromatin state maps between males and females suggest that the Y chromosome or X chromosome dosage may affect chromatin conformation, i.e., that sex-dependent gene regulation may take place by chromatin modification. PMID:24351654

  20. RevSex duplication-induced and sex-related differences in the SOX9 regulatory region chromatin landscape in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lybæk, Helle; de Bruijn, Diederik; den Engelsman-van Dijk, Anke H A; Vanichkina, Darya; Nepal, Chirag; Brendehaug, Atle; Houge, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    It was recently shown that duplications of the RevSex element, located 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9, cause XX-disorder of sex development (DSD), and that deletions cause XY-DSD. To explore how a 148 kb RevSex duplication could have turned on gonadal SOX9 expression in the absence of SRY in an XX-male, we examined the chromatin landscape in primary skin fibroblast cultures from the index, his RevSex duplication-carrier father and six controls. The ENCODE project supports the notion that chromatin state maps show overlap between different cell types, i.e., that our study of fibroblasts could be of biological relevance. We examined the SOX9 regulatory region by high-resolution ChIP-on-chip experiments (a kind of "chromatin-CGH") and DNA methylation investigations. The RevSex duplication was associated with chromatin changes predicting better accessibility of the SRY-responsive TESCO enhancer region 14-15 kb upstream of SOX9. Four kb downstream of the TESCO evolutionary conserved region, a peak of the enhancer/promoter-associated H3K4me3 mark was found together with a major dip of the repressive H3K9me3 chromatin mark. Similar differences were also found when three control males were compared with three control females. A marked male/female difference was a more open chromatin signature in males starting ~400 kb upstream of SOX9 and increasing toward the SOX9 promoter. In the RevSex duplication-carrier father, two positions of DNA hypomethylation were also found, one corresponding to the H3K4me3 peak mentioned above. Our results suggest that the RevSex duplication could operate by inducing long-range epigenetic changes. Furthermore, the differences in chromatin state maps between males and females suggest that the Y chromosome or X chromosome dosage may affect chromatin conformation, i.e., that sex-dependent gene regulation may take place by chromatin modification.

  1. SOX30, a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor, promotes tumor cell apoptosis by transcriptional activating p53 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, F; Liu, W; Jiang, X; Shi, X; Yin, L; Ao, L; Cui, Z; Li, Y; Huang, C; Cao, J; Liu, J

    2015-01-01

    Although members of SOX family have been well documented for their essential roles in embryonic development, cell proliferation and disease, the functional role and molecular mechanism of SOX30 in cancer are largely unexplored. Here, we first identified SRY-box containing gene 30 (SOX30) as a novel preferentially methylated gene using genome-wide methylation screening. SOX30 hypermethylation was detected in 100% of lung cancer cell lines (9/9) and 70.83% (85/120) of primary lung tumor tissues compared with none (0/20) of normal and 8.0% (2/25) of peri-tumoral lung tissues (P<0.01). SOX30 was expressed in normal and peri-tumoral lung tissues in which SOX30 was unmethylated, but was silenced or downregulated in lung cancer cell lines and primary lung tumor tissues harboring a hypermethylated SOX30. De-methylation experiments further confirmed that silence of SOX30 was regulated by its hypermethylation. Ectopic expression of SOX30 induces cancer cell apoptosis with inhibiting proliferation in vitro and represses tumor formation in vivo, whereas knockdown of SOX30 demonstrates a reversed effect both in vitro and in vivo. At the molecular level, the antitumorigenic effect of SOX30 is mediated by directly binding to CACTTTG (+115 to +121) of p53 promoter region and activating p53 transcription, suggesting that SOX30 is a novel transcriptional activating factor of p53. Indeed, blockade of p53 attenuates the tumor inhibition of SOX30. Overall, these findings demonstrate that SOX30 is a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor acting through direct regulation of p53 transcription and expression. This study provides novel insights on the mechanism of tumorigenesis in lung cancer. PMID:25435374

  2. Definition of infection after fracture fixation: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials to evaluate current practice.

    PubMed

    Metsemakers, W J; Kortram, K; Morgenstern, M; Moriarty, T F; Meex, I; Kuehl, R; Nijs, S; Richards, R G; Raschke, M; Borens, O; Kates, S L; Zalavras, C; Giannoudis, P V; Verhofstad, M H J

    2017-02-20

    One of the most challenging musculoskeletal complications in modern trauma surgery is infection after fracture fixation (IAFF). Although infections are clinically obvious in many cases, a clear definition of the term IAFF is crucial, not only for the evaluation of published research data but also for the establishment of uniform treatment concepts. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the definitions used in the scientific literature to describe infectious complications after internal fixation of fractures. The hypothesis of this study was that the majority of fracture-related literature do not define IAFF. A comprehensive search was performed in Embase, Cochrane, Google Scholar, Medline (OvidSP), PubMed publisher and Web-of-Science for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on fracture fixation. Data were collected on the definition of infectious complications after fracture fixation used in each study. Study selection was accomplished through two phases. During the first phase, titles and abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and the full texts of relevant articles were obtained. During the second phase, full-text articles were reviewed. All definitions were literally extracted and collected in a database. Then, a classification was designed to rate the quality of the description of IAFF. A total of 100 RCT's were identified in the search. Of 100 studies, only two (2%) cited a validated definition to describe IAFF. In 28 (28%) RCTs, the authors used a self-designed definition. In the other 70 RCTs, (70%) there was no description of a definition in the Methods section, although all of the articles described infections as an outcome parameter in the Results section. This systematic review shows that IAFF is not defined in a large majority of the fracture-related literature. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with the objective to explore this important issue. The lack of a consensus definition remains a problem in current orthopedic

  3. Superoxide Dismutase and Transcription Factor sox9 as Mediators of Tumor Suppression by mac25 (IGFBP-rp1) in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14 ...counted and measured weekly. * Significant difference from control (Po0.005) SOX9 in prostate cancer cells R Drivdahl et al 4589 Oncogene 14 (Vleminckx and...selective medium containing 400 mg/ml G418 and cultured for 10 days . Individual colonies were isolated from the plate by trypsinization in cloning rings

  4. SOX2 haploinsufficiency is associated with slow progressing hypothalamo-pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Andoniadou, Cynthia L; Kelberman, Daniel; Buchanan, Charles R; Crolla, John; Arriazu, Maria Cristina; Roubicek, Martin; Moncet, Daniel; Martinez-Barbera, Juan P; Dattani, Mehul T

    2011-12-01

    SOX2 is an early developmental transcription factor and marker of stem cells that has recently been implicated in the development of the pituitary gland. Heterozygous SOX2 mutations have been described in patients with hypopituitarism and severe ocular abnormalities. In the majority of published cases, the pituitary gland is either small or normal in size. Here, we report two unrelated patients with SOX2 haploinsufficiency (a heterozygous gene deletion and a novel c.143TC>AA/p.F48X mutation) who developed nonprogressive pituitary tumors of early onset, suggesting a congenital etiology. The truncating mutation resulted in significant loss of function and impaired nuclear localization of the mutant protein, in addition to a failure to repress β-catenin transcriptional activity in vitro. This is the first indication that SOX2 haploinsufficiency is implicated in the generation of pituitary tumors with distinct clinical characteristics, possibly mediated via its effects on the Wnt signaling pathway.

  5. Understanding the detector behavior through Montecarlo and calibration studies in view of the SOX measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminata, A.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, T.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquères, N.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Veyssiere, C.; Vishneva, A.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    Borexino is an unsegmented neutrino detector operating at LNGS in central Italy. The experiment has shown its performances through its unprecedented accomplishments in the solar and geoneutrino detection. These performances make it an ideal tool to accomplish a state- of-the-art experiment able to test the existence of sterile neutrinos (SOX experiment). For both the solar and the SOX analysis, a good understanding of the detector response is fundamental. Consequently, calibration campaigns with radioactive sources have been performed over the years. The calibration data are of extreme importance to develop an accurate Monte Carlo code. This code is used in all the neutrino analyses. The Borexino-SOX calibration techniques and program and the advances on the detector simulation code in view of the start of the SOX data taking are presented. 1

  6. Sox4 is a key oncogenic target in C/EBPα mutant Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Alberich-Jordà, Meritxell; Amabile, Giovanni; Yang, Henry; Staber, Philipp B.; DiRuscio, Annalisa; Welner, Rob; Ebralidze, Alexander; Zhang, Junyan; Levantini, Elena; Lefebvre, Véronique; Valk, Peter J.M.; Delwel, Ruud; Hoogenkamp, Maarten; Nerlov, Claus; Cammenga, Jörg; Saez, Borja; Scadden, David T.; Bonifer, Constanze

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mutation or epigenetic silencing of the transcription factor C/EBPα is observed in ~10% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In both cases, a common global gene expression profile is observed, but down-stream targets relevant for leukemogenesis are not known. Here we identify Sox4 as a direct target of C/EBPα whereby its expression is inversely correlated with C/EBPα activity. Downregulation of Sox4 abrogated increased self-renewal of leukemic cells and restored their differentiation. Gene expression profiles of leukemia initiating cells (LICs) from both Sox4 overexpression and murine C/EBPα mutant AML models clustered together, but differed from other types of AML. Our data demonstrate that Sox4 overexpression resulting from C/EBPα inactivation contributes to the development of leukemia with a distinct LIC phenotype. PMID:24183681

  7. Comparison of Cellular Transforming Activity of OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 in Immortalized Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sunyoung; Jeon, Hee-Young; Kim, Hyunggee

    2017-09-21

    Embryonic stem cell factors-OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2-contribute to the maintenance of stem cell properties and malignant progression in various cancers, including glioblastoma. Although functional roles of each of these genes are well documented in stem cell and cancer biology, no study has directly compared their cellular transforming activity under same experimental conditions. In this study, we compared the cellular transforming activity of OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 using human immortalized astrocytes cultured under serum-free stem cell culture conditions. We found that SOX2 exhibited the strongest transforming activities, such as cell proliferation, neurosphere formation, resistance to cytotoxic drug, and cell migration/invasion, which may be associated with the activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling pathway. Thus, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2, known to be frequently activated in various cancers and cancer stem cells, may play a distinct role in the regulation of cellular transformation.

  8. Novel AKT phosphorylation sites identified in the pluripotency factors OCT4, SOX2 and KLF4.

    PubMed

    Malak, Peter N; Dannenmann, Benjamin; Hirth, Alexander; Rothfuss, Oliver C; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The four OSKM factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC are key transcription factors modulating pluripotency, self-renewal and tumorigenesis in stem cells. However, although their transcriptional targets have been extensively studied, little is known about how these factors are regulated at the posttranslational level. In this study, we established an in vitro system to identify phosphorylation patterns of the OSKM factors by AKT kinase. OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC were expressed in Sf9 insect cells employing the baculoviral expression system. OCT4, SOX2 and KLF4 were localized in the nucleus of insect cells, allowing their easy purification to near homogeneity upon nuclear fractionation. All transcription factors were isolated as biologically active DNA-binding proteins. Using in vitro phosphorylation and mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteome analyses several novel and known AKT phosphorylation sites could be identified in OCT4, SOX2 and KLF4.

  9. Reciprocal Repression between Sox3 and Snail Transcription Factors Defines Embryonic Territories at Gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Acloque, Hervé; Ocaña, Oscar H.; Matheu, Ander; Rizzoti, Karine; Wise, Clare; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Nieto, M. Angela

    2011-01-01

    Summary In developing amniote embryos, the first epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs at gastrulation, when a subset of epiblast cells moves to the primitive streak and undergoes EMT to internalize and generate the mesoderm and the endoderm. We show that in the chick embryo this decision to internalize is mediated by reciprocal transcriptional repression of Snail2 and Sox3 factors. We also show that the relationship between Sox3 and Snail is conserved in the mouse embryo and in human cancer cells. In the embryo, Snail-expressing cells ingress at the primitive streak, whereas Sox3-positive cells, which are unable to ingress, ensure the formation of ectodermal derivatives. Thus, the subdivision of the early embryo into the two main territories, ectodermal and mesendodermal, is regulated by changes in cell behavior mediated by the antagonistic relationship between Sox3 and Snail transcription factors. PMID:21920318

  10. Direct measurement of chemical composition of SOx in impact vapor using a laser gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Sohsuke; Kadono, Toshihiko; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Hamura, Taiga; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiro; Sugita, Seiji; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Watari, Takeshi; Matsui, Takafumi

    2011-06-01

    The SO3/SO2 ratio of the impact vapor cloud is a key parameter for understanding the environmental perturbation caused by the impact-induced SOx and the killing mechanism of. the mass extinction at the K-Pg boundary. We conducted hypervelocity impact experiments using a high-speed laser gun (GEKKO XII-HIPER, ILE, Osaka University) and measured the chemical compositions of the SOx released from CaSO4. The experimental result indicates that SOx are dominated by SO3. It implies that the SOx generated by the K-Pg impact would have been also dominated by SO3, because the SO3/SO2 ratio of natural planetary scale impact vapor clouds would have been larger than that of the experimental result of this study.

  11. Sox17 drives functional engraftment of endothelium converted from non-vascular cells

    PubMed Central

    Schachterle, William; Badwe, Chaitanya R.; Palikuqi, Brisa; Kunar, Balvir; Ginsberg, Michael; Lis, Raphael; Yokoyama, Masataka; Elemento, Olivier; Scandura, Joseph M.; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Transplanting vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to support metabolism and express regenerative paracrine factors is a strategy to treat vasculopathies and to promote tissue regeneration. However, transplantation strategies have been challenging to develop, because ECs are difficult to culture and little is known about how to direct them to stably integrate into vasculature. Here we show that only amniotic cells could convert to cells that maintain EC gene expression. Even so, these converted cells perform sub-optimally in transplantation studies. Constitutive Akt signalling increases expression of EC morphogenesis genes, including Sox17, shifts the genomic targeting of Fli1 to favour nearby Sox consensus sites and enhances the vascular function of converted cells. Enforced expression of Sox17 increases expression of morphogenesis genes and promotes integration of transplanted converted cells into injured vessels. Thus, Ets transcription factors specify non-vascular, amniotic cells to EC-like cells, whereas Sox17 expression is required to confer EC function. PMID:28091527

  12. An excretory function for the Escherichia coli outer membrane pore TolC: upregulation of marA and soxS transcription and Rob activity due to metabolites accumulated in tolC mutants.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-08-01

    Efflux pumps function to rid bacteria of xenobiotics, including antibiotics, bile salts, and organic solvents. TolC, which forms an outer membrane channel, is an essential component of several efflux pumps in Escherichia coli. We asked whether TolC has a role during growth in the absence of xenobiotics. Because tolC transcription is activated by three paralogous activators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, we examined the regulation of these activators in tolC mutants. Using transcriptional fusions, we detected significant upregulation of marRAB and soxS transcription and Rob protein activity in tolC mutants. Three mechanisms could be distinguished: (i) activation of marRAB transcription was independent of marRAB, soxR, and rob functions; (ii) activation of soxS transcription required SoxR, a sensor of oxidants; and (iii) Rob protein was activated posttranscriptionally. This mechanism is similar to the mechanisms of upregulation of marRAB, soxS, and Rob by treatment with certain phenolics, superoxides, and bile salts, respectively. The transcription of other marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters, including tolC itself, was also elevated in tolC mutants. We propose that TolC is involved in the efflux of certain cellular metabolites, not only xenobiotics. As these metabolites accumulate during growth, they trigger the upregulation of MarA, SoxS, and Rob, which in turn upregulate tolC and help rid the bacteria of these metabolites, thereby restoring homeostasis.

  13. Regulation of marA, soxS, rob, acrAB and micF in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Efrat; Ben-Shalom, Lior; Shachar, Dina; Matthews, Karl R; Yaron, Sima

    2008-12-01

    Importance of the overexpression of AcrAB efflux pumps in the low-level resistance of pathogens to antimicrobials requires a better understanding of the AcrAB regulation. The goal of the present research was to study the transcription of acrAB, as well as the genes that play a role in its regulation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We monitored the transcription of these genes during growth at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C, and thoroughly studied the effect of salicylate, paraquat and decanoate. The strengths of the promoters' activities were ordered from strong to weak as micF > rob > acrAB > soxS, marRAB. At both temperatures, marRAB was mainly upregulated by salicylate and decanoate, soxS by paraquat and acrAB and micF by all three compounds. rob was always downregulated. Transcription rates of all promoters were at the greatest level at the beginning of the stationary phase and, except for soxS, levels of transcription and induction were greater at 37 degrees C. Results show that despite the promoters' similar activity and the sequence homology between Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium, regulation of the investigated genes of both strains differed in the response to temperature. This difference was found to be dependent on the promoters' sequence, as the marRAB and acrAB promoters maintained their original dependence on temperature when they were analyzed in the other strain. Hence, it is most likely that the nutrient-limited environment at 37 degrees C in the human body will lead to increased transcription of marA, acrAB and micF in Salmonella, enhancing the resistance properties of the bacteria.

  14. Molecular networks involved in mouse cerebral corticogenesis and spatio-temporal regulation of Sox4 and Sox11 novel antisense transcripts revealed by transcriptome profiling.

    PubMed

    Ling, King-Hwa; Hewitt, Chelsee A; Beissbarth, Tim; Hyde, Lavinia; Banerjee, Kakoli; Cheah, Pike-See; Cannon, Ping Z; Hahn, Christopher N; Thomas, Paul Q; Smyth, Gordon K; Tan, Seong-Seng; Thomas, Tim; Scott, Hamish S

    2009-01-01

    Development of the cerebral cortex requires highly specific spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression. It is proposed that transcriptome profiling of the cerebral cortex at various developmental time points or regions will reveal candidate genes and associated molecular pathways involved in cerebral corticogenesis. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) libraries were constructed from C57BL/6 mouse cerebral cortices of age embryonic day (E) 15.5, E17.5, postnatal day (P) 1.5 and 4 to 6 months. Hierarchical clustering analysis of 561 differentially expressed transcripts showed regionalized, stage-specific and co-regulated expression profiles. SAGE expression profiles of 70 differentially expressed transcripts were validated using quantitative RT-PCR assays. Ingenuity pathway analyses of validated differentially expressed transcripts demonstrated that these transcripts possess distinctive functional properties related to various stages of cerebral corticogenesis and human neurological disorders. Genomic clustering analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts identified two highly transcribed genomic loci, Sox4 and Sox11, during embryonic cerebral corticogenesis. These loci feature unusual overlapping sense and antisense transcripts with alternative polyadenylation sites and differential expression. The Sox4 and Sox11 antisense transcripts were highly expressed in the brain compared to other mouse organs and are differentially expressed in both the proliferating and differentiating neural stem/progenitor cells and P19 (embryonal carcinoma) cells. We report validated gene expression profiles that have implications for understanding the associations between differentially expressed transcripts, novel targets and related disorders pertaining to cerebral corticogenesis. The study reports, for the first time, spatio-temporally regulated Sox4 and Sox11 antisense transcripts in the brain, neural stem/progenitor cells and P19 cells, suggesting they have an

  15. The transcription factor Sox9 is involved in BMP-2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zehentner, B K; Dony, C; Burtscher, H

    1999-10-01

    We investigated the regulation of Sox9, a transcription factor known to play a role in chondrogenesis, by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and hedgehog proteins in order to better understand their signaling function in endochondral bone formation. The mesenchymal progenitor cell line C3H10T1/2 was stimulated with BMP-2. Sox9 expression levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Northern analysis. We found that Sox9 was up-regulated by BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of Col2a1, a downstream response gene of Sox9, was also significantly increased upon BMP-2 addition. We also monitored Sox9 expression after the addition of BMP-2 to osteosarcoma cell lines; BMP-2 treatment increased Sox9 mRNA levels in MG63, considered to be early osteoblast-like, but not in human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS) cells, which are thought to be more advanced in the osteoblastic lineage. This response seems to be influenced by differences in BMP receptor expression; MG63 cells express BMP receptor IA (BMPR-IA), whereas HOS cells express BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB. We also saw an increase in Sox9 mRNA levels in BMP-2-treated primary human bone cells (HBCs) derived from femoral heads. We found that in addition to BMP-2, Sonic and Indian hedgehog can increase Sox9 expression in C3H10T1/2 and primary HBCs. Time course studies with C3H10T1/2 cells after BMP-2 stimulation showed increasing expression of cartilage markers, decrease of collagen I mRNA, and a late induction of osteocalcin expression. Moreover, the treatment of C3H10T1/2 cells with Sox9 antisense oligonucleotides revealed that Sox9 is a downstream mediator of BMP-2 affecting the expression of chondrocyte and osteoblast marker genes. Our data show that Sox9 is an important downstream mediator of the BMP-2 and hedgehog signaling pathways in osteogenic cells.

  16. Reduced Sox9 function promotes heart valve calcification phenotypes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Jacqueline D; Levay, Agata K; Gillaspie, Devin B; Tao, Ge; Lincoln, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Calcification of heart valve structures is the most common form of valvular disease and is characterized by the appearance of bone-like phenotypes within affected structures. Despite the clinical significance, the underlying etiology of disease onset and progression is largely unknown and valve replacement remains the most effective treatment. The SRY-related transcription factor Sox9 is expressed in developing and mature heart valves, and its function is required for expression of cartilage-associated proteins, similar to its role in chondrogenesis. In addition to cartilage-associated defects, mice with reduced sox9 function develop skeletal bone prematurely, however the ability of sox9 deficiency to promote ectopic osteogenic phenotypes in heart valves has not been examined. Objective This study aims to determine the role of Sox9 in maintaining connective tissue homeostasis in mature heart valves using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Methods and Results Using histological and molecular analyses we report that Sox9fl/+;Col2a1-cre mice develop calcific lesions in heart valve leaflets from 3 months of age associated with increased expression of bone-related genes and activation of inflammation and matrix remodeling processes. Consistently, ectopic calcification is also observed following direct knockdown of Sox9 in heart valves in vitro. Further, we show that retinoic acid treatment in mature heart valves is sufficient to promote calcific processes in vitro, which can be attenuated by Sox9 overexpression. Conclusions This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of heart valve calcification and identifies reduced Sox9 function as a potential genetic basis for calcific valvular disease. PMID:20056916

  17. SOX4 is essential for prostate tumorigenesis initiated by PTEN ablation | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding remains incomplete of the mechanisms underlying initiation and progression of prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men. The transcription factor SOX4 is overexpressed in many human cancers, including prostate cancer, suggesting it may participate in prostate tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated this possibility by genetically deleting Sox4 in a mouse model of prostate cancer initiated by loss of the tumor suppressor Pten.

  18. Cyclin D1-negative blastoid mantle cell lymphoma identified by SOX11 expression.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weifen; Fu, Kai; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Lim, Megan; Ondrejka, Sarah; Hsi, Eric D

    2012-02-01

    SOX11 expression has been recently shown to be useful in the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), including cyclin D1-negative MCL with typical morphology. We evaluated SOX11 expression pattern in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) subtypes to confirm specificity and used it as a feature to identify the first reported cases of cyclin D1-negative blastoid MCL. SOX11 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 140 cases of mature B-NHL, including 4 cases of suspected blastoid MCL that lacked cyclin D1 expression and 8 cases of CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). In addition, 5 cases of B or T lymphoblastic lymphoma were included. Nuclear expression of SOX11 was found in cyclin D1-positive MCL (30/30, 100%) and in a case of cyclin D1-negative MCL with typical morphology. SOX11 was also expressed in Burkitt lymphoma (1/5, 20%) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (2/3 T-LBLs, 2/2 B-LBLs, overall 4/5, 80%), whereas all cases of DLBL (including CD5 DLBL) and other small B-NHL were negative. The 4 suspected cases of blastoid MCL were also SOX11. These cases had a complex karyotype that included 12p abnormalities. We confirmed prior reports that stated that SOX11 nuclear expression was a specific marker for MCL, including cyclin D1-negative MCL with typical morphology. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding its use in identifying cases of cyclin D1-negative blastoid MCL. Routine use of SOX11 in cases of suspected CD5 DLBL might help identify additional cases of cyclin D1-negative blastoid MCL.

  19. 26 CFR 1.957-1 - Definition of controlled foreign corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section 958(b) and § 1.958-2, by United States shareholders on any day during the taxable year of such foreign corporation. For the definition of the term United States shareholder, see sections 951(b) and 953... company or insurance company as a shareholder, see section 7701(a)(8). (b) Percentage of total combined...

  20. 26 CFR 1.957-1 - Definition of controlled foreign corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section 958(b) and § 1.958-2, by United States shareholders on any day during the taxable year of such foreign corporation. For the definition of the term United States shareholder, see sections 951(b) and 953... company or insurance company as a shareholder, see section 7701(a)(8). (b) Percentage of total combined...

  1. TGF-β regulates phosphorylation and stabilization of Sox9 protein in chondrocytes through p38 and Smad dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Coricor, George; Serra, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Members of the TGF-β superfamily are important regulators of chondrocyte function. Sox9, a key transcriptional regulator of chondrogenesis, is required for TGF-β-mediated regulation of specific cartilage genes. TGF-β can signal through a canonical, Smad-mediated pathway or non-conical pathways, including p38. Here we show that both pathways are activated in chondrocytes after treatment with TGF-β and that TGF-β stabilizes Sox9 protein and increases phosphorylation of Sox9. Mutagenesis of potential serine phosphorylation sites on Sox9 was used to demonstrate that serine 211 is required to maintain normal basal levels of Sox9 as well as mediate increased Sox9 levels in response to TGF-β. The serine 211 site is in a motif that is targeted by p38 kinase. We used siRNA and pharmacological agents to show that p38 and Smad3 independently regulate the phosphorylation and stability of Sox9. Previously, we demonstrated that Papss2 is a downstream transcriptional target of Sox9 and TGF-β. Here we show that p38 is required for TGF-β-mediated regulation of Papss2 mRNA. Together the results suggest a new mechanism for TGF-β-mediated gene regulation in chondrocytes via p38 and phosphorylation and stabilization of Sox9. Understanding how TGF-β regulates Sox9 may lead to identification of therapeutic targets for OA. PMID:27929080

  2. 5-Azacytidine suppresses EC9706 cell proliferation and metastasis by upregulating the expression of SOX17 and CDH1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenli; Wu, Dan; Niu, Ziyu; Jiang, Dalei; Ma, Huan; He, Heming; Zuo, Xiuli; Xie, Xiangjun; He, Yuanlong

    2016-01-01

    5-Azacytidine is a well-known anticancer drug that is clinically used in the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and colon cancer. It has been reported that 5-azacytidine suppresses the biological behavior of esophageal cancer cells. However, corresponding mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using Transwell invasion and cell proliferation assays, we demonstrated that 5-azacytidine significantly inhibited the metastasis and proliferation of EC9706 cells, and upregulated the expression of cadherin 1 (CDH1) and SRY-box containing gene 17 (SOX17). Moreover, the inhibition of the metastasis of the 5-azacytidine-treated EC9706 cells was impaired following transfection with siRNA targeting CDH1 (CDH1 siRNA), and the inhibition of cell proliferation was attenuated following the downregulation of SOX17 by siRNA targeting SOX17 (SOX17 siRNA). Furthermore, 5-azacytidine remarkably reduced the CDH1 and SOX17 promoter methylation levels, suggesting that 5-azacytidine upregulates the expression of SOX17 and CDH1 by inhibiting the methylation of the SOX17 and CDH1 promoter. The findings of our study confirm that 5-azacytidine suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of EC9706 esophageal cancer cells by upregulating the expression of CDH1 and SOX17. The expression levels of CDH1 and SOX17 negatively correlate with the promoter methylation levels. CDH1 and SOX17 are potential indicators of the clinical application of 5-azacytidine. PMID:27513557

  3. Identification of the interplay between SOX9 and S100P in the metastasis and invasion of colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiyong; Deng, Haijun; Fang, Yuan; Zhu, Xianjun; Ye, Geng-Tai; Yan, Li; Liu, Hao; Li, Guoxin

    2015-08-21

    Elevated expression of S100P has been detected in several tumor types and suggested to be responsible for tumor metastasis and invasion, but the upstream regulatory mechanisms promoting S100P overexpression are largely unknown. Here, we report that SOX9 was predicted and verified as a transcription factor of S100P. SOX9 and S100P were both overexpressed in colon cancer. SOX9 bound to and activated the S100P promoter. Knockdown of SOX9 expression down-regulated S100P expression, resulting in reduced invasiveness and metastasis of colon cancer cells by inhibiting the activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)/ERK signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further, decreased expression of SOX9 dramatically inhibited the tumor growth and peritoneal metastasis in nude mice. More importantly, S100P was found to be critical for SOX9-mediated metastasis and invasion in colon cancer. Knockdown of S100P in SOX9-overexpressing colon cancer cells dramatically suppressed metastasis and invasion both in vitro and in mice. We also detected SOX9 and S100P expression in a tissue microarray with 90 colon cancer cases to provide their clinical relevance. There was a strong correlation between SOX9 and S100P expression in colon carcinomas. In conclusion, our results suggest that SOX9 promotes tumor metastasis and invasion through regulation of S100P expression.

  4. SOX2-LIN28/let-7 pathway regulates proliferation and neurogenesis in neural precursors.

    PubMed

    Cimadamore, Flavio; Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Chen, Connie; Huang, Chun-Teng; Terskikh, Alexey V

    2013-08-06

    The transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region)-box 2 (SOX2) is an important functional marker of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and plays a critical role in self-renewal and neuronal differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions are poorly understood. Using human embryonic stem cell-derived NPCs to model neurogenesis, we found that SOX2 is required to maintain optimal levels of LIN28, a well-characterized suppressor of let-7 microRNA biogenesis. Exogenous LIN28 expression rescued the NPC proliferation deficit, as well as the early but not the late stages of the neurogenic deficit associated with the loss of SOX2. We found that SOX2 binds to a proximal site in the LIN28 promoter region and regulates LIN28 promoter acetylation, likely through interactions with the histone acetyltransferase complex. Misexpression of let-7 microRNAs in NPCs reduced proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation, phenocopying the loss of SOX2. In particular, we identified let-7i as a novel and potent inhibitor of neuronal differentiation that targets MASH1 and NGN1, two well-characterized proneural genes. In conclusion, we discovered the SOX2-LIN28/let-7 pathway as a unique molecular mechanism governing NPC proliferation and neurogenic potential.

  5. SOX2–LIN28/let-7 pathway regulates proliferation and neurogenesis in neural precursors

    PubMed Central

    Cimadamore, Flavio; Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Chen, Connie; Huang, Chun-Teng; Terskikh, Alexey V.

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region)-box 2 (SOX2) is an important functional marker of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and plays a critical role in self-renewal and neuronal differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions are poorly understood. Using human embryonic stem cell-derived NPCs to model neurogenesis, we found that SOX2 is required to maintain optimal levels of LIN28, a well-characterized suppressor of let-7 microRNA biogenesis. Exogenous LIN28 expression rescued the NPC proliferation deficit, as well as the early but not the late stages of the neurogenic deficit associated with the loss of SOX2. We found that SOX2 binds to a proximal site in the LIN28 promoter region and regulates LIN28 promoter acetylation, likely through interactions with the histone acetyltransferase complex. Misexpression of let-7 microRNAs in NPCs reduced proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation, phenocopying the loss of SOX2. In particular, we identified let-7i as a novel and potent inhibitor of neuronal differentiation that targets MASH1 and NGN1, two well-characterized proneural genes. In conclusion, we discovered the SOX2–LIN28/let-7 pathway as a unique molecular mechanism governing NPC proliferation and neurogenic potential. PMID:23884650

  6. Transcription Factor SOX3 Is Involved in X-Linked Mental Retardation with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Laumonnier, Frédéric; Ronce, Nathalie; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Thomas, Paul; Lespinasse, James; Raynaud, Martine; Paringaux, Christine; van Bokhoven, Hans; Kalscheuer, Vera; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Chelly, Jamel; Moraine, Claude; Briault, Sylvain

    2002-01-01

    Physical mapping of the breakpoints of a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome (46,X,inv[X][p21q27]) in a female patient with mild mental retardation revealed localization of the Xp breakpoint in the IL1RAPL gene at Xp21.3 and the Xq breakpoint near the SOX3 gene (SRY [sex determining region Y]–box 3) (GenBank accession number NM_005634) at Xq26.3. Because carrier females with microdeletion in the IL1RAPL gene do not present any abnormal phenotype, we focused on the Xq breakpoint. However, we were unable to confirm the involvement of SOX3 in the mental retardation in this female patient. To validate SOX3 as an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) gene, we performed mutation analyses in families with XLMR whose causative gene mapped to Xq26-q27. We show here that the SOX3 gene is involved in a large family in which affected individuals have mental retardation and growth hormone deficiency. The mutation results in an in-frame duplication of 33 bp encoding for 11 alanines in a polyalanine tract of the SOX3 gene. The expression pattern during neural and pituitary development suggests that dysfunction of the SOX3 protein caused by the polyalanine expansion might disturb transcription pathways and the regulation of genes involved in cellular processes and functions required for cognitive and pituitary development. PMID:12428212

  7. Transcription factor SOX3 is involved in X-linked mental retardation with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Laumonnier, Frédéric; Ronce, Nathalie; Hamel, Ben C J; Thomas, Paul; Lespinasse, James; Raynaud, Martine; Paringaux, Christine; Van Bokhoven, Hans; Kalscheuer, Vera; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Chelly, Jamel; Moraine, Claude; Briault, Sylvain

    2002-12-01

    Physical mapping of the breakpoints of a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome (46,X,inv[X][p21q27]) in a female patient with mild mental retardation revealed localization of the Xp breakpoint in the IL1RAPL gene at Xp21.3 and the Xq breakpoint near the SOX3 gene (SRY [sex determining region Y]-box 3) (GenBank accession number NM_005634) at Xq26.3. Because carrier females with microdeletion in the IL1RAPL gene do not present any abnormal phenotype, we focused on the Xq breakpoint. However, we were unable to confirm the involvement of SOX3 in the mental retardation in this female patient. To validate SOX3 as an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) gene, we performed mutation analyses in families with XLMR whose causative gene mapped to Xq26-q27. We show here that the SOX3 gene is involved in a large family in which affected individuals have mental retardation and growth hormone deficiency. The mutation results in an in-frame duplication of 33 bp encoding for 11 alanines in a polyalanine tract of the SOX3 gene. The expression pattern during neural and pituitary development suggests that dysfunction of the SOX3 protein caused by the polyalanine expansion might disturb transcription pathways and the regulation of genes involved in cellular processes and functions required for cognitive and pituitary development.

  8. Disrupted SOX10 function causes spongiform neurodegeneration in gray tremor mice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sarah R.; Lee, Inyoul; Ebeling, Christine; Stephenson, Dennis A.; Schweitzer, Kelsey M.; Baxter, David; Moon, Tara M.; LaPierre, Sarah; Jaques, Benjamin; Silvius, Derek; Wegner, Michael; Hood, Leroy E.; Carlson, George; Gunn, Teresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Mice homozygous for the gray tremor (gt) mutation have a pleiotropic phenotype that includes pigmentation defects, megacolon, whole body tremors, sporadic seizures, hypo- and dysmyelination of the CNS and PNS, vacuolation of the CNS, and early death. Vacuolation similar to that caused by prions was originally reported to be transmissible, but subsequent studies showed the inherited disease was not infectious. The gt mutation mapped to distal mouse chromosome 15, to the same region as Sox10, which encodes a transcription factor with essential roles in neural crest survival and differentiation. As dominant mutations in mouse or human SOX10 cause white spotting and intestinal aganglionosis, we screened the Sox10 coding region for mutations in gt/gt DNA. An adenosine to guanine transversion was identified in exon 2 that changes a highly conserved glutamic acid residue in the SOX10 DNA binding domain to glycine. This mutant allele was not seen in wildtype mice, including the related GT/Le strain, and failed to complement a Sox10 null allele. Gene expression analysis revealed significant down-regulation of genes involved in myelin lipid biosynthesis pathways in gt/gt brains. Knockout mice for some of these genes develop CNS vacuolation and/or myelination defects, suggesting that their down-regulation may contribute to these phenotypes in gt mutants and could underlie the neurological phenotypes associated with Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy-Central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy-Waardenburg syndrome-Hirschsprung (PCWH) disease, caused by mutations in human SOX10. PMID:25399070

  9. Sox4 Expression Confers Bladder Cancer Stem Cell Properties and Predicts for Poor Patient Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, He; Blijlevens, Maxime; Yang, Nuo; Frangou, Costakis; Wilson, Kayla E.; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Yinglong; Zhang, Lirui; Morrison, Carl D.; Shepherd, Lori; Hu, Qiang; Zhu, Qianqian; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song; Zhang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified as to contribute directly or indirectly to the generation of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB). We have previously found that amplification of chromosome 6p22 is significantly associated with the muscle-invasive rather than superficial TCC-UB. Here, we demonstrated that Sox4, one of the candidate oncogenes located within the chromosome 6p22 amplicon, confers bladder cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. Down-regulation of Sox4 led to the inhibition of cell migration, colony formation as well as mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Interestingly, knockdown of Sox4 also reduced the sphere formation, enriched cell population with high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH high) and tumor formation potential. Using gene expression profiling, we further identified novel Sox4 target genes. Last, immunohistochemistry analysis of human bladder tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs) indicated that high Sox4 expression was correlated with advanced cancer stages and poor survival rate. In summary, our data show that Sox4 is an important regulator of the bladder CSC properties and it may serve as a biomarker of the aggressive phenotype in bladder cancer. PMID:26681916

  10. Lineage specification of Flk-1+ progenitors is associated with divergent Sox7 expression in cardiopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Timothy J; Chiriac, Anca; Faustino, Randolph S; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J; Behfar, Atta; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Embryonic stem cell differentiation recapitulates the diverse phenotypes of a developing embryo, traceable according to markers of lineage specification. At gastrulation, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, Flk-1 (KDR), identifies a mesoderm-restricted potential of embryonic stem cells. The multi-lineage propensity of Flk-1+ progenitors mandates the mapping of fate-modifying co-factors in order to stratify differentiating cytotypes and predict lineage competency. Here, Flk-1 based selection of early embryonic stem cell progeny separated a population depleted of pluripotent (Oct4, Sox2) and endoderm (Sox17) markers. The gene expression profile of the Flk-1+ population was notable for a significant upregulation in the vasculogenic Sox7 transcription factor, which overlapped with the emergence of primordial cardiac transcription factors GATA-4, Myocardin and Nkx2.5. Sorting the parental Flk-1+ pool with the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to enrich the cardiopoietic subpopulation uncovered divergent Sox7 expression, with a 7-fold induction in non-cardiac compared to cardiac progenitors. Bioinformatic resolution sequestered a framework gene expression relationships between Sox transcription factor family members and the Flk-1/CXCR4 axes with significant integration of β-catenin signaling. Thus, differential Sox7 gene expression presents a novel biomarker profile, and possible regulatory switch, to distinguish cardiovascular pedigrees within Flk-1+ multi-lineage progenitors. PMID:19272523

  11. Dynamics of SOX2 and CDX2 Expression in Barrett's Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Rita; Pereira, Daniela; Callé, Catarina; Camilo, Vânia; Cunha, Ana Isabel; Dias-Pereira, António

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the replacement of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium by a columnar lining epithelium. It is a premalignant condition for the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. BE is associated with gastroesophageal reflux which might change the expression profile of key transcription factors involved in the establishment of tissue differentiation, namely, SOX2 (associated with esophageal and gastric differentiation) and CDX2 (associated with intestinal differentiation). Here, we sought to characterize the expression profile of SOX2 and CDX2 in the sequential alterations of the esophageal mucosa towards adenocarcinoma and compare it with the well-established gastric and intestinal mucin profiles (MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC2). We observed that SOX2 and CDX2 expression correlates with gastric and intestinal differentiation in BE, defined by morphological parameters and mucin expression. We show the presence of a complete intestinal profile in BE, without gastric mucins and without SOX2, and we observed an evolutionary modulation of the metaplastic phenotype by SOX2 and CDX2. We observed that adenocarcinomas harbor more frequently a mixed gastric and intestinal phenotype. In conclusion, our study establishes a role for transcription factors SOX2 and CDX2 in the progression from gastric to gastrointestinal differentiation in Barrett's metaplasia. PMID:27766003

  12. Epigenetic activation of Sox2 gene in the developing vertebrate neural plate

    PubMed Central

    Bouzas, Santiago O.; Marini, Melisa S.; Torres Zelada, Eliana; Buzzi, Ailín L.; Morales Vicente, David A.; Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the earliest manifestations of neural induction is onset of expression of the neural marker Sox2, mediated by the activation of the enhancers N1 and N2. By using loss and gain of function, we find that Sox2 expression requires the activity of JmjD2A and the Msk1 kinase, which can respectively demethylate the repressive H3K9me3 mark and phosphorylate the activating H3S10 (H3S10ph) mark. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation reveals that the adaptor protein 14-3-3, known to bind to H3S10ph, interacts with JMJD2A and may be involved in its recruitment to regulatory regions of the Sox2 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals dynamic binding of JMJD2A to the Sox2 promoter and N-1 enhancer at the time of neural plate induction. Finally, we show a clear temporal antagonism on the occupancy of H3K9me3 and H3S10ph modifications at the promoter of the Sox2 locus before and after the neural plate induction. Taken together, our results propose a series of epigenetic events necessary for the early activation of the Sox2 gene in neural progenitor cells. PMID:27099369

  13. Dynamics of SOX2 and CDX2 Expression in Barrett's Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Barros, Rita; Pereira, Daniela; Callé, Catarina; Camilo, Vânia; Cunha, Ana Isabel; David, Leonor; Almeida, Raquel; Dias-Pereira, António; Chaves, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the replacement of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium by a columnar lining epithelium. It is a premalignant condition for the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. BE is associated with gastroesophageal reflux which might change the expression profile of key transcription factors involved in the establishment of tissue differentiation, namely, SOX2 (associated with esophageal and gastric differentiation) and CDX2 (associated with intestinal differentiation). Here, we sought to characterize the expression profile of SOX2 and CDX2 in the sequential alterations of the esophageal mucosa towards adenocarcinoma and compare it with the well-established gastric and intestinal mucin profiles (MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC2). We observed that SOX2 and CDX2 expression correlates with gastric and intestinal differentiation in BE, defined by morphological parameters and mucin expression. We show the presence of a complete intestinal profile in BE, without gastric mucins and without SOX2, and we observed an evolutionary modulation of the metaplastic phenotype by SOX2 and CDX2. We observed that adenocarcinomas harbor more frequently a mixed gastric and intestinal phenotype. In conclusion, our study establishes a role for transcription factors SOX2 and CDX2 in the progression from gastric to gastrointestinal differentiation in Barrett's metaplasia.

  14. miR-935 promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation by targeting SOX7.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Cui, Guozhong; Ding, Mingjian; Yang, Wenhua; Liu, Yanqing; Dai, Dianlu; Chen, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in the world, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical role in the development and progression of gastric cancer, such as miR-7, miR-217 and miR-335. Here, we found miR-935 was upregulated in gastric cancer tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-935 promoted cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in vitro determined by MTT analysis, colony formation analysis, BrdU cell proliferation analysis and soft agar growth analysis, knockdown of miR-935 reduced these effects. Tumor suppressor sex-determining region Y-box 7 (SOX7) was the direct target of miR-935, overexpression of miR-935 inhibited SOX7 expression, but promoted the levels CCND1 and C-MYC which promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, knockdown of miR-935 increased SOX7 level, and inhibited CCND1 and C-MYC expression. Synchronous knockdown of miR-935 and SOX7 promoted cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in vitro, confirming miR-935 regulated gastric cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting SOX7. In summary, we found miR-935 contributed to cell proliferation of gastric cancer through targeting SOX7.

  15. Sox2 gene amplification significantly impacts overall survival in serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Belotte, Jimmy; Fletcher, Nicole M; Alexis, Mitchell; Morris, Robert T; Munkarah, Adnan R; Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan M

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Recently, the existence of ovarian cancer stem cells has been reported. Sox2, Nanog and Oct4 are key markers of "stemness". The objective of this study was to determine whether Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4 are associated with EOC and poor outcome. The expression of these markers was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and real-time RT-PCR in human EOC cell lines MDAH-2774 and SKOV-3, while the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) dataset was analyzed for associations with survival. Sox2, Nanog and Oct4 (POU5F1) were all detected by immunofluorescence staining and these results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. The TCGA dataset revealed a 26%, 9%, and 6% amplification of Sox2, Nanog and POU5F1, respectively. Additionally, K-M survival analyses showed a significant median overall survival difference (41 versus 48.3 months, P = .01) for Sox2 amplification, but not for Nanog (44.1 versus 36.2 months, P > .05) and POU5F1 (43.5 versus 45.0 months, P > .05). Our results suggest that Sox2 gene amplification significantly influences overall survival. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Mutations in SOX9, the gene responsible for campomelic dysplasia and autosomal sex reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, C.; Weller, P.A.; Guioli, S.

    1995-11-01

    Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal malformation syndrome frequently accompanied by 46,XY sex reversal. A mutation-screening strategy using SSCP was employed to identify mutations in SOX9, the chromosome 17q24 gene responsible for CD and autosomal sex reversal in man. We have screened seven CD patients with no cytologically detectable chromosomal aberrations and two CD patients with chromosome 17 rearrangements for mutations in the entire open reading frame of SOX9. Five different mutations have been identified in six CD patients: two missense mutations in the SOX9 putative DNA binding domain (high mobility group, or HMG, box); three frameshift mutations and a splice-acceptor mutation. An identical frameshift mutation is found in two unrelated 46,XY patients, one exhibiting a male phenotype and the other displaying a female phenotype (XY sex reversal). All mutations found affect a single allele, which is consistent with a dominant mode of inheritance. No mutations were found in the SOX9 open reading frame of two patients with chromosome 17q rearrangements, suggesting that the translocations affect SOX9 expression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that CD results from haploinsufficiency of SOX9. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Ablation of the Sox11 Gene Results in Clefting of the Secondary Palate Resembling the Pierre Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huarong; Yang, Xiaojuan; Bao, Meiling; Cao, Huanhuan; Miao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Gan, Lin; Qiu, Mengsheng; Zhang, Zunyi

    2016-03-25

    Mouse gene inactivation has shown that the transcription factor Sox11 is required for mouse palatogenesis. However, whether Sox11 is primarily involved in the regulation of palatogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we explored the role ofSox11in palatogenesis by analyzing the developmental mechanism in cleft palate formation in mutants deficient in Sox11. Sox11 is expressed both in the developing palatal shelf and in the surrounding structures, including the mandible. We found that cleft palate occurs only in the mutant in which Sox11is directly deleted. As in the wild type, the palatal shelves in the Sox11 mutant undergo outgrowth in a downward direction and exhibit potential for fusion and elevation. However, mutant palatal shelves encounter clefting, which is associated with a malpositioned tongue that results in physical obstruction of palatal shelf elevation at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5). We found that loss of Sox11led to reduced cell proliferation in the developing mandibular mesenchyme via Cyclin D1, leading to mandibular hypoplasia, which blocks tongue descent. Extensive analyses of gene expression inSox11 deficiency identified FGF9 as a potential candidate target of Sox11 in the modulation of cell proliferation both in the mandible and the palatal shelf between E12.5 and E13.5. Finally we show, using in vitro assays, that Sox11 directly regulates the expression of Fgf9 and that application of FGF9 protein to Sox11-deficient palatal shelves restores the rate of BrdU incorporation. Taken together, the palate defects presented in the Sox11 loss mutant mimic the clefting in the Pierre Robin sequence in humans. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Ablation of the Sox11 Gene Results in Clefting of the Secondary Palate Resembling the Pierre Robin Sequence*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huarong; Yang, Xiaojuan; Bao, Meiling; Cao, Huanhuan; Miao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Gan, Lin; Qiu, Mengsheng; Zhang, Zunyi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse gene inactivation has shown that the transcription factor Sox11 is required for mouse palatogenesis. However, whether Sox11 is primarily involved in the regulation of palatogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we explored the role of Sox11 in palatogenesis by analyzing the developmental mechanism in cleft palate formation in mutants deficient in Sox11. Sox11 is expressed both in the developing palatal shelf and in the surrounding structures, including the mandible. We found that cleft palate occurs only in the mutant in which Sox11 is directly deleted. As in the wild type, the palatal shelves in the Sox11 mutant undergo outgrowth in a downward direction and exhibit potential for fusion and elevation. However, mutant palatal shelves encounter clefting, which is associated with a malpositioned tongue that results in physical obstruction of palatal shelf elevation at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5). We found that loss of Sox11 led to reduced cell proliferation in the developing mandibular mesenchyme via Cyclin D1, leading to mandibular hypoplasia, which blocks tongue descent. Extensive analyses of gene expression in Sox11 deficiency identified FGF9 as a potential candidate target of Sox11 in the modulation of cell proliferation both in the mandible and the palatal shelf between E12.5 and E13.5. Finally we show, using in vitro assays, that Sox11 directly regulates the expression of Fgf9 and that application of FGF9 protein to Sox11-deficient palatal shelves restores the rate of BrdU incorporation. Taken together, the palate defects presented in the Sox11 loss mutant mimic the clefting in the Pierre Robin sequence in humans. PMID:26826126

  19. Loss of SOX9 Expression Is Associated with PSA Recurrence in ERG-Positive and PTEN Deleted Prostate Cancers.

    PubMed

    Burdelski, Christoph; Bujupi, Erzen; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Hube-Magg, Claudia; Kluth, Martina; Melling, Nathaniel; Lebok, Patrick; Minner, Sarah; Koop, Christina; Graefen, Markus; Heinzer, Hans; Wittmer, Corinna; Sauter, Guido; Wilczak, Waldemar; Simon, Ronald; Schlomm, Thorsten; Steurer, Stefan; Krech, Till

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX9 plays a crucial role in normal prostate development and has been suggested to drive prostate carcinogenesis in concert with PTEN inactivation. To evaluate the clinical impact of SOX9 and its relationship with key genomic alterations in prostate cancer, SOX9 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancers. Data on ERG status and deletions of PTEN, 3p13, 5q21 and 6q15 were available from earlier studies. SOX9 expression levels were comparable in luminal cells of normal prostate glands (50% SOX9 positive) and 3,671 cancers lacking TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (55% SOX9 positive), but was markedly increased in 3,116 ERG-fusion positive cancers (81% SOX9 positive, p<0.0001). While no unequivocal changes in the SOX9 expression levels were found in different stages of ERG-negative cancers, a gradual decrease of SOX9 paralleled progression to advanced stage, high Gleason grade, metastatic growth, and presence of PTEN deletions in ERG-positive cancers (p<0.0001 each). SOX9 levels were unrelated to deletions of 3p, 5q, and 6q. Down-regulation of SOX9 expression was particularly strongly associated with PSA recurrence in ERG-positive tumors harboring PTEN deletions (p=0.001), but had no significant effect in ERG-negative cancers or in tumors with normal PTEN copy numbers. In summary, the results of our study argue against a tumor-promoting role of SOX9 in prostate cancer, but demonstrate that loss of SOX9 expression characterizes a particularly aggressive subset of ERG positive cancers harboring PTEN deletions.

  20. Adsorption of SOx and NOx in activated viscose fibers.

    PubMed

    Plens, Ana Carolina O; Monaro, Daniel L G; Coutinho, Aparecido R

    2015-01-01

    SOx and NOx are emissions resulting from combustion processes and are the main agents that contribute to the formation of acid rain, which causes harm to humans and the environment. Several techniques for removing these pollutants are applied in i.e. oil refineries, thermoelectric that use petroleum oils and vehicular pollution. Among these, highlight the adsorption of contaminants by the usage of activated carbon fibers and activated carbon, which are characterized by high surface area and uniform distribution of pores, providing appropriate conditions for application in processes of removing environmental contaminants. In the present work, activated viscose fibers (AVF) were prepared and applied in adsorption experiments of NO and SO2. The materials produced showed high values of surface area, with a predominance of micro pores with diameters in the range of 1.0 nm. The AVF had satisfactory performance in the removal of contaminants and are compatible with other synthetic fibers. Thus, the formation of active sites of carbon provides contaminants adsorption, demonstrating that carbon fibers cloth can be applied for the removal of pollutants.

  1. Sox10 contributes to the balance of fate choice in dorsal root ganglion progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Madelaine, Romain; Busolin, Giorgia; Nikaido, Masataka; Colanesi, Sarah; Camargo-Sosa, Karen; Toppo, Stefano; Blader, Patrick; Tiso, Natascia; Kelsh, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    The development of functional peripheral ganglia requires a balance of specification of both neuronal and glial components. In the developing dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), these components form from partially-restricted bipotent neuroglial precursors derived from the neural crest. Work in mouse and chick has identified several factors, including Delta/Notch signaling, required for specification of a balance of these components. We have previously shown in zebrafish that the Sry-related HMG domain transcription factor, Sox10, plays an unexpected, but crucial, role in sensory neuron fate specification in vivo. In the same study we described a novel Sox10 mutant allele, sox10baz1, in which sensory neuron numbers are elevated above those of wild-types. Here we investigate the origin of this neurogenic phenotype. We demonstrate that the supernumerary neurons are sensory neurons, and that enteric and sympathetic neurons are almost absent just as in classical sox10 null alleles; peripheral glial development is also severely abrogated in a manner similar to other sox10 mutant alleles. Examination of proliferation and apoptosis in the developing DRG reveals very low levels of both processes in wild-type and sox10baz1, excluding changes in the balance of these as an explanation for the overproduction of sensory neurons. Using chemical inhibition of Delta-Notch-Notch signaling we demonstrate that in embryonic zebrafish, as in mouse and chick, lateral inhibition during the phase of trunk DRG development is required to achieve a balance between glial and neuronal numbers. Importantly, however, we show that this mechanism is insufficient to explain quantitative aspects of the baz1 phenotype. The Sox10(baz1) protein shows a single amino acid substitution in the DNA binding HMG domain; structural analysis indicates that this change is likely to result in reduced flexibility in the HMG domain, consistent with sequence-specific modification of Sox10 binding to DNA. Unlike other Sox10

  2. The C. elegans SoxC protein SEM-2 opposes differentiation factors to promote a proliferative blast cell fate in the postembryonic mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chenxi; Shi, Herong; Colledge, Clark; Stern, Michael; Waterston, Robert; Liu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The proper development of multicellular organisms requires precise regulation and coordination of cell fate specification, cell proliferation and differentiation. Abnormal regulation and coordination of these processes could lead to disease, including cancer. We have examined the function of the sole C. elegans SoxC protein, SEM-2, in the M lineage, which produces the postembryonic mesoderm. We found that SEM-2/SoxC is both necessary and sufficient to promote a proliferating blast cell fate, the sex myoblast fate, over a differentiated striated bodywall muscle fate. A number of factors control the specific expression of sem-2 in the sex myoblast precursors and their descendants. This includes direct control of sem-2 expression by a Hox-PBC complex. The crucial nature of the HOX/PBC factors in directly enhancing expression of this proliferative factor in the C. elegans M lineage suggests a possible more general link between Hox-PBC factors and SoxC proteins in regulating cell proliferation. PMID:21307099

  3. CD133 is a marker of gland-forming cells in gastric tumors and Sox17 is involved in its regulation.

    PubMed

    Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Shu; Ito, Kosei; Ito, Yoshiaki; Yuasa, Yasuhito

    2011-07-01

    CD133 is a universal marker of tissue stem/progenitor cells as well as cancer stem cells, but its physiological significance remains to be elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between expression of CD133 and features of gastric epithelial cells, and found that CD133-positive (CD133[+]) tumor cell lines formed well-differentiated tumors while CD133-negative (CD133[-]) lines formed poorly differentiated ones when subcutaneously injected into nude mice. We also found that CD133(+) and CD133(-) cell populations co-existed in some cell lines. FACS analysis showed that CD133(+) cells were mother cells because CD133(+) cells formed both CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells, but CD133(-) cells did not form CD133(+) cells. In these cell lines, CD133(+) cells formed well-differentiated tumors while CD133(-) cells formed poorly differentiated ones. In human gastric cancers, CD133 was exclusively expressed on the luminal surface membrane of gland-forming cells, and it was never found on poorly differentiated diffuse-type cells. Considering that poorly differentiated tumors often develop from well-differentiated tumors during tumor progression, these results suggest that loss of expression of CD133 might be related to gastric tumor progression. Microarray analysis showed that CD133(+) cells specifically expressed Sox17, a tumor suppressor in gastric carcinogenesis. Forced expression of SOX17 induced expression of CD133 in CD133(-) cells, and reduction of SOX17 caused by siRNA in CD133(+) cells induced a reduction in the level of CD133. These results indicate that Sox17 might be a key transcription factor controlling CD133 expression, and that it might also play a role in the control of gastric tumor progression. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. Association study between polymorphisms of PRMT6, PEX10, SOX5, and nonobstructive azoospermia in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shasha; Li, Zheng; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Tingting; Song, Pingping; Chen, Jianhua; He, Xiaojin; Xu, Peng; Liang, Ming; Luo, Kailing; Zhu, Xiaobin; Tian, Erpo; Du, Qiang; Wen, Zujia; Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Meng; Sha, Yanwei; Cao, Yunxia; Shi, Yongyong; Hu, Hongliang

    2014-05-01

    A previous genomewide association study of nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) in the Han Chinese population identified three risk loci (rs12097821, rs2477686, and rs10842262) and provided strong evidence for a genetic influence in male infertility. However, recently, a follow-up study of these single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in the Japanese population showed that none of them were significantly associated with NOA. Therefore, we conducted an association study, consisting of 550 NOA cases and 555 normal controls, to further validate whether the risk of those three SNPs still existed in an independent Han Chinese male population. The association studies did not support the association of rs12097821 and rs2477686 with NOA for both genotype and allele distributions, but rs10842262 in the SOX5 gene was significantly associated with NOA (chi square = 9.31; P = 0.0095 and chi square = 9.27; P = 0.0023, respectively). Our study provides genetic evidence for SOX5 polymorphism in NOA, contributing to predicting males at high risk of NOA in Han Chinese population. Considering genetic differences among populations, future validating studies in independent samples are suggested.

  5. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Results Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. Conclusions The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy. PMID:22313843