Science.gov

Sample records for defoliation performance late

  1. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  2. Defoliation and below-ground herbivory in the grass Muhlenbergiaquadridentata : Effects on plant performance and on the root-feeder Phyllophaga sp. (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae).

    PubMed

    Morón-Ríos, A; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Jaramillo, V J

    1997-04-01

    In this study we evaluated (1) the combined effects of simulated defoliation and below-ground herbivory (BGH) on the biomass and nitrogen content of tillers and roots of the bunchgrass Muhlenbergia quadridentata and (2) the effect of defoliation on the survival of third-instar root-feeder larvae of Phyllophaga sp. The experiment was performed in a pine forest area at an altitude of 3200 m above sea level. The grass and the root-feeder species were native and dominant in the understory and in the macroarthropod root-feeder communities, respectively. Plants were established in pots in the field and were subjected to the following treatments in a factorial design: simulated defoliation (three levels) and BGH (with or without root-feeder larvae) with ten replicates per treatment. Plants were defoliated three times at 2-month intervals. The interaction between defoliation and root herbivory was significant for all components of plant biomass. In every case, light defoliation with BGH decreased live above-ground, root and total plant biomass, and the number of live tillers by more than 50% with respect to the same defoliation level without root-feeders. Plants apparently did not compensate for the carbon drain by root-feeders when a high proportion of older leaves were not removed by defoliation. Plants under heavy defoliation were not affected by the presence of root-feeders and showed a greater live/dead above-ground biomass ratio than lightly defoliated and control plants. Defoliation and BGH did not change tiller and root N concentrations but root herbivores did decrease live-tiller N content in lightly defoliated plants. Root-feeders but not defoliation decreased the root/shoot ratio by 40% and the live/dead above-ground biomass ratio by 45% through increased tiller mortality. Survivorship and final biomass of Phyllophaga sp. larvae were not affected by defoliation treatments during the 6-month study period.

  3. Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K.

    1998-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to interact with other factors affecting plant physiology to alter plant chemical profiles and plant-herbivore interactions. The authors evaluated the independent and interactive effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and artificial defoliation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and the consequences of such changes for short-term performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). They grew aspen and maple seedlings in ambient and enriched CO{sub 2} environments at the University of wisconsin Biotron. Seven weeks after budbreak, trees in half of the rooms were subjected to 50% defoliation. Afterwards, foliage was collected for chemical analyses, and feeding trials were conducted with fourth-stadium gypsy moths. Enriched CO{sub 2} altered foliar levels of water, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and phenolics, and responses generally differed between the two tree species. Defoliation induced chemical changes only in aspen. They found no significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and defoliation for levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolic glycosides and tannins). CO{sub 2} treatment altered the performance of larvae fed aspen, but not maple, whereas defoliation had little effect on performance on insects. In general, results from this experimental system do not support the hypothesis that induction of carbon-based chemical defenses, and attendant effects on insects, will be stronger in a CO{sub 2}-enriched world.

  4. Effects of Rag1 on the preference and performance of soybean defoliators.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Robert F; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-12-01

    The Rag1 gene confers antibiotic resistance to soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and in 2010, varieties expressing Rag1 were released for commercial use in the United States. We do not know how Rag1 varieties will influence the broader community of defoliating insects that inhabit soybean fields. In 2010 and 2011, the preference and performance of pest insects that defoliate soybeans [Glycines max (L.) Merr] were tested using Rag1 and aphid-susceptible varieties. Three coleopterans and four lepidopterans were used: northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trsifurcata Förster (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); soybean looper, Chrysodeix includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and velvet-bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The preference of insects was evaluated in choice and no-choice tests using Rag1 and susceptible soybeans. Lepidopterans also were evaluated on Rag1 leaves using four nutritional indices: relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, and efficiency of conversion of ingested material. In the majority of preference tests, no effect of Rag1 was detected, and in cases where preferences were found, there was no consistent pattern of preference for Rag1 vs. susceptible leaf tissue. Helicoverpa zea demonstrated a preference for resistant leaf tissue, but this was dependent on the genetic background of the variety. Evaluations of nutritional indices indicated that three species of Lepidoptera, S. frugiperda, H. zea, and A. gemmatalis, displayed reduced conversion efficiency for Rag1 soybeans, suggesting effects of antibiosis.

  5. Thermal defoliation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  6. Spraying Hydrangea Leaves with Chemical Defoliants, Urea, and GA in the Autumn Alters Defoliation Efficiency and Growth and Flowering Performance of Hydrangea during Forcing.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In two separate experiments, Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ plants were used to study the effects of foliar sprays of Def-6 (Def, 2500, 5000, 7500 and 10000ppm), giberellic acid, (GA, 50ppm), copper-EDTA (CuEDTA, 0.5% and 1.0%), Florel (F, 2000ppm) and urea (U, 3%) on defoliation in the a...

  7. Efficiency of Tank-Mixing Insecticide with Defoliant Against Adult Boll Weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) Populations as Determined by Late-Season Field Disturbance Trapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large commercial field plots were used to assess the effect of tank-mixing cyfluthrin with a defoliant applied in preparation for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., harvest on adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, populations in south Texas during 2002 and 2003. The defoliant-insectici...

  8. Forest insect defoliators

    Treesearch

    Philip T. Marshall

    1989-01-01

    Defoliation is the removal of all or part of the foliage from the tree. Forest insects are the primary agents that can cause defoliation. They produce the widespread, noticeable defoliation that forest landowners, foresters, and the general public can easily recognize.

  9. [Determination of eight defoliant residues in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Dong, Suozhuai; Pan, Lulu; Zhao, Shanhong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Fanglong; Li, Dan

    2013-07-01

    A novel method has been developed for the rapid extraction and determination of eight defoliants including thidiazuron, butiphos, methabenzthiazuron, abscisic acid, carfentra-zone-ethyl, diuron, paraquat, and pyrithiobac-sodium in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The defoliants in cotton were extracted by ASE and the extracts were dried by a rotavapor, then redissolved in the solvents of acetonitrile and water (1:9, v/v). The chromatographic analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mmx 2. 1 mm, 1. 8 microm) by a gradient elution employing of acetonitrile and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Good linearities (r >0.99) were observed between 0. 01 and 0. 3 mg/L for all the compounds. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained by spiking untreated samples with the eight defoliants at 0. 1, 0. 5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the eight defoliants were from (84. 18 +/- 8.04)% to (95.99 +/- 6.76)%. The precision values expressed as RSDs were from 7. 04% to 10. 60% (n = 6). The limits of detection were 0. 8 - 29 microg/kg and the limits of quantification were 2.5 - 96 1/4g/kg for the analytes. The results ahowed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the quantitative determination and confirmation of the eight defoliants in cotton.

  10. Effects of spring defoliation on first-year growth of young loblolly and slash pines

    Treesearch

    David R. Weise; Ragnar W. Johansen; Dale D. Wade

    1987-01-01

    Partial and complete spring defoliation reduced first-year diameter, height, and volume growth of 4-year-old loblolly and slash pines. Early and late growth differed significantly between defoliation levels (P=0.05). However, the number of height growth flushes produced during the 1986 growing season was not affected by defoliation treatments. No mortality occurred...

  11. Wood formation in Abies balsamea seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sergio; Simard, Sonia; Deslauriers, Annie; Morin, Hubert

    2009-04-01

    We determined the cambial sensitivity and quantified the anatomical differences in xylem of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation to simulate spruce budworm feeding. Defoliation was performed by removing two-thirds of needles of all current-year shoots for up to four consecutive growth cycles to account for inter- and intra-annual xylem formation. In Experiment 1, xylem development was studied from May to October 2005 in seedlings defoliated at the end of June. In Experiment 2, anatomical features of the xylem were measured along the tree rings formed in 2005 and 2006 during the four cycles of growth and defoliation. Control and defoliated seedlings showed similar patterns of cambial activity and timing of xylem differentiation, although fewer enlarging cells were observed in August to September in defoliated seedlings. Tree-ring widths were similar in control and defoliated seedlings, with thinner rings produced in the greenhouse in winter. No effect of defoliation on cell lumen area was observed, and effects on radial cell diameter and wall thickness were found only occasionally. The results indicate that the A. balsamea seedlings produced all the resources required to maintain stem growth during the four cycles of defoliation.

  12. Growth and mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in response to artificial defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulinier, Julien; Lorenzetti, François; Bergeron, Yves

    2014-02-01

    To simulate the effects of forest tent caterpillar (FTC) defoliation on trembling aspen growth and mortality, an artificial defoliation experiment was performed over three years in young aspen stands of northwestern Quebec. Defoliation plots of 15 × 15 m were established on three sites, together with associated control stands of pure trembling aspen. In 2007, root collar diameters were measured and positions of all trees were mapped prior defoliation. Severe FTC defoliation was simulated for three successive years (2007-2009) by manually removing all leaves from all but 7-10% of the trees present in the defoliation plots. Yearly surveys of growth and mortality were conducted until 2010 to evaluate defoliation effects on defoliated as well as surrounding undefoliated trees. In absence of other factors, growth and mortality of trembling aspen decreased and increased, respectively, after defoliation. Our study further revealed that small diameter trees died after one year of artificial defoliation, while larger-diameter trees died after repeated defoliations. Distributions of tree mortality tended to be aggregated at small scales (<5 m), corroborating gap patterns observed in mature stands following FTC outbreaks. This experiment revealed that trembling aspen mortality can be directly attributed solely to defoliation. Repeated defoliations during FTC outbreaks have the potential to profoundly modify stand productivity and structure by reducing tree growth and increasing tree mortality in the absence of predisposing factors.

  13. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  14. Defoliation potential of gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; David A. Drake; Stanford L. Arner; Rachel R. Hershey; Susan L. King; Susan L. King

    1993-01-01

    A model that uses forest stand characteristics to estimate the likelihood of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation has been developed. It was applied to recent forest inventory plot data to produce susceptibility ratings and maps showing current defoliation potential in a seven-state area where gypsy moth is an immediate threat.

  15. Defoliation reduces soil biota - and modifies stimulating effects of elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Dam, Marie; Christensen, Søren

    2015-11-01

    To understand the responses to external disturbance such as defoliation and possible feedback mechanisms at global change in terrestrial ecosystems, it is necessary to examine the extent and nature of effects on aboveground-belowground interactions. We studied a temperate heathland system subjected to experimental climate and atmospheric factors based on prognoses for year 2075 and further exposed to defoliation. By defoliating plants, we were able to study how global change modifies the interactions of the plant-soil system. Shoot production, root biomass, microbial biomass, and nematode abundance were assessed in the rhizosphere of manually defoliated patches of Deschampsia flexuosa in June in a full-factorial FACE experiment with the treatments: increased atmospheric CO 2, increased nighttime temperatures, summer droughts, and all of their combinations. We found a negative effect of defoliation on microbial biomass that was not apparently affected by global change. The negative effect of defoliation cascades through to soil nematodes as dependent on CO 2 and drought. At ambient CO 2, drought and defoliation each reduced nematodes. In contrast, at elevated CO 2, a combination of drought and defoliation was needed to reduce nematodes. We found positive effects of CO 2 on root density and microbial biomass. Defoliation affected soil biota negatively, whereas elevated CO 2 stimulated the plant-soil system. This effect seen in June is contrasted by the effects seen in September at the same site. Late season defoliation increased activity and biomass of soil biota and more so at elevated CO 2. Based on soil biota responses, plants defoliated in active growth therefore conserve resources, whereas defoliation after termination of growth results in release of resources. This result challenges the idea that plants via exudation of organic carbon stimulate their rhizosphere biota when in apparent need of nutrients for growth.

  16. Simple sequence repeat marker associated with a natural leaf defoliation trait in tetraploid cotton.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Abdullaev, A A; Saha, S; Buriev, Z T; Arslanov, D; Kuryazov, Z; Mavlonov, G T; Rizaeva, S M; Reddy, U K; Jenkins, J N; Abdullaev, A; Abdukarimov, A

    2005-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf defoliation has a significant ecological and economical impact on cotton production. Thus the utilization of a natural leaf defoliation trait, which exists in wild diploid cotton species, in the development of tetraploid cultivated cotton will not only be cost effective, but will also facilitate production of very high-grade fiber. The primary goal of our research was to tag loci associated with natural leaf defoliation using microsatellite markers in Upland cotton. The F2 populations developed from reciprocal crosses between the two parental cotton lines--AN-Boyovut-2 (2n = 52), a late leaf defoliating type, and Listopad Beliy (2n = 52), a naturally early leaf defoliating type--demonstrated that the naturally early leaf defoliation trait has heritability values of 0.74 and 0.84 in the reciprocal F2 population. The observed phenotypic segregation difference in reciprocal crosses suggested a minor cytoplasmic effect in the phenotypic expression of the naturally early leaf defoliation trait. Results from the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) nonparametric test revealed that JESPR-13 (KW = 6.17), JESPR-153 (KW = 9.97), and JESPR-178 (KW = 13.45) Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are significantly associated with natural leaf defoliation in the mapping population having stable estimates at empirically obtained critical thresholds (P < .05-.0001). JESPR-178 revealed the highest estimates (P < .0001) for association with the natural leaf defoliation trait, exceeding maximum empirical threshold values. JESPR-178 was assigned to the short arm of chromosome 18, suggesting indirectly that genes associated with natural leaf defoliation might be located on this chromosome. This microsatellite marker may have the potential for use to introgress the naturally early leaf defoliation quantitative trait loci (QTL) from the donor line Listopad Beliy to commercial varieties of cotton through marker-assisted selection programs.

  17. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These data shows the historical frequency (1972-2002) pattern of gypsy moth defoliation as it spreads south and west from the New England states. forested areas with repeated annual defoliation become more stressed and are at increased risk of permanent damage. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  18. Sagebrush defoliator outbreak in Northern California

    Treesearch

    Ralph C. Hall

    1965-01-01

    The sagebrush defoliator was responsible for varying degrees of sagebrush defoliation and mortality over a widespread area in southeastern Oregon, northeastern California, and northwestern Nevada in 1963 and 1964. Severe defoliation sometimes killed sagebrush in a single season. Indications are that the outbreak will continue at least another season. A....

  19. The Virgin River Tamarisk Defoliation by Diorhabda carinulata: It's Effects on Evapotranspiration Rates and Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueki, S.; Healey, J. M.; Acharya, K.

    2013-12-01

    Saltcedar (tamarisk; Tamarix spp) has become the most widespread invasive plant species in the western United States. Waterways and their corridors have evolved into mono-species stands of saltcedar. Chemical and mechanical methods of tamarisk eradication have been partially effective and prove to be expensive and cause irrepressible damage to natural resources. In the late 1960s, biological control program began in order to reduce the risk of damaging native plants. In 2001, Diorhabda elongate (leaf beetles) was released for open field tests followed by other releases in several locations in the western United States. One of the successful releases occurred in St. George, UT along the Virgin River in 2006. The last few years has seen establishment of large scale populations in the lower Virgin River. Eddy covariance (EC) tower including groundwater monitoring well was set up along the Virgin River near Mesquite, NV in 2010 to monitor effects of tamarisk defoliation on evapotranspiration (ET). Initial 2010 data (pre-beetle) established a baseline for characterization of tamarisk ET and groundwater consumption prior to defoliation of tamarisk. The beetles arrived at the site in late 2010 and established a healthy population at the growing season of 2011. 2010 data compared to the episodic herbivore events, observed at the site in 2011 and 2012, clearly show the direct impact of tamarisk defoliation. The results show that the post-defoliation ET values along with magnitude of diurnal fluctuations, found in the water level record, decreased compared to the pre-defoliation values. However, magnitude of the effects of defoliation seemed to be dependent on growth stage of tamarisk at the time of defoliation. Also, the defoliation periods are short lived as tamarisk quickly recovered and establish new growth. In 2012, the defoliation occurred twice since tamarisk re-foliated quickly after the first defoliation by late summer before beetles started overwintering

  20. Selective defoliation affects plant growth, fruit transcriptional ripening program and flavonoid metabolism in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The selective removal of grapevine leaves around berry clusters can improve the quality of ripening fruits by influencing parameters such as the berry sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. The outcome depends strongly on the timing of defoliation, which influences the source–sink balance and the modified microclimate surrounding the berries. We removed the basal leaves from Vitis vinifera L. cv Sangiovese shoots at the pre-bloom and veraison stages, and investigated responses such as shoot growth, fruit morphology and composition compared to untreated controls. Moreover, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis to explore the impact of these defoliation treatments on berry transcriptome. Results We found that pre-bloom defoliation improved berry quality traits such as sugar and anthocyanin content, whereas defoliation at veraison had a detrimental effect, e.g. less anthocyanin and higher incidence of sunburn damage. Genome-wide expression analysis during berry ripening revealed that defoliation at either stage resulted in major transcriptome reprogramming, which slightly delayed the onset of ripening. However, a closer investigation of individual gene expression profiles identified genes that were specifically modulated by defoliation at each stage, reflecting the uncoupling of metabolic processes such as flavonoid biosynthesis, cell wall and stress metabolism, from the general ripening program. Conclusions The specific transcriptional modifications we observed following defoliation at different time points allow the identification of the developmental or metabolic processes affected in berries thus deepening the knowledge of the mechanisms by which these agronomical practices impact the final berry ripening traits. PMID:23433030

  1. Mapping the defoliation potential of gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Stanford L. Arner; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Susan L. King

    1993-01-01

    A model that uses forest stand characteristics to estimate the likelihood of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation has been developed. It was applied to recent forest inventory plot data to produce susceptibility ratings and a map showing defoliation potential for counties in Pennsylvania and six adjacent states on new frontiers of infestation.

  2. Effects of defoliation by gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery

    1991-01-01

    Defoliation of trees by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) has many and varied effects. It causes economic losses through lost forest production and reduced aesthetic qualities of the forest. However, defoliation may improve habitat for many species of wildlife and contribute to increased diversity of eastern forests. Effects on water resources,...

  3. Rating forest stands for gypsy moth defoliation

    Treesearch

    Owen W. Herrick; David A. Gansner; David A. Gansner

    1986-01-01

    The severity of future defoliation can be estimated from the percentages of basal area in oaks (Quercus), black oak (Q. velutina) and chestnut oak (a prinus), and in trees with good crowns, along with the average diameter of the stand. With information on these variables, the defoliation potential of any hardwood forest stand in an approaching gypsy moth (Lymantria...

  4. What causes the patterns of gypsy moth defoliation?

    Treesearch

    Clive G. Jones

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth defoliation is typically observed to occur on xeric ridge tops before more mesic, lowland forest, in oak-dominated habitats in the Northeast. In subsequent years defoliation may also occur in mesic forests. What causes this pattern of defoliation? Differences in the degree of defoliation may be due to differences in the density of gypsy moth populations in...

  5. Nitrate Variability in Hydrological Flowpaths for a Mid-Appalachian Forested Catchment Following a Large-Scale Defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riscassi, A. L.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) leakage from forested watersheds due to disturbance is a well-documented, but not well understood process that contributes to the degradation of receiving waters through eutrophication. Several studies have shown that large scale defoliation events in small forested watersheds in the Eastern U.S. cause immediate and dramatic increases in N flux to streams. Recovery times can differ dramatically depending upon location. Reasons for these differences are not well understood, however, because N transport and transformation processes are difficult to track over these long recovery timescales. This research focuses on a large-scale gypsy moth defoliation event that impacted Shenandoah National Park (SNP) in the late 1980s to early 1990s. Water chemistry and discharge have been monitored at a number of catchments within SNP over the timeframe since the defoliation. Recovery of these systems to pre-defoliation N levels has been observed to be unusually slow, lasting over a decade. Availability of high-frequency (i.e. hourly) stream chemistry and discharge data during storm events throughout the period of recovery allows us to investigate short- and long-term mechanisms for N "leaks" from forested watersheds. Through geochemical hydrograph separation techniques, we can determine how nitrate concentrations vary between event, soil, and groundwater during and in the years following a disturbance. Analyses focus on Paine Run, a 12.4 km2 catchment where over 50 storms have been characterized since the 1990-1992 defoliation. Standard geochemical hydrograph separation is performed using conservative tracers to determine the relative flow contributions from the three flow components for each measurement time step. Computed discharge components, along with measured steam nitrate concentrations (NO3 -) at each time-step, were used to solve for the relative concentration of NO3 - in each of the hydrologic zones for storms by solving the over-determined set of mixing

  6. The Pennsylvania defoliation application pilot test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. G.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite imagery for the State of Pennsylvania was digitally mosaicked to provide the seed data base for monitoring defoliation of hardwood trees by the gypsy moth. Two separate mosaics for the state were prepared, one before defoliation and one after defoliation, to determine the extent, direction, and impact of gypsy moth activity in the state. The digital mosaic technology used to construct the data base was transferred to Pennsylvania State University to permit periodic updates to the data base and to assist in planning and abatement activities. Participating agencies or institutions included Goddard Space Flight Center and the Pennsylvania State University Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources.

  7. Late preterm birth and neurocognitive performance in late adulthood: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tuovinen, Soile; Osmond, Clive; Raikkonen, Katri

    2015-04-01

    We studied if late preterm birth (34 weeks 0 days-36 weeks 6 days of gestation) is associated with performance on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) in late adulthood and if maximum attained lifetime education moderated these associations. Participants were 919 Finnish men and women born between 1934 and 1944, who participated in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. They underwent the CERAD-NB at a mean age of 68.1 years. Data regarding gestational age (late preterm versus term) were extracted from hospital birth records, and educational attainment data were gathered from Statistics Finland. After adjustment for major confounders, those born late preterm scored lower on word list recognition (mean difference: -0.33 SD; P = .03) than those born at term. Among those who had attained a basic or upper secondary education, late preterm birth was associated with lower scores on word list recognition, constructional praxis, constructional praxis recall, clock drawing, Mini-Mental State Examination, and memory total and CERAD total 2 compound scores (mean differences: >0.40 SD; P values <.05), and had a 2.70 times higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score: <26 points) (P = .02). Among those with tertiary levels of education, late preterm birth was not associated with CERAD-NB scores. Our findings offer new insight into the lifelong consequences of late preterm birth, and they add late preterm birth as a novel risk factor to the list of neurocognitive impairment in late adulthood. Our findings also suggest that attained lifetime education may mitigate aging-related neurocognitive impairment, especially among those born late preterm. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Defoliation negatively affects plant growth and the ectomycorrhizal community of Pinus pinaster in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pestaña, Montserrat; Santolamazza-Carbone, Serena

    2011-03-01

    In this work, by artificially reproducing severe (75%) and moderate (25%) defoliation on maritime pines Pinus pinaster in NW Spain, we investigated, under natural conditions, the consequences of foliage loss on reproduction, abundance, diversity and richness of the fungal symbionts growing belowground and aboveground. The effect of defoliation on tree growth was also assessed. Mature needles were clipped during April 2007 and 2008. Root samples were collected in June-July 2007 and 2008. Collection of sporocarps was performed weekly from April 2007 to April 2009. Taxonomic identity of ectomycorrhizal fungi was assessed by using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, subsequent direct sequencing and BLAST search. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was significantly reduced (from 54 to 42%) in 2008 by 75% defoliation, accompanied with a decline in species richness and diversity. On the other hand, sporocarp abundance, richness and diversity were not affected by foliage loss. Some ECM fungal symbionts, which are assumed to have a higher carbon cost according to the morphotypes structure, were reduced due to severe (75%) defoliation. Furthermore, 75% foliage loss consistently depressed tree growth, which in turn affected the ectomycorrhizal growth pattern. Defoliation impact on ECM symbionts largely depends on the percentage of foliage removal and on the number of defoliation bouts. Severe defoliation (75%) in the short term (2 years) changed the composition of the ECM community likely because root biomass would be adjusted to lower levels in parallel with the depletion of the aboveground plant biomass, which probably promoted the competition among mycorrhizal types for host resources. The persistence of fungal biomass in mycorrhizal roots would be crucial for nutrient up-take and recovery from defoliation stress of the host plants.

  9. Modeling forest defoliation using simulated BRDF and assessing its effect on reflectance and sensor reaching radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengarajan, Rajagopalan; Schott, John R.

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing techniques such as change detection are widely used for mapping and monitoring forest cover to detect the declining health and vigor of forests. These techniques rely on the assumption that the biophysical variation in the forest introduces a corresponding variation in its reflectance. The biophysical variations are assessed by foresters, but these assessment techniques are expensive and cannot be performed frequently to identify a specific level of change in the forest, for example, infection due to gypsy moths that results in forest defoliation. Further, the interaction of atmosphere, sensor characteristics, and phenology that are inherent in the remotely sensed images makes it difficult to separate biophysical changes from observational effects. We have addressed these limitations by developing a method to model the spectral reflectance properties of forests with varying degrees of defoliation using the Digital Image and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool. This paper discusses the in-canopy radiative approach and the impact of defoliation on the reflectance and radiance observed by sensors such as Landsat. The results indicate that the relative variation in forest reflectance between a non-defoliated and a 30% defoliated deciduous forest can be as high as 10% in the NIR spectral band. A function can be fit to predict the level of defoliation from the relative variation in radiance. The modeling and analysis techniques can be extended to assess the impact of atmospheric factors and sensor characteristics relative to the biophysical changes as well as for assessing other biophysical variables in forests.

  10. Resource allocation in an annual herb: Effects of light, mycorrhizal fungi, and defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Chama, Ana; Guevara, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Concurrent interactions and the availability of resources (e.g., light) affect the cost/benefit balance during mutualistic and antagonistic interactions, as well as plant resource allocation patterns. Mycorrhizal interactions and herbivory concur in most plants, where mycorrhizae can enhance the uptake of soil nutrients by plants as well as consuming a large fraction of the plant's carbon, and defoliation usually reduces light interception and photosynthesis, thereby causing direct losses to the hosts of mycorrhizal fungi. Both types of interactions affect the carbon budget of their host plants and thus we predict that the relative costs of herbivory and mycorrhizal colonization will increase when photosynthesis is reduced, for instance in light limited environments. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using Datura stramonium to investigate the effects of defoliation and mycorrhizal inoculation on the resource allocation patterns in two different light environments. Defoliated plants overcompensated in terms of leaf mass in both light environments, but total seed mass per fruit was negatively affected by defoliation in both light environments. Mycorrhizal inoculation had a positive effect on vegetative growth and the leaf nitrogen content, but defoliation negates the benefit of mycorrhizal interactions in terms of the leaf nitrogen content. In general, D. stramonium compensated for the relative costs of concurrent mycorrhizal interactions and defoliation; plants that lacked both interactions exhibited the same performance as plants with both types of interactions.

  11. Future Risk of Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data from the suitable habitat combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  12. Responses of African Grasses in the Genus Sporobolus to Defoliation and Sodium Stress: Tradeoffs, Cross-Tolerance, or Independent Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Daniel M.; Anderson, T. Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the Serengeti ecosystem of East Africa, grazing ungulates prefer areas with elevated grass Na, suggesting that some grasses tolerate both high soil Na and defoliation. We performed a factorial Na-by-defoliation greenhouse study with five abundant Sporobolus congeners to explore whether Serengeti grasses possess traits which: (i) confer tolerance to both Na and defoliation (cross-tolerance); (ii) display a tradeoff; or (iii) act independently in their tolerances. Our expectation was that related grasses would exhibit cross-tolerance when simultaneously subjected to Na and defoliation. Instead, we found that physiological tolerances and growth responses to Na and defoliation did not correlate but instead acted independently: species characterized by intense grazing in the field showed no growth or photosynthetic compensation for combined Na and defoliation. Additionally, in all but the highest Na dosage, mortality was higher when species were exposed to both Na and defoliation together. Across species, mortality rates were greater in short-statured species which occur on sodic soils in heavily grazed areas. Mortality among species was positively correlated with specific leaf area, specific root length, and relative growth rate, suggesting that rapidly growing species which invest in low cost tissues have higher rates of mortality when exposed to multiple stressors. We speculate that the prevalence of these species in areas of high Na and disturbance is explained by alternative strategies, such as high fecundity, a wide range of germination conditions, or further dispersal, to compensate for the lack of additional tolerance mechanisms. PMID:27137400

  13. Gypsy moth egg-mass density and subsequent defoliation

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell

    1966-01-01

    The relationship between insect density and subsequent defoliation is usually important among the many factors involved in deciding if, when, and where to take control action against a defoliator such as the gypsy moth. Unfortunately, the proportion of the foliage that will be removed by a defoliator in any given place and year depends not only upon the number of...

  14. Tree condition and mortality following defoliation by the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell; Harry T. Valentine; Harry T. Valentine

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between expected defoliation and the subsequent condition and mortality rate among the defoliated trees are almost always important factors in deciding if, when, and where to take control action against a defoliator such as the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L. )

  15. Simulated impacts of insect defoliation on forest carbon dynamics

    Treesearch

    D. Medvigy; K.L. Clark; N.S. Skowronski; K.V.R. Schäfer

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal forests are subject to insect epidemics. In the eastern US, over 41 million meters squared of tree basal area are thought to be at risk of gypsy moth defoliation. However, the decadal-to-century scale implications of defoliation events for ecosystem carbon dynamics are not well understood. In this study, the effects of defoliation intensity,...

  16. Defoliation and oak mortality in Southern New England

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey S. Ward

    2007-01-01

    Crown class and diameter of 4088 upland oaks have been monitored at 10-year intervals since 1927. Plots had three episodes of moderate to heavy defoliation: 1961-1964, 1971-1972, and 1981. Primary defoliators were gypsy moth, canker worm, and elm spanworm. Mortality peaked during the period of 1957-1967 when there were three years of defoliation. Mortality was higher...

  17. Mortality following cotton defoliation: San Joaquin Valley, California, 1970-1990.

    PubMed

    Ames, R G; Gregson, J

    1995-07-01

    A proportional mortality study comparing the cotton-growing areas of the San Joaquin Valley with the rest of the State of California was performed by the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a continuation of earlier studies related to mercaptan-releasing pesticides. This mortality study found a pattern of increased proportion of "respiratory causes" mortality (ICD codes 460-519), statistically significant at less than the .05 probability level, for 15 of 21 years between 1970 and 1990, for the time period during and immediately following cotton defoliation. Defoliants which have the potential to produce acute symptoms include DEF and Folex, both of which release odorous butyl mercaptan gas as a degradation product. This paper tests the hypothesis that exposure to cotton defoliant breakdown products may be associated with a disproportionate increase in mortality. Prediction of the mortality proportions by pounds of DEF and Folex used was not statistically significant in the unadjusted models or in models adjusted for air pollution variables. One air pollution adjustment factor, total suspended particulates, was a statistically significant independent mortality proportion predictor. This finding suggests that total suspended particulates, not defoliants, may be related to mortality differentials during defoliation season. Possible confounding by demographic variation of the counties was not controlled in the analysis.

  18. Simulated impacts of insect defoliation on forest carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvigy, D.; Clark, K. L.; Skowronski, N. S.; Schäfer, K. V. R.

    2012-12-01

    Many temperate and boreal forests are subject to insect epidemics. In the eastern US, over 41 million meters squared of tree basal area are thought to be at risk of gypsy moth defoliation. However, the decadal-to-century scale implications of defoliation events for ecosystem carbon dynamics are not well understood. In this study, the effects of defoliation intensity, periodicity and spatial pattern on the carbon cycle are investigated in a set of idealized model simulations. A mechanistic terrestrial biosphere model, ecosystem demography model 2, is driven with observations from a xeric oak-pine forest located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Simulations indicate that net ecosystem productivity (equal to photosynthesis minus respiration) decreases linearly with increasing defoliation intensity. However, because of interactions between defoliation and drought effects, aboveground biomass exhibits a nonlinear decrease with increasing defoliation intensity. The ecosystem responds strongly with both reduced productivity and biomass loss when defoliation periodicity varies from 5 to 15 yr, but exhibits a relatively weak response when defoliation periodicity varies from 15 to 60 yr. Simulations of spatially heterogeneous defoliation resulted in markedly smaller carbon stocks than simulations with spatially homogeneous defoliation. These results show that gypsy moth defoliation has a large effect on oak-pine forest biomass dynamics, functioning and its capacity to act as a carbon sink.

  19. Defoliation effects on pasture photosynthesis and respiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecosystem C gain or loss from managed grasslands can depend on the type and intensity of management practices that are employed. However, limited information is available at the field scale on how the type of defoliation, specifically grazing vs. cutting, affects gross primary productivity (GPP) an...

  20. Chemical free cotton defoliation and dessication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preliminary results are presented for new techniques to achieve chemical free means of cotton defoliation and desiccation. Report will cover test results, for several different methods, as tested on; greenhouse, outdoor grown potted plants, and field grown cotton plants, that were grown under commer...

  1. Predicting tree mortality following gypsy moth defoliation

    Treesearch

    D.E. Fosbroke; R.R. Hicks; K.W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Appropriate application of gypsy moth control strategies requires an accurate prediction of the distribution and intensity of tree mortality prior to defoliation. This prior information is necessary to better target investments in control activities where they are needed. This poster lays the groundwork for developing hazard-rating systems for forests of the...

  2. Do Offspring of Insects Feeding on Defoliation-Resistant Trees Have Better Biological Performance When Exposed to Nutritionally-Imbalanced Food?

    PubMed Central

    Quezada-Garcia, Roberto; Fuentealba, Alvaro; Nguyen, Ngoc; Bauce, Éric

    2015-01-01

    White spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) trees that are resistant or susceptible to spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) attack were identified in a southern Quebec plantation. Due to high mortality-induced selective pressures imposed by resistant trees on spruce budworm larvae, insects that survive on resistant trees exhibited greater biological performance than those on susceptible trees. We tested the hypothesis that this better biological performance is maintained across generations when progeny were subjected to nutritional stress. We collected pupae from resistant and susceptible trees (phenotype). Adults were reared under controlled laboratory conditions. Progeny were subsequently reared on two types of artificial diet (high vs. low quality). Low quality diet simulated food quality deterioration during outbreak conditions. Results confirmed that surviving insects collected from resistant trees have better performance than those from susceptible trees. Offspring performance (pupal mass, developmental time) was affected only by diet quality. These results suggest that adaptive advantages that would be acquired from parents fed on resistant trees are lost when progeny are exposed to nutritionally-imbalanced food, but the effects persist when larvae are fed a balanced diet. Offspring mortality, fecundity and fertility were positively influenced by parental origin (tree phenotype). PMID:26463069

  3. Do Offspring of Insects Feeding on Defoliation-Resistant Trees Have Better Biological Performance When Exposed to Nutritionally-Imbalanced Food?

    PubMed

    Quezada-Garcia, Roberto; Fuentealba, Alvaro; Nguyen, Ngoc; Bauce, Éric

    2015-01-12

    White spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) trees that are resistant or susceptible to spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) attack were identified in a southern Quebec plantation. Due to high mortality-induced selective pressures imposed by resistant trees on spruce budworm larvae, insects that survive on resistant trees exhibited greater biological performance than those on susceptible trees. We tested the hypothesis that this better biological performance is maintained across generations when progeny were subjected to nutritional stress. We collected pupae from resistant and susceptible trees (phenotype). Adults were reared under controlled laboratory conditions. Progeny were subsequently reared on two types of artificial diet (high vs. low quality). Low quality diet simulated food quality deterioration during outbreak conditions. Results confirmed that surviving insects collected from resistant trees have better performance than those from susceptible trees. Offspring performance (pupal mass, developmental time) was affected only by diet quality. These results suggest that adaptive advantages that would be acquired from parents fed on resistant trees are lost when progeny are exposed to nutritionally-imbalanced food, but the effects persist when larvae are fed a balanced diet. Offspring mortality, fecundity and fertility were positively influenced by parental origin (tree phenotype).

  4. Mapping Historic Gypsy Moth Defoliation with MODIS Satellite Data: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Ryan, Robert E.; Smooth, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a project, the goal of which is to study the potential of MODIS data for monitoring historic gypsy moth defoliation. A NASA/USDA Forest Service (USFS) partnership was formed to perform the study. NASA is helping USFS to implement satellite data products into its emerging Forest Threat Early Warning System. The latter system is being developed by the USFS Eastern and Western Forest Threat Assessment Centers. The USFS Forest Threat Centers want to use MODIS time series data for regional monitoring of forest damage (e.g., defoliation) preferably in near real time. The study's methodology is described, and the results of the study are shown.

  5. Outbreaks of forest defoliating insects in Japan, 1950-2000.

    PubMed

    Kamata, N; Kamata, N

    2002-04-01

    In Japan, several forest-defoliating insects reach outbreak levels and cause serious defoliation. Stand mortality sometimes occurs after severe defoliation. However, in general, tree mortality caused by insect defoliation is low because of the prevailing moist climate in Japan. Evergreen conifers are more susceptible to tree mortality as a result of insect defoliation whereas deciduous broad-leaved trees are seldom killed. Insect defoliation occurs more frequently in man-made environments such as among shade trees, orchards, and plantations than in natural habitats. Outbreaks of some defoliators tend to occur in stands of a particular age: e.g. outbreaks of the pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) occur more frequently in young pine plantations. In contrast, defoliation caused by outbreaks of lepidopterous and hymenopterous pests in larch plantations is more frequent with stand maturation. There is a relationship between outbreaks of some defoliators and altitude above sea level. Most outbreaks of forest defoliators were terminated by insect pathogens that operated in a density-dependent fashion. Since the 1970s, Japan has been prosperous and can afford to buy timber from abroad. More recently, there has been an increasing demand for timber in Japan, that coincides with a huge demand internationally, so that the country will need to produce more timber locally in the future. The increasing pressure on the forestry industry to meet this demand will require more sophisticated methods of pest control coupled with more sustainable methods of silviculture.

  6. Aerial Photography: Use in Detecting Simulated Insect Defoliation in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, H. C.; Latham, R.; Meyer, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial defoliation in corn was used to explore the usefulness of aerial photography in detecting crop insect infestations. Defoliation on the top of plants was easily detected, while that on the base was less so. Aero infrared film with Wratten 89B filter gave the best results, and morning flights at the scale of 1:15840 are recommended. Row direction, plant growth stage, and time elapse since defoliation were not important factors.

  7. Aerial Photography: Use in Detecting Simulated Insect Defoliation in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, H. C.; Latham, R.; Meyer, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial defoliation in corn was used to explore the usefulness of aerial photography in detecting crop insect infestations. Defoliation on the top of plants was easily detected, while that on the base was less so. Aero infrared film with Wratten 89B filter gave the best results, and morning flights at the scale of 1:15840 are recommended. Row direction, plant growth stage, and time elapse since defoliation were not important factors.

  8. Evaluating the impact of red-edge band from Rapideye image for classifying insect defoliation levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelabu, Samuel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of regular assessments of insect defoliation using remote sensing technologies has increased in recent years through advances in the understanding of the spectral reflectance properties of vegetation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the red edge channel of Rapideye imagery to discriminate different levels of insect defoliation in an African savanna by comparing the results of obtained from two classifiers. Random Forest and Support vector machine classification algorithms were applied using different sets of spectral analysis involving the red edge band. Results show that the integration of information from red edge increases classification accuracy of insect defoliation levels in all analysis performed in the study. For instance, when all the 5 bands of Rapideye imagery were used for classification, the overall accuracies increases about 19% and 21% for SVM and RF, respectively, as opposed to when the red edge channel was excluded. We also found out that the normalized difference red-edge index yielded a better accuracy result than normalized difference vegetation index. We conclude that the red-edge channel of relatively affordable and readily available high-resolution multispectral satellite data such as Rapideye has the potential to considerably improve insect defoliation classification especially in sub-Saharan Africa where data availability is limited.

  9. Effects of partial defoliation on carbon and nitrogen partitioning and photosynthetic carbon uptake by two-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber) saplings.

    PubMed

    Cerasoli, S; Scartazza, A; Brugnoli, E; Chaves, M M; Pereira, J S

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the growing season in late July, 20-month-old cork oak (Quercus suber L.) saplings were partially defoliated (63% of leaf area) to evaluate their ability to recover leaf area after defoliation. At 18 and 127 days after defoliation, changes in starch and nitrogen pools were determined in leaves and perennial organs, and variations in photosynthetic carbon uptake were investigated. To determine the role of stored nitrogen in regrowth after defoliation, plant nitrogen was labeled in the previous winter by enriching the nutrient solution with 15N. Plants recovered the lost leaf area in 127 days. Although there was remobilization of starch and nitrogen from leaves and perennial organs, the availability of resources for growth in the following spring was not decreased by defoliation. On the contrary, starch concentration in coarse roots was higher in defoliated saplings than in control saplings, presumably as a result of the higher net CO2 exchange rate in newly developed leaves compared with pre-existing leaves.

  10. Impacts of Insect Defoliation in Cottonwood Plantations in Mississippi

    Treesearch

    Theodor D. Leininger; Nathan M. Schiff; Jackie Henne-Kerr

    2004-01-01

    In spring 2001, a notodontid moth, Gluphisia septentrionis Wlkr., defoliated about 2,000 acres of 9- and 10- year-old eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees in west central Mississippi. The farm manager had never seen cottonwood defoliated by that species of moth, because it was not considered a pest in Mississippi....

  11. Status and trends in gypsy moth defoliation hazard in Tennessee

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May; Bruce W. Kauffman

    1990-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), a major defoliator of eastern hardwood forests, has become established in Virginia and is moving towards Tennessee. In preparation for its inevitable arrival, Tennessee’s timberlands are hazard rated to identify those areas most susceptible to gypsy moth defoliation. Tree, stand, and site characteristics...

  12. Susceptibility of regeneration in clearcuts to defoliation by gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Ray R., Jr. Hicks; Robert M. Fultineer; Barbara S. Ware; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 and 1992, we observed gypsy moth defoliation of oak regeneration in clearcuts of varying sizes and ages. We established plots in the surrounding mature forests to document ambient gypsy moth population levels and placed subplots within the clearcuts designed to examine the effect of location relative to the clearcut edge. We found that the levels of defoliation...

  13. Role of corticular photosynthesis following defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; O'Grady, Anthony P; Worledge, Dale; Warren, Charles R

    2009-08-01

    Defoliation can reduce net fixation of atmospheric CO(2) by the canopy, but increase the intensity and duration of photosynthetically active radiation on stems. Stem CO(2) flux and leaf gas exchange in young Eucalyptus globulus seedlings were measured to assess the impact of defoliation on these processes and to determine the potential contribution of re-fixation by photosynthetic inner bark in offsetting the effects of defoliation in a woody species. Pot and field trials examined how artificial defoliation of the canopy affected the photosynthetic characteristics of main stems of young Eucalyptus globulus seedlings. Defoliated potted seedlings were characterized by transient increases in foliar photosynthetic rates and concomitant decreases in stem CO(2) fluxes (both in the dark and light). Defoliated field-grown seedlings showed similar stem CO(2) flux responses, but of reduced magnitude. Despite demonstrating increased re-fixation capability, defoliated potted-seedlings had slowed stem growth. The green stem of seedlings exhibited largely shade-adapted characteristics. Defoliation reduced stem chlorophyll a/b ratio and increased carotenoid concentration. An increased capacity to re-fix internally respired CO(2) (up to 96%) suggested that stem re-fixation represents a previously unexplored mechanism to minimize the impact of foliar loss by maximizing the contribution of all photosynthetic tissues, particularly for young seedlings.

  14. Effects of defoliation on growth of certain conifers

    Treesearch

    Thomas W., Jr. Church

    1949-01-01

    In planning forest management of spruce-fir forests in the Northeast, the possibility of recurring epidemics of the spruce budworm (Archips fumiferana) must be considered. Investigations of this insect must take into account not only the effects of defoliation on mortality, but also the growth losses that result from partial defoliation.

  15. Grain amaranths are defoliation tolerant crop species capable of utilizing stem and root carbohydrate reserves to sustain vegetative and reproductive growth after leaf loss.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth.

  16. Grain Amaranths Are Defoliation Tolerant Crop Species Capable of Utilizing Stem and Root Carbohydrate Reserves to Sustain Vegetative and Reproductive Growth after Leaf Loss

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. PMID:23861825

  17. Non-defoliating and defoliating strains from cotton correlate with races 1 and 2 of Verticillium dahliae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important disease of cotton worldwide. Isolates of V. dahliae can be characterized as race 1 or race 2 based on the responses of differential cultivars of tomato and lettuce or as defoliating or non-defoliating based on symptom expression in cot...

  18. Clonal differences and impact of defoliation on Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera L.) wines: a chemical and sensory investigation.

    PubMed

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Langlois, Jennifer; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Gouot, Julia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Deloire, Alain

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study, performed on Sauvignon blanc clones SB11 and SB316, grafted on the same rootstock 101-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia × V. ruperstris) and grown at two adjacent vineyards, was two-fold: (1) to study wine chemical and sensory composition of both clones within an unaltered canopy; and (2) to determine the effect of defoliation (e.g. bunch microclimate) on wine chemical and sensory composition. Orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to the concentration profiles of volatile compounds derived from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data. The loadings directions inferred that 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) discriminated control treatments (shaded fruit zone) of both clones from defoliation treatments (exposed fruit zone), whereas 3-sulfanyl-hexan-1-ol (3SH), 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), hexanol, hexyl hexanoate and some other esters discriminated defoliated treatments from the controls. The OPLS-DA indicated the importance of IBMP, higher alcohol acetates and phenylethyl esters, for discrimination of clone SB11 from clone SB316 irrespective of the treatment. Defoliation in the fruit zone significantly decreased perceived greenness in clone SB11 and elevated fruitier aromas, whereas in clone SB316 the effect of defoliation on wine sensory perception was less noticeable regardless the decrease in IBMP concentrations. These findings highlight the importance of clone selection and bunch microclimate to diversify produced wine styles. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Temporal patterns of nitrogen leakage from mid-Appalachian forested watersheds: Role of insect defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, Keith N.; Morgan, Raymond P.; Webb, James R.; Deviney, Frank A.; Galloway, James N.

    1998-08-01

    Fluxes of dissolved nitrogen (N) as nitrate from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region have important water quality ramifications for small acid-sensitive streams and for downstream receiving waters such as the Chesapeake Bay. Previous studies of N leakage have suggested that annual dissolved N fluxes from small watersheds can vary by several orders of magnitude and may be increasing as second-growth forests gradually become N saturated from the accrual of atmospheric N loadings. In this study, we examined the temporal (intra-annual and interannual) variability in dissolved nitrate fluxes from five small (area < 15 km2) forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region from 1988 to 1995. At all sites, nitrate concentrations were observed to increase dramatically during storm flow events, with nitric acid contributing significantly to depressions in pH and acid-neutralizing capacity; annual nitrate fluxes were dominated by high-discharge periods. Interannually, the fluxes at each site varied by 1-2 orders of magnitude, but the patterns of N leakage displayed considerable synchrony with outbreaks of gypsy moth caterpillar defoliation that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s in this region. N leakage from forested watersheds apparently lagged the initial defoliation by several months to perhaps a year or more. Defoliation outbreaks by the gypsy moth caterpillar (or other herbivorous pests) thus provide an alternative explanation of N leakage from forest ecosystems. Poorly documented insect defoliations, rather than premature N saturation of intact forest ecosystems, need to be considered as a possible explanation of N leakage from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region and elsewhere.

  20. Regeneration in defoliated and thinned hardwood stands of north-central West Virginia

    Treesearch

    R. M. Muzika; M. J. Twery

    1995-01-01

    Overstory species regeneration was examined in 1989, prior to gypsy moth defoliation and thinnings, on 16 stands in the West Virginia University Forest. Three stands were thinned and defoliated while five were thinned only and three were defoliated only. Five stands were neither thinned nor defoliated. Data were collected from these stands for three years subsequent to...

  1. A general Landsat model to predict canopy defoliation in broadleaf deciduous forests

    Treesearch

    Phillip A. Townsend; Aditya Singh; Jane R. Foster; Nathan J. Rehberg; Clayton C. Kindon; Keith N. Eshleman; Steven W. Seagle

    2012-01-01

    Defoliation by insect herbivores can be a persistent disturbance affecting ecosystem functioning. We developed an approach to map canopy defoliation due to gypsy moth based on site differences in Landsat vegetation index values between non-defoliation and defoliation dates. Using field data from two study areas in the U.S. central Appalachians and five different years...

  2. Monitoring Tamarisk Defoliation and Scaling Evapotranspiration Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, P. E.; Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Miura, T.; Glenn, E. P.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Non-native tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) has invaded riparian ecosystems throughout the Western United States. Another non-native species, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata), has been released in an attempt to control tamarisk infestations. Most efforts directed towards monitoring tamarisk defoliation by Diorhabda have focused on changes in leaf area or sap flux, but these measurements only give a local view of defoliation impacts. We are assessing the ability of remote sensing data for monitoring tamarisk defoliation and measuring resulting changes in evapotranspiration over space and time. Tamarisk defoliation by Diorhabda has taken place during the past two summers along the Colorado River and its tributaries near Moab, Utah. We are using 15 meter spatial resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 250 meter spatial resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to monitor tamarisk defoliation. An ASTER normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series has revealed large drops in index values associated with loss of leaf area due to defoliation. MODIS data have superior temporal monitoring abilities, but at the sacrifice of much lower spatial resolution. A MODIS enhanced vegetation index time series has revealed that for pixels where the percentage of riparian cover is moderate or high, defoliation is detectable even at 250 meter spatial resolution. We are comparing MODIS vegetation index time series to site measurements of leaf area and sap flux. We are also using an evapotranspiration model to scale potential water savings resulting from the biocontrol of tamarisk.

  3. Contribution of ambient ozone to Scots pine defoliation and reduced growth in the Central European forests: a Lithuanian case study.

    PubMed

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2008-10-01

    The study aimed to explore if changes in crown defoliation and stem growth of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone (O(3)) concentration in central Europe. To meet this objective the study was performed in 3 Lithuanian national parks, close to the ICP integrated monitoring stations from which data on meteorology and pollution were provided. Contribution of peak O(3) concentrations to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine stem growth was found to be more significant than its contribution to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine defoliation. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient O(3) can have a negative impact on pine tree crown defoliation and stem growth reduction under field conditions in central and northeastern Europe where the AOT40 values for forests are commonly below their phytotoxic levels.

  4. Forecasting defoliation by the gypsy moth in oak stands

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell; Joseph P. Standaert

    1974-01-01

    A multiple-regression model is presented that reflects statistically significant correlations between defoliation by the gypsy moth, the dependent variable, and a series of biotic and physical independent variables. Both possible uses and shortcomings of this model are discussed.

  5. Ethylene: a factor in defoliation induced by auxins.

    PubMed

    Hallaway, M; Osborne, D J

    1969-03-07

    Aerial sprays of synthetic auxins defoliate many species of tropical trees. Treatment of Euonymus japonica leaves with the n-butyl ester of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid causes premature senescence and leaf fall and stimulates ethylene production by the blade 5-to 25-fold. Exposure to ethylene alone similarly accelerates senescence and leaf fall. Evidence indicates that the defoliant action of auxin is mediated through the enhanced amounts of ethylene in the blade.

  6. Assessing MODIS-based Products and Techniques for Detecting Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    The project showed potential of MODIS and VIIRS time series data for contributing defoliation detection products to the USFS forest threat early warning system. This study yielded the first satellite-based wall-to-wall 2001 gypsy moth defoliation map for the study area. Initial results led to follow-on work to map 2007 gypsy moth defoliation over the eastern United States (in progress). MODIS-based defoliation maps offer promise for aiding aerial sketch maps either in planning surveys and/or adjusting acreage estimates of annual defoliation. More work still needs to be done to assess potential of technology for "now casts"of defoliation.

  7. Differences in plastic responses to defoliation due to variation in the timing of treatments for two species of Sesbania (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Diane L; Abrahamson, Nathan J; Avritt, Joy J; Hall, Paula M; Medeiros, Juliana S; Reynolds, Jerusha; Shaner, Marieken G M; Simpson, Healther L; Trafton, Alea N; Tyler, Anna P; Walsh, Sharon

    2005-05-01

    Plastic responses to stress in components of reproduction can have important effects on plant fitness and can vary both within and between species. Responses may also depend on when in the life cycle stress occurs. Here, it is predicted that the timing of initiation of a stress, defoliation, would affect the pattern of plastic responses. These differences should occur because some components of reproduction, such as flower number, are determined earlier in a plant's life than others, such as individual seed mass. To test this prediction, 50 % artificial defoliation treatments were initiated at four different times for Sesbania macrocarpa and S. vesicaria. Responses were measured in plant size, number of flowers, number of flowers/plant size, fruit set, number of seeds per fruit, individual seed mass and total seed mass per plant. For S. vesicaria, changes in the timing of stress changed the severity, but not the pattern of response. For S. macrocarpa, plastic responses to defoliation varied strikingly between early and late treatments. Late treatments resulted in over-compensation in this species. Sesbania macrocarpa was generally more plastic than S. vesicaria and the species showed opposite responses for most components of reproduction. While there were effects of timing of defoliation and differences between species, the nature of these effects did not precisely fit our predictions. Our results suggest that differences in the length and flexibility of the life cycles of the two species allowed for unexpected variation in responses. For example, because flower production continued after the last treatment in S. vesicaria, responses were not constrained to reductions in individual seed mass.

  8. Glycoalkaloid responses of potato to Colorado potato beetle defoliation.

    PubMed

    Pariera Dinkins, Courtney L; Peterson, Robert K D; Gibson, James E; Hu, Qing; Weaver, David K

    2008-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to measure the glycoalkaloid concentrations of potato tubers in response to Colorado potato beetle and manual defoliation. For plants defoliated by Colorado potato beetles, there was a significantly greater production of glycoalkaloids than in control plants and manually defoliated plants for both skin and inner tissue of tubers in experiment 1. In experiment 1, there was a 58.1% and 48.3% increase in glycoalkaloids in skin and inner tissue of tubers, respectively, from plants defoliated at high levels by Colorado potato beetles compared to control plants. In experiment 2, although a significant difference in glycoalkaloid concentration was not observed among the treatments, the skin and inner tissue of tubers from plants defoliated at high levels by Colorado potato beetles increased glycoalkaloid concentration by 23.4% and 14.5%, respectively, compared to tubers from control plants. In experiment 1, the concentration of tuber extract required to reduce Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cellular proliferation by 50% was 10-fold less for the skin versus the inner tissue, indicating that skin tissue was more toxic under the in vitro conditions of this assay.

  9. An Experimental Comparison of Two Methods on Photosynthesis Driving Soil Respiration: Girdling and Defoliation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yanli; Guan, Dexin; Wu, Jiabing; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie; Yuan, Fenghui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies with different experimental methods have demonstrated that photosynthesis significantly influences soil respiration (RS). To compare the experimental results of different methods, RS after girdling and defoliation was measured in five-year-old seedlings of Fraxinus mandshurica from June to September. Girdling and defoliation significantly reduced RS by 33% and 25% within 4 days, and 40% and 32% within the entire treatment period, respectively. The differential response of RS to girdling and defoliation was a result of the over-compensation for RS after girdling and redistribution of stored carbon after defoliation. No significant effect on RS was observed between girdling and defoliation treatment, while the soluble sugar content in fine roots was higher in defoliation than in girdling treatment, indicating that defoliation had less compensation effect for RS after interrupting photosynthates supply. We confirm the close coupling of RS with photosynthesis and recommend defoliation for further studies to estimate the effect of photosynthesis on RS.

  10. An Experimental Comparison of Two Methods on Photosynthesis Driving Soil Respiration: Girdling and Defoliation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yanli; Guan, Dexin; Wu, Jiabing; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie; Yuan, Fenghui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies with different experimental methods have demonstrated that photosynthesis significantly influences soil respiration (RS). To compare the experimental results of different methods, RS after girdling and defoliation was measured in five-year-old seedlings of Fraxinus mandshurica from June to September. Girdling and defoliation significantly reduced RS by 33% and 25% within 4 days, and 40% and 32% within the entire treatment period, respectively. The differential response of RS to girdling and defoliation was a result of the over-compensation for RS after girdling and redistribution of stored carbon after defoliation. No significant effect on RS was observed between girdling and defoliation treatment, while the soluble sugar content in fine roots was higher in defoliation than in girdling treatment, indicating that defoliation had less compensation effect for RS after interrupting photosynthates supply. We confirm the close coupling of RS with photosynthesis and recommend defoliation for further studies to estimate the effect of photosynthesis on RS. PMID:26177498

  11. Lifetime Occupation and Late-Life Cognitive Performance Among Women.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pricila Cristina Correa; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether women who had regular jobs throughout life performed better cognitively than older adult housewives. Linear regression was used to compare global cognitive performance scores of housewives (G1) and women exposed to work of low (G2) and high (G3) complexity. The sample comprised 477 older adult Brazilian women, 430 (90.4%) of whom had performed lifelong jobs. In work with data, the G2 group's cognitive performance scores were 1.73 points higher (p =.03), and the G3 group scored 1.76 points (p =.02) higher, than the G1. In work with things and with people, the G3 scored, respectively, 2.04 (p <.01) and 2.21 (p <.01) cognitive test points higher than the G1. Based on our findings we suggest occupation of greater complexity is associated with better cognitive performance in women later in life.

  12. Defining the temporal window for monitoring forest canopy defoliation using Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of Landsat imagery of forested areas near Williamsport, Pennsylvania shows that the effects of defoliation by insects can be assessed over a two month period beginning in early June. Within this window heavily defoliated forest can be successfully delineated from moderately defoliated and healthy forest. Consequently, the effects of insect damage can be assessed at times other than peak defoliation, doubling the probability that useful satellite data can be acquired in the Williamsport area.

  13. Development of regeneration following gypsy moth defoliation of Appalachian Plateau and Ridge & Valley hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    D.M. Hix; D.E. Fosbroke; R.R., Jr. Hicks; K.W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gypsy moth defoliation and subsequent overstory mortality on regeneration were located in the Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, and the Maryland stands were located in the Ridge & Valley province. Pre-defoliation data (1984-1986) were compared with post-defoliation data (1989) from the same 315 six-foot-radius plots.

  14. Effect of defoliation on carbohydrate content of yellow-poplar seedlings

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen; Roberta G. Masters

    1973-01-01

    Sixty yellow-poplar seedlings were divided into two groups. One group was defoliated twice, and the second group served as the control. Three months after the second defoliation there was no difference in carbohydrate content between the defoliated and undefoliated seedlings in either the stems or roots.

  15. Predicting defoliation by the gypsy moth using egg mass counts and a helper variable

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Montgomery

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, counts of egg masses have been used to predict defoliation by the gypsy moth. Regardless of the method and precision used to obtain the counts, estimates of egg mass density alone often do not provide satisfactory predictions of defoliation. Although defoliation levels greater than 50% are seldom observed if egg mass densities are less than 600 per...

  16. A critique of silvicultural approaches to managing defoliating insects in North America

    Treesearch

    R.M. ​Muzika; A.M. Liebhold

    2000-01-01

    A variety of silvicultural techniques have been suggested for managing forest defoliating insects. The objectives focus on minimizing defoliation or minimizing damage from defoliation. The theoretical foundations of many approaches have been built upon observation and correlation, and very little reliable empirical evidence exists to support the objectives of...

  17. Defoliation and nitrogen effects on photosynthesis and growth of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Battaglia, Michael; Mohammed, Caroline L

    2007-07-01

    Plant responses to defoliation are complex. We established a field experiment in a nine-month-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation to examine the effects of pattern (upper crown versus lower crown removal), frequency (single, double or triple defoliation within a 12-month period) and severity (25 versus 38% of leaf area removed) of defoliation and the effect of soil nitrogen (N) on photosynthetic processes and stem growth. The photosynthetic responses observed following defoliation could be attributed to changes in source:sink ratios. Light-saturated CO(2) uptake (A(max)) increased with increasing severity and frequency of defoliation irrespective of defoliation pattern. Seedlings defoliated in autumn did not exhibit increases in A(max) until the following spring, whereas there was no such delay in photosynthetic responses associated with spring defoliation. Application of N before defoliation allowed trees to compensate for the effect of defoliation on stem diameter growth, which could not be explained simply in terms of increases in A(max). The observed increases in stem diameter increment following N fertilization of defoliated trees suggested increases in leaf area development, and there were changes in the leaf area:leaf dry mass ratio that may have increased light absorption by the crown. Nitrogen fertilization also increased partitioning of dry mass to branches at the expense of main stems, suggesting that N supply was important in rebuilding crowns following a defoliation event.

  18. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run late-including sleep times-yet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects academic performance negatively. This constellation affects students' future career prospects. Our study correlates chronotype and examination performance. In total, 4734 grades were collected from 741 Dutch high school students (ages 11-18 years) who had completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire to estimate their internal time. Overall, the lowest grades were obtained by students who were very late chronotypes (MSFsc > 5.31 h) or slept very short on schooldays (SDw < 7.03 h). The effect of chronotype on examination performance depended on the time of day that examinations were taken. Opposed to late types, early chronotypes obtained significantly higher grades during the early (0815-0945 h) and late (1000-1215 h) morning. This group difference in grades disappeared in the early afternoon (1245-1500 h). Late types also obtained lower grades than early types when tested at the same internal time (hours after MSFsc), which may reflect general attention and learning disadvantages of late chronotypes during the early morning. Our results support delaying high school starting times as well as scheduling examinations in the early afternoon to avoid discrimination of late chronotypes and to give all high school students equal academic opportunities. © 2014 The Author(s).

  19. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    PubMed Central

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  20. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests.

  1. Forest defoliator outbreaks under climate change: effects on the frequency and severity of outbreaks of five pine insect pests.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kyle J; Allstadt, Andrew J; Klimetzek, Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    To identify general patterns in the effects of climate change on the outbreak dynamics of forest-defoliating insect species, we examined a 212-year record (1800-2011) of outbreaks of five pine-defoliating species (Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Dendrolimus pini, and Diprion pini) in Bavaria, Germany for the evidence of climate-driven changes in the severity, cyclicity, and frequency of outbreaks. We also accounted for historical changes in forestry practices and examined effects of past insecticide use to suppress outbreaks. Analysis of relationships between severity or occurrence of outbreaks and detrended measures of temperature and precipitation revealed a mixture of positive and negative relationships between temperature and outbreak activity. Two moth species (P. flammea and Dendrolimus pini) exhibited lower outbreak activity following years or decades of unusually warm temperatures, whereas a sawfly (Diprion pini), for which voltinism is influenced by temperature, displayed increased outbreak occurrence in years of high summer temperatures. We detected only one apparent effect of precipitation, which showed Dendrolimus pini outbreaks tending to follow drought. Wavelet analysis of outbreak time series suggested climate change may be associated with collapse of L. monacha and Dendrolimus pini outbreak cycles (loss of cyclicity and discontinuation of outbreaks, respectively), but high-frequency cycles for B. piniarius and P. flammea in the late 1900s. Regional outbreak severity was generally not related to past suppression efforts (area treated with insecticides). Recent shifts in forestry practices affecting tree species composition roughly coincided with high-frequency outbreak cycles in B. piniarius and P. flammea but are unlikely to explain the detected relationships between climate and outbreak severity or collapses of outbreak cycles. Our results highlight both individualistic responses of different pine-defoliating species to

  2. Gypsy moth defoliation assessment: Forest defoliation in detectable from satellite imagery. [New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J. (Principal Investigator); Rohde, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery obtained over eastern Pennsylvania during July 1973, indicates that forest defoliation is detectable from satellite imagery and correlates well with aerial visual survey data. It now appears that two damage classes (heavy and moderate-light) and areas of no visible defoliation can be detected and mapped from properly prepared false composite imagery. In areas where maple is the dominant species or in areas of small woodlots interspersed with agricultural areas, detection and subsequent mapping is more difficult.

  3. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  4. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  5. Characteristics of Stands Susceptible and Resistant to Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1983-01-01

    Site conditions strongly influence where gypsy moth defohation will occur. In New England, where gypsy moths and foresta have interacted for over a century, some foreats have had a history of repeated defoliation while others have been defo1iated only rarely. The often defohated or susceptible forests characteristically grow on dry sitea such as rocky ridges or...

  6. Oak silviculture, management, and defoliation effects in France and Germany

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    A study tour of four areas of France and Germany (two in each country) was conducted to examine oak silvicultural and managerial practices and the influence of insect defoliators on the ecology and management of oak forests. The French and German situations may provide useful information for managing oak forests and gypsy moth in the United States, especially the...

  7. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) suppession by sudangrass interference and defoliation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Canada thistle is difficult to manage in farming systems with reduced reliance on herbicides, including organic and low-external input systems. Previous field studies found that defoliation or sudangrass interference suppressed Canada thistle. Our objective was to understand the factors causing supp...

  8. Estimating Defoliation of Hardwoods Using Blade-petiole Relations

    Treesearch

    Harry T. Valentine

    1978-01-01

    Prediction equations for estimating leaf blade area and dry weight from measurements of petiole thickness were used to estimate defoliation of Populus tremuloides, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, and Q. alba. On one tree of each species, a sample of leaves was artifically browsed in May and...

  9. Using dendrochronology to measure radial growth of defoliated trees

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Swetnam; Marna Ares Thompson; Elaine Kennedy. Sutherland

    1985-01-01

    Budworms (Choristoneura spp.) have repeatedly defoliated millions of hectares of conifers throughout North America. The seriousness of the problem is underscored by research findings in eastern Canada and the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains that the extent, severity, and frequency of bud worm outbreaks have increased in the 20th century, primarily as a result of human-...

  10. Defoliating Insect Mass Outbreak Affects Soil N Fluxes and Tree N Nutrition in Scots Pine Forests

    PubMed Central

    Grüning, Maren M.; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; l-M-Arnold, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i.e., organic and inorganic 15N net uptake capacity of fine roots) as well as N pools in fine roots and needles in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over an entire vegetation period. Plots were either infested by the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L.) or served as controls. Our results show an increased N input by insect feces, litter, and throughfall at the infested plots compared to controls, as well as increased leaching of nitrate. However, the additional N input into the soil did not increase, but reduce inorganic and organic net N uptake capacity of Scots pine roots. N pools in the fine roots and needles of infested trees showed an accumulation of total N, amino acid-N, protein-N, and structural N in the roots and the remaining needles as a compensatory response triggered by defoliation. Thus, although soil N availability was increased via surplus N input, trees did not respond with an increased N acquisition, but rather invested resources into defense by accumulation of amino acid-N and protein-N as a survival strategy. PMID:28638396

  11. Defoliating Insect Mass Outbreak Affects Soil N Fluxes and Tree N Nutrition in Scots Pine Forests.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Maren M; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; L-M-Arnold, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i.e., organic and inorganic (15)N net uptake capacity of fine roots) as well as N pools in fine roots and needles in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over an entire vegetation period. Plots were either infested by the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L.) or served as controls. Our results show an increased N input by insect feces, litter, and throughfall at the infested plots compared to controls, as well as increased leaching of nitrate. However, the additional N input into the soil did not increase, but reduce inorganic and organic net N uptake capacity of Scots pine roots. N pools in the fine roots and needles of infested trees showed an accumulation of total N, amino acid-N, protein-N, and structural N in the roots and the remaining needles as a compensatory response triggered by defoliation. Thus, although soil N availability was increased via surplus N input, trees did not respond with an increased N acquisition, but rather invested resources into defense by accumulation of amino acid-N and protein-N as a survival strategy.

  12. Artificial defoliation effect on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbacker, R.R.; Hart, E.R.; Schultz, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The impact of artificial defoliation on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was examined. Four Populus clones were field planted and artificially defoliated. Assigned defoliation levels (0, 25, 50, or 75%) were applied to leaves of leaf plastochron index 0 through 8 during a 6-d period in a 3-step incremental manner to simulate cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., larval feeding patterns. Artificial defoliations were timed to coincide with the outbreaks of natural beetle populations in adjacent areas. After 2 growing seasons, trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass accumulation. Root samples were collected from 0 and 75% defoliation treatments for each clone. Biomass was reduced an average of 33% as defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%. As defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%, a consistent allocation ratio of biomass to 2/3 above and 1/3 below ground components continued in all clones. An overcompensation response occurred in above ground biomass when a defoliation level of 25% was applied. Between 25 and 75% a strong linear trend of decreasing biomass as defoliation increased was indicated. Vitality of the tree, as indicated by total nonstructural carbohydrate content, was affected only slightly by increasing defoliation. 26 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  13. Responses of condensed tannins in poplar roots to fertilization and gypsy moth defoliation.

    PubMed

    Kosola, Kevin R; Parry, Dylan; Workmaster, Beth Ann A

    2006-12-01

    We examined the effects of fertilization and gypsy moth defoliation on condensed tannin concentration (%CT) of hybrid poplar (Populus x canadensis cv 'Eugeneii') fine roots in the summers of 1997 and 1998. This factorial experiment included two defoliation treatments (defoliated and a foliated control) and fertilization treatments (100 kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1) and an unfertilized control). Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) populations were experimentally increased to obtain defoliation in the summers of 1996, 1997 and 1998; fertilization subplots were supplemented with NH4NO3 (100 kg N ha(-1)) in the spring of each year. Despite the severity of defoliation, the effects were small, and significant on only two sampling dates: in May 1997, when fine root %CT was 23% lower in the defoliated trees, and in November 1997, when trees in the defoliated unfertilized plots had 35% higher root %CT than trees in all other plots. Defoliation effects on root %CT did not follow the same seasonal pattern as defoliation effects on root starch content, N uptake capacity or leaf %CT. Regulation of root condensed tannin concentration appeared to be partially uncoupled from these traits. The small transient effects on root defense reflect the resilience of this early successional tree to severe early season defoliation.

  14. Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    /enzymes that are differentially affected by the way leaf damage is performed. Defoliation tolerance in grain is a complex process that can’t be fully explained at the transcriptomic level only. PMID:22966837

  15. Occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform.

    PubMed

    Appelin, Katja; Lexell, Jan; Månsson Lexell, Eva

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to describe which occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, which occupational area the occupations were related to and their level of complexity. The aims were also to describe their own perception of the importance, performance and satisfaction with these occupations. Sixty-two participants (mean age 61 years) were assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. A total of 431 occupations were reported (43% self-care, 32% productivity and 25% leisure). Two subcategories, household management (27 %) and functional mobility (23 %), represented half of all the reported occupations. Ratings for prioritized occupations (N = 300) were high for importance and generally low for performance and satisfaction. A wide variety of occupations were reported, related to both occupational areas and different levels of complexity within an occupational area. The results underscore the importance of using assessment tools that can capture both the variety and complexity of occupations. By obtaining more detailed information about occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, this will enable occupational therapists to offer targeted interventions that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations. A larger and more heterogeneous sample may enable the results to be generalized to more people with late effects of polio. Future studies should focus on methods that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations for people with late effects of polio. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Photosynthetic responses of field-grown Pinus radiata trees to artificial and aphid-induced defoliation.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Smith, David; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Smith, Ian; Corkrey, Ross; Elms, Stephen; Beadle, Chris; Mohammed, Caroline

    2011-06-01

    The phloem-feeding aphid Essigella californica represents a potential threat to the productivity of Pinus radiata plantations in south-eastern Australia. Five- and nine-year-old field trials were used to characterize the effects of artificial and natural aphid-induced (E. californica) defoliation, respectively, on shoot photosynthesis and growth. Photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) was significantly greater following a 25% (D25) (13.8 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) and a 50% (D50) (15.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) single-event upper-crown artificial defoliation, 3 weeks after defoliation than in undefoliated control trees (12.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). This response was consistently observed for up to 11 weeks after the defoliation event; by Week 16, there was no difference in A(max) between control and defoliated trees. In the D50 treatment, this increased A(max) was not sufficient to fully compensate for the foliage loss as evidenced by the reduced diameter increment (by 15%) in defoliated trees 36 weeks after defoliation. In contrast, diameter increment of trees in the D25 treatment was unaffected by defoliation. The A(max) of trees experiencing upper-crown defoliation by natural and repeated E. californica infestations varied, depending on host genotype. Despite clear differences in defoliation levels between resistant and susceptible genotypes (17 vs. 35% of tree crown defoliated, respectively), growth of susceptible genotypes was not significantly different from that of resistant genotypes. The observed increases in A(max) in the lower crown of the canopy following attack suggested that susceptible genotypes were able to partly compensate for the loss of foliage by compensatory photosynthesis. The capacity of P. radiata to regulate photosynthesis in response to natural aphid-induced defoliation provides evidence that the impact of E. californica attack on stem growth will be less than expected, at least for up to 35% defoliation.

  17. Qualitative Assessment of Speech Perception Performance of Early and Late Cochlear Implantees.

    PubMed

    Kant, Anjali R; Pathak, Sonal

    2015-09-01

    The present study aims to provide a qualitative description and comparison of speech perception performance using model based tests like multisyllabic lexical neighborhood test (MLNT) and lexical neighborhood test (LNT), in early and late implanted (prelingual) hearing impaired children using cochlear implants. The subjects comprised of cochlear implantees; Group I (early implantees)-n = 15, 3-6 years of age; mean age at implantation-3½ years. Group II (late implantees)-n = 15, 7-13 years of age; mean age at implantation-5 years. The tests were presented in a sound treated room at 70 dBSPL. The children were instructed to repeat the words on hearing them. Responses were scored as percentage of words correctly repeated. Their means were computed. The late implantees achieved higher scores for words on MLNT than those on LNT. This may imply that late implantees are making use of length cues in order to aid them in speech perception. The major phonological process used by early implantees was deletion and by the late implantees was substitution. One needs to wait until the child achieves a score of 20 % on LNT before assessing other aspects of his/her speech perception abilities. There appears to be a need to use speech perception tests which are based on theoretical empirical models, in order to enable us to give a descriptive analysis of post implant speech perception performance.

  18. Effect of late gestation bodyweight change and condition score on progeny feedlot performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inadequate nutrient intake during late gestation can cause cow BW loss and influence cow reproductive performance and subsequent productivity of steer progeny. Therefore, a 7-yr study with a 3 × 3 arrangement of treatments was conducted at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center, Corona, NM to e...

  19. Effects of Artificial Defoliation on Growth and Biomass Accumulation in Short-Rotation Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Jetton, Robert M.; Robison, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua L. (Hamamelidales: Hamamelidaceae), is a species of interest for short-rotation plantation forestry in the southeastern United States. Despite its high levels of resistance to many native insects and pathogens, the species is susceptible to generalist defoliators during outbreak epidemics. The objective of this field study was to evaluate the potential impact of defoliation on sweetgum growth and productivity within the context of an operational plantation. Over three growing seasons, trees were subjected to artificial defoliation treatments of various intensity (control = 0% defoliation; low intensity = 33% defoliation; moderate intensity = 67% defoliation; high intensity = 99% defoliation) and frequency (not defoliated; defoliated once in April of the first growing season; defoliated twice, once in April of the first growing season and again in April of the second growing season). The responses of stem height, stem diameter, stem volume, crown volume, total biomass accumulation, and branch growth were measured in November of each growing season. At the end of the first growing season, when trees had received single defoliations, significant reductions in all growth traits followed the most severe (99%) defoliation treatment only. After the second and third growing seasons, when trees had received one or two defoliations of varying intensity, stem diameter and volume and total tree biomass were reduced significantly by 67 and 99% defoliation, while reductions in stem height and crown volume followed the 99% treatment only. All growth traits other than crown volume were reduced significantly by two defoliations but not one defoliation. Results indicate that sweetgum is highly resilient to single defoliations of low, moderate, and high intensity. However, during the three-year period of the study, repeated high-intensity defoliation caused significant reductions in growth and productivity that could have lasting impacts on yield

  20. Future impacts of nitrogen deposition and climate change scenarios on forest crown defoliation.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Alessandra; Proietti, Chiara; Cionni, Irene; Fischer, Richard; Screpanti, Augusto; Vitale, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    Defoliation is an indicator for forest health in response to several stressors including air pollutants, and one of the most important parameters monitored in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The study aims to estimate crown defoliation in 2030, under three climate and one nitrogen deposition scenarios, based on evaluation of the most important factors (meteorological, nitrogen deposition and chemical soil parameters) affecting defoliation of twelve European tree species. The combination of favourable climate and nitrogen fertilization in the more adaptive species induces a generalized decrease of defoliation. On the other hand, severe climate change and drought are main causes of increase in defoliation in Quercus ilex and Fagus sylvatica, especially in Mediterranean area. Our results provide information on regional distribution of future defoliation, an important knowledge for identifying policies to counteract negative impacts of climate change and air pollution.

  1. Consequences of resource limitation for recovery from repeated defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus Labilladière.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Quentin, Audrey; Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Recovery following defoliation can be modified by co-occurring site resource limitations. The growth response of young Eucalyptus globulus saplings to two defoliation events was examined in an experimental plantation with combinations of low (-) or high (+) water (W) and nitrogen (N) resources. Artificial defoliation was applied at 3 and 9 months of age to remove ~40 and 55% of leaf area in the upper crown, respectively. At 18 months of age, height, stem diameter and leaf area were not significantly different between control and defoliated saplings, across all resource treatments. However, stem volume, bark volume and branch number were significantly increased in defoliated saplings, including a significant interaction with resource treatment. Total above-ground biomass of saplings in response to defoliation was significantly higher (almost double) than controls for the low water (N + W-) treatment only. Significantly increased foliar starch content (and a trend for increased soluble sugars) in the upper crown zone was found in the defoliated saplings of the N + W- treatment compared with the upper zone of control saplings. Foliar total non-structural carbohydrates were significantly correlated to stem biomass regardless of resource treatment or defoliation, and we suggest that foliar resources are most important for stem growth in E. globulus rather than stored carbon (C) from other tissues. After repeated defoliation and several months recovery, E. globulus saplings were generally not C limited in this study.

  2. Monitoring the defoliation of hardwood forests in Pennsylvania using LANDSAT. [gypsy moth surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dottavio, C. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Williams, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    An automated system for conducting annual gypsy moth defoliation surveys using LANDSAT MSS data and digital processing techniques is described. A two-step preprocessing procedure was developed that uses multitemporal data sets representing forest canopy conditions before and after defoliation to create a digital image in which all nonforest cover types are eliminated or masked out of a LANDSAT image that exhibits insect defoliation. A temporal window for defoliation assessment was identified and a statewide data base was established. A data management system to interface image analysis software with the statewide data base was developed and a cost benefit analysis of this operational system was conducted.

  3. Starch Grain Distribution in Taproots of Defoliated Medicago sativa L.

    PubMed

    Habben, J E; Volenec, J J

    1990-11-01

    Defoliation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) results in a cyclic pattern of starch degradation followed by reaccumulation in taproots. Characterization of changes in anatomical distribution of starch grains in taproots will aid our understanding of biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved in starch metabolism in taproots of this species. Our objectives were to determine the influence of defoliation on starch grain distribution and size variation in taproots of two alfalfa lines selected for contrasting concentrations of taproot starch. In addition, we used electron microscopy to examine the cellular environment of starch grains, and computer-based image optical analysis to determine how cross-sectional area of tissues influenced starch accumulation. Taproots of field-grown plants were sampled at defoliation and weekly thereafter over a 28-day period. Taproot segments were fixed in glutaraldehyde and prepared for either light or electron microscopy. Transverse sections were examined for number and size of starch grains and tissue areas were measured. Starch grains were located throughout bark tissues, but were confined primarily to ray parenchyma cells in wood tissues. During the first week of foliar regrowth after defoliation, starch grains in ray cells near the cambium disappeared first, while degradation of those near the center of the taproot was delayed. During the third and fourth weeks of regrowth, there was a uniform increase in number of starch grains per cell profile across the rays, but by 28 days after defoliation there were more starch grains in ray cells near the cambium than in cells near the center of the taproot (low starch line only). Bark tissues from both lines showed synchronous degradation and synthesis of starch grains that was not influenced greatly by cell location. Diameter of starch grains varied with cell location in medullary rays during rapid starch degradation, but was not influenced by cell position in bark tissues. Therefore

  4. Late maturers at a performance disadvantage to their more mature peers in junior Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Bennett, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents mature at different rates such that individuals competing in the same competition may differ in physical and biological maturity despite being of similar chronological age. Whether or not differences translate into on-field performance in competition is relatively unknown. This study investigated the influence of biological maturity on fitness and match running performance in junior Australian football. Eighty-seven under-15 years players were categorised into early (n = 20), average (n = 45) and late (n = 22) maturity groups based on self-reported and anthropometric assessment of biological maturity. Running movements during competition were collected using GPS (5 Hz) technology. Early maturers were heavier and taller than all other boys (P < 0.05), while biological maturity was significantly correlated to 20 m sprint (r = 0.53, P < 0.01). Total distance, high-intensity (>14.4 km · h(-1)) running distance and number of high-intensity efforts were significantly greater (20.8%, 53.6%, 31.7%, respectively; P < 0.01) in early compared to late maturers. Number of sprints and peak speed in competition were not different. Pubertal development and maturity status partially explained the differences between players in physical size, functional running fitness and match running performance. Late maturing players in this Australian football under-15 age group were at a physical and performance disadvantage to their earlier maturing peers.

  5. Interactive effects of resource availabilities and defoliation on photosynthesis, growth, and mortality of red oak seedlings

    Treesearch

    James B. McGraw; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Milan C. Vavrek; A.L. Chester

    1990-01-01

    Responses of forest trees to defoliation by insects such as gypsy moth vary greatly from site to site and from individual to individual. To determine whether some of this variation could be explained by variation in other stress factors, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings were exposed to low and high light, water, mineral nutrient, and defoliation...

  6. Effects of defoliation and drought on root food reserves in sugar maple seedlings

    Treesearch

    Johnson Parker; Johnson Parker

    1970-01-01

    The artificial defoliation of sugar maple (Acer. saccharum Marsh.) can cause a marked decline in root food reserves, especially starch, and an increase in the levels of the reducing sugars, fructose and glucose. Defoliation can also bring on the dieback-decline syndrome in sugar maples (Parker and Houston 1968). Two experiments designed to examine this question were...

  7. Recovery of hemlock in Vermont from defoliation by the spring hemlock looper, Lambdina athasaria (Walker)

    Treesearch

    Barbara S. Burns; Henry, Jr. Trial

    2000-01-01

    Following an outbreak of spring hemlock looper in 1991, ten hemlocks in each of fifteen study plots were monitored annually through 1999. Although some mortality occurred within two years after defoliation, and additional mortality occurred in plots which were subsequently disturbed by logging, most defoliated trees recovered. Twenty-four percent of the trees with 90%...

  8. Responses of an Insect Folivore and Its Parastoids to Multiyear Experimental Defoliation of Aspen

    Treesearch

    Dylan Parry; Daniel A. Herms; William J. Mattson

    2003-01-01

    Foliage quality may decline in deciduous trees following defoliation, thus affecting the insect generation responsible for the herbivory (rapid induced resistance, RIR), or future generations (delayed induced resistance, DIR). During outbreaks, trees often suffer partial or complete defoliation for two or more successive years, yet most studies have examined induced...

  9. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation...

  10. Potential defoliation of trees by outbreak populations of gypsy moth in the Chicago area

    Treesearch

    David W. Onstad; David J. Nowak; Michael R. Jeffords

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, will soon become established in much of the Midwest. If an outbreak with extremely high population levels of this serious defoliator is allowed to occur in the Chicago area, what kind of damage can be expected? A model for defoliation, refoliation and mortality was developed based on the number of trees and...

  11. Employing broadband spectra and cluster analysis to assess thermal defoliation of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growers and field scouts need assistance in surveying cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields subjected to thermal defoliation to reap the benefits provided by this nonchemical defoliation method. A study was conducted to evaluate broadband spectral data and unsupervised classification as tools for s...

  12. Proceedings: population dynamics, impacts, and integrated management of forest defoliating insects

    Treesearch

    M.L. McManus; A.M., eds. Liebhold

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains 52 research papers about the population ecology and management of forest insect defoliators. These papers were presented at a joint meeting of working parties S7.03.06, "Integrated Management of Forest Defoliating Insects", and S7.03.07, "Population dynamics of forest insects", of the International Union of Forestry...

  13. Prediction of stand susceptibility and gypsy moth defoliation in Coastal Plain mixed pine-hardwoods

    Treesearch

    C.B. Davidson; J.E. Johnson; K.W. Gottschalk; R.L. Amateis

    2001-01-01

    The European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is an introduced defoliator that has become endemic in forests of the northeastern United States. During the last five decades, populations have continued to advance into the southeastern United States. Defoliation outbreaks continue to occur along the leading edge of the infestation, and the potential...

  14. Mortality and growth reduction of white fir following defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman

    1963-01-01

    In 5 years after a 1954-56 outbreak of Hemerocampa pseudotsugata in Calaveras and Tuolumne Counties, California, 20 percent of the merchantable white fir, or 11,071 board feet per acre, died in heavily defoliated stands. Another 1,113 board feet per acre was lost owing to radial growth reductions in partly defoliated trees; 12 percent of these trees...

  15. Growth reduction after defoliation is independent of CO2 supply in deciduous and evergreen young oaks.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Sandra; Palacio, Sara; Hoch, Günter

    2017-02-27

    Reduced productivity of trees after defoliation might be caused by limited carbon (C) availability. We investigated the combined effect of different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (160, 280 and 560 ppm) and early season defoliation on the growth and C reserves (nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC)) of saplings of two oak species with different leaf habits (deciduous Quercus petraea and evergreen Quercus ilex). In both species, higher CO2 supply significantly enhanced growth. Defoliation had a strong negative impact on growth (stronger for Q. ilex), but the relative reduction of growth caused by defoliation within each CO2 treatment was very similar across all three CO2 concentrations. Low CO2 and defoliation led to decreased NSC tissue concentrations mainly in the middle of the growing season in Q. ilex, but not in Q. petraea. However, also in Q. ilex, NSC increased in woody tissues in defoliated and low-CO2 saplings towards the end of the growing season. Although the saplings were C limited under these specific experimental conditions, growth reduction after defoliation was not directly caused by C limitation. Rather, growth of trees followed a strong allometric relationship between total leaf area and conductive woody tissue, which did not change across species, CO2 concentrations and defoliation treatments.

  16. Effects of Fertilization on Shoot Growth of Defoliated and Undefoliated Red Oak Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Johnson Parker

    1978-01-01

    Fertilization of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings increased their terminal shoot growth. Dry, liquid, and liquid + dry fertilizer was applied to groups of undefoliated, once-defoliated, and twice-defoliated seedlings. Terminal shoot growth was measured after the first and second growing season and compared to that of a similar group of...

  17. Effects of previous stand management on mortality following gypsy moth defoliation: preliminary results

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1989-01-01

    Oak-hickory forest stands were sampled for tree mortality using a series of temporary plots. Stands were classified by gypsy moth defoliation and by thinning treatment timing. Thinning of forest stands does accomplish its goal of reducing mortality in undefoliated stands; however, the effect is not clear when stands are defoliated.

  18. Effects of defoliation, girdling and severing of sugar maple trees on root starch and sugar levels

    Treesearch

    Parker Johnson

    1974-01-01

    Root starch levels of defoliated sugar maple trees, on the average, were lower after 4 weeks in two separate experiments than in girdled, cut off, or girdled and defoliated trees. Root starch levels in all these treatments were lower than in controls. Sucrose levels, but not the levels of fructose and glucose, followed the same trends. It is suggested that...

  19. Defoliation effects on Bromus tectorum seed production: Implications for grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hempy-Mayer, K.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that creates near-homogenous stands in areas throughout the Intermountain sagebrush steppe and challenges successful native plant restoration in these areas. A clipping experiment carried out at two cheatgrass-dominated sites in eastern Oregon (Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek) evaluated defoliation as a potential control method for cheatgrass and a seeding preparation method for native plant reseeding projects. Treatments involved clipping plants at two heights (tall = 7.6 cm, and short = 2.5 cm), two phenological stages (boot and purple), and two frequencies (once and twice), although purple-stage treatments were clipped only once. Treatments at each site were replicated in a randomized complete block design that included a control with no defoliation. End-of-season seed density (seeds??m-2) was estimated by sampling viable seeds from plants, litter, and soil of each treatment. Undipped control plants produced an average of approximately 13 000 and 20 000 seeds??m-2 at Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek, respectively. Plants clipped short at the boot stage and again 2 wk later had among the lowest mean seed densities at both sites, and were considered the most successful treatments (Lincoln Bench: F 6,45 = 47.07, P < 0.0001; Succor Creek: F6,40 = 19.60, P < 0.0001). The 95% confidence intervals for seed densities were 123-324 seeds??m-2 from the Lincoln Bench treatment, and 769-2256 seeds??m-2 from the Succor Creek treatment. Literature suggests a maximum acceptable cheatgrass seed density of approximately 330 seeds??m-2 for successful native plant restoration through reseeding. Thus, although this study helped pinpoint optimal defoliation parameters for cheatgrass control, it also called into question the potential for livestock grazing to be an effective seed-bed preparation technique in native plant reseeding projects in cheatgrass-dominated areas.

  20. Remote Sensing Plant Stress Using Combined Fluorescence and Reflectance Measurements for Early Detection of Defoliants within the Battlefield Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-02

    REPORT Remote sensing plant stress using combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefied...stress using combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefied environment Report Title...combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefield environment ARO Proposal # (49364-EV

  1. Response of tomato to defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2]level

    SciTech Connect

    Freidus, D. )

    1993-06-01

    Increased resources are expected to result in increased plant productivity and to increase a plant's ability to replace tissue lost to defoliation. This hypothesis was tested by growing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a phytotron greenhouse at ambient (355 ppm) and elevated (710 ppm) levels of CO[sub 2]. The experiment was fully factorial for CO[sub 2] level and two manual defoliation treatments, the first during vegetative growth and the second during fruiting. Elevated CO[sub 2] level did not alter total biomass, but did alter allocation: total fruit biomass and fruit number decreased. This is contrary to the expected result. Only the first defoliation treatment lowered total vegetative and reproductive biomass produced. There was no interaction between response to defoliation and response to elevated CO[sub 2] level. Thus, both the main effect of elevated CO[sub 2] and the interaction of defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2] were inconsistent with my hypothesis.

  2. Genotypic differences and prior defoliation affect re-growth and phytochemistry after coppicing in Populus tremuloides.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael T; Gusse, Adam C; Lindroth, Richard L

    2012-03-01

    Although considerable research has explored how tree growth and defense can be influenced by genotype, the biotic environment, and their interaction, little is known about how genotypic differences, prior defoliation, and their interactive effects persist in trees that re-grow after damage that severs their primary stem. To address these issues, we established a common garden consisting of twelve genotypes of potted aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees, and subjected half of the trees to defoliation in two successive years. At the beginning of the third year, all trees were severed at the soil surface (coppiced) and allowed to regenerate for five months. Afterwards, we counted the number of root and stump sprouts produced and measured the basal diameter (d) and height (h) of the tallest ramet in each pot. We collected leaves one and two years after the second defoliation and assessed levels of phenolic glycosides, condensed tannins, and nitrogen. In terms of re-growth, we found that the total number of sprouts produced varied by 3.6-fold among genotypes, and that prior defoliation decreased total sprout production by 24%. The size (d(2)h) of ramets, however, did not differ significantly among genotypes or defoliation classes. In terms of phytochemistry, we observed genotypic differences in concentrations of all phytochemicals assessed both one and two years after the second defoliation. Two years after defoliation, we observed effects of prior defoliation in a genotype-by-defoliation interaction for condensed tannins. Results from this study demonstrate that genotypic differences and impacts of prior defoliation persist to influence growth and defense traits in trees even after complete removal of above-ground stems, and thus likely influence productivity and plant-herbivore interactions in forests affected by natural disturbances or actively managed through coppicing.

  3. Growth and physiology of woody plants in response to elevated CO{sub 2} and defoliation in an open-top field study

    SciTech Connect

    Volin, J.C.; Kruger, E.L.; Lindroth, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    Seedlings of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) were exposed for an entire growing season to ambient (-357 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) or elevated ({approximately}650 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) levels of CO{sub 2}. To simulate natural defoliation, a subset of the seedlings within each CO{sub 2} treatment also had 50 % of their foliage clipped in late June. During the growing season there were three sequential harvests. The first was coincident with defoliation, followed by a mid-season harvest in early August and a final harvest after leaf senescence. Allocational, morphological and physiological determinants of growth were measured at each harvest. This is the first of two years of CO{sub 2} exposure, and preliminary analyses indicate an increase in both photosynthesis and growth for trembling aspen and sugar maple. However, after accounting for initial growth differences, the magnitude of this enhancement appears to have diminished over the course of the growing season, which can largely be explained by changes in physiological response. Interestingly, there was no growth {open_quotes}acclimation{close_quotes} to an enriched-CO{sub 2} environment for sugar maple seedlings that had been artificially defoliated.

  4. Comparison of energy rationing systems for late gestation ewes: Impacts on ewe and lamb performance.

    PubMed

    Campion, F P; McGovern, F M; Lott, S; Fahey, A G; Creighton, P; Boland, T M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the effects of a ME () or a NE () system for rationing ewes during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance and 2) to investigate incremental increases in NE allocation above 100% of recommendation during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance. Fifty-two twin-bearing ewes ( = 13 per treatment) were rationed to either 100% of recommended ME requirements (100% ME) or 100, 110, or 120% of recommended NE requirements (100% NE, 110% NE, and 120% NE) from d 112 of gestation to parturition. Mean energy intake, measured as ME and NE, from Day 112 of gestation to parturition was higher in all NE treatments compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.01). Ewes offered the 3 NE treatments had a higher live weight at parturition compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.02), with 100% NE and 120% NE ewes still being heavier than 100% ME ewes at 35 d postpartum ( = 0.02). Increasing NE allowance resulted in a linear decrease in the level of BCS loss prepartum ( = 0.01) and a linear increase in the level of BCS loss postpartum ( = 0.01). There was no difference observed between any of the treatments in total colostrum produced to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.29) or in total colostrum intake to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.27). Increasing maternal NE allowance led to a linear increase in lamb serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum ( = 0.03). The estimated milk production of 120% NE ewes tended to be higher than all other treatments at wk 6 of lactation ( = 0.08). Colostral SFA levels from 100% ME ewes was lower than that of all 3 NE treatments ( = 0.01), and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) levels in colostrum of the 100% ME ewes were lower than those of the 100% NE ewes ( = 0.01). Cumulative levels of milk SFA, UFA, and MUFA did not differ between treatments ( = 0.19). Lamb growth rates during the first 5 wk postpartum were unaffected by treatment ( = 0.18) as were days to slaughter ( = 0.34). It can be concluded that both ME and NE systems used in this

  5. Effects of late-gestation heat stress on immunity and performance of calves.

    PubMed

    Dahl, G E; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A

    2016-04-01

    Lactating cows that experience heat stress will have reduced dry matter intake and milk yield and shift metabolism, which ultimately reduces the efficiency of milk production. Dry cows that are heat stressed similarly experience lower intake, reduced mammary growth, and compromised immune function that ultimately results in a poorer transition into lactation and lower milk yield in the next lactation. A recent focus in our laboratory is on the effects of late gestation, in utero heat stress on calf survival and performance. We have completed a series of studies to examine preweaning growth and health, and later reproductive and productive responses, in an attempt to quantify acute and persistent effects of in utero heat strain. Late gestation heat stress results in calves with lower body weight at birth, shorter stature at weaning, and failure to achieve the same weight or height at 12 mo of age observed in calves from dams that are cooled when dry. A portion of the reduced growth may result from the lower immune status observed in calves heat stressed in utero, which begins with poorer apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin absorption and extends to lower survival rates through puberty. Heat-stressed calves, however, have permanent shifts in metabolism that are consistent with greater peripheral accumulation of energy and less lean growth relative to those from cooled dams. Comparing reproductive performance in calves heat stressed versus those cooled in utero, we observe that the cooled heifers require fewer services to attain pregnancy and become pregnant at an earlier age. Tracking the milk production in calves that were heat stressed in utero versus those cooled in late gestation revealed a significant reduction of yield in the first lactation, approximately 5 kg/d through 35 wk of lactation, despite similar body weight and condition score at calving. These observations indicate that a relatively brief period of heat stress in late gestation dramatically alters

  6. Branch growth and leaf numbers of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.): response to defoliation.

    PubMed

    Heichel, G H; Turner, Neil C

    1984-04-01

    Branch growth and leaf formation from terminal and from lateral buds of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were measured in response to simulated insect defoliation. A single large branch representative of the crown of each tree was used for enumeration of growth and of bud numbers throughout three successive years of 0, 50, 75, and 100% leaf removal for the entire tree. Leaf number per tree for both species after the last year of defoliation was reduced in direct proportion to the severity of defoliation, in comparison to the predefoliation status of the trees. Bud number per tree for red maple, but not for red oak, was also reduced in proportion to severity of defoliation.Averaged over all defoliation treatments, defoliation reduced branch growth more than leaf production. Furthermore, the reduction in branch growth and leaf production was greater in red oak than in red maple. Three years of successive defoliation reduced the mean lateral plus terminal branch growth by 40% in red oak and by 23% in red maple, while leaf number was reduced 22% in red oak and remained unchanged in red maple. In red maple, 100% defoliation caused greater branch death than the 50 or 75% defoliation treatments, and the amount of death was greater after each successive year of defoliation. In contrast to red maple, undefoliated red oak incurred a substantial amount of branch death throughout the study which was little affected by defoliation treatment.

  7. Grass competition surpasses the effect of defoliation on a woody plant invader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, Melina J.; Tognetti, Pedro M.; Mazía, Noemí

    2015-10-01

    Woody encroachment in grasslands represents a global phenomenon with strong consequences on ecosystem functioning. While the causes triggering this process can be multiple, there is consensus on the fact that anthropogenic activities play a central role in woody expansion. In particular, the loss of grass cover increases the chances of woody invasion, whereas the role of defoliation is less known. In this study our objective was to assess the simultaneous effect of competition generated by resident vegetation and woody seedling defoliation on the growth and survival of Gleditsia triacanthos seedlings, a woody invader in Argentina. We established a factorial pot experiment with two main factors: Gleditsia defoliation (2 levels: with and without defoliation) and pasture competition (3 levels: without pasture, clipped pasture and intact pasture). Our results showed that pasture competition reduced Gleditsia survival and tree growth, but that the effect of tree defoliation on tree growth depended on the magnitude of pasture competition. More widely, our results stress the existence of a hierarchy order of factors controlling Gleditsia establishment (survival + growth): grass competition was the main control and tree defoliation became important only in the absence of competition. This evidence suggests that maintaining a competitive grass cover along with a frequency of tree defoliation could diminish tree establishment in herbaceous communities.

  8. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41–60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61–80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak. PMID:26029235

  9. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir.

    PubMed

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41-60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61-80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak.

  10. Associations of job demands and intelligence with cognitive performance among men in late life

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Guy G.; Helms, Michael J.; Plassman, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of job characteristics and intelligence to cognitive status in members of the National Academy of Sciences–National Research Council Twins Registry of World War II veterans. Methods Participants (n = 1,036) included individuals with an assessment of intelligence based on Armed Services testing in early adulthood. In late adulthood, these individuals completed the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) and occupational history as part of an epidemiologic study of aging and dementia. Occupational history was coded to produce a matrix of job characteristics. Based on factor analysis, job characteristics were interpreted as reflecting general intellectual demands (GI), human interaction and communication (HC), physical activity (PA), and visual attention (VA). Results Based on regression analysis of TICS-m score covarying for age, intelligence, and years of education, higher levels of GI and HC were independently associated with higher TICS-m performance, whereas higher PA was independently associated with lower performance. There was an interaction of GI and intelligence, indicating that individuals at the lower range of intellectual aptitude in early adulthood derived greater cognitive benefit from intellectually demanding work. Conclusions Intellectually demanding work was associated with greater benefit to cognitive performance in later life independent of related factors like education and intelligence. The fact that individuals with lower intellectual aptitude demonstrated a stronger positive association between work and higher cognitive performance during retirement suggests that behavior may enhance intellectual reserve, perhaps even years after peak intellectual activity. PMID:18077796

  11. Extreme defoliation reduces tree growth but not C and N storage in a winter-deciduous species

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Frida I.; Gundale, Michael J.; Fajardo, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is a growing concern about how forests will respond to increased herbivory associated with climate change. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) limitation are hypothesized to cause decreasing growth after defoliation, and eventually mortality. This study examines the effects of a natural and massive defoliation by an insect on mature trees’ C and N storage, which have rarely been studied together, particularly in winter-deciduous species. Methods Survival, growth rate, carbon [C, as non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration] and nitrogen (N) storage, defences (tannins and total polyphenols), and re-foliation traits were examined in naturally defoliated and non-defoliated adult trees of the winter-deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio 1 and 2 years after a massive and complete defoliation caused by the caterpillar of Ormiscodes amphimone (Saturniidae) during summer 2009 in Patagonia. Key Results Defoliated trees did not die but grew significantly less than non-defoliated trees for at least 2 years after defoliation. One year after defoliation, defoliated trees had similar NSC and N concentrations in woody tissues, higher polyphenol concentrations and lower re-foliation than non-defoliated trees. In the second year, however, NSC concentrations in branches were significantly higher in defoliated trees while differences in polyphenols and re-foliation disappeared and decreased, respectively. Conclusions The significant reduction in growth following defoliation was not caused by insufficient C or N availability, as frequently assumed; instead, it was probably due to growth limitations due to factors other than C or N, or to preventative C allocation to storage. This study shows an integrative approach to evaluating plant growth limitations in response to disturbance, by examining major resources other than C (e.g. N), and other C sinks besides storage and growth (e.g. defences and re-foliation). PMID:25851136

  12. Extreme defoliation reduces tree growth but not C and N storage in a winter-deciduous species.

    PubMed

    Piper, Frida I; Gundale, Michael J; Fajardo, Alex

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing concern about how forests will respond to increased herbivory associated with climate change. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) limitation are hypothesized to cause decreasing growth after defoliation, and eventually mortality. This study examines the effects of a natural and massive defoliation by an insect on mature trees' C and N storage, which have rarely been studied together, particularly in winter-deciduous species. Survival, growth rate, carbon [C, as non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration] and nitrogen (N) storage, defences (tannins and total polyphenols), and re-foliation traits were examined in naturally defoliated and non-defoliated adult trees of the winter-deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio 1 and 2 years after a massive and complete defoliation caused by the caterpillar of Ormiscodes amphimone (Saturniidae) during summer 2009 in Patagonia. Defoliated trees did not die but grew significantly less than non-defoliated trees for at least 2 years after defoliation. One year after defoliation, defoliated trees had similar NSC and N concentrations in woody tissues, higher polyphenol concentrations and lower re-foliation than non-defoliated trees. In the second year, however, NSC concentrations in branches were significantly higher in defoliated trees while differences in polyphenols and re-foliation disappeared and decreased, respectively. The significant reduction in growth following defoliation was not caused by insufficient C or N availability, as frequently assumed; instead, it was probably due to growth limitations due to factors other than C or N, or to preventative C allocation to storage. This study shows an integrative approach to evaluating plant growth limitations in response to disturbance, by examining major resources other than C (e.g. N), and other C sinks besides storage and growth (e.g. defences and re-foliation). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  13. cis-3-Chloroacrylic Acid: A New Cotton Defoliant and Crop Desiccant.

    PubMed

    Herrett, R A; Kurtz, A N

    1963-09-20

    cis-3-Chloroacrylic acid is a potent cotton defoliant and a crop desiccant. Relationships between structure and activity indicate a relatively high degree of specificity, since minor modifications in structure result in loss of activity.

  14. Effects of Cottonwood Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larval Defoliation, Clone, and Season on Populus Foliar Phagostimulants

    Treesearch

    David R. Coyle; Joel D. McMillin; Richard B. Hall; Elwood R. Hart

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: The cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., is a serious defoliator of plantation Populus in the United States. Current control methods include biorational and synthetic chemicals as well as selecting Populus clones resistant or tolerant to C. scripta...

  15. Rhythm synchronization performance and auditory working memory in early- and late-trained musicians.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jennifer A; Penhune, Virginia B

    2010-07-01

    Behavioural and neuroimaging studies provide evidence for a possible "sensitive" period in childhood development during which musical training results in long-lasting changes in brain structure and auditory and motor performance. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 (early-trained; ET) perform better on a visuomotor task than those who begin after the age of 7 (late-trained; LT), even when matched on total years of musical training and experience. Two questions were raised regarding the findings from this experiment. First, would this group performance difference be observed using a more familiar, musically relevant task such as auditory rhythms? Second, would cognitive abilities mediate this difference in task performance? To address these questions, ET and LT musicians, matched on years of musical training, hours of current practice and experience, were tested on an auditory rhythm synchronization task. The task consisted of six woodblock rhythms of varying levels of metrical complexity. In addition, participants were tested on cognitive subtests measuring vocabulary, working memory and pattern recognition. The two groups of musicians differed in their performance of the rhythm task, such that the ET musicians were better at reproducing the temporal structure of the rhythms. There were no group differences on the cognitive measures. Interestingly, across both groups, individual task performance correlated with auditory working memory abilities and years of formal training. These results support the idea of a sensitive period during the early years of childhood for developing sensorimotor synchronization abilities via musical training.

  16. The dynamics of recovery and growth: how defoliation affects stored resources.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R R L; Burrell, M M; Rose, K E; Osborne, C P; Rees, M

    2014-05-22

    Growth rate varies widely among species and the trade-off between growth rate and storage or maintenance traits is a principal axis of variation between species. Many plant species have substantial root stores, but very little is known about how growth rate modifies responses of these stores to defoliation and other stresses. Species with different growth rates are predicted to respond in distinct ways, because of variation in the pre-defoliation allocation to storage. Here, we quantified the dynamics of stored carbohydrates in seven species with varying growth rate, following defoliation in a pot experiment. For faster growing species, there was significant reduction in carbohydrate concentration following defoliation, followed by relatively fast recovery, whereas for slower growing species, carbohydrate concentration levels remained relatively invariant across treatments. Results for total carbohydrates mirrored those for concentration, but were not as significant. Our findings were consistent with the idea that faster growing species respond more rapidly than slower growers to defoliation, through changes in carbohydrate pool concentrations. Growth rate as an indicator of life-history and ecological strategy may therefore be key to understanding post-defoliation recovery and storage strategies.

  17. Are gas exchange responses to resource limitation and defoliation linked to source:sink relationships?

    PubMed

    Pinkard, E A; Eyles, A; O'Grady, A P

    2011-10-01

    Productivity of trees can be affected by limitations in resources such as water and nutrients, and herbivory. However, there is little understanding of their interactive effects on carbon uptake and growth. We hypothesized that: (1) in the absence of defoliation, photosynthetic rate and leaf respiration would be governed by limiting resource(s) and their impact on sink limitation; (2) photosynthetic responses to defoliation would be a consequence of changing source:sink relationships and increased availability of limiting resources; and (3) photosynthesis and leaf respiration would be adjusted in response to limiting resources and defoliation so that growth could be maintained. We tested these hypotheses by examining how leaf photosynthetic processes, respiration, carbohydrate concentrations and growth rates of Eucalyptus globulus were influenced by high or low water and nitrogen (N) availability, and/or defoliation. Photosynthesis of saplings grown with low water was primarily sink limited, whereas photosynthetic responses of saplings grown with low N were suggestive of source limitation. Defoliation resulted in source limitation. Net photosynthetic responses to defoliation were linked to the degree of resource availability, with the largest responses measured in treatments where saplings were ultimately source rather than sink limited. There was good evidence of acclimation to stress, enabling higher rates of C uptake than might otherwise have occurred.

  18. Performance Metrics for Selecting Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Late-onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ching; Hsiao, Chi-Jung; Jung, Chien-Cheng; Hu, Hui-Han; Chen, Jen-Hau; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Chen, Ta-Fu; Sun, Yu; Wen, Li-Li; Yip, Ping-Keung; Chu, Yi-Min; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yang, Hwai-I

    2016-11-02

    Previous genome-wide association studies using P-values to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have suffered from high false-positive and false-negative results. This case-control study recruited 713 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) cases and controls aged ≥65 from three teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan from 2007 to 2010. Performance metrics were used to select SNPs in stage 1, which were then genotyped to another dataset (stage 2). Four SNPs (CPXM2 rs2362967, APOC1 rs4420638, ZNF521 rs7230380, and rs12965520) were identified for LOAD by both traditional P-values (without correcting for multiple tests) and performance metrics. After correction for multiple tests, no SNPs were identified by traditional P-values. Simultaneous testing of APOE e4 and APOC1 rs4420638 (the SNP with the best performance in the performance metrics) significantly improved the low sensitivity of APOE e4 from 0.50 to 0.78. A point-based genetic model including these 2 SNPs and important covariates was constructed. Compared with elders with low-risks score (0-6), elders belonging to moderate-risk (score = 7-11) and high-risk (score = 12-18) groups showed a significantly increased risk of LOAD (adjusted odds ratio = 7.80 and 46.93, respectively; Ptrend < 0.0001). Performance metrics allow for identification of markers with moderate effect and are useful for creating genetic tests with clinical and public health implications.

  19. Performance Metrics for Selecting Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ching; Hsiao, Chi-Jung; Jung, Chien-Cheng; Hu, Hui-Han; Chen, Jen-Hau; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Chen, Ta-Fu; Sun, Yu; Wen, Li-Li; Yip, Ping-Keung; Chu, Yi-Min; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yang, Hwai-I

    2016-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies using P-values to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have suffered from high false-positive and false-negative results. This case-control study recruited 713 late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) cases and controls aged ≥65 from three teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan from 2007 to 2010. Performance metrics were used to select SNPs in stage 1, which were then genotyped to another dataset (stage 2). Four SNPs (CPXM2 rs2362967, APOC1 rs4420638, ZNF521 rs7230380, and rs12965520) were identified for LOAD by both traditional P-values (without correcting for multiple tests) and performance metrics. After correction for multiple tests, no SNPs were identified by traditional P-values. Simultaneous testing of APOE e4 and APOC1 rs4420638 (the SNP with the best performance in the performance metrics) significantly improved the low sensitivity of APOE e4 from 0.50 to 0.78. A point-based genetic model including these 2 SNPs and important covariates was constructed. Compared with elders with low-risks score (0–6), elders belonging to moderate-risk (score = 7–11) and high-risk (score = 12–18) groups showed a significantly increased risk of LOAD (adjusted odds ratio = 7.80 and 46.93, respectively; Ptrend < 0.0001). Performance metrics allow for identification of markers with moderate effect and are useful for creating genetic tests with clinical and public health implications. PMID:27805002

  20. Impact of defoliation intensities on plant biomass, nutrient uptake and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus tenuis growing in a saline-sodic soil.

    PubMed

    García, I; Mendoza, R

    2012-11-01

    The impact of different defoliation intensities on the ability of Lotus tenuis plants to regrowth, mobilise nutrients and to associate with native AM fungi and Rhizobium in a saline-sodic soil was investigated. After 70 days, plants were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% defoliation and shoot regrowth was assessed at the end of subsequent 35 days. Compared to non-defoliated plants, low or moderate defoliation up to 75% did not affect shoot regrowth. However, 100% treatment affected shoot regrowth and the clipped plants were not able to compensate the growth attained by non-defoliated plants. Root growth was more affected by defoliation than shoot growth. P and N concentrations in shoots and roots increased with increasing defoliation while Na(+) concentration in shoots of non-defoliated and moderately defoliated plants was similar. Non-defoliated and moderately defoliated plants prevented increases of Na(+) concentration in shoots through both reducing Na(+) uptake and Na(+) transport to shoots by accumulating Na(+) in roots. At high defoliation, the salinity tolerance mechanism is altered and Na(+) concentration in shoots was higher than in roots. Reduction in the photosynthetic capacity induced by defoliation neither changed the root length colonised by AM fungi nor arbuscular colonisation but decreased the vesicular colonisation. Spore density did not change, but hyphal density and Rhizobium nodules increased with defoliation. The strategy of the AM symbiont consists in investing most of the C resources to preferentially retain arbuscular colonisation as well as inoculum density in the soil.

  1. Improvement of cold resistance and performance of broilers by acute cold exposure during late embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shinder, D; Ruzal, M; Giloh, M; Druyan, S; Piestun, Y; Yahav, S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to fine-tune previous acute cold exposure treatments of broiler embryos during late embryogenesis to improve lifelong cold resistance and performance. Six hundred Cobb hatching eggs were incubated under standard conditions and then exposed to 3 treatments: control; cold treatment in which embryos were exposed to 15°C for 30 min on d 18 and 19 of incubation (30 × 2); and cold treatment similar to 30 × 2 but with 60-min exposures (60 × 2). Egg shell temperature (T(egg)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored pre- and posttreatment. Upon hatching, hatchability, body weight, and body temperature were recorded. From 14 to 35 d of age, three quarters of the chickens in each treatment were raised under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) and the remaining birds were raised under standard brooding conditions (SBC). The T(egg) and HR decreased significantly in response to increased exposure time on d 18 of incubation. On d 19 of incubation, before the second cold exposure, the 30 × 2 group showed greater T(egg) and HR than the controls, and during the second exposure they maintained these parameters better than the 60 × 2 embryos. No treatment effect on hatchability was observed. At 35 d of age ascites incidence among 30 × 2 chickens under AIC was significantly less than that among the controls (P < 0.01), and body weight of these chickens under either SBC or AIC was significantly higher than that of the controls. Under SBC relative breast muscle weight was significantly higher in 60 × 2 chickens, whereas the relative heart weight was higher in both cold-treated groups than in the controls. It can be concluded that repeated short acute cold exposures during late embryogenesis significantly reduced ascites incidence and improved growth rate under either SBC or AIC. These results may be related to a prenatal epigenetic adaptation of the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems to low ambient temperature.

  2. Relationship Between Midlife Cardiovascular Health and Late-Life Physical Performance: The ARIC Study.

    PubMed

    Windham, B Gwen; Harrison, Kimystian L; Lirette, Seth T; Lutsey, Pamela L; Pompeii, Lisa A; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Koton, Silvia; Steffen, Lyn M; Griswold, Michael E; Mosley, Thomas H

    2017-05-01

    To examine the association between midlife cardiovascular health and physical performance 25 years later. Cohort study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study); multinomial logistic and logistic regression adjusted for demographic characteristics and clinical measures. Four U.S. communities: Forsyth County, North Carolina; Washington County, Maryland; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Jackson, Mississippi. Individuals aged 54.2 ± 5.8 at baseline (N = 15,744; 55% female, 27% black). Cardiovascular health was measured at baseline using the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 (LS7) score (0-14) and LS7 component categories (poor, intermediate, ideal) for each risk factor. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to quantify physical function as ordinal (0-12) and categorical (low (0-6), fair (7-9), good (10-12) outcomes. Mean baseline LS7 score was 7.9 ± 2.4; 6,144 (39%) individuals returned 25 years later for the fifth ARIC examination, at which point the SPPB was administered. Of 5,916 individuals who completed the SPPB, 3,288 (50%) had good physical performance. Each 1-unit increase in LS7 score was associated with a 17% higher SPPB score (rate ratio (RR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.19) and a 29% greater chance of having a late-life SPPB score of 10 or greater compared to SPPB score of less than 10 (RR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.25-1.34). Ideal baseline glucose (RR = 2.53, 95% CI = 2.24-2.87), smoking (RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.81-2.15), blood pressure (RR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.54-1.88), body mass index (RR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.37-1.66), and physical activity (RR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.20-1.43) had the strongest associations with late-life SPPB score, adjusting for other LS7 components. Better cardiovascular health during midlife may lead better physical functioning in older age. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Low and moderate doses of caffeine late in exercise improve performance in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Talanian, Jason L; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if low and moderate doses of caffeine delivered in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) late in exercise improved time-trial (TT) performance. Fifteen (11 male, 4 female) cyclists (age, 22.5 ± 0.9 years; body mass, 69.3 ± 2.6 kg; peak oxygen consumption, 64.6 ± 1.9 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) completed 4 double-blinded randomized trials. Subjects completed 120 min of cycling at ∼60% peak oxygen consumption with 5 interspersed 120-s intervals at ∼82% peak oxygen consumption, immediately followed by 40-s intervals at 50 W. Following 80 min of cycling, subjects either ingested a 6% CES (PL), a CES with 100 mg (low dose, 1.5 ± 0.1 mg·kg body mass(-1)) of caffeine (CAF1), or a CES with 200 mg (moderate dose, 2.9 ± 0.1 mg·kg body mass(-1)) of caffeine (CAF2). Following the 120-min cycling challenge, cyclists completed a 6-kJ·kg body mass(-1) TT. There was no difference between respiratory, heart rate, glucose, free fatty acid, body mass, hematocrit, or urine specific gravity measurements between treatments. The CAF2 (26:36 ± 0:22 min:s) TT was completed faster than CAF1 (27:36 ± 0:32 min:s, p < 0.05) and both CAF1 and CAF2 TTs were completed faster than PL (28:41 ± 0:38 min:s, p < 0.05). Blood lactate was similar between trials and rose to a greater extent during the TT (p < 0.05). In summary, both doses of caffeine delivered late in exercise improved TT performance over the PL trial and the moderate dose (CAF2) improved performance to a greater extent than the low dose (CAF1).

  4. Photosynthesis, carbohydrate storage and survival of a native and an introduced tree species in relation to light and defoliation.

    PubMed

    Gleason, S M; Ares, A

    2004-10-01

    Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh (tropical ash), a species introduced to Hawaii from Mexico, invades forests of the endemic tree Acacia koa A.Gray (koa). We examined physiological and morphological characteristics of koa and tropical ash to explore possible mechanisms that may facilitate invasion of koa forests by tropical ash. Seedlings of both species were grown in a greenhouse in three light treatments: 100% photosynthetic photon flux (PPF); 18% PPF; and 2% PPF inside the greenhouse. Light compensation point, maximum CO2 assimilation rate and dark respiration rate of seedlings differed significantly among light treatments, but were similar between species. A defoliation experiment indicated that tropical ash was better able to survive defoliation than koa, especially under high-light conditions. Tropical ash seedlings allocated more carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to storage per unit PPF than koa seedlings. Total nonstructural carbohydrates were positively correlated with plant survival in both species. The patterns of C and N allocation associated with tropical ash seedlings favor their survival in high light, under intense herbivory and on sites where N availability is seasonal or highly variable. Variation in carbohydrate storage between koa and tropical ash greatly exceeded variation in photosynthetic performance at the leaf level.

  5. Defoliation by pastoralists affects savanna tree seedling dynamics by limiting the facilitative role of canopy cover.

    PubMed

    Bufford, Jennifer L; Gaoue, Orou G

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent tree defoliation by pastoralists, akin to herbivory, can negatively affect plant reproduction and population dynamics. However, our understanding of the indirect role of defoliation in seedling recruitment and tree-grass dynamics in tropical savanna is limited. In West African savanna, Fulani pastoralists frequently defoliate several fodder tree species to feed livestock in the dry season. We investigated the direct and indirect effects of recurrent defoliation of African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) by Fulani people on seedling (< 2 cm basal diameter) and sapling dynamics in West Africa using four years of demographic data on seedling and sapling density, growth, and survival, coupled with fruit production and microhabitat data over the same time period. Tree canopy cover facilitated seedlings but had negative effects on sapling growth possibly via intraspecific competition with adult plants. Interspecific competition with grasses strongly reduced seedling survival but had a weak effect on sapling growth. Fire reduced seedling survival and weakly reduced growth of seedlings and saplings, but did not affect sapling survival. These results indicate that the effect of fire on seedlings and saplings is distinct, a mechanism suitable for an episodic recruitment of seedlings into the sapling stage and consistent with predictions from the demographic bottleneck model. Defoliation affected seedling density and sapling growth through changes in canopy cover, but had no effect on seedling growth and sapling survival. In the moist region, sapling density was higher in sites with low-intensity defoliation, indicating that defoliation may strengthen the tree recruitment bottleneck. Our study suggests that large-scale defoliation can alter the facilitative role of nurse trees on seedling dynamics and tree-sapling competition. Given that tree defoliation by local people is a widespread activity throughout savanna-forest systems in West Africa, it has the potential to

  6. Combined effects of defoliation and water stress on pine growth and non-structural carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Jean-Sébastien; Bosc, Alexandre; O'Grady, Anthony; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-04-01

    Climate change is expected to increase both pest insect damage and the occurrence of severe drought. There is therefore a need to better understand the combined effects of biotic and abiotic damage on tree growth in order to predict the multi-factorial effect of climate change on forest ecosystem productivity. Indeed, the effect of stress interactions on tree growth is an increasingly important topic that greatly lacks experiments and data, and it is unlikely that the impact of combined stresses can be extrapolated from the outcomes of studies that focused on a single stress. We developed an original manipulative study under real field conditions where we applied artificial defoliation and induced water stress on 10-year-old (∼10 m high) maritime pine trees (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Tree response to combined stresses was quantitatively assessed following tree secondary growth and carbohydrate pools. Such a design allowed us to address the crucial question of combined stresses on trees under stand conditions, sharing soil supplies with neighboring trees. Our initial hypotheses were that (i) moderate defoliation can limit the impact of water stress on tree growth through reduced transpiration demand by a tree canopy partly defoliated and that (ii) defoliation results in reduced non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) pools, affecting tree tolerance to drought. Our results showed additive effects of defoliation and water stress on tree growth and contradict our initial hypothesis. Indeed, under stand conditions, we found that partial defoliation does not limit the impact of water stress through reduced transpiration. Our study also highlighted that, even if NSC in all organs were affected by defoliation, tree response to water stress was not triggered. We found that stem NSC were maintained or increased during the entire growing season, supporting literature-based hypotheses such as an active maintenance of the hydraulic system or another limiting resource for tree growth

  7. Is growth reduction in defoliated trees a consequence of prioritized carbon allocation to reserves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Guenter; Schmid, Sandra; Palacio, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Tissue concentrations of carbon reserve compounds are frequently used as proxies for the carbon balance of trees, but the mechanisms regulating the formation of carbon reserves are still under debate. It is often assumed that carbon storage in trees is largely a consequence of surplus carbon supply (reserve accumulation). In contrast, carbon storage might also occur against prevailing carbon demand from other sink activities, like growth (reserve formation), in which case carbon reserve pools might increase even at carbon limitation, and thus, cannot be used as indicators for a tree's carbon supply status. Such a situation might be severe defoliation by herbivores. Especially in evergreen tree species, it has been shown that natural and experimental defoliation leads to a reduction of growth that is proportional to the lost leaf area. Compared to this strong effect on growth, carbon reserve pools (i.e. sugars, starch and storage lipids) of defoliated trees often exert only a temporary decrease immediately after defoliation, while tissue concentrations of carbon reserves return to those of undefoliated trees by the end of the growing season. Within a recent experiment, we investigated, if the growth decline in trees following early season defoliation is the consequence of prioritized carbon allocation to carbon reserves over growth. To test this hypothesis we grew seedlings of evergreen Quecus ilex and deciduous Quercus petraea trees under low (140 ppm), medium (280 ppm) and high (560 ppm) CO2 concentrations and completely defoliated half of the seedlings in each CO2 treatment at the beginning of the growing season. In undefoliated control trees, CO2 had a significant positive effect on the seasonal growth in both species. Defoliation had a strong negative impact on growth in the evergreen Q. illex, but less in the deciduous Q. petraea. In both species, the growth reduction after defoliation relative to undefoliated controls was very similar at all three CO2

  8. Reservoir performance of Late Eocene incised valley fills, Cusiana Field, Llanos Foothills, Eastern Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Pulham, A. ); Edward, W. ); App, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Cusiana Field is located in the Llanos Foothills of Eastern Colombia. The principal reservoir is the late Eocene Mirador Formation which comprises >50% of reserves. Currently the Mirador reservoir is providing nearly all of the 150,00bopd of production from the Cusiana Field. The Mirador reservoir comprises a stack of incised valley deposits. The fills of the valleys are dominated by quartz arenite sandstones. The average porosity of the valley sandstones is 8% which reflects abundant quartz cement ([approximately]14%) and significant compaction during deep burial ([approximately]20,000feet). Single valleys are up to 70 feet thick and exhibit a distinctive bipartite fill that reflects changing energy conditions during filling. Bases of valleys have the coarsest grain size and have sedimentological and trace fossil evidence for deposition in highly stressed, brackish water environments. The upper parts of the valleys are typically finer grained and were deposited in more saline settings. Despite the low porosity of the Mirador valleys, drill stem tests and production log data show that they have phenomenal performance characteristics. Rates of [ge]10,000bopd are achieved from single valleys. Bases of the valley fills are the key contributors to flow. Integration of detailed core and pore system analysis with the reservoir performance data shows that the permeability fabric of the Mirador can be explained by original depositional architecture and simple loss of primary porosity. Comparison of Cusiana with other quartz-rich sandstones from around the world suggests that it's low porosity/high performance is predictable.

  9. Reservoir performance of Late Eocene incised valley fills, Cusiana Field, Llanos Foothills, Eastern Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Pulham, A.; Edward, W.; App, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Cusiana Field is located in the Llanos Foothills of Eastern Colombia. The principal reservoir is the late Eocene Mirador Formation which comprises >50% of reserves. Currently the Mirador reservoir is providing nearly all of the 150,00bopd of production from the Cusiana Field. The Mirador reservoir comprises a stack of incised valley deposits. The fills of the valleys are dominated by quartz arenite sandstones. The average porosity of the valley sandstones is 8% which reflects abundant quartz cement ({approximately}14%) and significant compaction during deep burial ({approximately}20,000feet). Single valleys are up to 70 feet thick and exhibit a distinctive bipartite fill that reflects changing energy conditions during filling. Bases of valleys have the coarsest grain size and have sedimentological and trace fossil evidence for deposition in highly stressed, brackish water environments. The upper parts of the valleys are typically finer grained and were deposited in more saline settings. Despite the low porosity of the Mirador valleys, drill stem tests and production log data show that they have phenomenal performance characteristics. Rates of {ge}10,000bopd are achieved from single valleys. Bases of the valley fills are the key contributors to flow. Integration of detailed core and pore system analysis with the reservoir performance data shows that the permeability fabric of the Mirador can be explained by original depositional architecture and simple loss of primary porosity. Comparison of Cusiana with other quartz-rich sandstones from around the world suggests that it`s low porosity/high performance is predictable.

  10. Effect of a high fat supplement in late gestation and lactation on piglet survival and performance.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, D G; Leibbrandt, V D; Benevenga, N J

    1983-10-01

    The effect of 15% lipid addition to perinatal sow's diet on piglet survival and performance was investigated with 85 litters over four farrowing seasons. Sows received either control or fat supplemented diets from d 109 of gestation through d 21 of lactation. Substitution of a casein-encapsulated white grease product for corn (i.e., an increase in diet fat by 15%) increased (P less than .05) piglet weight gain (230 vs 214 g/d) and piglet survival 84.9 vs 79.1% of live born pigs to 21 d of age. Piglet survival data, analyzed by logistic regression, indicated that a 15% increase in dietary fat increased the odds of piglet survival at all birth weights. However, the probability of piglet survival was most enhanced at birth weights between 700 and 1,100 g. Over this weight range, the survival rate of piglets from sows receiving the supplement was increased by 10 percentage units. Feeding a high fat supplement increased piglet survival during the first 3 d of life and again at d 9. The results of this experiment suggest a unique effect of including a high fat supplement late in gestation on piglet survival during the first several days of life. Logistic regression was shown to be an appropriate and useful technique for analysis of factors affecting piglet survival.

  11. Distinct cognitive performance and patterns of drug use among early and late onset cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruna Mayara; Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Ometto, Mariella; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Cavallet, Mikael; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany Moukbel; Serpa, Mauricio Henriques; Nicastri, Sergio; Malbergier, André; Busatto, Geraldo F; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2017-10-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for neurodevelopment, but few studies have investigated the impact of early cocaine use on cognitive performance and patterns of substance use. We evaluated 103 cocaine dependent inpatients divided in two groups: early-onset users (EOG; n=52), late-onset users (LOG; n=51), and 63 healthy controls. Neuropsychological functioning was evaluated using Digits Forward (DF) and Backward (DB), Trail Making Test (TMT), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Iowa Gambling Test (IGT). Use of alcohol and other drugs was assessed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6). Analyses of covariance controlling for age, IQ and years of education showed that EOG presented worse performance in attention span (DF, p=0.020), working memory (DB, p=0.001), sustained attention (WCST, p=0.030), declarative memory (ROCFT, p=0.031) and general executive functioning (FAB, p=0.003) when compared with the control group. LOG presented impairments on divided attention (TMT, p=0.003) and general executive functioning (FAB, p=0.001) in relation to the control group. EOG presented higher use of cannabis and alcohol than LOG (p≤0.001). Early-onset cocaine users display more pronounced neuropsychological alterations than controls, as well as a greater frequency of polydrug consumption than LOG. The prominent cognitive deficits in EOG probably reflect the deleterious interference of cocaine use with early stages of neurodevelopment. This may be related to more severe clinical characteristics of substance disorder in this subgroup, including polysubstance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissipation of the defoliant tribufos in cotton-producing soils.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Reddy, Krishna N; Millhollen, Eddie P; Bednarz, Craig W; Bosch, David D; Truman, Clint C; Strickland, Timothy

    2002-06-19

    Soil dissipation of the cotton defoliant tribufos was measured in laboratory incubations and on 0.2-ha research plots. Computed 50% dissipation time (DT(50)) using nonlinear and linear kinetic models ranged from 1 to 19 days. Data indicated that exchangeable soil aluminum inhibited tribufos-degrading soil organisms. Nevertheless, measured DT(50) values were 40 to 700 times less than the aerobic soil half-life (t(1/2)) values used in recent tribufos risk assessments. DT(50) values suggest that risk estimates were overstated. However, edge-of-field runoff concentrations measured on research plots exceeded invertebrate LOECs, thus some aquatic risk is indicated. Field data also suggested that volatilization may be a significant soil dissipation pathway. From this result, we conclude that volatilization should be included in simulation models used for pesticide registration. This will likely improve the accuracy of model outputs for products such as tribufos. Potential volatilization losses indicate a need to evaluate the atmospheric behavior of tribufos.

  13. Canopy Defoliation has More Impact on Carbohydrate Availability than on Hydraulic Function in Declining Scots Pine Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyatos, R.; Aguadé, D.; Gómez, M.; Mencuccini, M.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.

    2013-12-01

    Drought-induced defoliation has recently been associated with depletion of carbohydrate reserves and increased mortality risk in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at its dry limit. Are defoliated pines hydraulically impaired compared to non-defoliated pines? Moreover, how do defoliated pines cope with potentially lethal droughts, as compared to non-defoliated pines in the same population? In order to address these questions, we measured the seasonal dynamics of sap flow and needle water potentials (2010-2012), hydraulic function and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) (2012) in healthy and defoliated pines in the Prades mountains (NE Spain). The summer drought was mild in 2010, intense in 2012 and extremely long in 2011. Defoliated Scots pines showed higher sap flow per unit leaf area during spring, but they were more sensitive to summer drought (Figure 1). This pattern was associated with a steeper decline in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, which could not be explained by differences in branch vulnerability to embolism across defoliation classes. Accordingly, the native loss of xylem conductivity in branches, measured in 2012, remained similar across defoliation classes and reached >65% at the peak of the drought. However, a steeper vulnerability curve was observed for root xylem of defoliated pines. Xylem diameter variations (2011-2012) will be used to further investigate possible differences in the aboveground/belowground partitioning of hydraulic resistance across defoliation classes. NSC levels varied across tree organs (leaves>branches>roots>trunk) and strongly declined with drought. Defoliated pines displayed reduced NSC levels throughout the study period, despite enhanced water transport capacity and increased gas exchange rates during spring. Overall, the defoliated vs. healthy status seems to be more associated to differences in carbohydrate storage and dynamics than to hydraulic differences per se. However, starch conversion to soluble sugars during

  14. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species.

    PubMed

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die.

  15. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species

    PubMed Central

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J. Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M. Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die. PMID:27066053

  16. Interactive effects of water supply and defoliation on photosynthesis, plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    PubMed

    Quentin, A G; O'Grady, A P; Beadle, C L; Mohammed, C; Pinkard, E A

    2012-08-01

    Increased climatic variability, including extended periods of drought stress, may compromise on the health of forest ecosystems. The effects of defoliating pests on plantations may also impact on forest productivity. Interactions between climate signals and pest activity are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the combined effects of reduced water availability and defoliation on maximum photosynthetic rate (A(sat)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Field-grown plants were subjected to two water-availability regimes, rain-fed (W-) and irrigated (W+). In the summer of the second year of growth, leaves from 75% of crown length removed from trees in both watering treatments and physiological responses within the canopies were examined. We hypothesized that defoliation would result in improved plant water status providing a mechanistic insight into leaf- and canopy-scale gas-exchange responses. Defoliated trees in the W+ treatment exhibited higher A(sat) and g(s) compared with non-defoliated trees, but these responses were not observed in the W- treatment. In contrast, at the whole-plant scale, maximum rates of transpiration (E(max)) and canopy conductance (G(Cmax)) and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (K(P)) increased in both treatments following defoliation. As a result, plant water status was unaffected by defoliation and trees in the defoliated treatments exhibited homeostasis in this respect. Whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance was strongly correlated with leaf scale g(s) and A(sat) following the defoliation, providing a mechanistic insight into compensatory up-regulation of photosynthesis. Above-ground height and diameter growth were unaffected by defoliation in both water availability treatments, suggesting that plants use a range of responses to compensate for the impacts of defoliation.

  17. Diagnostic performance of late gadolinium enhancement in the assessment of acute cellular rejection after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Evrim; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Ceylan, Naim; Zoghi, Mehdi; Kemal, Hatice Soner; Engin, Çağatay; Yağdı, Tahir; Özbaran, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Allograft rejection is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTx). Many techniques in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) were investigated to diagnose acute cellular rejection (ACR). However, there is not enough information about late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in the myocardium and ACR. Methods: We prospectively analyzed our consecutive 41 heart transplant recipients who were admitted for routine endomyocardial biopsies. CMR was performed maximum 6 h before the scheduled endomyocardial biopsy. Correlation between LGE in the myocardium and ACR was investigated. Results: Twenty-seven patients showed no rejection, and nine of them had LGE in the myocardium. Fourteen patients had LGE in the left ventricle (LV), and two patients had LGE also in the right ventricle (RV). There was no correlation between LGE and ACR (p=0.879). There was no difference in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC), and cardiac ischemic time between the groups (p=0.825, p=0.370, and p=0.419, respectively). LGE in the myocardium could be due to previous rejection episodes; therefore, all patients were retrospectively searched for previous rejection grades and number of episodes. Thirty-eight of the 41 patients had a history of one ACR episode, but none of them had a statistically significant correlation with LGE (for grade 1R, p=0.964 and grade 3R, p=1) There was also no correlation between number of rejection episodes history and LGE. Conclusion: LGE is not suitable to detect ACR in heart transplant patients. LGE and the history of ACR have no correlation. PMID:26467370

  18. Altering ewe nutrition in late gestation: I. The impact on pre- and postpartum ewe performance.

    PubMed

    McGovern, F M; Campion, F P; Lott, S; Boland, T M

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of offering a single diet rationed to 80% (80% ME), 100% (100% ME), or 120% (120% ME) of recommended ME requirements from d 119 of gestation to lambing, with concurrent changes in other dietary nutrients. The effects on pre- and postpartum ewe performance, including estimated milk yield and milk fatty acid concentrations, were monitored. Sixty twin-bearing ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments ( = 20 per treatment) and individually fed for the final 4 wk of gestation. Metabolizable energy requirements were individually calculated for each ewe and amended according to treatment. Ewes were rationed daily on the basis of their treatment ME allocation, which led to concurrent alterations in other nutrient intakes. Diets were grass silage based and supplemented with concentrates to meet treatment ME allocation on an individual ewe basis. Ewes offered the 80% ME treatment had a lower liveweight ( = 0.04) and BCS ( = 0.03) at 24 h postpartum when compared with ewes offered the 120% ME diet. Although there was no difference in liveweight at either d 40 ( = 0.18) or 98 postpartum ( = 0.20), the difference in BCS persisted until d 40 postpartum ( = 0.02). Colostrum yield at 1 h postpartum ( = 0.03) and total yield up to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.04) was greater for ewes offered the 120% ME diet than either of the other treatment groups. Similarly, these ewes had a greater estimated milk yield during wk 3 of lactation ( = 0.04) and elevated concentrations of short-chain SFA ( = 0.02) and long-chain SFA ( ≤ 0.05) from wk 2 through 6 of lactation. In summary, the negative impact of applying a dietary insult to ewes in late gestation is reflected in colostrum and estimated milk yield and fatty acid composition, thus potentially influencing postpartum growth and development of the offspring.

  19. Muscle strength is only a weak to moderate predictor of gait performance in persons with late effects of polio.

    PubMed

    Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Brogårdh, Christina; Lexell, Jan

    2013-01-01

    To assess muscle strength in the knee extensors, knee flexors and ankle dorsiflexors in persons with late effects of polio, and determine how much muscle strength, gender, age and BMI are related to gait performance. Ninety community-dwelling ambulant persons (47 men and 43 women; mean age 64 years SD 8) with late effects of polio participated. Isokinetic concentric knee extensor and flexor muscle strength was measured at 60°/s and ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength at 30°/s. Gait performance was assessed by the Timed "Up & Go", the Comfortable and Fast Gait Speed tests, and the 6-Minute Walk test. There were significant correlations between knee extensor and flexor muscle strength and gait performance (p < 0.01), and between ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength and gait performance (p < 0.05), for both lower limbs. Muscle strength in the knee extensors and flexors explained 7% to 37% and 9% to 47%, respectively, of the variance in gait performance. Strength in the ankle dorsiflexors explained 4% to 24%, whereas gender, age and BMI contributed at most an additional 9%. Knee muscle strength, and to some extent ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength, are predictors of gait performance in persons with late effects of polio, but the strength of the relationships indicates that other factors are also important.

  20. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  1. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  2. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (<900 g) was greater in litters from HF sows than from LF sows (216±24 vs. 137±22 g; P=0.02). Preweaning mortality was lower in HF than LF litters (6.2 vs. 14.7%; P=0.01). Circulating concentrations of progesterone, prolactin, estradiol-17β, and cortisol were not influenced by the treatment. Sows fed the HF diet had greater postprandial insulin concentrations than LF sows (P=0.02) whereas the postprandial glucose peak was similar. At T24, colostrum produced by HF sows contained 29% more lipid than colostrum produced by LF sows (P=0.04). Immunoglobulin A concentrations in colostrum were lower at T0 and T

  3. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation. PMID:27524993

  4. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation.

  5. Tree mortality in mixed pine-hardwood stands defoliated by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.)

    Treesearch

    Mark H. Eisenbies; Christopher Davidson; James Johnson; Ralph Amateis; Kurt Gottschalk

    2007-01-01

    Defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and subsequent tree mortality have been well documented in the northeastern United States. In this study we evaluate tree mortality after initial defoliation in mixed pine?hardwood stands in the southeastern United States as the range of European gypsy moth expands.

  6. The effects of silvicultural thinning and Lymantria dispar L. defoliation on wood volume growth of Quercus spp.

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Pre- and post-defoliation radial growth rates were used to examine the effects of silvicultural thinning and two consecutive years of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation on Quercus spp. wood volume production. In the first phase of the study, tree rings from 65 dissected stems, were used to develop polynomial models to...

  7. Proceedings: Integrated management and dynamics of forest defoliating insects; 1999 August 15-19; Victoria, BC. (6 of 6)

    Treesearch

    A.M. Liebhold; M.L. McManus; I.S. Otvos; S.L.C Fosbroke

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains 18 research papers about the population ecology and management of forest insect defoliators. These papers were presented at a joint meeting of working parties s7.03.06, ?Integrated Management of Forest Defoliating Insectd?, and S7.03.07, ?Population Dynamics of Forest Insects,? of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (...

  8. Proceedings: Integrated management and dynamics of forest defoliating insects; 1999 August 15-19; Victoria, BC. (5 of 6)

    Treesearch

    A.M. Liebhold; M.L. McManus; I.S. Otvos; S.L.C Fosbroke

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains 18 research papers about the population ecology and management of forest insect defoliators. These papers were presented at a joint meeting of working parties s7.03.06, ?Integrated Management of Forest Defoliating Insectd?, and S7.03.07, ?Population Dynamics of Forest Insects,? of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (...

  9. Proceedings: Integrated management and dynamics of forest defoliating insects; 1999 August 15-19; Victoria, BC. (1 of 6)

    Treesearch

    A.M. Liebhold; M.L. McManus; I.S. Otvos; S.L.C Fosbroke

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains 18 research papers about the population ecology and management of forest insect defoliators. These papers were presented at a joint meeting of working parties s7.03.06, ?Integrated Management of Forest Defoliating Insectd?, and S7.03.07, ?Population Dynamics of Forest Insects,? of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (...

  10. Proceedings: Integrated management and dynamics of forest defoliating insects; 1999 August 15-19; Victoria, BC. (2 of 6)

    Treesearch

    A.M. Liebhold; M.L. McManus; I.S. Otvos; S.L.C Fosbroke

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains 18 research papers about the population ecology and management of forest insect defoliators. These papers were presented at a joint meeting of working parties s7.03.06, ?Integrated Management of Forest Defoliating Insectd?, and S7.03.07, ?Population Dynamics of Forest Insects,? of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (...

  11. Proceedings: Integrated management and dynamics of forest defoliating insects; 1999 August 15-19; Victoria, BC. (4 of 6)

    Treesearch

    A.M. Liebhold; M.L. McManus; I.S. Otvos; S.L.C Fosbroke

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains 18 research papers about the population ecology and management of forest insect defoliators. These papers were presented at a joint meeting of working parties s7.03.06, ?Integrated Management of Forest Defoliating Insectd?, and S7.03.07, ?Population Dynamics of Forest Insects,? of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (...

  12. Proceedings: Integrated management and dynamics of forest defoliating insects; 1999 August 15-19; Victoria, BC. (3 of 6)

    Treesearch

    A.M. Liebhold; M.L. McManus; I.S. Otvos; S.L.C Fosbroke

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains 18 research papers about the population ecology and management of forest insect defoliators. These papers were presented at a joint meeting of working parties s7.03.06, ?Integrated Management of Forest Defoliating Insectd?, and S7.03.07, ?Population Dynamics of Forest Insects,? of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (...

  13. Effect of defoliation prior to a frost on postharvest respiration rate, extractable sucrose, and invert sugar concentration of sugarbeet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the effect of defoliation prior to a frost on postharvest storage properties of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Roots of plants with canopies intact until harvest were compared to roots of plants that had been defoliated prior to a frost on multiple harvest dates following a da...

  14. Simulated western spruce budworm defoliation reduces torching and crowning potential: A sensitivity analysis using a physics-based fire model

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Cohn; Russell A. Parsons; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Daniel G. Gavin; Aquila Flower

    2014-01-01

    The widespread, native defoliator western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) reduces canopy fuels, which might affect the potential for surface fires to torch (ignite the crowns of individual trees) or crown (spread between tree crowns). However, the effects of defoliation on fire behaviour are poorly understood. We used a physics-based fire model to...

  15. Multiple-level defoliation assessment with hyperspectral data: integration of continuum-removed absorptions and red edges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hyperspectral data were collected from 40 canopies of saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima), 10 healthy canopies and 30 canopies defoliated by an introduced biological control agent, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata). These data were assessed to detect categories of defoliation in response to...

  16. Effects of insecticide treatments on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm in Oregon and Washington: 1982-92.

    Treesearch

    Katharine A. Sheehan

    1996-01-01

    Effects of insecticide treatments conducted in Oregon and Washington from 1982 through 1992 on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) were evaluated by using aerial sketchmaps and a geographic information system. For each treatment, the extent and severity of defoliation was calculated for the treated...

  17. Tree mortality following defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in the United States: a review

    Treesearch

    Christopher B. Davidson; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James E. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    This review presents information related to defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and subsequent tree mortality in the eastern United States. The literature describing defoliation-induced tree mortality is extensive, yet questions still remain concerning (1) the association between initial stand composition and subsequent tree...

  18. Interactive effects of defoliation and low resource levels on photosynthesis, growth, and gypsy moth larval response to red oak seedlings

    Treesearch

    James B. McGraw; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    The potential for defoliation of oak seedlings by gypsy moth is quite high. We were interested in examining the interactions between various natural stresses and resulting gypsy moth feeding preferences and the results of defoliation stress on the growth and photosynthetic responses of the oak seedlings.

  19. Identification of potato breeding clones that confer high levels of late blight resistance to their progeny

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since 1996, potato seedling minitubers derived from greenhouse crosses have been grown out under heavy late blight pressure in Toluca, Mexico. A total of 2500 individuals were planted each year along with cv. Alpha as a susceptible control. Percent defoliation readings were taken on a weekly basis u...

  20. A human dietary risk assessment associated with glycoalkaloid responses of potato to Colorado potato beetle defoliation.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Courtney L Pariera; Peterson, Robert K D

    2008-08-01

    A quantitative human dietary risk assessment was conducted using the glycoalkaloid concentrations measured from tubers of plants defoliated by Colorado potato beetles and undefoliated (control). There was a significantly greater production of glycoalkaloids for defoliated plants compared to control plants for both skin and inner tissue of tubers. The dietary risk posed to different human subgroups associated with the consumption of potatoes was estimated for the 50th, 95th, and 99.9th percentile US national consumption values. Exposures were compared to a toxic threshold of 1.0mg/kg body weight. Defoliation by Colorado potato beetles increased dietary risk by approximately 48%. Glycoalkaloid concentrations within the inner tissue of tubers, including undefoliated controls, exceeded the toxic threshold for all human subgroups at less than the 99.9th percentile of exposure, but not the 95th percentile.

  1. Relationship between self-reported walking ability and objectively assessed gait performance in persons with late effects of polio.

    PubMed

    Brogårdh, Christina; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Espelund, Christina; Lexell, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Muscle weakness in the lower limbs and impeded gait performance are common in persons with late effects of polio. To assess self-reported walking ability in persons with late effects of polio and determine the relationship with objectively assessed gait performance. One-hundred and twenty-two individuals with prior polio (65 women and 57 men, mean age 65 [SD ± 9] years) participated in the study. The main outcome measures were: Walk-12 (Swedish version) to assess self-reported walking ability, and Timed "Up & Go", Comfortable Gait Speed, Fast Gait Speed and 6-Minute Walk Tests to assess gait performance objectively. More than 50% of the participants reported limitations (moderately or quite a bit) related to standing or walking, climbing stairs, walking speed and distance, concentration and effort, and gait quality aspects. Half of the participants reported no need to use support when walking indoors or outdoors, but 58% reported that their ability to run was extremely limited. Significant correlations (P < 0.01) were found between the Walk-12 and the four gait performance tests (rho -0.66 to 0.63). The strength of the relationship implies that Walk-12 reflects broader dimensions than the objective gait performance tests and can be a complement when the walking ability in persons with late effects of polio is evaluated.

  2. Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) water fluxes before, during and after episodic defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hultine, K.R.; Nagler, P.L.; Dennison, P.E.; Bush, S.E.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful and economically costly plant invaders in the western United States, in part due to its potential to remove large amounts of water from shallow aquifers. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have released a new biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) along many watersheds in the western United States to reduce the spread of tamarisk. The beetle defoliates tamarisk for much of the growing season resulting in potentially large seasonal declines in productivity, fitness, and water loss from tamarisk stands. We measured sap flux density (Js) using heat dissipation sensors to investigate water use patterns of tamarisk before, during and after a single, six week beetle-induced defoliation event in southeastern, Utah, USA. Granier-style probes were installed on 20 dominant trees from May through September 2008, a period that covers almost the entire growing season. As the beetle emerged from dormancy in mid-June, daytime and nighttime Js measurably increased for approximately two weeks before declining to less than 20% of predicted values (predicted by modeling Js with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in May and June before defoliation). Tamarisk trees in mid-August produced new leaves and Js returned to pre-defoliation levels. Total Js, summed over the duration of the study was 13% lower than predicted values. These data suggest that defoliation results in only small changes in seasonal water loss from tamarisk stands. Current research is focusing on long-term ecohydrological impacts of tamarisk defoliation over multiple growing seasons.

  3. Vitis vinifera root and leaf metabolic composition during fruit maturation: implications of defoliation.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, Gerhard C; Orchard, Beverley A; Šuklje, Katja; Smith, Jason P; Barril, Celia; Deloire, Alain; Holzapfel, Bruno P

    2017-07-10

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) roots and leaves represent major carbohydrate and nitrogen (N) sources, either as recent assimilates, or mobilized from labile or storage pools. This study examined the response of root and leaf primary metabolism following defoliation treatments applied to fruiting vines during ripening. The objective was to link alterations in root and leaf metabolism to carbohydrate and N source functioning under conditions of increased fruit sink demand. Potted grapevine leaf area was adjusted near the start of véraison to 25 primary leaves per vine compared to 100 leaves for the control. An additional group of vines were completely defoliated. Fruit sugar and N content development was assessed, and root and leaf starch and N concentrations determined. An untargeted GC/MS approach was undertaken to evaluate root and leaf primary metabolite concentrations. Partial and full defoliation increased root carbohydrate source contribution towards berry sugar accumulation, evident through starch remobilization. Furthermore, root myo-inositol metabolism played a distinct role during carbohydrate remobilization. Full defoliation induced shikimate pathway derived aromatic amino acid accumulation in roots, while arginine accumulated after full and partial defoliation. Likewise, various leaf amino acids accumulated after partial defoliation. These results suggest elevated root and leaf amino N source activity when leaf N availability is restricted during fruit ripening. Overall, this study provides novel information regarding the impact of leaf source restriction, on metabolic compositions of major carbohydrate and N sources during berry maturation. These results enhance the understanding of source organ carbon and N metabolism during fruit maturation. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Student, Teacher and Class-Level Correlates of Flemish Late Elementary School Children's Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Fien; Van Keer, Hilde; Merchie, Emmelien

    2016-01-01

    In Flanders, there are neither Flemish assessments nor teacher surveys to provide insights into the current practice and outcomes of writing instruction. In the present study, we provide a-state-of-the-art study of the practice of writing instruction in Flemish late elementary education by investigating: (a) how writing is taught, (b) how teachers…

  5. Student, Teacher and Class-Level Correlates of Flemish Late Elementary School Children's Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Fien; Van Keer, Hilde; Merchie, Emmelien

    2016-01-01

    In Flanders, there are neither Flemish assessments nor teacher surveys to provide insights into the current practice and outcomes of writing instruction. In the present study, we provide a-state-of-the-art study of the practice of writing instruction in Flemish late elementary education by investigating: (a) how writing is taught, (b) how teachers…

  6. A Study of Specialty Clones’ Yield Performance in Early and Late Harvests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: A study was conducted on specialty potato breeding lines to examine yield components in an early and late harvest. Upon first examination it was apparent that the early water cutoff had a large effect on total yield. In the early trial only one clone achieved 600 cwt/A of total...

  7. The effects of defoliation on carbon allocation: can carbon limitation reduce growth in favour of storage?

    PubMed

    Wiley, Erin; Huepenbecker, Sarah; Casper, Brenda B; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-11-01

    There is no consensus about how stresses such as low water availability and temperature limit tree growth. Sink limitation to growth and survival is often inferred if a given stress does not cause non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations or levels to decline along with growth. However, trees may actively maintain or increase NSC levels under moderate carbon stress, making the pattern of reduced growth and increased NSCs compatible with carbon limitation. To test this possibility, we used full and half defoliation to impose severe and moderate carbon limitation on 2-year-old Quercus velutina Lam. saplings grown in a common garden. Saplings were harvested at either 3 weeks or 4 months after treatments were applied, representing short- and longer-term effects on woody growth and NSC levels. Both defoliation treatments maintained a lower total leaf area than controls throughout the experiment with no evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation, and resulted in a similar total biomass reduction. While fully defoliated saplings had lower starch levels than controls in the short term, half defoliated saplings maintained control starch levels in both the short and longer term. In the longer term, fully defoliated saplings had the greatest starch concentration increment, allowing them to recover to near-control starch levels. Furthermore, between the two harvest dates, fully and half defoliated saplings allocated a greater proportion of new biomass to starch than did controls. The maintenance of control starch levels in half defoliated saplings indicates that these trees actively store a substantial amount of carbon before growth is carbon saturated. In addition, the allocation shift favouring storage in defoliated saplings is consistent with the hypothesis that, as an adaptation to increasing carbon stress, trees can prioritize carbon reserve formation at the expense of growth. Our results suggest that as carbon limitation increases, reduced growth is not necessarily

  8. Lagged cumulative spruce budworm defoliation affects the risk of fire ignition in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    James, Patrick M A; Robert, Louis-Etienne; Wotton, B Mike; Martell, David L; Fleming, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Detailed understanding of forest disturbance interactions is needed for effective forecasting, modelling, and management. Insect outbreaks are a significant forest disturbance that alters forest structure as well as the distribution and connectivity of combustible fuels at broad spatial scales. The effect of insect outbreaks on fire activity is an important but contentious issue with significant policy consequences. The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a native defoliating insect in eastern North America whose periodic outbreaks create large patches of dead fir and spruce trees. Of particular concern to fire and forest managers is whether these patches represent an increased fire risk, if so, for how long, and how the relationship between defoliation and fire risk varies through space and time. Previous work suggests a temporary increase in flammability in budworm-killed forests, but regional and seasonal variability in these relationships has not been examined. Using an extensive database on historical lightning-caused fire ignitions and spruce budworm defoliation between 1963 and 2000, we assess the relative importance of cumulative defoliation and fire weather on the probability of ignition in Ontario, Canada. We modeled fire ignition using a generalized additive logistic regression model that accounts for temporal autocorrelation in fire weather. We compared two ecoregions in eastern Ontario (Abitibi Plains) and western Ontario (Lake of the Woods) that differ in terms of climate, geomorphology, and forest composition. We found that defoliation has the potential to both increase and decrease the probability of ignition depending on the time scale, ecoregion, and season examined. Most importantly, we found that lagged spruce budworm defoliation (8-10 yr) increases the risk of fire ignition whereas recent defoliation (1 yr) can decrease this risk. We also found that historical defoliation has a greater influence on ignition risk during the

  9. Genetic stability of physiological responses to defoliation in a eucalypt and altered chemical defence in regrowth foliage.

    PubMed

    Borzak, Christina L; Potts, Brad M; Barry, Karen M; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M

    2016-11-22

    Defoliation may initiate physiological recovery and chemical defence mechanisms that allow a plant to improve fitness after damage. Such responses may result in changes in plant resource allocation that influence growth and foliar chemistry. In this study, we investigated the nature and stability of the defoliation response of juvenile plants from three divergent populations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. A partial defoliation treatment that removed all upper crown leaves and the apical buds was applied to plants sourced from eight families from each of three populations representing contrasting chemical resistance to mammalian herbivory. Growth, photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content were assessed pre-defoliation and periodically up to 12 weeks post-defoliation. The content of key plant primary and secondary metabolites was assessed pre-defoliation, at 12 weeks post-defoliation in the old foliage (positioned below the point of defoliation) and in the new foliage of the control plants and regrowth (from axillary buds) on the defoliated plants. There were clear treatment impacts on physiological responses, growth and foliar chemical traits, but despite significant constitutive differences in physiology, growth and chemistry the three E. globulus populations did not vary in their response to foliage loss. Distinct physiological responses to defoliation were observed with treatment plants showing significant up-regulation of photosynthetic rate and increased chlorophyll content in the old foliage remaining in the lower crown. There was a significant increase in the concentrations of a number of foliar chemical compounds in the regrowth arising from previously dormant axillary buds compared with new growth derived from apical meristems. There were changes in biomass allocation; defoliated plants had increased branching and leaf biomass, with changes in regrowth morphology to increase light capture. This study argues for multiple responses of E. globulus juveniles

  10. Late results.

    PubMed

    Daly, B D

    1999-08-01

    Pneumonectomy is performed for a number of benign and malignant conditions. It is most commonly performed for lung cancer. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant protocols have increased the number of these operations being performed and the long-term results are improving. Pneumonectomy may also be performed for metastases to lung and for mesothelioma with encouraging results. Some bronchial adenomas require pneumonectomy. Treatment of resistant mycobacteria or the complications of tuberculosis frequently require pneumonectomy. Late bronchopleural fistulae, esophagopleural fistulae, and empyema may occur.

  11. Effect of season and interval of prescribed burn on ponderosa pine butterfly defoliation patterns

    Treesearch

    Becky K. Kerns; Douglas J. Westlind

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge concerning the interactions between forest disturbances such as fire and insect defoliation is limited. Wildfires and prescribed burns may influence the intensity and severity of insect outbreaks by affecting the vigor of residual trees, altering aspects of stand structure and abundance of preferred hosts, and by changing the physical environment...

  12. Abundance and distribution of rhizomorphs of Armillaria spp. in defoliated mixed oak stands in western Maryland

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery; Garland N. Mason; Philip M. Wargo; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1990-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of rhizomorphs of Armillaria spp. in the soil were quantified in undisturbed stands and in stands defoliated 1 and 5 years previously by insects. Although the species of Armillaria was not determined, similar mixed oak forests in south central Pennsylvania contain North American biological species VII...

  13. Hydrological responses to defoliation and drought of an upland oak/pine forest

    Treesearch

    K.V.R. Schäfer; H.J. Renninger; K.L. Clark; D. Medvigy

    2014-01-01

    Hydrologic variability during 2005-2011 was observed and analyzed at an upland oak/pine forest in the New Jersey Pinelands. The forest experienced defoliation by Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in 2007, drought conditions in 2006 and a more severe drought in 2010. By using sap flux and eddy covariance measurements, stream discharge data from USGS,...

  14. Legume ground covers alter defoliation response of black walnut saplings to drought and anthracnose

    Treesearch

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Growth and premature defoliation of black walnut saplings underplanted 5 or 6 years earlier with six different ground covers were quantified in response to a summer drought or anthracnose. Walnut saplings growing with ground covers of hairy vetch, crownvetch, and to a lesser extent sericea lespedeza continued to have more rapid height and diameter growth than saplings...

  15. Interaction between gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and some competitive defoliators

    Treesearch

    Milka M. Glavendeki& #263; ; Ljubodrag S. Mihajlovi& #263

    2007-01-01

    Insect defoliators liable to frequent or occasional outbreaks can endanger forestry production and disturb the stability of forest ecosystems. There were studied life cycles, parasitoids, predators and population dynamics of leaf rollers, the winter moths, noctuids and gypsy moth, which occur in oak forests.

  16. Interaction of Insect Defoliation, Wildfires and Climate Change on Carbon Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hom, J.; van Tuyl, S.; Scheller, R.; Pan, Y.; Clark, K.; Cole, J.; Foster, J.; Patterson, M.; Gallagher, M.

    2009-05-01

    We assess and predict the interactive effects of gypsy moth defoliation, fire management, and climate change on carbon uptake, forest productivity, species composition, and tree mortality in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. This effort will combine carbon flux measurements, a forest landscape disturbance model, and field monitoring data. We will determine how interactions among these disturbances affect current management and potential carbon management goals. The LANDIS-II forest landscape simulation model in this study uses three model extensions or modules: the Dynamic Fire System (DFS) extension, the Biomass Succession extension, and an insect defoliation extension. Parameterization of the DFS and the Biomass Succession extension uses new and existing data sources for the study area. This includes flux tower data from three upland forest types, for annual net ecosystem exchange of carbon taken before and after defoliation as well as during prescribed burns. An intensified grid of FIA-type plots around each tower (up to 24 plots per tower) provides additional biometric information. The study conducted a field mortality survey and canopy foliar analysis to understand the process of forest decline with insect defoliation. This project provides a predictive framework for working through landscape to regional management scenarios in areas with multiple, interacting management priorities that can be applied across the US, especially in areas where both insect and fire disturbances occur.

  17. Defoliation Management of Bahiagrass Germplasm Affects Dry Matter Yeild and Herbage Nutritive Value

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) cultivars are daylength-sensitive and have minimal cool-season production. A new genotype is less daylength sensitive and more cold tolerant, but its dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value responses to defoliation treatments are unknown. A 3-yr field experimen...

  18. Short-term effects of gypsy moth defoliation on nongame birds

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Whitmore; Richard D. Greer

    1991-01-01

    The response of a nongame bird community to tree defoliation and mortality caused by gypsy moths was studied during the summers of 1984, 1985, 1987, and 1988 in deciduous forest habitat of eastern West Virginia. Birds and structural vegetation characteristics were sampled on 42 permanent stations. The 1984 and 1985 stations were considered undefoliated because whole...

  19. Area-Wide Analysis of Hardwood Defoliator Effects on Tree Conditions in the Allegheny Plateau

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M. Liebhold; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2004-01-01

    The effects of defoliation caused by three foliage feeding insects, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), the cherry scallopshell moth (Hydria prunivorata), and the elm spanworm (Ennomos subsignarius), on tree mortality and crown conditions were evaluated using data collected from 1984 to 1999 in the Allegheny National Forest located in northwestern Pennsylvania. While...

  20. Differential regulation of two sucrose transporters by defoliation and light conditions in perennial ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Furet, Pierre-Maxime; Berthier, Alexandre; Decau, Marie-Laure; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Meuriot, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Sucrose transport between source and sink tissues is supposed to be a key-step for an efficient regrowth of perennial rye-grass after defoliation and might be altered by light conditions. We assessed the effect of different light regimes (high vs low light applied before or after defoliation) on growth, fructans and sucrose mobilization, as well as on sucrose transporter expression during 14 days of regrowth. Our results reported that defoliation led to a mobilization of C reserves (first sucrose and then fructans), which was parallel to an induction of LpSUT1 sucrose transporter expression in source and sink tissues (i.e. leaf sheaths and elongating leaf bases, respectively) irrespective to light conditions. Light regime (high or low light) had little effects on regrowth and on C reserves mobilization during the first 48 h of regrowth after defoliation. Thereafter, low light conditions, delaying the recovery of photosynthetic capacities, had a negative effect on C reserves re-accumulation (especially sucrose). Surprisingly, high light did not enhance sucrose transporter expression. Indeed, while light conditions had no effect on LpSUT1 expression, LpSUT2 transcripts levels were enhanced for low light grown plants. These results indicate that two sucrose transporter currently identified in Lolium perenne L. are differentially regulated by light and sucrose.

  1. The effects of thinning and gypsy moth defoliation on wood volume growth in oaks

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Jim Rentch; Kurt Gottschalk

    2008-01-01

    Stem dissection and dendroecological methods were used to examine the effects of thinning and defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) on wood volume increment in oaks (Quercus rubra L., Q. alba L., Q. prinus L.). A model was developed to evaluate radial volume increment growth at three...

  2. Defoliation effects on growth and mortality of three young southern pine species

    Treesearch

    David R. Weise; Dale D. Wade; Ragnar W. Johansen; Haiganoush K. Preisler; David C. Combs; Edward E. Ach

    2016-01-01

    Foliage from loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), slash (P. elliottii Engelm.), and longleaf (P. palustris Mill.) pines was hand plucked to isolate the effects of level and timing of foliage removal on growth and mortality. Slash and loblolly pine received one of five defoliation treatments during one of four months...

  3. Gypsy Moth Defoliation Potential in the Ouachita/Ozark Highlands Region

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James M. Guldin; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The gypsy moth is expanding its range in North America and is likely to invade the Ouachita/ Ozark Highlands region sometime during this century. A previous analysis indicated that forests in this area are among the most susceptible in North America to defoliation by this insect. We used USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  4. Spread of Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and Its Relationship to Defoliation

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Stefanie L. Whitmire

    2005-01-01

    Gypsy moth management is divided into three components: eradication, suppression, and transition zone management. All three components require knowledge of the boundaries that delimit these areas. Additional interest is also placed on the relationship between population spread and defoliation to prepare for the gypsy moth advance in new areas and minimize its impact....

  5. Predictability of gypsy moth defoliation in central hardwoods: a validation study

    Treesearch

    David E. Fosbroke; Ray R., Jr. Hicks

    1993-01-01

    A model for predicting gypsy moth defoliation in central hardwood forests based on stand characteristics was evaluated following a 5-year outbreak in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Study area stand characteristics were similar to those of the areas used to develop the model. Comparisons are made between model predictive capability in two physiographic provinces. The tested...

  6. Assessing cotton defoliation, regrowth control and root rot infection using remote sensing technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton defoliation and post-harvest destruction are important cultural practices for cotton production. Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that affects cotton yield and lint quality. This paper presents an overview and summary of the methodologies and results on the use of remote s...

  7. Growth of white firs defoliated by Modoc budworm in northeastern California

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1980-01-01

    Open-grown, pole-sized white firs defoliated by Modoc budwonn (Choristoneura viridis) in northeastern California in the years 1959-62 and 1973-75 suffered only minor growth reductions and topkilling compared with the effects that more protracted budworm outbreaks have had elsewhere on their conifer hosts. Growth index analysis indicated that the firs...

  8. Monitoring western spruce budworm with pheromone- baited sticky traps to predict subsequent defoliation

    Treesearch

    Christine G. Niwa; David L. Overhulser

    2015-01-01

    A detailed procedure is described for monitoring western spruce budworm with pheromone-baited sticky traps and interpreting the results to predict defoliation the following year. Information provided includes timing of the survey, how to obtain traps and baits, how many traps are needed, trap assembly, field placement of traps, and how to evaluate the catches.

  9. Remote monitoring of tamarisk defoliation and evapotranspiration following saltcedar leaf beetle attack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennison, P.E.; Nagler, P.L.; Hultine, K.R.; Glenn, E.P.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) has invaded riparian ecosystems throughout the Western United States, including significant portions of riparian ecosystems within U.S. National Parks and Monuments. Recently, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a tamarisk biocontrol agent. Although initial releases have been monitored, no comprehensive program is currently in place to monitor the rapid spread of Diorhabda that has resulted from numerous subsequent releases by county and state agencies. Long term monitoring of tamarisk defoliation and its impacts on habitat and water resources is needed. This study examines the potential for using higher spatial resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and lower spatial resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for monitoring defoliation caused by Diorhabda and subsequent changes in evapotranspiration (ET). Widespread tamarisk defoliation was observed in an eastern Utah study area during summer 2007. ASTER normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) showed only minor changes between 2005 and 2006, but a significant drop in NDVI was found within riparian areas between 2006 and 2007. The decrease in NDVI caused by defoliation was apparent despite partial refoliation within the study area. MODIS time series data revealed that absolute decline in EVI varied by site, but that the timing of EVI decline during summer 2007 was early with respect to phenological patterns from 2001 through 2006. Defoliation caused decreases in ET values estimated from both ASTER and MODIS data. MODIS estimated ET declined earlier than in previous years, although annual ET was not significantly different than ET in previous years due to high year-to-year variability. Challenges to detection and monitoring of tamarisk defoliation include spectral mixing of tamarisk and other cover types at subpixel spatial resolution, spatial coregistration of time series images, the

  10. Detection of tamarisk defoliation by the northern tamarisk beetle based on multitemporal Landsat 5 thematic mapper imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E.; Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles; Nager, Pamela; Hultine, Kevin R.; Bean, Dan W.; Dudley, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The spread of tamarisk (Tamarix spp., also known as saltcedar) is a significant ecological disturbance in western North America and has long been targeted for control, leading to the importation of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) as a biological control agent. Following its initial release along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah in 2004, the beetle has successfully established and defoliated tamarisk across much of the upper Colorado River Basin. However, the spatial distribution and seasonal timing of defoliation are complex and difficult to quantify over large areas. To address this challenge, we tested and compared two remote sensing approaches to mapping tamarisk defoliation: Disturbance Index (DI) and a decision tree method called Random Forest (RF). Based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery for 2006-2010, changes in DI and defoliation probability from RF were calculated to detect tamarisk defoliation along the banks of Green, Colorado, Dolores and San Juan rivers within the Colorado Plateau area. Defoliation mapping accuracy was assessed based on field surveys partitioned into 10 km sections of river and on regions of interest created for continuous riparian vegetation. The DI method detected 3711 ha of defoliated area in 2007, 7350 ha in 2008, 10,457 ha in 2009 and 5898 ha in 2010. The RF method detected much smaller areas of defoliation but proved to have higher accuracy, as demonstrated by accuracy assessment and sensitivity analysis, with 784 ha in 2007, 960 ha in 2008, 934 ha in 2009, and 1008 ha in 2010. Results indicate that remote sensing approaches are likely to be useful for studying spatiotemporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation as the tamarisk leaf beetle spreads throughout the western United States.

  11. Rhizosphere interactions, carbon allocation, and nitrogen acquisition of two perennial North American grasses in response to defoliation and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Augustine, David J; Dijkstra, Feike A; William Hamilton Iii, E; Morgan, Jack A

    2011-03-01

    Carbon allocation and N acquisition by plants following defoliation may be linked through plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Plant C allocation patterns and rhizosphere interactions can also be affected by rising atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, which in turn could influence plant and microbial responses to defoliation. We studied two widespread perennial grasses native to rangelands of western North America to test whether (1) defoliation-induced enhancement of rhizodeposition would stimulate rhizosphere N availability and plant N uptake, and (2) defoliation-induced enhancement of rhizodeposition, and associated effects on soil N availability, would increase under elevated CO(2). Both species were grown at ambient (400 μL L(-1)) and elevated (780 μL L(-1)) atmospheric [CO(2)] under water-limiting conditions. Plant, soil and microbial responses were measured 1 and 8 days after a defoliation treatment. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found that defoliation and elevated CO(2) both reduced carbon inputs to the rhizosphere of Bouteloua gracilis (C(4)) and Pascopyrum smithii (C(3)). However, both species also increased N allocation to shoots of defoliated versus non-defoliated plants 8 days after treatment. This response was greatest for P. smithii, and was associated with negative defoliation effects on root biomass and N content and reduced allocation of post-defoliation assimilate to roots. In contrast, B. gracilis increased allocation of post-defoliation assimilate to roots, and did not exhibit defoliation-induced reductions in root biomass or N content. Our findings highlight key differences between these species in how post-defoliation C allocation to roots versus shoots is linked to shoot N yield, but indicate that defoliation-induced enhancement of shoot N concentration and N yield is not mediated by increased C allocation to the rhizosphere.

  12. The impact of late, non-balanced bilingualism on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; West, Holly; Sorace, Antonella; Bak, Thomas H

    2015-04-01

    We present a study examining cognitive functions in late non-balanced bilinguals with different levels of second language proficiency. We examined in two experiments a total of 193 mono- and bilingual university students. We assessed different aspects of attention (sustained, selective and attentional switching), verbal fluency (letter and category) as well as picture-word association as a measure of language proficiency. In Experiment 2 we also compared students in their first/initial (Y1) and fourth/final (Y4) year of either language or literature studies. There were no differences between both groups in category fluency. In selective attention, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals in Y1 and this difference remained significant in Y4 despite overall improvement in both groups. Contrasting results were found in attentional switching and letter fluency: while no differences were found in Y1 in both tasks, in Y4 there was an advantage for bilinguals in attentional switching and for monolinguals in letter fluency. We conclude that overall late-acquisition non-balanced bilinguals experience similar cognitive effects as their early-acquisition balanced counterparts. However, different cognitive effects may appear at different stages of adult second language acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Xylem traits, leaf longevity and growth phenology predict growth and mortality response to defoliation in northern temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jane R

    2017-09-01

    Defoliation outbreaks are biological disturbances that alter tree growth and mortality in temperate forests. Trees respond to defoliation in many ways; some recover rapidly, while others decline gradually or die. Functional traits such as xylem anatomy, growth phenology or non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) storage could explain these responses, but idiosyncratic measures used by defoliation studies have frustrated efforts to generalize among species. Here, I test for functional differences with published growth and mortality data from 37 studies, including 24 tree species and 11 defoliators from North America and Eurasia. I synthesized data into standardized variables suitable for numerical models and used linear mixed-effects models to test the hypotheses that responses to defoliation vary among species and functional groups. Standardized data show that defoliation responses vary in shape and degree. Growth decreased linearly or curvilinearly, least in ring-porous Quercus and deciduous conifers (by 10-40% per 100% defoliation), whereas growth of diffuse-porous hardwoods and evergreen conifers declined by 40-100%. Mortality increased exponentially with defoliation, most rapidly for evergreen conifers, then diffuse-porous, then ring-porous species and deciduous conifers (Larix). Goodness-of-fit for functional-group models was strong (R2c = 0.61-0.88), if lower than species-specific mixed-models (R2c = 0.77-0.93), providing useful alternatives when species data are lacking. These responses are consistent with functional differences in leaf longevity, wood growth phenology and NSC storage. When defoliator activity lags behind wood-growth, either because xylem-growth precedes budburst (Quercus) or defoliator activity peaks later (sawflies on Larix), impacts on annual wood-growth will always be lower. Wood-growth phenology of diffuse-porous species and evergreen conifers coincides with defoliation and responds more drastically, and lower axial NSC storage makes them

  14. Supplementing metabolizable protein to ewes during late gestation: II. Effects on ewe lamb performance and reproductive efficiency.

    PubMed

    Van Emon, M L; Schauer, C S; Eckerman, S R; Maddock Carlin, K R; Vonnahme, K A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of maternal MP intake in isocaloric diets during late gestation on female offspring growth from birth to breeding and measure reproductive performance of those offspring in their first breeding season. In yr 1, maternal dietary treatments were applied at d 100 of gestation, were similar in total energy, and contained 60MP1, 60% of MP requirements; 80MP1, 80% of MP requirements; and 100MP1, 100% of the MP requirements on a DM basis during late gestation. In yr 2, maternal dietary treatments were similar in total energy and contained 60MP2, 60% of MP requirements; 100MP2, 100% of the MP requirements; and 140MP2, 140% of MP requirements on a DM basis during late gestation. While there was a quadratic effect ( = 0.003) for ewe lamb birth weight with the ewe lambs from 80MP1 ewes having increased birth weights compared with ewe lambs from 60MP1 and 100MP1 ewes in yr 1, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.22) of maternal diet on growth of ewe lamb offspring thereafter. A quadratic effect ( = 0.02) was observed for the percentage of ewe lambs bred during the first 17 d of the breeding season, with more ewe lambs born to ewes fed 80MP1 bred compared with ewe lambs born to ewes fed 60MP1 and 100MP1. Ewe lambs giving birth within the first 17 d of lambing season increased ( = 0.001) linearly as MP intake increased in the maternal diet. In yr 2, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.07) of maternal MP treatment during late gestation on growth of ewe lambs and reproductive performance except ADG from birth to weaning and lamb birth weight. There was a quadratic effect ( = 0.01) for ADG from birth to weaning of ewe lambs from ewes consuming 100MP2 being increased compared with ewe lambs from ewes fed 60MP2 and 140MP2. There was a linear ( = 0.04) reduction in birth weight of lambs born to ewe lambs as the dam's maternal dietary MP intake increased. The data from the current study suggest that feeding 80% or 100% of MP requirements

  15. Effects of selected defoliants in combination with insecticides on sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids in cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of two defoliants, Def (S, S, Stributylphosphorotrithioate) and Dropp (thidiazuron) alone and in combination with two commonly used insecticides, a pyrethroid, Karate (lambda-cyhalothrin) and an organophosphate, Guthion (azinphosmethyl) on sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Bioty...

  16. Better Late than Never? The Relation of Registration Date to Class Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Gary G.; Stahl, Kandy J.; Walker, Michael E.; Ford, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether students who register for classes earlier perform better. Student registration date and time was recorded for five undergraduate psychology classes from the beginning of pre-registration through the last day to add a course--88 data collection points. The major dependent variable was students' course performance.…

  17. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    PubMed

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.

  18. Root starch in defoliated sugar maples following thrips damage

    Treesearch

    Barbara S. Burns

    1991-01-01

    Sugar maple root starch evaluations were done in 1987 and 1988 as a service to Vermont sugarmakers concerned about tree health. Trees were rated for starch content in late fall, using a visual iodine-staining technique. On the average, trees with heavy pear thrips damage in the spring of 1988 had higher levels of root starch the following fall than trees with light or...

  19. On-road emission performance of late-model TWC-cars as measured by remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoedin, A. )

    1994-04-01

    During three days in September 1991, the Denver University remote sensor (FEAT) was used to measure the CO and HC emissions from 10,000 gasoline passenger cars on a freeway ramp in Goteborg, Sweden. The data have been used to study the emission performance of late-model three-way catalyst (TWC) cars as a function of age and as compared with earlier model years of non-catalyst cars. Regulations requiring the use of TWCs on all new gasoline passenger cars were adopted in Sweden beginning with model year 1989. Due to sales encouragement, a major fraction of model years 1987 and 1988 are also TWC-cars. The results show that the average volume %CO emissions were approximately 90 percent lower for the model years with exclusively TWC-cars compared to the pre-1987 (non-catalyst) model years. The figure deduced from the remote sensing readings for the corresponding reduction of average volume %HC emissions is uncertain due to liquid water occasionally present in the exhaust of some late-model cars, and interfering with the HC measurements. In the high emission region, no major differences in emission performance were observed between model years with exclusively TWC-cars. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Gibberellin stimulates regrowth after defoliation of sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis) by regulating expression of fructan-related genes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yueyue; Shao, Linhui; Li, Xiuqing; Liu, Gongshe; Chen, Shuangyan

    2016-09-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) affect forage growth and development; however, it is largely unknown how GAs regulate the metabolism of fructan (an important polysaccharide reserve in many cereals) and the regrowth of forage plants after defoliation. To explore the mechanism of the responses of defoliated sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel] to GA, we sprayed defoliated sheepgrass with GA3 and/or paclobutrazol (PAC; an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) and analyzed the growth characteristics, carbohydrate contents, and transcript levels of genes related to GA metabolism, GA signal transduction, and fructan metabolism. The results showed that spraying exogenous GA3 onto defoliated sheepgrass promoted leaf and internode elongation, while spraying with PAC inhibited leaf and internode elongation, compared with the control. Spraying GA3 onto defoliated sheepgrass also altered the fructan content by extending the period of fructan utilization. At the transcriptional level, exogenous GA3 increased the transcript levels of genes related to GA metabolism in the sheath. Taken together, our results suggest that exogenous GA3 stimulates the regrowth of defoliated sheepgrass regrowth by regulating GA and fructan-related genes, and by promoting endogenous GA synthesis, fructan metabolism, and signaling.

  1. Feast and famine: previous defoliation limiting survival of pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa in Scots pine Pinus sylvestris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino; Castro, Jorge; Baraza, Elena

    2004-12-01

    This study analyses the consequences of previous defoliation on the survival of the larvae of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller) feeding on relict Scots pine Pinus sylvestris (L.) ssp. nevadensis Christ in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). Egg batches of the pine processionary moth were placed on four groups of Scots pines that underwent different periods of herbivory. The larval survival was related to the nitrogen content, fibre, phenolics and terpenes in the needles. Larval survival was higher in undefoliated pines, lower in pines defoliated two consecutive years, and intermediate in pines defoliated only one year, suggesting a direct relationship between previous defoliation and larval survival. In contrast, none of the characteristics of the needles showed a clear relationship with larval survival. The resulting reduction in larval number also affects the capacity of the larvae to develop during winter, because it hampered nest warming. Thus, previous defoliation limits, although it does not impede, the possibility of repeated defoliation on Scots pine.

  2. Low-volatile lipophilic compounds in needles, defoliated twigs, and outer bark of Pinus thunbergii.

    PubMed

    Shpatov, Alexander V; Popov, Sergey A; Salnikova, Olga I; Khokhrina, Ekaterina A; Shmidt, Emma N; Um, Byung Hun

    2013-12-01

    Despite a long history of the use of Pinus thunbergii for technical, medicinal, agricultural, and other purposes, the composition of low-volatile metabolites in the used parts of the plant has been poorly investigated. We report here on the distribution of lipophilic extractive compounds in different parts of the shoot system (needles, defoliated twigs, outer bark) of P. thunbergii studied by GC/MS. The highest and lowest contents of lipophilic substances were found in defoliated twigs and in outer bark correspondingly. Acid compounds in the extract of needles comprised mainly labdane type diterpenoids (trans-communic acid), while in the extracts of defoliated twigs and outer bark the acids were represented predominantly by abietane type compounds (neoabietic, dehydroabietic, abietic, levopimaric and palustric acids). The major neutral components of the extract of needles were 10-nonacosanol, labdanoids (18-hydroxy-1 3-epi-manoyl oxide, trans-communol), and beta-sitosterol. In the case of the extract of defoliated twigs, labdanoids (18-hydroxy-13-epi-manoyl oxide, trans-communol, 13-epi-torulosol), serratane triterpenoids (3beta-methoxyserrat-14-en-21-one), and beta-sitosterol were the main neutral constituents, whereas serratanoids (3beta-methoxyserrat-14-en-21-one) alone dominated among the neutral compounds of the outer bark extract. Most of the neutral components and the labdane type acids were detected for the first time in organs and tissues of P. thunbergii. The distribution of lipophilic metabolites in the studied parts of P. thunbergii shoot system may be applied for chemotaxonomy purposes. Diversified accumulation of extractive substances in different organs of the plant should be taken into account for isolation of specific components from the pine raw material.

  3. [Effects of Litchi chinensis Defoliation on Growth and Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-xiong; Jiang, Chen-chun; Li, Jin-weiz; Wang, Xiao-ju

    2015-05-01

    The growth and physiology of bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were determined by the pulse amplitude modulated fluorimetry when exposed to different concentrations of Litchi chinensis defoliation extract for 15 d. The growth, maximal efficiency (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII) of PSII photochemistry, photosynthesis efficiency (α) , maximum electron transport rate (rETRmax) and light saturation coefficient (Ik) were used to evaluate the growth and photosynthesis in M. aeruginosa. It was found that the extract of L. chinensis defoliation stored for 5 days significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent way. After a long time of exposure, stimulation effect disappeared gradually. Fv/Fm fluorescence parameters, YII and alpha changed from negative correlation to positive correlation or kept positive correlation with the extract of L. chinensis defoliation, which might affect the photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa at early time or help the cyanobacterium to survive in the stress environment by improving the efficiency of light energy. Ik, rETRmax and the content of algal chlorophyll-a changed from negative to significant negative correlation with the extract. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the peak intensities of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence were only about one third in 2.0 g · L(-1) extract treatment when compared to the 1.2 g · L(-1) extract treatment on day 15. At the same time, the peak intensity of humic acid fluorescence was weaker than that on day 1. Further study showed that the EC50 of algal growth was smaller than that of the traditional crops straw, which might achieve good effect to control the growth of algae with lower concentration of L. chinensis defoliation extract due to its strong allelopathy.

  4. Cotton defoliant runoff as a function of active ingredient and tillage.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Bosch, David D; Bednarz, Craig W

    2003-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) defoliant runoff was recently identified as an ecological risk. However, assessments are not supported by field studies. Runoff potential of three defoliant active ingredients, dimethipin (2,3-dihydro-5,6-dimethyl-1,4-dithiin 1,1,4,4-tetraoxide), thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl-urea), and tribufos (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) was investigated by rainfall simulation on strip (ST) and conventionally tilled (CT) cotton in south central Georgia. Simulated rainfall timing relative to defoliant application (1 h after) represented an extreme worst-case scenario; however, weather records indicate that it was not unrealistic for the region. Thidiazuron and tribufos losses were 12 to 15% of applied. Only 2 to 5% of the more water soluble dimethipin was lost. Although ST erosion rates were less, loss of tribufos, a strongly sorbing compound, was not affected. Higher sediment-water partition coefficients (kd) were measured in ST samples. This likely explains why no tillage related differences in loss rates were observed, but it is unknown whether this result can be generalized. The study was conducted in the first year following establishment of tillage treatments at the study site. As soil conditions stabilize, ST impacts may change. Data provide an estimate of the maximum amount of the defoliants that will run off during a single postapplication storm event. Use of these values in place of the default value in runoff simulation models used in pesticide risk assessments will likely improve risk estimate accuracy and enhance evaluation of comparative risk among these active ingredients.

  5. Effect of defoliant (butiphose) on morpho-physiological properties and enzyme systems of natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Mirakhmedov, A K; Ochilov, K R; Sagatova, G A; Khan, M Z; Khole, V

    1989-03-01

    Butiphose (Tributyltritiophosphate, (C4H9S)3PO) a commonly used defoliant in cotton growing regions of USSR, caused extensive alterations in morphological features of erythrocyte and nuclear membranes and affected the permeability properties of rat liver mitochondrial membrane. It disrupted Ca2+ transport system and other energy dependent processes in mitochondria. A reduction in the activity of cytochrome-c-oxidase and NAD.H-oxidase was also observed.

  6. Effect of nitrogen supply and defoliation on loss of organic compounds from roots of Festuca rubra.

    PubMed

    Paterson, E; Sim, A

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of N-supply and defoliation on rhizodeposition from Festuca rubra, in the context of whole-plant C- partitioning and root morphology. Plants were grown for 36 d in axenic sand microcosms continuously percolated with nutrient solutions of either high or low N concentration (2 mM or 0.01 mM NH(4)NO(3), respectively). The effects of partial defoliation at weekly intervals were determined at high and low N. At low N, dry matter accumulation in roots and shoots was reduced significantly (P<0.001), with proportionately increased partitioning to roots, in comparison with the high N treatment. Root morphology was also affected by N-treatment; at low N, lower biomass production was offset by increased specific root length (P<0.001), reducing the magnitude of the significant (P=0.002) increase in total root length at high N. Cumulative release of organic C from roots of F: rubra over the experimental period was not altered significantly by N-treatment. However, as a proportion of net C-assimilation, rhizodeposition was significantly (P<0.001) greater at low N than at high N. Defoliation transiently (3-5 d) increased the release of soluble organic compounds from roots at each N-supply rate, and increased significantly (P<0.001) cumulative rhizodeposition over the experimental period. These effects of N-supply and defoliation on rhizodeposition are of importance in understanding interactions between plant and microbial productivity in grazed grasslands, and in interpretation of concurrent effects on microbially driven nutrient cycling processes in these systems.

  7. Remarks on the physiological effects of defoliation on sugar maple and some impacts on syrup production

    Treesearch

    Philip M. Wargo

    1991-01-01

    The information I am going to present today is a conglomeration of some of the research on the effects of defoliation that has been done on sugar maple and oak. It involves work done by Drs. David Houston, Johnson Parker, Robert Gregory and me. Dr. Houston, a plant pathologist, and Dr. Parker, a plant physiologist, work with the USDA Forest Service in Hamden, Ct.; Dr....

  8. Effect of Pellet Size of Defoliation and Estimated Kill of Small Stems Treated with Hexazinone

    Treesearch

    J.L. Michael

    1981-01-01

    Hexazinone [3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,2,5-triaine-2,4,(1H,2H)-dione] was tested in the 2, 1, and 0.5 cc size uellet (10% ai) against very small stems [average height, 1.97m; average ground line diameter (GLD), 2 cm] of water oak, Quercus nigra L., at 1.12 and 2.24 kg/ha on a sandy loam soil. First year defoliation of water oak by...

  9. Modeling aspen responses to climatic warming and insect defoliation in western Canada

    Treesearch

    E. H. Ted Hogg

    2001-01-01

    Effects of climate change at three aspen sites in Saskatchewan were explored using a climate-driven model that includes insect defoliation. A simulated warming of 4-5 °C caused complete mortality due to drought at all three sites. A simulated warming of 2-2.5 °C caused complete mortality of aspen at the parkland site, while aspen growth at two boreal sites showed...

  10. Effects of intermittent ractopamine hydocloride use on pig growth performance in late finishing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding, withdrawal, and refeeding 10 ppm ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on pig performance. In Exp. 1, the 4 treatments consisted of 1) a control diet fed for 56 d before marketing; 2) RAC fed for the first 21 d, and then the control diet ...

  11. The Phytotoxin Coronatine Induces Abscission-Related Gene Expression and Boll Ripening during Defoliation of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ. PMID:24845465

  12. The phytotoxin coronatine induces abscission-related gene expression and boll ripening during defoliation of cotton.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingwei; Li, Yi; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ.

  13. Activation of sucrose transport in defoliated Lolium perenne L.: an example of apoplastic phloem loading plasticity.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Alexandre; Desclos, Marie; Amiard, Véronique; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W; Turgeon, Robert; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie

    2009-07-01

    The pathway of carbon phloem loading was examined in leaf tissues of the forage grass Lolium perenne. The effect of defoliation (leaf blade removal) on sucrose transport capacity was assessed in leaf sheaths as the major carbon source for regrowth. The pathway of carbon transport was assessed via a combination of electron microscopy, plasmolysis experiments and plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning from the microsomal fraction. Results support an apoplastic phloem loading mechanism. Imposition of an artificial proton-motive force to PMVs from leaf sheaths energized an active, transient and saturable uptake of sucrose (Suc). The affinity of Suc carriers for Suc was 580 microM in leaf sheaths of undefoliated plants. Defoliation induced a decrease of K(m) followed by an increase of V(max). A transporter was isolated from stubble (including leaf sheaths) cDNA libraries and functionally expressed in yeast. The level of L.perenne SUcrose Transporter 1 (LpSUT1) expression increased in leaf sheaths in response to defoliation. Taken together, the results indicate that Suc transport capacity increased in leaf sheaths of L. perenne in response to leaf blade removal. This increase might imply de novo synthesis of Suc transporters, including LpSUT1, and may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to rapid refoliation.

  14. Island cotton Gbve1 gene encoding a receptor-like protein confers resistance to both defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baolong; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Yu, Wengui; Liu, Tingli; Li, Hongjuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Ren, Yongzhe; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Li; Dou, Daolong; Chang, Youhong

    2012-01-01

    Verticillium wilt caused by soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. Here, we cloned a tomato Ve homologous gene, Gbve1, from an island cotton cultivar that is resistant to Verticillium wilt. We found that the Gbve1 gene was induced by V. dahliae and by phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, but not by abscisic acid. The induction of Gbve1 in resistant cotton was quicker and stronger than in Verticillium-susceptible upland cotton following V. dahliae inoculation. Gbve1 promoter-driving GUS activity was found exclusively in the vascular bundles of roots and stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. Virus-induced silencing of endogenous genes in resistant cotton via targeting a fragment of the Gbve1 gene compromised cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Furthermore, we transformed the Gbve1 gene into Arabidopsis and upland cotton through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Overexpression of the Gbve1 gene endowed transgenic Arabidopsis and upland cotton with resistance to high aggressive defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of V. dahliae. And HR-mimic cell death was observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrate that the Gbve1 gene is responsible for resistance to V. dahliae in island cotton and can be used for breeding cotton varieties that are resistant to Verticillium wilt.

  15. Correlation between testcross performance of lines at early and late selfing generations.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, R

    1991-07-01

    In hybrid breeding programs, testcross evaluation of lines can be done during the early stages of selfing (early testing) or delayed until the lines are near-homozygous. To evaluate the usefulness of early testing, the expected genetic and phenotypic correlations between testcross performance at different selfing generations were examined. The genetic correlation (r GnGn' ) between testcross performance of S n and S n' , (n'>n) individuals or lines is equal to the square root of the ratio of their testcross genetic variances, and it is a function of the inbreeding coefficients (F) at the two selfing generations, i.e., r GnGn'=[(1+F n )/(1+F n )](0.5). The genetic correlation between testcross performance of lines and their directly descended homozygous (n'=∞) lines is 0.71 for S1; 0.87 for S2, 0.93 for S3, 0.97 for S4, 0.98 for S5, and 0.99 for S5 lines. The effectiveness of early testing is limited mainly by nongenetic effects. The square root of testcross heritability at generation n sets the upper limit on the correlation between phenotypic value at generation n and genotypic value at homozygosity. The probabilities of correctly retaining S n individuals or lines that have superior testcross performance at homozygosity (n'=∞) indicate that early testing should be effective in identifying lines with above- and below-average combining ability. However, the risk of losing lines with superior combining ability is high if strong (best 10%) selection pressure is applied during early testing. If only a small proportion of lines is retained based on testcross performance and/or if the heritability of the trait is low, selfing for two or three generations prior to testcrossing may be desirable to increase the likelihood of retaining lines that perform well at homozygosity. The theoretical results in this study support the testcross evaluation procedures for grain yield used by most maize (Zea mays L.) breeders.

  16. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Smoot, J. C.; Prados, D. L.; McKellip, R. D.; Sader, S. A.; Gasser, G.; May, G.; Hargrove, W.

    2007-12-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS, and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approx. 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion- simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same date showed moderately high correlation with Hyperion

  17. Link between defoliation and light treatments on root vitality of five understory shrubs with different resistance to insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Karolewski, Piotr; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Napierała-Filipiak, Anna; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2010-08-01

    Understory shrubs are frequently attacked by insect herbivores. However, very little is known regarding possible interactions between light condition, defoliation (D) and fine root vitality (% live roots) and metabolic activity, and whether different plant strategies (compensation, trade-off and equilibrium) to defoliation depend on individual species light requirements. To explore the response of roots to such conditions, an experiment was established in which we experimentally removed 50% of leaves in 1-year-old seedlings of Sambucus nigra, Cornus sanguinea, Prunus serotina, Frangula alnus and Corylus avellana grown in 15% and full sunlight. On average, defoliation leads to a 15% reduction in fine root (< 2 mm) vitality (% live roots). However, a statistically significant reduction in root vitality after defoliation was detected only in those species that are less herbivorized in nature (48% in S. nigra and 5% in C. sanguinea). On average, shade conditions (L) resulted in 18% decline in root vitality, and the effects of defoliation were also 22% higher than for plants grown in full light. Root vitality in both treatments (D and L) was significantly correlated with their dry mass, concentration of total phenol (TPh) and carbon to nitrogen ratio, and negatively correlated with nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates, starch and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). To a large extent, root vitality and chemistry varied by species. Higher root vitality was related to higher concentrations of phenolics, more than to N and TNC concentrations. Concentrations of phenolics also differed significantly between defoliated plants and controls. However, in defoliated plants, an increase in TPh was observed only in two species, which belong to two different groups in light requirements and susceptibility to insect grazing (C. sanguinea and P. serotina). This study indicated that higher vitality of roots occurred in species that are characterized by higher insect defoliation under

  18. Illness representations, knowledge and motivation to perform presymptomatic testing for late-onset genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ângela; Dinis, Maria Alzira P; Sequeiros, Jorge; Paúl, Constança

    2017-02-01

    This study addresses the relation between illness representations, knowledge and motivation to perform the presymptomatic testing (PST) of subjects at-risk for Familial Amyloydotic Polyneuropathy (FAP), Huntington's disease (HD) and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), compared with subjects at-risk for Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH). The sample comprised a clinical group of 213 subjects at genetic risk for FAP, HD and MJD, and a comparison group of 31 subjects at genetic risk for HH, that answered three open-ended questions relating illness representations, knowledge about the disease, and motivation to perform PST. People at-risk for FAP, HD and MJD use more metaphors, make more references to the family, are more concerned with the future and feel more out of curiosity and to learn, than for HH. These subjects at-risk correspond to the profile of somatic individual or personhood, wherein the unsubjectivation of the disease can function as a coping mechanism.

  19. Early and late components of EEG delay activity correlate differently with scene working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Ellmore, Timothy M; Ng, Kenneth; Reichert, Chelsea P

    2017-01-01

    Sustained and elevated activity during the working memory delay period has long been considered the primary neural correlate for maintaining information over short time intervals. This idea has recently been reinterpreted in light of findings generated from multiple neural recording modalities and levels of analysis. To further investigate the sustained or transient nature of activity, the temporal-spectral evolution (TSE) of delay period activity was examined in humans with high density EEG during performance of a Sternberg working memory paradigm with a relatively long six second delay and with novel scenes as stimuli. Multiple analyses were conducted using different trial window durations and different baseline periods for TSE computation. Sensor level analyses revealed transient rather than sustained activity during delay periods. Specifically, the consistent finding among the analyses was that high amplitude activity encompassing the theta range was found early in the first three seconds of the delay period. These increases in activity early in the delay period correlated positively with subsequent ability to distinguish new from old probe scenes. Source level signal estimation implicated a right parietal region of transient early delay activity that correlated positively with working memory ability. This pattern of results adds to recent evidence that transient rather than sustained delay period activity supports visual working memory performance. The findings are discussed in relation to synchronous and desynchronous intra- and inter-regional neural transmission, and choosing an optimal baseline for expressing temporal-spectral delay activity change.

  20. Variation in dual-task performance reveals late initiation of speech planning in turn-taking.

    PubMed

    Sjerps, Matthias J; Meyer, Antje S

    2015-03-01

    The smooth transitions between turns in natural conversation suggest that speakers often begin to plan their utterances while listening to their interlocutor. The presented study investigates whether this is indeed the case and, if so, when utterance planning begins. Two hypotheses were contrasted: that speakers begin to plan their turn as soon as possible (in our experiments less than a second after the onset of the interlocutor's turn), or that they do so close to the end of the interlocutor's turn. Turn-taking was combined with a finger tapping task to measure variations in cognitive load. We assumed that the onset of speech planning in addition to listening would be accompanied by deterioration in tapping performance. Two picture description experiments were conducted. In both experiments there were three conditions: (1) Tapping and Speaking, where participants tapped a complex pattern while taking over turns from a pre-recorded speaker, (2) Tapping and Listening, where participants carried out the tapping task while overhearing two pre-recorded speakers, and (3) Speaking Only, where participants took over turns as in the Tapping and Speaking condition but without tapping. The experiments differed in the amount of tapping training the participants received at the beginning of the session. In Experiment 2, the participants' eye-movements were recorded in addition to their speech and tapping. Analyses of the participants' tapping performance and eye movements showed that they initiated the cognitively demanding aspects of speech planning only shortly before the end of the turn of the preceding speaker. We argue that this is a smart planning strategy, which may be the speakers' default in many everyday situations.

  1. Failure of maintained hyperprolactinemia to improve lactational performance in late puerperium.

    PubMed

    Barguño, J M; del Pozo, E; Cruz, M; Figueras, J

    1988-04-01

    Although stimulation of PRL secretion in the early postpartum period has been found to improve lactational performance, the effect of chronic maintenance of elevated plasma PRL levels on milk production is not known. In a randomized design, 66 lactating women were assigned to receive either a placebo (n = 32) or the dopamine antagonist sulpiride (n = 34; 100 mg, three times daily), for 4 days, followed by 50 mg, three times daily, for a 90-day period). Their basal and 30 min postsuckling plasma PRL levels as well as the weights of their infants were measured 1, 4, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days postpartum. Forty-one women (20 sulpiride-treated and 21 placebo-treated) completed the study. Compared with the placebo group, which had the expected postpartum plasma PRL decline, the sulpiride-treated women maintained significantly elevated basal plasma PRL values up to the 90th postpartum day. In contrast, the postsuckling plasma PRL level was significantly diminished in the latter group, and on day 90 was practically absent. On day 15, weight gain was significantly greater in the infants whose mothers received sulpiride, but later, no differences were detectable between groups of infants despite the disparity in PRL levels in their mothers. We conclude that enhancement of PRL secretion in the early postpartum period may transiently increase milk production, but chronic hyperprolactinemia has no effect on lactational performance. The plasma PRL response to suckling is not essential for the maintenance of milk secretion. Instead, basal plasma PRL levels and neurogenic reflexes may be more instrumental in maintaining established lactation.

  2. Performance of a Novel Molecular Method in the Diagnosis of Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jonathan; Christie, Sharon; Fairley, Derek; Coyle, Peter; Tubman, Richard; Shields, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the use of a generic molecular assay to ‘standard’ investigations used to assist the diagnosis of late onset bacterial sepsis in very low birth weight infants (VLBW, <1500g). Methods VLBW infants, greater than 48 hours of age, who were clinically suspected to have sepsis were investigated using standard tests (full blood count, C-reactive protein (at presentation) and blood culture), in addition, blood was taken for a universal molecular assay (16S rRNA reverse transcriptase PCR) for comparison. Clinical data were recorded during the suspected infection episode. A validated sepsis score (NEO-KISS) was used to retrospectively determine the presence of sepsis (independent of blood culture). The performance of each of the tests were compared by sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likihood ratios (+/-LR) and postive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV). Results Sixty-five babies with suspected clinical sepsis were prospectively included. The performance indicators are presented with 95% confidence limits. For the detection of bacteria, blood culture had sensitivity of 0.57 (0.34–0.78), specificity of 0.45 (0.30–0.61); +LR of 1.05 (0.66–1.66) and—LR of 0.94 (0.52–1.7); PPV of 33.3 (18.56–50.97) and NPV of 68.97 (49.17–87.72). Serum CRP had sensitivity of 0.92 (0.64–1) and specificity of 0.36 (0.17–0.59); +LR of 1.45 (1–2.1) and-LR of 0.21 (0.03–1.5); PPV of 44.46 (26.6–66.6) and NPV of 88.9 (51.8–99.7). The universal molecular assay had sensitivity of 0.76 (0.53–0.92), specificity of 0.95 (0.85–0.99); +LR of 16.8 (4.2–66.3) and-LR of 0.25 (0.1–0.5); PPV of 88.9 (65.3–98.6) and NPV of 89.4 (76.9–96.5). Conclusions In VLBW infants this universal molecular assay performed better in the diagnosis of late onset sepsis (LOS) than blood culture and CRP. Further development is required to explore and improve the performance of the assay in real-time diagnosis. PMID:26305781

  3. Late gestation supplementation of beef cows differing in body condition score: effects on cow and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, D W; Stalker, L A; Mills, R R; Nyman, A; Falck, S J; Cooke, R F

    2013-11-01

    A 2-yr study utilizing 120 mature, crossbred (Angus × Herford) cows/year, evaluated the influence of cow BCS and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplementation during late gestation on cow performance and productivity of subsequent offspring. Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 2 BCS and with or without DDGS supplementation. Cows were nutritionally managed to enter the last trimester of gestation with a BCS of approximately 4 (LBCS) or 6 (HBCS) and were thereafter managed in a single herd (initial BCS were 4.4 and 5.7 for LBCS and HBCS treatments, respectively). During the last trimester, 12.7 kg/cow of low quality meadow hay (6.4% CP; DM basis) was provided each day. Supplemented cows were gathered and sorted into pens (12 pens; 5 cows/pen; 6 pens/BCS) every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and received the equivalent of 0.9 kg/cow daily of DDGS (31% CP; DM basis; supplement was consumed within 30 min on each supplementation day). Calf birth weight was greater for HBCS compared to LBCS (P=0.001) and for supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.04). Cow weight at weaning was greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P<0.001); however, no differences were noted because of supplementation (P=0.16). Weaning weight was greater for the offspring of supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.02). There were no differences in postweaning calf performance (growing lot and feedlot) or carcass characteristics (P>0.05) due to treatments. Nevertheless, HBCS cows had approximately 10% more live calves at birth and at weaning (P≤0.01) compared to LBCS cows. Consequently, the total weaned calf weight per cow was 26 kg greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P=0.004). Pregnancy rate was greater (P=0.05) for HBCS than LBCS cows (92% vs. 79%, respectively) but not affected by supplementation (P=0.94). This research demonstrates the potential consequences of not maintaining cows in adequate BCS at calving

  4. Oscillation Phase Locking and Late ERP Components of Intracranial Hippocampal Recordings Correlate to Patient Performance in a Working Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Testorf, Markus E.; Roberts, David W.; Scott, Rod C.; Jobst, Barbara J.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In working memory tasks, stimulus presentation induces a resetting of intracranial temporal lobe oscillations in multiple frequency bands. To further understand the functional relevance of this phenomenon, we investigated whether working memory performance depends on the phase precision of ongoing oscillations in the hippocampus. We recorded intra-hippocampal local field potentials in individuals performing a working memory task. Two types of trials were administered. For high memory trials presentation of a list of four letters (“List”) was followed by a single letter memory probe (“Test”). Low memory load trials, consisting of four identical letters (AAAA) followed by a probe with the same letter (A), were interspersed. Significant phase locking of ongoing oscillations across trials, estimated by the Pairwise Phase Consistency Index (PPCI) was observed in delta (0.5–4 Hz), theta (5–7 Hz), and alpha (8–12 Hz) bands during stimulus presentation and recall but was increased in low memory load trials. Across patients however, higher delta PPCIs during recall in the left hippocampus were associated with faster reaction times. Because phase locking could also be interpreted as a consequence of a stimulus evoked potential, we performed event related potential analysis (ERP) and examined the relationship of ERP components with performance. We found that both amplitude and latency of late ERP components correlated with both reaction time and accuracy. We propose that, in the Sternberg task, phase locking of oscillations, or alternatively its ERP correlate, synchronizes networks within the hippocampus and connected structures that are involved in working memory. PMID:27378885

  5. Effects of amino acids and energy intake during late gestation of high-performing gilts and sows on litter and reproductive performance under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M A D; Gourley, K M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Bello, N M; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of AA and energy intake during late gestation on piglet birth weight and reproductive performance of high-performing (14.5 total born) gilts and sows housed under commercial conditions. At d 90 of gestation, a total of 1,102 females (PIC 1050) were housed in pens by parity group (gilts or sows) with approximately 63 gilts and 80 sows in each pen, blocked by BW within each pen, and each female was randomly assigned to dietary treatments within BW block. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA intakes (10.7 or 20.0 g/d SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC [2012] recommendations) and 2 energy intakes (4.50 or 6.75 Mcal/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models specified to recognize pen as the experimental unit for parity and the individual female as the experimental unit for dietary treatments. Results indicate an overall positive effect of high energy intake on BW gain during late gestation, although this effect was more manifest under conditions of high, as opposed to low, AA intake (interaction, < 0.001). Furthermore, the magnitude of BW gain response to increased energy intake was greater ( < 0.001) for sows compared with gilts. Sows fed high energy intake had a reduced probability of piglets born alive ( < 0.004) compared with those fed low energy, but no evidence for differences was found in gilts. This can be explained by an increased probability ( = 0.002) of stillborns in sows fed high energy intake vs. sows fed low energy intake. There were no evidences for differences among dietary treatments in litter birth weight and individual piglet birth weight of total piglets born. However, individual born alive birth weight was approximately 30 ± 8.2 g heavier ( = 0.011) for females fed high, as opposed to low, energy intake. Furthermore, piglets born alive were approximately 97 ± 9.5 g

  6. Carbon reserves and canopy defoliation determine the recovery of Scots pine 4 yr after a drought episode.

    PubMed

    Galiano, L; Martínez-Vilalta, J; Lloret, F

    2011-05-01

    • Severe drought may increase physiological stress on long-lived woody vegetation, occasionally leading to mortality of overstory trees. Little is known about the factors determining tree survival and subsequent recovery after drought. • We used structural equation modeling to analyse the recovery of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees 4 yr after an extreme drought episode occurred in 2004-2005 in north-east Spain. Measured variables included the amount of green foliage, carbon reserves in the stem, mistletoe (Viscum album) infection, needle physiological performance and stem radial growth before, during and after the drought event. • The amount of green leaves and the levels of carbon reserves were related to the impact of drought on radial growth, and mutually correlated. However, our most likely path model indicated that current depletion of carbon reserves was a result of reduced photosynthetic tissue. This relationship potentially constitutes a feedback limiting tree recovery. In addition, mistletoe infection reduced leaf nitrogen content, negatively affecting growth. Finally, successive surveys in 2009-2010 showed a direct association between carbon reserves depletion and drought-induced mortality. • Severe drought events may induce long-term physiological disorders associated with canopy defoliation and depletion of carbon reserves, leading to prolonged recovery of surviving individuals and, eventually, to delayed tree death. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. The effects of defoliation and thinning on the dieback, mortality, and growth of sugar maple in the Tug Hill Region of New York

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Wink; Douglas C. Allen

    1999-01-01

    Some recent literature suggests that thinning should not be conducted immediately prior to, during, or immediately following an outbreak of defoliating insects. Although the individual effects of both defoliation and thinning are well documented in the literature, no study has assessed the combined effect of these two stressors. An outbreak of forest tent caterpillar...

  8. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  9. Defoliation synchronizes aboveground growth of co-occurring C4 grass species.

    PubMed

    Swemmer, Anthony M; Knapp, Alan K

    2008-10-01

    The aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of grass communities in grasslands and savannas is primarily determined by precipitation quantity. Recent research, motivated by predictions of changes in the distribution of rainfall events by global climate change models, indicates that ANPP may be affected by rainfall distribution as much as by annual totals. Grazing and community composition are also known to affect grassland ANPP. The manner in which interactions between rainfall distribution, grazing, and community composition affect the relationship between precipitation and ANPP represents a critical knowledge gap. The effects of community composition and grazing on aboveground growth responses to intraseasonal variation in water availability were investigated at seven grassland sites with a nonselective clipping experiment. The aboveground growth of the dominant C4 species at each site was measured at regular intervals for 2-3 growing seasons in the presence or absence of regular defoliation. In the absence of defoliation, there was a general lack of synchrony of intraseasonal growth among co-occurring species. Variation in growth rates was high and was only partially explained by variation in rainfall. Regular defoliation increased growth synchrony at all sites, but changes in growth responses to rainfall varied between sites. These results suggest that community composition will be important in determining ANPP-precipitation relationships under conditions of altered rainfall distribution. However this effect appears to be a result of species responding differently to soil water or other resources rather than to rainfall per se. Grazing may override the effects of community composition by reducing differences in growth patterns between species and has the potential to weaken precipitation controls on ANPP.

  10. Monitoring gypsy moth defoliation by applying change detection techniques to Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objective of a research effort at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is to develop and evaluate digital image processing techniques that will facilitate the assessment of the intensity and spatial distribution of forest insect damage in Northeastern U.S. forests using remotely sensed data from Landsats 1, 2 and C. Automated change detection techniques are presently being investigated as a method of isolating the areas of change in the forest canopy resulting from pest outbreaks. In order to follow the change detection approach, Landsat scene correction and overlay capabilities are utilized to provide multispectral/multitemporal image files of 'defoliation' and 'nondefoliation' forest stand conditions.

  11. Monitoring gypsy moth defoliation by applying change detection techniques to Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objective of a research effort at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is to develop and evaluate digital image processing techniques that will facilitate the assessment of the intensity and spatial distribution of forest insect damage in Northeastern U.S. forests using remotely sensed data from Landsats 1, 2 and C. Automated change detection techniques are presently being investigated as a method of isolating the areas of change in the forest canopy resulting from pest outbreaks. In order to follow the change detection approach, Landsat scene correction and overlay capabilities are utilized to provide multispectral/multitemporal image files of 'defoliation' and 'nondefoliation' forest stand conditions.

  12. Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; Kłosińska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, Elżbieta U.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

  13. Optimising the spatial resolution of WorldView-2 pan-sharpened imagery for predicting levels of Gonipterus scutellatus defoliation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottering, Romano; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-02-01

    Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal is a leaf feeding weevil that is a major defoliator of the genus Eucalyptus. Understanding the relationship between levels of weevil induced vegetation defoliation and the optimal spatial resolution of satellite images is essential for effective management of plantation resources. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate spatial resolutions for predicting levels of weevil induced defoliation. We resampled the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) images computed from a WorldView-2 pan-sharpened image, which is characterised with a 0.5 m spatial resolution and 8 spectral bands. Within each plantation compartment 30 × 30 m plots were established, representing different levels of defoliation. From the centre of each plot, the spatial resolution of the original image was progressively resampled from 1.5 to 8.5 m, with 1 m increments. The minimal variance for each level of defoliation was then established and used as an indicator for quantitatively selecting the optimal spatial resolution. Results indicate that an appropriate spatial resolution was established at 1.25, 1.25, 1.75 and 2.25 m for low, medium, high and severe levels of defoliation, respectively. In addition, an Artificial Neural Network was run to determine the relationship between the appropriate spatial resolution and levels of Gonipterus scutellatus induced defoliation. The model yielded an R2 of 0.80, with an RMSE of 1.28 (2.45% of the mean measured defoliation) based on an independent test dataset. We then compared this model to a model developed using the original 0.5 m image spatial resolution. Our results suggest that optimising the spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery essentially improves the prediction of vegetation defoliation. In essence, this study provides the foundation for multi-scale defoliation mapping using high spatial resolution imagery.

  14. Controlling the Emotional Bias: Performance, Late Positive Potentials, and the Effect of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    PubMed

    Faehling, Florian; Plewnia, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive control of emotional processing is essential for adaptive human behavior. Biased attention toward emotionally salient information is critically linked with affective disorders and is discussed as a promising treatment target. Anodal (activity enhancing) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to increase healthy and impaired cognitive control over emotional distraction and is therefore widely used for the investigation and experimental treatment of this disorder. In this study, event-related potential (ERP) were recorded parallel to tDCS to track its online effects. Healthy volunteers (n = 87) performed a delayed working memory paradigm with emotional salient and neutral distractors during stimulation with different intensities (sham, 0.5, 1, 1.5 mA). Measuring the late positive potential (LPP), an ERP that indexes attention allocation, we found that a valence-specific increase of the early portion of the LPP (eLPP, 250-500 ms) was associated with less emotional distraction in the sham group. Of note, stimulation with tDCS exerted an intensity related effect on this correlation. The later part of the LPP (lLPP, 500-1000 ms) was found to be correlated with reaction time, regardless of valence. General effect of tDCS on LPPs and task performance were not observed. These findings demonstrate that ERP recordings parallel to tDCS are feasible to investigate the neuronal underpinnings of stimulation effects on executive functions. Furthermore, they support the notion that the LPP induced by a distractive stimulus during a working memory task mirrors the additional allocation of neuronal resources with a specific sensitivity of the early LPP for highly arousing negative stimuli. Finally, together with the variable magnitude and direction of the emotional bias, the lack of systematic modulations of LPPs and behavior by tDCS further underlines the important influence of the individual brain activity patterns on stimulation effects both on the

  15. Plant vigour at establishment and following defoliation are both associated with responses to drought in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hatier, Jean-Hugues B.; Faville, Marty J.; Hickey, Michael J.; Koolaard, John P.; Schmidt, Jana; Carey, Brandi-Lee; Jones, Chris S.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic drought events present a significant and, with climate change, increasing constraint on temperate forage plants’ production. Consequently, improving plants’ adaptive response to abiotic stress is a key goal to ensure agricultural productivity in these regions. In this study we developed a new methodology, using both area-based comparison and soil water content measurements of individual non-irrigated and irrigated clones, to assess performance of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) genotypes subjected to moisture stress in a simulated competitive environment. We applied this method to the evaluation of a full-sibling population from a pair cross between genotypes from a New Zealand cultivar and a Moroccan ecotype. Our hypothesis was that: (i) both leaf lamina regrowth after defoliation (LR) and plant vigour affect plant performance during drought and rehydration; and (ii) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with plant performance under moisture stress could be identified. Differences amongst genotypes in dry matter (DM) production, early vigour at establishment, leaf elongation rate and LR were measured. LR explained most of the variation in DM production during exposure to moisture deficit and rehydration followed by plant vigour, indicated by initial DM production in both treatments and subsequent measures of DM production of irrigated clones. We identified two main QTL regions associated with DM production and LR, both during drought exposure and rehydration. Further research focused on these regions should improve our understanding of the genetic control of drought response in this forage crop and potentially other grass species with significant synteny, and support improvement in performance through molecular breeding approaches. PMID:25104762

  16. Plant vigour at establishment and following defoliation are both associated with responses to drought in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    PubMed

    Hatier, Jean-Hugues B; Faville, Marty J; Hickey, Michael J; Koolaard, John P; Schmidt, Jana; Carey, Brandi-Lee; Jones, Chris S

    2014-11-01

    Periodic drought events present a significant and, with climate change, increasing constraint on temperate forage plants' production. Consequently, improving plants' adaptive response to abiotic stress is a key goal to ensure agricultural productivity in these regions. In this study we developed a new methodology, using both area-based comparison and soil water content measurements of individual non-irrigated and irrigated clones, to assess performance of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) genotypes subjected to moisture stress in a simulated competitive environment. We applied this method to the evaluation of a full-sibling population from a pair cross between genotypes from a New Zealand cultivar and a Moroccan ecotype. Our hypothesis was that: (i) both leaf lamina regrowth after defoliation (LR) and plant vigour affect plant performance during drought and rehydration; and (ii) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with plant performance under moisture stress could be identified. Differences amongst genotypes in dry matter (DM) production, early vigour at establishment, leaf elongation rate and LR were measured. LR explained most of the variation in DM production during exposure to moisture deficit and rehydration followed by plant vigour, indicated by initial DM production in both treatments and subsequent measures of DM production of irrigated clones. We identified two main QTL regions associated with DM production and LR, both during drought exposure and rehydration. Further research focused on these regions should improve our understanding of the genetic control of drought response in this forage crop and potentially other grass species with significant synteny, and support improvement in performance through molecular breeding approaches.

  17. Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-12-01

    Spring-calving, mature cows ( = 191 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation drylot rations differing in RUP and fat content on cow performance as well as performance and carcass characteristics of subsequent progeny. Cows were blocked by BW and anticipated calving date and assigned to 16 pens. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: limit-fed corn coproducts and ground cornstalks (COP; TDN = 64.4%, CP = 11.1%, RDP = 60.2% of CP, and fat = 5.1%) or limit-fed ground mixed, cool-season grass hay (HY; TDN = 55.7%, CP = 9.5%, RDP = 86.0% of CP, and fat = 2.3%). Treatments were limit fed as isocaloric, isonitrogenous rations from 88 ± 11 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were collected at the beginning of the feeding period, within 48 h after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was collected at birth and at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d of age. Milk production was determined using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d postpartum. At 124 ± 11 d of age, steers ( = 68) and nonreplacement heifer calves ( = 25) were weaned and placed on a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using GrowSafe. Feedlot calves were slaughtered at a commercial facility 35 ± 10 d after a minimum ultrasound 12-rib fat thickness estimation of 0.9 cm. After calving, cow BW was greater ( < 0.01) and BCS was greater ( < 0.01) for cows fed COP than for cows fed HY. Calf birth BW was greater ( = 0.04) for those born to cows fed COP with no difference ( = 0.43) in percentage of unassisted births across treatment. Cows fed HY were lighter ( < 0.01) at breeding with lower BCS ( = 0.03); nevertheless, overall pregnancy rate was not different ( = 0.80). No differences ( ≥ 0.22) in milk production were detected. For feedlot progeny, initial feedlot BW, final BW, and days on feed were not different ( ≥ 0.23), and as a result, no difference ( = 0.21) in feedlot ADG was

  18. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  19. Public tolerance to defoliation and flower distortion in a public horticulture garden.

    PubMed

    Sadof, Clifford S; Sclar, D Casey

    2002-04-01

    Surveys of visitor and grower perception of live potted plant quality were conducted in various locations in a large public display garden. Canna lily, Canna x generalis L.H.Bailey, was used to examine effects of defoliation by Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, on public perception. Chrysanthemums, Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat., were used to identify visitor and grower tolerance to flower distortion caused by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on single and multiple flowered plants. On average, the maximum amount of defoliation or flower distortion tolerated by any respondent was low (< or = 10% for canna and < or = 25% for chrysanthemum). The level of acceptable injury was influenced by factors intrinsic to both the respondents and the plants themselves. Tolerance to injury was negatively associated with the risk aversion of the respondents. Visitors were less tolerant of injury on plants they considered for purchase than those that they would view at the garden. Similarly, grower tolerance was lower than that of visitors because producing substandard plants could put their professional reputation at risk. Factors that distracted visitor attention (e.g., presence of flowers and higher levels of background injury) increased their tolerance to plant injury. Visitors tolerated greater levels of flower distortion on multiple flowering chrysanthemum than on those with single flowers. We suggest that tolerance to insect pests can be increased by designing plantings that distract viewers from injured plant parts.

  20. LANDSAT Digital Data Base Preparation for the Pennsylvania Defoliation Application Pilot Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. G.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    A LANDSAT digital mosaic data base for the State of Pennsylvania was prepared for use in the development of an automated system to annually estimate the extent and severity of Gypsy Moth defoliation of hardward forests. The techniques for detecting the defoliation and development of a geographic information system (GIS) to assess damage is being developed jointly by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and Pennsylvania State University using the JPL prepared mosaic base. The JPL processing involved the use of ground control points from the Master Data Processor for planimetric control, resampling of the LANDSAT data to 57 x 57 meter pixels, realignment to north, and reprojection to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection in UTM zones 17 and 18. The completed mosaic for each UTM zone was subdivided into 1 degree of latitude by 2 degrees of longitude quadrangles for easy data handling. Consideration is given to the issues of mapping standards, sensor and spacecraft platform characteristics, and their implication to geographic information systems operation. Methods for obtaining measures of accuracy for LANDSAT mosaics are reviewed.

  1. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  2. Using a ceptometer to validate a visual evaluation of the degree of defoliation of holm and cork oak trees

    Treesearch

    Margarida Tome; Maria Vasconcelos

    2000-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is part of a project to monitor the defoliation degree of cork and holm oak trees in stands with signs of "decline," alter application of different amounts of Aliette, a product specific for Phytophotora cinnamonii, one of the possible causes of the "decline". The specific objective was to...

  3. Influence of defoliation date and gin-drying temperature on oven moisture and KFT water within cotton cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water measured in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration was compared to moisture content measured by standard oven-drying in two cultivars. The cultivars had been defoliated at different times and ginned at two possible temperatures. Ginned lint was further processed to produce mechanically cleaned,...

  4. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W.; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W.; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-01-01

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF ‘donor’ and ponderosa pine ‘receiver’ seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance. PMID:25683155

  5. Fire and season of post-fire defoliation effects on biomass, composition and cover in mixed-grass prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North American prairies are acknowledged to have evolved with grazing following fire. Given this evolutionary fire-grazing interaction, our objective was to determine whether seasonal timing of defoliation following fire alters subsequent productivity and species composition. Following the April 201...

  6. Development of Screening Trials to Rank Pinus radiata Genotypes for Resistance to Defoliation by Monterey Pine Aphid (Essigella californica)

    Treesearch

    Stephen Elms; Peter Ades; Nick Collet

    2012-01-01

    The Monterey pine aphid (Essigella californica) is a recent arrival in Australia, having first been detected in 1998. It quickly spread throughout the national radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation estate, causing seasonal defoliation and compromising tree growth in many areas. Selection of resistant radiata...

  7. Using slides to test for changes in crown defoliation assessment methods. Part I: Visual assessment of slides.

    PubMed

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Hug, Christian; Mizoue, Nobuya

    2004-11-01

    In this study we used photographs of tree crowns to test whether the assessment methods for tree defoliation in Switzerland have changed over time. We randomly selected 24 series of slides of Norway spruce with field assessments made between 1986 and 1995. The slides were randomly arranged and assessed by three experts without prior knowledge of the year when the slide was taken or the tree number. Defoliation was assessed using the Swiss reference photo guide. Although the correlations between the field assessments and slide assessments were high (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ranged between 0.79 and 0.83), we found significant differences between field and slide assessments (4.3 to 9% underprediction by the slide assessors) and between the slide assessments. However, no significant trends in field assessment methods could be detected. When the mean differences between field and slide assessments were subtracted, in some years, field assessors consistently underpredicted (1990, 1992) or overpredicted defoliation (1987, 1991). Defoliation tended to be overpredicted in slides taken against the light, and underpredicted for trees with more than 25% crown overlap. We conclude that slide series can be used to detect changes in assessment methods. However, potential observer bias calls for more objective methods of assessment.

  8. Impact of the defoliating moth Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum species) under different light environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum and V. rossicum, Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) are twining vines from Europe that have become invasive in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), a defoliating forest moth from the Ukraine, ha...

  9. Effects of Defoliating Insect Resistance QTLs and a crylAc Transgene in Soybean Near-Isogenic Lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Additional sources of resistance would be desirable to manage defoliating insect resistance to crystal proteins coded by transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and to sustain the deployment of Bt crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and interactions of three soybean (G...

  10. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-02-16

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF 'donor' and ponderosa pine 'receiver' seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance.

  11. Some timber product market and trade implications of an invasive defoliator: the case of Asian lymantria in the United States

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Ruhong Li

    2008-01-01

    US policy and forest product industry decisionmakers need quantitative information about the magnitude of timber product market impacts from the possible introduction of an exotic and potentially dangerous defoliating forest pest. We applied the Global Forest Products Model to evaluate the effects on the United States of an invasion by the Asian gypsy (...

  12. Impact of insecticide-manipulated defoliation by Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) on grapevines from vineyard establishment through production.

    PubMed

    Hammons, Derrick L; Kaan Kurtural, S; Potter, Daniel A

    2010-05-01

    Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica Newman, is a severe pest of grapes in the southeastern USA where viticulture is a growing industry. This study evaluated the impact of foliar injury from JB field populations on growth, fruit ripening, berry composition and yield of young vines of six cultivars from vineyard establishment through the first year of production. Three spray regimes, carbaryl applied every 7 or 14 days, or no insecticide, were used to manipulate levels of defoliation by JB. Cultivars varied in susceptibility and response to defoliation by JB. Some (e.g. Norton) showed reduced vine growth and delayed post-veraison increase in total soluble sugars and pH, as well as reduced cluster number and weight, berries per cluster and yield. Others (e.g. Concord) showed little or no measurable impact from JB. Notably, the biweekly spray regime was as effective as weekly sprays in mitigating the impacts of defoliation. Foliar loss from JB feeding can set back establishment and productivity of young grapevines. Nevertheless, many growers can reduce spray frequency without compromising the benefits of JB management. Even susceptible cultivars can tolerate low to moderate (<20%) levels of defoliation, and some are resistant enough to be grown without treating for JB.

  13. Abundance and frequency of the Asiatic oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and defoliation on American, Chinese, and hybrid chestnut ( Castanea )

    Treesearch

    Ashley E. Case; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Barbara C. Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (...

  14. Shifts in biomass and resource allocation patterns following defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus growing with varying water and nutrient supplies.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Mohammed, Caroline

    2009-06-01

    In woody species, potential mechanisms to compensate for tissue loss to herbivory and diseases have been related to post-event shifts in growth, biomass and internal resource allocation patterns, as modulated by external resource limitations. We examined the interactive effects of belowground resource limitations by varying nutrient and water availability, and aboveground carbon limitation imposed by a single defoliation event (40% leaf removal) on stem growth, whole-tree and within-tree resource allocation patterns (total non-structural carbohydrate and nitrogen) and below- and aboveground biomass allocation patterns in 8-month-old, field-grown Eucalyptus globulus Labill. saplings. Two months after treatments were imposed, the direction of the stem growth response to defoliation depended on the abiotic treatment. Five months after defoliation, however, we found little evidence that resource availability constrained the expression of tolerance to defoliation. With the exception of the combined low-nutrient and low-water supply treatment, saplings grown with (1) adequate water and nutrient supplies and even with (2) low-water supply or (3) low-nutrient supply were able to compensate for the 40% foliage loss. The observed compensatory responses were attributed to the activation of several short- and longer-term physiological mechanisms including reduced biomass allocation to coarse roots, mobilization of carbohydrate reserves, robust internal N dynamics and increased ratio of foliage to wood dry mass.

  15. Interactions between elevated atmospheric CO2 and defoliation on North American rangeland plant species at low and high N availability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Semi-arid rangelands are expected to be highly sensitive to global change, but few studies have explicitly investigated interactions between increased atmospheric CO2 and plant defoliation (such as occurs with animal grazing). This experiment subjected intact plant-soil cylinders from the Wyoming pr...

  16. [The dynamics of phenolic compounds and soluble sugars in the leaves of the silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) after defoliation and their significance in entomological plant resistance].

    PubMed

    Bakhvalov, S A; Martem'ianov, V V; Kukushkina, T A; Vysochina, G I

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of phenolic compounds, flavonols, catechines, tannins, and soluble sugars in the leaves of the silver birch Betula pendula Roth after strong (75%) and total (100%) artificial defoliation was studied. It was shown that the flavonol content in the leaves did not change after strong and total defoliation, while the amount of tannins did not change during the first 15 days but increased later on 1 and 2 years after 75% and 100% defoliation. The catechine content did not change during the first 15 days and increased later on 1 year after strong and total defoliation; however, it returned to the level of control plants 2 years after both types of defoliations. The amount of soluble sugars in the leaves increased 2 days after 75% defoliation; however, their content conformed to that in control plants after 10 days and it persisted later 1 and 2 years after the damage. The amount of soluble sugars in the leaves also did not change 1 year after 100% defoliation.

  17. A robust multi-kernel change detection framework for detecting leaf beetle defoliation using Landsat 7 ETM+ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anees, Asim; Aryal, Jagannath; O'Reilly, Małgorzata M.; Gale, Timothy J.; Wardlaw, Tim

    2016-12-01

    A robust non-parametric framework, based on multiple Radial Basic Function (RBF) kernels, is proposed in this study, for detecting land/forest cover changes using Landsat 7 ETM+ images. One of the widely used frameworks is to find change vectors (difference image) and use a supervised classifier to differentiate between change and no-change. The Bayesian Classifiers e.g. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Naive Bayes (NB), are widely used probabilistic classifiers which assume parametric models, e.g. Gaussian function, for the class conditional distributions. However, their performance can be limited if the data set deviates from the assumed model. The proposed framework exploits the useful properties of Least Squares Probabilistic Classifier (LSPC) formulation i.e. non-parametric and probabilistic nature, to model class posterior probabilities of the difference image using a linear combination of a large number of Gaussian kernels. To this end, a simple technique, based on 10-fold cross-validation is also proposed for tuning model parameters automatically instead of selecting a (possibly) suboptimal combination from pre-specified lists of values. The proposed framework has been tested and compared with Support Vector Machine (SVM) and NB for detection of defoliation, caused by leaf beetles (Paropsisterna spp.) in Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus plantations of two test areas, in Tasmania, Australia, using raw bands and band combination indices of Landsat 7 ETM+. It was observed that due to multi-kernel non-parametric formulation and probabilistic nature, the LSPC outperforms parametric NB with Gaussian assumption in change detection framework, with Overall Accuracy (OA) ranging from 93.6% (κ = 0.87) to 97.4% (κ = 0.94) against 85.3% (κ = 0.69) to 93.4% (κ = 0.85), and is more robust to changing data distributions. Its performance was comparable to SVM, with added advantages of being probabilistic and capable of handling multi-class problems

  18. Forest defoliators and climatic change: Potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Liebhold, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    Changes in geographical ranges and spatial extent of outbreaks of pest species are likely consequences of climatic change. We investigated potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, and gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), in Oregon and Pennsylvania, respectively using maps of historial defoliation, climate, and forest type in a geographic information system. Maps of defoliation frequency at a resolution of 2 x 2 km were assembled from historical aerial survey data. Weather maps for mean monthly temperature maxima and minima and precipitation over 30 yr were developed by interpolation. Relationships between defoliation status and environmental variables were estimated using linear discriminant analysis. Five climatic change scenarios were investigated: an increase of 2{degrees}C, a 2{degrees}C increase with a small increase and a small decrease in precipitation, and projections of two general circulation models (GCMs) after 100 yr at doubled carbon dioxide. With an increase in temperature alone, the projected defoliated area decreased relative to ambient conditions for budworm and increased slightly for gypsy moth. With an increase in temperature and precipitation, defoliated area increased for both species. Conversely, defoliated area decreased for both when temperature increased and precipitation decreased. Results for the GCM scenarios contrasted sharply. For one GCM, defoliation by budworm was projected to cover Oregon completely, whereas no defoliation was projected by gypsy moth in Pennsylvania. For the other, defoliation disappeared completely for budworm and slightly exceeded that under ambient conditions for gypsy moth. The results are discussed in terms of current forest composition and its potential changes. 36 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Nitrate variability in hydrological flow paths for three mid-Appalachian forested watersheds following a large-scale defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riscassi, Ami L.; Scanlon, Todd M.

    2009-06-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) leakage from forested watersheds due to disturbance is a well documented but not well understood process that can contribute to the degradation of receiving waters through eutrophication. Several studies have shown that large-scale defoliation and deforestation events in small forested watersheds in the eastern United States cause immediate and dramatic increases in NO3- flux to steams, with large differences in recovery time. Water quality and discharge data collected from 1992 to 2004 following a large-scale gypsy moth defoliation were used to investigate hydrological controls on long-term NO3- leakage from three forested watersheds in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. During storm events, a conventional two-component hydrograph separation in conjunction with an inverse solution technique was employed to determine the concentrations of NO3- in groundwater and soil water. Following defoliation, groundwater NO3- concentrations declined exponentially with a distinct seasonal pattern. A rank-order relationship between the rate constants associated with the exponential declines in groundwater NO3- concentrations and groundwater recession constants indicates a hydrological control on long-term watershed recovery for these defoliated systems. Comparisons to deforested systems in Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, and Coweeta, North Carolina, indicate hydrological controls are similarly present. Biogeochemical differences, however, need to be considered to account for the more attenuated recovery observed in defoliated systems. No long-term trend was found in the model-derived soil water NO3- concentrations, which suggests the presence of some form of rate limitation on the transformation of the nitrogen pool introduced during the disturbance and/or reduced nutrient uptake due to tree mortality.

  20. Contrasting impacts of defoliation on root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi of Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Saravesi, K; Ruotsalainen, A L; Cahill, J F

    2014-05-01

    Individual plants typically interact with multiple mutualists and enemies simultaneously. Plant roots encounter both arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi, while the leaves are exposed to herbivores. AMF are usually beneficial symbionts, while the functional role of DSE is largely unknown. Leaf herbivory may have a negative effect on root symbiotic fungi due to decreased carbon availability. However, evidence for this is ambiguous and no inoculation-based experiment on joint effects of herbivory on AM and DSE has been done to date. We investigated how artificial defoliation impacts root colonization by AM (Glomus intraradices) and DSE (Phialocephala fortinii) fungi and growth of Medicago sativa host in a factorial laboratory experiment. Defoliation affected fungi differentially, causing a decrease in arbuscular colonization and a slight increase in DSE-type colonization. However, the presence of one fungal species had no effect on colonization by the other or on plant growth. Defoliation reduced plant biomass, with this effect independent of the fungal treatments. Inoculation by either fungal species reduced root/shoot ratios, with this effect independent of the defoliation treatments. These results suggest AM colonization is limited by host carbon availability, while DSE may benefit from root dieback or exudation associated with defoliation. Reductions in root allocation associated with fungal inoculation combined with a lack of effect of fungi on plant biomass suggest DSE and AMF may be functional equivalent to the plant within this study. Combined, our results indicate different controls of colonization, but no apparent functional consequences between AM and DSE association in plant roots in this experimental setup.

  1. The Role of Forest Tent Caterpillar Defoliations and Partial Harvest in the Decline and Death of Sugar Maple

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Henrik; Messier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Natural and anthropogenic disturbances can act as stresses on tree vigour. According to Manion's conceptual model of tree disease, the initial vigour of trees decreases as a result of predisposing factors that render these trees more vulnerable to severe inciting stresses, stresses that can then cause final vigour decline and subsequent tree death. This tree disease model was tested in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) by assessing the roles of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in tree decline and death. Methods Radial growth data from 377 sugar maple trees that had undergone both defoliations by insects and partial harvest were used to estimate longitudinal survival probabilities as a proxy for tree vigour. Radial growth rates and survival probabilities were compared among trees subjected to different levels of above- and below-ground disturbances, between periods of defoliation and harvest, and between live and dead trees. Key Results Manion's tree disease model correctly accounts for vigour decline and tree death in sugar maple; tree growth and vigour were negatively affected by a first defoliation, predisposing these trees to death later during the study period due to a second insect outbreak that initiated a final vigour decline. This decline was accelerated by the partial harvest disturbance in 1993. Even the most severe anthropogenic disturbances from partial harvest did not cause, unlike insect defoliation, any growth or vigour declines in live sugar maple. Conclusions Natural disturbances acted as predisposing and inciting stresses in tree sugar maple decline and death. Anthropogenic disturbances from a partial harvest at worst accelerated a decline in trees that were already weakened by predisposing and inciting stresses (i.e. repeated insect defoliations). Favourable climatic conditions just before and after the partial harvest may have alleviated possible negative effects on growth resulting from harvesting. PMID:18660493

  2. Whole-plant versus leaf-level regulation of photosynthetic responses after partial defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus saplings

    PubMed Central

    Eyles, Alieta

    2013-01-01

    Increases in photosynthetic capacity (A1500) after defoliation have been attributed to changes in leaf-level biochemistry, water, and/or nutrient status. The hypothesis that transient photosynthetic responses to partial defoliation are regulated by whole-plant (e.g. source–sink relationships or changes in hydraulic conductance) rather than leaf-level mechanisms is tested here. Temporal variation in leaf-level gas exchange, chemistry, whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (KP), and aboveground biomass partitioning were determined to evaluate mechanisms responsible for increases in A1500 of Eucalyptus globulus L. potted saplings. A1500 increased in response to debudding (B), partial defoliation (D), and combined B&D treatments by up to 36% at 5 weeks after treatment. Changes in leaf-level factors partly explained increases in A1500 of B and B&D treatments but not for D treatment. By week 5, saplings in B, B&D, and D treatments had similar leaf-specific KP to control trees by maintaining lower midday water potentials and higher transpiration rate per leaf area. Whole-plant source:sink ratios correlated strongly with A1500. Further, unlike KP, temporal changes in source:sink ratios tracked well with those observed for A1500. The results indicate that increases in A1500 after partial defoliation treatments were largely driven by an increased demand for assimilate by developing sinks rather than improvements in whole-plant water relations and changes in leaf-level factors. Three carbohydrates, galactional, stachyose, and, to a lesser extent, raffinose, correlated strongly with photosynthetic capacity, indicating that these sugars may function as signalling molecules in the regulation of longer term defoliation-induced gas exchange responses. PMID:23382548

  3. The role of forest tent caterpillar defoliations and partial harvest in the decline and death of sugar maple.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Henrik; Messier, Christian

    2008-09-01

    Natural and anthropogenic disturbances can act as stresses on tree vigour. According to Manion's conceptual model of tree disease, the initial vigour of trees decreases as a result of predisposing factors that render these trees more vulnerable to severe inciting stresses, stresses that can then cause final vigour decline and subsequent tree death. This tree disease model was tested in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) by assessing the roles of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in tree decline and death. Radial growth data from 377 sugar maple trees that had undergone both defoliations by insects and partial harvest were used to estimate longitudinal survival probabilities as a proxy for tree vigour. Radial growth rates and survival probabilities were compared among trees subjected to different levels of above- and below-ground disturbances, between periods of defoliation and harvest, and between live and dead trees. Manion's tree disease model correctly accounts for vigour decline and tree death in sugar maple; tree growth and vigour were negatively affected by a first defoliation, predisposing these trees to death later during the study period due to a second insect outbreak that initiated a final vigour decline. This decline was accelerated by the partial harvest disturbance in 1993. Even the most severe anthropogenic disturbances from partial harvest did not cause, unlike insect defoliation, any growth or vigour declines in live sugar maple. Natural disturbances acted as predisposing and inciting stresses in tree sugar maple decline and death. Anthropogenic disturbances from a partial harvest at worst accelerated a decline in trees that were already weakened by predisposing and inciting stresses (i.e. repeated insect defoliations). Favourable climatic conditions just before and after the partial harvest may have alleviated possible negative effects on growth resulting from harvesting.

  4. Whole-plant versus leaf-level regulation of photosynthetic responses after partial defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus saplings.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Davies, Noel W; Corkrey, Ross; Churchill, Keith; O'Grady, Anthony P; Sands, Peter; Mohammed, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Increases in photosynthetic capacity (A1500) after defoliation have been attributed to changes in leaf-level biochemistry, water, and/or nutrient status. The hypothesis that transient photosynthetic responses to partial defoliation are regulated by whole-plant (e.g. source-sink relationships or changes in hydraulic conductance) rather than leaf-level mechanisms is tested here. Temporal variation in leaf-level gas exchange, chemistry, whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (KP), and aboveground biomass partitioning were determined to evaluate mechanisms responsible for increases in A1500 of Eucalyptus globulus L. potted saplings. A1500 increased in response to debudding (B), partial defoliation (D), and combined B&D treatments by up to 36% at 5 weeks after treatment. Changes in leaf-level factors partly explained increases in A1500 of B and B&D treatments but not for D treatment. By week 5, saplings in B, B&D, and D treatments had similar leaf-specific KP to control trees by maintaining lower midday water potentials and higher transpiration rate per leaf area. Whole-plant source:sink ratios correlated strongly with A1500. Further, unlike KP, temporal changes in source:sink ratios tracked well with those observed for A1500. The results indicate that increases in A1500 after partial defoliation treatments were largely driven by an increased demand for assimilate by developing sinks rather than improvements in whole-plant water relations and changes in leaf-level factors. Three carbohydrates, galactional, stachyose, and, to a lesser extent, raffinose, correlated strongly with photosynthetic capacity, indicating that these sugars may function as signalling molecules in the regulation of longer term defoliation-induced gas exchange responses.

  5. Beyond the Critical Period: Processing-Based Explanations for Poor Grammaticality Judgment Performance by Late Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Janet L.

    2006-01-01

    This research explores if poor grammaticality judgments of late (age of arrival greater than or equal to 12) second language learners often attributed to being beyond the critical period for language acquisition can be better explained by processing difficulties due to (1) low L2 working memory capacity, (2) poor L2 decoding, and/or (3) inadequate…

  6. Effect of the defoliant thidiazuron on ethylene evolution from mung bean hypocotyl segments.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C

    1984-08-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on ethylene evolution from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments was examined. Treatment of hypocotyl segments with concentrations of thidiazuron equal to or greater than 30 nanomolar stimulated ethylene evolution. Increased rates of ethylene evolution from thidiazuron-treated tissues could be detected within 90 minutes of treatment and persisted up to 30 hours after treatment. Radioactive methionine was readily taken up by thidiazuron-treated tissues and was converted to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and an acidic conjugate of ACC. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, cobalt chloride, and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid reduced ethylene evolution from treated tissues. An increase in the endogenous content of free ACC coincided with the increase in ethylene evolution following thidiazuron treatment. Uptake and conversion of exogenous ACC to ethylene were not affected by thidiazuron treatment. No increases in the extractable activities of ACC synthase were detected following thidiazuron treatment.

  7. Parasitism and Food Web Structure in Defoliating Lepidoptera - Parasitoid Communities on Soybean.

    PubMed

    Avalos, D S; Mangeaud, A; Valladares, G R

    2016-12-01

    Food webs are usually regarded as snapshots of community feeding interactions. Here, we describe the yearly and cumulative structure of parasitoid-caterpillar food webs on soybean in central Argentina, analyzing parasitism rates and their variability in relation to parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability in the system. Lepidoptera larvae were collected along four seasons from soybean crops and reared in laboratory to obtain and identify adults and parasitoids. Eleven species of defoliating Lepidoptera and ten parasitoid species were recorded. Food web statistics showed rather low annual variability, with most variation coefficients in the order of 0.20 and generality showing the most stable values. Parasitism showed the highest variability, which was independent of parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability, although parasitism rates were negatively related to parasitoid richness. Our study highlights the need to consider food web structure and variability in order to understand the functioning of ecological communities in general and in extensive agricultural ecosystems in particular.

  8. Effect of early or late resynchronization based on different methods of pregnancy diagnosis on reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinedino, L D P; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Cerri, R L A; Santos, J E P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of dairy cows subjected to early (ER) or late (LR) resynchronization programs after nonpregnancy diagnoses based on either pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) ELISA or transrectal palpation, respectively. In addition, the accuracy of the PAG ELISA for early pregnancy diagnosis was assessed. Lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with timed artificial insemination (AI) performed between 61 and 74 DIM. On the day of the first postpartum AI, 1,093 cows were blocked by parity and assigned randomly to treatments; however, because of attrition, 452 ER and 520 LR cows were considered for the statistical analyses. After the first postpartum AI, cows were observed daily for signs of estrus and inseminated on the same day of detected estrus. Cows from ER that were not reinseminated in estrus received the first GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization 2d before pregnancy diagnosis. On d 28 after the previous AI (d 27 to 34), pregnancy status was determined by PAG ELISA, and nonpregnant cows continued on the Ovsynch protocol for reinsemination. Pregnant cows had pregnancy status reconfirmed on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) by transrectal palpation, and those that lost the pregnancies were resynchronized. Cows assigned to LR had pregnancy diagnosed by transrectal palpation on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) and nonpregnant cows were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol. Blood was sampled on d 28 after AI (d 27 to 34) from cows in both treatments that had not been reinseminated on estrus and again on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) for assessment of PAG ELISA to determine the accuracy of the test. Cows were subjected to treatments for 72d after the first insemination. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at first postpartum timed AI did not differ between treatments and averaged 28.9%. The proportion of nonpregnant cows that were resynchronized and received timed AI was greater

  9. Employing citizen science to study defoliation impacts on arthropod communities on tamarisk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Audrey L.

    The invasive tamarisk tree is widespread across the southwestern landscape of the United States and has been dominant in regulated river reaches, outcompeting native vegetation and impacting trophic webs in riparian ecosystems. The changes in riparian habitat and recreation opportunities along southwestern rivers, like the San Juan River in Utah, led to the implementation of a biocontrol program in the form of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.). It is unknown what the long term effects on riparian ecosystems are as a result of the beetles' defoliation of tamarisk each summer. This study sought to identify the current arthropod community composition and abundance over one growing season on the San Juan River between Bluff and Mexican Hat, UT and second, to involve the public in this research through a citizen science component. I found that non-native insects, including the tamarisk leaf beetle, dominated the arboreal arthropod communities within the tamarisk and there are relatively few native arthropods residing in tamarisk throughout the summer season. Foliation levels (the quantity of leaves in the canopy of tamarisk) were inconclusive predictors of arthropod abundances but varied by species and by feeding guild. This may indicate that the defoliation of the tamarisk is not necessarily negatively impacting trophic interactions in tamarisk. I incorporated youth participants on educational river rafting trips to assist in data collection of arthropods from tamarisk trees as a way to educate and bring attention to the issue of invasive species in the Southwest. After completing my own citizen science project and after doing a literature review of other, similar citizen science projects, I found that striving for both rigorous scientific data and quality educational programming is challenging for a small scale project that does not target broad spatial, geographic, or temporal data. Citizen science project developers should clearly identify their objectives

  10. Involvement of ethylene in the action of the cotton defoliant thidiazuron.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C

    1985-06-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on endogenous ethylene evolution and the role of endogenous ethylene in thidiazuron-mediated leaf abscission were examined in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Stoneville 519) seedlings. Treatment of 20- to 30-day-old seedlings with thidiazuron at concentrations equal to or greater than 10 micromolar resulted in leaf abscission. At a treatment concentration of 100 micromolar, nearly total abscission of the youngest leaves was observed. Following treatment, abscission of the younger leaves commenced within 48 hours and was complete by 120 hours. A large increase in ethylene evolution from leaf blades and abscission zone explants was readily detectable within 24 hours of treatment and persisted until leaf fall. Ethylene evolution from treated leaf blades was greatest 1 day posttreatment and reached levels in excess of 600 nanoliters per gram fresh weight per hour (26.7 nanomoles per gram fresh weight per hour). The increase in ethylene evolution occurred in the absence of increased ethane evolution, altered leaf water potential, or decreased chlorophyll levels. Treatment of seedlings with inhibitors of ethylene action (silver thiosulfate, hypobaric pressure) or ethylene synthesis (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) resulted in an inhibition of thidiazuron-induced defoliation. Application of exogenous ethylene or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid largely restored the thidiazuron response. The results indicate that thidiazuron-induced leaf abscission is mediated, at least in part, by an increase in endogenous ethylene evolution. However, alterations of other phytohormone systems thought to be involved in regulating leaf abscission are not excluded by these studies.

  11. Effect of defoliation by checkerspot caterpillars (Euphydryas phaeton) and sawfly larvae (Macrophya nigra and Tenthredo grandis) on their host plants (Chelone spp.).

    PubMed

    Stamp, Nancy E

    1984-08-01

    The effect of defoliation by herbivores, checkerspot caterpillars (Euphydryas phaeton) and sawfly larvae (Macrophya nigra and Tenthredo grandis), on the reproductive output of turtlehead (Chelone spp.) was examined. Defoliation prior to development of flower buds reduced the number of reproductive stalks, flower buds, flowers and seed capsules. Severe herbivory, after flower buds appeared, decreased the final number of seed capsules and seeds per capsule. The availability of the host plants to the herbivores was a function of prior defoliation and environmental conditions. Sawfly larvae, by defoliating the plants in midsummer, forced prediapause checkerspot caterpillars to wander in search of food plants. Decimation of these perenials by postdiapause checkerspot caterpillars in a dry spring retarded growth of turtlehead and, consequently, most of the plants were not available for egg-laying by sawflies and checkerspots.

  12. Effects of Fall Applications of Chemical Defoliants, Urea, and Gibberellic Acid on Defoliation in the Fall and Performance of Hydrangeas during Forcing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In two separate experiments, Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ plants were used to study the effects of foliar sprays of Def 6 (tributyl phosphorotrithioate, 2500, 5000, 7500 and 10000 mg·L-1), gibberellic acid, (GA, 50 mg·L-1), copper-EDTA (CuEDTA, 0.5% and 1.0%), Florel (2000...

  13. Effects of different cereal grains and ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality in late-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Killefer, J; Baker, D H; Ellis, M; McKeith, F K

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight barrows and forty-eight gilts (PIC 337 sires x PIC C22 dams) were evaluated to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) and different cereal grains on the carcass and fat quality in late finishing pigs. The study was carried out using four replicates with 24 animals in each replicate (four pigs per pen, six pens per replicate, two replicates per slaughter date, 12 pens per slaughter date). Treatments for the experiment included corn, wheat, and barley (early finisher period); and corn, corn + RAC, wheat, wheat + RAC, barley, and barley + RAC for the late finisher period. Ractopamine was fed at the level of 10 mg/kg (as-fed basis) of feed. Pigs were allotted to early finisher period treatments at approximately 45 kg BW. Pigs were then given late finisher period treatments at approximately 80 kg BW and fed for 28 d. The dietary digestible lysine level for all diets was maintained at 2.7 g/Mcal of ME. Pigs fed the wheat and corn diets during the late finisher period had a greater (P <0.05) G:F than those fed the barley diets. Pigs fed diets with RAC had lower (P <0.05) leaf fat weights, 10th-rib fat, last-rib fat, and belly firmness and had improved (P <0.05) dressing percents and loin muscle areas compared with those not receiving RAC. Pigs fed the wheat diets had a greater (P <0.05) dressing percent than those receiving the barley diets, but pigs fed the barley diets had a higher (P <0.05) Minolta L* for fat color than pigs fed wheat. Pigs fed diets containing RAC produced pork that was less tender (P <0.05) compared with pigs that did not receive RAC. Linoleic acid percent values were higher (P <0.05) for pigs fed diets with RAC than in those that did not. Feeding RAC improved G:F and lowered feed intake of pigs during the late finisher period (P <0.05). Feeding diets equal in lysine (2.7 g/Mcal of ME) but varying in ME, whether based on corn, wheat, or barley with or without RAC, had little to no effect on carcass, meat, or fat

  14. Variable performance of outbreak defoliators on aspen clones exposed to elevated CO2 and O3

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Herms; William J. Mattson; David N. Karowe; Mark D. Coleman; Terry M. Trier; Bruce A. Birr; J. G. Isebrands

    1996-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric concentrations of ozone and CO2 affect many aspects of tree physiology. However, their effects on tree resistance to insects have received relatively little attention. The objectives of this study were to test the effects of elevated CO2 and ozone on the resistance of three quaking aspen (...

  15. Sleep and Alertness Management III: Effects of a Nap and Hypnotics on Performance During the Late Evening, Night and Early Morning in Marmosets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    hypnotics on performance Info-DenV@tno.nl during the late evening, night and early morning in marmosets Date November 2006 Author(s) Dr. I.H.C.I.M...so-called post-nap hangovers. In this study, the marmoset monkey model was validated as a model for testing the effects of drugs on performance during...evening, night and early morning missions was tested. It was proven that the homeostasis in marmoset monkeys after sleep deprivation is similar to the

  16. Effects of insecticide treatments on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm in Oregon and Washington: 1982-92. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    Effects of insecticide treatments conducted in Oregon and Washington from 1982 through 1992 on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) were evaluated by using aerial sketchmaps and a geographic information system. For each treatment, the extent and severity of defoliation was calculated for the treated areas and a set of four nested rings surrounding the treated area (0-0.5 mile, 0.5.1 mile, 1-2 miles) for up to 8 years: 3 years prior to treatment, the year of treatment, and 4 years following treatment, insecticide treatments applied in 1982 and 1983 coincided with reduced percentages of defoliation by western spruce budworm during the year following treatment. However, the percentage of defoliation usually returned to pretreatment levels by the second year, and defoliation severity in treated and adjacent untreated areas was nearly identical following treatment. For the period from 1985 through 1992, defoliation patterns (including both extent and severity) following treatment were generally similar in treated and adjacent untreated areas.

  17. Ecotypic variation in growth responses to simulated herbivory: trade-off between maximum relative growth rate and tolerance to defoliation in an annual plant

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Iván D.; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that slow-growing plants are more likely to maximize above-ground biomass and fitness when defoliated by herbivores than those with an already high relative growth rate (RGR). Some populations of the annual herb Datura stramonium L. can tolerate foliar damage better than others. The physiological basis of this difference is examined here in a comparative study of two ecotypes that differ in tolerance and maximum growth rate, using a growth analytical approach. One hundred and fifty-four plants of each ecotype grown under controlled conditions were suddenly defoliated (35 % of total leaf area removed) and a similar sample size of plants remained undefoliated (control). Ontogenetic plastic changes in RGR and its growth components [net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area and leaf weight ratio (LWR)] after defoliation were measured to determine whether these plastic changes maximize plant growth and fitness. Different ontogenetic phases of the response were discerned and increased RGR of defoliated plants was detected at the end of the experimental period, but brought about by a different growth component (NAR or LWR) in each ecotype. These changes in RGR are putatively related to increases in fitness in defoliated environments. At the intra-specific scale, data showed a trade-off between the ability to grow under benign environmental conditions and the ability to tolerate resource limitation due to defoliation. PMID:25725085

  18. Effect of Feeding a Mixed Microbial Culture Fortified with Trace Minerals on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Late-fattening Hanwoo Steers: A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Kwak, W S; Kim, Y I; Lee, S M; Lee, Y H; Choi, D Y

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a trace minerals-fortified microbial culture (TMC) on the performance and carcass characteristics of late-fattening Hanwoo steers. A mixture of microbes (0.6% [v/w] of Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Saccharomyces sp.) was cultured with 99% feedstuff for ensiling and 0.4% trace minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, and cobalt). Sixteen late-fattening steers (mean age, 21.8 months) were allocated to two diets: a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw) and a treated diet (control diet+3.3% TMC). At a mean age of 31.1 months, all the steers were slaughtered. The addition of TMC to the diet did not affect the average daily weight gain of the late fattening steers, compared with that of control steers. Moreover, consuming the TMC-supplemented diet did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet increased the concentrations of zinc, selenium, and sulfur (p<0.05) in the longissimus muscle. With respect to amino acids, animals consuming TMC showed increased (p<0.05) concentrations of lysine, leucine, and valine among essential amino acids and a decreased (p<0.05) concentration of proline among non-essential amino acids. In conclusion, the consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet during the late-fattening period elevated the concentrations of certain trace minerals and essential amino acids in the longissimus muscle, without any deleterious effects on performance and other carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers.

  19. Effect of Feeding a Mixed Microbial Culture Fortified with Trace Minerals on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Late-fattening Hanwoo Steers: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, W. S.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, S. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Choi, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a trace minerals-fortified microbial culture (TMC) on the performance and carcass characteristics of late-fattening Hanwoo steers. A mixture of microbes (0.6% [v/w] of Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Saccharomyces sp.) was cultured with 99% feedstuff for ensiling and 0.4% trace minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, and cobalt). Sixteen late-fattening steers (mean age, 21.8 months) were allocated to two diets: a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw) and a treated diet (control diet+3.3% TMC). At a mean age of 31.1 months, all the steers were slaughtered. The addition of TMC to the diet did not affect the average daily weight gain of the late fattening steers, compared with that of control steers. Moreover, consuming the TMC-supplemented diet did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet increased the concentrations of zinc, selenium, and sulfur (p<0.05) in the longissimus muscle. With respect to amino acids, animals consuming TMC showed increased (p<0.05) concentrations of lysine, leucine, and valine among essential amino acids and a decreased (p<0.05) concentration of proline among non-essential amino acids. In conclusion, the consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet during the late-fattening period elevated the concentrations of certain trace minerals and essential amino acids in the longissimus muscle, without any deleterious effects on performance and other carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. PMID:26580283

  20. Remote sensing of tamarisk biomass, insect herbivory, and defoliation: Novel methods in the Grand Canyon Region, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankey, Temuulen Ts.; Sankey, Joel B.; Horne, Rene; Bedford, Ashton

    2016-01-01

    Tamarisk is an invasive, riparian shrub species in the southwestern USA. The northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has been introduced to several states to control tamarisk. We classified tamarisk distribution in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona using a 0.2 m resolution, airborne multispectral data and estimated tamarisk beetle effects (overall accuracy of 86 percent) leading to leaf defoliation in a 49,408 m2 area. We also estimated individual tamarisk tree biomass and their uncertainties using airbonre liday data (100 points/m2). On average, total above ground tamarisk biomass was 8.67 kg/m2 (SD=17.6). The tamarisk beetle defoliation resulted in a mean leaf biomass loss of 0.52 kg/m2 and an equivalent of 25,692 kg across the entire study area. Our defoliated tamarisk map and biomass estimates can help inform restoration treatments to reduce tamarisk. Continued monitoring of tamarisk and tamarisk beetle effects are recommended to understand the currently-unknown eventual equilibrium between the two species and the cascading effects on ecosystem processes.

  1. Predicted effects of gypsy moth defoliation and climate change on forest carbon dynamics in the New Jersey pine barrens.

    PubMed

    Kretchun, Alec M; Scheller, Robert M; Lucash, Melissa S; Clark, Kenneth L; Hom, John; Van Tuyl, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance regimes within temperate forests can significantly impact carbon cycling. Additionally, projected climate change in combination with multiple, interacting disturbance effects may disrupt the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks at large spatial and temporal scales. We used a spatially explicit forest succession and disturbance model, LANDIS-II, to model the effects of climate change, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation, and wildfire on the C dynamics of the forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens over the next century. Climate scenarios were simulated using current climate conditions (baseline), as well as a high emissions scenario (HadCM3 A2 emissions scenario). Our results suggest that long-term changes in C cycling will be driven more by climate change than by fire or gypsy moths over the next century. We also found that simulated disturbances will affect species composition more than tree growth or C sequestration rates at the landscape level. Projected changes in tree species biomass indicate a potential increase in oaks with climate change and gypsy moth defoliation over the course of the 100-year simulation, exacerbating current successional trends towards increased oak abundance. Our research suggests that defoliation under climate change may play a critical role in increasing the variability of tree growth rates and in determining landscape species composition over the next 100 years.

  2. Predicted Effects of Gypsy Moth Defoliation and Climate Change on Forest Carbon Dynamics in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    PubMed Central

    Kretchun, Alec M.; Scheller, Robert M.; Lucash, Melissa S.; Clark, Kenneth L.; Hom, John; Van Tuyl, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance regimes within temperate forests can significantly impact carbon cycling. Additionally, projected climate change in combination with multiple, interacting disturbance effects may disrupt the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks at large spatial and temporal scales. We used a spatially explicit forest succession and disturbance model, LANDIS-II, to model the effects of climate change, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation, and wildfire on the C dynamics of the forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens over the next century. Climate scenarios were simulated using current climate conditions (baseline), as well as a high emissions scenario (HadCM3 A2 emissions scenario). Our results suggest that long-term changes in C cycling will be driven more by climate change than by fire or gypsy moths over the next century. We also found that simulated disturbances will affect species composition more than tree growth or C sequestration rates at the landscape level. Projected changes in tree species biomass indicate a potential increase in oaks with climate change and gypsy moth defoliation over the course of the 100-year simulation, exacerbating current successional trends towards increased oak abundance. Our research suggests that defoliation under climate change may play a critical role in increasing the variability of tree growth rates and in determining landscape species composition over the next 100 years. PMID:25119162

  3. Remote sensing of spruce budworm defoliation using EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral data: an example in Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Each year, the spruce budworm (SBW) causes severe, widespread damage to spruces and fir in east coast Canada. Early estimation of the defoliation can provide crucial support to mitigate the socio-economic impact on vulnerable forests. Remote sensing techniques are suitable to investigate the affected regions that usually consist of large and inaccessible forestry areas. Using satellite images, surface reflectance values at two or more wavelengths are combined to generate vegetation indices (VIs), revealing a relative abundance of features of interest. Forest health analysis based on VIs is considered as one of the primary information sources for monitoring vegetation conditions. Especially the spectral resolution of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery used in this study allows for a detailed examination of the red to near-infrared portion of the spectrum to identify areas of stressed vegetation. Several narrow-band vegetation indices are used to indicate the overall amount and quality of photosynthetic material and moisture content in vegetation. By integrating the information from VIs that focus on different aspects of overall health and vigour in forested areas, the study aims at detecting defoliated condition in a forested region in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In June and August of 2014 two Hyperion images were acquired by NASA's EO-1 satellite for this study. Changes in vegetation health and vigour are observed and quantitatively compared using the multi-temporal remote sensing images. The experimental results suggest that the VI- based forest health analysis is effective in estimating SBW defoliation in the study area.

  4. Remote Sensing of Tamarisk Biomass, Insect Herbivory, and Defoliation: Novel Lidar and Multispectral Methods in the Grand Canyon Region, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, T.; Sankey, J. B.; Horne, R.; Bedford, A.; Cagney, L.

    2016-12-01

    Tamarisk is an invasive, riparian shrub species that has dramatically altered riparian forests throughout the western USA. The northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has been introduced to several states to control tamarisk. Here we used the fusion of very high resolution, airborne lidar and multispectral data to classify tamarisk distribution along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon Region, Arizona and estimated tamarisk beetle effects (overall accuracy of 86 percent) leading to leaf defoliation in a 49,408 m2 area. We also estimated individual tamarisk tree biomass and their uncertainties. On average, total aboveground tamarisk biomass was 8.68 kg/m2 (SD = 17.6). The tamarisk beetle defoliation resulted in a mean leaf biomass loss of 0.52 kg/m2 and an equivalent input of 25,692 kg of leaf litter and > 300 kg of N to the riparian floodplain. Our defoliated tamarisk map and biomass estimates can help inform restoration treatments to reduce tamarisk. Continued monitoring of tamarisk and tamarisk beetle effects with our lidar and multispectral methods are recommended to understand the currently-unknown eventual equilibrium between the two species and the cascading effects on ecosystem processes.

  5. Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential

  6. Molecular data and phylogeny of Nosema infecting lepidopteran forest defoliators in the genera Choristoneura and Malacosoma.

    PubMed

    Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; van Frankenhuyzen, Kees

    2008-01-01

    Nosema isolates from five lepidopteran forest defoliators, Nosema fumiferanae from spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana; a Nosema sp. from jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus and western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis (Nosema sp. CPP and Nosema sp. CO, respectively); Nosema thomsoni from large aspen tortrix, Choristoneura conflictana; and Nosema disstriae, from the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria were compared based on their small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. Four of the species sequenced, N. fumiferanae, Nosema sp. CPP, Nosema sp. CO, and N. disstriae have a high SSU rDNA sequence identity (0.6%-1.5%) and are members of the "true Nosema" clade. They all showed the reverse arrangement of the (large subunit [LSU]-internal transcribed spacer [ITS]-SSU) of the rRNA gene. The fifth species, N. thomsoni has the usual (SSU-ITS-LSU) arrangement and is not a member of this clade showing only an 82% sequence similarity. We speculate, therefore, that a genetic reversal may have occurred in the common ancestor to the "true Nosema" clade. Although, the mechanism for rearrangement of the rRNA gene subunits is not known we provide a possible explanation for the localization. N. fumiferanae, Nosema sp. CPP, and Nosema sp. CO clustered together on the inferred phylogenetic tree. The high sequence similarities, the reverse arrangement in the rRNA gene subunits, and the phylogenetic clustering suggest that these three species are closely related but separate species.

  7. Framework for video-based monitoring of forest insect defoliation and discoloration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feifei; Wang, Yafei; Qiao, Yanyou

    2015-01-01

    Pest damage is a general problem that disturbs the growth of forests, influencing carbon sequestration and causing economic losses. In the past decades, many studies have been conducted to monitor and detect forest insect damage using satellite remote sensing technology. Satellite remote sensing has a satellite or aerial vision allowing the monitoring of extensive forest areas, but it usually requires constant time periods and is prone to cloud interference. To enable more efficient and effective monitoring of forest pest damage, a video-based monitoring framework is presented. This framework comprises three key parts: (1) video positioning of forest insect damage based on digital elevation model (DEM) and the parameters obtained from the pan-tilt-zoom camera, (2) integration of two-dimensional/three-dimensional geographic information system and video surveillance to provide more intuitionistic monitoring and assistance for positioning, (3) on-site verification conducted by ground surveys and guided through global positioning system (GPS) integrated in the embedded devices. The experiment was carried out over two forest areas to validate the proposed method. Results showed that the framework bears a sound positioning accuracy and high detection ratio, which could be effectively used in detecting and monitoring forest insect defoliation and discoloration.

  8. The potential interaction between ewe body condition score and nutrition during very late pregnancy and lactation on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs.

    PubMed

    Cranston, L M; Kenyon, P R; Corner-Thomas, R A; Morris, S T

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe body condition score (BCS) (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0) and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses) during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. On day 142 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a BCS of 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 were allocated to a "Moderate' or 'Unrestricted' nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning). The nutritional treatments aimed to achieve average herbage masses of 1,200 to 1,300 kg dry matter (DM)/ha (Moderate) and 1,500 to 1,800 kg DM/ha (Unrestricted). There were no three-way interactions between ewe BCS group, nutritional treatment and time for any ewe or lamb parameter. The nutritional treatments had no effect (p>0.05) on lamb birth or weaning weight. Lambs born to Moderate ewes had greater survival and total litter weight at weaning (p<0.05). Regardless of BCS group, Unrestricted treatment ewes had greater body condition and back-fat depth at weaning than Moderate treatment ewes (p<0.05). Ewes of BCS 2.0 group reared lighter lambs to weaning (p<0.05) and tended to have a lower total litter weight (p = 0.06) than BCS 3.0 group ewes. This study suggests farmers should aim to have all ewes with a BCS of 2.5 or 3 in late pregnancy for optimal lamb weaning performance. Furthermore, there is no benefit to lamb production of offering ewes pasture masses >1,200 kg DM/ha during very late pregnancy and lactation.

  9. A Late Glacial Environmental Reconstruction performed on Lacustrine Sediments from the Southern Tibetan Plateau identifies regional Monsoon Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, K.; Ahlborn, M.; Haberzettl, T.; Alivernini, M.; Kasper, T.; Thiele, A.; St-Onge, G.; Daut, G.; Frenzel, P.; Gleixner, G.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is very sensitive to climate variations and is therefore an ideal study site to investigate past climate changes. Influenced by the Asian Monsoon system, the numerous lake systems on the TP serve as valuable archives for past hydrological changes, which are assumed to be caused by variations in strength and extent of the monsoonal impact. The lacustrine record from the terminal lake Tangra Yumco (4540 m a.s.l., 31°13'N, 86°43'E) consists of an interbedding of fine-grained silty sediments with laminations of different thicknesses (sub-mm to cm) and partly intercalated blackish sandy layers. Thin section analysis in the laminated areas reveals cyclic laminations composed of a carbonate and a detrital layer. Homogenous intervals represent turbidite deposits which are further detected based on lithology, radiography as well as changes in the water content, grain size, Ti-values (XRF) and in the paleomagnetic parameter median destructive field. The chronology is based on 27 AMS-radiocarbon ages on bulk organic matter and one piece of wood, which is of terrestrial origin. To determine a possible carbon reservoir effect, additional surface sediment samples and one modern aquatic plant were measured. The calculated reservoir effect of 2,120 +110/-90 years is assumed to be constant over the time and thus the base of the record reveals a corrected radiocarbon age of 17,270 +325/-310 cal BP. Additionally, investigations on paleomagnetic secular variations were carried out, showing that since 15,900 cal BP the record preserved a well-defined magnetization recording a genuine paleomagnetic signal. Regarding the geochemical (organic and inorganic), sedimentological, mineralogical and micropaleontological analyses, a low lake level with a high terrestrial input is observed for the Late Glacial. At 15.6 ka cal BP, a change in the sediment accumulation rate, increased allochthoneous input and changing ostracod fauna point to an increasing lake level. In

  10. Disruption of the Polar Auxin Transport System in Cotton Seedlings following Treatment with the Defoliant Thidiazuron.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (TDZ) on basipetal auxin transport in petiole segments isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102) seedlings was examined using the donor/receiver agar block technique. Treatment of intact seedlings with TDZ at concentrations of 1 micromolar or greater resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of (14)C-IAA transport in petiole segments isolated 1 or 2 days after treatment. Using 100 micromolar TDZ, the inhibition was detectable 19 hours after treatment and was complete by 27 hours. Both leaves and petiole segments exhibited a marked increase in ethylene production following treatment with TDZ at concentrations of 0.1 micromolar or greater. The involvement of ethylene in this TDZ response was evaluated by examining the effects of two inhibitors of ethylene action: silver thiosulfate, 2,5-norbornadiene. One day after treatment, both inhibitors effectively antagonized the TDZ-induced inhibition of auxin transport. Two days after TDZ treatment both inhibitors were ineffective. The decrease in IAA transport in TDZ treated tissues was associated with increased metabolism of IAA. The transport of (14)C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was also inhibited by TDZ treatment. This inhibition was not accompanied by increased metabolism. Incorporation of TDZ into the receiver blocks had no effect on auxin transport. The ability of the phytotropin N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to stimulate IAA uptake from a bathing medium was reduced in TDZ-treated tissues. This reduction is thought to reflect a decline in the auxin efflux system following TDZ treatment.

  11. Regulation of forest defoliating insects through small mammal predation: reconsidering the mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kollberg, Ida; Bylund, Helena; Huitu, Otso; Björkman, Christer

    2014-12-01

    Population densities of forest defoliating insects may be regulated by small mammal predation on the pupae. When outbreaks do occur, they often coincide with warm, dry weather and at barren forest sites. A proposed reason for this is that weather and habitat affect small mammal population density (numerical response) and hence pupal predation. We propose an alternative explanation: weather and habitat affect small mammal feeding behaviour (functional response) and hence the outbreak risks of forest pest insects. We report results from laboratory and field-enclosure experiments estimating rates of pupal predation by bank voles (Myodes glareolus) on an outbreak insect, the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer), at different temperatures (15 and 20 °C), in different microhabitats (sheltered and non-sheltered), and with or without access to alternative food (sunflower seeds). We found that the probability of a single pupa being eaten at 20 °C was lower than at 15 °C (0.49 and 0.72, respectively). Pupal predation was higher in the sheltered microhabitat than in the open one, and the behaviour of the voles differed between microhabitats. More pupae were eaten in situ in the sheltered microhabitat whereas in the open area more pupae were removed and eaten elsewhere. Access to alternative food did not affect pupal predation. The results suggest that predation rates on pine sawfly pupae by voles are influenced by temperature- and habitat-induced variation in the physiology and behaviour of the predator, and not necessarily solely through effects on predator densities as previously proposed.

  12. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    PubMed

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  13. Three Centuries of Synchronous Forest Defoliator Outbreaks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Aquila

    2016-01-01

    Insect outbreaks often occur synchronously across large spatial scales, but the long-term temporal stability of the phenomenon and the mechanisms behind it are not well understood. In this study, I use a widespread lepidopteran defoliator native to western North America—the western spruce budworm—as a case study to explore patterns of and potential causes for synchronous population fluctuations. Analyses of synchrony are typically severely limited by the short historical records available for many species. To overcome this limitation, I compiled multi-century dendrochronological reconstructions of western spruce budworm outbreaks from across much of the species’ range. This allowed me to analyze synchrony at a sub-continental spatial scale over the last three centuries. I found statistically significant synchrony among regional outbreak records up to 2,000 km apart and identified numerous outbreak periods that occurred synchronously across much of the species’ range. I quantified spatial and temporal associations between climate and synchronous outbreak periods using paleoclimate reconstructions. The spatial patterns of outbreak histories and climate records were remarkably similar, with higher similarity in outbreak histories apparent between regions with more similar climate conditions. Synchronous outbreaks typically occurred during periods of average or above average moisture availability preceded by periods of low moisture availability. My results suggest that climatic variability has played a key role in synchronizing western spruce budworm population fluctuations in disjunct forests across western North America for at least the last three centuries. Widespread synchrony appears to be a natural part of this species’ population dynamics, though synchronous outbreaks have occurred more frequently during the 20th century than during prior centuries. This study uses a novel combination of statistical methods and dendrochronological data to provide

  14. Three Centuries of Synchronous Forest Defoliator Outbreaks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Flower, Aquila

    2016-01-01

    Insect outbreaks often occur synchronously across large spatial scales, but the long-term temporal stability of the phenomenon and the mechanisms behind it are not well understood. In this study, I use a widespread lepidopteran defoliator native to western North America-the western spruce budworm-as a case study to explore patterns of and potential causes for synchronous population fluctuations. Analyses of synchrony are typically severely limited by the short historical records available for many species. To overcome this limitation, I compiled multi-century dendrochronological reconstructions of western spruce budworm outbreaks from across much of the species' range. This allowed me to analyze synchrony at a sub-continental spatial scale over the last three centuries. I found statistically significant synchrony among regional outbreak records up to 2,000 km apart and identified numerous outbreak periods that occurred synchronously across much of the species' range. I quantified spatial and temporal associations between climate and synchronous outbreak periods using paleoclimate reconstructions. The spatial patterns of outbreak histories and climate records were remarkably similar, with higher similarity in outbreak histories apparent between regions with more similar climate conditions. Synchronous outbreaks typically occurred during periods of average or above average moisture availability preceded by periods of low moisture availability. My results suggest that climatic variability has played a key role in synchronizing western spruce budworm population fluctuations in disjunct forests across western North America for at least the last three centuries. Widespread synchrony appears to be a natural part of this species' population dynamics, though synchronous outbreaks have occurred more frequently during the 20th century than during prior centuries. This study uses a novel combination of statistical methods and dendrochronological data to provide analyses of

  15. Effects of defoliating insect resistance QTLs and a cry1Ac transgene in soybean near-isogenic lines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Walker, D R; Boerma, H R; All, J N; Parrott, W A

    2008-02-01

    The crystal proteins coded by transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have shown considerable value in providing effective insect resistance in a number of crop species, including soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Additional sources of soybean insect resistance would be desirable to manage the development of tolerance/resistance to crystal proteins by defoliating insects and to sustain the deployment of Bt crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and interactions of three insect resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs; QTL-M, QTL-H, and QTL-G) originating from Japanese soybean PI 229358 and a cry1Ac gene in a "Benning" genetic background. A set of 16 BC(6)F(2)-derived near isogenic lines (NILs) was developed using marker-assisted backcrosses and evaluated for resistance to soybean looper [SBL, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)] and corn earworm [CEW, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] in field cage, greenhouse, and detached leaf assays. Both Bt and QTL-M had significantly reduced defoliation by both SBL and CEW and reduced larval weight of CEW. The antibiosis QTL-G had a significant effect on reducing CEW larval weight and also a significant effect on reducing defoliation by SBL and CEW in some assays. The antixenosis QTL-H had no main effect, but it appeared to function through interaction with QTL-M and QTL-G. Adding QTL-H and QTL-G further enhanced the resistance of the Bt and QTL-M combination to CEW in the field cage assay. These results should help guide the development of strategies for effective management of insect pests and for sustainable deployment of Bt genes.

  16. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries.

  17. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries. PMID:26513363

  18. [First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the State of Pará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rafael C; Lemos, Walkymário P; Bernardino, Aline S; Buecke, Joel; Müller, Antonio A

    2010-01-01

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hübner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Pará, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil.

  19. Influence of thermal stimulation during the late phase of incubation on hatching results and post-hatch broiler performance under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Elmehdawi, A S; Hall, M A; Skewes, P A; Wicker, D L; Maurice, D V

    2016-12-01

    Two experiments, which differed in breeder age, strain and season, were conducted to study the influence of low-intensity, short-duration thermal stimuli during the late phase of incubation on hatchability and performance. The first experiment conducted in April-June used eggs from Cobb × Ross broiler breeders at 35-41 weeks of age and the second experiment performed in February-April used eggs from Hubbard × Cobb broiler breeders at 49-53 weeks of age. Eggs in the test group had the same physical environment as eggs in the control group except that incubation temperature was increased by 1˚C for 2 h/d above the control group from 18 to 20 d of incubation (DI). The results demonstrated that thermal stimulation of 1˚C for 2 h/d above control incubation temperature during 18-21DI did not have any adverse effects on hatch and post-hatch performance of broilers. In both experiments, treatment did not significantly alter the secondary sex ratio in hatched chickens, but hatch residue showed that the proportion of unhatched male embryos was significantly lower in the test groups than in the control groups. In the first experiment, thermal stimulation improved feed conversion by 1.82% compared with the control.

  20. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.

  1. Dietary effects of chelated zinc supplementation and lysine levels in ISA Brown laying hens on early and late performance, and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Trindade Neto, M A; Pacheco, B H C; Albuquerque, R; Schammass, E A; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2011-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that zinc (Zn) levels beyond those that are nutritionally required may favor the utilization of dietary lysine, and consequently reduce the level of its inclusion into the diet. Therefore, the possible effects of interaction between chelated Zn and the level of lysine (Lys) on egg production and egg quality of laying hens were evaluated. In total, 720 ISA Brown layer hens aged 24 to 36 wk (early phase) and 48 to 60 wk (late phase) were allotted in a completely randomized factorial design that used 3 Zn and 5 Lys levels (6 replications, 8 birds/replication). All birds aged 37 to 47 wk (between early and late phases) were fed a standard diet and maintained under the same experimental design. The Zn levels used were 137, 309, and 655 mg/kg; and the Lys levels were 0.560, 0.612, 0.677, 0.749, and 0.851%. The optimal levels of Lys digestibility were based on laboratory analyses with regard to the weighted average relationship between 83.5% digestibility and the total Lys from principal ingredients. There was no effect of interaction found between the dietary levels of Zn and Lys for most of the variables studied; however, each had an independent effect on the variables. An increase in Zn from 137 to 655 mg/kg had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the performance of hens in both phases; however, it showed a significant effect on egg quality (P < 0.01), principally on mineral composition. Increased Zn resulted in decreased shell weight, percentage of ash, yolk ash deposition, and total ash deposition. On the other hand, an increase in Lys from 0.560 to 0.851% significantly affected (P < 0.002) several performance parameters and the chemical composition of the eggs, including feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, BW gain, egg weight, and production. In conclusion, there was no interaction found between Zn and Lys, but higher dietary levels of chelated Zn reduced bird performance and egg quality parameters, whereas higher Lys levels could be

  2. Asynchrony between Host Plant and Insects-Defoliator within a Tritrophic System: The Role of Herbivore Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V.; Pavlushin, Sergey V.; Dubovskiy, Ivan M.; Yushkova, Yuliya V.; Morosov, Sergey V.; Chernyak, Elena I.; Efimov, Vadim M.; Ruuhola, Teija; Glupov, Victor V.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of asynchrony in the phenology of spring-feeding insect-defoliators and their host plants on insects’ fitness, as well as the importance of this effect for the population dynamics of outbreaking species of insects, is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon. However, the spreading of this phenomenon through the food chain, and especially those mechanisms operating this spreading, are still unclear. In this paper, we study the effect of seasonally declined leafquality (estimated in terms of phenolics and nitrogen content) on herbivore fitness, immune parameters and resistance against pathogen by using the silver birch Betula pendula—gypsy moth Lymantria dispar—nucleopolyhedrovirus as the tritrophic system. We show that a phenological mismatch induced by the delay in the emergence of gypsy moth larvae and following feeding on mature leaves has negative effects on the female pupal weight, on the rate of larval development and on the activity of phenoloxidase in the plasma of haemolymph. In addition, the larval susceptibility to exogenous nucleopolyhydrovirus infection as well as covert virus activation were both enhanced due to the phenological mismatch. The observed effects of phenological mismatch on insect-baculovirus interaction may partially explain the strong and fast fluctuations in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth that is often observed in the studied part of the defoliator area. This study also reveals some indirect mechanisms of effect related to host plant quality, which operate through the insect innate immune status and affect resistance to both exogenous and endogenous virus. PMID:26115118

  3. Small mammal abundance and habitat relationships on deciduous forested sites with different susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahner, Richard H.; Smith, Harvey R.

    1991-01-01

    Small mammals are important predators of gypsy moths ( Lymantria dispar L.), which are major defoliators of deciduous forests in the northeastern United States. Abundance and habitat relationships of small mammals were studied during summers 1984 and 1985 on forested sites at Moshannon and Rothrock state forests in two physiographic regions of Pennsylvania (Allegheny High Plateaus Province and Valley and Ridge Province, respectively) that varied in potential susceptibility to defoliation. The white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus), which is a major vertebrate predator of gypsy moths, was the most common small mammal on all sites. Of the four common species, northern short-tailed shrews ( Blarina brevicauda), southern red-backed voles ( Clethrionomys gapperi), and white-footed mice were more abundant at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, but masked shrews ( Sorex cinereus) were more abundant at Rothrock. Elevation was a major factor affecting abundance and distribution of small mammals. Because of the greater abundance of small mammals and more suitable physiographic features at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, small mammals may be more effective as predators on gypsy moths in the Allegheny High Plateaus than the Valley and Ridge Province of Pennsylvania.

  4. Interactive effects of mechanical stress, sand burial and defoliation on growth and mechanical properties in Cynanchum komarovii.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Yu, F-H; Werger, M; Dong, M; Anten, N P R

    2013-01-01

    In drylands, wind, sand burial and grazing are three important factors affecting growth and mechanical properties of plants, but their interactive effects have not yet been investigated. Plants of the semi-shrub Cynanchum komarovii, common in semi-arid parts of NE Asia, were subjected to brushing, burial and defoliation. We measured biomass allocation and relative increment rates of dry mass (RGR(m)), height (RGR(h)) and basal diameter (RGR(d)). We also measured the stem mechanical properties, Young's modulus (E), second moment of area (I), flexural stiffness (EI) and breaking stress (σ(b)), and scaled these traits to the whole-plant level to determine the maximum lateral force (F(lateral)) and the buckling safety factor (BSF). Brushing increased RGR(m); neither burial nor defoliation independently affected RGR(m), but together they reduced it. Among buried plants, brushing positively affected stem rigidity and strength through increasing RGR(d), E, I and EI, and at whole plant level this resulted in a larger BSF and F(lateral). However, among unburied plants this pattern was not observed. Our results thus show that effects of mechanical stress and grazing on plants can be strongly modified by burial, and these interactions should be taken into account when considering adaptive significance of plant mechanical traits in drylands.

  5. Effects of Dietary Persimmon Peel and its Ethanol Extract on the Production Performance and Liver Lipids in the Late Stage of Egg Production in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Oh, S. T.; Zheng, L.; Shin, Y. K.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of persimmon peel (PP) and PP ethanol extract (PPE) on egg production, egg quality, and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens. One hundred and twenty 50-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 120) were fed different diets. Four replicate groups of 6 hens each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. The 5 dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) PP 0.15, CON+0.15% PP (0.035% tannin); iii) PP 0.5, CON +0.5% PP (0.117% tannin); iv) PPE 0.075, CON+0.075% PPE (0.03% tannin); and v) PPE 0.25, CON+0.25% PPE (0.11% tannin). The total tannin concentration of PPE was higher (p<0.05) than that of PP. Egg production in the PP 0.5 group was higher than in the other groups. Egg production and mass of hens in the PPE 0.25 group showed a greater decrease than that in the other groups (p<0.05). Eggshell color in the PP 0.15, PP 0.5, and PPE 0.075 groups was lighter than that of the control group (p<0.05). The Haugh unit for the groups that were fed PP and PPE were significantly higher than that in the other groups after 7 d of storage (p<0.05). Therefore, PP seems an effective feed additive for improving the production performance and egg quality in late stage laying hens. PMID:25049785

  6. Rhizosphere interactions, carbon allocation, and nitrogen acquisition of two perennial North American grasses in response to defoliation and elevated atmospheric CO2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon allocation and N acquisition by plants following defoliation may be linked through plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Feedbacks between herbivory and plant-microbe interactions may also be affected by increasing atmospheric CO2, through plant responses to changes in carbon and nit...

  7. Cottonwood leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) defoliation impact on Populus growth and above-ground volume in a short-rotation woody crop plantation

    Treesearch

    David R. Coyle; Joel D. McMillin; Richard B. Hall; Elwood R. Hart

    2002-01-01

    AbstractThe impact of cottonwood leaf beetle Chrysomela scripta F. defoliation on four plantation-grown Populus clones was examined over three growing seasons. We used a split-plot design with two treatments: protected (by insecticides) and an unprotected control. Tree height and...

  8. Radial growth of grand fir and Douglas-fir 10 years after defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth in the Blue Mountains outbreak.

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman

    1986-01-01

    Radial-growth recovery related to amount of tree defoliation was measured 10 years after a severe outbreak of Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough). For the period 1978-82, growth of qrand fir surpassed and was significantly greater than in the preoutbreak period, 1968-72. Douglas-fir growth during the postoutbreak period...

  9. Historical patterns of spruce budworm defoliation and bark beetle outbreaks in North American conifer forests: an atlas and description of digital maps

    Treesearch

    David W. Williams; Richard A. Birdsey

    2003-01-01

    This atlas presents maps of historical defoliation by the eastern and western spruce budworms and historical outbreaks of the mountain and southern pine beetles during the past half century. The maps encompass various regions of the conterminous United States and eastern Canada. This publication also serves as documentation for an extended set of digital maps, which...

  10. Effects of replacing grass silage with either maize silage or concentrates during late pregnancy on the performance of breeding ewes fed isonitrogenous diets.

    PubMed

    Annett, R W; Carson, A F; Gordon, A W

    2013-06-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the performance of breeding ewes fed a range of forage and concentrate-based diets in late pregnancy, balanced for supply of metabolizable protein (MP). For the final 6 weeks before lambing, 104 twin-bearing multiparous ewes were offered one of four diets: ad libitum precision-chop grass silage + 0.55 kg/day concentrates (GS); ad libitum maize silage + 0.55 kg/day concentrates (MS); a 1 : 1 mixture (on a dry matter (DM) basis) of grass silage and maize silage fed ad libitum + 0.55 kg/day (GSMS); or 1.55 kg/day concentrates + 50 g/day chopped barley straw (C). The CP content of the concentrates was varied between treatments (157 to 296 g/kg DM) with the aim of achieving a daily intake of 130 g/day MP across all treatments. Compared with ewes fed GS, forage DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) in ewes fed MS (+0.21 kg/day) and GSMS (+0.16 kg/day), resulting in higher (P < 0.001) total DM intakes with these treatments. C ewes had the lowest total DM intake of all the treatments examined (P < 0.001). C ewes lost more live weight (LW; P < 0.001) and body condition score (BCS; P < 0.05) during the first 3 weeks of the study but there were no dietary effects on ewe LW or BCS thereafter. The incidence of dystocia was lower (P < 0.01) in C ewes compared with those offered silage-based diets (7.5% v. 37.4% ewes), and was higher (P < 0.01) in ewes fed MS compared with GS or GSMS (50.7%, 34.7% and 26.9%, respectively). There were no significant dietary effects on the plasma metabolite concentrations of ewes in late pregnancy, pre-weaning lamb mortality, weaned lamb output per ewe or on lamb growth rate. The results of this study demonstrate that both maize silage and all-concentrate diets can replace grass silage in pregnant ewe rations without impacting on performance, provided the supply of MP is non-limiting. The higher incidence of dystocia in ewes fed maize silage as the sole forage is a concern.

  11. Sap flux-scaled transpiration by tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) before, during and after episodic defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hultine, K.R.; Nagler, P.L.; Morino, K.; Bush, S.E.; Burtch, K.G.; Dennison, P.E.; Glenn, E.P.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The release of the saltcedar beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has resulted in the periodic defoliation of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) along more than 1000 river km in the upper Colorado River Basin and is expected to spread along many other river reaches throughout the upper basin, and possibly into the lower Colorado River Basin. Identifying the impacts of these release programs on tamarisk water use and subsequent water cycling in arid riparian systems are largely unknown, due in part to the difficulty of measuring water fluxes in these systems. We used lab-calibrated, modified heat-dissipation sap flux sensors to monitor tamarisk water use (n=20 trees) before, during and after defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons (May-October) in southeastern Utah. We incorporated a simple model that related mean stem sap flux density (Js) with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (vpd) before the onset of defoliation in 2008. The model was used to calculate differences between predicted Js and Js measured throughout the two growing seasons. Episodic defoliation resulted in a 16% reduction in mean annual rates of Js in both 2008 and 2009, with decreases occurring only during the periods in which the trees were defoliated (about 6-8 weeks per growing season). In other words, rates of Js rebounded to values predicted by the model when the trees produced new leaves after defoliation. Sap flux data were scaled to stand water use by constructing a tamarisk-specific allometric equation to relate conducting sapwood area to stem diameter, and by measuring the size distribution of stems within the stand. Total water use in both years was 0.224m, representing a reduction of about 0.04myr-1. Results showed that repeated defoliation/refoliation cycles did not result in a progressive decrease in either leaf production or water use over the duration of the study. This investigation improves ground-based estimates of tamarisk water use, and will support

  12. Effects of dry period length and concentrate protein content in late lactation on body condition score change and subsequent lactation performance of thin high genetic merit dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dale, A J; Purcell, P J; Wylie, A R G; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2017-03-01

    had no effect on any fertility or health parameters examined postpartum. Extending the dry period for thin cows improved their BCS at calving but did not allow these cows to achieve the target BCS of 2.75, and we found no beneficial effects of this treatment on cow performance postpartum. Offering a lower-protein diet to thin cows in late lactation did not improve BCS at calving above that of cows on a normal protein diet, but had unexplained long-term negative effects on cow performance.

  13. Correlated responses of root growth and sugar concentrations to various defoliation treatments and rhythmic shoot growth in oak tree seedlings (Quercus pubescens)

    PubMed Central

    Willaume, Magali; Pagès, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims To understand whether root responses to aerial rhythmic growth and contrasted defoliation treatments can be interpreted under the common frame of carbohydrate availability; root growth was studied in parallel with carbohydrate concentrations in different parts of the root system on oak tree seedlings. Methods Quercus pubescens seedlings were submitted to selective defoliation (removal of mature leaves, cotyledons or young developing leaves) at appearance of the second flush and collected 1, 5 or 10 d later for morphological and biochemical measurements. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations were measured in cotyledons and apical and basal root parts. Key Results Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices diminished during the expansion of the second aerial flush and increased after the end of aerial growth in control seedlings. Starch concentration in cotyledons regularly decreased. Continuous removal of young leaves did not alter either root growth or apical sugar concentration. Starch storage in basal root segments was increased. After removal of mature leaves (and cotyledons), root growth strongly decreased. Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices drastically decreased and starch reserves in the root basal segments were emptied 5 d after defoliation, illustrating a considerable shortage in carbohydrates. Soluble sugar concentrations recovered 10 d after defoliation, after the end of aerial growth, suggesting a recirculation of sugar. No supplementary recourse to starch in cotyledons was observed. Conclusions The parallel between apical sugar concentration and root growth patterns, and the correlations between hexose concentration in root apices and their growth rate, support the hypothesis that the response of root growth to aerial periodic growth and defoliation treatments is largely controlled by carbohydrate availability. PMID:21239407

  14. Do elevations in temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated silver birch seedlings?

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Liisa; Saravesi, Karita; Markkola, Annamari; Niemelä, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming increases the risk of insect defoliation in boreal forests. Losses in photosynthetically active surfaces cause reduction in net primary productivity and often compromise carbon reserves of trees. The concurrent effects of climate change and removal of foliage on root growth responses and carbohydrate dynamics are poorly understood, especially in tree seedlings. We investigated if exposures to different combinations of elevated temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated 1-year-old silver birches (Betula pendula). We quantified nonstructural carbohydrates (insoluble starch as a storage compound; soluble sucrose, fructose, and glucose) singly and in combination in fine roots of plants under winter dormancy. Also the total mass, fine root proportion, water content, and length of roots were defined. We hypothesized that the measured properties are lower in defoliated birch seedlings that grow with ample resources than with scarce resources. On average, fertilization markedly decreased both the proportion and the carbohydrate concentrations of fine roots in all seedlings, whereas the effect of fertilization on root water content and dry mass was the opposite. However, defoliation mitigated the effect of fertilization on the root water content, as well as on the proportion of fine roots and their carbohydrate concentrations by reversing the outcomes. Elevation in temperature decreased and elevation in CO2 increased the absolute contents of total nonstructural carbohydrates, whereas fertilization alleviated both these effects. Also the root length and mass increased by CO2 elevation. This confirms that surplus carbon in birch tissues is used as a substrate for storage compounds and for cell wall synthesis. To conclude, our results indicate that some, but not all elements of climate change alter belowground carbon gain and root morphology in defoliated silver birch seedlings. PMID

  15. Exchanging physically effective neutral detergent fiber does not affect chewing activity and performance of late-lactation dairy cows fed corn and sugarcane silages.

    PubMed

    Sá Neto, A; Bispo, A W; Junges, D; Bercht, A K; Zopollatto, M; Daniel, J L P; Nussio, L G

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether replacing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) of corn silage with sugarcane silage peNDF would affect performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four late-lactation Holstein cows were assigned to eight 3 × 3 Latin squares with 21-d periods. The dietary treatments were (1) 25% peNDF of corn silage, (2) 25% peNDF of sugarcane silage, and (3) 12.5% peNDF of corn silage + 12.5% peNDF of sugarcane silage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) were assumed to be 1 for corn silage and 1.2 for sugarcane silage, as measured previously by bioassay. Thus, peNDF was calculated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) × pef. The concentrate ingredients were finely ground corn, soybean meal, pelleted citrus pulp, and mineral-vitamin premix. Dry matter intake (22.5 ± 0.63 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (28.8 ± 1.13 kg/d), milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, urea, casein, free fatty acids, and somatic cell count), and blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids) were unaffected by the treatments. The time spent eating, ruminating, or chewing was also similar among the diets, as was particle-sorting behavior. By contrast, chewing per kilogram of forage NDF intake was higher for the sugarcane silage (137 min/kg) than the corn silage diet (116 min/kg), indicating the greater physical effectiveness of sugarcane fiber. Based on chewing behavior (min/d), the estimated pef of sugarcane silage NDF were 1.28 in the corn silage plus sugarcane silage diet and 1.29 in the sugarcane silage diet. Formulating dairy rations of equal peNDF content allows similar performance if corn and sugarcane silages are exchanged. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of Ligustrum lucidum on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; He, W L; Yang, M L; Yan, Y M; Xue, Y H; Zhao, S T

    2017-03-16

    The fruit of Ligustrum lucidum (FLL, Nuzhenzi in Chinese) is an important traditional medicine, and have attracted significant research attention because of their various biological activities. However, there are few research reports available on the use of FLL as a feed additive in livestock nutrition, particularly in layers. This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of the diet of laying hens with FLL on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites. A total of 360 72-week-old hens were allocated to three dietary treatments (eight replications of 15 hens/treatment group) and were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with an inclusion level of 0.25% or 0.50% of FLL powder in the final feed, until 78 weeks of age. Hens were housed in a three-tier cage system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary supplementation with FLL did not affect egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell thickness, albumen height, egg yolk color, eggshell breaking strength or egg shape index. However, FLL supplementation significantly decreased (P<0.001) mortality, cracked-egg rate and blood serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase, and increased (P<0.001) blood serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No differences in serum levels of total protein, albumin, glucose, calcium, aspartate aminotransferase or alkaline phosphatase were observed in hens fed FLL compared with the control group. It can be concluded that FLL, at a supplementation level of 0.25% final feed, can be used as an effective feed additive to improve the performance of laying hens during the late laying period.

  17. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking.

  18. Productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens in the late phase of production as influenced by level and source of calcium in the diet.

    PubMed

    Safaa, H M; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Frikha, M; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Mateos, G G

    2008-10-01

    A total of 1,152 Lohmann Brown laying hens were used to study the influence of level (3.5 and 4.0%) and source (coded FIN, COA, and OYS) of Ca in the diet on productive performance and egg quality from 58 to 73 wk of age. The FIN diet contained all the Ca carbonate as fine limestone (LIM). In the COA and OYS diets, 40% of the fine LIM was substituted with either coarse LIM or oyster shell. Each treatment was replicated 8 times (24 hens). Productive performance and egg quality traits were recorded every 4 wk, and tibia characteristics and shell quality traits were determined at 73 wk of age. An increase in Ca intake from 4.08 to 4.64 g/hen per day improved egg production (71.2 vs. 74.9%; P < 0.001), egg mass (49.0 vs. 51.4 g; P < 0.05), and feed conversion ratio (2.43 vs. 2.30 kg of feed/kg of egg; P < 0.001). In addition, an increase in Ca intake improved shell weight (9.98 vs. 10.20%; P < 0.05), shell thickness (0.342 vs. 0.351 mm; P < 0.01), and shell density (82.0 vs. 83.8 mg/cm2; P < 0.001). Calcium source had no effect on productive performance, tibia characteristics, or egg quality except for shell density, which was greater for hens fed COA than for hens fed FIN, with hens fed OYS being intermediate (81.9 vs. 84.0 vs. 82.7 mg/cm2, respectively; P < 0.05). It was concluded that Brown egg-laying hens in the late phase of production require more than 3.5% Ca in the diet (4.08 g of Ca/hen per day) and that the substitution of 40% of fine LIM with COA or OYS does not affect productive performance and has little impact on shell quality and tibia characteristics.

  19. Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (1988-2003): Gypsy moth defoliation stimulates diatoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Amy E.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Galloway, James N.

    2007-03-01

    Dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams showed a significant bias toward declines (p < 0.0001) over the time period from 1988 to 2003. Streams with the greatest declines were those that had the highest mean dissolved silica concentrations, specific to watersheds underlain by basaltic and granitic bedrock. We examined potential geochemical, hydrological, and biological factors that could account for the observed widespread declines, focusing on six core watersheds where weekly stream chemistry data were available. No relationships were evident between stream water dissolved silica concentrations and pH, a finding supported by the results from a geochemical model applied to the dominant bedrock mineralogy. Along with changes in watershed acidity, changes in precipitation and discharge were also discounted since no significant trends were observed over the study period. Analyses of two longer-term data sets that extend back to 1979 revealed that the initiation of the dissolved silica declines coincided with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered on benthic diatoms, which are found within each of the six core watersheds but in greater abundance in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation led to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced nitrate concentrations in the streams, which could have spurred population growth and silica uptake. The model can explain why the observed declines are primarily driven by decreased concentrations during low-flow conditions. This study illustrates lasting effects of disturbance on watershed biogeochemistry, in this case causing decadal-scale variability in stream water dissolved silica concentrations.

  20. Screening probiotic candidates for a mixture of probiotics to enhance the growth performance, immunity, and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsueh-Li; Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Chiu-Shia; Huang, Shih-Ling; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Six bacteria, including, Lactobacillus casei M15, Lac. plantarum D8, Lac. pentosus BD6, Lac. fermentum LW2, Enterococcus faecium 10-10, and Bacillus subtilis E20, and one yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P13 were selected as probiotics for Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, by tracking the growth performance and disease resistance of fish against Aeromonas hydrophila in the first trial. The probiotic efficiency screening results showed that B. subtilis E20 and Lac. pentosus BD6, and S. cerevisiae P13 and Lac. fermentum LW2 respectively improved either the growth performance or disease resistance. Therefore, these four probiotics were then selected to prepare a probiotics mixture, and this was incorporated in equal proportions into diets for Asian seabass at levels of 0 (control), and 10(6) (MD6), 10(7) (MD7), 10(8) (MD8), and 10(9) (MD9) colony-forming units (cfu) (kg diet)(-1). A synergistic effect of the combined probiotics was investigated in this study, and the probiotics mixture was able to improve both the growth performance and health status of fish. After 56 days of feeding, fish fed the MD9 diet had a higher final weight and percentage of weight gain. In addition, protein contents in the dorsal muscle of fish fed the MD8 and MD9 diets were significantly higher compared to the control. For the pathogen challenge test, fish fed the MD7, MD8, and MD9 diets had significantly lower cumulative mortalities after A. hydrophila infection compared to those of fish fed the control and MD6 diets, which might have been due to increased respiratory bursts, decreased superoxide dismutase activity in leucocytes, and increased phagocytic activity. Therefore, we considered that the probiotics mixture could adequately provide probiotic efficiency for Asian seabass, and the diet containing 10(9) cfu (kg diet)(-1) probiotic mixture is recommended to improve the growth and health status of Asian seabass.

  1. Plot- and landscape-level changes in climate and vegetation following defoliation of exotic saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) from the biocontrol agent Diorhabda carinulata along a stream in the Mojave Desert (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, H.L.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2013-01-01

    The biocontrol agent, northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), has been used to defoliate non-native saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in USA western riparian systems since 2001. Biocontrol has the potential to impact biotic communities and climatic conditions in affected riparian areas. To determine the relationships between biocontrol establishment and effects on vegetation and climate at the plot and landscape scales, we measured temperature, relative humidity, foliage canopy, solar radiation, and used satellite imagery to assess saltcedar defoliation and evapotranspiration (ET) along the Virgin River in the Mojave Desert. Following defoliation solar radiation increased, daily humidity decreased, and maximum daily temperatures tended to increase. MODIS and Landsat satellite imagery showed defoliation was widespread, resulting in reductions in ET and vegetation indices. Because biocontrol beetles are spreading into new saltcedar habitats on arid western rivers, and the eventual equilibrium between beetles and saltcedar is unknown, it is necessary to monitor trends for ecosystem functions and higher trophic-level responses in habitats impacted by biocontrol.

  2. Effect of weaning date (normal vs. late) on performance of young and mature beef cows and their progeny in a fall calving system in the Southern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Hudson, M D; Banta, J P; Buchanan, D S; Lalman, D L

    2010-04-01

    Data from 158 predominantly Angus fall-calving beef cows were used in 4 consecutive years to determine the effects of weaning date and cow age class on cow and calf performance. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial with 2 weaning dates and 2 age classes (young cows or=4 yr). Weaning dates were 1) normal weaning in mid-April at 210 d of age (NW) and 2) late weaning in mid-July at 300 d of age (LW). Mature cows were heavier (P < 0.01) than young cows throughout the trial, although BCS was similar (P >or= 0.10) among cow age classes. Cow BW (P = 0.58) and BCS (P = 0.40) were similar among weaning treatments at NW; however, at the beginning of the calving season, NW cows were heavier (585 vs. 562 kg; P = 0.02) and had greater BCS (6.57 vs. 5.95; P < 0.0001) than LW cows. Postpartum BW and BCS losses were greater (P < 0.0001) for NW cows, resulting in similar BW (P = 0.56) and BCS (P = 0.07) at the beginning of the breeding season and until April. Progeny of NW cows were 2.4 kg heavier (P < 0.01) at birth and grew faster before the April weaning date, resulting in increased BW (8 kg; P < 0.05) at the time of normal weaning. This increase in BW gain may be partially explained by the increased milk production of NW cows (0.59 kg/d as measured in February; P < 0.05). Although NW calves had increased BW in April, LW calves were heavier in July because of increased ADG during the weaning interval (1.13 vs. 0.8 kg; P < 0.0001). A cow age class x weaning date interaction (P = 0.007) was detected for pregnancy rate. Pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.10) for LW-mature cows (96.7%) and NW-young cows (98.4%) than for LW-young cows (89.3%). However, pregnancy rate of NW-mature cows (90.2%) did not differ (P = 0.12) from that of LW-mature or LW-young cows, but was less than that of NW-young cows. These findings indicate that producers may benefit from matching weaning date to cow age class. It appears more advantageous to delay weaning of calves

  3. Effect of chromium supplementation on productive and reproductive performances and some metabolic parameters in late gestation and early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafilzadeh, F; shabankareh, H Karami; Targhibi, M R

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental chromium as chromium-L-methionine (Cr-Met) on productive and reproductive performances and some metabolic parameters in late gestation and early lactation of dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows according to prior lactation, parity, body mass (682±33 kg), and expected calving date were divided equally (30 cows/treatment) and were randomly allocated to one of the two groups. One group received basal diet without Cr (control group) and another group received Cr-Met supplement added at manufacturer's recommended level (8 mg of "Cr"/head per day) from 21 days before expected calving date until 21 days of lactation. Supplemental Cr tended to increase milk yield (P=0.08) while percentage of lactose and lactose yield increased (P<0.01). Chromium supplementation decreased serum nonesterified fatty acids concentration at 7 days prepartum and 21 days postpartum. Serum insulin concentration for cows receiving Cr was higher than the control group (P=0.05). Serum cortisol concentration decreased (P<0.05) in prepartum period in supplemented group. Chromium did not affect concentrations of metabolic parameters at calving. However, serum glucose concentration increased at 21 days postpartum in the supplemented group (P<0.05). Chromium supplementation increased neutrophil and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in prepartum period (P<0.05). Based on serum concentrations of progesterone, days to first ovulation tended (P=0.07) to occur earlier in the supplemented group. Furthermore, days to first service and days to first estrus of the supplemented group occurred earlier than the control group (P<0.05) but days open, services per conception and conception rates at first insemination did not differ between two groups (P>0.05). Percentage of cyclic cows at 36 days postpartum and estrous behavior before AI was higher in the supplemented group.

  4. A maternal high-fat/high-caloric diet delays reflex ontogeny during lactation but enhances locomotor performance during late adolescence in rats.

    PubMed

    Cadena-Burbano, Erika Vanesa; Cavalcanti, Carolina Cadete Lucena; Lago, Amanda Braz; Benjamim, Raquel de Arruda Campos; Oliveira, Thaynan Raquel Dos Prazeres; Silva, Jacqueline Maria; Manhães-De-Castro, Raul; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel

    2017-07-28

    The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of two maternal high-fat diets with different energy densities on the somatic growth, reflex ontogeny, and locomotor activity of offspring. Twenty-nine female Wistar rats (220-250 g) were mated and grouped into three different dietary conditions: control (n = 11, AIN-93G diet, 3.6 kcal/g), high-fat/high-caloric (HH, n = 9, 51% of the calories from fat, 4.62 kcal/g), and high-fat/isocaloric (HI, n = 9, 51% of the calories from fat, 3.64 kcal/g). The fat source was mainly lard. The dietary groups were maintained during gestation and lactation. From postnatal day 1 (PND1) until weaning, the somatic growth, maturation of physical features, and reflex ontogeny of the male pups were evaluated. The locomotor activity was evaluated in an open field at PND8, PND14, PND17, PND21, PND30, PND45, and PND60. HH dams had a lower food intake but no difference in caloric intake or body weight gain. The HH pups had higher body weights, greater tail and body lengths, and an increased axis of the head at weaning. The prediction of ear unfolding, delayed palmar grasp, and cliff avoidance maturation were also observed in the HH offspring. At PND60, the HH pups showed an increased average speed as well as an average potency and kinetic energy in the open field. A high-fat/high-caloric maternal diet increases somatic growth, predicts the maturation of physical features, and delays reflex ontogeny during lactation, and it enhances motor performance during late adolescence. A maternal HI diet does not elicit the same influences on offspring development compared with the HH diet.

  5. Jerusalem artichoke enriched diet on growth performance, immuno-hematological changes and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Syed Raffic Ali, Sajjad; Ambasankar, Kondusamy; Saiyad Musthafa, Mohamed; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2017-09-09

    A 45 days feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) on growth performance, body composition, biochemical, immuno-hematological parameters and disease resistance in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) fingerlings against Aeromonas hydrophila. JA was supplemented at three different levels viz., control 0, 5, 10, and 20 g kg(-1) in the commercial diet (403 g kg(-1)protein and 89 g kg (-1)lipid) in L. calcarifer. The results showed that there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in various growth parameters, while the whole body composition showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between control and treatment groups. Hematological parameters showed that red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), pack cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by dietary supplementation of JA at different concentration. However, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the fish fed with 20 g kg(-1) JA supplemented diet. Biochemical parameters revealed that glucose, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride showed significant (P < 0.05) differences between control and treatments groups. Interestingly, 20 g kg(-1) JA supplemented diet significantly modulates the innate immune response and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila compared with control and other treatment groups. The results of the study revealed that 20 g kg(-1) JA supplementation has a beneficial effect in the biochemical, immunological and disease resistance in L. calcarifer juveniles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. CO2 assimilation of primary and regrowth foliage of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.): response to defoliation.

    PubMed

    Heichel, G H; Turner, N C

    1983-03-01

    The CO2 assimilation of primary foliage of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and of regrowth foliage produced in response to simulated insect defoliation, was measured throughout the season by infrared gas analysis: parallel measurements of leaf conductance were obtained by ventilated diffusion porometry. The rate of net photosynthesis, measured at a quantum flux density of 1,150 μmol m(-2)s(-1), of primary foliage of both species increased from slightly negative values to about 5 μmol m(-2)s(-1) by early June. Thereafter the rate of photosynthesis of maple slowly declined to about 4 μmol m(-2)s(-1) before onset of a senescent decline in early September, while that of oak slowly increased to about 8 μmol m(-2)s(-1) before onset of senescence. Manual defoliation to simulate insect attack in mid-June elicited refoliation proportional to the severity of defoliation in early July. After 100% defoliation, fully expanded regrowth foliage of maple, but not of oak, had a rate of net photosynthesis from mid-July through September that was about 50% higher than in the primary foliage of undefoliated trees. A 30 to 60% enhancement of photosynthesis of residual primary foliage remaining on 50 and 75% defoliated trees during July was also observed. The seasonal patterns of CO2 exchange of primary and regrowth foliage, and the enhancement of CO2 assimilation in residual foliage, was paralleled by similar changes in leaf conductance to water vapour.Carbon budgets of leaf canopies of each species showed that the net assimilation of the leaf canopy of both species ranged from 19 to 67% more than what would have been expected solely from replacement of leaf area. This response was greater in maple than in oak, presumably a reflection of the high rate of CO2 assimilation of regrowth maple foliage compared with that of the undefoliated control in maple.The increased CO2 assimilation of regrowth maple foliage and the increases in CO2 assimilation of

  7. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( < 0.01) for cows offered supplement. No differences ( ≥ 0.11) in milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial

  8. The effects of phytase and root hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera on productive performance and bone mineralisation of laying hens in the late phase of production.

    PubMed

    Tahmasbi, A M; Mirakzehi, M T; Hosseini, S J; Agah, M J; Fard, M Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    1. A 6-week study was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase and hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera root (WS) on productive performance and bone mineralisation of laying hens in the late phase of production. 2. Diets were arranged factorially (3 × 2 × 2) and consisted of a positive control with adequate Ca (4·37%) and nonphytate P (NPP; 0·39%) and a negative control diet with Ca (4·06%) and NPP (0·36 %); three concentrations of Withania somnifera (0, 65 and 130 mg/kg diet); and two concentrations of microbial phytase (0 and 300 U/kg diet). 3. A total of 144 72-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were randomly assigned to the 12 treatment groups. Each treatment was replicated 4 times (4 x 3 hens). Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily, while feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every two weeks. Bone quality traits were evaluated at the end of experiment. 4. Withania somnifera supplementation increased egg production and lowered egg weight only in the second two weeks of the experiment. Addition of phytase significantly depressed specific gravity of the eggs for the entire experiment period. No dietary treatment effects were observed on egg shell thickness and yolk weight. 5. Withania somnifera at 130 mg/kg did not affect feed intake. The hens fed on the positive control diet had higher albumen weight than the negative control diet in the second two-week period. Supplementation of the positive control diet with 65 mg/kg Withania somnifera in the absence of phytase significantly improved shell weight compared with the negative control (5·779 vs. 5·273 g respectively). 6. Supplementing Withania somnifera significantly improved Ca and P retention in tibia bone. In addition, an increase in tibia bone P was observed with phytase supplementation. There were significant interactions between Withania somnifera content and phytase for tibia bone Ca and P. 7. The results of this experiment indicated that dietary

  9. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  10. Sister-chromatid exchanges and cell-cycle delay in Chinese hamster V79 cells treated with 9 organophosphorus compounds (8 pesticides and 1 defoliant).

    PubMed

    Chen, H H; Sirianni, S R; Huang, C C

    1982-03-01

    Significant increase of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in V79 cells treated with 2 organophosphorus pesticides (OPP), fenthion and oxydemeton-methyl, was observed. The other 7 compounds (6 OPP and 1 defoliant) namely, amaze, azinphos-methyl, bolstar, DEF-defoliant, fensulfothion, monitor and nemacur caused no increase of SCE frequencies at the doses tested. All the compounds except fensulfothion and oxydemeton-methyl induced cell-cycle delay in varying degrees. Cell-cycle delay caused by an OPP was found to be dose-dependent. Based on these data as well as others reported, it would appear that OPP which induce no SCE increase and no or slight cell-cycle delay could be considered as good candidates to substitute the pesticides that have been found to be harmful to the environment.

  11. Development of a data management front end for use with a LANDSAT based information system. [assessing gypsy moth defoliation damage in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A user friendly front end was constructed to facilitate access to the LANDSAT mosaic data base supplied by JPL and to process both LANDSAT and ancillary data. Archieval and retrieval techniques were developed to efficiently handle this data base and make it compatible with requirements of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry. Procedures are ready for: (1) forming the forest/nonforest mask in ORSER compressed map format using GSFC-supplied classification procedures; (2) registering data from a new scene (defoliated) to the mask (which may involve mosaicking if the area encompasses two LANDSAT scenes; (3) producing a masked new data set using the MASK program; (4) analyzing this data set to produce a map showing degrees of defoliation, output on the Versatec plotter; and (5) producing color composite maps by a diazo-type process.

  12. Effects of cows grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue in late gestation on cow performance, reproduction, and progeny growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shoup, L M; Miller, L M; Srinivasan, M; Ireland, F A; Shike, D W

    2016-12-01

    Very little is known regarding the effects of cow exposure to toxic ergot alkaloids in late gestation and the subsequent, long-term effects on progeny. Therefore, the objectives were to determine the effects of grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue () or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue during late gestation on cow BW, BCS, hair coat score (HCS), respiration rates, milk production, and reproduction and on growth performance and carcass characteristics of progeny. Eighty gestating, Angus × Simmental cows (age = 6.68 ± 0.32 yr; 588 ± 16 kg initial BW; initial BCS = 5.66 ± 0.28) were stratified by initial BW and allocated into 8 pasture groups (10 cows/group) with 4 groups per treatment. Each group was allotted to 1 of 2 grazing treatments: toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue ('Kentucky-31'; E+) or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue ('Jesup MaxQ'; NOV). Cows were placed on grazing treatments at 110 ± 6 d prepartum (May 28, 2014) and remained on treatment until the end of the calving period (October 8, 2014; 23 ± 6 d postpartum). Cow BW and BCS did not diverge ( ≥ 0.15) at any time point among grazing treatments. However, cows grazing E+ had increased ( < 0.05) respiration rates and HCS and reduced ( < 0.05) prolactin concentration compared with cows grazing NOV. Calf birth BW, Julian calving date, milk production, AI conception rate, and overall pregnancy rate did not differ ( ≥ 0.23) by grazing treatment. In a subsequent grazing period of the progeny, dam grazing treatment did not affect ( ≥ 0.14) respiration rates, HCS, or prolactin concentration of the progeny when all progeny grazed E+ pastures. However, progeny born to dams grazing NOV tended ( > 0.06 to ≤0.10) to have increased BW at 70 ± 6 d of age, 205 d (adjusted weaning BW), and throughout the postweaning calf grazing period. Despite a tendency for BW to differ throughout the postweaning calf grazing period, finishing phase performance and carcass characteristics of progeny did

  13. Development of defoliating insects and their preferences for host plants under varying temperatures in a subtropical evergreen forest in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Jun; Xia, Lingdan; Li, Kai

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to understand the development of defoliating insects and their preferences for host plants under varying temperatures in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China. We measured the main developmental parameters of three typical defoliating insects (i.e., Ourapteryx ebuleata szechuana, Biston marginata, and Euproctis angulata) and their preferences for five host plants at temperatures from 16°C to 31°C at 3°C intervals in the Tiantong National Forest Research station in eastern China. The results showed the following. 1) An appropriate rise in temperature increases the survival rate with an increase in the number of offspring. The developmental durations for these three insects were shortened, and pupal weight increased with an increase in temperature. 2) A shift in the preference for host plants for these three insects was observedat elevated temperatures. They all preferred to feed on Schima superba and Castanopsis sclerophylla at elevated temperatures, showing an opposite response to the other three plants. The daily leaf consumption of the three insects was positively correlated with their feeding preference, with more leaves being consumed from the plants they preferred. 3) For O. ebuleata szechuana larvae, daily leaf consumption initially increased and then decreased with increasing temperatures. In contrast, Biston marginata and Euproctis angulata larvae consumed more leaves at elevated temperatures. The feeding preferences of O. ebuleata szechuana and Biston marginata were more sensitive to changing temperatures than that of Euproctis angulata laevae. We concluded that increased numbers of offspring and generations, pupal weights, and a shift in preference to two plants for these three defoliating insects might lead to severe damage to these two plants which would enhance the fragmentation and decrease the stability of the forest communities under changing temperatures. Meanwhile, the variations in the responses of

  14. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Chris S.; Parsons, Anthony J.; Xue, Hong; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilized from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilization of reserve carbohydrates requires a substantial change in the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that gibberellins (GA) are at the core of the processes regulating the expression of these genes. Thus, we examined the transcript profiles of genes involved in carbohydrate and GA metabolic pathways across a time course regrowth experiment. Our results show that following defoliation, the immediate reduction of carbohydrate concentrations in growing tissues is associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate mobilizing invertases, and was also associated with a strong decrease in the expression of fructan synthesizing fructosyltransferase genes. We also show that the decrease in fructan levels is preceded by increased expression of the GA activating gene GA3-oxidase and decreased expression of the GA inactivating gene GA2-oxidase in sheaths. GA3-oxidase expression was negatively, while GA2-oxidase positively linked to sucrose concentrations. This study provides indicative evidence that gibberellins might play a role in L. perenne regrowth following defoliation and we hypothesize that there is a link between gibberellin regulation and sugar metabolism in L. perenne. PMID:26579182

  15. Recurrence patterns and factors associated with regular, irregular, and late return to service of female pigs and their lifetime performance on southern European farms.

    PubMed

    Tani, S; Piñeiro, C; Koketsu, Y

    2016-05-01

    A return-to-service occurrence increases nonproductive days of female pigs and decreases herd productivity. The objectives of the present study were 1) to characterize 3 return types based on reservice intervals in female pigs on southern European farms, 2) to determine return risks and recurrence patterns for these types of returns, and 3) to assess lifetime performance of females with the 3 types of returns. We analyzed 653,528 service records and lifetime records of 114,906 females on 125 farms between 2008 and 2013. Reservice intervals were categorized into 3 groups: regular returns (RR: 18 to 24 d), irregular returns (IR: 25 to 38 d), and late returns (LR: 39 d or later). Multilevel generalized linear models were applied to the data. There were 64,385 reservice records (9.9%), with mean risks of RR, IR, and LR per service (±SEM) of 3.6% ± 0.06%, 2.5% ± 0.05%, and 3.0% ± 0.06%, respectively. Of the 43,931 first-returned females, 32.7% had a second return in the same or later parity. Also, 18.8%, 10.2%, and 11.6% of females that had RR, IR, and LR first returns, respectively, had a second return of the same return type. Summer servicing was associated with greater RR, IR, and LR risks in gilts. Also, increased gilt age at first mating was associated with RR ( = 0.03) and LR risk ( < 0.01) but not with IR risk ( = 0.53). For sows, factors associated with greater RR, IR, or LR risks were summer servicing, lower parity, farrowing more stillborn piglets, and having a weaning-to-first-mating interval of 7 d or more ( < 0.01). In lifetime, 33.5% of serviced females had 1 or more returns. These returned females had 41.5 more lifetime nonproductive days than nonreturn females but also 1.9 more lifetime pigs born alive ( < 0.01). We recommend that producers closely monitor females in high-risk groups to reduce their return-to-service intervals.

  16. Effects of interval-feeding whole sunflower seeds during mid to late gestation on performance of beef cows and their progeny.

    PubMed

    Banta, J P; Lalman, D L; Owens, F N; Krehbiel, C R; Wettemann, R P

    2006-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of interval feeding of whole sunflower seeds on the performance of beef cows and their progeny. During mid to late gestation, 144 multiparous, spring-calving beef cows (588 kg of initial BW; 5.6 initial BCS; 4 to 13 yr old) were individually fed 1 of 3 supplements 4 d/wk for a 76-d period. Supplements (DM basis) included: 1) 0.68 kg of soybean meal/feeding (NCON); 2) 3.01 kg of a soybean hull-based supplement/feeding (PCON); and 3) 1.66 kg of whole sunflower seeds high in linoleic acid/feeding (WSUN). Supplements were formulated to provide similar amounts of CP and ruminally degraded intake protein; PCON and WSUN were also formulated to be isocaloric. During the supplementation period, cows had free-choice access to bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and tall-grass prairie hay. By the end of the 76-d supplementation period, cows fed PCON (P < 0.01) and NCON (P < 0.01) had gained more BW than cows fed WSUN (33, 23, and 10 kg, respectively). However, from the end of this supplementation period to the beginning of the breeding season 84 d later, cows supplemented with PCON had lost more (P < 0.01) BW than cows supplemented with WSUN (-123 kg vs. -111 kg). Cow BW change through weaning (-50 kg, P = 0.43) and final cow BW (536 kg, P = 0.70) at weaning were not different among supplement groups. Furthermore, cow BCS was similar among supplement treatment groups at the end of the supplementation period (5.3, P = 0.09), at the beginning of the breeding season (4.8, P = 0.38), and at weaning (4.7, P = 0.08). No difference among treatments was detected for calf birth weight (36 kg, P = 0.42), calf weaning weight (235 kg, P = 0.67), percentage of cows exhibiting luteal activity at the beginning of the breeding season (57%, P = 0.29), or pregnancy rate (88%, P = 0.44). However, first service conception rate was greater (P = 0.01) for cows fed PCON (79%) and tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for cows fed WSUN (74%) than for cows

  17. The Influence of Apical and Basal Defoliation on the Canopy Structure and Biochemical Composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz Grapes and Wine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Wu, Xiwen; Needs, Sonja; Liu, Di; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Defoliation is a commonly used viticultural technique to balance the ratio between grapevine vegetation and fruit. Defoliation is conducted around the fruit zone to reduce the leaf photosynthetic area, and to increase sunlight exposure of grape bunches. Apical leaf removal is not commonly practiced, and therefore its influence on canopy structure and resultant wine aroma is not well-studied. This study quantified the influences of apical and basal defoliation on canopy structure parameters using canopy cover photography and computer vision algorithms. The influence of canopy structure changes on the chemical compositions of grapes and wines was investigated over two vintages (2010–2011 and 2015–2016) in Yarra Valley, Australia. The Shiraz grapevines were subjected to five different treatments: no leaf removal (Ctrl); basal (TB) and apical (TD) leaf removal at veraison and intermediate ripeness, respectively. Basal leaf removal significantly reduced the leaf area index and foliage cover and increased canopy porosity, while apical leaf removal had limited influences on canopy parameters. However, the latter tended to result in lower alcohol level in the finished wine. Statistically significant increases in pH and decreases in TA was observed in shaded grapes, while no significant changes in the color profile and volatile compounds of the resultant wine were found. These results suggest that apical leaf removal is an effective method to reduce wine alcohol concentration with minimal influences on wine composition. PMID:28736728

  18. Defoliation effects on enzyme activities of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus granulatus in a Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) stand in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Ken; Ishkhanova, Galina; Henson, Joan

    2008-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) basidiomycete fungi are obligate mutualists of pines and hardwoods that receive fixed C from the host tree. Though they often share most recent common ancestors with wood-rotting fungi, it is unclear to what extent EM fungi retain the ability to express enzymes that break down woody substrates. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the dominant EM fungus in a pure pine system retains the ability to produce enzymes that break down woody substrates in a natural setting, and that this ability is inducible by reduction of host photosynthetic potential via partial defoliation. To achieve this, pines in replicate blocks were defoliated 50% by needle removal, and enzyme activities were measured in individual EM root tips that had been treated with antibiotics to prevent possible bacterial activity. Results indicate that the dominant EM fungal species (Suillus granulatus) expressed all enzymes tested (endocellulase D: -glucosidase, laccase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, phosphatase and protease), and that activities of these enzymes increased significantly (P < 0.001) in response to defoliation. Thus, this EM fungus (one of the more specialized mutualists of pine) has the potential to play a significant role in C, N and P cycling in this forested ecosystem. Therefore, many above-ground factors that reduce photosynthetic potential or divert fixed C from roots may have wide-reaching ecosystem effects.

  19. Identification of a new sucrose transporter in rye-grass (LpSUT2): effect of defoliation and putative fructose sensing.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Alexandre; Meuriot, Frédéric; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Lemoine, Rémi; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    Rye-grass fast regrowth after defoliation results from an efficient mobilization of C reserves which are transported as sucrose towards regrowing leaves, and which can be supported by one or several sucrose transporters (SUTs) like LpSUT1. Therefore, our objectives were to isolate, identify, characterize and immunolocalize such sucrose transporters. A protein (LpSUT2) showing a twelve spanning trans-membrane domain, extended N terminal and internal cytoplasmic loop, and kinetic properties consistent with well-known sucrose transporters, was isolated and successfully characterized. Along with LpSUT1, it was mainly localized in mesophyll cells of leaf sheaths and elongating leaf bases. These transporters were also found in parenchyma bundle sheath (PBS) cells but they were not detected in the sieve element/companion cell complex of the phloem. Unlike LpSUT1 transcript levels which increased as a response to defoliation in source and sink tissues, LpSUT2 transcript levels were unaffected by defoliation and weakly expressed. Interestingly, sucrose transport by LpSUT2 was inhibited by fructose. LpSUT1 and LpSUT2 appeared to have different functions. LpSUT1 is proposed to play a key role in C storage and mobilization by allowing sucrose transport between PBS and mesophyll cells, depending on the plant C status. LpSUT2 could be involved in sucrose/fructose sensing at sub-cellular level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  1. Cottonwood Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larval Performance on Eight Populus Clones

    Treesearch

    David R. Coyle; Joel D. McMillin; Richard B. Hall; Elwood R. Hart

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: The cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., is the most serious defoliator of young plantation-grown Populus in the eastern United States, yet there is a paucity of data on larval feeding performance across Populus clones used in tree breeding. Field experiments were conducted in 1998 and 1999...

  2. The state of microbial complexes in soils of forest ecosystems after fires and defoliation of stands by gypsy moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Baranchikov, Yu. N.; Ivanova, G. A.

    2009-03-01

    The state of microbial cenoses in the soils of forest ecosystems damaged by fires of different strengths and gypsy moth outbreaks (Central Siberia) was assessed by the intensity of the basal respiration, the content of carbon of the microbial biomass, and the microbial metabolic quotient. The degree of the disturbance of the microbial cenoses in the soils under pine forests after fires was higher than that in the soils under the forests defoliated by gypsy moths. The greatest changes of the microbial complexes were recorded after the fires of high and medium intensity. In the litters, the content of the microbial biomass, the intensity of basal respiration, and the microbial metabolic quotient value were restored on the fifth year after the fires, whereas in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer, these parameters still differed from those in the control variant, especially after the highly intense fires. After the weak fires, the ecophysiological state of the microbial complexes was restored within two-three years.

  3. Enzymatic response of the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to a bis-benzamidine proteinase Inhibitor. i.

    PubMed

    Marinho-Prado, Jeanne Scardini; Lourenção, A L; Guedes, R N C; Pallini, A; Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A

    2012-10-01

    Ingestion of proteinase inhibitors leads to hyperproduction of digestive proteinases, limiting the bioavailability of essential amino acids for protein synthesis, which affects insect growth and development. However, the effects of proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzymes can lead to an adaptive response by the insect. In here, we assessed the biochemical response of midgut proteinases from the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) to different concentrations of berenil, a bis-benzamidine proteinase inhibitor, on eucalyptus. Eucalyptus leaves were immersed in berenil solutions at different concentrations and fed to larvae of T. arnobia. Mortality was assessed daily. The proteolytic activity in the midgut of T. arnobia was assessed after feeding on plants sprayed with aqueous solutions of berenil, fed to fifth instars of T. arnobia for 48 h before midgut removal for enzymatic assays. Larvae of T. arnobia were able to overcome the effects of the lowest berenil concentrations by increasing their trypsin-like activity, but not as berenil concentration increased, despite the fact that the highest berenil concentration resulted in overproduction of trypsin-like proteinases. Berenil also prevented the increase of the cysteine proteinases activity in response to trypsin inhibition.

  4. Late prematurity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Machado Júnior, Luís Carlos; Passini Júnior, Renato; Rodrigues Machado Rosa, Izilda

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation) in its several aspects. the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Low temperature and defoliation affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes in different regions of the rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea.

    PubMed

    Portes, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; de Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2008-10-09

    In addition to the storage function, fructans in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth have been associated with drought and freezing tolerance. Vernonia herbacea, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, bears underground reserve organs, rhizophores, accumulating inulin-type fructans. The rhizophore is a cauline branched system with positive geotropic growth, with the apex (distal region) presenting younger tissues; sprouting of new shoots occurs by development of buds located on the opposite end (proximal region). Plants induced to sprouting by excision of the aerial organs present increased 1-fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity in the proximal region, while plants at the vegetative stage present high 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in the distal region. The aim of the present study was to analyze how low temperature (5 degrees C) could affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes and fructan composition in the different regions of the rhizophores of intact and excised plants. 1-SST and 1-fructan:fructan fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) were higher in the distal region decreasing towards the proximal region in intact plants at the vegetative phase, and were drastically diminished when cold and/or excision were imposed. In contrast, 1-FEH increased in the proximal region of treated plants, mainly in excised plants subjected to cold. The ratio fructo-oligo to fructo-polysaccharides was significantly higher in plants exposed to low temperature (1.17 in intact plants and 1.64 in excised plants) than in plants exposed to natural temperature conditions (0.84 in intact vegetative plants and 0.58 in excised plants), suggesting that oligosaccharides are involved in the tolerance of plants to low temperature via 1-FEH, in addition to 1-FFT. Principal component analysis indicated different response mechanisms in fructan metabolism under defoliation and low temperature, which could be interpreted as part of the strategies to undergo unfavorable environmental conditions

  6. Effect of Medicinal Plant By-products Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Efficacy in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Guan, Le Luo; Ahn, S. K.; Cho, K. W.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant by-products (MPB) supplementation to a total mixed ration (TMR) on growth, carcass characteristics and economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. Twenty seven steers (body weight [BW], 573±57 kg) were assigned to 3 treatment groups so that each treatment based on BW contained 9 animals. All groups received ad libitum TMR throughout the feeding trial until slaughter (from 24 to 30 months of age) and treatments were as follows: control, 1,000 g/kg TMR; treatment 1 (T1), 970 g/kg TMR and 30 g/kg MPB; treatment 2 (T2), 950 g/kg TMR and 50 g/kg MPB. Initial and final BW were not different among treatments. Resultant data were analyzed using general linear models of SAS. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05) for T1 than control, but there was no difference between control and T2. Plasma albumin showed low-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, whereas non-esterified fatty acid was high-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, respectively. Carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and rib eye muscle area were not affected by MPB supplementation, whereas quality and yield grades were highest (p<0.05) for T1 and T2, respectively. Daily feed costs were decreased by 0.5% and 0.8% and carcass prices were increased by 18.1% and 7.6% for T1 and T2 compared to control, resulting from substituting TMR with 30 and 50 g/kg MPB, respectively. In conclusion, the substituting TMR by 30 g/kg MPB may be a potential feed supplement approach to improve economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. PMID:26580440

  7. Role of the cardio-pulmonary exercise test and six-minute walking test in the evaluation of exercise performance in patients with late-onset Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Crescimanno, G; Modica, R; Lo Mauro, R; Musumeci, O; Toscano, A; Marrone, O

    2015-07-01

    In patients with late-onset Pompe disease, we explored the role of the Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) and the Six-Minute Walking Test (6MWT) in the assessment of exercise capacity and in the evaluation of the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Eight patients affected by late-onset Pompe disease, followed up at the Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases and treated with ERT, underwent a baseline evaluation with a spirometry, a CPET and a 6MWT. Four of them were restudied after 36 months of treatment. Three patients showed a reduction in exercise capacity as evaluated by peak oxygen uptake (VO2) measured at the CPET and Distance Walked (DW) measured at the 6MWT (median % predicted: 67.1 [range 54.3-99.6] and 67.3 [56.6-82.6], respectively). Cardiac and respiratory limitations revealed by the CPET were correlated to peak VO2, but not to the DW. Nevertheless, percent of predicted values of peak VO2 and DW were strongly correlated (rho = 0.85, p = 0.006), and close to identity. In the longitudinal evaluation forced vital capacity decreased, while peak VO2 and DW showed a trend to a parallel improvement. We concluded that although only the CPET revealed causes of exercise limitation, which partially differed among patients, CPET and 6MWT showed a similar overall degree of exercise impairment. That held true in the longitudinal assessment during ERT, where both tests demonstrated similar small improvements, occurring despite deterioration in forced vital capacity.

  8. Effects of artificial defoliation of pines on the structure and physiology of the soil fungal community of a mixed pine-spruce forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, Ken; Raleigh, Christopher; New, Michael H.; Henson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Loss of photosynthetic area can affect soil microbial communities by altering the availability of fixed carbon. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog filamentous-fungus plates to determine the effects of artificial defoliation of pines in a mixed pine-spruce forest on the composition of the fungal community in a forest soil. As measured by DGGE, two fungal species were affected significantly by the defoliation of pines (P < 0.001); the frequency of members of the ectomycorrhizal fungus genus Cenococcum decreased significantly, while the frequency of organisms of an unidentified soil fungus increased. The decrease in the amount of Cenococcum organisms may have occurred because of the formation of extensive hyphal networks by species of this genus, which require more of the carbon fixed by their host, or because this fungus is dependent upon quantitative differences in spruce root exudates. The defoliation of pines did not affect the overall composition of the soil fungal community or fungal-species richness (number of species per core). Biolog filamentous-fungus plate assays indicated a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the number of carbon substrates utilized by the soil fungi and the rate at which these substrates were used, which could indicate an increase in fungal-species richness. Thus, either small changes in the soil fungal community give rise to significant increases in physiological capabilities or PCR bias limits the reliability of the DGGE results. These data indicate that combined genetic and physiological assessments of the soil fungal community are needed to accurately assess the effect of disturbance on indigenous microbial systems.

  9. The importance of wood nutrient storage in tropical forest nitrogen and phosphorus cycles: Insights from a sapling defoliation experiment in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heineman, K.; Dalling, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of soil nutrients limits productivity and influences tree species distribution in tropical forests. Given the scarcity of soil resources, trees in tropical forests should be under selection to store nutrients for periods when nutrient demand exceeds supply. However, little is known about the capacity of trees to remobilize nutrients from long-lived woody biomass in tropical forests, despite wood sequestering a large proportion of bioavailable nutrients in tropical ecosystems. We evaluated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) remobilization from woody biomass via experimental defoliation of saplings from four widely distributed genera of tropical trees in Panama. Focal saplings were sampled in high and low fertility habitats in both montane and lowland forests to maximize contrast in the availability and identity of limiting nutrients. N and P concentrations of stem wood were measured before defoliation and after subsequent re-foliation response to calculate wood remobilization efficiency. Initial wood P concentrations differed significantly within taxa between low and high fertility habitats, whereas initial wood N differed significantly within taxa between lowland and montane forests, but not among soil fertility habitats. In three of four genera studied, wood P concentrations declined after refoliation at both elevations, and the proportion of wood P remobilized was greater on low fertility compared to high fertility sites. In contrast, significant N remobilization was restricted to the low fertility montane site, where nitrogen is most likely to limit plant growth. These findings provide evidence that a significant fraction of N and P in woody biomass is can be remobilized in response to asymmetry in nutrient supply and demand, as opposed consisting primarily of recalcitrant structural material. Furthermore, variation in remobilization responses of species to defoliation provides additional evidence that multiple nutrient-limitation in tropical

  10. Effects of artificial defoliation of pines on the structure and physiology of the soil fungal community of a mixed pine-spruce forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, Ken; Raleigh, Christopher; New, Michael H.; Henson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Loss of photosynthetic area can affect soil microbial communities by altering the availability of fixed carbon. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog filamentous-fungus plates to determine the effects of artificial defoliation of pines in a mixed pine-spruce forest on the composition of the fungal community in a forest soil. As measured by DGGE, two fungal species were affected significantly by the defoliation of pines (P < 0.001); the frequency of members of the ectomycorrhizal fungus genus Cenococcum decreased significantly, while the frequency of organisms of an unidentified soil fungus increased. The decrease in the amount of Cenococcum organisms may have occurred because of the formation of extensive hyphal networks by species of this genus, which require more of the carbon fixed by their host, or because this fungus is dependent upon quantitative differences in spruce root exudates. The defoliation of pines did not affect the overall composition of the soil fungal community or fungal-species richness (number of species per core). Biolog filamentous-fungus plate assays indicated a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the number of carbon substrates utilized by the soil fungi and the rate at which these substrates were used, which could indicate an increase in fungal-species richness. Thus, either small changes in the soil fungal community give rise to significant increases in physiological capabilities or PCR bias limits the reliability of the DGGE results. These data indicate that combined genetic and physiological assessments of the soil fungal community are needed to accurately assess the effect of disturbance on indigenous microbial systems.

  11. Effects of Artificial Defoliation of Pines on the Structure and Physiology of the Soil Fungal Community of a Mixed Pine-Spruce Forest

    PubMed Central

    Cullings, Ken; Raleigh, Christopher; New, Michael H.; Henson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Loss of photosynthetic area can affect soil microbial communities by altering the availability of fixed carbon. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog filamentous-fungus plates to determine the effects of artificial defoliation of pines in a mixed pine-spruce forest on the composition of the fungal community in a forest soil. As measured by DGGE, two fungal species were affected significantly by the defoliation of pines (P < 0.001); the frequency of members of the ectomycorrhizal fungus genus Cenococcum decreased significantly, while the frequency of organisms of an unidentified soil fungus increased. The decrease in the amount of Cenococcum organisms may have occurred because of the formation of extensive hyphal networks by species of this genus, which require more of the carbon fixed by their host, or because this fungus is dependent upon quantitative differences in spruce root exudates. The defoliation of pines did not affect the overall composition of the soil fungal community or fungal-species richness (number of species per core). Biolog filamentous-fungus plate assays indicated a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the number of carbon substrates utilized by the soil fungi and the rate at which these substrates were used, which could indicate an increase in fungal-species richness. Thus, either small changes in the soil fungal community give rise to significant increases in physiological capabilities or PCR bias limits the reliability of the DGGE results. These data indicate that combined genetic and physiological assessments of the soil fungal community are needed to accurately assess the effect of disturbance on indigenous microbial systems. PMID:15812031

  12. Effects of artificial defoliation of pines on the structure and physiology of the soil fungal community of a mixed pine-spruce forest.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Ken; Raleigh, Christopher; New, Michael H; Henson, Joan

    2005-04-01

    Loss of photosynthetic area can affect soil microbial communities by altering the availability of fixed carbon. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog filamentous-fungus plates to determine the effects of artificial defoliation of pines in a mixed pine-spruce forest on the composition of the fungal community in a forest soil. As measured by DGGE, two fungal species were affected significantly by the defoliation of pines (P < 0.001); the frequency of members of the ectomycorrhizal fungus genus Cenococcum decreased significantly, while the frequency of organisms of an unidentified soil fungus increased. The decrease in the amount of Cenococcum organisms may have occurred because of the formation of extensive hyphal networks by species of this genus, which require more of the carbon fixed by their host, or because this fungus is dependent upon quantitative differences in spruce root exudates. The defoliation of pines did not affect the overall composition of the soil fungal community or fungal-species richness (number of species per core). Biolog filamentous-fungus plate assays indicated a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the number of carbon substrates utilized by the soil fungi and the rate at which these substrates were used, which could indicate an increase in fungal-species richness. Thus, either small changes in the soil fungal community give rise to significant increases in physiological capabilities or PCR bias limits the reliability of the DGGE results. These data indicate that combined genetic and physiological assessments of the soil fungal community are needed to accurately assess the effect of disturbance on indigenous microbial systems.

  13. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, José C; Torres, Jorge B; Sediyama, Camilla A Z; Pereira, Fabricio F; Pastori, Patrik L; Wermelinger, Eduardo D; Ramalho, Francisco S

    2009-03-01

    Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) during egg stage (48.9%), a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae) during larval stages (10%) and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) during pupal stage (52.2%). The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%).

  14. Late-Notice HIE Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Provide a response to MOWG action item 1410-01: Analyze close approaches which have required mission team action on short notice. Determine why the approaches were identified later in the process than most other events. Method: Performed an analysis to determine whether there is any correlation between late notice event identification and space weather, sparse tracking, or high drag objects, which would allow preventive action to be taken Examined specific late notice events identified by missions as problematic to try to identify root cause and attempt to relate them to the correlation analysis.

  15. Impact of an Invasive Insect and Plant Defense on a Native Forest Defoliator

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Claire M.; Vendettuoli, Justin F.; Orwig, David A.; Preisser, Evan L.

    2016-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carriére) in the United States is threatened by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). The native hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria Guenée) also appears to have played a role in previous population declines of this conifer. Although these two insects co-occur in much of the adelgid’s invaded range, their interactions remain unstudied. We assessed looper performance and preference on both uninfested and adelgid-infested foliage from adelgid-susceptible hemlocks, as well as on uninfested foliage from an eastern hemlock that is naturally adelgid-resistant. Larvae reared on uninfested foliage from adelgid-susceptible hemlocks experienced 60% mortality within the first two weeks of the experiment, and pupated at a lower weight than larvae fed adelgid-infested foliage. Despite differences in foliage source, this first look and strong pattern suggests that the hemlock looper performs better (pupates earlier, weighs more) on adelgid-infested foliage. In addition, trends suggested that larvae reared on foliage from the adelgid-resistant tree survived better, pupated earlier, and weighed more than in the other treatments. Larvae preferred adelgid-resistant over adelgid-susceptible foliage. Our results suggest that looper perform slightly better on adelgid-infested foliage and that plant resistance to xylem-feeding adelgid may increase susceptibility to foliar-feeding looper larvae. PMID:27649247

  16. Expression of CsSEF1 gene encoding putative CCCH zinc finger protein is induced by defoliation and prolonged darkness in cucumber fruit.

    PubMed

    Tazuke, Akio; Asayama, Munehiko

    2013-03-01

    To find a marker gene for photoassimilate limitation in cucumber fruit, genes induced in young fruit by total defoliation were cloned using the subtraction method. Almost every clone matched perfectly to a member of cucumber unigene ver. 3 of the Cucurbit Genomics Database. From the clones obtained, six genes were selected and the effect of defoliation on their expression was analyzed. In particular, expression of a gene that is highly homologous to the cucumber gene CsSEF1 (CAI30889) encoding putative CCCH zinc finger protein, which is reported to be induced at somatic embryogenesis in suspension culture, was enhanced by the treatment by about 50 times. The sequencing of the full-length cDNA and BLAST search in the Cucurbit Genomics Database indicated that our cloned gene is identical to CsSEF1. In control fruit, the expression of CsSEF1 did not change markedly in terms of development. By contrast, the expression of CsSEF1 was enhanced by prolonged darkness at the transcript level. This increase in the expression of CsSEF1 was temporally correlated with the decline in the fruit respiration rate. In mature leaves under prolonged darkness, enhanced expression was observed in the asparagine synthetase gene, but not in CsSEF1. These results suggest that the asparagine synthetase gene can be a good marker for sugar starvation and that CsSEF1 might be involved in the signal transduction pathway from photoassimilate limitation to growth cessation in cucumber fruit.

  17. Effects of reducing dietary protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 during the late stages of the egg production cycle on performance and eggshell quality.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, K

    2003-09-01

    A series of four experiments was conducted to determine whether-shell quality during the late stages of egg production can be improved by using diets that are effective in reducing egg size. The experiments involved dietary manipulation of protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12. In experiment 1, reducing dietary protein in combination of reducing the dietary methionine and choline or this diet without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 resulted in reduced egg weight and improved shell quality. However, egg production also was drastically reduced. In experiment 2, reducing the dietary level of methionine, without adding supplemental choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality, but egg production was reduced as well. In this experiment reducing the dietary methionine without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. In experiment 3, reducing the dietary level of methionine and choline or reducing the dietary level of choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality without adverse effects on egg production. On the other hand, reducing dietary methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and supplemental choline reduced egg weight and improved shell quality but lowered egg production. In experiment 4, reducing dietary methionine together with reducing choline and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. The results of this series of experiments generally indicate that certain manipulations of the combination of methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 have the potential to reduce egg weight and improve shell quality without affecting egg production during the latter stages of the egg production cycle.

  18. Helpers at the nest improve late-life offspring performance: evidence from a long-term study and a cross-foster experiment.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Lyanne; Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Conditions during an individual's rearing period can have far reaching consequences for its survival and reproduction later in life. Conditions typically vary due to variation in parental quality and/or the environment, but in cooperative breeders the presence of helpers adds an important component to this. Determining the causal effect of helpers on offspring fitness is difficult, since high-quality breeders or territories are likely to produce high-quality offspring, but are also more likely to have helpers because of past reproductive success. This problem is best resolved by comparing the effect of both helping and non-helping subordinates on offspring fitness, however species in which both type of subordinates commonly occur are rare. We used multi-state capture-recapture models on 20 years of data to investigate the effect of rearing conditions on survival and recruitment in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), with both helping and non-helping subordinates. The number of helpers in the rearing territory, but not territory quality, group- or brood size, was positively associated with survival of offspring in their first year, and later in life. This was not a result of group size itself since the number of non-helpers was not associated with offspring survival. Furthermore, a nestling cross-foster experiment showed that the number of helpers on the pre-foster territory was not associated with offspring survival, indicating that offspring from territories with helpers do not differ in (genetic) quality. Our results suggest that the presence of helpers not only increase survival of offspring in their first year of life, but also subsequent adult survival, and therefore have important fitness consequences later in life. This means that when calculating the fitness benefits of helping not only short-term but also the late-life benefits have to be taken into account to fully understand the evolution of cooperative breeding.

  19. Late recurrence of medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Brittney; Razzaqi, Faisal; Yu, Lolie; Craver, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We present a child with a cerebellar medulloblastoma, diagnosed at age three, treated with near total surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, that recurred 13 years after the initial diagnosis. This late recurrence exceeds the typical 10-year survival statistics that are in common use, and exceeds the Collins rule. Continued follow-up of these children is justified to increase the likelihood of detecting these late recurrences early and to learn more about these late recurrences.

  20. Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

  1. Proceedings, forest defoliator--host interactions: A comparison between gypsy moth and spruce budworms; 1983 April 5-7; New Haven, CT: Summary of Life History and Hosts of the Spruce Budworms

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Talerico; Michael Montgomery

    1983-01-01

    The Canada/U.S. Spruce Budworms Program in cooperation with the Center for Biological Control of Northeastern Forest Insects and Diseases of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station co-sponsored this Forest Defoliator-Host Interaction Workshop.This invitational workshop was limited to investigators of the spruce bud worms and gypsy moth in the Forest Service,...

  2. Late preterm: obstetric management.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Alessandra; Antonelli, Antonello; Deiana, Sara; Rocca, Alessio; Atzei, Alessandra; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2010-10-01

    Late preterm is the recommended definition for infants born at 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks' gestation after the onset of the mother's last menstrual period. Late-preterm infants are known to have greater mortality and morbidity when compared with term infants during the neonatal period. Obstetric management plays a substantial role in influencing neonatal outcomes. We conducted a retrospective study on late-preterm births based on data collected by regional certificates of birth attendance, comparing overall data with those relative to our Department, the aim of our study was to evaluate if obstetric management, related to different delivery settings, could influence the prevalence and the method of delivery in late preterm gestational age. Preterm births represent about 10% of 25,011 births in Sardinia, and 72.6% of them are late preterm. Elective cesarean section results significantly higher in late preterm than in term deliveries. In our Department, both late-preterm delivery rate and elective cesarean sections rate were lower if compared with country region data. Obstetric management strategies play an important role in delaying deliveries and reducing late-preterm birth rates.

  3. Relationship between the degree of insulin resistance during late gestation and postpartum performance in dairy cows and factors that affect growth and metabolic status of their calves

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, Chiho; MUNAKATA, Megumi; SHIMIZU, Takashi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; KIDA, Katsuya; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of insulin resistance (IR) during the close-up dry period on the metabolic status and performance of dairy cows as well as to determine the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic status of their calves. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was conducted by administering 0.05 IU/kg BW of insulin to 34 multiparous Holstein cows at 3 weeks prepartum. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after insulin injection, and cows were divided into two groups based on the time required for glucose to reach the minimum levels [non-IR (NIR), 45 min (n=28); and IR, 60 min (n=6)]. Blood or milk sampling and body condition score (BCS) estimation were performed twice weekly during the experimental period. Blood samples from calves were collected immediately after birth. Cows with IR showed lower BCS (P<0.05) and serum urea nitrogen (P<0.05) and glucose concentration (P=0.05) before calving, and lower serum non-esterified fatty acid concentration (P<0.05) and milk yield (P<0.05) and earlier resumption of luteal activity (P<0.05) after calving; their calves showed lower BW (P<0.05) and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (P<0.001) and higher plasma insulin concentration (P<0.05). In conclusion, IR at 3 weeks prepartum in dairy cows is related to postpartum metabolic status and performance along with growth and metabolic status of their calves. PMID:26781705

  4. The effects of defoliation-induced delayed changes in silver birch foliar chemistry on gypsy moth fitness, immune response, and resistance to baculovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Rantala, Markus J; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Belousova, Irina A; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Bakhvalov, Stanislav A; Glupov, Victor V

    2012-03-01

    We tested the effects of defoliation-induced changes in silver birch, Betula pendula, foliar chemistry (delayed induced resistance, DIR) on the fitness and immune defense of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. We measured larval developmental time, pupal weight, rate of survival to the adult stage, and five characteristics of larval immune defense: (1) encapsulation response; (2) phenoloxidase activity; (3) hemocyte concentration and (4) lysozyme-like activity in the hemolymph; and (5) resistance to infection by L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV). The latter is an entomopathogenic baculovirus that often causes epizootics during outbreaks of L. dispar. We also measured the involvement of foliage non-tannin phenolic compounds in resistance of B. pendula to herbivory as well as the relationship between the compounds we identified and L. dispar development, growth, and survival. Leaves of B. pendula with previous defoliation history contained increased levels of myricetin glycoside, two flavonoid aglycones (acacetin and tetrahydroxy-flavone dimethyl ether), as well as one unidentified simple phenolic. The concentrations of two glycosides of quercetin, as well as the content of one unidentified flavonoid glycoside were significantly decreased under defoliation treatment. DIR of B. pendula retarded larval growth rate and increased lysozyme-like activity in the hemolymph, but did not affect encapsulation response, phenoloxidase activity, or hemocyte count. We did not find any DIR-mediated tritrophic interactions among birch, gypsy moth, and LdMNPV. After viral inoculation, the mean hemocyte counts in larvae reared on an individual tree correlated significantly with the survival of larvae reared on that same tree, indicating that hemocyte density in hemolymph might be associated with resistance to viral infection. We found a strong positive correlation between the concentration of 1-(4″-hydroxyphenyl)-3'-oxopropyl-β-D-glucopyranose and L. dispar survival rate, which

  5. The effects of learning goals on learning performance of field-dependent and field-independent late adolescents in a hypertext environment.

    PubMed

    Ku, David Tawei; Soulier, J Steve

    2009-01-01

    To provide better instruction for the "Digital Native," it is important to understand the information processing behavior of adolescents using Internet programs and the potential impact of that behavior on learning. This study asks whether the use of general or specific learning goals in a hypertext environment affects learning performance. It also examines whether general versus specific learning goals have a different effect on adolescents with different cognitive styles (field dependent/field). One hundred eighty college freshmen were classified as field dependent or field independent and randomly assigned to one of two treatments: "specific preset learning goal" and "general preset learning goal." Participants provided with either specific or general learning goals navigated identical hypertext instructional programs and then completed an achievement test. Results indicate that field-dependent adolescents perform significantly better when they have specific rather than general learning goals. This study suggests that providing appropriate direction or guidance may mitigate the drawbacks of a field-dependent learning style of adolescents in a hypertext environment. Other related issues are also discussed.

  6. Effects of dietary probiotic inclusion on performance, eggshell quality, cecal microflora composition, and tibia traits of laying hens in the late phase of production.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, Anas; Irshaid, Rabie; Al-Fataftah, Abdur-Rahman

    2013-04-01

    Ninety-six White laying hens (64 weeks old) were used to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of Bacillus subtilis on performance and eggshell quality. Hens were randomly distributed into three treatment groups and fed basal diet (control), basal diet plus 0.5 g/kg B. subtilis (Probiotic-0.5), or basal diet plus 1 g/kg B. subtilis (Probiotic-1) for 10 weeks. Probiotic-1 group exhibited the maximum (P<0.05) increase in egg production, egg weight, egg mass, eggshell weight, and eggshell thickness, compared with Probiotic-0.5 and the control groups. During the last week of the study, eggshell densities were 94.9, 88.7, and 65.6 mg/cm(2) in Probiotic-1, Probiotic-0.5, and the control group, respectively. The average unmarketable eggs were 1.3 %, 2.2 %, and 6.4 % in Probiotic-1, Probiotic-0.5, and the control group, respectively. Tibia weight, density, and ash content increased significantly. The average time required by B. subtilis to establish a significant effect was 3 weeks for Probiotic-1and 6 weeks for Probiotic-5. B. subtilis improved gut microflora balance, which has the potential to improve gut health and absorption efficiency. It should be possible to improve egg performance and eggshell quality of aged laying hens by dietary inclusion of B. subtilis, which will be of importance for farmers.

  7. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    PubMed

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  8. Effect of heat stress during late gestation on immune function and growth performance of calves: isolation of altered colostral and calf factors.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, A P A; Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Dahl, G E

    2014-10-01

    Calves born to cows exposed to heat stress during the dry period and fed their dams' colostrum have compromised passive and cell-mediated immunity compared with calves born to cows cooled during heat stress. However, it is unknown if this compromised immune response is caused by calf or colostrum intrinsic factors. Two studies were designed to elucidate the effects of colostrum from those innate to the calf. The objective of the first study was to evaluate the effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on calf-specific factors related to immune response and growth performance. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: heat stress (HT; n=18) or cooling (CL; n=18). Cows of the CL group were housed with sprinklers, fans and shade, whereas cows of HT group had only shade. After calving, the cows were milked and their colostrum was frozen for the subsequent study. Colostrum from cows exposed to a thermoneutral environment during the dry period was pooled and stored frozen (-20 °C). Within 4h of birth, 3.8L of the pooled colostrum from thermoneutral cows was fed to calves born to both HT and CL cows. Day of birth was considered study d 0. All calves were exposed to the same management and weaned at d 49. Blood samples were collected before colostrum feeding, 24h after birth and twice weekly up to d 28. Total serum IgG concentrations were determined. Body weight was recorded at birth and at d 15, 30, 45, and 60. Relative to CL calves, HT calves were lighter at birth (38.3 vs. 43.1 kg), but no difference in weight gain was observed at d 60. Additionally, HT calves had lower apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (26.0 vs. 30.2%), but no differences were observed for total IgG concentration. The objective of the second study was to evaluate the isolated effect of the colostrum from HT cows on calf immune response and growth performance. The experimental design was identical to the first study, but all calves were

  9. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  10. Good diagnostic performance of early migration as a predictor of late aseptic loosening of acetabular cups: results from ten years of follow-up with Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA).

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuijse, Marc J; Valstar, Edward R; Kaptein, Bart L; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2012-05-16

    Excessive early migration of femoral stems following total hip arthroplasty and tibial components following total knee arthroplasty is associated with their long-term survival and allows reliable early evaluation of implant performance. However, a similar relationship involving acetabular components following hip arthroplasty has not been evaluated. This prospective, long-term study with clinical and Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) follow-up establishes the existence of this relationship and its associated diagnostic performance. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (forty-one hips) who underwent total hip arthroplasty with a cemented Exeter stem and a cemented Exeter all-polyethylene cup had prospective clinical and RSA follow-up. Patients were evaluated postoperatively at six weeks, at three, six, and twelve months, and annually thereafter. Conventional anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were made at six weeks and at two, five, and ten years postoperatively as well as when indicated. The mean duration of follow-up (and standard deviation) was 9.4 ± 3.2 years. No patients were lost to follow-up; fifteen patients died during the follow-up period. Eleven acetabular components were observed to be loose on conventional radiographs after a mean of seventy-six months (range, twelve to 140 months). During the first two postoperative years, the failed acetabular components showed markedly greater and more rapid cranial translation and sagittal rotation. Both cranial translation (hazard ratio = 19.9 [95% confidence interval, 4.94 to 80.0], p < 0.001) and sagittal rotation (hazard ratio = 11.1 [95% confidence interval, 2.83 to 43.9], p = 0.001) were strong risk factors for late aseptic loosening. Eight of the eleven failed components showed a distinctive pattern of excessive cranial translation combined with excessive sagittal rotation. The associated diagnostic performance of two-year cranial translation and/or sagittal rotation for predicting late aseptic

  11. Suicides in late life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  12. Suicides in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-01-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well. PMID:21369952

  13. Too late to catch up: a high nutrient specification diet in the grower phase does not improve the performance of low birth weight pigs.

    PubMed

    Douglas, S L; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    daily feed intake was similar for all BW categories and diets from d 63 to 91. However, both L and NR pigs consumed more feed than NU pigs relative to their BW, but only NR exhibited higher ADG than NU pigs. This suggests that a higher specification diet post weaning may not improve the performance of low birth weight pigs. However, previously restricted normal birth weight pigs were able to exhibit compensatory growth and were more efficient when fed a higher specification diet.

  14. Effects of the levels of methionine, linoleic Acid, and added fat in the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens in the late phase of production.

    PubMed

    Safaa, H M; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Arbe, X; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2008-08-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effect of reducing the methionine (MET, 0.36 vs. 0.31%), linoleic acid (LIN, 1.60 vs. 1.12%), and supplemental fat (SFAT, 3.0 vs. 1.1%) content of isoenergetic diets on the productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens late in the production cycle. The 8 treatments were arranged factorially (2 x 2 x 2), with 6 replicates of 20 hens per treatment (Hy-Line, from 59 to 70 wk of age in trial 1, and Lohmann, from 56 to 75 wk of age in trial 2). Except for SFAT content, dietary treatment had little effect on laying hen performance and egg quality. The only effect of a reduction in MET content on hen performance was the decrease in the percentage of large and extra large eggs (79.8 vs. 85.9%; P < 0.05) from 60 to 67 wk of age in trial 2. A decrease in the level of SFAT reduced egg production (79.3 vs. 77.0%; P < 0.05), egg weight (66.3 vs. 64.9 g; P < 0.001), egg mass (52.5 vs. 49.8 g/d; P < 0.001), feed conversion ratio (2.26 vs. 2.36 kg of feed/kg of eggs; P < 0.001), and percentage of extra large eggs (13.1 vs. 8.2%; P < 0.05) in trial 1, but no significant differences were detected in trial 2. Reducing the LIN content of the diet from 1.60 to 1.12% did not affect any trait in either of the 2 trials. We conclude that reducing the level of SFAT from 3.0 to 1.1% might decrease productivity and the percentage of extra large eggs. However, a reduction in the MET level from 0.36 to 0.31% and in LIN from 1.60 to 1.12% did not affect any trait in hens late in the production cycle. Eggshell quality was not affected by any of the dietary treatments.

  15. Measuring Phenological Changes due to Defoliation of the Non-Native Species, Saltcedar (Tamarisk) Following Episodic Foliage Removal by the Beetle Diorhabda elongate and Phenological Impacts on Forage Quality for Insectivorous Birds on the Dolores River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.; Hultine, K. R.; van Riper, C.; Glenn, E. P.

    2008-12-01

    Since its introduction to the western U.S. more than a century ago, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) has become dominant or sub-dominant over many major arid, and semi-arid river systems and their tributaries. The presence of tamarisk has been cited for reducing water availability for human enterprise and biodiversity, displacing native vegetation and for reducing habitat quality for wildlife. With increasing emphasis by public and private sectors on controlling saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis) in the western US, there will likely be a dramatic change in riparian vegetation composition over the course of the next several decades. The rates at which these changes will occur, and the resultant effects on riparian insects and birds that utilize insects for food, are presently unknown. Effects on riparian vegetation communities, resulting from changes in host plant species composition, will likely include changes in plant biomass, microclimate changes, and plant species diversity. These changes could potentially have a profound impact on migratory and breeding birds within riparian corridors throughout the southwest. Recently, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a tamarisk biocontrol agent. This beetle has successfully defoliated tamarisk where it has been introduced, but there are currently no comprehensive programs in place for monitoring the rapid spread of Diorhabda, the impact of defoliation on habitat and water resources, or the long-term impact of defoliation on tamarisk. We used higher spatial resolution ASTER data and coarser MODIS data for monitoring defoliation caused by Diorhabda elongata and subsequent changes in evapotranspiration (ET). Widespread tamarisk defoliation was observed in an eastern Utah study area during summers 2007, 2008. We measured stem sap flux, leaf carbon isotope ratios, leaf area, LAI, and vegetation indices from mounted visible and infrared cameras and satellite imagery. The cameras were paired on towers installed 30

  16. Brachytherapy versus surgery in carcinoma of tonsillar fossa and/or soft palate: late adverse sequelae and performance status: can we be more selective and obtain better tissue sparing?

    PubMed

    Levendag, Peter; Nijdam, Wideke; Noever, Inge; Schmitz, Paul; van de Pol, Marjan; Sipkema, Dick; Braat, Cora; de Boer, Maarten; Jansen, Peter

    2004-07-01

    To report on the tumor control, adverse late normal tissue sequelae, and functional performance in patients with tonsillar fossa and/or soft palate (SP) tumors. The aim of the study is to validate the use of a more selective clinical target volume in conjunction with highly conformal radiotherapy (RT) techniques to better spare the surrounding normal tissues. Between 1986 and 2001, T1-T3 tonsillar fossa/SP tumors were treated in the Erasmus Medical Center using external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to 46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions to the primary tumor and neck, followed by brachytherapy (BT) to the primary. Neck dissection was performed for node-positive disease (BT group; 104 patients). If BT was not feasible, patients underwent surgery and postoperative RT (PORT) to a dose of 50-70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions (surgery group; 86 patients). Local control, regional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were determined. Late side effects were scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed for regional failure (RF), with the parameters gender, age, site, TN stage, modality, dose, and overall treatment time. Recurrences in the contralateral neck were also related to significant ipsilateral involvement of the base of tongue and/or involvement of the SP crossing the midline. To determine the performance status scale scores and degree of xerostomia, a survey was conducted among patients living with no evidence of disease and a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. For that purpose, a research nurse interviewed patients regarding eating in public, normalcy of diet, normalcy of speech, and xerostomia. The tumor control rates after BT vs. surgery at 5 years were 88% vs. 88% for local control; 93% vs. 85% for regional control; 57% vs. 52% for disease-free survival; 67% vs. 57% for overall survival; and 5% vs. 6% for RF. No patient had RF in the contralateral untreated N0 neck (0 of 14 vs. 0 of 15

  17. OA-7 Late Cargo Loading

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-03

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians perform the late cargo installation in the Orbital ATK Cygnus pressurized cargo module. The Orbital ATK CRS-7 commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station is scheduled to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station targeted for March 24, 2017. Cygnus will deliver 7,600 pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials to the space station.

  18. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  19. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  20. Extended day length in late winter/early spring, with a return to natural day length of shorter duration, increased plasma testosterone and sexual performance in rams with or without melatonin implants.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2017-10-01

    Sixteen rams were used to quantify the effects of long days, imposed during late winter/early spring, with or without exogenous melatonin, on plasma testosterone concentrations and ram serving capacity. Rams were assigned to two groups: photoperiod-treated rams (Artificial Photoperiod, AP; n = 8), exposed to 2 months of long days (16 hr of light/day) between 22 December and 22 February, and control rams (Natural Photoperiod, NP; n = 8). At the end of the long-day period, AP rams were returned to the natural photoperiod, and each ram in the two groups either did (+M) or did not (-M) receive three subcutaneous melatonin implants. Four groups were created as follows: AP+M (n = 4), AP-M (n = 4), NP+M (n = 4) and NP-M (n = 4). Thirty days after of the onset of photoperiodic treatment, AP rams (13.5 ± 2.8 ng/ml) had significantly (p < .05) lower testosterone levels than NP rams (36.7 ± 1.0), and similar differences were not apparent at the end of the photoperiod treatment. A month later, AP rams (24.3 ± 7.9) had higher (p < .10) testosterone levels than NP rams (13.1 ± 5.0), with no effect of melatonin treatment. Fifty days after melatonin implantations, rams were exposed for 20 min to three oestrous ewes. AP rams (2.50 ± 0.42) exhibited significantly (p < .05) more serves than did NP rams (1.11 ± 0.39), and melatonin treatment had no significant effect; however, the interaction between treatments was significant. Time to first serve was significantly (p < .05) shorter in AP (2.30 ± 1.20 min) than it was in NP rams (5.58 ± 0.68 min). In conclusion, exposure to 2 months of long days in late winter/early spring, with a return to natural day length of shorter duration, increased plasma testosterone concentrations and sexual performance in rams with or without exogenous melatonin. This particular management is an option if a non-hormonal reproductive strategy is scheduled; yet, if the use of exogenous hormones is feasible

  1. Multiresidue analysis of cotton defoliant, herbicide, and insecticide residues in water by solid-phase extraction and GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Potter, T L; Marti, L; Belflower, S; Truman, C C

    2000-09-01

    A multiresidue procedure was developed for analysis of cotton pesticide and harvest-aid chemicals in water using solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-DAD. Target compounds included the defoliants tribufos, dimethipin, thidiazuron; the herbicide diuron; and the insecticide methyl parathion. Three solid-phase extraction (SPE) media, octadecylsilyl (ODS), graphitized carbon black (GCB), and a divinylbenzene-N-vinyl pyrollidine copolymer (DVBVP), were evaluated. On GCB and ODS, recoveries varied depending on compound type. Recoveries were quantitative for all compounds on DVBVP, ranging from 87 to 115% in spiked deionized water and surface runoff. The method detection limit was less than 0.1 microg L(-)(1). SPE with DVBVP was applied to post-defoliation samples of surface runoff and tile drainage from a cotton research plot and surface runoff from a commercial field. The research plot was defoliated with a tank mixture of dimethipin and thidiazuron, and the commercial field, with tribufos. Dimethipin was detected (1.9-9.6 microg L(-)(1)) in all research plot samples. In the commercial field samples, tribufos concentration ranged from 0.1 to 135 microg L(-)(1). An exponentially decreasing concentration trend was observed with each successive storm event.

  2. Mycorrhizal colonization does not affect tolerance to defoliation of an annual herb in different light availability and soil fertility treatments but increases flower size in light-rich environments.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Chama, Ana; Guevara, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of resources in most plant populations results in a mosaic of plant physiological responses tending to maximize plant fitness. This includes plant responses to trophic interactions such as herbivory and mycorrhizal symbiosis which are concurrent in most plants. We explored fitness costs of 50% manual defoliation and mycorrhizal inoculation in Datura stramonium at different light availability and soil fertility environments in a greenhouse experiment. Overall, we showed that non-inoculated and mycorrhiza-inoculated plants did not suffer from 50% manual defoliation in all the tested combinations of light availability and soil fertility treatments, while soil nutrients and light availability predominately affected plant responses to the mycorrhizal inoculation. Fifty percent defoliation had a direct negative effect on reproductive traits whereas mycorrhiza-inoculated plants produced larger flowers than non-inoculated plants when light was not a limiting factor. Although D. stramonium is a facultative selfing species, other investigations had shown clear advantages of cross-pollination in this species; therefore, the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation on flower size observed in this study open new lines of inquiry for our understanding of plant responses to trophic interactions. Also in this study, we detected shifts in the limiting resources affecting plant responses to trophic interactions.

  3. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  4. Molecular mapping and validation of a major QTL conferring resistance to a defoliating isolate of verticillium wilt in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingju; Yuan, Yanchao; Wei, Ze; Guo, Xian; Guo, Yuping; Zhang, Suqing; Zhao, Junsheng; Zhang, Guihua; Song, Xianliang; Sun, Xuezhen

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt (VW) caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb is one of the most destructive diseases of cotton. Development and use of a VW resistant variety is the most practical and effective way to manage this disease. Identification of highly resistant genes/QTL and the underlining genetic architecture is a prerequisite for developing a VW resistant variety. A major QTL qVW-c6-1 conferring resistance to the defoliating isolate V991 was identified on chromosome 6 in LHB22×JM11 F2∶3 population inoculated and grown in a greenhouse. This QTL was further validated in the LHB22×NNG F2∶3 population that was evaluated in an artificial disease nursery of V991 for two years and in its subsequent F4 population grown in a field severely infested by V991. The allele conferring resistance within the QTL qVW-c6-1 region originated from parent LHB22 and could explain 23.1-27.1% of phenotypic variation. Another resistance QTL qVW-c21-1 originated from the susceptible parent JM11 was mapped on chromosome 21, explaining 14.44% of phenotypic variation. The resistance QTL reported herein provides a useful tool for breeding a cotton variety with enhanced resistance to VW.

  5. Molecular Mapping and Validation of a Major QTL Conferring Resistance to a Defoliating Isolate of Verticillium Wilt in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ze; Guo, Xian; Guo, Yuping; Zhang, Suqing; Zhao, Junsheng; Zhang, Guihua; Song, Xianliang; Sun, Xuezhen

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt (VW) caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb is one of the most destructive diseases of cotton. Development and use of a VW resistant variety is the most practical and effective way to manage this disease. Identification of highly resistant genes/QTL and the underlining genetic architecture is a prerequisite for developing a VW resistant variety. A major QTL qVW-c6-1 conferring resistance to the defoliating isolate V991 was identified on chromosome 6 in LHB22×JM11 F2∶3 population inoculated and grown in a greenhouse. This QTL was further validated in the LHB22×NNG F2∶3 population that was evaluated in an artificial disease nursery of V991 for two years and in its subsequent F4 population grown in a field severely infested by V991. The allele conferring resistance within the QTL qVW-c6-1 region originated from parent LHB22 and could explain 23.1–27.1% of phenotypic variation. Another resistance QTL qVW-c21-1 originated from the susceptible parent JM11 was mapped on chromosome 21, explaining 14.44% of phenotypic variation. The resistance QTL reported herein provides a useful tool for breeding a cotton variety with enhanced resistance to VW. PMID:24781706

  6. The new family Septorioideaceae, within the Botryosphaeriales and Septorioides strobi as a new species associated with needle defoliation of Pinus strobus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wyka, Stephen A; Broders, Kirk D

    2016-08-01

    Recent sampling of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) affected by white pine needle defoliation (WPND) within the northeastern U.S. has found that a putative new species, closely related to Septorioides pini-thunbergii, was the most frequently isolated species. Septorioides pini-thunbergii is currently the only known species of its genus in the family Botryosphaeriaceae and is associated with needle cast of Pinus thunbergii in Japan. This study aims to complete a morphological description of the putative new species and use DNA sequence data of six gene loci (SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, EF1, and RPB2) to accurately place the putative new species within the Botryosphaeriales. Morphological comparisons have shown that this putative new species is distinct from S. pini-thunbergii. Comparison of DNA sequence data has further confirmed our morphological findings, indicating the classification of a new species which we describe as Septorioides strobi sp. nov., marking the first report of the genus Septorioides within the U.S. Subsequently, our phylogenetic analysis has further revealed that S. pini-thunbergii and S. strobi do not reside within the Botryosphaereace, but comprise a new family within the order Botryosphaeriales we recognize as Septorioideaceae fam. nov. Taxonomic novelties: New family - Septorioideaceae S. Wyka & K. Broders fam. nov. New species - Septorioides strobi S. Wyka & K. Broders sp. nov.

  7. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  8. Language Control Abilities of Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festman, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Although all bilinguals encounter cross-language interference (CLI), some bilinguals are more susceptible to interference than others. Here, we report on language performance of late bilinguals (Russian/German) on two bilingual tasks (interview, verbal fluency), their language use and switching habits. The only between-group difference was CLI:…

  9. Late Washing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-08-31

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft{sup 2} for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec.

  10. Photosynthetic response of early and late leaves of white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) grown under free-air ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Makoto; Inada, Naoki; Mao, Qiaozhi; Koike, Takayoshi

    2013-11-01

    Betula platyphylla var. japonica (white birch) has heterophyllous leaves (i.e., early and late leaves) and is a typical pioneer tree species in northern Japan. Seedlings of white birch were exposed to ozone during two growing seasons, and measurements were carried out in the second year. Early leaves did not show an ozone-induced reduction in photosynthesis because of lower stomatal conductance resulting in higher avoidance capacity for ozone-induced stress. Also, an ozone-related increase in leaf nitrogen content may partly contribute to maintain the photosynthetic capacity in early leaves under elevated ozone in autumn. On the other hand, late leaves showed an ozone-induced decline of photosynthesis and early defoliation of leaves occurred. Also, smaller leaf size and higher stomatal density in late leaves were observed under elevated ozone. Differences in stress resistance to ozone may be related to differing functional roles of early and late leaves for birch species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Disruption of the polar auxin transport system in cotton seedlings following treatment with the defoliant thidiazuron. [Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102

    SciTech Connect

    Suttle, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (TDZ) on basipetal auxin transport in petiole segments isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102) seedlings was examined using the donor/receiver agar block technique. Treatment of intact seedlings with TDZ at concentrations of 1 micromolar or greater resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 14/C-IAA transport in petiole segment isolated 1 or 2 days after treatment. Using 100 micromolar TDZ, the inhibition was detectable 19 hours after treatment and was complete by 27 hours. Both leaves and petiole segments exhibited a marked increase in ethylene production following treatment with TDZ at concentrations of 0.1 micromolar or greater. The involvement of ethylene in this TDA response was evaluated by examining the effects of two inhibitors of ethylene action: silver thiosulfate, 2,5-norbornadiene. One day after treatment, both inhibitors effectively antagonized the TDZ-induced inhibition of auxin transport. Two days after TDZ treatment both inhibitors were ineffective. The decrease in IAA transport in TDZ treated tissues was associated with increased metabolism of IAA. The transport of /sup 14/C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was also inhibited by TDZ treatment. This inhibition was not accompanied by increased metabolism. Incorporation of TDZ into the receiver blocks had no effect on auxin transport. The ability of the phytotropin N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to stimulate IAA uptake from a bathing medium was reduced in TDZ-treated tissues. This reduction is thought to reflect a decline in the auxin efflux system following TDZ treatment.

  12. Very late relapse of medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cieślak, Ewa; Kepka, Lucyna; Fijuth, Jacek; Marchel, Andrzej; Kroh, Halina

    2004-01-01

    A case of 47-year-old woman with a local relapse of medulloblastoma 23 years after initial presentation is reported. At the age of 24, the patient underwent resection of medulloblastoma of the right cerebellar lobe, followed by the craniospinal orthovoltage irradiation (3600 R to the brain, and 3000 R to the spinal cord). At the 21st year of follow-up, a second cancer originating in the thyroid gland was diagnosed. Thyroidectomy followed by 131-iodotherapy for the papillary cancer was performed. Two years later she was operated for the recurrence of medulloblastoma at the former site. The patient was unfit for chemotherapy due to poor bone marrow reserve following the previous treatment. The reirradiation of the posterior cranial fossa was performed postoperatively. The patient was given 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the recurred tumour volume with 2 cm margin within 41 days. The treatment was performed by 6 MV photons with conformal technique and noncoplanar beams arrangement. The patient is disease free 15 months after relapse of medulloblastoma. The following problems are discussed: late relapse of medulloblastoma, secondary cancers after craniospinal irradiation, and retreatment of CNS tumours.

  13. Never too late.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.

  14. Late, Late-Onset Group B Streptococcus Cellulitis With Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, Yukako; Katsumori, Hiroshi; Koike, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection remains a leading cause of serious neonatal and early infantile infection. As the infection often presents with nonspecific symptoms, and is associated with underlying bacteremia, prompt investigation and treatment is required. We report a case of late, late-onset GBS infection with bacteremia in a 94-day-old boy experiencing cellulitis of the left hand. Although late-onset disease or late, late-onset disease has been reported to be common among infants with underlying conditions such as premature birth, immunocompromised status, trauma, or among those using medical devices, no such underlying medical condition predisposed this infant to invasive GBS infection. Recent reports including the present case underscore the risk of GBS infection among previously healthy infants beyond the neonatal period. Thus, clinicians should especially be aware of unusual presentations of GBS invasive disease with bacteremia.

  15. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments

    PubMed Central

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of 40Ar/39Ar “plateau” ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial 40Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of 40Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely. PMID:27621460

  16. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  17. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark

    2016-09-27

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely.

  18. Managing the chronically late patient.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Every practice has patients who are chronically late. This wrecks havoc with your schedule and makes you less productive. Patients can be trained to respect your time and arrive in the office on time. This article discusses several approaches to managing the chronically late patient.

  19. A rare late complication of spilled gallstones.

    PubMed

    Gooneratne, Dinuk L

    2010-07-16

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones. A complication that is often overlooked is that related to lost intraabdominal gallstones as a consequence of intraoperative gallbladder perforation. This is a case report of a patient presenting with a colovesical fistula due to lost gallstones from laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed 14 years previously. A literature review follows that explains how lost gallstones have the potential to cause late complications and why it is should not be ignored.

  20. Defoliation induces fructan 1-exohydrolase II in Witloof chicory roots. Cloning and purification of two isoforms, fructan 1-exohydrolase IIa and fructan 1-exohydrolase IIb. Mass fingerprint of the fructan 1-exohydrolase II enzymes.

    PubMed

    Van den Ende, W; Michiels, A; Van Wonterghem, D; Clerens, S P; De Roover, J; Van Laere, A J

    2001-07-01

    The cloning of two highly homologous chicory (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum cv Flash) fructan 1-exohydrolase cDNAs (1-FEH IIa and 1-FEH IIb) is described. Both isoenzymes could be purified from forced chicory roots as well as from the etiolated "Belgian endive" leaves where the 1-FEH IIa isoform is present in higher concentrations. Full-length cDNAs were obtained by a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR and 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends using primers based on N-terminal and conserved amino acid sequences. 1-FEH IIa and 1-FEH IIb cDNA-derived amino acid sequences are most homologous to a new group of plant glycosyl hydrolases harboring cell wall-type enzymes with acid isoelectric points. Unlike the observed expression profiles of chicory 1-FEH I, northern analysis revealed that 1-FEH II is expressed when young chicory plants are defoliated, suggesting that this enzyme can be induced at any developmental stage when large energy supplies are necessary (regrowth after defoliation).

  1. Anxiety disorders in late life.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life. PMID:10587775

  2. Potential for Water Savings by Defoliation of Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by Saltcedar Beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Nguyen, U.; Bateman, H. L.; Jarchow, C.; van Riper, C., III; Waugh, W.; Glenn, E.

    2016-12-01

    Northern saltcedar beetles (Diorhabda carinata) have spread widely in riparian zones on the Colorado Plateau since their initial release in 2002. One goal of the releases was to reduce water consumption by saltcedar in order to conserve water through reduction of evapotranspiration (ET). The beetle moved south on the Virgin River and reached Big Bend State Park in Nevada in 2014, an expansion rate of 60 km/year. This is important because the beetle's photoperiod requirement for diapause was expected to prevent them from moving south of 37°N latitude, where endangered southwest willow flycatcher habitat occurs. In addition to focusing on the rate of dispersal of the beetles, we used remote sensing estimates of ET at 13 sites on the Colorado, San Juan, Virgin and Dolores rivers and their tributaries to estimate riparian zone ET before and after beetle releases. We estimate that water savings from 2007-2015 was 31.5 million m3/yr (25,547 acre-ft/yr), amounting to 0.258 % of annual river flow from the Upper Colorado River Basin to the Lower Basin. Reasons for the relatively low potential water savings are: 1) baseline ET before beetle release was modest (0.472 m/yr); 2) reduction in ET was low (0.061 m/yr) because saltcedar stands tended to recover after defoliation; 3) riparian ET even in the absence of beetles was only 1.8 % of river flows, calculated as the before beetle average annual ET (472 mm/yr) times the total area of saltcedar (51,588 ha) divided by the combined total average annual flows (1964-2015) from the upper to lower catchment areas of the Colorado River Basin at the USGS gages (12,215 million m3/yr or 9.90 million acre-ft). Further research is suggested to concentrate on the ecological impacts (both positive and negative) of beetles on riparian zones and on identifying management options to maximize riparian health.

  3. Late-life attachment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  4. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnke, P.; Harrison, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at 3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration and a significant portion of the evidence now marshaled for its existence comes from histograms of 40Ar/39Ar "plateau" ages. Despite the lack of erosion and plate tectonics, the lunar crust does not retain a perfect impact record due to protracted crust formation, lunar volcanism, and overprinting from subsequent impact events. Indeed, virtually all Apollo-era samples show 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum disturbances due to later re-heating events. This provides evidence that partial 40Ar resetting is a significant feature of lunar 40Ar/39Ar analyses which could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to "plateau" ages being misleadingly young. In order to examine the effects of partial resetting on the inference of bombardment histories from "plateau" ages, we combine chronologic information derived from the early heating steps of each 40Ar/39Ar analysis, as this represents a good approximation of the timing of the last reheating event, with a first-order physical model of 40Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples. We use this modeling framework and data compilation to examine the uniqueness of inverting "plateau" age histograms from synthetic impact histories. Our results show that "plateau" histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact history did not contain such a spike. That is, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent episodes that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. Since H-chondrites and HED meteorites also show apparent impact spikes, we extend our conclusions to impact histories for meteorite parent bodies as well. We conclude that the assignment of apparent "plateau" ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriately simplistic interpretations of histograms constructed from such "plateau" ages, impact spikes that

  5. Late Paravalvular Aortic Regurgitation: Migration of the Valve or Late Recoil?

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ashkan; Pourafshar, Negiin; Park, Ki E; Choi, Calvin Y; Mogali, Kiran; Stinson, Wade W; Manning, Eddie W; Bavry, Anthony A

    2017-01-02

    A 79-year-old man underwent trans-catheter aortic valve replacement for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis with a 26-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve. Immediately after valve deployment there was moderate amount of paravalvular leak. Post-dilation was performed with an additional 2 cc of volume, and the paravalvular leak was reduced to trace. Nine months later, trans-thoracic echocardiography revealed moderate to severe paravalvular leak and possible aortic migration of the valve. The patient was brought back for the treatment of the paravalvular leak which was suspected to be due to valve migration. However, fluoroscopy and trans-esophageal echocardiography showed good valve position. Measurement of late valve recoil in the Coplanar view using cine-angiographic analysis software showed that the lower third of the valve had the greatest late recoil (-1.74 mm, 6.55%), which presumably accounted for the progression of the paravalvular leak. Valve-in-valve trans-catheter aortic valve replacement was performed with a 26-mm SAPIEN 3 valve and the paravalvular leak was reduced to trace. This case displays late recoil as a likely mechanism for development of paravalvular leak after SAPIEN XT valve implantation. Our case illustrates that late recoil needs to be systematically evaluated in future studies, especially when trans-catheter aortic valve replacement is being expanded to lower risk and younger patients for whom the longevity and long-term performance of these valves is of critical importance.

  6. [The first labor analgesia with drug was already performed in late Meiji-Period (1868-1912): trace of opioid-scopolamine which was used in Akiko Yosano, back to its origins].

    PubMed

    Okutomi, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    There have been some records of labor analgesia with intravenous or rectal anesthetics in early Showa-period (1926-1989). However, the author found that labor analgesia had been already attempted for some women in late Meiji-period (1868-1912). One of agents used was pantopon, a water-soluble opioid without serious respiratory depression as morphine. The drug was developed and produced in Germany. Some doctors applied this agent with scopolamine to labor analgesia in Europe. They also reported that this combination also conferred excellent analgesic effects without any serious complications in the mother and fetus. This combination was originally used for general surgery with inhaled anesthesia at that period. It remains uncertain how Japanese doctors got pantopon scopolamine from Germany.

  7. Late ventricular potentials and heavy drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Pochmalicki, G.; Genest, M.; Jibril, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic drinking on detection of low amplitude signals, and to determine the relation between late ventricular potentials (LVP) and liver biopsy findings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: General hospital. PATIENTS: 41 consecutive chronic alcoholics without known pre-existing heart disease. METHODS: About four days after each patient's last alcoholic drink, ECG, echocardiography, signal averaged electrocardiogram, liver biopsy, and blood tests were performed. RESULTS: Twenty eight per cent of patients had evidence of LVP. There was a correlation between the percentage of steatosis of the hepatic biopsy and the amplitude of the last 40 ms of average QRS (P = 0.04), the duration of the terminal low amplitude QRS signal (P = 0.05), and the number of positive criteria of late potentials (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic drinking sufficient to cause steatosis is associated with positive findings on the signal averaged ECG. PMID:9326991

  8. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  9. Sundowning: Late-Day Confusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavior is unknown. Factors that may aggravate late-day confusion include: Fatigue Low lighting Increased shadows Disruption ... for activities and exposure to light during the day to encourage nighttime sleepiness. Limit daytime napping. Limit ...

  10. Cytogenetic analysis in fetuses with late onset abnormal sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Ron; Hadar, Eran; Haizler-Cohen, Lylach; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Meizner, Israel; Kahana, Sarit; Yeshaya, Josepha; Yacobson, Shiri; Cohen-Vig, Lital; Agmon-Fishman, Ifaat; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Maya, Idit

    2017-09-15

    To determine the rate of chromosomal cytogenetic abnormalities in fetuses with late onset abnormal sonographic findings. Retrospective cohort of women who underwent amniocentesis at or beyond 23 weeks of gestation, for fetal karyotype and chromosomal microarray analysis, indicated due to late onset abnormal sonographic findings. All 103 fetuses had a normal karyotype. Ninety-five women also had chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) performed. The detection rate of abnormal CMA (5/95, 5.3%) was similar to that of women who underwent amniocentesis due to abnormal early onset ultrasound findings detected at routine prenatal screening tests during the first or early second trimester (7.3%, P=0.46) and significantly higher than that for women who underwent amniocentesis and CMA upon request, without a medical indication for CMA (0.99%, P<0.0001). Late onset sonographic findings are an indication for amniocentesis, and if performed, CMA should be applied to evaluate fetuses with late onset abnormal sonographic findings.

  11. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  12. IVUS Findings in Late and Very Late Stent Thrombosis. A Comparison Between Bare-metal and Drug-eluting Stents.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lara; Gómez-Lara, Josep; Salvatella, Neus; Gonzalo, Nieves; Hernández-Hernández, Felipe; Fernández-Nofrerias, Eduard; Sánchez-Recalde, Ángel; Alfonso, Fernando; Romaguera, Rafael; Ferreiro, José Luis; Roura, Gerard; Teruel, Luis; Gracida, Montserrat; Marcano, Ana Lucrecia; Gómez-Hospital, Joan-Antoni; Cequier, Ángel

    2017-09-01

    Stent thrombosis (ST) is a life-threatening complication after stent implantation. Intravascular ultrasound is able to discern most causes of ST. The aim of this study was to compare intravascular ultrasound findings between bare-metal stents (BMS) and drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with late (31 days to 1 year) or very late ST (> 1 year). Of 250 consecutive patients with late or very late ST in 7 Spanish institutions, 114 patients (45.5% BMS and 54.5% DES) were imaged with intravascular ultrasound. Off-line intravascular ultrasound analysis was performed to assess malapposition, underexpansion, and neoatherosclerosis. The median time from stent implantation to ST was 4.0 years with BMS and 3.4 years with DES (P = .04). Isolated malapposition was similarly observed in both groups (36.5% vs 46.8%; P = .18) but was numerically lower with BMS (26.6% vs 48.0%; P = .07) in patients with very late ST. Isolated underexpansion was similarly observed in both groups (13.5% vs 11.3%; P = .47). Isolated neoatherosclerosis occurred only in patients with very late ST and was more prevalent with BMS (22.9%) than with DES (6.0%); P = .02. At 2.9 years' follow-up, there were 0% and 6.9% cardiac deaths, respectively (P = .06) and recurrent ST occurred in 4.0% and 5.2% of patients, respectively (P = .60). Malapposition was the most common finding in patients with late and very late ST and is more prevalent with DES in very late ST. In contrast, neoatherosclerosis was exclusively observed in patients with very late ST and mainly with BMS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Pyomyositis of Obturator Muscles: Unusual Late Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Soraganvi, Prasad Channappa; Ramakanth, R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Pyomyositis of obturator muscles is rare condition. Late presentation with deformities of hip misleads the clinician. Late presentation (6 weeks) of this condition has not been reported earlier. This report highlights this unusual presentation of Pyomyositis of the obturator muscles. Case Report: We are reporting a 14year old female patient presented with limp and pain in hip since 6 weeks. Her hip radiographs were unremarkable. Patient was admitted and MRI done. MRI findings were consistent with obturator pyomyositis. Diagnosis of pyomyositis confirmed by MRI and we performed percutaneous aspiration and drained about 25ml of purulent material mixed with blood. The culture grew Staphylococcus aureus. Patient received intravenous antibiotic for 1week and oral antibiotic for 2weeks. Patient was immobilized in fixed skin traction in Thomas splint for 5days, later gentle mobilization was started. Her condition improved dramatically after aspiration. A follow up MRI done at 3 weeks following aspiration revealed a significant reduction in intramuscular collection of obturator internus and obturator externus. Three weeks following aspiration patient was relieved of the pain and was able to walk normally. At 6 months follow up visit patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion: Late presentation of obturator pyomyositis is rare. We emphasise on careful examination and need for early imaging for diagnosis. Percutaneous drainage results in successful treatment. PMID:27298909

  14. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  15. Ground measured evapotranspiration scaled to stand level using MODIS and Landsat sensors to study Tamarix spp.response to repeated defoliation by the Tamarix leaf beetle at two sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlstein, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Hultine, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Dolores River in Southern Utah and the Virgin River in Southern Nevada are ecosystems under pressure from increased groundwater withdrawal due to growing populations and introduced riparian species. We studied the impact of the biocontrol Tamarix leaf beetles (Dirohabda carinulata and D. elongata) on the introduced riparian species, Tamarix spp., phenology and water use over multiple cycles of annual defoliation. Heat balance sap flow measurements, leaf area index (LAI), well data, allometry and satellite imagery from Landsat Thematic Mapper 5 and EOS-1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors were used to assess the distribution of beetle defoliation and its effect on evapotranspiration (ET). Study objectives for the Virgin River were to measure pre-beetle arrival ET, while the Dolores River site has had defoliation since 2004 and is a site of long-term beetle effect monitoring. This study focuses on measurements conducted over two seasons, 2010 and 2011. At the Dolores River site, results from 2010 were inconclusive due to sensor malfunctions but plant ET by sap flow in 2011 averaged 1.02 mm/m^2 leaf area/day before beetle arrival, dropping to an average of 0.75 mm/m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival. Stand level estimations from May - December, 2010 by MODIS were about 0.63 mm/ day, results from Landsat were 0.51 mm/day in June and 0.78 in August. For January -September, 2011, MODIS values were about 0.6 mm/day, and Landsat was 0.57 mm/day in June and 0.62 mm/day in August. These values are lower than previously reported ET values for this site meaning that repeated defoliation does diminish stand level water use. The Virgin River site showed plant ET from sap flow averaged about 3.9-4 mm/m^2 leaf area/day from mid-May - September, 2010. In 2011, ET from sap flow averaged 3.83 mm/m^2 leaf area/day during June - July, but dropped to 3.73 mm/ m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival in August. The slight drop in plant ET is not significant

  16. Late Silurian plutons in Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, M. B.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1996-08-01

    U-Pb measurements of zircons from two composite plutons in the Maya Mountains of the Yucatan Block (Belize) give Late Silurian ages. Zircons from one of the five compositional phases of the Mountain Pine Ridge pluton yield an age of 418±3.6 Ma. A second compositional phase gives a minimum age of 404 Ma, and zircons from a third phase, although plagued with high common Pb, yield ages consistent with the other two. Zircons from one compositional phase of the Hummingbird-Mullins River pluton indicate an age of about 410-420 Ma. These data demonstrate that two of the three Maya Mountains plutons residing among the strata of the Late Pennsylvanian through Permian Santa Rosa Group are older than that sedimentation. Although the third pluton was not dated, both the similarity of sedimentary facies patterns adjacent to it to those adjacent to one of the plutons dated as Late Silurian and a published single Rb-Sr age of 428 ± 41 Ma suggest this third pluton also was emergent during Santa Rosa deposition. Thus the new U/Pb dates and other data suggest that all three Maya Mountains plutons pre-date Late Carboniferous sedimentation and that none intrude the Santa Rosa Group. Although very uniform ages of about 230 Ma amongst all plutons, derived from abundant earlier dating by the K-Ar system, led to the conclusion that intrusion mostly had occurred in the Late Triassic, the U-Pb ages (obtained from the same sites as the K-Ar dates) demonstrate that the K-Ar ages do not derive from a Late Triassic intrusive episode. The K-Ar dates probably are a signature of the rifting associated with Pangean breakup and formation of the Gulf of Mexico. In a reconstructed Pangea, the position of the Maya Mountains Late Silurian plutons suggests that the Late Silurian Acadian-Caledonian orogen of eastern North America extended through the region of the future Gulf of Mexico. Finally, the U-Pb ages of the Maya Mountains plutons are the same as those of a group of shocked zircons found in the

  17. Complicated grief in late life

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is a syndrome that affects 10% to 20% of grievers regardless of age, although proportionally more will face the death of loved ones in late life, CG is characterized by preoccupying and disabling symptoms that can persist for decades such as an inability to accept the death, intense yearning or avoidance, frequent reveries, deep sadness, crying, somatic distress, social withdrawal, and suicidal ideation. This syndrome is distinct from major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, but CG maybe comorbid with each. This communication will focus on the impact of CG in late life (over age 60) and will include a case vignette for illustrating complicated grief therapy. PMID:22754292

  18. Intraspecific variation in aspen phytochemistry: effects on performance of gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Lindroth, Richard L

    1995-07-01

    Individual quaking aspen trees vary greatly in foliar chemistry and susceptibility to defoliation by gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars. To relate performance of these insects to differences in foliar chemistry, we reared larvac from egg hatch to pupation on leaves from different aspen trees and analyzed leaf samples for water, nitrogen, total nonstructural carbohydrates, phenolic glycosides, and condensed tannins. Larval performance varied markedly among trees. Pupal weights of both species were strongly and inversely related to phenolic glycoside concentrations. In addition, gypsy moth performance was positively related to condensed tannin concentrations, whereas forest tent caterpillar pupal weights were positively associated with leaf nitrogen concentrations. A subsequent study with larvae fed aspen leaves supplemented with the phenolic glycoside tremulacin confirmed that the compound reduces larval performance. Larvae exhibited increased stadium durations and decreased relative growth rates and food conversion efficiencies as dietary levels of tremulacin increased. Differences in performance were more pronounced for gypsy moths than for forest tent caterpillars. These results suggest that intraspecific variation in defensive chemistry may strongly mediate interactions between aspen, gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars in the Great Lakes region, and may account for differential defoliation of aspen by these two insect species.

  19. Correlates and outcomes of late and very late drug-eluting stent thrombosis: results from DESERT (International Drug-Eluting Stent Event Registry of Thrombosis).

    PubMed

    Waksman, Ron; Kirtane, Ajay J; Torguson, Rebecca; Cohen, David J; Ryan, Thomas; Räber, Lorenz; Applegate, Robert; Waxman, Sergio; Gordon, Paul; Kaneshige, Kimberly; Leon, Martin B

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical, procedural, and angiographic correlates of late/very late drug-eluting stent (DES) thrombosis as well as to determine the clinical outcomes of these events. Late/very late DES thromboses are a poorly studied phenomenon, partly due to the relative infrequency of these events, even in large cohort studies. In the DESERT (International Drug-Eluting Stent Event Registry of Thrombosis), a retrospective, case-control registry, 492 cases of late/very late definite DES thrombosis from 21 international sites were matched in a 1:1 fashion with controls without stent thrombosis (ST). Controls were matched according to 2 criteria: same enrolling institution and date of initial DES implantation. Baseline and procedural variables were collected, and clinical follow-up was obtained for patients with ST as long as 1 year after the event. Offline quantitative coronary angiography was performed for a subset of 378 case-control pairs. The majority of ST events occurred after 1 year (75%) and continued to occur for as long as 7.3 years. The clinical presentation of late/very late ST events was mainly myocardial infarction (66.7% ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 22.0% non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction); in-hospital mortality was 3.8%. A minority of patients (30%) with ST were receiving dual-antiplatelet therapy at the time of the event. Independent clinical correlates of late/very late ST were younger age, African-American race, current smoking, multivessel disease, longer stented length, overlapping stents, and percutaneous coronary intervention of vein graft lesions. Independent angiographic correlates for late/very late ST were lesions within the left anterior descending artery or a bypass graft, thrombus, and a larger residual diameter stenosis after the initial DES implantation. Despite the large sample of ST cases, all identified correlates of late/very late ST had weak associations with subsequent ST

  20. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  1. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep the blood from soaking your clothes. What Causes Bleeding Later in Pregnancy? When labor begins, the cervix starts to open up more, or dilate. You may notice a small amount of blood mixed in with normal vaginal discharge, or mucus. Mid- or late-term bleeding may also be caused by: Having sex ( ...

  2. 5 CFR 1605.15 - Reporting and processing late contributions and late loan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contributions and late loan payments. 1605.15 Section 1605.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT... processing late contributions and late loan payments. (a) The employing agency must promptly submit late contributions to the TSP record keeper on behalf of the affected participant on late payment records as soon as...

  3. Late Entry into Primary School in Developing Societies: Findings from Cross-National Household Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Loaiza, Edilberto; Engle, Patrice L.

    2010-02-01

    Late entry into primary school is a widespread phenomenon in developing countries. Students who enter school late are more likely to repeat grades, drop out and perform more poorly. Yet the phenomenon has received little scholarly attention, and there is a dearth of cross-national data. In this paper, we draw on data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS2), a cross-national household survey conducted in developing countries. We first estimate the percentage of students entering primary school late across 38 countries in order to identify the countries in which the issue of late entry is most common. Secondly, we describe the background characteristics of students who are more likely to enter school late. We then employ multinominal logistic regression equations to predict the probability of late entry. Our findings highlight the need for policies to reduce late entry for children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

  4. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  5. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  6. Monomelic amyotrophy with late progression.

    PubMed

    Rowin, J; Meriggioli, M N; Cochran, E J

    2001-04-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy is a sporadic juvenile-onset disease that presents with gradual onset of weakness and atrophy in the hand muscles unilaterally. Generally, this disease is considered a 'benign' and non-progressive motor neuron disease, which stabilizes within five years of onset. We discuss a case that illustrates that monomelic amyotrophy may rarely exhibit late clinical progression to the lower extremities after a prolonged period of disease stability.

  7. The late-M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessell, M. S.

    1991-02-01

    Far-red spectra and VRIJHK photometry have been obtained for a sample of late-M dwarfs selected on the basis of large reduced red magnitudes from the LHS Catalog. Half of the stars in the three faintest 1 mag bins are late-M stars, the other red stars are metallic-hydride subdwarfs. Relations between various colors for the late-M dwarfs are investigated. Of all the colors I - K most reliably correlates with spectral type. FeH bands near 9900 A are clearly seen in the spectra of all dwarf stars later than M5. Two stars cooler than VB10, and similar in temperature to LHS2924 have been identified; both have H-alpha in emission and appear variable in magnitude and R - I color; one is a flare star. The other stars are of earlier spectral type and resemble W359 and VB8. The observed MI, I - K main sequence is in good agreement with the IG theoretical main sequence of Stringfellow, and the faintest stars could be about 0.09 solar mass red dwarfs or lower mass brown dwarfs.

  8. The Impact That Change in the Registration Calendar Has on Student Outcomes, and the Reduction of Late Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fobbs, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Students who register for classes late have always been a challenge for community colleges. The student who registers late creates a burden on the enrollment staff, and they create academic achievement challenges for themselves as well. Late class registration has been linked to lower overall GPA's, and to overall lower academic performance. This…

  9. Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?

    PubMed

    Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  10. Effects of supplementation with fish oil and barium selenate on performance, carcass characteristics and muscle fatty acid composition of late season lamb finished on grass-based or concentrate-based diets.

    PubMed

    Annett, R W; Carson, A F; Fearon, A M; Kilpatrick, D J

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of fish oil supplementation on performance and muscle fatty acid composition of hill lambs finished on grass-based or concentrate-based diets, and to examine the interaction with selenium (Se) status. In September 2006, 180 entire male lambs of mixed breeds were sourced from six hill farms after weaning and finished on five dietary treatments: grazed grass (GG), grass +0.4 kg/day cereal-based concentrate (GC), grass +0.4 kg/day cereal-based concentrate enriched with fish oil (GF), ad libitum cereal-based concentrate (HC) and ad libitum fish oil-enriched concentrate (HF). Within each treatment, half of the lambs were also supplemented with barium selenate by subcutaneous injection. At the start of the trial, the proportion of lambs with a marginal (<0.76 μmol/l) or deficient (<0.38 μmol/l) plasma Se status was 0.84 and 0.39, respectively. Compared with control lambs, GG lambs treated with Se had higher (P < 0.01) plasma Se levels, whereas erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was higher (P < 0.01) for Se-supplemented lambs fed diets GG and GF. However, Se supplementation had no effects on any aspect of animal performance. Fish oil increased (P < 0.05) levels of 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the Longissimus dorsi of HF lambs but otherwise had no effect on the health attributes of lamb meat. There were no significant effects of fish oil on dry matter intake, animal performance or lamb carcass characteristics. Daily carcass weight gain (CWG; P < 0.001), carcass weight (P < 0.01) and conformation score (P < 0.01) increased with increasing concentrate inputs. Lambs fed concentrate-based diets achieved a higher mean CWG (P < 0.001), dressing proportion (P < 0.001) and carcass weight (P < 0.011), and were slaughtered up to 8.3 days earlier (P < 0.05) and at 1.2 kg lower (P < 0.05) live weight than pasture-fed lambs. However, carcasses from grass-fed lambs contained lower levels of perinephric and retroperitoneal

  11. Late blight – Is resistance futile?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article will provide an overview of late blight resistance research that has been done within the USDA/ARS and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The article is meant to be an informative look at the history of late blight resistance and the ability of the late blight pathogen to overcome res...

  12. IVUS-guided treatment strategies for definite late and very late stent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lara, Josep; Salvatella, Neus; Gonzalo, Nieves; Hernández-Hernández, Felipe; Fernandez-Nofrerias, Eduard; Sánchez-Recalde, Angel; Bastante, Teresa; Marcano, Ana; Romaguera, Rafael; Ferreiro, José-Luis; Roura, Gerard; Teruel, Luis; Ariza-Solé, Albert; Miranda-Guardiola, Faustino; Rodríguez García-Abad, Vera; Gomez-Hospital, Joan-Antoni; Alfonso, Fernando; Cequier, Angel

    2016-12-10

    Our aim was to describe the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) findings of patients with late stent thrombosis (ST) undergoing percutaneous intervention, and to compare the pre- and post-intervention IVUS findings of patients treated with balloon angioplasty (BA) vs. additional stent implantation (ASI). A total of 117 patients with late ST imaged with IVUS were included (51.2% had drug-eluting stent ST). Treatment was left to the operator's discretion: BA was performed in 53.8% and ASI in 46.2%. Pre-intervention, incomplete stent apposition (ISA) was observed in 69.8% vs. 63.0% (p=0.43), underexpansion in 33.3% vs. 18.5% (p=0.07) and restenosis in 15.9% vs. 27.8% (p=0.12), respectively. Post-intervention, persistent ISA was observed in 37.2% vs. 60.9% (p=0.03) and malapposition volume decreased by 43.6% vs. 2.6% (p=0.03). Persistent underexpansion was observed in 9.3% vs. 17.4% (p=0.26); however, the stent expansion index was largely increased with BA (from 0.75 to 0.88) compared to ASI (from 0.80 to 0.82); p=0.046. At two years, recurrent ST was observed in one (1.7%) vs. four (7.7%) patients, respectively; p=0.09. Non-optimal IVUS criteria of stent implantation are often observed in patients with late ST. Treatment of late ST with BA leads to a larger reduction of malapposition and underexpansion with respect to ASI and is associated with favourable outcomes.

  13. Soft coincidence in late acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Pavon, Diego

    2005-06-15

    We study the coincidence problem of late cosmic acceleration by assuming that the present ratio between dark matter and dark energy is a slowly varying function of the scale factor. As the dark energy component we consider two different candidates, first a quintessence scalar field, and then a tachyon field. In either case analytical solutions for the scale factor, the field, and the potential are derived. Both models show a good fit to the recent magnitude-redshift supernovae data. However, the likelihood contours disfavor the tachyon field model as it seems to prefer a excessively high value for the matter component.

  14. Who Are Late Registrants and What Will They Do when Faced with a Late Registration Fee?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Marcia J.; Patterson, Carol

    In 1990, the President's Council at Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) endorsed changing registration procedures to eventually eliminate late registrants. A study was conducted to determine the number of students who register late, their characteristics and reasons for registering late, and whether late registrants could be expected to change…

  15. Late-onset Rasmussen Encephalitis: A literature appraisal.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Sophie; Gales, Ana; Sammey, Serge; Vidailhet, Marie; Lambrecq, Virginie

    2017-08-01

    Rasmussen Encephalitis (RE) is classically described as a childhood encephalopathy due to a unilateral inflammation of the cerebral cortex with a presumed immune-mediated pathophysiological basis. Unusual variant forms, including adolescent and adult-onset RE have been described but there is still a doubt whether these atypical cases correspond to classical RE patients. To review evidence, a systematic PubMed search was conducted to retrieve papers addressing late onset RE to assess (i) the positivity rate of classical childhood-onset diagnostic criteria for RE in late-onset RE, (ii) the specific clinical and radiological features that could help earlier diagnosis and therapeutic interventions, (iii) the arguments for an autoimmune pathophysiology including (iiia) the association with autoimmune markers or diseases and (iiib) the effects of immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatments. A total of 50 papers were considered. We identified 102 late-onset RE patients with a sex ratio of 8 women for 2 men. 67% fulfilled the consensus diagnostic criteria for RE. As compared to classical RE, the late-onset RE patients exhibited: i) more frequent focal complex partial seizures, ii) less frequent epilepsia partialis continua throughout evolution, iii) a slower evolution with a delayed occurrence of cortical deficit, iv) less cognitive deterioration and v) a better outcome. A specific association with autoimmune markers or diseases was not found. Immunomodulatory therapies, even performed in a late stage, improved late-onset RE patients in 61% of cases. This review proves that late-onset RE is a reality with specific clinical and radiological features. The good response to immunomodulatory treatments brings further arguments for an immune-regulated process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental Outcomes of Late Preterm Infants From Infancy to Kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Shah, Prachi; Kaciroti, Niko; Richards, Blair; Oh, Wonjung; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    To compare developmental outcomes of late preterm infants (34-36 weeks' gestation) with infants born at early term (37-38 weeks' gestation) and term (39-41 weeks' gestation), from infancy through kindergarten. Sample included 1000 late preterm, 1800 early term, and 3200 term infants ascertained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Direct assessments of development were performed at 9 and 24 months by using the Bayley Short Form-Research Edition T-scores and at preschool and kindergarten using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort reading and mathematics θ scores. Maternal and infant characteristics were obtained from birth certificate data and parent questionnaires. After controlling for covariates, we compared mean developmental outcomes between late preterm and full-term groups in serial cross-sectional analyses at each timepoint using multilinear regression, with pairwise comparisons testing for group differences by gestational age categories. With covariates controlled at all timepoints, at 9 months late preterm infants demonstrated less optimal developmental outcomes (T = 47.31) compared with infants born early term (T = 49.12) and term (T = 50.09) (P < .0001). This association was not seen at 24 months, (P = .66) but reemerged at preschool. Late preterm infants demonstrated less optimal scores in preschool reading (P = .0006), preschool mathematics (P = .0014), and kindergarten reading (P = .0007) compared with infants born at term gestation. Although late preterm infants demonstrate comparable developmental outcomes to full-term infants (early term and full-term gestation) at 24 months, they demonstrate less optimal reading outcomes at preschool and kindergarten timepoints. Ongoing developmental surveillance for late preterm infants is warranted into preschool and kindergarten. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Developmental Outcomes of Late Preterm Infants From Infancy to Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Kaciroti, Niko; Richards, Blair; Oh, Wonjung; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare developmental outcomes of late preterm infants (34–36 weeks’ gestation) with infants born at early term (37–38 weeks’ gestation) and term (39–41 weeks’ gestation), from infancy through kindergarten. METHODS: Sample included 1000 late preterm, 1800 early term, and 3200 term infants ascertained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Direct assessments of development were performed at 9 and 24 months by using the Bayley Short Form–Research Edition T-scores and at preschool and kindergarten using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort reading and mathematics θ scores. Maternal and infant characteristics were obtained from birth certificate data and parent questionnaires. After controlling for covariates, we compared mean developmental outcomes between late preterm and full-term groups in serial cross-sectional analyses at each timepoint using multilinear regression, with pairwise comparisons testing for group differences by gestational age categories. RESULTS: With covariates controlled at all timepoints, at 9 months late preterm infants demonstrated less optimal developmental outcomes (T = 47.31) compared with infants born early term (T = 49.12) and term (T = 50.09) (P < .0001). This association was not seen at 24 months, (P = .66) but reemerged at preschool. Late preterm infants demonstrated less optimal scores in preschool reading (P = .0006), preschool mathematics (P = .0014), and kindergarten reading (P = .0007) compared with infants born at term gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although late preterm infants demonstrate comparable developmental outcomes to full-term infants (early term and full-term gestation) at 24 months, they demonstrate less optimal reading outcomes at preschool and kindergarten timepoints. Ongoing developmental surveillance for late preterm infants is warranted into preschool and kindergarten. PMID:27456513

  18. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of early- to mid-life musical training on cognition in older adults. A Musical Training Survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into Low, Medium, and High knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups’ longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that High knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to Low knowledge participants. ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early-to mid-life musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. PMID:24375575

  19. [Late potentials and ventricular arrhythmia].

    PubMed

    Adamec, R; Zimmermann, M

    1986-04-01

    When electrodes are placed at the surface of the thorax, high-amplification electrocardiography (HA-ECG) combined with signal summation as a function of time provides a non-invasive method for detecting electric potentials occurring after the QRS complex of the clinical electrocardiogram. These potentials are called late, and can probably be likened to the "divided" or "fragmented" potentials recorded directly on the heart or in its ventricles near zones of ischemia, infarction or aneurysm. The prevalence of late potentials of ventricular activation (LPVA) and their association with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias seems well established, notably in the presence of ventricular aneurysm and anamnesis of severe ventricular arrhythmia. Some studies have shown that detection of LPVAs is of value in identifying heart patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia or sudden death. Heart disease aside, the presence of LPVAs has been demonstrated in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and reported in Fallot's tetralogy after complete correction. A standardization of recordings and a more precise definition of LPVAs are necessary before HA-ECG can become a routine clinical method. Further, the possibility of "beat by beat" recordings with "spatial" summation will allow detection of LPVAs which vary with time and in nature and hence provide a better understanding of the genesis of ventricular arrhythmias.

  20. [Left pulmonary agenesis diagnosed late].

    PubMed

    Deleanu, Oana; Pătraşcu, Natalia; Nebunoiu, Ana-Maria; Vintilă, V; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Mihălţan, F D

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 51 years old female-patient, with severe dextroscoliosis, having like unique symptom progressive dyspnea. The blood samples reveals polycythemia, the radiological exam shows the opacification of 2/3 of the left thorax, the absence of the lung structure in the other 1/3, the deviation of the mediastinum, and dextroscoliosis; the computed tomography reveals the absence of the left lung artery and the left airways, compensatory hyperinflation of the right lung and dilatation of the trunk and right pulmonary artery; the bronchoscopy does not visualize the carina or the left main bronchus, typical for pulmonary agenesis. Echocardiography confirmed the absence of left pulmonary artery and shows mild pulmonary hypertension (systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery of 33 mmHg) with dilatation of the right cavities, but good cinetics. We face a case of pulmonary agenesis lately diagnosed, with modest functional cardiologic implications, limited therapeutic options and good survival, justified by the late appearance of the pulmonary hypertension of low severity and without worsening in time.

  1. [Treatment of early and late obstetric brachial plexus palsy].

    PubMed

    Degliūte, Ramune; Pranckevicius, Sigitas; Cekanauskas, Emilis; Buinauskiene, Jūrate; Kalesinskas, Romas Jonas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review and to analyze treatment patterns of early and late obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Eighty-one children with early and late obstetric brachial plexus palsy were treated in the Department of Pediatric Orthopedics and in the Postintensive Care Unit within the period 1988-2002. Children were classified into 2 groups according to age: Ist group (67 newborns) was treated conservatively, and IInd group (14 children with late obstetric brachial plexus palsy with deformity) underwent operative treatment. Active hand movements and innervation were evaluated before and after treatment. Thirty newborns had full recovery, 32 newborns had incomplete recovery, and in 5 cases no improvement was seen. Fourteen children with late obstetric brachial plexus palsy underwent the following operations: rotation osteotomy of the humerus was performed in 10 cases, lengthening of biceps and brachialis muscle tendons--in 6 cases, transposition of triceps muscle tendon--in 1 case, transposition of pectoralis major tendon--in 3 cases and flexor carpi transposition--in 1 case. There was an improvement in active hand movements after operative treatment and rehabilitation. According to our experience, in most cases newborns recover spontaneously or after conservative treatment. Secondary reconstructive surgery of late brachial plexus palsy can improve the condition of these patients.

  2. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasser, R.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Matsumura, S.; Ida, S.

    2016-12-01

    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal ('rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is that analysis of lunar samples indicates the Moon does not preserve convincing evidence for a late veneer like Earth. Second, the expected chondritic veneer component on Mars is 0.06 weight percent. Third, the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low (≲10-6 M⊕ Myr-1) to avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga, and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins. This conclusion leads to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. Last, after the terrestrial planets had fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ∼10-3 M⊕, lower by at least an order of magnitude than most previous models suggest. Our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.

  3. Importance of airway inflammation for late asthmatic reactions induced by toluene diisocyanate in sensitized subjects.

    PubMed

    Boschetto, P; Zocca, E; Bruchi, O; Cappellazzo, G; Milani, G F; Pivirotto, F; Mapp, C E; Fabbri, L M

    1987-01-01

    To determine the importance of airway inflammation for late asthmatic reactions and increased airway responsiveness induced by TDI, we investigated whether late asthmatic reactions and increased responsiveness induced by TDI are associated with airway inflammation and whether steroids prevent them by modifying the inflammatory response within the airways. We measured FEV1 before and at regular intervals after exposure to TDI and performed dose-response curves to methacholine and bronchoalveolar lavage 8 hr after TDI in two subjects with previously documented late asthmatic reaction; then we repeated the same procedure a few weeks after treatment with steroids. Airway responsiveness and polymorphonuclear cells were increased in both subjects after the late asthmatic reaction; treatment with steroids prevented late asthmatic reaction and the increase in airway responsiveness and polymorphonuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage. These results suggest that late asthmatic reaction induced by TDI may be caused by airway inflammation.

  4. Antibiotics in late clinical development.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Martens, Evan

    2017-06-01

    Most pharmaceutical companies have stopped or have severely limited investments to discover and develop new antibiotics to treat the increasing prevalence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria, because the return on investment has been mostly negative for antibiotics that received marketing approved in the last few decades. In contrast, a few small companies have taken on this challenge and are developing new antibiotics. This review describes those antibiotics in late-stage clinical development. Most of them belong to existing antibiotic classes and a few with a narrow spectrum of activity are novel compounds directed against novel targets. The reasons for some of the past failures to find new molecules and a path forward to help attract investments to fund discovery of new antibiotics are described. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Language and syntactic impairment following stroke in late bilingual aphasics.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Muriel; Laganaro, Marina; Michel, Patrik; Martory, Marie-Dominique; Di Pietro, Marie; Abutalebi, Jubin; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2011-12-01

    Bilingual aphasia generally affects both languages. However, the age of acquisition of the second language (L2) seems to play a role in the anatomo-functional correlation of the syntactical/grammatical processes, thus potentially influencing the L2 syntactic impairment following a stroke. The present study aims to analyze the influence of late age of acquisition of the L2 on syntactic impairment in bilingual aphasic patients. Twelve late bilingual participants (speaking French as L2 and either English, German, Italian or Spanish as L1) with stroke-induced aphasia participated in the study. The MAST or BAT aphasia batteries were used to evaluate overall aphasia score. An auditory syntactic judgement task was developed and used to test participants syntactic performance. The overall aphasia scores did not differ between L1 and L2. In a multiple case analysis, only one patient had lower scores in L2. However, four patients presented significantly lower performances in syntactic processing in the late L2 than in their native language (L1). In these four patients the infarct was localized, either exclusively or at least partially, in the pre-rolandic region. This pilot study suggests that, in late bilingual aphasics, syntactic judgment abilities may be more severely impaired in L2, and that this syntactic deficit is most likely to occur following anterior lesions. 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Late Glacial and Late Holocene Paleohydrology of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichner, B.; Feakins, S. J.; Mischke, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Liu, X.; Rajabov, I.; Wang, Y.; Heinecke, L.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to deepen the understanding of past climatological, ecological and hydrological changes in Central Asia, by means of organic geochemical proxies and in close cooperation with other work groups providing biological and sedimentological data. We analysed an 8 m sediment core from Lake Karakuli, a small open freshwater lake situated at an altitude of 3,657 m between the massifs of Muztagh Ata (7,546 m) and Kongur Shan (7,719 m) in western China. Additional work is in progress on a 12 m core derived from Lake Karakul in Tajikistan, a large closed saline lake situated in a tectonic graben structure at an altitude of 3,928 m. The distance between the two lakes is 130 km and basal ages of the cores are ca. 4.7 ka BP (China) and ca. 27 ka BP (Tajikistan). The lake catchments may be classified as alpine steppe to alpine deserts with mean annual temperature of ca. 0 °C and mean annual precipitation of ca. 100 mm, respectively. Summer precipitation, associated with the Indian monsoon, accounts for <30% of the annual total, whereas most precipitation is supplied by mid-latitude Westerlies between March and May. In the small Chinese lake long-chain fatty acids (FAs) were mainly attributed to terrestrial sources by compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses. In contrast δ13C values up to -14‰ for abundant mid-chain FAs suggest aquatic origins in the large Lake Karakul. Hydrogen isotopic variability is ca. 15‰ in the mid-Holocene record and ca. 60‰ in the first data derived from the Late Glacial record. In the latter, the most pronounced change from higher to lower δD-values of aquatic biomarkers is tentatively interpreted as change from arid to more humid conditions at the Late Glacial to Holocene transition. Since in Central Asia isotopic variability of precipitation mainly correlates with temperature, we interpret high resolution δD data of terrestrial long-chain FAs in the younger core to mainly reflect mid-Holocene temperature variations

  7. Late instability following total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Luis; Restrepo, Camilo; Parvizi, Javad

    2007-06-01

    Instability is one of the most common complications after total hip arthroplasty and can present early or late after hip replacement. Late instability is considered if the event occurs five or more years after the primary arthroplasty, and in contrast to early dislocation, it appears to require operative intervention. The incidence of late instability may be greater than initially appreciated, and the cumulative rate rises with longer follow-up. The etiology of hip instability is often multifactorial with the presumed risk factors for late instability including long standing malposition of the components, trauma, deterioration in muscle mass, neurological status impairment and polyethylene wear. This article presents a synopsis of published studies on late instability and outlines our institutional experience with treatment of late dislocation following total hip arthroplasty occurring due to polyethylene wear.

  8. 7 CFR 920.112 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... percent monthly simple interest rate. Assessments for kiwifruit shall be deemed late if not received...

  9. 7 CFR 920.112 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... percent monthly simple interest rate. Assessments for kiwifruit shall be deemed late if not received...

  10. 7 CFR 920.112 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... percent monthly simple interest rate. Assessments for kiwifruit shall be deemed late if not received...

  11. The frequency of late reversibility in SPECT thallium-201 stress-redistribution studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, L D; Berman, D S; Kiat, H; Resser, K J; Friedman, J D; Rozanski, A; Maddahi, J

    1990-02-01

    The frequency of thallium-201 late reversibility was prospectively assessed in 118 patients who had stress-redistribution thallium-201 studies by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These patients demonstrated two or more segments with nonreversible defects at 4 h imaging and underwent late (18 to 72 h) redistribution imaging. When the criterion of late reversibility was defined as greater than or equal to 1 segment with 4 h nonreversible defects demonstrating late reversibility, it was present in 62 (53%) of the 118 patients and 164 (22%) of 762 segments. When the criterion of greater than or equal to 2 segments was used, late reversibility was found in 41 (35%) of 118 patients and 143 (19%) of 762 segments. The frequency of detected reversible defects increased from 27% at 4 h imaging to 43% at combined 4 h and late imaging (p less than 0.0001) and was significantly increased in all myocardial regions. In comparing the efficacy of initial and late imaging alone versus performing initial, 4 h and late imaging for the identification of reversible defects, 421 (94%) of 449 segments classified as reversible by the latter protocol were also correctly identified by the early and late imaging only approach, with the remaining 6% (28 segments) comprising those segments demonstrating the reversible pattern at 4 h and the nonreversible pattern at late imaging. No major differences were noted with respect to clinical, stress electrocardiographic and scintigraphic variables between the 118 patients undergoing late imaging and 98 additional randomly selected patients with two or more nonreversible defects at 4 h, who did not have late imaging.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Early vs Late Tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Carrie; Rudmik, Luke

    2016-10-01

    The timing of tracheostomy in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation is controversial. An important consideration that is currently missing in the literature is an evaluation of the economic impact of an early tracheostomy strategy vs a late tracheostomy strategy. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the early tracheostomy strategy vs the late tracheostomy strategy. This economic analysis was performed using a decision tree model with a 90-day time horizon. The economic perspective was that of the US health care third-party payer. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per tracheostomy avoided. Probabilities were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. Costs were obtained from the published literature and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database. A multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to account for uncertainty surrounding mean values used in the reference case. The reference case demonstrated that the cost of the late tracheostomy strategy was $45 943.81 for 0.36 of effectiveness. The cost of the early tracheostomy strategy was $31 979.12 for 0.19 of effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the late tracheostomy strategy compared with the early tracheostomy strategy was $82 145.24 per tracheostomy avoided. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000, the early tracheostomy strategy is cost-effective with 56% certainty. The adaptation of an early vs a late tracheostomy strategy depends on the priorities of the decision-maker. Up to a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80 000 per tracheostomy avoided, the early tracheostomy strategy has a higher probability of being the more cost-effective intervention.

  13. Early and late abortion methods.

    PubMed

    van Lith, D A; Wittman, R; Keith, L G

    1984-12-01

    This chapter provides a detailed description of 1st and 2nd trimester abortion techniques. In general, low morbidity is facilitated by preoperative diagnosis and evaluation, operator skill, sterile technique, avoidance of trauma, completeness of evacuation, and postoperative care. The 1st trimester technique used by the authors involves predilatation with laminaria, paracervical and intracervical blocks (anesthetic solution, 1% lignocaine with adrenaline), dilatation with either the Hawkin Ambler type or half-sized Pratt dilator, and evacuation with the van Lith or Karman type suction cannula. For 2nd trimester pregnancy termination, the authors use aspirotomy, a technique that combines the classic dilatation and evacuation method with suction curettage. An ergometrine maleate preparation is administered at the start of the procedure to produce sustained contraction of the uterine wall, decrease the chance of perforation, and accelerate the emptying process. Adrenaline in 1% lignocaine is used as a local anesthetic solution. A specially designed crushing forceps decreases the cervical dilatation required. Also presented is a technique for late 2nd trimester (16-20 weeks gestation) abortion that involves prostaglandins or the Finks dilatation and evacuation technique. The complication rate in the authors' unit for 3500 2nd trimester terminations was less than 0.5% but rose after 17 weeks of gestation.

  14. Never too late? An advantage on tests of auditory attention extends to late bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Thomas H.; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Sorace, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies, using predominantly visual tasks, indicate that early bilinguals tend to outperform monolinguals on attention tests. It remains less clear whether such advantages extend to those bilinguals who have acquired their second language later in life. We examined this question in 38 monolingual and 60 bilingual university students. The bilingual group was further subdivided into early childhood (ECB), late childhood (LCB), and early adulthood bilinguals (EAB). The assessment consisted of five subtests from the clinically validated Test of Everyday Attention (TEA). Overall, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on auditory attention tests, but not on visual search tasks. The latter observation suggests that the differences between bilinguals and monolinguals are specific and not due to a generally higher cognitive performance in bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, ECB showed a larger advantage on attention switching, LCB/EAB on selective attention. We conclude that the effects of bilingualism extend into the auditory domain and are not confined to childhood bilinguals, although their scope might be slightly different in early and late bilinguals. PMID:24904498

  15. 40 CFR 209.16 - Late intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late intervention. 209.16 Section 209.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.16 Late intervention...

  16. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishing Capacity Reduction Framework § 600.1015 Late...

  17. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  18. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of...

  19. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of...

  20. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of...

  1. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of...

  2. Cycads: fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin.

    PubMed

    Mamay, S H

    1969-04-18

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  3. Late Registration: May It Rest in Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Almost every institution of higher education engages in late registration. But evidence is mounting that the practice, originally intended to keep the doors of opportunity open for students as long as possible, wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda. Despite best intentions, late registration…

  4. 12 CFR 560.33 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 560.33 Section 560.33 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.33 Late charges. A Federal savings association may...

  5. 30 CFR 218.54 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late payments. 218.54 Section 218.54 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT COLLECTION OF MONIES AND PROVISION FOR GEOTHERMAL CREDITS AND INCENTIVES Oil and Gas, General § 218.54 Late...

  6. Late-onset offending: fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Wiecko, Filip M

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed exploration of late-onset offending. Using the National Youth Survey, this work seeks to answer three questions. First, is late-onset offending a real phenomenon? Second, if late onset does exist, is the evidence for it conditioned by how we define crime and delinquency? Finally, is late-onset offending an artifact of measurement methodology? Most literature evidencing late onset relies on official police contact and arrest data. Propensity or control theories in general posit that late onset should not exist. Propensity, namely self-control, should be instilled early in life and if absent, results in early initiation into crime and delinquency. Research in developmental psychology seems to support this notion. The findings from this study indicate that late-onset offending is almost nonexistent when self-reported measures are used leading one to conclude that contemporary evidence for late-onset is heavily conditioned by how we measure crime and delinquency. A comprehensive discussion includes future directions for research, and implications for theory development and methodology.

  7. Late Registration: May It Rest in Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Almost every institution of higher education engages in late registration. But evidence is mounting that the practice, originally intended to keep the doors of opportunity open for students as long as possible, wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda. Despite best intentions, late registration…

  8. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  9. Neonatal outcomes of late preterm and early term birth.

    PubMed

    Machado, Luis C; Passini, Renato; Rosa, Izilda R; Carvalho, Heráclito B

    2014-08-01

    To compare neonatal deaths and complications in infants born at 34-36 weeks and six days (late preterm: LPT) with those born at term (37-41 weeks and six days); to compare deaths of early term (37-38 weeks) versus late term (39-41 weeks and six days) infants; to search for any temporal trend in LPT rate. A retrospective cohort study of live births was conducted in the Campinas State University, Brazil, from January 2004 to December 2010. Multiple pregnancies, malformations and congenital diseases were excluded. Control for confounders was performed. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. After exclusions, there were 17,988 births (1653 late preterm and 16,345 term infants). A higher mortality in LPT versus term was observed, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 5.29 (p<0.0001). Most complications were significantly associated with LPT births. There was a significant increase in LPT rate throughout the study period, but no significant trend in the rate of medically indicated deliveries. A higher mortality was observed in early term versus late term infants, with adjusted OR: 2.43 (p=0.038). LPT and early term infants have a significantly higher risk of death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. )

    1991-06-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  11. Nausea and vomiting in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Linseth, Glenda; Vari, Patty

    2005-05-01

    Nausea and vomiting in late pregnancy is a little-studied phenomenon. In this study of 116 midwestern women, 32% of the women had nausea and vomiting after 20 weeks gestation. The purpose of this study was to examine demographic, anthropometric, maternal health factors, and pregnancy outcomes in women who had late nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) and those that did not. Women who experienced late NVP had significantly higher parity, were older, gained less weight in pregnancy, and slept fewer hours per night than women who did not experience late NVP. By being aware of prenatal factors that may affect nausea and vomiting in late pregnancy, health care providers will be better able to maximize the quality of life for these women.

  12. Impact of late radiation effects on cancer survivor children: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify the late effects of radiation exposure in pediatric cancer survivors. An integrated literature review was performed in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS and SciELO. Included were articles in Portuguese and English, published over the past 10 years, using the following keywords: "neoplasias/neoplasms" AND "radioterapia/radiotherapy" AND "radiação/radiation". After analysis, 14 articles - published in nine well-known journals - met the inclusion criteria. The publications were divided into two categories: "Late endocrine effects" and "Late non-endocrine effects". Considering the increased survival rates in children who had cancer, the impact of late effects of exposure to radiation during radiological examinations for diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Childhood cancer survivors were exposed to several late effects and should be early and regularly followed up, even when exposed to low radiation doses.

  13. Impact of late radiation effects on cancer survivor children: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We aimed to identify the late effects of radiation exposure in pediatric cancer survivors. An integrated literature review was performed in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS and SciELO. Included were articles in Portuguese and English, published over the past 10 years, using the following keywords: “neoplasias/neoplasms” AND “radioterapia/radiotherapy” AND “radiação/radiation”. After analysis, 14 articles - published in nine well-known journals - met the inclusion criteria. The publications were divided into two categories: “Late endocrine effects” and “Late non-endocrine effects”. Considering the increased survival rates in children who had cancer, the impact of late effects of exposure to radiation during radiological examinations for diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Childhood cancer survivors were exposed to several late effects and should be early and regularly followed up, even when exposed to low radiation doses. PMID:26313432

  14. The late Nd reflects a memory trace containing amodal spatial information.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Sean; Singhal, Anthony; Fowler, Barry

    2005-09-01

    The early Nd reflects the analysis of simple features of selectively attended auditory stimuli, but the precise nature of the more complex processing reflected by the late Nd is unclear. The late but not the early Nd is sensitive to interference from a concurrently presented visual spatial attention switching task. This experiment investigated whether the late Nd is also sensitive to deeper visual attention switching. Twenty-one subjects performed a dichotic listening task concurrently with either visual spatial or visual letter matching attention switching tasks. Late Nd amplitude was reduced by the spatial but not the letter matching task, indicating insensitivity to deeper attention switching. P300 amplitude was reduced by both tasks. Reductions in N100 and P200 were uncorrelated. We propose that, in part, the late Nd reflects an amodal memory trace containing spatial information, possibly involving a "where" rather than a "what" auditory pathway.

  15. Amygdalae morphometry in late-life depression†

    PubMed Central

    Tamburo, Robert J.; Siegle, Greg J.; Stetten, George D.; Cois, C. Aaron; Butters, Meryl A.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Aizenstein, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The amygdalae have been a focus of mood disorder research due to their key role in processing emotional information. It has been long known that depressed individuals demonstrate impaired functional performance while engaged in emotional tasks. The structural basis for these functional differences has been investigated via volumetric analysis with mixed findings. In this study, we examined the morphometric basis for these functional changes in late-life depression (LLD) by analyzing both the size and shape of the amygdalae with the hypothesis that shape differences may be apparent even when overall volume differences are inconsistent. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 11 healthy, elderly individuals and 14 depressed, elderly individuals. Amygdalar size was quantified by computing total volume and amygdalar shape was quantified with a shape analysis method that we have developed. Results No significant volumetric differences were found for either amygdala. Nevertheless, localized regions of significant shape variation were detected for the left and right amygdalae. The most significant difference was contraction (LLD subjects as compared to control subjects) in a region typically associated with the basolateral nucleus, which plays a key role in emotion recognition in neurobiologic models of depression. Conclusions In this LLD study, we have shown that, despite insignificant amygdalar volumetric findings, variations of amygdalar shape can be detected and localized. With further investigation, morphometric analysis of various brain structures may help elucidate the neurobiology associated with LLD and other mood disorders. PMID:19085964

  16. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups' longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that high-knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to low-knowledge participants. The ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early- to midlife musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Late neuropsychologic status after childhood head trauma.

    PubMed

    Costeff, H; Abraham, E; Brenner, T; Horowitz, I; Apter, N; Sadan, N; Najenson, T

    1988-01-01

    A neurologic and neuropsychologic test battery was administered to a sample of 35 children drawn from all those in a defined geographic area who had been hospitalized for head trauma before age 7 during the years 1970-1976. Examination was performed 3 1/2 to 10 years after injury, at age 6-15. Twelve subjects had been diagnosed at the time of injury as suffering moderate insult and had been referred to the metropolitan neurosurgical center, while twenty-three with only mild injury had been retained for observation in a local pediatric ward. The twelve with more severe insult were significantly inferior to the other subjects on the Block Design and Coding subtests of the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Koppitz score of the Bender Test, the WISC-R scatter, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the GATB Motor Speed Test and the Bourdon-Wiersma Vigilance Test showed less diagnostic power and failed to distinguish between the group with more severe injury and that with less. A detailed and carefully scored neurologic examination also failed to distinguish between the two groups. The findings suggest that relatively common traumatic injury may be associated with detectable late cognitive deficit, and that some WISC-R subtests may be among the best measures for detecting such deficit.

  18. Late-Glacial to Late-holocene Shifts in Global Precipitation Delta(sup 18)O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasechko, S.; Lechler, A.; Pausata, F.S.R.; Fawcett, P.J.; Gleeson, T.; Cendon, D.I.; Galewsky, J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Risi, C.; Sharp, Z. D.; Welker, J. M.; Werner, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructions of Quaternary climate are often based on the isotopic content of paleo-precipitation preserved in proxy records. While many paleo-precipitation isotope records are available, few studies have synthesized these dispersed records to explore spatial patterns of late-glacial precipitation delta(sup 18)O. Here we present a synthesis of 86 globally distributed groundwater (n 59), cave calcite (n 15) and ice core (n 12) isotope records spanning the late-glacial (defined as 50,000 to 20,000 years ago) to the late-Holocene (within the past 5000 years). We show that precipitation delta(sup 18)O changes from the late-glacial to the late-Holocene range from -7.1% (delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene) > delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) to +1.7% (delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) > delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene), with the majority (77) of records having lower late-glacial delta(sup 18)O than late-Holocene delta(sup 18)O values. High-magnitude, negative precipitation delta(sup 18)O shifts are common at high latitudes, high altitudes and continental interiors.

  19. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  20. Late Cenozoic intraplate faulting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The intensity and tectonic origin of late Cenozoic intraplate deformation in eastern Australia is relatively poorly understood. Here we show that Cenozoic volcanic rocks in southeast Queensland have been deformed by numerous faults. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and field observations, structural investigations were conducted on these faults. Results show that faults have mainly undergone strike-slip movement with a reverse component, displacing Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging in ages from ˜31 to ˜21 Ma. These ages imply that faulting must have occurred after the late Oligocene. Late Cenozoic deformation has mostly occurred due to the reactivation of major faults, which were active during episodes of basin formation in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and later during the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene. The wrench reactivation of major faults in the late Cenozoic also gave rise to the occurrence of brittle subsidiary reverse strike-slip faults that affected Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Intraplate transpressional deformation possibly resulted from far-field stresses transmitted from the collisional zones at the northeast and southeast boundaries of the Australian plate during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and from the late Miocene to the Pliocene. These events have resulted in the hitherto unrecognized reactivation of faults in eastern Australia.