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Sample records for deformation energy released

  1. Dike propagation energy balance from deformation modeling and seismic release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Alessandro; Aoki, Yosuke; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2017-06-01

    Magma is transported in the crust mainly by dike intrusions. In volcanic areas, dikes can ascend toward the free surface and also move by lateral propagation, eventually feeding flank eruptions. Understanding dike mechanics is a key to forecasting the expected propagation and associated hazard. Several studies have been conducted on dike mechanisms and propagation; however, a less in-depth investigated aspect is the relation between measured dike-induced deformation and the seismicity released during its propagation. We individuated a simple x that can be used as a proxy of the expected mechanical energy released by a propagating dike and is related to its average thickness. For several intrusions around the world (Afar, Japan, and Mount Etna), we correlate such mechanical energy to the seismic moment released by the induced earthquakes. We obtain an empirical law that quantifies the expected seismic energy released before arrest. The proposed approach may be helpful to predict the total seismic moment that will be released by an intrusion and thus to control the energy status during its propagation and the time of dike arrest.Plain Language SummaryDike propagation is a dominant mechanism for magma ascent, transport, and eruptions. Besides being an intriguing physical process, it has critical hazard implications. After the magma intrusion starts, it is difficult to predict when and where a specific horizontal dike is going to halt and what its final length will be. In our study, we singled an equation that can be used as a proxy of the expected mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> to be <span class="hlt">released</span> by the opening dike. We related this expected <span class="hlt">energy</span> to the seismic moment of several eruptive intrusions around the world (Afar region, Japanese volcanoes, and Mount Etna). The proposed novel approach is helpful to estimate the total seismic moment to be <span class="hlt">released</span>, therefore allowing potentially predicting when the dike will end its propagation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25140489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25140489"><span>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of a pressurized crack in soft elastic materials: effects of surface tension and large <span class="hlt">deformation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Tianshu; Long, Rong; Hui, Chung-Yuen</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>In this paper we present a theoretical study on how surface tension affects fracture of soft solids. In classical fracture theory, the resistance to fracture is partly attributed to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> required to create new surfaces. Thus, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> to the crack tip must overcome the surface <span class="hlt">energy</span> in order to propagate a crack. In soft materials, however, surface tension can cause significant <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and can reduce the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate for crack propagation by resisting the stretch of crack surfaces. We quantify this effect by studying the inflation of a penny-shaped crack in an infinite elastic body with applied pressure. To avoid numerical difficulty caused by singular fields near the crack tip, we derived an expression for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate which depends on the applied pressure, the surface tension, the inflated crack volume and the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> crack area. This expression is evaluated using a newly developed finite element method with surface tension elements. Our calculation shows that, when the elasto-capillary number ω ≡ σ/Ea is sufficiently large, where σ is the isotropic surface tension, E is the small strain Young's modulus and a is the initial crack radius, both the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate and the crack opening displacement of an incompressible neo-Hookean solid are significantly reduced by surface tension. For a sufficiently high elasto-capillary number, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate can be negative for applied pressure less than a critical amount, suggesting that surface tension can cause crack healing in soft elastic materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2612B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2612B"><span>Helium <span class="hlt">release</span> during shale <span class="hlt">deformation</span>: Experimental validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer <span class="hlt">release</span> monitoring during <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, accumulated helium could be <span class="hlt">released</span> as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. During the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. <span class="hlt">Release</span> of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium <span class="hlt">released</span> during <span class="hlt">deformation</span> is observable at the laboratory scale and the <span class="hlt">release</span> is tightly coupled to the shale <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. These first measurements of dynamic helium <span class="hlt">release</span> from rocks undergoing <span class="hlt">deformation</span> show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMMR41B2704B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMMR41B2704B"><span>Real-time noble gas <span class="hlt">release</span> signaling rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, S. J.; Gardner, W. P.; Lee, H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present empirical results/relationships of rock strain, microfracture density, acoustic emissions, and noble gas <span class="hlt">release</span> from laboratory triaxial experiments for a granite and basalt. Noble gases are contained in most crustal rock at inter/intra granular sites, their <span class="hlt">release</span> during natural and manmade stress and strain changes represents a signal of brittle/semi brittle <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history and age, fluids present, and uranium, thorium and potassium-40 concentrations in the rocks that affect radiogenic noble gases (helium, argon) production. Noble gas emission and its relationship to crustal processes have been studied, including correlations to tectonic velocities and qualitative estimates of deep permeability from surface measurements, finger prints of nuclear weapon detonation, and as potential precursory signals to earthquakes attributed to gas <span class="hlt">release</span> due to pre-seismic stress, dilatancy and/or rock fracturing. Helium emission has been shown as a precursor of volcanic activity. Real-time noble gas <span class="hlt">release</span> is observed using an experimental system utilizing mass spectrometers to measure gases <span class="hlt">released</span> during triaxial rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Noble gas <span class="hlt">release</span> is shown to represent a sensitive precursor signal of rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> by relating real-time noble gas <span class="hlt">release</span> to stress-strain state changes and acoustic emissions. We propose using noble gas <span class="hlt">release</span> to also signal rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in boreholes, mines and nuclear waste repositories. We postulate each rock exhibits a gas <span class="hlt">release</span> signature which is microstructure, stress/strain state, and or permanent <span class="hlt">deformation</span> dependent. Such relationships, when calibrated, may be used to sense rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and then develop predictive models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the US Dept. of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>'s National Nuclear Security Administration under</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21935538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21935538"><span>Red blood cell dynamics: from cell <span class="hlt">deformation</span> to ATP <span class="hlt">release</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wan, Jiandi; Forsyth, Alison M; Stone, Howard A</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) <span class="hlt">deformation</span> under both static and dynamic, i.e., flow, conditions have been studied extensively since the mid 1960s. <span class="hlt">Deformation</span>-induced biochemical reactions and possible signaling in RBCs, however, were proposed only fifteen years ago. Therefore, the fundamental relationship between RBC <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and cellular signaling dynamics i.e., mechanotransduction, remains incompletely understood. Quantitative understanding of the mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs requires integrative studies of physical models of RBC <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and cellular biochemical reactions. In this article we review the physical models of RBC <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, spanning from continuum membrane mechanics to cellular skeleton dynamics under both static and flow conditions, and elaborate the mechanistic links involved in <span class="hlt">deformation</span>-induced ATP <span class="hlt">release</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950038652&hterms=Free+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DFree%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950038652&hterms=Free+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DFree%2Benergy"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in solar flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (Compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage, and the fragmentation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in time and space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950038652&hterms=Emilia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DEmilia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950038652&hterms=Emilia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DEmilia"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in solar flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (Compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage, and the fragmentation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in time and space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NuPhA.952...18L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NuPhA.952...18L"><span>Nuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from fragmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive <span class="hlt">energy</span> gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation <span class="hlt">energies</span>, we find the peaks of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these <span class="hlt">energy</span> peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413154','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413154"><span>Effect of plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> on deuterium retention and <span class="hlt">release</span> in tungsten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Terentyev, D. Lambrinou, K.; Minov, B.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; Zayachuk, Y.; Bystrov, K.; Dubinko, A.; Van Oost, G.</p> <p>2015-02-28</p> <p>The effect of severe plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> on the deuterium retention in tungsten exposed to high-flux low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> plasma (flux ∼ 10{sup 24 }D/m{sup 2}/s, energy ∼ 50 eV, and fluence up to 3 × 10{sup 26 }D/m{sup 2}) at the plasma generator Pilot-PSI was studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The desorption spectra in both reference and plastically <span class="hlt">deformed</span> samples were deconvolved into three contributions attributed to the detrapping from dislocations, deuterium-vacancy clusters, and pores, respectively. The plastically induced <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, resulting in high dislocation density, does not change the positions of the three peaks, but alters their amplitudes as compared to the reference material. The appearance of blisters detected by scanning electron microscopy and the desorption peak attributed to the <span class="hlt">release</span> from pores (i.e., deuterium bubbles) were suppressed in the plastically <span class="hlt">deformed</span> samples but only up to a certain fluence. Beyond 5 × 10{sup 25 }D/m{sup 2}, the <span class="hlt">release</span> from the bubbles in the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> material is essentially higher than in the reference material. Based on the presented results, we suggest that a dense dislocation network increases the incubation dose needed for the appearance of blisters, associated with deuterium bubbles, by offering numerous nucleation sites for deuterium clusters eventually transforming into deuterium-vacancy clusters by punching out jogs on dislocation lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PPN....39..490K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PPN....39..490K"><span>Prospects for isomeric <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karamian, S. A.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The state of experimental studies and promising proposals for the application of nuclear isomers presented as controlled <span class="hlt">energy</span> or γ-ray sources are reviewed. The properties of isomeric states, methods of their production, and approaches to their efficient stimulation using various types of radiation are analyzed. The long-lived isomers, which can be accumulated in reactor irradiations or in other nuclear interactions with abundant yield, are listed. The isomers are estimated according to their specific <span class="hlt">energy</span> accumulated per nucleus and the level of the cross section for their formation in reactions with neutrons. The nuclei are classified as promising either for obtaining controlled γ-ray pulses, for the enhanced <span class="hlt">release</span> of the radioactive decay <span class="hlt">energy</span>, or for experimental studies on detecting forbidden electromagnetic transitions from the ground to isomeric state. In all cases, the possibility of external-stimulus action on nuclear transitions has key significance, which should become the subject of investigations. The results of successful observation of stimulation of isomers are described at excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> E* > 1 MeV in the reactions with bremsstrahlung photons and Coulomb excitation in the ion beam. The essential increase in the K-hindered transitions with increasing <span class="hlt">energy</span> and also the K-mixing at high rotational frequency for high-spin levels are discussed. The attention is focused on attempts to detect the triggering induced by the radiation in the x-ray range, in particular, that of the 178 m2Hf isomer with the help of x-ray sources and the synchrotron radiation. Proposals for experiments with other isomers are considered. The possibility of affecting the nuclear states by means of ionization of electron shells of a corresponding atom is discussed as promising, and various schemes of similar experiments are proposed. The atomic cross sections are eight orders of magnitude higher than the nuclear ones; therefore, the stimulation of an isomer can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800052858&hterms=uchida&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Duchida','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800052858&hterms=uchida&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Duchida"><span>Primary <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. [during solar flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kahler, S.; Spicer, D.; Uchida, Y.; Zirin, H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The physical processes by which the magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of a solar active region is converted to other forms of <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the appearance of a solar flare are discussed. Observations of the secondary manifestations of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, such as thermal plasmas and energetic particle emissions, are presented, with particular attention given to the temporal variations of flare radiation, the various forms of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> density, flare locations and sizes, <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions and H alpha, hard X-ray and microwave burst events. Current models of the primary <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> process are surveyed, and the models of Spicer (1976, 1977), which explains rapid flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in terms of multiple tearing modes causing reconnection in sheared magnetic fields, and Uchida and Sakurai (1976, 1978), which attributes primary <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> to dynamic collapse caused by the interchange instability of the neutral sheet, are examined in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94f4022O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94f4022O"><span><span class="hlt">Deformed</span> matter bounce with dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> epoch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We extend the loop quantum cosmology matter bounce scenario in order to include a dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> era, which ends abruptly at a rip singularity where the scale factor and the Hubble rate diverge. In the "<span class="hlt">deformed</span> matter bounce scenario," the Universe is contracting from an initial noncausal matter dominated era until it reaches a minimal radius. After that it expands in a decelerating way, until at late times, where it expands in an accelerating way, and thus the model is described by a dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> era that follows the matter dominated era. Depending on the choice of the free parameters of the model, the dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> era is quintessential as what follows the matter domination era, and eventually it crosses the phantom divide line and becomes phantom. At the end of the dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> era, a rip singularity exists, where the scale factor and Hubble rate diverge; however, the physical system cannot reach the singularity, since the effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> density and pressure become complex. This indicates two things, first that the ordinary loop quantum cosmology matter bounce evolution stops, thus ending the infinite repetition of the ordinary matter bounce scenario. Second, the fact that both the pressure and the density become complex probably indicates that the description of the cosmic evolution within the theoretical context of loop quantum cosmology ceases to describe the physics of the system and possibly a more fundamental theory of quantum gravity is needed near the would be rip singularity. We describe the qualitative features of the model, and we also investigate how this cosmology could be realized by a viscous fluid in the context of loop quantum cosmology. In addition to this, we show how this <span class="hlt">deformed</span> model can be realized by a canonical scalar field filled Universe, in the context of loop quantum cosmology. Finally, we demonstrate how the model can be generated by a vacuum F (R ) gravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5454295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5454295"><span>Serpentine locomotion through elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Movchan, N. V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A model for serpentine locomotion is derived from a novel perspective based on concepts from configurational mechanics. The motion is realized through the <span class="hlt">release</span> of the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of a <span class="hlt">deformable</span> rod, sliding inside a frictionless channel, which represents a snake moving against lateral restraints. A new formulation is presented, correcting previous results and including situations never analysed so far, as in the cases when the serpent's body lies only partially inside the restraining channel or when the body has a muscle relaxation localized in a small zone. Micromechanical considerations show that propulsion is the result of reactions tangential to the frictionless constraint and acting on the snake's body, a counter-intuitive feature in mechanics. It is also experimentally demonstrated that the propulsive force driving serpentine motion can be directly measured on a designed apparatus in which flexible bars sweep a frictionless channel. Experiments fully confirm the theoretical modelling, so that the presented results open the way to exploration of effects, such as variability in the bending stiffness or channel geometry or friction, on the propulsive force of snake models made up of elastic rods. PMID:28566512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030006690','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030006690"><span>Quantification of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Composite Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate is usually suggested as a quantifier for assessing structural damage tolerance. Computational prediction of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate is based on composite mechanics with micro-stress level damage assessment, finite element structural analysis and damage progression tracking modules. This report examines several issues associated with <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates in composite structures as follows: Chapter I demonstrates computational simulation of an adhesively bonded composite joint and validates the computed <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates by comparison with acoustic emission signals in the overall sense. Chapter II investigates the effect of crack plane orientation with respect to fiber direction on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates. Chapter III quantifies the effects of contiguous constraint plies on the residual stiffness of a 90 deg ply subjected to transverse tensile fractures. Chapter IV compares ICAN and ICAN/JAVA solutions of composites. Chapter V examines the effects of composite structural geometry and boundary conditions on damage progression characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030062779','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030062779"><span>Quantification of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Composite Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minnetyan, Levon</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate is usually suggested as a quantifier for assessing structural damage tolerance. Computational prediction of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate is based on composite mechanics with micro-stress level damage assessment, finite element structural analysis and damage progression tracking modules. This report examines several issues associated with <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates in composite structures as follows: Chapter I demonstrates computational simulation of an adhesively bonded composite joint and validates the computed <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates by comparison with acoustic emission signals in the overall sense. Chapter II investigates the effect of crack plane orientation with respect to fiber direction on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates. Chapter III quantifies the effects of contiguous constraint plies on the residual stiffness of a 90 ply subjected to transverse tensile fractures. Chapter IV compares ICAN and ICAN/JAVA solutions of composites. Chapter V examines the effects of composite structural geometry and boundary conditions on damage progression characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810039639&hterms=Seismic+waves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DSeismic%2Bwaves','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810039639&hterms=Seismic+waves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DSeismic%2Bwaves"><span>Seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of the moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Lunar seismicity is investigated by calculating various source parameters for a number of shallow and deep-focus moonquakes. The seismic moment, seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, annual seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, stress drop, and body-wave magnitude are determined for the largest shallow moonquakes and for large deep-focus events. It is found that the shallow events dominate the lunar seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, that tidal dissipation may account for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> by the deep-focus events, and that the stress drops for the deep-focus events are comparable to or smaller than the calculated tidal stresses. A comparison of the results with terrestrial data indicates that the seismic characteristics of a planet are controlled more by tectonic style and state than by the relative magnitude of the driving forces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1021175','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1021175"><span>Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-17-10 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span>...N) <span class="hlt">Energy</span> /Work/Power electron volt (eV) 1.602 177 × 10 –19 joule (J) erg 1 × 10 –7 joule (J) kiloton (kt) (TNT equivalent) 4.184 × 10 12...customary unit. Grant #  HDTRA 1-12-1-0044 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Final Report PI: Keith A. Nelson 617-253-1423 kanelson</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4310688B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4310688B"><span><span class="hlt">Release</span> of radiogenic noble gases as a new signal of rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Lee, Hyunwoo</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this study we investigate the <span class="hlt">release</span> of radiogenic noble gas isotopes during mechanical <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. We developed an analytical system for dynamic mass spectrometry of noble gas composition and helium <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of gas produced during mechanical <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of rocks. Our results indicate that rocks <span class="hlt">release</span> accumulated radiogenic helium and argon from mineral grains as they undergo <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. We found that the <span class="hlt">release</span> of accumulated 4He and 40Ar from rocks follows a reproducible pattern and can provide insight into the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> process. Increased gas <span class="hlt">release</span> can be observed before dilation, and macroscopic failure is observed during high-pressure triaxial rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> experiments. Accumulated radiogenic noble gases can be <span class="hlt">released</span> due to fracturing of mineral grains during small-scale strain in Earth materials. Helium and argon are highly mobile, conservative species and could be used to provide information on changes in the state of stress and strain in Earth materials, and as an early warning signal of macroscopic failure. These results pave the way for the use of noble gases to trace and monitor rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> for earthquake prediction and a variety of other subsurface engineering projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T33C2433S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T33C2433S"><span>Propagation <span class="hlt">Energies</span> Inferred from <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> Bands in Sandstone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, R. A.; Soliva, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The J-integral is used to calculate the band propagation <span class="hlt">energies</span> Jband for pure and shear-enhanced compaction bands from four sandstones from around the world. The value obtained previously for the Valley of Fire (Utah) site assumed compactional offsets only across the bands; shearing offsets along these and shear-enhanced compaction bands (SECBs) from the Buckskin Gulch (Utah) and the recently reported Boncavaï quarry near Mornas (France) are consistent with trigonometrically obtained estimates calculated from band thickness and angle to the maximum compressive principal stress. Compactional offsets were calculated from porosity reductions from host rock to band. Cataclastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> bands from the Quartier de l'Etang quarry near Orange (France) were also analyzed for comparison with bands having smaller ratios of shear/compaction. Normal and shear stresses resolved across the bands at the time of their formation were estimated from stratigraphic overburden and friction coefficients for porous sandstones measured in the laboratory. Assuming that the SECBs may be characterized by small-scale yielding, so that Jband is equivalent to the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate G, the values of Jband can be compared to the previous values. SECBs having strike-slip offsets from Valley of Fire have Jband = 11.1 kJ/m2, consistent with the previously reported range of GIc = 10-60 kJ/m2 calculated by using the J-integral approach by Rudnicki and Sternlof [2005]. Pure compaction bands (PCBs) from the same site have Jband = 5.5 kJ/m2, implying that less work is required to propagate PCBs than SECBs. The value of Jband for the Buckskin Gulch site, 60.5 kJ/m2, is consistent with the lower range of values for strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate obtained previously, GIc = 55-120 kJ/m2. Band propagation <span class="hlt">energy</span> for SECBs from the Boncavaï quarry site, Jband = 16.4 kJ/m2, is comparable to that for similar structures from the Valley of Fire site. Cataclastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> bands at the Orange quarry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PDU....16....1D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PDU....16....1D"><span>Cosmology of q-<span class="hlt">deformed</span> dark matter and dark <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di˙l, Emre</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>In this study, we propose a novel dark cosmology consisting an interacting q-<span class="hlt">deformed</span> spinor field dark matter and scalar field dark <span class="hlt">energy</span>. We investigate the proposed <span class="hlt">deformed</span> dark cosmology in metric-affine Einstein- Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory. Firstly, we construct the action integral of the model, in order to obtain the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-momentum tensor of the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> dark matter and dark <span class="hlt">energy</span>, from which the <span class="hlt">energy</span> density and pressure of the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> dark matter and dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> can be obtained, respectively. After obtaining the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> densities and pressures, we set up the Friedmann equations, continuity equations and equation of motions for this dark model. Then, we obtain the attractor solutions and stability analysis of the model for the accelerated expansion phase of the universe. We also investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> parameter on the stable accelerated expansion behavior. Consequently, by mapping the interaction term and the field potentials we present the relationship between them and obtain the constraint on the interaction term in order to obtain a stable attractor solution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApPhA..87..721D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApPhA..87..721D"><span>Stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> behaviour of disordered carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dasgupta, K.; Barat, P.; Sarkar, A.; Mukherjee, P.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The use of graphite as a moderator in a low temperature thermal nuclear reactor is restricted due to accumulation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> caused by displacement of atoms by neutrons and high energetic particles. Thermal transients may lead to a <span class="hlt">release</span> of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> that may raise the temperature of the fuel clad above the design limit. Disordered carbon is thought to be an alternative choice for this purpose. Two types of disordered carbon composites, namely, CB (made up of 15 wt. % carbon black dispersed in carbonized phenolic resin) and PAN (made up of 20 vol. % chopped polyacrylonitrile carbon fibre dispersed in carbonized phenolic resin matrix) have been irradiated with 145 MeV Ne6+ ions at three fluence levels of 1.0×1013, 5.0×1013 and 1.5×1014 Ne6+/cm2, respectively. The XRD patterns revealed that both the samples remained disordered even after irradiation. The maximum <span class="hlt">release</span> of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> for CB was 212 J/g and that of PAN was 906 J/g. For CB, the <span class="hlt">release</span> of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> was a first order reaction with activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 2.79 eV and a frequency factor of 3.72×1028 per second. 13% of the defects got annealed by heating up to 700 °C. PAN showed a third-order <span class="hlt">release</span> rate with activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 1.69 eV and a frequency factor of 1.77×1014 per second. 56% of the total defects got annealed by heating it up to 700 °C. CB seems to be the better choice than PAN as it showed less <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> with a slower rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000040&hterms=hygroscopic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhygroscopic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000040&hterms=hygroscopic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhygroscopic"><span>Strain-<span class="hlt">Energy-Release</span> Rates In Delamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raju, I. S.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Q3DG computer program developed to perform quasi-three-dimensional stress analysis of composite laminates containing delaminations. Calculates strain-<span class="hlt">energy-release</span> rates for long, rectangular composite laminates containing delaminations and subjected to any combination of mechanical, thermal, and hygroscopic loading. Written in FORTRAN V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChJME.tmp..108G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChJME.tmp..108G"><span>Dynamic soft tissue <span class="hlt">deformation</span> estimation based on <span class="hlt">energy</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Yao, Bin</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The needle placement accuracy of millimeters is required in many needle-based surgeries. The tissue <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, especially that occurring on the surface of organ tissue, affects the needle-targeting accuracy of both manual and robotic needle insertions. It is necessary to understand the mechanism of tissue <span class="hlt">deformation</span> during needle insertion into soft tissue. In this paper, soft tissue surface <span class="hlt">deformation</span> is investigated on the basis of continuum mechanics, where a geometry model is presented to quantitatively approximate the volume of tissue <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. The <span class="hlt">energy</span>-based method is presented to the dynamic process of needle insertion into soft tissue based on continuum mechanics, and the volume of the cone is exploited to quantitatively approximate the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> on the surface of soft tissue. The external work is converted into potential, kinetic, dissipated, and strain <span class="hlt">energies</span> during the dynamic rigid needle-tissue interactive process. The needle insertion experimental setup, consisting of a linear actuator, force sensor, needle, tissue container, and a light, is constructed while an image-based method for measuring the depth and radius of the soft tissue surface <span class="hlt">deformations</span> is introduced to obtain the experimental data. The relationship between the changed volume of tissue <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and the insertion parameters is created based on the law of conservation of <span class="hlt">energy</span>, with the volume of tissue <span class="hlt">deformation</span> having been obtained using image-based measurements. The experiments are performed on phantom specimens, and an <span class="hlt">energy</span>-based analytical fitted model is presented to estimate the volume of tissue <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. The experimental results show that the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-based analytical fitted model can predict the volume of soft tissue <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, and the root mean squared errors of the fitting model and experimental data are 0.61 and 0.25 at the velocities 2.50 mm/s and 5.00 mm/s. The estimating parameters of the soft tissue surface <span class="hlt">deformations</span> are proven to be useful</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6684P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6684P"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in braided coronal loops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pontin, David; Hornig, Gunnar; Galsgaard, Klaus; Candelaresi, Simon</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>I will examine the dynamics of solar coronal loops containing non-trivial magnetic field line braiding, in the context of Parker's braiding mechanism for coronal heating. The existence of braided force-free equilibria will be discussed, including a demonstration that these equilibria must contain current layers whose thickness deceases for increasing field complexity. The implication for the corona is that if one considers a line-tied coronal loop that is driven by photospheric motions, then the eventual onset of reconnection and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is inevitable. Once the initial reconnection event is triggered a turbulent relaxation ensues. The properties of this relaxation will be discussed, together with the expected observational signatures of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in such a braided coronal loop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..770...72C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..770...72C"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> balance and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> at scission in 240Pu fission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caamaño, Manuel; Farget, Fanny</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The experimental determination of the total excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span>, the total kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and the evaporation neutron multiplicity of fully identified fragments produced in transfer-induced fission of 240Pu, combined with reasonable assumptions, permits to extract the intrinsic and collective excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the fragments as a function of their atomic number, along with their quadrupole <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and their distance at scission. The results show that the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> increases with the atomic number, Z, except for a local maximum around Z = 44 and a minimum around Z = 50, associated with the effect of <span class="hlt">deformed</span> shells at Z ∼ 44, N ∼ 64, and spherical shells in 132Sn, respectively. The distance between the fragments also shows a minimum around Z1 = 44, Z2 = 50, suggesting a mechanism that links the effect of structure with the length of the neck at scission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...577A..43S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...577A..43S"><span>Sunspot waves and flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sych, R.; Karlický, M.; Altyntsev, A.; Dudík, J.; Kashapova, L.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Context. We study the possibility of flare process triggering by waves propagating from the sunspot along a magnetic loop (channel) to a nearby flare site. Aims: We present a relationship between the dynamics of ~3-min slow magnetoacoustic waves in the sunspot and flare emergence process. Waves propagating in the magnetic channel whose one foot is anchored in the umbra represent the disturbing agent responsible for triggering the flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. Methods: We applied time-distance plots and pixel wavelet filtration methods to obtain spatio-temporal distribution of wave power variations in radio and SDO/AIA data. To find the magnetic channel, we used potential magnetic field extrapolation of SDO/HMI magnetograms. The propagation velocity of wave fronts was measured from wave locations at specific times. Results: In the correlation curves of the 17 GHz (NoRH) radio emission, we found a monotonous <span class="hlt">energy</span> amplification of the 3-min waves in the sunspot umbra before the 2012 June 7 flare. This amplification was associated with an increase in the length of the oscillatory wakes in coronal loops (SDO/AIA, 171 Å) prior to the flare onset. A peculiarity of the flare is the constant level of the flare emission in soft X-rays (RHESSI, 3-25 keV) for ~10 min after the short impulsive phase, which indicates continuing <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. Throughout this time, we found transverse oscillations of the flare loop with a 30 s period in the radio-frequency range (NoRH, 17 GHz). This period appears to be related to the 3-min waves from the sunspot. The magnetic field extrapolation based on SDO/HMI magnetograms shows the existence of the magnetic channel (waveguide) connecting the sunspot with the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> region. Conclusions: We analysed the sunspot 3-min wave dynamics and found a correlation between the oscillation power amplification and flare triggering in the region connected to the sunspot through the magnetic channel. We propose that this amplified wave flux triggered the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27762047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27762047"><span>A Responsive Battery with Controlled <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jian; Cheng, Zhihua; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti</p> <p>2016-11-14</p> <p>A new type of responsive battery with the fascinating feature of pressure perceptibility has been developed, which can spontaneously, timely and reliably control the power outputs (e.g., current and voltage) in response to pressure changes. The device design is based on the structure of the Zn-air battery, in which graphene-coated sponge serves as pressure-sensitive air cathode that endows the whole system with the capability of self-controlled <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. The responsive batteries exhibit superior battery performance with high open-circuit voltage (1.3 V), and competitive areal capacity of 1.25 mAh cm(-2) . This work presents an important move towards next-generation intelligent <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage devices with <span class="hlt">energy</span> management function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG36006L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG36006L"><span>Wetting on a <span class="hlt">deformable</span> substrate with finite <span class="hlt">deformations</span> and asymmetrical substrate surface <span class="hlt">energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Limat, Laurent; de Pascalis, Riccardo; Dervaux, Julien; Ionescu, Ioan; Perthame, Benoit</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Wetting on soft compounds is still imperfectly understood, especially when the dry and wetted parts of the substrate have two different values of surface <span class="hlt">energies</span> (contact angle different than 90 degrees). The problem is made very complex by geometrical non-linearities arising from finite slope of the substrate and finite <span class="hlt">deformations</span>, that must be absolutely considered, to distinguish at second order between Young law and Neuman equilibrium of surface tensions. We have developed a numerical, finite element, code that allows one to minimize surface and bulk <span class="hlt">energies</span>, with finite <span class="hlt">deformations</span> and asymmetry of the surface <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The results are compared to a linear theory based on Green function theory and Fredholm integrals, and with recent experiments using X-ray visualization. The non-linear numerics reproduce very well the observed profiles, while the linear approach gives helpful analytical approximates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoJI.160..901S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoJI.160..901S"><span>Moment <span class="hlt">release</span> in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany: seismological perspective of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmedes, J.; Hainzl, S.; Reamer, S.-K.; Scherbaum, F.; Hinzen, K.-G.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>An important task of seismic hazard assessment consists of estimating the rate of seismic moment <span class="hlt">release</span> which is correlated to the rate of tectonic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and the seismic coupling. However, the estimations of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> depend on the type of information utilized (e.g. geodetic, geological, seismic) and include large uncertainties. We therefore estimate the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> rate in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, using an integrated approach where the uncertainties have been systematically incorporated. On the basis of a new homogeneous earthquake catalogue we initially determine the frequency-magnitude distribution by statistical methods. In particular, we focus on an adequate estimation of the upper bound of the Gutenberg-Richter relation and demonstrate the importance of additional palaeoseismological information. The integration of seismological and geological information yields a probability distribution of the upper bound magnitude. Using this distribution together with the distribution of Gutenberg-Richter a and b values, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to derive the seismic moment <span class="hlt">release</span> as a function of the observation time. The seismic moment <span class="hlt">release</span> estimated from synthetic earthquake catalogues with short catalogue length is found to systematically underestimate the long-term moment rate which can be analytically determined. The moment <span class="hlt">release</span> recorded in the LRE over the last 250 yr is found to be in good agreement with the probability distribution resulting from the Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the long-term distribution is within its uncertainties consistent with the moment rate derived by geological measurements, indicating an almost complete seismic coupling in this region. By means of Kostrov's formula, we additionally calculate the full <span class="hlt">deformation</span> rate tensor using the distribution of known focal mechanisms in LRE. Finally, we use the same approach to calculate the seismic moment and the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> rate for two subsets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1783b0157M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1783b0157M"><span>Computer simulation of material behavior at the notch tip: Effect of microrotations on elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moiseenko, D. D.; Panin, S. V.; Maksimov, P. V.; Panin, V. E.; Babich, D. S.; Berto, F.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The paper is devoted to detailed investigation of rotational <span class="hlt">deformation</span> modes at the notch tip during shock loading. Using hybrid discrete-continuum approach of Excitable Cellular Automata the series of numerical experiments were conducted to simulate <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior of ductile steel in the vicinities of U-, I- and V-notches. The detailed analysis of the force moment distribution at the notch tip allowed revealing the relationship between the rotational <span class="hlt">deformation</span> modes at different scales. It was found that the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is realized by means of the modulation of the magnitude and the sign of the force moment. The obtained results makes possible to optimize crystal structure for improvement of mechanical properties of the material in the way of elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> by reversible microrotations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22930001F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22930001F"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Solar Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forbes, Terry G.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Solar flares are the result of a rapid <span class="hlt">release</span> of magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored in the solar corona. An ideal-MHD process, such as a loss of magnetic equilibrium, most likely initiates the flare, but the non-ideal process of magnetic reconnection quickly becomes the dominant mechanism by which <span class="hlt">energy</span> is <span class="hlt">released</span>. Within the last few years EUV and X-ray instruments have directly observed the kind of plasma flows and heating indicative of magnetic reconnection. Relatively cool plasma is observed moving slowly into the reconnection region where it is transformed into two high-temperature, high-speed outflow jets moving in opposite directions. Observations of the flow in these jets suggest that they are accelerated to the ambient Alfvén speed in a manner that resembles the reconnection process first proposed by H. E. Petschek in 1964. This result is somewhat surprising because Petschek-type reconnection does not occur in most numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection. The apparent contradiction between the observations and the simulations can be understood by the fact that most simulations assume a uniform resistivity model that is unlikely to occur in reality. Recently, we have developed a theory that shows how the type of reconnection is related to the plasma resistivity. The theory is based on a form of the time-dependent, MHD-nozzle equations that incorporate the plasma resistivity. These equations are very similar to the equations used to describe magnetized plasma flow in astrophysical jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030461&hterms=energy+derivatives&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bderivatives','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030461&hterms=energy+derivatives&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bderivatives"><span>Inelastic stress analyses at finite <span class="hlt">deformation</span> through complementary <span class="hlt">energy</span> approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Atluri, S. N.; Reed, K. W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A new hybrid-stress finite element algorithm, suitable for analyses of large, quasistatic, inelastic <span class="hlt">deformations</span>, is presented. The algorithm is based upon a generalization of de Veubeke's (1972) complementary <span class="hlt">energy</span> principle. The principal variables in the formulation are the nominal stress rate and spin, and the resulting finite element equations are discrete versions of the equations of compatibility and angular momentum balance. The algorithm produces true rates, time derivatives, as opposed to 'increments'. There results a boundary value problem (for stress rate and velocity) and an initial value problem (for total stress and <span class="hlt">deformation</span>). A discussion of the numerical treatment of the boundary value problem is followed by a detailed examination of the numerical treatment of the initial value problem, covering the topics of efficiency, stability, and objectivity. The paper is closed with a set of examples, finite homogeneous <span class="hlt">deformation</span> problems, which serve to bring out important aspects of the algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724497"><span>Using <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> to analyze nucleosome positioning in genomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Wei; Feng, Pengmian; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao; Chou, Kuo-Chen</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>By modulating the accessibility of genomic regions to regulatory proteins, nucleosome positioning plays important roles in cellular processes. Although intensive efforts have been made, the rules for determining nucleosome positioning are far from satisfaction yet. In this study, we developed a biophysical model to predict nucleosomal sequences based on the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> of DNA sequences, and validated it against the experimentally determined nucleosome positions in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, achieving very high success rates. Furthermore, using the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> model, we analyzed the distribution of nucleosomes around the following three types of DNA functional sites: (1) double strand break (DSB), (2) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and (3) origin of replication (ORI). We have found from the analyzed <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra that a remarkable "trough" or "valley" occurs around each of these functional sites, implying a depletion of nucleosome density, fully in accordance with experimental observations. These findings indicate that the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> may play a key role for accurately predicting nucleosome positions, and that it can also provide a quantitative physical approach for in-depth understanding the mechanism of nucleosome positioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22271190','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22271190"><span>An atomistic methodology of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate for graphene at nanoscale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D.; Wang, Xianqiao</p> <p>2014-03-21</p> <p>Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture <span class="hlt">deformation</span> but smaller critical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, and the critical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12765382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12765382"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> analysis of a piezoelectric body under nonuniform <span class="hlt">deformation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aronov, Boris</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>One of the most powerful and clear methods for solving electromechanical transducer problems is the <span class="hlt">energy</span> method based on the use of the Euler-Lagrange equations. The general expression is developed in a form convenient for applying the <span class="hlt">energy</span> method to the calculation of the internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> of a piezoelectric body under nonuniform <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. The electrical and mechanical variables in this expression are separable under certain conditions and the underlying physics is illustrated with particular examples of bars made of piezoelectric ceramic for the case of transverse and axial polarization. In the case that the electrical and mechanical variables are not separable, the contribution of the mutual <span class="hlt">energy</span> term to the total internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> is expressed analytically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832138"><span>Elastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss of flapping fly wings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Gorb, Stanislav; Nasir, Nazri; Schützner, Peter</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>During flight, the wings of many insects undergo considerable shape changes in spanwise and chordwise directions. We determined the origin of spanwise wing <span class="hlt">deformation</span> by combining measurements on segmental wing stiffness of the blowfly Calliphora vicina in the ventral and dorsal directions with numerical modelling of instantaneous aerodynamic and inertial forces within the stroke cycle using a two-dimensional unsteady blade elementary approach. We completed this approach by an experimental study on the wing's rotational axis during stroke reversal. The wing's local flexural stiffness ranges from 30 to 40 nN m(2) near the root, whereas the distal wing parts are highly compliant (0.6 to 2.2 nN m(2)). Local bending moments during wing flapping peak near the wing root at the beginning of each half stroke due to both aerodynamic and inertial forces, producing a maximum wing tip deflection of up to 46 deg. Blowfly wings store up to 2.30 μJ elastic potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> that converts into a mean wing <span class="hlt">deformation</span> power of 27.3 μW. This value equates to approximately 5.9 and 2.3% of the inertial and aerodynamic power requirements for flight in this animal, respectively. Wing elasticity measurements suggest that approximately 20% or 0.46 μJ of elastic potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> cannot be recovered within each half stroke. Local strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> increases from tip to root, matching the distribution of the wing's elastic protein resilin, whereas local strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> density varies little in the spanwise direction. This study demonstrates a source of mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss in fly flight owing to spanwise wing bending at the stroke reversals, even in cases in which aerodynamic power exceeds inertial power. Despite lower stiffness estimates, our findings are widely consistent with previous stiffness measurements on insect wings but highlight the relationship between local flexural stiffness, wing <span class="hlt">deformation</span> power and <span class="hlt">energy</span> expenditure in flapping insect wings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26638896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26638896"><span>Elastic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Partitioning in DNA <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> and Binding to Proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teng, Xiaojing; Hwang, Wonmuk</p> <p>2016-01-26</p> <p>We study the elasticity of DNA based on local principal axes of bending identified from over 0.9-μs all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of DNA oligos. The calculated order parameters describe motion of DNA as an elastic rod. In 10 possible dinucleotide steps, bending about the two principal axes is anisotropic yet linearly elastic. Twist about the centroid axis is largely decoupled from bending, but DNA tends to overtwist for unbending beyond the typical range of thermal motion, which is consistent with experimentally observed twist-stretch coupling. The calculated elastic stiffness of dinucleotide steps yield sequence-dependent persistence lengths consistent with previous single-molecule experiments, which is further analyzed by performing coarse-grained simulations of DNA. Flexibility maps of oligos constructed from simulation also match with those from the precalculated stiffness of dinucleotide steps. These support the premise that base pair interaction at the dinucleotide-level is mainly responsible for the elasticity of DNA. Furthermore, we analyze 1381 crystal structures of protein-DNA complexes. In most structures, DNAs are mildly <span class="hlt">deformed</span> and twist takes the highest portion of the total elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. By contrast, in structures with the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> per dinucleotide step greater than about 4.16 kBT (kBT: thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>), the major bending becomes dominant. The extensional <span class="hlt">energy</span> of dinucleotide steps takes at most 35% of the total elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> except for structures containing highly <span class="hlt">deformed</span> DNAs where linear elasticity breaks down. Such partitioning between different <span class="hlt">deformational</span> modes provides quantitative insights into the conformational dynamics of DNA as well as its interaction with other molecules and surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035972','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035972"><span>Building an Efficient Model for Afterburn <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alves, S; Kuhl, A; Najjar, F; Tringe, J; McMichael, L; Glascoe, L</p> <p>2012-02-03</p> <p>Many explosives will <span class="hlt">release</span> additional <span class="hlt">energy</span> after detonation as the detonation products mix with the ambient environment. This additional <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, referred to as afterburn, is due to combustion of undetonated fuel with ambient oxygen. While the detonation <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> occurs on a time scale of microseconds, the afterburn <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> occurs on a time scale of milliseconds with a potentially varying <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate depending upon the local temperature and pressure. This afterburn <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is not accounted for in typical equations of state, such as the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) model, used for modeling the detonation of explosives. Here we construct a straightforward and efficient approach, based on experiments and theory, to account for this additional <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in a way that is tractable for large finite element fluid-structure problems. Barometric calorimeter experiments have been executed in both nitrogen and air environments to investigate the characteristics of afterburn for C-4 and other materials. These tests, which provide pressure time histories, along with theoretical and analytical solutions provide an engineering basis for modeling afterburn with numerical hydrocodes. It is toward this end that we have constructed a modified JWL equation of state to account for afterburn effects on the response of structures to blast. The modified equation of state includes a two phase afterburn <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> to represent variations in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate and an afterburn <span class="hlt">energy</span> cutoff to account for partial reaction of the undetonated fuel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.3996P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.3996P"><span>Boudinage and folding as an <span class="hlt">energy</span> instability in ductile <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peters, Max; Herwegh, Marco; Paesold, Martin K.; Poulet, Thomas; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Veveakis, Manolis</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present a theory for the onset of localization in layered rate- and temperature-sensitive rocks, in which <span class="hlt">energy</span>-related mechanical bifurcations lead to localized dissipation patterns in the transient <span class="hlt">deformation</span> regime. The implementation of the coupled thermomechanical 2-D finite element model comprises an elastic and rate-dependent von Mises plastic rheology. The underlying system of equations is solved in a three-layer pure shear box, for constant velocity and isothermal boundary conditions. To examine the transition from stable to localized creep, we study how material instabilities are related to <span class="hlt">energy</span> bifurcations, which arise independently of the sign of the stress conditions imposed on opposite boundaries, whether in compression or extension. The onset of localization is controlled by a critical amount of dissipation, termed Gruntfest number, when dissipative work by temperature-sensitive creep translated into heat overcomes the diffusive capacity of the layer. Through an additional mathematical bifurcation analysis using constant stress boundary conditions, we verify that boudinage and folding develop at the same critical Gruntfest number. Since the critical material parameters and boundary conditions for both structures to develop are found to coincide, the initiation of localized <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in strong layered media within a weaker matrix can be captured by a unified theory for localization in ductile materials. In this <span class="hlt">energy</span> framework, neither intrinsic nor extrinsic material weaknesses are required, because the nucleation process of strain localization arises out of steady state conditions. This finding allows us to describe boudinage and folding structures as the same <span class="hlt">energy</span> attractor of ductile <span class="hlt">deformation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25664970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25664970"><span>Ultrasound assessment of the effectiveness of carpal tunnel <span class="hlt">release</span> on median nerve <span class="hlt">deformation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshii, Yuichi; Ishii, Tomoo; Tung, Wen-lin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>To assess the biomechanical effect of carpal tunnel <span class="hlt">release</span> (CTR), we evaluated the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and displacement patterns of the median nerve before and after CTR in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. Sixteen wrists of 14 idiopathic CTS patients who had open CTR and 26 wrists of 13 asymptomatic volunteers were evaluated by ultrasound. Cross-sectional images of the carpal tunnel during motion from full finger extension to flexion were recorded. The area, perimeter, aspect ratio of a minimum enclosing rectangle, and circularity of the median nerve were measured in finger extension and flexion positions. <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> indices, determined by the flexion-extension ratio for each parameter, were compared before and after CTR. After CTR, the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> indices of perimeter and circularity became significantly larger and the aspect ratio became significantly smaller than those before CTR (p < 0.05). Those differences were more obvious when comparing the values between the patients before CTR and the controls. Since the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> indices after CTR are similar to the patterns of normal subjects, the surrounding structures and environment of the median nerve may be normalized upon CTR. This may be a way to tell how the median nerves recover after CTR. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852845','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852845"><span>Honey Bee <span class="hlt">Deformed</span> Wing Virus Structures Reveal that Conformational Changes Accompany Genome <span class="hlt">Release</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Organtini, Lindsey J; Shingler, Kristin L; Ashley, Robert E; Capaldi, Elizabeth A; Durrani, Kulsoom; Dryden, Kelly A; Makhov, Alexander M; Conway, James F; Pizzorno, Marie C; Hafenstein, Susan</p> <p>2017-01-15</p> <p>The picornavirus-like <span class="hlt">deformed</span> wing virus (DWV) has been directly linked to colony collapse; however, little is known about the mechanisms of host attachment or entry for DWV or its molecular and structural details. Here we report the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of DWV capsids isolated from infected honey bees, including the immature procapsid, the genome-filled virion, the putative entry intermediate (A-particle), and the empty capsid that remains after genome <span class="hlt">release</span>. The capsids are decorated by large spikes around the 5-fold vertices. The 5-fold spikes had an open flower-like conformation for the procapsid and genome-filled capsids, whereas the putative A-particle and empty capsids that had <span class="hlt">released</span> the genome had a closed tube-like spike conformation. Between the two conformations, the spikes undergo a significant hinge-like movement that we predicted using a Robetta model of the structure comprising the spike. We conclude that the spike structures likely serve a function during host entry, changing conformation to <span class="hlt">release</span> the genome, and that the genome may escape from a 5-fold vertex to initiate infection. Finally, the structures illustrate that, similarly to picornaviruses, DWV forms alternate particle conformations implicated in assembly, host attachment, and RNA <span class="hlt">release</span>. Honey bees are critical for global agriculture, but dramatic losses of entire hives have been reported in numerous countries since 2006. <span class="hlt">Deformed</span> wing virus (DWV) and infestation with the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor have been linked to colony collapse disorder. DWV was purified from infected adult worker bees to pursue biochemical and structural studies that allowed the first glimpse into the conformational changes that may be required during transmission and genome <span class="hlt">release</span> for DWV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22665723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22665723"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Conservation for the Simulation of <span class="hlt">Deformable</span> Bodies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Su, Jonathan; Sheth, Rahul; Fedkiw, Ronald</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We propose a novel technique that allows one to conserve <span class="hlt">energy</span> using the time integration scheme of one's choice. Traditionally, the time integration methods that deal with <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation, such as symplectic, geometric, and variational integrators, have aimed to include damping in a manner independent of the size of the time step, stating that this gives more control over the look and feel of the simulation. Generally speaking, damping adds to the overall aesthetics and appeal of a numerical simulation, especially since it damps out the high frequency oscillations that occur on the level of the discretization mesh. We propose an alternative technique that allows one to use damping as a material parameter to obtain the desired look and feel of a numerical simulation, while still exactly conserving the total <span class="hlt">energy</span>-in stark contrast to previous methods in which adding damping effects necessarily removes <span class="hlt">energy</span> from the mesh. This allows, for example, a <span class="hlt">deformable</span> bouncing ball with aesthetically pleasing damping (and even undergoing collision) to collide with the ground and return to its original height exactly conserving <span class="hlt">energy</span>, as shown in Fig. 2. Furthermore, since our method works with any time integration scheme, the user can choose their favorite time integration method with regards to aesthetics and simply apply our method as a postprocess to conserve all or as much of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> as desired.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMMR51B2708M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMMR51B2708M"><span>Strain Rate Dependency of Fracture Toughness, <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate and Geomechanical Attributes of Select Indian Shales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahanta, B.; Vishal, V.; Singh, T. N.; Ranjith, P.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In addition to modern improved technology, it requires detailed understanding of rock fractures for the purpose of enhanced <span class="hlt">energy</span> extraction through hydraulic fracturing of gas shales and geothermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems. The understanding of rock fracture behavior, patterns and properties such as fracture toughness; <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate; strength and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> attributes during fracturing hold significance. Environmental factors like temperature, pressure, humidity, water vapor and experimental condition such as strain rate influence the estimation of these properties. In this study, the effects of strain rates on fracture toughness, <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate as well as geomechanical properties like uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus, failure strain, tensile strength, and brittleness index of gas shales were investigated. In addition to the rock-mechanical parameters, the fracture toughness and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates were measured for three different modes viz. mode I, mixed mode (I-II) and mode II. Petrographic and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed to identify the mineral composition of the shale samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were conducted to have an insight about the strain rate effects on micro-structure of the rock. The results suggest that the fracture toughness; the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate as well as other geomechanical properties are a function of strain rates. At high strain rates, the strength and stiffness of shale increases which in turn increases the fracture toughness and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of shale that may be due to stress redistribution during grain fracturing. The fracture toughness and the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates for all the modes (I/I-II/II) are comparable at lower strain rates, but they vary considerably at higher strain rates. In all the cases, mode I and mode II fracturing requires minimum and maximum applied <span class="hlt">energy</span>, respectively. Mode I <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate is maximum, compared to the other modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090006910&hterms=explosive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dexplosive','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090006910&hterms=explosive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dexplosive"><span>Radio Observations of Explosive <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Releases</span> on the Sun</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kundu, Mukul R.; White, S. M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This chapter is devoted to a discussion of the radio observations of explosive <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> (normal flares and small-scale <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span>) on the Sun. Radio imaging observations of solar flares and coronal transients and the relationship of radio phenomena with those observed in hard and soft X-rays and underlying physics are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5738Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5738Q"><span>Magnetic Reconnection and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Solar Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiu, Jiong</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In the past twenty years, solar flare observations have demonstrated a few fascinating aspects of fast reconnection responsible for impulsive <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the solar corona. A flare consists of a cluster of sequentially formed coronal loops and chromosphere bright kernels mapping the feet of these loops. These are believed to reflect the intermittent nature of reconnection, indicating that reconnection and subsequent <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> are temporally and spatially fragmented. What is the physical nature of the fragmentation? What are the basic scales of these fragments? Can observational measurements at present or in the near future provide the elementary quantities of reconnection and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>? On the other hand, observations of the apparently ordered spread of brightening of flare kernels or loops suggest that the flare, or reconnection, progress is not entirely sporadic. What are the causes or consequences of such an organization? Whereas nature's purpose of reconnection is to <span class="hlt">release</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>, the link between reconnection and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> has been largely missing. It has not been clear how, and by how much, the free magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> accessible via reconnection is <span class="hlt">released</span> in packets and converted to other forms. This talk will report some recent effort to study reconnection dynamics and measure <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> in reconnection events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24745628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24745628"><span>Plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> enabled <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation in a bionanowire structured armor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Haoze; Yue, Yonghai; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaodong</p> <p>2014-05-14</p> <p>It has been challenging to simultaneously achieve high strength and toughness in engineered materials because of the trade-off relation between the two distinct properties. Nature, however, has elegantly solved this problem. Seashells, commonly referred to as nature's armors, exhibit an unusual resilience against predatory attacks. In this letter, we report an unexpected phenomenon in a bionanowire structured armor-conch shell where the shell's basic building blocks, i.e., the third-order lamellae, exhibit an exceptional plasticity with a maximum strain of 0.7% upon mechanical loading. We attribute such a plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior to the lamella's unique nanoparticle-biopolymer architecture, in which the biopolymer mediates the rotation of aragonite nanoparticles in response to external attacks. We also found that electron beam irradiation facilitates the lamella's plasticity. These findings advance our understanding of seashell's <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipating strategy and provide new design guidelines for developing high performance bioinspired materials and sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/461236','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/461236"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Information Administration new <span class="hlt">releases</span>. Volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>This publication of the National <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Information Center contains news items and information sources related primarily to electricity generation. News items reported on in this issue include utility compliance costs for the Clean Air Act, 1995 profits for major <span class="hlt">energy</span> companies, and competition issues in the electric power and natural gas industries. A summary report on crude oil prices is also presented. Other information provided includes a listing of 1996 publications from the center, electronic information services, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> data information contacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PApGe.165..181W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PApGe.165..181W"><span>Accelerating Moment <span class="hlt">Release</span> of Acoustic Emission During Rock <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> in the Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Shengli; Ma, Li</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>The Accelerating Moment <span class="hlt">Release</span> (AMR) of seismicity before large earthquakes has been discussed by an increasing number of seismologists over recent years; however, most of their research is concentrated on theoretical descriptions based on statistical physics. In this paper, we investigate the laboratory AMR phenomenon of acoustic emission (AE), and attempt to understand the physical mechanism of AMR behavior from the point of view of rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. AE data used in this paper are from a granitic porphyry (GP) sample with heterogeneous structure, including grains of different size and a naturally healed joint. Based on a stochastic AMR model, the microfracturing activity during rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> is analyzed. Three stages, Pre-AMR, AMR and nucleation, that cover the entire <span class="hlt">deformation</span> period, are defined according to their different microfracturing features. The fractal structure of each stage is investigated. Our results indicate that the AE activity is highly sensitive to both the stress load and the rock structure. The AMR stage, in which the moderate AE events demonstrated typical AMR behaviors, features a process of stress concentration and stress transfer on the fault plane. The AMR stage had a constant stress load condition and was characterized by a much earlier increase of AE rate than the elevation of mean AE magnitude, both of which are consistent with the results derived from the damage rheology model (B en-Z ion and L yakhovsky, 2002). The AMR stage was immediately followed by the nucleation stage, caused by quasi-static/dynamic fracture of the main fault. Therefore, regarding the GP sample, the AMR stage is a long-term preparatory process for dynamic fault fracture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950004113&hterms=Thermal+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DThermal%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950004113&hterms=Thermal+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DThermal%2Benergy"><span>TES (Thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage) Video News <span class="hlt">Release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>TES is an in-space technology experiment that flew on STS-62. Its intent is to investigate the behavior of two different thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage materials as they undergo repeated melting and freezing in the microgravity environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950004113&hterms=energy+storage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bstorage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950004113&hterms=energy+storage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bstorage"><span>TES (Thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage) Video News <span class="hlt">Release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>TES is an in-space technology experiment that flew on STS-62. Its intent is to investigate the behavior of two different thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage materials as they undergo repeated melting and freezing in the microgravity environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DPPVO1010H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DPPVO1010H"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> from Electron Scale Reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horton, Wendell; Kim, Juhyung; Militello, Fulvio; Ottaviani, Maurizio</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Magnetic reconnection may occur as bursts of nonlinear plasma dynamics on the electron collisionless skin length scale de= c/φpe during which a large fraction of the magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> is converted to electron thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> and plasma flow <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The energization mechanism is the crossfield compression of the electron gas between interacting magnetic islands and the parallel electric fields accelerating the small pitch angle electrons. Solutions of the reduced Hall-MHD equations show the heating pulses in nearly collisionless, <span class="hlt">energy</span> conserving simulations. The electron energization appears to be measured in the 4s, 200km resolution data from Cluster crossing thin, multipeaked current sheets in the geotail at -17 RE (JGR, Nakamura et al (2006)). The electron PAD and <span class="hlt">energy</span> fluxes change rapidly consistent with the magnetic fluctuations. In short time (10 ion cyclotron periods or 30s) from 0.5-0.8 keV up to 5 keV in ninety degree pitch angle flux and weak parallel electron beams formed at small pitch angles. Work partially supported by US Dept of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>, NSF 0539099, and CEA Cadarache.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880058310&hterms=store+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dstore%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880058310&hterms=store+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dstore%2Benergy"><span>Highlights of the study of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rust, D. M.; Batchelor, D. A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>From February 26 to March 1, 1979, 32 solar flare investigators attended a workshop at Cambridge, MA to define objectives and devise a scientific program for the study of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares (SERF) during the coming solar maximum. Herein, some major results of the ensuing five-year effort to observe and understand the flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> process and its effects (energetic particle production, coronal and chromospheric heating, electromagnetic radiations, and mass motions and ejections) are reviewed. The central issue - what processes store and <span class="hlt">release</span> the <span class="hlt">energy</span> liberated in flares - remains unresolved except in the most general terms (e.g., it is generally agreed that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> is stored in sheared or stressed magnetic fields and <span class="hlt">released</span> by field annihilation during some MHD instability). Resolving that issue is still one of the most important goals in solar physics, but the advances during the SERF program have brought it closer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86f1307M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86f1307M"><span>Fiber bundle models for stress <span class="hlt">release</span> and <span class="hlt">energy</span> bursts during granular shearing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani; Cohen, Denis</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Fiber bundle models (FBMs) offer a versatile framework for representing transitions from progressive to abrupt failure in disordered material. We report a FBM-based description of mechanical interactions and associated <span class="hlt">energy</span> bursts during shear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of granular materials. For strain-controlled shearing, where elements fail in a sequential order, we present analytical expressions for strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and failure statistics. Results suggest that frequency-magnitude characteristics of fiber failure vary considerably throughout progressive shearing. Predicted failure distributions were in good agreement with experimentally observed shear stress fluctuations and associated bursts of acoustic emissions. Experiments also confirm a delayed <span class="hlt">release</span> of acoustic emission <span class="hlt">energy</span> relative to shear stress buildup, as anticipated by the model. Combined with data-rich acoustic emission measurements, the modified FBM offers highly resolved contact-scale insights into granular media dynamics of shearing processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrEaS...2...10G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrEaS...2...10G"><span>Elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in great earthquakes and eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gudmundsson, Agust</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and <span class="hlt">released</span> (transformed) elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the <span class="hlt">energies</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> (the potential mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span>) associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage) during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> derives from two sources: (1) the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2) the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement) on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> or transformed (dU) during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe) in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc) of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span>, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3), the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago) and largest single (effusive) Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago), both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, <span class="hlt">released</span> elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> at 10EJ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17277419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17277419"><span>DNA <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> as an indirect recognition mechanism in protein-DNA interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aeling, Kimberly A; Steffen, Nicholas R; Johnson, Matthew; Hatfield, G Wesley; Lathrop, Richard H; Senear, Donald F</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Proteins that bind to specific locations in genomic DNA control many basic cellular functions. Proteins detect their binding sites using both direct and indirect recognition mechanisms. <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which models the <span class="hlt">energy</span> required to bend DNA from its native shape to its shape when bound to a protein, has been shown to be an indirect recognition mechanism for one particular protein, Integration Host Factor (IHF). This work extends the analysis of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> to two other DNA-binding proteins, CRP and SRF, and two endonucleases, I-CreI and I-PpoI. Known binding sites for all five proteins showed statistically significant differences in mean <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> as compared to random sequences. Binding sites for the three DNA-binding proteins and one of the endonucleases had mean <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> lower than random sequences. Binding sites for I-PpoI had mean <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> higher than random sequences. Classifiers that were trained using the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> at each base pair step showed good cross-validated accuracy when classifying unseen sequences as binders or nonbinders. These results support DNA <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> as an indirect recognition mechanism across a wider range of DNA-binding proteins. <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> may also have a predictive capacity for the underlying catalytic mechanism of DNA-binding enzymes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800024525','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800024525"><span>Regional analysis of earthquake occurrence and seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, S. C.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The historic temporal variation in earthquake occurrence and seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> on a regional basis throughtout the world were studied. The regionalization scheme employed divided the world into large areas based either on seismic and tectonic considerations (Flinn-Engdahl Scheme) or geographic (longitude and latitude) criteria. The data set is the wide earthquake catalog of the National Geophysical Solar-Terrestrial Data Center. An apparent relationship exists between the maximum <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> in a limited time within a seismic region and the average or background <span class="hlt">energy</span> per year averaged over a long time period. In terms of average or peak <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, the most seismic regions of the world during the 50 to 81 year period ending in 1977 were Japanese, Andean South American, and the Alaska-Aleutian Arc regions. The year to year fluctuations in regional seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> are greater, by orders of magnitude, than the corresponding variations in the world-wide seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. The b values of seismic regions range from 0.7 to 1.4 where earthquake magnitude is in the range 6.0 to 7.5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6596157','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6596157"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Information Administration New <span class="hlt">Releases</span>, July--August 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobus, P.; Springer, I.</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>New <span class="hlt">Releases</span>'' is <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Information Administration's news letter, which reports its activities, publications, and machine-readable data files and modeling programs. For each publication or report, an abstract, subscription price, availability, and other bibliographical information are included. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, coal, electricity, nuclear fuel, renewable <span class="hlt">energy</span> and conservation, and petroleum. Order forms are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820016881&hterms=Storage+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DStorage%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820016881&hterms=Storage+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DStorage%2Benergy"><span>Is <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and <span class="hlt">release</span> part of the substorm process?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clauer, C. R.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Models for magnetospheric substorms were considered. A modified model which includes the growth phase, a time interval prior to the onset of the expansion phase, during which <span class="hlt">energy</span> was transferred from a solar wind to the magnetosphere and stored for subsequent <span class="hlt">release</span>, is discussed. Evidence for <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage in the tail prior to substorm expansion for both isolated and moderate substorm activity is reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17028727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17028727"><span>Use of microchip-based hydrodynamic focusing to measure the <span class="hlt">deformation</span>-induced <span class="hlt">release</span> of ATP from erythrocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moehlenbrock, Michael J; Price, Alexander K; Martin, R Scott</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>In order to understand the role that erythrocytes play in conditions such as pulmonary hypertension, in vitro mimics of the microcirculation are needed. This paper describes the use of microchip-based hydrodynamic focusing to develop a mimic that allows both mechanical <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of erythrocytes and quantification of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that is subsequently <span class="hlt">released</span> in response to this <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. In this mimic, two sheathing streams of a luciferin/luciferase mixture are used to focus and <span class="hlt">deform</span> a central fluid flow of an erythrocyte sample. The focusing width is changed by simply manipulating the sheath flow rate. This allows a variety of cross-sectional areas to be studied using single point chemiluminescent detection. It was shown that increasing the sheath flow rate does result in elevated levels of ATP <span class="hlt">release</span>. For example, one sample of rabbit erythrocytes <span class="hlt">released</span> 0.80 (+/- 0.13) microM ATP when focused to a cross-section of 3480 microm(2), while focusing the same sample to a smaller cross-section (1160 microm(2)) led to a <span class="hlt">release</span> of 6.43 (+/- 0.40) microM ATP. In addition, two different inhibitors, diamide and glibenclamide, were used to ensure a lack of cell lysis. This approach can be used to examine a wide range of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> forces in a high throughput fashion and will be of interest to researchers studying the mechanisms leading to vasodilation in the microvasculature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3876..212R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3876..212R"><span>Microelectromechanical high-density <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage/rapid <span class="hlt">release</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.</p> <p>1999-08-01</p> <p>One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then <span class="hlt">energy</span> could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly <span class="hlt">released</span> upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage/rapid <span class="hlt">release</span> system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems are under development.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3362563','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3362563"><span>Cytoplasmic Fungal Lipases <span class="hlt">Release</span> Fungicides from Ultra-<span class="hlt">Deformable</span> Vesicular Drug Carriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Steinberg, Gero</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Transfersome® is a lipid vesicle that contains membrane softeners, such as Tween 80, to make it ultra-<span class="hlt">deformable</span>. This feature makes the Transfersome® an efficient carrier for delivery of therapeutic drugs across the skin barrier. It was reported that TDT 067 (a topical formulation of 15 mg/ml terbinafine in Transfersome® vesicles) has a much more potent antifungal activity in vitro compared with conventional terbinafine, which is a water-insoluble fungicide. Here we use ultra-structural studies and live imaging in a model fungus to describe the underlying mode of action. We show that terbinafine causes local collapse of the fungal endoplasmic reticulum, which was more efficient when terbinafine was delivered in Transfersome® vesicles (TFVs). When applied in liquid culture, fluorescently labeled TFVs rapidly entered the fungal cells (T1/2∼2 min). Entry was F-actin- and ATP-independent, indicating that it is a passive process. Ultra-structural studies showed that passage through the cell wall involves significant <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of the vesicles, and depends on a high concentration of the surfactant Tween 80 in their membrane. Surprisingly, the TFVs collapsed into lipid droplets after entry into the cell and the terbinafine was <span class="hlt">released</span> from their interior. With time, the lipid bodies were metabolized in an ATP-dependent fashion, suggesting that cytosolic lipases attack and degrade intruding TFVs. Indeed, the specific monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor URB602 prevented Transfersome® degradation and neutralized the cytotoxic effect of Transfersome®-delivered terbinafine. These data suggest that (a) Transfersomes deliver the lipophilic fungicide Terbinafine to the fungal cell wall, (b) the membrane softener Tween 80 allows the passage of the Transfersomes into the fungal cell, and (c) fungal lipases digest the invading Transfersome® vesicles thereby <span class="hlt">releasing</span> their cytotoxic content. As this mode of action of Transfersomes is independent of the drug cargo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SoPh..291..187B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SoPh..291..187B"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Driven Twisted Coronal Loops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bareford, M. R.; Gordovskyy, M.; Browning, P. K.; Hood, A. W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We investigate magnetic reconnection in twisted magnetic fluxtubes, representing coronal loops. The main goal is to establish the influence of the field geometry and various thermodynamic effects on the stability of twisted fluxtubes and on the size and distribution of heated regions. In particular, we aim to investigate to what extent the earlier idealised models, based on the initially cylindrically symmetric fluxtubes, are different from more realistic models, including the large-scale curvature, atmospheric stratification, thermal conduction and other effects. In addition, we compare the roles of Ohmic heating and shock heating in <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion during magnetic reconnection in twisted loops. The models with straight fluxtubes show similar distribution of heated plasma during the reconnection: it initially forms a helical shape, which subsequently becomes very fragmented. The heating in these models is rather uniformly distributed along fluxtubes. At the same time, the hot plasma regions in curved loops are asymmetric and concentrated close to the loop tops. Large-scale curvature has a destabilising influence: less twist is needed for instability. Footpoint convergence normally delays the instability slightly, although in some cases, converging fluxtubes can be less stable. Finally, introducing a stratified atmosphere gives rise to decaying wave propagation, which has a destabilising effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6467113','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6467113"><span>Carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">release</span> from ocean thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion (OTEC) cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Green, H.J. ); Guenther, P.R. )</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of recent measurements of CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">release</span> from an open-cycle ocean thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion (OTEC) experiment. Based on these data, the rate of short-term CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">release</span> from future open-cycle OTEC plants is projected to be 15 to 25 times smaller than that from fossil-fueled electric power plants. OTEC system that incorporate subsurface mixed discharge are expected to result in no long-term <span class="hlt">release</span>. OTEC plants can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions when substituted for fossil-fueled power generation. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20346901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20346901"><span>An activated <span class="hlt">energy</span> approach for accelerated testing of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of UHMWPE in artificial joints.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galetz, Mathias Christian; Glatzel, Uwe</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior of ultrahigh molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE) is studied in the temperature range of 23-80 degrees C. Samples are examined in quasi-static compression, tensile and creep tests to determine the accelerated <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of UHMWPE at elevated temperatures. The <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanisms under compression load can be described by one strain rate and temperature dependent Eyring process. The activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> and volume of that process do not change between 23 degrees C and 50 degrees C. This suggests that the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanism under compression remains stable within this temperature range. Tribological tests are conducted to transfer this activated <span class="hlt">energy</span> approach to the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior under loading typical for artificial knee joints. While this approach does not cover the wear mechanisms close to the surface, testing at higher temperatures is shown to have a significant potential to reduce the testing time for lifetime predictions in terms of the macroscopic creep and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior of artificial joints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMSM43A..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMSM43A..04H"><span>Time Scales for <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Hall Magnetic Reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huba, J. D.; Rudakov, L. I.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>We present a study of the time scales for <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in 2D Hall magnetic reconnection. We use the NRL Hall MHD code VooDoo for this study. We consider a 2D reversed field current layer with a magnetic perturbation that initiates the reconnection process. We use boundary conditions that allow inflow and outflow (i.e., not periodic) and let the system reach a steady state. We find that the system goes through three stages: a relatively long current layer thinning process, a fast reconnection phase, and a final steady state phase. We define the time scale for <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> as the fast reconnection period: from onset to steady state. Preliminary results indicate that the time for <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> scales as the initial thickness of the current layer. We apply these results to the magnetotail and magnetopause. Research supported by NASA and ONR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V21C0531L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V21C0531L"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> at Teide Volcano,Tenerife, Canary Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopez, D. L.; Perez, N. M.; Marrero, R.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Teide volcano (3715 m high) is located at the northern scarp of the Las Ca¤adas caldera, a large depression at the center of Tenerife Island. Las Ca¤adas has been produced by multiple episodes of caldera collapse and giant landslides. The basanite-phonolite magmatic system associated with Teide volcano is emitting gases that reach the summit producing weak fumaroles. The chemical composition of these fumaroles and the flux of diffuse soil CO2 degassing at the summit cone (0.5 km2) has been used to determine the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> as passive degassing in this volcano. Previous investigations show that Teide's summit is emitting 400 tons m2 day-1 of CO2 to the atmosphere. The composition of CH4, CO2, CO, and H2O indicate a chemical equilibrium temperature of 234° C and 75% condensation of water vapor within the volcanic edifice (Chiodini and Marini, 1998). The composition of the gases before condensation was restored and assumed to represent the composition at the equilibrium zone. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored by the gases at the equilibration zone is assumed to be <span class="hlt">released</span> as the gases move towards the discharge zone. The following processes are considered: change in pressure and temperature for water from the equilibration zone to the zone of condensation, latent heat <span class="hlt">released</span> during the water condensation process, cooling of the condensed water from the condensation temperature to ambient temperature, and change of pressure and temperature for CO2 from the equilibrium to the discharge zone. Thermodynamic calculations of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> in each one of these processes indicate that 144 MW are <span class="hlt">released</span> at Teide. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> flux is 288 MW m-2. Most of this <span class="hlt">energy</span> is <span class="hlt">released</span> during the condensation process. This <span class="hlt">energy</span> output compares with other hydrothermal systems of the world. These results show that during periods of passive degassing, fumarolic activity is limited by the geometry and elevation of the volcanic structure and the internal thermodynamic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/55411','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/55411"><span>Strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates for skin-stiffener debonding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raju, I.S.; Sistla, R.; Krishnamurthy, T.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Fracture mechanics analyses of a debonded skin-stiffener configuration using three-dimensional (3D) finite element method are presented. Twenty noded isoparametric elements were used to model the debond configurations. The virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) was used to evaluate the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate distributions across the debond front. The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate (G-value) distributions showed that there is a boundary layer effect near the ends of the debond and there is an elevation in the G-values in the region of the blade of the stiffener. The analyses also showed that the mode-II is the dominant mode for this debond configuration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.865a2002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.865a2002S"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> spectrum inverse problem of q-<span class="hlt">deformed</span> harmonic oscillator and entanglement of composite bosons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sang, Nguyen Anh; Thu Thuy, Do Thi; Loan, Nguyen Thi Ha; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Using the simple <span class="hlt">deformed</span> three-level model (D3L model) proposed in our early work, we study the entanglement problem of composite bosons. Consider three first <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels are known, we can get two <span class="hlt">energy</span> separations, and can define the level <span class="hlt">deformation</span> parameter δ. Using connection between q-<span class="hlt">deformed</span> harmonic oscillator and Morse-like anharmonic potential, the <span class="hlt">deform</span> parameter q also can be derived explicitly. Like the Einstein’s theory of special relativity, we introduce the observer e˙ects: out side observer (looking from outside the studying system) and inside observer (looking inside the studying system). Corresponding to those observers, the outside entanglement entropy and inside entanglement entropy will be defined.. Like the case of Foucault pendulum in the problem of Earth rotation, our <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> level investigation might be useful in prediction the environment e˙ect outside a confined box.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4895088','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4895088"><span>A Novel Medial Soft Tissue <span class="hlt">Release</span> Method for Varus <span class="hlt">Deformity</span> during Total Knee Arthroplasty: Femoral Origin <span class="hlt">Release</span> of the Medial Collateral Ligament</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Seung-Yup; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-In</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Numerous methods of medial soft tissue <span class="hlt">release</span> for severe varus <span class="hlt">deformity</span> during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have been reported. These include tibial stripping of the superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL), pie-crusting technique, and medial epicondylar osteotomy. However, there are inherent disadvantages in these techniques. Authors hereby present a novel quantitative method: femoral origin <span class="hlt">release</span> of the medial collateral ligament (FORM). Surgical Technique For medial tightness remaining even after the <span class="hlt">release</span> of the deep MCL and semimembranosus, the FORM is initiated with identification of the femoral insertion area of the MCL with the knee in flexion. Starting from the most posterior part of the femoral insertion, one third of the MCL femoral insertion is <span class="hlt">released</span> from its attachment. If necessary, further sequential medial <span class="hlt">release</span> is performed. Materials and Methods Seventeen knees that underwent the FORM were evaluated for radiological and clinical outcomes. Results Regardless of the extent of the FORM, no knees showed residual valgus instability at 24 weeks after surgery. Conclusions As the FORM is performed in a stepwise manner, fine adjustment during medial <span class="hlt">release</span> might be beneficial to prevent inadvertent over-<span class="hlt">release</span> of the medial structures of the knee. PMID:27274473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/140923','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/140923"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Information Administration (EIA) new <span class="hlt">releases</span>, January--February 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>This report is the Jan-Feb 1994 issue of the <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Information Administration (EIA) New <span class="hlt">Releases</span> publication. Highlighted articles include: efficiency gains slow growth in U.S. <span class="hlt">energy</span> demand, dependency on oil imports continues to climb; new EIA report details status of U.S. coal industry; EIA assesses residential vehicle fuel consumption in the U.S.; EIA plans new survey on alternative-fuel vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900062214&hterms=Rate+Displacement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DRate%2BDisplacement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900062214&hterms=Rate+Displacement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DRate%2BDisplacement"><span>Effect of crack-microcracks interaction on <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates associated with the main crack advancing into its surrounding damage zone, and the damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of interaction between the crack and the damage zone are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for this crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed by employing a semi-empirical stress analysis which involves experimental evaluation of the average microcrack density in the damage zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/0383er(2016).pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/0383er(2016).pdf"><span>Annual <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Outlook 2016 Early <span class="hlt">Release</span>: Summary of Two Cases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Information Administration provides a long-term outlook for <span class="hlt">energy</span> supply, demand, and prices in its Annual <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Outlook (AEO). This outlook is centered on the Reference case, which is not a prediction of what will happen, but rather a modeled projection of what might happen given certain assumptions and methodologies. Today, EIA <span class="hlt">released</span> an annotated summary of the AEO2016 Reference Case—which includes the Clean Power Plan—and a side case without the Clean Power Plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/er/pdf/0383er(2016).pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/er/pdf/0383er(2016).pdf"><span>Annual <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Outlook 2016 Early <span class="hlt">Release</span>: Summary of Two Cases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Information Administration provides a long-term outlook for <span class="hlt">energy</span> supply, demand, and prices in its Annual <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Outlook (AEO). This outlook is centered on the Reference case, which is not a prediction of what will happen, but rather a modeled projection of what might happen given certain assumptions and methodologies. Today, EIA <span class="hlt">released</span> an annotated summary of the AEO2016 Reference Case—which includes the Clean Power Plan—and a side case without the Clean Power Plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....110201D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....110201D"><span>Magnetic Reconnection Onset and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> at Current Sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, Spiro K.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Reconnection and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> at current sheets are important at the Sun (coronal heating, coronal mass ejections, flares, and jets) and at the Earth (magnetopause flux transfer events and magnetotail substorms) and other magnetized planets, and occur also at the interface between the Heliosphere and the interstellar medium, the heliopause. The consequences range from relatively quiescent heating of the ambient plasma to highly explosive <span class="hlt">releases</span> of <span class="hlt">energy</span> and accelerated particles. We use the Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamics Solver (ARMS) model to investigate the self-consistent formation and reconnection of current sheets in an initially potential 2D magnetic field containing a magnetic null point. Unequal stresses applied to the four quadrants bounded by the X-line separatrix distort the potential null into a double-Y-type current sheet. We find that this distortion eventually leads to onset of fast magnetic reconnection across the sheet, with copious production, merging, and ejection of magnetic islands due to plasmoid instability. In the absence of a mechanism for ideal instability or loss of equilibrium of the global structure, however, this reconnection leads to minimal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. Essentially, the current sheet oscillates about its force-free equilibrium configuration. When the structure is susceptible to a large-scale rearrangement of the magnetic field, on the other hand, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> becomes explosive. We identify the conditions required for reconnection to transform rapidly a large fraction of the magnetic free <span class="hlt">energy</span> into kinetic and other forms of plasma <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and to restructure the current sheet and its surrounding magnetic field dramatically. We discuss the implications of our results for understanding heliophysical activity, particularly eruptions, flares, and jets in the corona.Our research was supported by NASA’s Heliophysics Supporting Research and Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.13501016G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.13501016G"><span>Simulation of the Radiation <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Air Showers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glaser, Christian; Erdmann, Martin; Hörandel, Jörg R.; Huege, Tim; Schulz, Johannes</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>A simulation study of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> by extensive air showers in the form of MHz radiation is performed using the CoREAS simulation code. We develop an efficient method to extract this radiation <span class="hlt">energy</span> from air-shower simulations. We determine the longitudinal profile of the radiation <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and compare it to the longitudinal profile of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposit by the electromagnetic component of the air shower. We find that the radiation <span class="hlt">energy</span> corrected for the geometric dependence of the geomagnetic emission scales quadratically with the <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the electromagnetic component of the air shower with a second order dependency on the atmospheric density at the position of the maximum of the shower development Xmax. In a measurement where Xmax is not accessible, this second order dependence can be approximated using the zenith angle of the incoming direction of the air shower with only a minor deterioration in accuracy. This method results in an intrinsic uncertainty of 4% with respect to the electromagnetic shower <span class="hlt">energy</span> which is well below current experimental uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086000"><span>The role of compressibility in <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> by magnetic reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Birn, J.; Borovsky, J. E.; Hesse, M.</p> <p>2012-08-15</p> <p>Using resistive compressible magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and transfer by magnetic reconnection in finite (closed or periodic) systems. The emphasis is on the magnitude of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> and transferred to plasma heating in configurations that range from highly compressible to incompressible, based on the magnitude of the background {beta} (ratio of plasma pressure over magnetic pressure) and of a guide field in two-dimensional reconnection. As expected, the system becomes more incompressible, and the role of compressional heating diminishes, with increasing {beta} or increasing guide field. Nevertheless, compressional heating may dominate over Joule heating for values of the guide field of 2 or 3 (in relation to the reconnecting magnetic field component) and {beta} of 5-10. This result stems from the strong localization of the dissipation near the reconnection site, which is modeled based on particle simulation results. Imposing uniform resistivity, corresponding to a Lundquist number of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4}, leads to significantly larger Ohmic heating. Increasing incompressibility greatly reduces the magnetic flux transfer and the amount of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span>, from {approx}10% of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> associated with the reconnecting field component, for zero guide field and low {beta}, to {approx}0.2%-0.4% for large values of the guide field B{sub y0}>5 or large {beta}. The results demonstrate the importance of taking into account plasma compressibility and localization of dissipation in investigations of heating by turbulent reconnection, possibly relevant for solar wind or coronal heating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001072','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001072"><span>The Role of Compressibility in <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> by Magnetic Reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Birn, J.; Borovosky, J. E.; Hesse, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Using resistive compressible magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and transfer by magnetic reconnection in finite (closed or periodic) systems. The emphasis is on the magnitude of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> and transferred to plasma heating in configurations that range from highly compressible to incompressible, based on the magnitude of the background beta (ratio of plasma pressure over magnetic pressure) and of a guide field in two-dimensional reconnection. As expected, the system becomes more incompressible, and the role of compressional heating diminishes, with increasing beta or increasing guide field. Nevertheless, compressional heating may dominate over Joule heating for values of the guide field of 2 or 3 (in relation to the reconnecting magnetic field component) and beta of 5-10. This result stems from the strong localization of the dissipation near the reconnection site, which is modeled based on particle simulation results. Imposing uniform resistivity, corresponding to a Lundquist number of 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4), leads to significantly larger Ohmic heating. Increasing incompressibility greatly reduces the magnetic flux transfer and the amount of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span>, from approx. 10% of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> associated with the reconnecting field component, for zero guide field and low beta, to approx. 0.2%-0.4% for large values of the guide field B(sub y0) > 5 or large beta. The results demonstrate the importance of taking into account plasma compressibility and localization of dissipation in investigations of heating by turbulent reconnection, possibly relevant for solar wind or coronal heating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1683b0121L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1683b0121L"><span>DEM code-based modeling of <span class="hlt">energy</span> accumulation and <span class="hlt">release</span> in structurally heterogeneous rock masses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavrikov, S. V.; Revuzhenko, A. F.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Based on discrete element method, the authors model loading of a physical specimen to describe its capacity to accumulate and <span class="hlt">release</span> elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The specimen is modeled as a packing of particles with viscoelastic coupling and friction. The external elastic boundary of the packing is represented by particles connected by elastic springs. The latter means introduction of an additional special potential of interaction between the boundary particles, that exercises effect even when there is no direct contact between the particles. On the whole, the model specimen represents an element of a medium capable of accumulation of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the form of internal stresses. The data of the numerical modeling of the physical specimen compression and the laboratory testing results show good qualitative consistency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...8.5728L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...8.5728L"><span>Fracture patterns and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of phosphorene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ning; Hong, Jiawang; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Phosphorene, also known as monolayer black phosphorus, has been enjoying popularity in electronic devices due to its superior electrical properties. However, it's relatively low Young's modulus, low fracture strength and susceptibility to structural failure have limited its application in mechanical devices. Therefore, in order to design more mechanically reliable devices that utilize phosphorene, it is necessary to explore the fracture patterns and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of phosphorene. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate phosphorene's fracture mechanism. The results indicate that fracture under uniaxial tension along the armchair direction is attributed to a break in the interlayer bond angles, while failure in the zigzag direction is triggered by the break in both intra-layer angles and bonds. Furthermore, we developed a modified Griffith criterion to analyze the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of phosphorene and its dependence on the strain rates and orientations of cracks. Simulation results indicate that phosphorene's <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate remains almost unchanged in the armchair direction while it fluctuates intensively in the zigzag direction. Additionally, the strain rate was found to play a negligible role in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate. The geometrical factor α in the Griffith's criterion is almost constant when the crack orientation is smaller than 45 degree, regardless of the crack orientation and loading direction. Overall, these findings provide helpful insights into the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene.Phosphorene, also known as monolayer black phosphorus, has been enjoying popularity in electronic devices due to its superior electrical properties. However, it's relatively low Young's modulus, low fracture strength and susceptibility to structural failure have limited its application in mechanical devices. Therefore, in order to design more mechanically reliable devices that utilize phosphorene, it is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuMet2016..875T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuMet2016..875T"><span>Gas <span class="hlt">release</span> from an E125 zirconium alloy under hydrogenation and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tyurin, Yu. I.; Larionov, V. V.; Nikitenkov, N. N.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The degassing from a hydrogen-saturated E125 zirconium alloy is studied as a function of its <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Zirconium alloy samples are subjected to tension at a relative elongation of 2.5, 5, and 10%. Undeformed and <span class="hlt">deformed</span> samples were saturated with hydrogen by a galvanic method at a current density of 0.5 A/cm2; that is, they are hydrogen saturated and then <span class="hlt">deformed</span>. As a result, the defects at which hydrogen is trapped in zirconium are identified. The quantity of hydrogen trapped by defects depends on the strain and the sequence of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and hydrogen saturation. This is a technical result of the investigations, which can be used to find optimum operation conditions for hydrogen-saturated zirconium articles.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21239538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21239538"><span>Cell <span class="hlt">deformation</span> at the air-liquid interface induces Ca2+-dependent ATP <span class="hlt">release</span> from lung epithelial cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramsingh, Ronaldo; Grygorczyk, Alexandra; Solecki, Anna; Cherkaoui, Lalla Siham; Berthiaume, Yves; Grygorczyk, Ryszard</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Extracellular nucleotides regulate mucociliary clearance in the airways and surfactant secretion in alveoli. Their <span class="hlt">release</span> is exquisitely mechanosensitive and may be induced by stretch as well as airflow shear stress acting on lung epithelia. We hypothesized that, in addition, tension forces at the air-liquid interface (ALI) may contribute to mechanosensitive ATP <span class="hlt">release</span> in the lungs. Local depletion of airway surface liquid, mucins, and surfactants, which normally protect epithelial surfaces, facilitate such <span class="hlt">release</span> and trigger compensatory mucin and fluid secretion processes. In this study, human bronchial epithelial 16HBE14o(-) and alveolar A549 cells were subjected to tension forces at the ALI by passing an air bubble over the cell monolayer in a flow-through chamber, or by air exposure while tilting the cell culture dish. Such stimulation induced significant ATP <span class="hlt">release</span> not involving cell lysis, as verified by ethidium bromide staining. Confocal fluorescence microscopy disclosed reversible cell <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in the monolayer part in contact with the ALI. Fura 2 fluorescence imaging revealed transient intracellular Ca(2+) elevation evoked by the ALI, which did not entail nonspecific Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space. ATP <span class="hlt">release</span> was reduced by ∼40 to ∼90% from cells loaded with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and was completely abolished by N-ethylmalemide (1 mM). These experiments demonstrate that in close proximity to the ALI, surface tension forces are transmitted directly on cells, causing their mechanical <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and Ca(2+)-dependent exocytotic ATP <span class="hlt">release</span>. Such a signaling mechanism may contribute to the detection of local deficiency of airway surface liquid and surfactants on the lung surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...719L..41R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...719L..41R"><span>Radio Observations of Weak <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Releases</span> in the Solar Corona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Beeharry, G. K.; Rajasekara, G. N.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We report observations of weak, circularly polarized, structureless type III bursts from the solar corona in the absence of Hα/X-ray flares and other related activity, during the minimum between the sunspot cycles 23 and 24. The spectral information about the event obtained with the CALLISTO spectrograph at Mauritius revealed that the drift rate of the burst is ≈-30 MHz s-1 is in the range 50-120 MHz. Two-dimensional imaging observations of the burst at 77 MHz obtained with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph indicate that the emission region was located at a radial distance of ≈1.5 R sun in the solar atmosphere. The estimated peak brightness temperature of the burst at 77 MHz is ~108 K. We derived the average magnetic field at the aforementioned location of the burst using the one-dimensional (east-west) Gauribidanur radio polarimeter at 77 MHz, and the value is ≈2.5 ± 0.2 G. We also estimated the total <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the non-thermal electrons responsible for the observed burst as ≈1.1 × 1024 erg. This is low compared to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the weakest hard X-ray microflares reported in the literature, which is about ~1026 erg. The present result shows that non-thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> that correspond to the nanoflare category (<span class="hlt">energy</span> ~1024 erg) are taking place in the solar corona, and the nature of such small-scale <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> has not yet been explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770035709&hterms=energy+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfields','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770035709&hterms=energy+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfields"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> by the interaction of coronal magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheeley, N. R., Jr.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Comparisons between coronal spectroheliograms and photospheric magnetograms are presented to support the idea that as coronal magnetic fields interact, a process of field-line reconnection usually takes place as a natural way of preventing magnetic stresses from building up in the lower corona. This suggests that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> which would have been stored in stressed fields is continuously <span class="hlt">released</span> as kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of material being driven aside to make way for the reconnecting fields. However, this kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> is negligible compared with the thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the coronal plasma. Therefore, it appears that these slow adjustments of coronal magnetic fields cannot account for even the normal heating of the corona, much less the energetic events associated with solar flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9402004P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9402004P"><span>An experimental investigation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorption in TRIP steel under impact three-point bending <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is nowadays in widespread use in the automobile industry because of their favorable mechanical properties such as high strength, excellent formability and toughness because of strain-induced martensitic transformation. Moreover, when TRIP steel is applied to the components of the vehicles, it is expected that huge amount of kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> will be absorbed into both plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and martensitic transformation during the collision. Basically, bending <span class="hlt">deformation</span> due to buckling is one of the major crash <span class="hlt">deformation</span> modes of automobile structures. Thus, an investigation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorption during bending <span class="hlt">deformation</span> at high impact velocity for TRIP steel is indispensable. Although TRIP steel have particularly attracted the recent interest of the scientific community, just few studies can be found on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorption characteristic of TRIP steel, especially at impact loading condition. In present study, experimental investigations of bending <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behaviors of TRIP steel are conducted in the three-point bending tests for both smooth and pre-cracked specimen. Then, <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorption characteristic during plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and fracture process at high impact velocity in TRIP steel will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTA...48....1T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTA...48....1T"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> Microstructure and <span class="hlt">Deformation</span>-Induced Martensite in Austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys Depending on Stacking Fault <span class="hlt">Energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Ye; Gorbatov, Oleg I.; Borgenstam, Annika; Ruban, Andrei V.; Hedström, Peter</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">deformation</span> microstructure of austenitic Fe-18Cr-(10-12)Ni (wt pct) alloys with low stacking fault <span class="hlt">energies</span>, estimated by first-principles calculations, was investigated after cold rolling. The ɛ-martensite was found to play a key role in the nucleation of α'-martensite, and at low SFE, ɛ formation is frequent and facilitates nucleation of α' at individual shear bands, whereas shear band intersections become the dominant nucleation sites for α' when SFE increases and mechanical twinning becomes frequent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alternative+AND+energy+AND+source&pg=6&id=EJ860250','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alternative+AND+energy+AND+source&pg=6&id=EJ860250"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> and the Confused Student V: The <span class="hlt">Energy</span>/Momentum Approach to Problems Involving Rotating and <span class="hlt">Deformable</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jewett, John W., Jr.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> is a critical concept in physics problem-solving, but is often a major source of confusion for students if the presentation is not carefully crafted by the instructor or the textbook. A common approach to problems involving <span class="hlt">deformable</span> or rotating systems that has been discussed in the literature is to employ the work-kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> theorem…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alternative+AND+energy+AND+sources&pg=6&id=EJ860250','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alternative+AND+energy+AND+sources&pg=6&id=EJ860250"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> and the Confused Student V: The <span class="hlt">Energy</span>/Momentum Approach to Problems Involving Rotating and <span class="hlt">Deformable</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jewett, John W., Jr.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> is a critical concept in physics problem-solving, but is often a major source of confusion for students if the presentation is not carefully crafted by the instructor or the textbook. A common approach to problems involving <span class="hlt">deformable</span> or rotating systems that has been discussed in the literature is to employ the work-kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> theorem…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinetic+AND+energy&pg=7&id=EJ528366','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinetic+AND+energy&pg=7&id=EJ528366"><span>Measurement of the Kinetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> of a Body by Means of a <span class="hlt">Deformation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Perez, Pedro J.; And Others</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Describes a technique that measures the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> produced in a plastic material by a falling ball in order to compute the ball's kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Varying the parameters produces accurate results and gives students a good understanding of the measurement of <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Combines various mechanical concepts that students have learned separately in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhyEd..31..218P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhyEd..31..218P"><span>NEW APPROACHES: Measurement of the kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of a body by means of a <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pérez, Pedro J.; Castellvi, Francesc; Rosell, Joan I.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>The simple technique of measuring the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> produced in a plastic material by a falling ball can be used to compute the ball's kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Varying the parameters in this simple experiment can produce accurate results and give students a good understanding of the measurement of <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinetic+AND+body&pg=3&id=EJ528366','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinetic+AND+body&pg=3&id=EJ528366"><span>Measurement of the Kinetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> of a Body by Means of a <span class="hlt">Deformation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Perez, Pedro J.; And Others</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Describes a technique that measures the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> produced in a plastic material by a falling ball in order to compute the ball's kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Varying the parameters produces accurate results and gives students a good understanding of the measurement of <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Combines various mechanical concepts that students have learned separately in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041571&hterms=impulsivity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dimpulsivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041571&hterms=impulsivity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dimpulsivity"><span>The observed characteristics of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. I - Magnetic structure at the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Machado, Marcos E.; Moore, Ronald L.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Hernandez, Ana M.; Rovira, Marta G.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>It is shown that flaring activity as seen in X-rays usually encompasses two or more interacting magnetic bipoles within an active region. Soft and hard X-ray spatiotemporal evolution is considered as well as the time dependence of the thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> content in different magnetic bipoles participating in the flare, the hardness and impulsivity of the hard X-ray emission, and the relationship between the X-ray behavior and the strength and 'observable shear' of the magnetic field. It is found that the basic structure of a flare usually consists of an initiating closed bipole plus one or more adjacent closed bipoles impacted against it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041571&hterms=espacio&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Despacio','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041571&hterms=espacio&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Despacio"><span>The observed characteristics of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. I - Magnetic structure at the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Machado, Marcos E.; Moore, Ronald L.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Hernandez, Ana M.; Rovira, Marta G.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>It is shown that flaring activity as seen in X-rays usually encompasses two or more interacting magnetic bipoles within an active region. Soft and hard X-ray spatiotemporal evolution is considered as well as the time dependence of the thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> content in different magnetic bipoles participating in the flare, the hardness and impulsivity of the hard X-ray emission, and the relationship between the X-ray behavior and the strength and 'observable shear' of the magnetic field. It is found that the basic structure of a flare usually consists of an initiating closed bipole plus one or more adjacent closed bipoles impacted against it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17513370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17513370"><span>Chlorophyll ring <span class="hlt">deformation</span> modulates Qy electronic <span class="hlt">energy</span> in chlorophyll-protein complexes and generates spectral forms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zucchelli, Giuseppe; Brogioli, Doriano; Casazza, Anna Paola; Garlaschi, Flavio M; Jennings, Robert C</p> <p>2007-09-15</p> <p>The possibility that the chlorophyll (chl) ring distortions observed in the crystal structures of chl-protein complexes are involved in the transition <span class="hlt">energy</span> modulation, giving rise to the spectral forms, is investigated. The out-of-plane chl-macrocycle distortions are described using an orthonormal set of <span class="hlt">deformations</span>, defined by the displacements along the six lowest-frequency, out-of-plane normal coordinates. The total chl-ring <span class="hlt">deformation</span> is the linear combination of these six <span class="hlt">deformations</span>. The two higher occupied and the two lower unoccupied chl molecular orbitals, which define the Q(y) electronic transition, have the same symmetry as four of the six out-of-plane lowest frequency modes. We assume that a <span class="hlt">deformation</span> along the normal-coordinate having the same symmetry as a given molecular orbital will perturb that orbital and modify its <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The changes in the chl Q(y) transition <span class="hlt">energies</span> are evaluated in the Peridinin-Chl-Protein complex and in light harvesting complex II (LHCII), using crystallographic data. The macrocycle <span class="hlt">deformations</span> induce a distribution of the chl Q(y) electronic <span class="hlt">energy</span> transitions which, for LHCII, is broader for chla than for chlb. This provides the physical mechanism to explain the long-held view that the chla spectral forms in LHCII are both more numerous and cover a wider <span class="hlt">energy</span> range than those of chlb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1154960','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1154960"><span>Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Menikoff, Ralph</p> <p>2014-09-05</p> <p>Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wave with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the <span class="hlt">release</span> isentrope to correct the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...53a2002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...53a2002K"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> flows in rock mass under tidal <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klishin, SV; Revuzhenko, AF</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Under analysis is the stress state of an elliptical domain under varying loading conditions. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> flow lines are plotted. The paper demonstrates the effect of the boundary conditions on the shape of the flow lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344648"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and transfer in guide field reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Birn, J.; Hesse, M.</p> <p>2010-01-15</p> <p>Properties of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and transfer by magnetic reconnection in the presence of a guide field are investigated on the basis of 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Two initial configurations are considered: a plane current sheet with a uniform guide field of 80% of the reconnecting magnetic field component and a force-free current sheet in which the magnetic field strength is constant but the field direction rotates by 180 deg. through the current sheet. The onset of reconnection is stimulated by localized, temporally limited compression. Both MHD and PIC simulations consistently show that the outgoing <span class="hlt">energy</span> fluxes are dominated by (redirected) Poynting flux and enthalpy flux, whereas bulk kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> flux and heat flux (in the PIC simulation) are small. The Poynting flux is mainly associated with the magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the guide field which is carried from inflow to outflow without much alteration. The conversion of annihilated magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> to enthalpy flux (that is, thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>) stems mainly from the fact that the outflow occurs into a closed field region governed by approximate force balance between Lorentz and pressure gradient forces. Therefore, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> converted from magnetic to kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> by Lorentz force acceleration becomes immediately transferred to thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> by the work done by the pressure gradient force. Strong similarities between late stages of MHD and PIC simulations result from the fact that conservation of mass and entropy content and footpoint displacement of magnetic flux tubes, imposed in MHD, are also approximately satisfied in the PIC simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..237a2004D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..237a2004D"><span>Numerical estimation of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> of selected bulk oilseeds in compression loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demirel, C.; Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Gurdil, G. A. K.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>This paper aimed at the determination of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> of some bulk oilseeds or kernels namely oil palm, sunflower, rape and flax in linear pressing applying the trapezoidal rule which is characterized by the area under the force and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> curve.The bulk samples were measured at the initial pressing height of 60 mm with the vessel diameter of 60 mm where they were compressed under the universal compression machine at a maximum force of 200 kN and speed of 5 mm/min.Based on the compression test, the optimal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> for recovering the oil was observed at a force of 163 kN where there was no seed/kernel cake ejection in comparison to the initial maximum force used particularly for rape and flax bulk oilseeds.This information is needed for analyzing the <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency of the non-linear compression process involving a mechanical screw press or expeller.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.451a2014M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.451a2014M"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate in couple-stress elasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morini, L.; Piccolroaz, A.; Mishuris, G.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>This paper is concerned with <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate for dynamic steady state crack problems in elastic materials with microstructures. A Mode III semi-infinite crack subject to loading applied on the crack surfaces is considered. The micropolar behaviour of the material is described by the theory of couple-stress elasticity developed by Koiter. A general expression for the dynamic J-integral including both traslational and micro-rotational inertial contributions is derived, and the conservation of this integral on a path surrounding the crack tip is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhRvB..6210445K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhRvB..6210445K"><span>Simple theory of elastically <span class="hlt">deformed</span> metals: Surface <span class="hlt">energy</span>, stress, and work function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiejna, Adam; Pogosov, Valentin V.</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>The effect of uniaxial strain on surface properties of simple metals is considered within the stabilized jellium model. The modified equations for the stabilization <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> Wigner-Seitz cells are derived as a function of the bulk electron density and the given <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. The model requires as input the density parameter rs, the Poisson ratio, and Young's modulus of the metal. The results for surface <span class="hlt">energy</span>, surface stress, and work function of simple metals calculated within the self-consistent Kohn-Sham method are also presented and discussed. A consistent explanation of the independent experiments on stress-induced contact potential difference at metal surfaces is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865965','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865965"><span>Method of achieving the controlled <span class="hlt">release</span> of thermonuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Brueckner, Keith A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A method of achieving the controlled <span class="hlt">release</span> of thermonuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span> by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of <span class="hlt">energy</span> in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high <span class="hlt">energy</span> thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting <span class="hlt">energy</span> as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser <span class="hlt">energy</span> input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...837..108P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...837..108P"><span>Observable Signatures of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Braided Coronal Loops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pontin, D. I.; Janvier, M.; Tiwari, S. K.; Galsgaard, K.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J. W.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We examine the turbulent relaxation of solar coronal loops containing non-trivial field line braiding. Such field line tangling in the corona has long been postulated in the context of coronal heating models. We focus on the observational signatures of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in such braided magnetic structures using MHD simulations and forward modeling tools. The aim is to answer the following question: if <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> occurs in a coronal loop containing braided magnetic flux, should we expect a clearly observable signature in emissions? We demonstrate that the presence of braided magnetic field lines does not guarantee a braided appearance to the observed intensities. Observed intensities may—but need not necessarily—reveal the underlying braided nature of the magnetic field, depending on the degree and pattern of the field line tangling within the loop. However, in all cases considered, the evolution of the braided loop is accompanied by localized heating regions as the loop relaxes. Factors that may influence the observational signatures are discussed. Recent high-resolution observations from Hi-C have claimed the first direct evidence of braided magnetic fields in the corona. Here we show that both the Hi-C data and some of our simulations give the appearance of braiding at a range of scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18975040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18975040"><span>Arthroscopic gluteal muscle contracture <span class="hlt">release</span> with radiofrequency <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yan; Xue, Jing; Lui, Pauline Po-Yee; Chan, Kai-Ming</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Gluteal muscle contracture is common after repeated intramuscular injections and sometimes is sufficiently debilitating to require open surgery. We asked whether arthroscopic <span class="hlt">release</span> of gluteal muscle contracture using radiofrequency <span class="hlt">energy</span> would decrease complications with clinically acceptable results. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients with bilateral gluteal muscle contractures (57 males, 51 females; mean age, 23.7 years). We used inferior, anterosuperior, and posterosuperior portals. With the patient lying laterally, we developed and enlarged a potential space between the gluteal muscle group and the subcutaneous fat using blunt dissection. Under arthroscopic guidance through the inferior portal, we débrided and removed fatty tissue overlying the contractile band of the gluteal muscle group using a motorized shaver introduced through the superior portal. Radiofrequency then was introduced through the superior portal to gradually excise the contracted bands from superior to inferior. Finally, hemostasis was ensured using radiofrequency. Patients were followed a minimum of 7 months (mean, 17.4 months; range, 7-42 months). At last followup, the adduction and flexion ranges of the hip were 45.3 degrees +/- 8.7 degrees and 110.2 degrees +/- 11.9 degrees, compared with 10.4 degrees +/- 7.2 degrees and 44.8 degrees +/- 14.1 degrees before surgery. No hip abductor contracture recurred and no patient had residual hip pain or gluteal muscle wasting. We found gluteal muscle contracture could be <span class="hlt">released</span> effectively with radiofrequency <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27261633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27261633"><span>Computer tomography navigation for the transoral anterior <span class="hlt">release</span> of a complex craniovertebral junction <span class="hlt">deformity</span>: A report of two cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyahara, Junya; Hirao, Yujiro; Matsubayashi, Yoshitaka; Chikuda, Hirotaka</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The surgical correction of <span class="hlt">deformities</span> of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) remains a challenge due to its complex anatomy. Despite the well-known usefulness of computed tomography (CT) navigation in posterior spinal surgery, it is applied far less frequently in anterior spinal surgery, mainly due to registration difficulties. Case 1 was a 68-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis, with a complaint of neck pain, motor weakness, and dysesthesia in the upper extremities. Case 2 was a 61-year-old male with Chiari malformation, with a complaint of neck pain and gait disturbance after a fall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe atlantoaxial dislocation and multilevel cervical spinal cord compression in both patients. Continuous halo traction failed to reduce atlantoaxial dislocation, even under general anesthesia, and they were treated with combined anterior <span class="hlt">release</span> and posterior decompression and fixation using CT navigation. Occipitocervical assimilation, which was present in both patients, enabled precise registration for navigation. The lack of anatomically characteristic landmarks on the vertebral surface makes obtaining accurate registration difficult in anterior CVJ surgery using CT navigation. The remaining mobility in the occipitocervical joint precludes the use of facial or cranial landmarks. However, occipitocervical assimilation, which is not uncommon in patients with CVJ <span class="hlt">deformities</span>, enables accurate navigation during transoral surgery. Transoral anterior <span class="hlt">release</span> using CT navigation is an effective treatment option for rigid complex CVJ <span class="hlt">deformities</span>. The accurate identification of the patients' anatomical features such as occipitoatlantal assimilation, is crucial for the conducting accurate preoperative CT-based navigation during transoral surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26087351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26087351"><span>Effects of mechanical <span class="hlt">deformation</span> on <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoo, Jinho; Cho, Seunghyeon; Kim, Wook; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hojoong; Kim, Seunghyun; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Chang-Wan; Choi, Dukhyun</p> <p>2015-07-10</p> <p>Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) are capable of converting <span class="hlt">energy</span> from various mechanical sources into electric <span class="hlt">energy</span> and have many attractive features such as continuous operation, replenishment and low cost. However, many researchers still have studied novel material synthesis and interfacial controls to improve the power production from PNGs. In this study, we report the <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion efficiency (ECE) of PNGs dependent on mechanical <span class="hlt">deformations</span> such as bending and twisting. Since the output power of PNGs is caused by the mechanical strain of the piezoelectric material, the power production and their ECE is critically dependent on the types of external mechanical <span class="hlt">deformations</span>. Thus, we examine the output power from PNGs according to bending and twisting. In order to clearly understand the ECE of PNGs in the presence of those external mechanical <span class="hlt">deformations</span>, we determine the ECE of PNGs by the ratio of output electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> and input mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span>, where we suggest that the input <span class="hlt">energy</span> is based only on the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the piezoelectric layer. We calculate the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the piezoelectric layer using numerical simulation of bending and twisting of the PNG. Finally, we demonstrate that the ECE of the PNG caused by twisting is much higher than that caused by bending due to the multiple effects of normal and lateral piezoelectric coefficients. Our results thus provide a design direction for PNG systems as high-performance power generators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27044020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27044020"><span>Adult Spinal <span class="hlt">Deformity</span> Correction with Multi-level Anterior Column <span class="hlt">Releases</span>: Description of a New Surgical Technique and Literature Review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Demirkiran, Gokhan; Theologis, Alexander A; Pekmezci, Murat; Ames, Christopher; Deviren, Vedat</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Case series. To evaluate radiographic and clinical outcomes of adults with spinal <span class="hlt">deformity</span> treated with multilevel anterior column <span class="hlt">releases</span> (ACR). Pedicle subtraction osteotomy can be used effectively to correct spinal <span class="hlt">deformity</span>; however, it is not without complications. ACR is an attractive alternative minimally invasive technique for spinal <span class="hlt">deformity</span> correction, although few clinical reports on its clinical effectiveness exist. Adults with spinal <span class="hlt">deformity</span> who underwent multilevel ACRs (≥2) followed by open posterior instrumentation with a minimum 1-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. <span class="hlt">Deformity</span> radiographic data and clinical outcomes, including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the EuroQol-5D were analyzed. Eight patients [7 female, 1 male; mean age 65 y (49-79 y)] met inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up was 18.4 months (12-28 mo). The average number of levels treated with an ACR per patient was 2.4 (2-3). There were no anterior approach-related complications. The average number of levels instrumented posteriorly was 8.1 (3-15). Six patients underwent Schwab type 1 posterior osteotomies (partial facetectomies). After the first anterior stage, there was a significant increase in the lumbar lordosis and significant decreases in the sagittal vertical axis, pelvic tilt, and lumbopelvic mismatch (P<0.05). After the second stage there was no significant change in the sagittal vertical axis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, or lumbopelvic mismatch relative to the values obtained after ACR. There was significantly less disability postoperatively [ODI: 15 (0-30)] compared with preoperatively [ODI: 46 (16-80)] (P<0.01). There was significant improvement in general health after operation, as assessed by the EuroQol-5D utility scores [preop: 0.44 (0.21-0.82) vs. postop: 0.71 (0.60-0.80)] (P=0.01). Back and leg visual analog scale pain scores improved significantly postoperatively. A staged approach using multilevel ACRs with open posterior instrumentation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793f0019F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793f0019F"><span>Partitioning of initial <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in a tunnel environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Felts, Joshua E.; Lee, Richard J.; Mychajlonka, Kyle; Davis, Andy</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>After the detonation of an explosive charge in the closed end of a tunnel, product gases and metal fuels can continue to react with one another as well as combust with the available air while expanding down the tunnel. It is that total reaction that drives the blast wave at long distances from the charge. The initial <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> was calculated from pressure wave time of arrival at distances of 5 to 30 tunnel diameters away for several explosives in a 127-mm diameter tunnel using point blast theory. For similarly sized explosives, the anaerobic <span class="hlt">energy</span> was measured using a detonation calorimeter. Comparisons were made for four explosives: one nearly ideal, two with aluminum, and one with aluminum and an oxidizer. The measured tunnel and calorimeter <span class="hlt">energies</span> were equal, within error, for the near-ideal explosive. The other three explosives had tunnel and calorimeter <span class="hlt">energies</span> higher than that which can be accounted for from the detonable ingredients alone, especially in the tunnel. The differences between the tunnel and calorimeter for the three aluminized explosives were taken to be from aerobic combustion of aluminum. The presence of higher concentrations of aluminum or an oxidizer enhanced the amount of aerobic combustion of aluminum. The aluminized explosive with additional oxidizer consumed more than twice the aluminum of the other two in the tunnel. More experiments are needed to better define the early partitioning of anaerobic and aerobic combustion of aluminum in the small-scale tunnel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28709187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28709187"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and structural evolution during finite viscoplastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of glassy polymers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Rui; Ghazaryan, Gagik; Tervoort, Theo A; Nguyen, Thao D</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The enthalpic response of amorphous polymers depends strongly on their thermal and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> history. Annealing just below the glass transition temperature (T_{g}) causes a large endothermic overshoot of the isobaric heat capacity at T_{g} as measured by differential scanning calorimetry, while plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> (cold work) can erase this overshoot and create an exothermic undershoot. This indicates that a strong coupling exists between the polymer structure, thermal response, and mechanical <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. In this work, we apply a recently developed thermomechanical model for glassy polymers that couples structural evolution and viscoplastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> to investigate the effect of annealing and plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> on the accumulation of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> during cold work and calorimetry measurements of heat flow. The thermomechanical model introduces the effective temperature as an additional state variable in a nonequilibrium thermodynamics setting to describe the structural evolution of the material. The results show that the model accurately describes the stress and enthalpy response of quenched and annealed polymers with different plastic predeformations. The model also shows that at 30% strain in uniaxial compression, 45% of the applied work is converted into stored <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which is consistent with experimental data from literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95f3001X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95f3001X"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and structural evolution during finite viscoplastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of glassy polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Rui; Ghazaryan, Gagik; Tervoort, Theo A.; Nguyen, Thao D.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The enthalpic response of amorphous polymers depends strongly on their thermal and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> history. Annealing just below the glass transition temperature (Tg) causes a large endothermic overshoot of the isobaric heat capacity at Tg as measured by differential scanning calorimetry, while plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> (cold work) can erase this overshoot and create an exothermic undershoot. This indicates that a strong coupling exists between the polymer structure, thermal response, and mechanical <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. In this work, we apply a recently developed thermomechanical model for glassy polymers that couples structural evolution and viscoplastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> to investigate the effect of annealing and plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> on the accumulation of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> during cold work and calorimetry measurements of heat flow. The thermomechanical model introduces the effective temperature as an additional state variable in a nonequilibrium thermodynamics setting to describe the structural evolution of the material. The results show that the model accurately describes the stress and enthalpy response of quenched and annealed polymers with different plastic predeformations. The model also shows that at 30% strain in uniaxial compression, 45% of the applied work is converted into stored <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which is consistent with experimental data from literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARK17003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARK17003S"><span>Dynamical <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Gap Engineering in Graphene via Oscillating Out-of-Plane <span class="hlt">Deformations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandler, Nancy; Zhai, Dawei</p> <p></p> <p>The close relation between electronic properties and mechanical <span class="hlt">deformations</span> in graphene has been the topic of active research in recent years. Interestingly, the effect of <span class="hlt">deformations</span> on electronic properties can be understood in terms of pseudo-magnetic fields, whose spatial distribution and intensity are controllable via the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> geometry. Previous results showed that electromagnetic fields (light) have the potential to induce dynamical gaps in graphene's <span class="hlt">energy</span> bands, transforming graphene from a semimetal to a semiconductor. However, laser frequencies required to achieve these regimes are in the THz regime, which imposes challenges for practical purposes. In this talk we report a novel method to create dynamical gaps using oscillating mechanical <span class="hlt">deformations</span>, i.e., via time-dependent pseudo-magnetic fields. Using the Floquet formalism we show the existence of a dynamical gap in the band structure at <span class="hlt">energies</span> set by the frequency of the oscillation, and with a magnitude tuned by the geometry of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. This dynamical-mechanical manipulation strategy appears as a promising venue to engineer electronic properties of suspended graphene devices. Work supported by NSF-DMR 1508325.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyS...85c5007K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyS...85c5007K"><span>Solitonic transport of <span class="hlt">energy</span>-momentum in a <span class="hlt">deformed</span> magnetic medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kavitha, L.; Saravanan, M.; Akila, N.; Bhuvaneswari, S.; Gopi, D.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">energy</span>-momentum transport phenomenon between interacting spins in a <span class="hlt">deformed</span> ferromagnetic medium is investigated theoretically. The spin dynamics of a one-dimensional (1D) classical continuum Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin system in the presence of varying exchange interactions is considered. The state of the 1D continuum spin system with varying exchange interactions is mapped onto a moving helical space curve in E3. The results are recast in conjunction with the evolution of <span class="hlt">energy</span> and current densities of the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> ferromagnetic medium, through a knowledge of the underlying geometry of this system. A set of soliton solutions for <span class="hlt">energy</span> and current densities is constructed by employing the sine-cosine method coupled with symbolic computation. The evolution and propagation of solitonic <span class="hlt">energy</span>-momentum transport under the influence of competing linear and nonlinear inhomogeneities have been analyzed briefly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA595768','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA595768"><span>Computational Investigation of Impact <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Absorption Capability of Polyurea Coatings via <span class="hlt">Deformation</span>-Induced Glass Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>homepage: www.e lsev ier .com/ locate /msea Computational investigation of impact <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorption capability of polyurea coatings via <span class="hlt">deformation</span>-induced...Keywords: Polyurea Computational analysis Glass transition Blast/impact <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorption coating a b s t r a c t A number of experimental investigations...reported in the open literature have indicated that the applica- tion of polyurea coatings can substantially improve blast and ballistic impact</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.R2006R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.R2006R"><span>Dynamics of galloping detonations: inert hydrodynamics with pulsed <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Radulescu, Matei I.; Shepherd, Joseph E.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Previous models for galloping and cellular detonations of Ulyanitski, Vasil'ev and Higgins assume that the unit shock decay or cell can be modeled by Taylor-Sedov blast waves. We revisit this concept for galloping detonations, which we model as purely inert hydrodynamics with periodically pulsed <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition. At periodic time intervals, the chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the non-reacted gas accumulating between the lead shock and the contact surface separating reacted and non reacted gas is <span class="hlt">released</span> nearly instantaneously. In between these pulses, the gas evolves as an inert medium. The resulting response of the gas to the periodic forcing is a sudden gain in pressure followed by mechanical relaxation accompanied by strong shock waves driven both forward and backwards. It is shown that the decay of the lead shock in-between pulses follows an exponential decay, whose time constant is controlled by the frequency of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition. More-over, the average speed of the lead shock is found to agree within 2 percent to the ideal Chapman-Jouguet value, while the large scale dynamics of the wave follows closely the ideal wave form of a CJ wave trailed by a Taylor expansion. When friction and heat losses are accounted for, velocity deficits are predicted, consistent with experiment. Work performed while MIR was on sabbatical at Caltech.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720019047','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720019047"><span>Liquid rocket performance computer model with distributed <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Combs, L. P.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Development of a computer program for analyzing the effects of bipropellant spray combustion processes on liquid rocket performance is described and discussed. The distributed <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> (DER) computer program was designed to become part of the JANNAF liquid rocket performance evaluation methodology and to account for performance losses associated with the propellant combustion processes, e.g., incomplete spray gasification, imperfect mixing between sprays and their reacting vapors, residual mixture ratio striations in the flow, and two-phase flow effects. The DER computer program begins by initializing the combustion field at the injection end of a conventional liquid rocket engine, based on injector and chamber design detail, and on propellant and combustion gas properties. It analyzes bipropellant combustion, proceeding stepwise down the chamber from those initial conditions through the nozzle throat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JLTP..171..302K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JLTP..171..302K"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Channels During Destruction of Impurity-Helium Condensates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khmelenko, V. V.; Pelmenev, A. A.; Krushinskaya, I. N.; Bykhalo, I. B.; Boltnev, R. E.; Lee, D. M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Injection of an impurity-helium gas jet passed through a radiofrequency discharge into a volume of superfluid helium leads to the growth of nanoclusters of impurity species which form impurity-helium condensates (IHCs). IHCs are porous materials with very low impurity density (˜1020 cm-3). High average concentrations of stabilized free radicals can be achieved on the large total surface (˜100 m2/cm3) of impurity nanoclusters. Warming of the IHCs leads to the destruction of the samples and formation of excited atoms and molecules as a consequence of the recombination of stabilized free radicals. We studied the influence of the nitrogen content in neon-helium and krypton-helium gas mixtures on the thermoluminescence spectra accompanying the destruction of the IHC samples, which were formed by using these gas mixtures. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> channels in the IHC samples were revealed from analysis of the thermoluminescence spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvD..71b6010M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvD..71b6010M"><span>String theories with <span class="hlt">deformed</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>-momentum relations, and a possible nontachyonic bosonic string</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magueijo, João; Smolin, Lee</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We consider a prescription for introducing <span class="hlt">deformed</span> dispersion relations in the bosonic string action. We find that in a subset of such theories it remains true that the embedding coordinates propagate linearly on the world sheet. While both the string modes and the center of mass propagate with <span class="hlt">deformed</span> dispersion relations, the speed of light remains <span class="hlt">energy</span> independent. We consider the canonical quantization of these strings and find that it is possible to choose theories so that ghost modes still decouple, as usual. We also find that there are examples where the tachyon is eliminated from the spectrum of the free bosonic string.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6632591','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6632591"><span>Nuclear-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> according to a liquid-drop model with a sharp surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blocki, J.; Swiatecki, W.J.</p> <p>1982-05-01</p> <p>We present an atlas of 665 <span class="hlt">deformation-energy</span> maps and 150 maps of other properties of interest, relevant for nuclear systems idealized as uniformly charged drops endowed with a surface tension. The nuclear shapes are parametrized in terms of two spheres modified by a smoothly fitted quadratic surface of revolution and are specified by three variables: asymmetry, sphere separation, and a neck variable (that goes over into a fragment-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> variable after scission). The maps and related tables should be useful for the study of macroscopic aspects of nuclear fission and of collisions between any two nuclei in the periodic table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/960151','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/960151"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Level Effects on <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> Mechanism in Micro-scale Laser Peen Forming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang,Y.; Fan, Y.; Vukelic, S.; Yao, Y.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Laser micro-scale peen forming attracts more and more attention recently as one of laser processing technology because it not only imparts desirable residual stress into target to improve the fatigue life of the material but also precisely <span class="hlt">deforms</span> the target. In the present study, <span class="hlt">energy</span> level effects on <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanism in laser micro-scale peen forming was investigated by both numerical and experimental methods. <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> curvatures and residual stress distributions of both sides, characterized by x-ray microdiffraction, were compared with the results obtained from FEM simulation. Forming mechanism of convex and concave phenomena was explained in terms of the resulting pressure, compressive stress distribution, and plastic strain. Difference of residual stress distribution patterns was also studied from the point of view of forming mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FML.....950069L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FML.....950069L"><span>Optimization of <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesting based on the uniform <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of piezoelectric ceramic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yaoze; Yang, Tongqing; Shu, Fangming</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Since the piezoelectric properties were used for <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesting, almost all forms of <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvester needs to be bonded with a mass block to achieve pre-stress. In this article, disc type piezoelectric <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvester is chosen as the research object and the relationship between mass bonding area and power output is studied. It is found that if the bonding area is changed as curved, which is usually complanate in previous studies, the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of the circular piezoelectric ceramic is more uniform and the power output is enhanced. In order to test the change of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, we spray several homocentric annular electrodes on the surface of a piece of bare piezoelectric ceramic and the output of each electrode is tested. Through this optimization method, the power output is enhanced to more than 11mW for a matching load about 24kΩ and a tip mass of 30g at its resonant frequency of 139Hz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64e1809C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64e1809C"><span>Biaxial <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of a polymer under shear: NMR test of the Doi-Edwards model with convected constraint <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cormier, Ryan J.; Kilfoil, Maria L.; Callaghan, Paul T.</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>2H NMR quadrupole interaction spectroscopy has been used to measure the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of a 670 kD poly(dimethylsiloxane) melt under shear in a Couette cell. The signals were acquired from a per deuterated benzene probe molecule which provides a motionally averaged sampling of the entire segmental ensemble. We have measured the dependence on shear rate of the SXX (velocity), SYY (velocity gradient), SZZ (vorticity), and SXY (shear) elements of the segmental alignment tensor, as well as the angular dependence of the deuterium quadrupole splitting at fixed shear rate. We show that the data agree quite well with the Doi-Edwards theory but significantly better when convected constraint <span class="hlt">release</span> effects are included. These fits return a value for the tube disengagement time of 100 ms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850388"><span>Complications and neurological deficits following minimally invasive anterior column <span class="hlt">release</span> for adult spinal <span class="hlt">deformity</span>: a retrospective study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, Gisela; Beckman, Joshua; Bach, Konrad; Smith, Donald A; Dakwar, Elias; Uribe, Juan S</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Minimally invasive techniques have become increasing popular and are expanding into <span class="hlt">deformity</span> surgery. The lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas anterior column <span class="hlt">release</span> (ACR) is a newer minimally invasive alternative to posterior osteotomy techniques for correcting and promoting global spinal alignment. This procedure attempts to avoid the potential complications associated with conventional osteotomies, but has its own subset of unique complications to be discussed in depth. A retrospective review was performed in all patients who underwent the minimally invasive (MIS) ACR procedure from 2010 to present at our institution. All perioperative and postoperative complications were recorded by an independent reviewer. Demographics, spinopelvic parameters, and operative data were collected. The primary etiologic diagnosis was adult spinal <span class="hlt">deformity</span>. Spinopelvic parameters were measured based on standing 36-inch scoliosis films. Thirty-one patients underwent a total of 47 MIS-ACRs. The mean age of the cohort was 62. Mean follow up was 12 months (range 3-38 months). The average change from in lumbar lordosis (LL) was 17.6°, in pelvic tilt was 4.3°, coronal Cobb was 13.9 and in SVA was 3.8 cm. Of the 47 MIS-ACR procedures, there were 9 (9/47, 19 %) major complications related to the ACR. Iliopsoas weakness was seen in eight patients and retrograde ejaculation in one patient. Only one patient remained with mild motor deficit at the most recent follow-up. No revision surgeries were required for the anterolateral approach. There was no vascular, visceral, or infectious complications associated with the MIS-ACR. The MIS-ACR is one of the most technically demanding procedures performed from the lateral transpsoas approach. This procedure has the advantage of maintaining and improving spinal global alignment while minimizing blood loss and excessive tissue dissection. It comes with its own unique set of potentially catastrophic complications and should only be performed by</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21416327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21416327"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> and stress distribution of the human foot after plantar ligaments <span class="hlt">release</span>: a cadaveric study and finite element analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Jun; Yang, Yunfeng; Yu, Guangrong; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, Yubin</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The majority of foot <span class="hlt">deformities</span> are related to arch collapse or instability, especially the longitudinal arch. Although the relationship between the plantar fascia and arch height has been previously investigated, the stress distribution remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the plantar ligaments in foot arch biomechanics. We constructed a geometrical detailed three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) model of the human foot and ankle from computer tomography images. The model comprised the majority of joints in the foot as well as bone segments, major ligaments, and plantar soft tissue. <span class="hlt">Release</span> of the plantar fascia and other ligaments was simulated to evaluate the corresponding biomechanical effects on load distribution of the bony and ligamentous structures. These intrinsic ligaments of the foot arch were sectioned to simulate different pathologic situations of injury to the plantar ligaments, and to explore bone segment displacement and stress distribution. The validity of the 3-D FE model was verified by comparing results with experimentally measured data via the displacement and von Mise stress of each bone segment. Plantar fascia <span class="hlt">release</span> decreased arch height, but did not cause total collapse of the foot arch. The longitudinal foot arch was lost when all the four major plantar ligaments were sectioned simultaneously. Plantar fascia <span class="hlt">release</span> was compromised by increased strain applied to the plantar ligaments and intensified stress in the midfoot and metatarsal bones. Load redistribution among the centralized metatarsal bones and focal stress relief at the calcaneal insertion were predicted. The 3-D FE model indicated that plantar fascia <span class="hlt">release</span> may provide relief of focal stress and associated heel pain. However, these operative procedures may pose a risk to arch stability and clinically may produce dorsolateral midfoot pain. The initial strategy for treating plantar fasciitis should be non-operative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27593375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27593375"><span>High-Probability Neurotransmitter <span class="hlt">Release</span> Sites Represent an <span class="hlt">Energy</span>-Efficient Design.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Zhongmin; Chouhan, Amit K; Borycz, Jolanta A; Lu, Zhiyuan; Rossano, Adam J; Brain, Keith L; Zhou, You; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Macleod, Gregory T</p> <p>2016-10-10</p> <p>Nerve terminals contain multiple sites specialized for the <span class="hlt">release</span> of neurotransmitters. <span class="hlt">Release</span> usually occurs with low probability, a design thought to confer many advantages. High-probability <span class="hlt">release</span> sites are not uncommon, but their advantages are not well understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that high-probability <span class="hlt">release</span> sites represent an <span class="hlt">energy</span>-efficient design. We examined <span class="hlt">release</span> site probabilities and <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency at the terminals of two glutamatergic motor neurons synapsing on the same muscle fiber in Drosophila larvae. Through electrophysiological and ultrastructural measurements, we calculated <span class="hlt">release</span> site probabilities to differ considerably between terminals (0.33 versus 0.11). We estimated the <span class="hlt">energy</span> required to <span class="hlt">release</span> and recycle glutamate from the same measurements. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> required to remove calcium and sodium ions subsequent to nerve excitation was estimated through microfluorimetric and morphological measurements. We calculated <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency as the number of glutamate molecules <span class="hlt">released</span> per ATP molecule hydrolyzed, and high-probability <span class="hlt">release</span> site terminals were found to be more efficient (0.13 versus 0.06). Our analytical model indicates that <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency is optimal (∼0.15) at high <span class="hlt">release</span> site probabilities (∼0.76). As limitations in <span class="hlt">energy</span> supply constrain neural function, high-probability <span class="hlt">release</span> sites might ameliorate such constraints by demanding less <span class="hlt">energy</span>. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> efficiency can be viewed as one aspect of nerve terminal function, in balance with others, because high-efficiency terminals depress significantly during episodic bursts of activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1563752','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1563752"><span>Minor Groove <span class="hlt">Deformability</span> of DNA: A Molecular Dynamics Free <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Simulation Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zacharias, Martin</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The conformational <span class="hlt">deformability</span> of nucleic acids can influence their function and recognition by proteins. A class of DNA binding proteins including the TATA box binding protein binds to the DNA minor groove, resulting in an opening of the minor groove and DNA bending toward the major groove. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations in combination with the umbrella sampling approach have been performed to investigate the molecular mechanism of DNA minor groove <span class="hlt">deformations</span> and the indirect energetic contribution to protein binding. As a reaction coordinate, the distance between backbone segments on opposite strands was used. The resulting <span class="hlt">deformed</span> structures showed close agreement with experimental DNA structures in complex with minor groove-binding proteins. The calculated free <span class="hlt">energy</span> of minor groove <span class="hlt">deformation</span> was ∼4–6 kcal mol−1 in the case of a central TATATA sequence. A smaller equilibrium minor groove width and more restricted minor groove mobility was found for the central AAATTT and also a significantly (∼2 times) larger free <span class="hlt">energy</span> change for opening the minor groove. The helical parameter analysis of trajectories indicates that an easier partial unstacking of a central TA versus AT basepair step is a likely reason for the larger groove flexibility of the central TATATA case. PMID:16698780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24225900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24225900"><span>Novel characteristics of <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant <span class="hlt">deformed</span> algebra.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol</p> <p>2013-11-14</p> <p>We investigate the Lorentz-covariant <span class="hlt">deformed</span> algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf <span class="hlt">deformed</span> algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant <span class="hlt">deformed</span> one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized <span class="hlt">energy</span> with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3827607','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3827607"><span>Novel characteristics of <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant <span class="hlt">deformed</span> algebra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the Lorentz-covariant <span class="hlt">deformed</span> algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf <span class="hlt">deformed</span> algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant <span class="hlt">deformed</span> one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized <span class="hlt">energy</span> with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail. PMID:24225900</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPD....40.2011H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPD....40.2011H"><span>Helicity Transfer and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in the Bastille Day Flare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, Nicholas; Kazachenko, M.; Liu, W.; Qiu, J.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Spatial and temporal analysis of the 2000 Bastille Day event observed with SOHO and TRACE instrumentation is viewed in light of a three-dimensional topological reconnection model. The model measures the injection of helicity into the active region in a 36-hour build-up to the flare as well as the evolution of connected segmented areas of the active region to calculate flux available for the reconnection process. Utilizing the spatial evolution of the flare, the model predicts a reconnection flux of 9.45 x 1021 Mx and a helicity transfer of -9.3 x 1042 Mx2 into a twisted flux rope subsequently ejected as a coronal mass ejection (CME). The results compare well with the flux swept out by the two flare ribbons (1.44 x 1022 Mx) as viewed in TRACE 1600Å images and the helicity in magnetic cloud measurements (-15.0 x 1042 Mx2). Further analyses also reveal spatial and temporal correlation between reconnection rate and X-ray emissions, yielding evidence that reconnection governs <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares. This work was accomplished during the Solar REU program at Montana State University, which is in part supported by the National Science Foundation through contract ATM-0552958.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93b4321L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93b4321L"><span>Dirac-Hartree-Bogoliubov calculation for spherical and <span class="hlt">deformed</span> hot nuclei: Temperature dependence of the pairing <span class="hlt">energy</span> and gaps, nuclear <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, nuclear radii, excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lisboa, R.; Malheiro, M.; Carlson, B. V.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Background: Unbound single-particle states become important in determining the properties of a hot nucleus as its temperature increases. We present relativistic mean field (RMF) for hot nuclei considering not only the self-consistent temperature and density dependence of the self-consistent relativistic mean fields but also the vapor phase that takes into account the unbound nucleon states. Purpose: The temperature dependence of the pairing gaps, nuclear <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, radii, binding <span class="hlt">energies</span>, entropy, and caloric curves of spherical and <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei are obtained in self-consistent RMF calculations up to the limit of existence of the nucleus. Method: We perform Dirac-Hartree-Bogoliubov (DHB) calculations for hot nuclei using a zero-range approximation to the relativistic pairing interaction to calculate proton-proton and neutron-neutron pairing <span class="hlt">energies</span> and gaps. A vapor subtraction procedure is used to account for unbound states and to remove long range Coulomb repulsion between the hot nucleus and the gas as well as the contribution of the external nucleon gas. Results: We show that p -p and n -n pairing gaps in the S10 channel vanish for low critical temperatures in the range Tcp≈0.6 -1.1 MeV for spherical nuclei such as 90Zr, 124Sn, and 140Ce and for both <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei 150Sm and 168Er. We found that superconducting phase transition occurs at Tcp=1.03 Δp p(0 ) for 90Zr, Tcp=1.16 Δp p(0 ) for 140Ce, Tcp=0.92 Δp p(0 ) for 150Sm, and Tcp=0.97 Δp p(0 ) for 168Er. The superfluidity phase transition occurs at Tcp=0.72 Δn n(0 ) for 124Sn, Tcp=1.22 Δn n(0 ) for 150Sm, and Tcp=1.13 Δn n(0 ) for 168Er. Thus, the nuclear superfluidity phase—at least for this channel—can only survive at very low nuclear temperatures and this phase transition (when the neutron gap vanishes) always occurs before the superconducting one, where the proton gap is zero. For <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei the nuclear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> disappear at temperatures of about Tcs=2.0 -4.0 MeV , well above the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120008792&hterms=adhesive+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dadhesive%2Bsystems','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120008792&hterms=adhesive+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dadhesive%2Bsystems"><span>Adhesive-Bonded Composite Joint Analysis with Delaminated Surface Ply Using Strain-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chadegani, Alireza; Yang, Chihdar; Smeltzer, Stanley S. III</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an analytical model to determine the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate due to an interlaminar crack of the surface ply in adhesively bonded composite joints subjected to axial tension. Single-lap shear-joint standard test specimen geometry with thick bondline is followed for model development. The field equations are formulated by using the first-order shear-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> theory in laminated plates together with kinematics relations and force equilibrium conditions. The stress distributions for the adherends and adhesive are determined after the appropriate boundary and loading conditions are applied and the equations for the field displacements are solved. The system of second-order differential equations is solved to using the symbolic computation tool Maple 9.52 to provide displacements fields. The equivalent forces at the tip of the prescribed interlaminar crack are obtained based on interlaminar stress distributions. The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of the crack is then determined by using the crack closure method. Finite element analyses using the J integral as well as the crack closure method are performed to verify the developed analytical model. It has been shown that the results using the analytical method correlate well with the results from the finite element analyses. An attempt is made to predict the failure loads of the joints based on limited test data from the literature. The effectiveness of the inclusion of bondline thickness is justified when compared with the results obtained from the previous model in which a thin bondline and uniform adhesive stresses through the bondline thickness are assumed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120008792&hterms=rate+force+development&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drate%2Bforce%2Bdevelopment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120008792&hterms=rate+force+development&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drate%2Bforce%2Bdevelopment"><span>Adhesive-Bonded Composite Joint Analysis with Delaminated Surface Ply Using Strain-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chadegani, Alireza; Yang, Chihdar; Smeltzer, Stanley S. III</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an analytical model to determine the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate due to an interlaminar crack of the surface ply in adhesively bonded composite joints subjected to axial tension. Single-lap shear-joint standard test specimen geometry with thick bondline is followed for model development. The field equations are formulated by using the first-order shear-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> theory in laminated plates together with kinematics relations and force equilibrium conditions. The stress distributions for the adherends and adhesive are determined after the appropriate boundary and loading conditions are applied and the equations for the field displacements are solved. The system of second-order differential equations is solved to using the symbolic computation tool Maple 9.52 to provide displacements fields. The equivalent forces at the tip of the prescribed interlaminar crack are obtained based on interlaminar stress distributions. The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of the crack is then determined by using the crack closure method. Finite element analyses using the J integral as well as the crack closure method are performed to verify the developed analytical model. It has been shown that the results using the analytical method correlate well with the results from the finite element analyses. An attempt is made to predict the failure loads of the joints based on limited test data from the literature. The effectiveness of the inclusion of bondline thickness is justified when compared with the results obtained from the previous model in which a thin bondline and uniform adhesive stresses through the bondline thickness are assumed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28843012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28843012"><span>The main beam correction term in kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from metastable peaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petersen, Allan Christian</p> <p>2017-08-26</p> <p>The correction term for the precursor ion signal width in determination of kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is reviewed and the correction term is formally derived. The derived correction term differs from the traditionally applied term. An experimental finding substantiates the inaccuracy in the latter. The application of the 'T-value' to study kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is found preferable to kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> distributions when the metastable peaks are slim and simple Gaussians. For electronically predissociated systems a 'borderline zero' kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> can be directly interpreted in terms of reaction dynamics with strong curvature in the reaction coordinate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MPLB...3050346C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MPLB...3050346C"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> spectra and fluence of the neutrons produced in <span class="hlt">deformed</span> space-time conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cardone, F.; Rosada, A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this work, spectra of <span class="hlt">energy</span> and fluence of neutrons produced in the conditions of <span class="hlt">deformed</span> space-time (DST), due to the violation of the local Lorentz invariance (LLI) in the nuclear interactions are shown for the first time. DST-neutrons are produced by a mechanical process in which AISI 304 steel bars undergo a sonication using ultrasounds with 20 kHz and 330 W. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum of the DST-neutrons has been investigated both at low (less than 0.4 MeV) and at high (up to 4 MeV) <span class="hlt">energy</span>. We could conclude that the DST-neutrons have different spectra for different <span class="hlt">energy</span> intervals. It is therefore possible to hypothesize that the DST-neutrons production presents peculiar features not only with respect to the time (asynchrony) and space (asymmetry) but also in the neutron <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..84..336X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..84..336X"><span>The surface-forming <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate based fracture criterion for elastic-plastic crack propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Si; Wang, He-Ling; Liu, Bin; Hwang, Keh-Chih</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The J-integral based criterion is widely used in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. However, it is not rigorously applicable when plastic unloading appears during crack propagation. One difficulty is that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> density with plastic unloading in the J-integral cannot be defined unambiguously. In this paper, we alternatively start from the analysis on the power balance, and propose a surface-forming <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate (ERR), which represents the <span class="hlt">energy</span> available for separating the crack surfaces during the crack propagation and excludes the loading-mode-dependent plastic dissipation. Therefore the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion has wider applicability, including elastic-plastic crack propagation problems. Several formulae are derived for calculating the surface-forming ERR. From the most concise formula, it is interesting to note that the surface-forming ERR can be computed using only the stress and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of the current moment, and the definition of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> density or work density is avoided. When an infinitesimal contour is chosen, the expression can be further simplified. For any fracture behaviors, the surface-forming ERR is proven to be path-independent, and the path-independence of its constituent term, so-called Js-integral, is also investigated. The physical meanings and applicability of the proposed surface-forming ERR, traditional ERR, Js-integral and J-integral are compared and discussed. Besides, we give an interpretation of Rice paradox by comparing the cohesive fracture model and the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH21A2069D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH21A2069D"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span>, Acceleration, and Escape of Solar Energetic Ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Nolfo, G. A.; Ireland, J.; Ryan, J. M.; Young, C. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Solar flares are prodigious producers of energetic particles, and thus a rich laboratory for studying particle acceleration. The acceleration occurs through the <span class="hlt">release</span> of magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>, a significant fraction of which can go into the acceleration of particles. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) certainly produce shocks that both accelerate particles and provide a mechanism for escape into the interplanetary medium (IP). What is less well understood is whether accelerated particles produced from the flare reconnection process escape, and if so, how these same particles are related to solar energetic particles (SEPs) detected in-situ. Energetic electron SEPs have been shown to be correlated with Type III radio bursts, hard X-ray emission, and EUV jets, making a very strong case for the connection between acceleration at the flare and escape along open magnetic field lines. Because there has not been a clear signature of ion escape, as is the case with the Type III radio emission for electrons, sorting out the avenues of escape for accelerated flare ions and the possible origin of the impulsive SEPs continues to be a major challenge. The key to building a clear picture of particle escape relies on the ability to map signatures of escape such as EUV jets at the Sun and to follow the progression of these escape signatures as they evolve in time. Furthermore, nuclear γ-ray emissions provide critical context relating ion acceleration to that of escape. With the advent observations from Fermi as well as RHESSI and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the challenge of ion escape from the Sun can now be addressed. We present a preliminary study of the relationship of EUV jets with nuclear γ-ray emission and Type III radio observations and discuss the implications for possible magnetic topologies that allow for ion escape from deep inside the corona to the interplanetary medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001xmm..pres....7.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001xmm..pres....7."><span>Black hole monster in a spin <span class="hlt">releases</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p> the black hole itself is rotating. According to the team, one model fits the XMM-Newton data well. It corresponds to a theory proposed over 25 years ago by two Cambridge University astronomers. Roger Blandford and Roman Znajek had suggested that rotational <span class="hlt">energy</span> could escape from a black hole when it is in a strong magnetic field which exerts a braking effect. This theory fits the physical laws of thermodynamics which state that <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> should be absorbed by the surrounding gas. "We have probably seen this electric dynamo effect for the very first time. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> is being extracted from the black hole's spin and is conveyed into the innermost parts of the accretion disc, making it hotter and brighter in X-rays," says Jörn Wilms. Co-investigator Dr. Christopher Reynolds at the University of Maryland and other American members of the team contributed greatly to the theoretical interpretation of the data. "Never before have we seen <span class="hlt">energy</span> extracted from black holes. We always see <span class="hlt">energy</span> going in, not out," says Reynolds, who performed much of the analysis whilst at the University of Colorado. Other scientists involved in this work are James Reeves of Leicester University, United Kingdom, and Silvano Molendi of the Instituto di Fisica Cosmica "G. Occhialini", Milan, Italy. The team's conclusion that a magnetodynamic process is involved is already provoking intense debate. "We recognise that more observations are required to confirm our work," says Jörn Wilms. "But there is no disputing the presence of this exceptionally strong iron line in the spectrum of MCG-6-30-15. It is extremely puzzling and an explanation must be found." One thing is sure: only a couple of years ago, before operations with the European X-ray observatory began, no one would have dared propose such interpretations. Sufficiently detailed spectra of the kind today provided by XMM-Newton were just not available. REFERENCE "XMM-EPIC observation of MCG-6-30-15: Direct evidence for the extraction of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20215674','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20215674"><span>High <span class="hlt">energy</span> collisions of strongly <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei: An old idea with a new twist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shuryak, E. V.</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>Collisions of <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei such as U may provide 40% more hard processes and about 30% larger <span class="hlt">energy</span> densities, compared to central PbPb collisions. They also produce excited systems which are strongly <span class="hlt">deformed</span> in the transverse plane, which are much larger than possible in peripheral PbPb collisions. We discuss how, even without a polarized target, one can study these phenomena by selecting particular events. Collisions are studied by a simple Monte Carlo model, and it is shown what can be achieved by making cuts in two control parameters--the number of participants and ellipticity. We also discuss how UU collisions may resolve a number of outstanding issues, from corrections to hard processes to elliptic flow (the existence of a quark-gluon plasma), to the mechanism of J/{psi} suppression. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26341718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26341718"><span>Madelung <span class="hlt">Deformity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kozin, Scott H; Zlotolow, Dan A</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Madelung <span class="hlt">deformity</span> of the wrist is more common in females and is often associated with Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis, a mesomelic form of dwarfism. Patients with Madelung <span class="hlt">deformity</span> often report wrist <span class="hlt">deformity</span> resulting from the prominence of the relatively long ulna. The typical Madelung <span class="hlt">deformity</span> is associated with a Vickers ligament that creates a tether across the volar-ulnar radial physis that restricts growth across this segment. The distal radius <span class="hlt">deforms</span> in the coronal (increasing radial inclination) and the sagittal (increasing volar tilt) planes. There is lunate subsidence and the proximal carpal row adapts to the <span class="hlt">deformity</span> by forming an upside-down pyramid shape or triangle. Treatment depends on the age at presentation, degree of <span class="hlt">deformity</span>, and magnitude of symptoms. Mild asymptomatic <span class="hlt">deformity</span> warrants a period of nonsurgical management with serial x-ray examinations because the natural history is unpredictable. Many patients never require surgical intervention. Progressive <span class="hlt">deformity</span> in the young child with considerable growth potential remaining requires <span class="hlt">release</span> of Vickers ligament and radial physiolysis to prevent ongoing deterioration Concomitant ulnar epiphysiodesis may be necessary. Advanced asymptomatic <span class="hlt">deformity</span> in older children with an unacceptable-appearing wrist or symptomatic <span class="hlt">deformity</span> are indications for surgery. A dome osteotomy of the radius allows 3-dimensional correction of the <span class="hlt">deformity</span>. Positive radiographic and clinical results after dome osteotomy have been reported. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TePhL..43..774K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TePhL..43..774K"><span>The influence of circuit inductance on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> characteristics of electric discharge and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of plates in water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kosenkov, V. M.; Bychkov, V. M.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We have experimentally studied the influence of discharge-circuit inductance on the efficiency of conversion of <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored in a capacitor bank, evolved in the electric-discharge channel in water, and spent for the resulting plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of plates. It is established for the first time that a growth in inductance of the discharge circuit produces a positive effect on the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of plates by increasing the amount of <span class="hlt">energy</span> spent in this process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17930956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17930956"><span>Time scales and mechanisms of relaxation in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> landscape of polymer glass under <span class="hlt">deformation</span>: direct atomistic modeling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyulin, Alexey V; Michels, M A J</p> <p>2007-08-24</p> <p>Molecular-dynamics simulation is used to explore the influence of thermal and mechanical history of typical glassy polymers on their <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Polymer stress-strain and <span class="hlt">energy</span>-strain developments have been followed for different <span class="hlt">deformation</span> velocities, also in closed extension-recompression loops. The latter simulate for the first time the experimentally observed mechanical rejuvenation and overaging of polymers, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> partitioning reveals essential differences between mechanical and thermal rejuvenation. All results can be qualitatively interpreted by considering the ratios of the relevant time scales: for cooling down, for <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, and for segmental relaxation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47.3897P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47.3897P"><span>A Computational Investigation on Bending <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> Behavior at Various Deflection Rates for Enhancement of Absorbable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> in TRIP Steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pham, Hang Thi; Iwamoto, Takeshi</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel might have a high <span class="hlt">energy</span>-absorption characteristic because it could possibly consume impact <span class="hlt">energy</span> by not only plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> but also strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Therefore, TRIP steel is considered to be suitable for automotive structures from the viewpoint of safety. Bending <span class="hlt">deformation</span> due to buckling is one of the major collapse modes of automotive structures. Thus, an investigation on the bending <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior and <span class="hlt">energy</span>-absorption characteristic in TRIP steel at high <span class="hlt">deformation</span> rate is indispensable to clarify the mechanism of better performance. Some past studies have focused on the improvement of mechanical properties by means of SIMT; however, the mechanism through which the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-absorption characteristic in steel can be improved is still unclear. In this study, the three-point bending <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior of a beam specimen made of type-304 austenitic stainless steel, a kind of TRIP steel, is investigated at various deflection rates by experiments and finite-element simulations based on a constitutive model proposed by one of the authors. After confirming the validity of the computation, the rate-sensitivity of <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorption from the viewpoint of hardening behavior is examined and the improvement of the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-absorption characteristic in TRIP steel including its mechanism is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.781a2011B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.781a2011B"><span>Contribution of neutron-capture reactions in <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the fuel core of BN-600</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahdanovich, R. B.; Romanenko, V. I.; Tikhomirov, G. V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The use of modern computing powers and calculation methods allows to get closer to reality results of modelling, as well as to explore areas inaccessible to the experiment. Until now, the calculation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> from the capture of neutrons in the reactor core has been given little attention. The method for calculation of the effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> components in a nuclear reactor allows to specify the values used by engineering programs for capture <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in fast reactors. The paper presents improved method and the results of calculation of three models of the reactor BN-600. It is shown that the contribution of capture <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> for fresh fuel is equal to 4%, which is more than for VVER reactors. During the calculation we created a simple calculation model of the fast reactor, considering its features.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022925','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022925"><span>Residual thermal and moisture influences on the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate analysis of edge delamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Obrien, T. K.; Raju, I. S.; Garber, D. P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A laminated plate theory analysis is developed to calculate the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate associated with edge delamination growth in a composite laminate. The analysis includes the contribution of residual thermal and moisture stresses to the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span>. The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate, G, increased when residual thermal effects were combined with applied mechanical strains, but then decreased when increasing moisture content was included. A quasi-three-dimensional finite element analysis indicated identical trends and demonstrated these same trends for the individual strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate components, G sub I and G sub II, associated with interlaminar tension and shear. An experimental study indicated that for T300/5208 graphite-epoxy composites, the inclusion of residual thermal and moisture stresses did not significantly alter the calculation of interlaminar fracture toughness from strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate analysis of edge delamination data taken at room temperature, ambient conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JGR....87.8519V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JGR....87.8519V"><span>Analysis of the Petatlan aftershocks: Numbers, <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, and asperities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>ValdéS, Carlos; Meyer, Robert P.; ZuñIga, Ramón; Havskov, Jens; Singh, Shri K.</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>The Petatlan earthquake of March 14, 1979 (Ms = 7.6), occurred between the Middle America trench and the Mexican coast, 15 km southwest of Petatlan, Guerrero, Mexico. From seismograms recorded on smoked paper, FM, and digital tapes, we have identified 255 aftershocks with coda lengths greater than 60 s that occurred 11 hours to 36 days after the main shock. Based on these events, the aftershock epicentral area defined during the period between 11 and 60 hours was about 2000 km2; between 11 hours and 6 days it was about 2400 km2. Although the area grew to 6060 km2 in 36 days, most of the activity was still confined within the area defined after 6 days. This suggests that the smaller aftershock area might represent an asperity. The distribution of events and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> per unit area confirm the existence of heterogeneity in the aftershock area. Thus our data support the concept of an inhomogeneous rupture area that includes an asperity, as suggested by Chael and Stewart (1982) to account for the differences they computed for the body and surface wave moments from WWSSN data. However, the combination of the moments Reichle et al. (1982) report for body and surface waves from IDA data and the rupture areas reported in this paper results in a solution that is most physically realizable in terms of stress drop and slip. We calculate stress drops of 5 and 15 bars, the former for the average over the entire area, the latter for the asperity, and an average slip of 60 cm for the entire area and 120 cm for the asperity. These values for slip are 30% and 60%, respectively, of the convergence of the Cocos plate relative to the North America plate during the 36-year period between the last two major earthquakes in the Petatlan area. Hypocenters of the aftershocks define a zone about 25 km thick, dipping 15° with an azimuth of N20°E, which is perpendicular to the Middle America trench. Most aftershocks are below the main shock. The b value estimated for aftershocks in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28438178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28438178"><span>Automatic construction of statistical shape models using <span class="hlt">deformable</span> simplex meshes with vector field convolution <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Jinke; Shi, Changfa</p> <p>2017-04-24</p> <p>In the active shape model framework, principal component analysis (PCA) based statistical shape models (SSMs) are widely employed to incorporate high-level a priori shape knowledge of the structure to be segmented to achieve robustness. A crucial component of building SSMs is to establish shape correspondence between all training shapes, which is a very challenging task, especially in three dimensions. We propose a novel mesh-to-volume registration based shape correspondence establishment method to improve the accuracy and reduce the computational cost. Specifically, we present a greedy algorithm based <span class="hlt">deformable</span> simplex mesh that uses vector field convolution as the external <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Furthermore, we develop an automatic shape initialization method by using a Gaussian mixture model based registration algorithm, to derive an initial shape that has high overlap with the object of interest, such that the <span class="hlt">deformable</span> models can then evolve more locally. We apply the proposed <span class="hlt">deformable</span> surface model to the application of femur statistical shape model construction to illustrate its accuracy and efficiency. Extensive experiments on ten femur CT scans show that the quality of the constructed femur shape models via the proposed method is much better than that of the classical spherical harmonics (SPHARM) method. Moreover, the proposed method achieves much higher computational efficiency than the SPHARM method. The experimental results suggest that our method can be employed for effective statistical shape model construction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24681646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24681646"><span>Pervasive nanoscale <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twinning as a catalyst for efficient <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation in a bioceramic armour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ling; Ortiz, Christine</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Hierarchical composite materials design in biological exoskeletons achieves penetration resistance through a variety of <span class="hlt">energy</span>-dissipating mechanisms while simultaneously balancing the need for damage localization to avoid compromising the mechanical integrity of the entire structure and to maintain multi-hit capability. Here, we show that the shell of the bivalve Placuna placenta (~99 wt% calcite), which possesses the unique optical property of ~80% total transmission of visible light, simultaneously achieves penetration resistance and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> localization via increasing <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation density (0.290 ± 0.072 nJ μm(-3)) by approximately an order of magnitude relative to single-crystal geological calcite (0.034 ± 0.013 nJ μm(-3)). P. placenta, which is composed of a layered assembly of elongated diamond-shaped calcite crystals, undergoes pervasive nanoscale <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twinning (width ~50 nm) surrounding the penetration zone, which catalyses a series of additional inelastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipating mechanisms such as interfacial and intracrystalline nanocracking, viscoplastic stretching of interfacial organic material, and nanograin formation and reorientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatMa..13..501L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatMa..13..501L"><span>Pervasive nanoscale <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twinning as a catalyst for efficient <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation in a bioceramic armour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Ling; Ortiz, Christine</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Hierarchical composite materials design in biological exoskeletons achieves penetration resistance through a variety of <span class="hlt">energy</span>-dissipating mechanisms while simultaneously balancing the need for damage localization to avoid compromising the mechanical integrity of the entire structure and to maintain multi-hit capability. Here, we show that the shell of the bivalve Placuna placenta (~99 wt% calcite), which possesses the unique optical property of ~80% total transmission of visible light, simultaneously achieves penetration resistance and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> localization via increasing <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation density (0.290 ± 0.072 nJ μm-3) by approximately an order of magnitude relative to single-crystal geological calcite (0.034 ± 0.013 nJ μm-3). P. placenta, which is composed of a layered assembly of elongated diamond-shaped calcite crystals, undergoes pervasive nanoscale <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twinning (width ~50 nm) surrounding the penetration zone, which catalyses a series of additional inelastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipating mechanisms such as interfacial and intracrystalline nanocracking, viscoplastic stretching of interfacial organic material, and nanograin formation and reorientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..77..146Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..77..146Y"><span>On the <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation during the active <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in molecular dynamics simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Fan; Zhong, Zheng</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, we examined the <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation for the current schemes of applying active <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Specifically, two methods are examined. One is scaling the dimension of the simulation box and the atom positions via an affine transformation, suitable for the periodic system. The other is moving the rigid walls that interact with the atoms in the system, suitable for the non-periodic system. Based on the calculation of the external work and the internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> change, we present that the atom velocities also need to be updated in the first <span class="hlt">deformation</span> method; otherwise the <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation cannot be satisfied. The classic updating scheme is examined, in which any atom crossing the periodic boundary experiences a velocity delta that is equal to the velocity difference between the opposite boundaries. In addition, a new scheme which scales the velocities of all the atoms according to the strain increment is proposed, which is more efficient and realistic than the classic scheme. It is also demonstrated that the Virial stress instead of its interaction part is the correct stress definition that corresponds to Cauchy stress in the continuum mechanics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JETPL..96..681G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JETPL..96..681G"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> of the interaction between membrane lipid domains calculated from splay and tilt <span class="hlt">deformations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galimzyanov, T. R.; Molotkovsky, R. J.; Kheyfets, B. B.; Akimov, S. A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Specific domains, called rafts, are formed in cell membranes. Similar lipid domains can be formed in model membranes as a result of phase separation with raft size may remaining small (˜10-100 nm) for a long time. The characteristic lifetime of a nanoraft ensemble strongly depends on the nature of mutual raft interactions. The interaction <span class="hlt">energy</span> between the boundaries of two rafts has been calculated under the assumption that the thickness of the raft bilayer is greater than that of the surrounding membrane, and elastic <span class="hlt">deformations</span> appear in order to smooth the thickness mismatch at the boundary. When rafts approach each other, <span class="hlt">deformations</span> from their boundaries overlap, making interaction <span class="hlt">energy</span> profile sophisticated. It has been shown that raft merger occurs in two stages: rafts first merge in one monolayer of the lipid bilayer and then in another monolayer. Each merger stage requires overcoming of an <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier of about 0.08-0.12 k BT per 1 nm of boundary length. These results allow us to explain the stability of the ensemble of finite sized rafts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492546','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492546"><span>Simulation of the dissipated and stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> under <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and failure of metallic materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kostina, Anastasiia Plekhov, Oleg</p> <p>2015-10-27</p> <p>This work is devoted to the development of the statistical model of the structural defect evolution which was developed at the Institute of continuous media mechanics UB RAS. This model takes into account stochastic properties of the defect evolution process, nonlinear interaction of defects, and connection between microplasticity and damage accumulation. The obtained constitutive equations allow us to propose a model of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and dissipation in the process of plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and failure of metallic materials. The obtained relations were adapted for standard finite-element package. Applicability of this model was demonstrated in three-dimensional simulation of the strain localization and crack propagation in metals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20692687','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20692687"><span>New Method for Calculating the Potential <span class="hlt">Energy</span> of <span class="hlt">Deformed</span> Nuclei within the Liquid-Drop Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kurmanov, R.S.; Kosenko, G.I.</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>The method that we previously developed for going over from double volume integrals to double surface integrals in calculating the Coulomb <span class="hlt">energy</span> of nuclei that have a sharp surface is generalized to the case of nuclei where the range of nuclear forces is finite and where the nuclear surface is diffuse. New formulas for calculating the Coulomb and the nuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span> of <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei are obtained within this approach. For a spherically symmetric nucleus, in which case there is an analytic solution to the problem in question, the results are compared with those that are quoted in the literature, and it is shown that the respective results coincide identically. A differential formulation of the method developed previously by Krappe, Nix, and Sierk for going over from double volume integrals to double surface integrals is proposed here on the basis of the present approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930050007&hterms=Timoshenko&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTimoshenko','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930050007&hterms=Timoshenko&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTimoshenko"><span>A method for calculating strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate based on beam theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sun, C. T.; Pandey, R. K.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Timoshenko beam theory was used to model cracked beams and to calculate the total strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate. The root rotation of the beam segments at the crack tip were estimated based on an approximate 2D elasticity solution. By including the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> due to the root rotations of the beams during crack extension, the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate obtained using beam theory agrees very well with the 2D finite element solution. Numerical examples were given for various beam geometries and loading conditions. Comparisons with existing beam models were also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950055991&hterms=Timoshenko&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTimoshenko','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950055991&hterms=Timoshenko&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTimoshenko"><span>Improved method for calculating strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate based on beam theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sun, C. T.; Pandey, R. K.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Timoshenko beam theory was used to model cracked beams and to calculate the total strain-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate. The root rotations of the beam segments at the crack tip were estimated based on an approximate two-dimensional elasticity solution. By including the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> due to the root rotations of the beams during crack extension, the strain-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate obtained using beam theory agrees very well with the two-dimensional finite element solution. Numerical examples were given for various beam geometries and loading conditions. Comparisons with existing beam models were also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900031313&hterms=Rate+Displacement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DRate%2BDisplacement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900031313&hterms=Rate+Displacement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DRate%2BDisplacement"><span>A simplified approach to strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate computations for interlaminar fracture of composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armanios, Erian A.; Rehfield, Lawrence W.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A simple approach for the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate computations based on the finite element method and a singular fitting model is presented. The model uses the stress and displacement distributions at the delamination front. The method is applied to a mixed-mode double cracked-lap-shear composite configuration. The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate components predicted by the model are compared with the finite element crack-closure method. The effect of the mesh size on the stress and displacement distribution is isolated. The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates predicted by relatively coarse mesh sizes are in good agreement with the finite element crack closure method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9604R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9604R"><span>Estimtion of the <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> of Coal Seam Fires and its Relevance for CDM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rueter, Horst; Meyer, Uwe; Chen-Brauchler, Dai</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Spontaneous coal seam fires contribute significant to the CO2 emissions world wide. As the coal fires are complicated regarding structure and dynamics it is not trivial to fins out how much CO2 is <span class="hlt">released</span> by an individual fire. This value is basic also for a possible certificate trading in connection with the extinction of those fires in the context of CDM. Three basic methods were proposed to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted. 1. Direct gas measurements (direct approach) 2. Estimation of the coal burned (volume approach) 3. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> (<span class="hlt">energy</span> approach) The <span class="hlt">energy</span> approach turned out to be the only practical solution. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> balance of the fire is a composition of the components 1. Radiation 2. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from subsurface to air 3. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> transported by hot exhaust gases 4. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> transported by matrix diffusion Those components are explained and a field case from a fire zone in China is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1242270-spatio-temporal-modeling-optimization-deformable-grating-compressor-short-high-energy-laser-pulses','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1242270-spatio-temporal-modeling-optimization-deformable-grating-compressor-short-high-energy-laser-pulses"><span>Spatio-temporal modeling and optimization of a <span class="hlt">deformable</span>-grating compressor for short high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> laser pulses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Qiao, Jie; Papa, J.; Liu, X.</p> <p>2015-09-24</p> <p>Monolithic large-scale diffraction gratings are desired to improve the performance of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> laser systems and scale them to higher <span class="hlt">energy</span>, but the surface <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of these diffraction gratings induce spatio-temporal coupling that is detrimental to the focusability and compressibility of the output pulse. A new <span class="hlt">deformable</span>-grating-based pulse compressor architecture with optimized actuator positions has been designed to correct the spatial and temporal aberrations induced by grating wavefront errors. An integrated optical model has been built to analyze the effect of grating wavefront errors on the spatio-temporal performance of a compressor based on four <span class="hlt">deformable</span> gratings. Moreover, a 1.5-meter <span class="hlt">deformable</span> gratingmore » has been optimized using an integrated finite-element-analysis and genetic-optimization model, leading to spatio-temporal performance similar to the baseline design with ideal gratings.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1242270','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1242270"><span>Spatio-temporal modeling and optimization of a <span class="hlt">deformable</span>-grating compressor for short high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> laser pulses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qiao, Jie; Papa, J.; Liu, X.</p> <p>2015-09-24</p> <p>Monolithic large-scale diffraction gratings are desired to improve the performance of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> laser systems and scale them to higher <span class="hlt">energy</span>, but the surface <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of these diffraction gratings induce spatio-temporal coupling that is detrimental to the focusability and compressibility of the output pulse. A new <span class="hlt">deformable</span>-grating-based pulse compressor architecture with optimized actuator positions has been designed to correct the spatial and temporal aberrations induced by grating wavefront errors. An integrated optical model has been built to analyze the effect of grating wavefront errors on the spatio-temporal performance of a compressor based on four <span class="hlt">deformable</span> gratings. Moreover, a 1.5-meter <span class="hlt">deformable</span> grating has been optimized using an integrated finite-element-analysis and genetic-optimization model, leading to spatio-temporal performance similar to the baseline design with ideal gratings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RMRE...48..509P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RMRE...48..509P"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Dissipation and <span class="hlt">Release</span> During Coal Failure Under Conventional Triaxial Compression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Ruidong; Ju, Yang; Wang, J. G.; Xie, Heping; Gao, Feng; Mao, Lingtao</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Theoretical and experimental studies have revealed that <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation and <span class="hlt">release</span> play an important role in the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and failure of coal rocks. To determine the relationship between <span class="hlt">energy</span> transformation and coal failure, the mechanical behaviors of coal specimens taken from a 600-m deep mine were investigated by conventional triaxial compression tests using five different confining pressures. Each coal specimen was scanned by microfocus computed tomography before and after testing to examine the crack patterns. Sieve analysis was used to measure the post-failure coal fragments, and a fractal model was developed for describing the size distribution of the fragments. Based on the test results, a damage evolution model of the rigidity degeneration of coal before the peak strength was also developed and used to determine the initial damage and critical damage variables. It was found that the peak strength increased with increasing confining pressure, but the critical damage variable was almost invariant. More new cracks were initiated in the coal specimens when there was no confining pressure or the pressure was too high. The parameters of failure <span class="hlt">energy</span> ratio β and stress drop coefficient α are further proposed to describe the failure mode of coal under different confining pressures. The test results revealed that β was approximately linearly related to the fractal dimension of the coal fragments and that a higher failure <span class="hlt">energy</span> ratio corresponded to a larger fractal dimension and more severe failure. The stress drop coefficient α decreased approximately exponentially with increasing confining pressure, and could be used to appropriately describe the evolution of the coal failure mode from brittle to ductile with increasing confining pressure. A large β and small α under a high confining pressure were noticed during the tests, which implied that the failure of the coal was a kind of pseudo-ductile failure. Brittle failure occurred when the confining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870052744&hterms=forms+energy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dforms%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870052744&hterms=forms+energy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dforms%2Benergy"><span>Observed form and action of the magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Machado, Marcos E.; Moore, Ronald L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The observable spatio-temporal characteristics of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares and their association with the magnetic environment and tracers of field dynamics are reviewed. The observations indicate that impulsive phase manifestations, like particle acceleration, may be related to the formation of neutral sheets at the interface between interacting bipoles, but that the site for the bulk of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is within closed loops rather than at the interaction site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870052744&hterms=machado&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmachado','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870052744&hterms=machado&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmachado"><span>Observed form and action of the magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Machado, Marcos E.; Moore, Ronald L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The observable spatio-temporal characteristics of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares and their association with the magnetic environment and tracers of field dynamics are reviewed. The observations indicate that impulsive phase manifestations, like particle acceleration, may be related to the formation of neutral sheets at the interface between interacting bipoles, but that the site for the bulk of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is within closed loops rather than at the interaction site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395542-modular-hamiltonians-deformed-half-spaces-averaged-null-energy-condition','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395542-modular-hamiltonians-deformed-half-spaces-averaged-null-energy-condition"><span>Modular Hamiltonians for <span class="hlt">deformed</span> half-spaces and the averaged null <span class="hlt">energy</span> condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Faulkner, Thomas; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; ...</p> <p>2016-09-08</p> <p>We study modular Hamiltonians corresponding to the vacuum state for <span class="hlt">deformed</span> half-spaces in relativistic quantum field theories on R1,d-1. We show that in addition to the usual boost generator, there is a contribution to the modular Hamiltonian at first order in the shape <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, proportional to the integral of the null components of the stress tensor along the Rindler horizon. We use this fact along with monotonicity of relative entropy to prove the averaged null <span class="hlt">energy</span> condition in Minkowski space-time. This subsequently gives a new proof of the Hofman-Maldacena bounds on the parameters appearing in CFT three-point functions. Our mainmore » technical advance involves adapting newly developed perturbative methods for calculating entanglement entropy to the problem at hand. Our methods were recently used to prove certain results on the shape dependence of entanglement in CFTs and here we generalize these results to excited states and real time dynamics. Finally, we discuss the AdS/CFT counterpart of this result, making connection with the recently proposed gravitational dual for modular Hamiltonians in holographic theories.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...09..038F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...09..038F"><span>Modular Hamiltonians for <span class="hlt">deformed</span> half-spaces and the averaged null <span class="hlt">energy</span> condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faulkner, Thomas; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Wang, Huajia</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We study modular Hamiltonians corresponding to the vacuum state for <span class="hlt">deformed</span> half-spaces in relativistic quantum field theories on {{R}}^{1,d-1} . We show that in addition to the usual boost generator, there is a contribution to the modular Hamiltonian at first order in the shape <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, proportional to the integral of the null components of the stress tensor along the Rindler horizon. We use this fact along with monotonicity of relative entropy to prove the averaged null <span class="hlt">energy</span> condition in Minkowski space-time. This subsequently gives a new proof of the Hofman-Maldacena bounds on the parameters appearing in CFT three-point functions. Our main technical advance involves adapting newly developed perturbative methods for calculating entanglement entropy to the problem at hand. These methods were recently used to prove certain results on the shape dependence of entanglement in CFTs and here we generalize these results to excited states and real time dynamics. We also discuss the AdS/CFT counterpart of this result, making connection with the recently proposed gravitational dual for modular Hamiltonians in holographic theories.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1123238','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1123238"><span>High Shear <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> to Produce High Strength and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Absorption in Mg Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Joshi, Vineet V.; Jana, Saumyadeep; Li, Dongsheng; Garmestani, Hamid; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Magnesium alloys have the potential to reduce the mass of transportation systems however to fully realize the benefits it must be usable in more applications including those that require higher strength and ductility. It has been known that fine grain size in Mg alloys leads to high strength and ductility. However, the challenge is how to achieve this optimal microstructure in a cost effective way. This work has shown that by using optimized high shear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and second phase particles of Mg2Si and MgxZnZry the <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorption of the extrusions can exceed that of AA6061. The extrusion process under development described in this presentation appears to be scalable and cost effective. In addition to process development a novel modeling approach to understand the roles of strain and state-of-strain on particle fracture and grain size control has been developed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPCO6007E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPCO6007E"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Released</span> During the H-L Back Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Gohil, P.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Schmitz, L.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Prompt <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss (ΔW) at the H-L transition, as a fraction of total stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> before the transition, is about 30 % and is insensitive to density in ITER-similar DIII-D plasmas. Occasionally, some ELMs will appear before the transition and reduce total <span class="hlt">energy</span>, thus reducing ΔW across the following transition. Other results (not in the ITER-similar shape) have shown that ELMs can be triggered in low powered H-modes, prior to H-L transitions, when the plasma is stable to ideal P-B modes (these are not typical type-I ELMs, despite superficial similarities) and E × B shear is strong. These are indeed ELMs occurring in H-mode and not part of a dithering transition. Finally, ELM ΔW is sensitive to edge toroidal rotation and becomes smaller than uncertainty (< 5 kJ) at low rotation (ωtor < 5 krad/s). These results point to a strategy where ΔW for the H-L transition may be reduced by the presence of (not type-I) ELMs before the transition, and ΔW for the ELMs may be reduced by controlling rotation. Work supported by the US Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> under DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14571384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14571384"><span>The role of DNA <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> at individual base steps for the identification of DNA-protein binding sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steffen, Nicholas R; Murphy, Scott D; Lathrop, Richard H; Opel, Michael L; Tolleri, Lorenzo; Hatfield, G Wesley</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We examine the use of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> propensity at individual base steps for the identification of DNA-protein binding sites. We have previously demonstrated that estimates of the total <span class="hlt">energy</span> to bend DNA to its bound conformation can partially explain indirect DNA-protein interactions. We now show that the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> propensities at each base step are not equally informative for classifying a sequence as a binding site, and that applying non-uniform weights to the contribution of each base step to aggregate <span class="hlt">deformation</span> propensity can greatly improve classification accuracy. We show that a perceptron can be trained to use the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> propensity at each step in a sequence to generate such weights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26964430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26964430"><span>Relapse and <span class="hlt">deformity</span> among 2177 leprosy patients <span class="hlt">released</span> from treatment with MDT between 2005 and 2010 in South India: A retrospective cohort study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prabu, Rajkumar; Manickam, Ponnaiah; Mahalingam, Vannapatty Nallamuthu; Jayasree, Padma; Selvaraj, Vadivoo; Mehendale, Sanjay Madhav</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To estimate the incidence of relapse among leprosy patients <span class="hlt">released</span> after completing multi-drug therapy (MDT) during 2005-2010 under India's National Leprosy Eradication Programme in South India. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of leprosy patients who were <span class="hlt">released</span> from treatment (RFT) with MDT during April 2005 and March 2010 in four purposely selected districts from South India. We clinically examined them for signs of relapse, persistence and <span class="hlt">deformity</span>. We collected slit skin smears from those reporting signs of relapse or persistence. We computed relapse rate per 1000 person years by dividing the number of relapses by person years of follow-up and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for rates. We tracked 3791 RFT patients and examined 58% of them. The examined and those who were not examined were similar in terms of leprosy type, year of completing MDT and gender. We identified 58 relapses (relapse rate 6.1 per 1000 person years) among the examined. Majority of these relapses occurred within 3 years post-MDT. Eighteen (31%) of the relapsed patients had <span class="hlt">deformity</span>. While low level of relapse indicates effectiveness of MDT, the burden of <span class="hlt">deformity</span> is of concern. For maximizing treatment effectiveness and minimizing transmission, we recommend educating leprosy patients at treatment completion for self-monitoring of signs of relapse and advising them to visit nearby public health facilities or Community health workers for immediate evaluation and intervention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28521230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28521230"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> consumption and water-soluble protein <span class="hlt">release</span> by cell wall disruption of Nannochloropsis gaditana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Safi, C; Cabas Rodriguez, L; Mulder, W J; Engelen-Smit, N; Spekking, W; van den Broek, L A M; Olivieri, G; Sijtsma, L</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Several cell disruption methods were tested on Nannochloropsis gaditana, to evaluate their efficiency in terms of cell disintegration, <span class="hlt">energy</span> input and <span class="hlt">release</span> of soluble proteins. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) and bead milling were the most efficient with >95% cell disintegration, ±50% (w/w) <span class="hlt">release</span> of total proteins and low <span class="hlt">energy</span> input (<0.5kWh.kg(-1)biomass). Enzymatic treatment required low <span class="hlt">energy</span> input (<0.34kWh.kg(-1)biomass), but it only <span class="hlt">released</span> ±35% protein (w/w). Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) was neither <span class="hlt">energy</span>-efficient (10.44kWh.kg(-1)biomass) nor successful for protein <span class="hlt">release</span> (only 10% proteins w/w) and cell disintegration. The <span class="hlt">release</span> of proteins after applying HPH and bead milling always required less intensive operating conditions for cell disruption. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> cost per unit of <span class="hlt">released</span> protein ranged from 0.15-0.25 €.kgProtein(-1) in case of HPH, and up to 2-20 €.kgProtein(-1) in case of PEF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880023712&hterms=energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Denergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880023712&hterms=energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Denergy"><span>Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) modelling of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> buildup, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> phase, and its propagation into heliospheric space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, S. T.; Panitchob, S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Solar flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> buildup at the photospheric level and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and transport into heliospheric space are examined using a composite MHD model. A four phase composite MHD model is described. An example demonstrating the applicability of the model is presented; the model was applied to the active region AR 2372. The limitations of this composite MHD model approach to analyzing solar flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> buildup are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH22A..08C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH22A..08C"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> and Transport in Super-Hot Solar Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caspi, A.; McTiernan, J. M.; Shih, A.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Allred, J. C.; Warren, H. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Solar flares efficiently convert the magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored in the Sun's complex coronal magnetic field into the kinetic <span class="hlt">energies</span> of hot plasma, accelerated particles, and bulk flows. In intense flares, up to 10^32-33 ergs can go into heating plasma to tens of MK, accelerating electrons to hundreds of MeV and ions to tens of GeV, and ejecting 10^9-10 kg of coronal material into the heliosphere at thousands of km/s. However, the exact physical mechanisms behind these phenomena are poorly understood. For example, while "super-hot" (T > 30 MK) plasma temperatures appear to be common in the most intense, X-class flares, how that plasma is so efficiently heated remains unknown. Current studies favor an in situ heating process for super-hot plasma, versus chromospheric evaporation for cooler plasma, although the specific mechanism is under debate. X-class flares are also often associated with enhanced photospheric/chromospheric white light emission, which is itself poorly understood, and with fast (>1000 km/s) CMEs; super-hot flares are more commonly observed in eruptive two-ribbon arcade flares than in highly-confined events. These phenomena may well have common underlying drivers. We discuss the current understanding of super-hot plasma in solar flares, its formation, and evolution, based on observations from RHESSI, SDO/EVE, SDO/AIA, and other instruments. We discuss the energetics of these events and their relationship to white light enhancement and fast CMEs. We explore the possibility of <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition by accelerated ions as a common driver for super-hot plasmas and white light enhancement, and discuss future instrumentation -- both for CubeSats and Explorers -- that will provide a deeper understanding of these phenomena and their interrelationships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990078564','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990078564"><span>A Method for Calculating Strain <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rates in Preliminary Design of Composite Skin/Stringer Debonding Under Multi-Axial Loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krueger, Ronald; Minguet, Pierre J.; OBrien, T. Kevin</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Three simple procedures were developed to determine strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates, G, in composite skin/stringer specimens for various combinations of unaxial and biaxial (in-plane/out-of-plane) loading conditions. These procedures may be used for parametric design studies in such a way that only a few finite element computations will be necessary for a study of many load combinations. The results were compared with mixed mode strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates calculated directly from nonlinear two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analyses using the virtual crack closure technique. The first procedure involved solving three unknown parameters needed to determine the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates. Good agreement was obtained when the external loads were used in the expression derived. This superposition technique was only applicable if the structure exhibits a linear load/deflection behavior. Consequently, a second technique was derived which was applicable in the case of nonlinear load/<span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior. The technique involved calculating six unknown parameters from a set of six simultaneous linear equations with data from six nonlinear analyses to determine the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates. This procedure was not time efficient, and hence, less appealing. A third procedure was developed to calculate mixed mode <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates as a function of delamination lengths. This procedure required only one nonlinear finite element analysis of the specimen with a single delamination length to obtain a reference solution for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates and the scale factors. The delamination was extended in three separate linear models of the local area in the vicinity of the delamination subjected to unit loads to obtain the distribution of G with delamination lengths. This set of sub-problems was Although additional modeling effort is required to create the sub- models, this local technique is efficient for parametric studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817232M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817232M"><span>Innovative methodologies and technologies for thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marotta, Enrica; Peluso, Rosario; Avino, Rosario; Belviso, Pasquale; Caliro, Stefano; Carandente, Antonio; Chiodini, Giovanni; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Sansivero, Fabio; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Marfe, Barbara</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Volcanoes exchange heat, gases and other fluids between the interrior of the Earth and its atmosphere influencing processes both at the surface and above it. This work is devoted to improve the knowledge on the parameters that control the anomalies in heat flux and chemical species emissions associated with the diffuse degassing processes of volcanic and hydrothermal zones. We are studying and developing innovative medium range remote sensing technologies to measure the variations through time of heat flux and chemical emissions in order to boost the definition of the activity state of a volcano and allowing a better assessment of the related hazard and risk mitigation. The current methodologies used to measure heat flux (i.e. CO2 flux or temperature gradient) are either poorly efficient or effective, and are unable to detect short to medium time (days to months) variation trends in the heat flux. Remote sensing of these parameters will allow for measurements faster than already accredited methods therefore it will be both more effective and efficient in case of emergency and it will be used to make quick routine monitoring. We are currently developing a method based on drone-born IR cameras to measure the ground surface temperature that, in a purely conductive regime, is directly correlated to the shallow temperature gradient. The use of flying drones will allow to quickly obtain a mapping of areas with thermal anomalies and a measure of their temperature at distance in the order of hundreds of meters. Further development of remote sensing will be done through the use, on flying drones, of multispectral and/or iperspectral sensors, UV scanners in order to be able to detect the amount of chemical species <span class="hlt">released</span> in the athmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9508','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9508"><span>A Microelectromechanical High-Density <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage/Rapid <span class="hlt">Release</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, Jim J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Sam L.</p> <p>1999-07-21</p> <p>One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then <span class="hlt">energy</span> could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly <span class="hlt">released</span> upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage/rapid <span class="hlt">release</span> system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems are under development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2673675','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2673675"><span>Multiscale <span class="hlt">deformable</span> registration for dual-<span class="hlt">energy</span> x-ray imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gang, G. J.; Varon, C. A.; Kashani, H.; Richard, S.; Paul, N. S.; Van Metter, R.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Dual-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (DE) imaging of the chest improves the conspicuity of subtle lung nodules through the removal of overlying anatomical noise. Recent work has shown double-shot DE imaging (i.e., successive acquisition of low- and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> projections) to provide detective quantum efficiency, spectral separation (and therefore contrast), and radiation dose superior to single-shot DE imaging configurations (e.g., with a CR cassette). However, the temporal separation between high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (HE) and low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (LE) image acquisition can result in motion artifacts in the DE images, reducing image quality and diminishing diagnostic performance. This has motivated the development of a <span class="hlt">deformable</span> registration technique that aligns the HE image onto the LE image before DE decomposition. The algorithm reported here operates in multiple passes at progressively smaller scales and increasing resolution. The first pass addresses large-scale motion by means of mutual information optimization, while successive passes (2–4) correct misregistration at finer scales by means of normalized cross correlation. Evaluation of registration performance in 129 patients imaged using an experimental DE imaging prototype demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in image alignment. Specific to the cardiac region, the registration algorithm was found to outperform a simple cardiac-gating system designed to trigger both HE and LE exposures during diastole. Modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis reveals additional advantages in DE image quality in terms of noise reduction and edge enhancement. This algorithm could offer an important tool in enhancing DE image quality and potentially improving diagnostic performance. PMID:19291974</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22098424','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22098424"><span>Multiscale <span class="hlt">deformable</span> registration for dual-<span class="hlt">energy</span> x-ray imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gang, G. J.; Varon, C. A.; Kashani, H.; Richard, S.; Paul, N. S.; Van Metter, R.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.</p> <p>2009-02-15</p> <p>Dual-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (DE) imaging of the chest improves the conspicuity of subtle lung nodules through the removal of overlying anatomical noise. Recent work has shown double-shot DE imaging (i.e., successive acquisition of low- and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> projections) to provide detective quantum efficiency, spectral separation (and therefore contrast), and radiation dose superior to single-shot DE imaging configurations (e.g., with a CR cassette). However, the temporal separation between high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (HE) and low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (LE) image acquisition can result in motion artifacts in the DE images, reducing image quality and diminishing diagnostic performance. This has motivated the development of a <span class="hlt">deformable</span> registration technique that aligns the HE image onto the LE image before DE decomposition. The algorithm reported here operates in multiple passes at progressively smaller scales and increasing resolution. The first pass addresses large-scale motion by means of mutual information optimization, while successive passes (2-4) correct misregistration at finer scales by means of normalized cross correlation. Evaluation of registration performance in 129 patients imaged using an experimental DE imaging prototype demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in image alignment. Specific to the cardiac region, the registration algorithm was found to outperform a simple cardiac-gating system designed to trigger both HE and LE exposures during diastole. Modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis reveals additional advantages in DE image quality in terms of noise reduction and edge enhancement. This algorithm could offer an important tool in enhancing DE image quality and potentially improving diagnostic performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/658208','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/658208"><span>Theoretical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of thermites, intermetallics, and combustible metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>Thermite (metal oxide) mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability, and possess insensitive ignition properties. In this paper, the authors review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JChPh.119..256C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JChPh.119..256C"><span>Statistical evaporation of rotating clusters. I. Kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calvo, F.; Parneix, P.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Unimolecular evaporation in rotating atomic clusters is investigated using phase space theory (PST) and molecular dynamics simulations. The rotational densities of states are calculated in the sphere+atom approximation, and analytical expressions are given for a radial interaction potential with the form -C/rp. The vibrational densities of states are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the average radial potential at finite temperature is obtained using a recent extension of the multiple range random-walk algorithm. These ideas are tested on simple argon clusters modeled with the Lennard-Jones interaction potential, at several excitation <span class="hlt">energies</span> and angular momenta of the parent cluster. Our results show that PST successfully reproduces the simulation data, not only the average KER but its probability distribution, for dissociations from LJ14, for which the product cluster can effectively be considered as spherical. Even for dissociations from the nonspherical LJ8, simulation results remain very close to the predictions of the statistical theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7263G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7263G"><span>Surface <span class="hlt">deformation</span> associated with the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake: Geologic slip rates may significantly underestimate strain <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gold, Ryan; Reitman, Nadine; Briggs, Richard; Barnhart, William; Hayes, Gavin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The 24 September 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake ruptured a ~200 km-long stretch of the 60° ± 15° northwest-dipping Hoshab fault in southern Pakistan. The earthquake is notable because it produced the second-largest lateral surface displacement observed for a continental strike-slip earthquake. Surface displacements and geodetic and teleseismic inversions indicate that peak slip occurred within the upper 0-3 km of the crust. To explore along-strike and fault-perpendicular surface <span class="hlt">deformation</span> patterns, we remotely mapped the surface trace of the rupture and measured its surface <span class="hlt">deformation</span> using high-resolution (0.5 m) pre- and post-event satellite imagery. Post-event images were collected 7-114 days following the earthquake, so our analysis captures the sum of both the coseismic and post-seismic (e.g., after slip) <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. We document peak left-lateral offset of ~15 m using 289 near-field (±10 m from fault) laterally offset piercing points, such as streams, terrace risers, and roads. We characterize off-fault <span class="hlt">deformation</span> by measuring the medium- (±200 m from fault) and far-field (±10 km from fault) displacement using manual (242 measurements) and automated image cross-correlation methods. Off-fault peak lateral displacement values (medium- and far-field) are ~16 m and commonly exceed the on-fault displacement magnitudes. Our observations suggest that coseismic surface displacement typically increases with distance away from the surface trace of the fault; however, the majority of surface displacement is within 100 m of the primary fault trace and is most localized on sections of the rupture exhibiting narrow (<5 m) zones of observable surface <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Furthermore, the near-field displacement measurements account for, on average, only 73% of the total coseismic displacement field and the pattern is highly heterogeneous. This analysis highlights the importance of identifying paleoseismic field study sites (e.g. trenches) that span fault</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62N..73H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62N..73H"><span>Chemically tuned linear <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer dependent quenching in a <span class="hlt">deformable</span>, radiochromic 3D dosimeter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Høye, Ellen Marie; Skyt, Peter S.; Balling, Peter; Muren, Ludvig P.; Taasti, Vicki T.; Swakoń, Jan; Mierzwińska, Gabriela; Rydygier, Marzena; Bassler, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen B. B.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Most solid-state detectors, including 3D dosimeters, show lower signal in the Bragg peak than expected, a process termed quenching. The purpose of this study was to investigate how variation in chemical composition of a recently developed radiochromic, silicone-based 3D dosimeter influences the observed quenching in proton beams. The dependency of dose response on linear <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer, as calculated through Monte Carlo simulations of the dosimeter, was investigated in 60 MeV proton beams. We found that the amount of quenching varied with the chemical composition: peak-to-plateau ratios (1 cm into the plateau) ranged from 2.2 to 3.4, compared to 4.3 using an ionization chamber. The dose response, and thereby the quenching, was predominantly influenced by the curing agent concentration, which determined the dosimeter’s <span class="hlt">deformation</span> properties. The dose response was found to be linear at all depths. All chemical compositions of the dosimeter showed dose-rate dependency; however this was not dependent on the linear <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer. Track-structure theory was used to explain the observed quenching effects. In conclusion, this study shows that the silicone-based dosimeter has potential for use in measuring 3D-dose-distributions from proton beams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21362129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21362129"><span>Structure of Nuclei <span class="hlt">Deformed</span> at Maximum and the Mass Asymmetry in Low-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> Fission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carjan, N.; Rizea, M.; Pashkevich, V.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Single-particle spectra of neutrons and protons in {sup 236}U at scission (i.e., the maximum <span class="hlt">deformation</span> this nucleus can sustain) are calculated as function of the mass asymmetry of the future fission fragments. Modified Cassini ovals were used to describe the nuclear shapes involved. Moving away from symmetric fission up to very asymmetric fission we observe the appearance and the disappearance of closed shells. This explains the complexity of the mass distribution and the strong preference for asymmetric divisions. For a more quantitative analyses we have calculated the pairing gap DELTA and the Fermi <span class="hlt">energy</span> gamma in the frame of the renormalized BCS theory. A strong dependence of DELTA on the fragment mass ratio A{sub H}/A{sub L} was found with a pronounced minimum at 1.5 for both neutrons and protons. This is in agreement with the most probable mass division measured in {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f). Concerning the Fermi <span class="hlt">energies</span>, the protons have lower values than the neutrons by more than 1 MeV. They are also stronger bound at symmetry (A{sub L} = 110-118) than at large asymmetries (A{sub L} = 70-80). To answer the important question of where the mass asymmetry is determined we have extended the calculations to successive stages between saddle and scission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510105L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510105L"><span>Localization and propagation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> during 3D kinetic magnetic reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Goldman, Marty; Newman, David</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Reconnection is a key processes where <span class="hlt">energy</span> is <span class="hlt">released</span>: magnetic field lines break, merge in a new configuration. In the process some of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> is <span class="hlt">released</span>. Recent work by Shay and collaborators has pointed out that <span class="hlt">energy</span> is <span class="hlt">released</span> far and moving fast away from the reconnection site, at a speed exceeding several times the Alfven speed. We revisit this point, considering the <span class="hlt">release</span> of <span class="hlt">energy</span> from reconnection and considering both laminar processes and turbulent reconnection. We analyse the <span class="hlt">energy</span> budget and the processes of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer via Poynting flux and particle flows. The results are compared with the recent findings by Shay. The effect of the guide field can be very significant at even relatively weak strength, as our recent analysis shows. The effect on the life cycle of <span class="hlt">energy</span> is considered. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement SWIFF (project n° 263340, www.swiff.eu). [1] M. A. Shay, J. F. Drake, J. P. Eastwood, and T. D. Phan, Super-Alfvénic Propagation of Substorm Reconnection Signatures and Poynting Flux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 089901, 2011. [2] M.V. Goldman, G. Lapenta, D. L. Newman, S. Markidis, H. Che, Jet Deflection by Very Weak Guide Fields during Magnetic Reconnection, Physical Review Letters, 107, 135001, 2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060056392','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060056392"><span>Influence of Finite Element Software on <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rates Computed Using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krueger, Ronald; Goetze, Dirk; Ransom, Jonathon (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates were computed along straight delamination fronts of Double Cantilever Beam, End-Notched Flexure and Single Leg Bending specimens using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Th e results were based on finite element analyses using ABAQUS# and ANSYS# and were calculated from the finite element results using the same post-processing routine to assure a consistent procedure. Mixed-mode strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates obtained from post-processing finite elem ent results were in good agreement for all element types used and all specimens modeled. Compared to previous studies, the models made of s olid twenty-node hexahedral elements and solid eight-node incompatible mode elements yielded excellent results. For both codes, models made of standard brick elements and elements with reduced integration did not correctly capture the distribution of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate acr oss the width of the specimens for the models chosen. The results suggested that element types with similar formulation yield matching results independent of the finite element software used. For comparison, m ixed-mode strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates were also calculated within ABAQUS#/Standard using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on. For all specimens mod eled, mixed-mode strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates obtained from ABAQUS# finite element results using post-processing were almost identical to re sults calculated using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7091','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7091"><span>Theoretical <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> of Thermites, Intermetallics, and Combustible Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.</p> <p>1999-05-14</p> <p>Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability and possess insensitive ignition properties. For the specific applications of humanitarian demining and disposal of unexploded ordnance, these pyrotechnic formulations offer additional benefits. The combination of high thermal input with low brisance can be used to neutralize the energetic materials in mines and other ordnance without the "explosive" high-blast-pressure events that can cause extensive collateral damage to personnel, facilities, and the environment. In this paper, we review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5375651','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5375651"><span>Meteorological Effects of Thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Releases</span> (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Releases</span>) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of <span class="hlt">energy</span> that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span> centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18682281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18682281"><span>Control of drug <span class="hlt">release</span> from capsules using high frequency <span class="hlt">energy</span> transmission systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gröning, R; Bensmann, H; Müller, R S</p> <p>2008-11-19</p> <p>In the present investigations new drug delivery systems have been developed, which are controlled by a computer and a high frequency <span class="hlt">energy</span> transmission system. The capsules consist of a drug reservoir, a high frequency receiver, a gas generating section and a piston to pump a drug solution or drug suspension out of the reservoir. Mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> is generated inside the capsule through electrolysis, if a 27 MHz high frequency field is in resonance with the receiver inside the capsule. Two different miniaturised oscillatory circuits were constructed, which act as the receivers in the capsules. Tramadol was used in <span class="hlt">release</span> experiments as a model drug. Delayed and pulsed <span class="hlt">release</span> profiles were obtained. A computer-controlled system was constructed, in which the programmed <span class="hlt">release</span> profiles are compared with the actual <span class="hlt">release</span> of the drug.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250934"><span>Permeation of low-Z atoms through carbon sheets: Density functional theory study on <span class="hlt">energy</span> barriers and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Huber, Stefan E. E-mail: Michael.probst@uibk.ac.at; Mauracher, Andreas; Probst, Michael E-mail: Michael.probst@uibk.ac.at</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>Energetic and geometric aspects of the permeation of the atoms hydrogen to neon neutral atoms through graphene sheets are investigated by investigating the associated <span class="hlt">energy</span> barriers and sheet <span class="hlt">deformations</span>. Density functional theory calculations on cluster models, where graphene is modeled by planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), provide the <span class="hlt">energies</span> and geometries. Particularities of our systems, such as convergence of both <span class="hlt">energy</span> barriers and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> curves with increasing size of the PAHs, are discussed. Three different interaction regimes, adiabatic, planar and vertical, are investigated by enforcing different geometrical constraints. The adiabatic <span class="hlt">energy</span> barriers range from 5 eV for hydrogen to 20 eV for neon. We find that the permeation of oxygen and carbon into graphene is facilitated by temporary chemical bonding while for other, in principle reactive atoms, it is not. We discuss implications of our results for modeling chemical sputtering of graphite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22212789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22212789"><span>Nuclear data processing for <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and deposition calculations in the MC21 Monte Carlo code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trumbull, T. H.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>With the recent emphasis in performing multiphysics calculations using Monte Carlo transport codes such as MC21, the need for accurate estimates of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition-and the subsequent heating - has increased. However, the availability and quality of data necessary to enable accurate neutron and photon <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition calculations can be an issue. A comprehensive method for handling the nuclear data required for <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition calculations in MC21 has been developed using the NDEX nuclear data processing system and leveraging the capabilities of NJOY. The method provides a collection of data to the MC21 Monte Carlo code supporting the computation of a wide variety of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and deposition tallies while also allowing calculations with different levels of fidelity to be performed. Detailed discussions on the usage of the various components of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> data are provided to demonstrate novel methods in borrowing photon production data, correcting for negative <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> quantities, and adjusting Q values when necessary to preserve <span class="hlt">energy</span> balance. Since <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition within a reactor is a result of both neutron and photon interactions with materials, a discussion on the photon <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition data processing is also provided. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013375','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013375"><span>Translational and extensional <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates (the J- and M-integrals) for a crack layer in thermoelasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chudnovsky, A.; Gommerstadt, B.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A number of papers have been presented on the evaluation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate for thermoelasticity and corresponding J integral. Two main approaches were developed to treat <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate in elasticity. The first is based on direct calculation of the potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> rate with respect to crack length. The second makes use of Lagrangian formalism. The translational and expansional <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates in thermoelasticity are studied by employing the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics and the Crack Layer Approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..772..708L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..772..708L"><span>Radiation and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in a background field of axion-like dark matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liao, Wei</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We find that a fuzzy dark matter background and the mG scale magnetic field in the galactic center can give rise to a radiation with a very large <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. The frequency of the radiation field is the same as the frequency of the oscillating axion-like background field. We show that there is an <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between the fuzzy dark matter sector and the electromagnetic sector because of the presence of the generated radiation field and the galactic magnetic field. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of radiation is found to be very slow in comparison with the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of fuzzy dark matter but could be significant comparing with the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of galactic magnetic field in the source region. Using this example, we show that the fuzzy dark matter together with a large scale magnetic field is possible to give rise to fruitful physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960731','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960731"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and transfer in solar flares: simulations of three-dimensional reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Birn, Joachim; Fletches, L; Hesse, M; Neukirch, T</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations we investigate <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and transfer in a three-dimensional extension of the standard two-ribbon flare picture. In this scenario reconnection is initiated in a thin current sheet (suggested to form below a departing coronal mass ejection) above a bipolar magnetic field. Two cases are contrasted: an initially force-free current sheet (low beta) and a finite-pressure current sheet (high beta). The <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion process from reconnect ion consists of incoming Poynting flux (from the <span class="hlt">release</span> of magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>) turned into up-and downgoing Poynting flux, enthalpy flux and bulk kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> flux. In the low-beta case, the outgoing Poynting flux is the dominant contribution, whereas the outgoing enthalpy flux dominates in the high-beta case. The bulk kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> flux is only a minor contribution, particularly in the downward direction. The dominance of the downgoing Poynting flux in the low-beta case is consistent with an alternative to the thick target electron beam model for solar flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> transport, suggested recently by Fletcher and Hudson. For plausible characteristic parameters of the reconnecting field configuration, we obtain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> time scales and and <span class="hlt">energy</span> output rates that compare favorably with those inferred from observations for the impulsive phase of flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..175a2003N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..175a2003N"><span>Engineering estimation of time-dependent <span class="hlt">deformation</span> characteristics as bending moment relaxation and <span class="hlt">released</span> unfolding motion of creased paperboard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagasawa, Sh</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Paperboards are recognized to be important raw materials for packaging industry due to their advantages such as high strength-to-weight ratio, recyclability. Regarding the development of advanced packaging materials and the requirement of smart formed products, a study of sheet’s response behaviour is necessary for expanding the advanced converting industry. After introducing a couple of past research works concerned crease technologies, a fundamental mechanisms of crease <span class="hlt">deformation</span> is reviewed using the scoring depth and the folding angle of a paperboard. Since one of important forming characteristics is a time-dependent stress relaxation or time-delayed strain during a fold/unfold process, the author’s experimental approaches for estimating a short term (less than 10 seconds) dynamic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behaviour of creased paperboard are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PSST...23d3001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PSST...23d3001D"><span>Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of the electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyatko, N. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Non-thermal plasma is a key component in gas lasers, microelectronics, medical applications, waste gas cleaners, ozone generators, plasma igniters, flame holders, flow control in high-speed aerodynamics and others. A specific feature of non-thermal plasma is its high sensitivity to variations in governing parameters (gas composition, pressure, pulse duration, E/N parameter). This sensitivity is due to complex <span class="hlt">deformations</span> of the electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution function (EEDF) shape induced by variations in electric field strength, electron and ion number densities and gas excitation degree. Particular attention in this article is paid to mechanisms of instabilities based on non-linearity of plasma properties for specific conditions: gas composition, steady-state and decaying plasma produced by the electron beam, or by an electric current pulse. The following effects are analyzed: the negative differential electron conductivity; the absolute negative electron mobility; the stepwise changes of plasma properties induced by the EEDF bi-stability; thermo-current instability and the constriction of the glow discharge column in rare gases. Some of these effects were observed experimentally and some of them were theoretically predicted and still wait for experimental confirmation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG26002M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG26002M"><span>Body-Fitted Detonation Shock Dynamics and the Pseudo-Reaction-Zone <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, Chad; Quirk, James; Short, Mark; Chqiuete, Carlos</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Programmed-burn methods are a class of models used to propagate a detonation wave, without the high resolution cost associated with a direct numerical simulation. They separate the detonation evolution calculation into two components: timing and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. The timing component is usually calculated with a Detonation Shock Dynamics model, a surface evolution representation that relates the normal velocity of the surface (Dn) to its local curvature. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> component must appropriately capture the degree of <span class="hlt">energy</span> change associated with chemical reaction while simultaneously remaining synchronized with the timing component. The Pseudo-Reaction-Zone (PRZ) model is a reactive burn like <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> model, converting reactants into products, but with a conversion rate that is a function of the DSD surface Dn field. As such, it requires the DSD calculation produce smooth Dn fields, a challenge in complex geometries. We describe a new body-fitted approach to the Detonation Shock Dynamics calculation which produces the required smooth Dn fields, and a method for calibrating the PRZ model such that the rate of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> remains as synced as possible with the timing component. We show results for slab, rate-stick and arc geometries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/264515','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/264515"><span>Calculating the rate of exothermic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> for catalytic converter efficiency monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hepburn, J.S.; Meitzler, A.H.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This paper reports on the development of a new methodology for OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitoring. Temperature measurements taken from the center of the catalyst substrate or near the exterior surface of the catalyst brick were used in conjunction with macroscopic <span class="hlt">energy</span> balances to calculate the instantaneous rate of exothermic <span class="hlt">energy</span> generation within the catalyst. The total calculated rate of exothermic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> over the FTP test cycle was within 10% of the actual or theoretical value and provided a good indicator of catalyst light-off for a variety of aged catalytic converters. Normalization of the rate of exothermic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the front section of the converter by the mass flow rate of air inducted through the engine was found to provide a simple yet practical means of monitoring the converter under both FTP and varying types of road driving.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ASPC..510..289P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ASPC..510..289P"><span>Flare <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span>: Internal Conflict, Contradiction with High Resolution Observations, Possible Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pustilnik, L.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>All accepted paradigm of solar and stellar flares <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> based on 2 whales: 1. Source of <span class="hlt">energy</span> is free <span class="hlt">energy</span> of non-potential force free magnetic field in atmosphere above active region; 2. Process of ultrafast dissipation of magnetic fields is Reconnection in Thin Turbulent Current Sheet (RTTCS). Progress in observational techniques in last years provided ultra-high spatial resolution and in physics of turbulent plasma showed that real situation is much more complicated and standard approach is in contradiction both with observations and with problem of RTTCS stability. We present critical analysis of classic models of pre-flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> accumulation and its dissipation during flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from pioneer works Giovanelli (1939, 1947) up to topological reconnection. We show that all accepted description of global force-free fields as source of future flare cannot be agreed with discovered in last years fine and ultra-fine current-magnetic structure included numerouse arcs-threads with diameters up to 100 km with constant sequence from photosphere to corona. This magnetic skeleton of thin current magnetic threads with strong interaction between them is main source of reserved magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> insolar atmosphere. Its dynamics will be controlled by percolation of magnetic stresses through network of current-magnetic threads with transition to flare state caused by critical value of global current. We show that thin turbulent current sheet is absolutely unstable configuration both caused by splitting to numerous linear currents by dissipative modes like to tearing, and as sequence of suppress of plasma turbulence caused by anomalous heating of turbulent plasma. In result of these factors primary RTTCS will be disrupted in numerous turbulent and normal plasma domains like to resistors network. Current propagation through this network will have percolation character with all accompanied properties of percolated systems: self-organization with formation power</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93d4306D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93d4306D"><span>Mapping the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in the "island of inversion": Inelastic scattering of 30Ne and 36Mg at intermediate <span class="hlt">energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doornenbal, P.; Scheit, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Aoi, N.; Li, K.; Matsushita, M.; Steppenbeck, D.; Wang, H.; Baba, H.; Ideguchi, E.; Kobayashi, N.; Kondo, Y.; Lee, J.; Michimasa, S.; Motobayashi, T.; Poves, A.; Sakurai, H.; Takechi, M.; Togano, Y.; Yoneda, K.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The transition strengths of the first-excited 2+ states and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> lengths of the nuclei 30Ne and 36Mg were determined via Coulomb- and nuclear-force-dominated inelastic scattering at intermediate <span class="hlt">energies</span>. Beams of these exotic nuclei were produced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory and were incident on lead and carbon targets at <span class="hlt">energies</span> above 200 MeV/u . Absolute excitation cross sections on the lead target yielded reduced transition probabilities of 0.0277(79) and 0.0528(121) e2b2 , while the measurements with the carbon target revealed nuclear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> lengths of δN=1.98 (11) and 1.93(11) fm for 30Ne and 36Mg, respectively. Corresponding quadrupole <span class="hlt">deformation</span> parameters of β2˜0.5 from the two probes were found comparable in magnitude, showing no indication for a reduction in <span class="hlt">deformation</span> along isotopic and isotonic chains from 32Mg towards the neutron drip-line. Comparisons to shell-model calculations illustrate the importance of neutron excitations across the N =20 shell for 30Ne and suggest that shallow maximums of collectivity may occur around N =22 and 24 along the neon and magnesium isotopic chains, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DNP.CJ003L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DNP.CJ003L"><span>Total Kinetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in the Fast Neutron Induced Fission of 235U</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loveland, Walter; Yanez, Ricardo</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We have measured the total kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> (TKE) <span class="hlt">release</span>, its variance and associated fission product mass distributions for the neutron induced fission of 235U for En = 2-90 MeV using the 2E method. The neutron <span class="hlt">energies</span> were determined,event by event, by time of flight measurements with the white spectrum neutron beam from LANSCE. The TKE decreases with increasing neutron <span class="hlt">energy</span>. This TKE decrease is due to increasing symmetric fission (and decreasing asymmetric fission)with increasing neutron <span class="hlt">energy</span>, in accord with Brosa model predictions. Our measurement of the TKE <span class="hlt">release</span> for 235U(nth,f) is in excellent agreement with the known value, indicating our measurements are absolute measurements. The TKE variances are sensitive indicators of nth chance fission. Due to the occurrence of nth chance fission and pre-fission neutron emission, the average fissioning system and its excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> is a complex function of the incident neutron <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Detailed comparisons of our data with previous measurements will be made. This work was supported, in part, by the Director, Office of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Research, Division of Nuclear Physics of the Office of High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and Nuclear Physics of the U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> under Grant DE-SC0014380.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687603','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687603"><span>Cold <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> characteristics of an ice/air direct contact heat exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ohira, Akiyoshi; Yanadori, Michio; Iwabuchi, Kunihiko; Kimura, Toshikatsu; Tsubota, Yuji</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>This paper deals with the cold <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> characteristics of an ice/air direct contact heat exchanger in a refined cold <span class="hlt">energy</span> conveyance system. Characteristics of the outlet temperature, the humidity, and time history of <span class="hlt">released</span> heat are examined when the initial height of the ice-cube-packed bed in the heat exchanger is changed. The following are the results obtained in these experiments: (1) Inlet air of 30 C is lowered to about 0 C by passing the air through the heat exchanger, and absolute humidity of the outlet air is reduced to about a quarter of that of the inlet air. (2) There is an optimum height of the ice-cube-packed bed for maximizing the amount of cold <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span>. (3) This heat exchange method can supply about twice the amount of cold <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> by an ordinary fin-tube-type heat exchanger even if the air velocity in the heat exchanger is reduced to about 0.38 times that of the fin-tube-type heat exchanger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ap%26SS.350...11S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ap%26SS.350...11S"><span>Does the region of flare-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> work as a vacuum-cleaner?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solov'ev, A.; Murawski, K.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We aim to explore the unusual flare event which took place in the solar atmosphere on September 22, 2011 and propose its theoretical interpretation. We analyze the process of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the twisted magnetic flux-rope associated with the event, assuming the excitation of anomalous resistivity of turbulent plasma in the rope, and solve numerically nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The analytical approach to the problem of flare-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> show that the conditions of excitation of anomalous resistivity can be satisfied in the twisted magnetic flux-rope whose parameters fits well the SDO observational findings. One of the most remarkable properties of the flare phenomenon under the present consideration was the permanent sucking of the coronal/chromospheric gas from the very remote points to the flare filament, i.e. into the low-lying hot region of the flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. This unusual phenomenon has been simulated by numerical methods in terms of ideal MHD. The numerical results reveal that siphon back-flow exhibits characteristic spatial signatures which mimic the observational findings. The flare-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> region, as a part of strongly twisted magnetic flux-rope, is able to work as a vacuum-cleaner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20619074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20619074"><span>Sweet-taste receptors, low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> sweeteners, glucose absorption and insulin <span class="hlt">release</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Renwick, Andrew G; Molinary, Samuel V</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The present review explores the interactions between sweeteners and enteroendocrine cells, and consequences for glucose absorption and insulin <span class="hlt">release</span>. A combination of in vitro, in situ, molecular biology and clinical studies has formed the basis of our knowledge about the taste receptor proteins in the glucose-sensing enteroendocrine cells and the secretion of incretins by these cells. Low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (intense) sweeteners have been used as tools to define the role of intestinal sweet-taste receptors in glucose absorption. Recent studies using animal and human cell lines and knockout mice have shown that low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> sweeteners can stimulate intestinal enteroendocrine cells to <span class="hlt">release</span> glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. These studies have given rise to major speculations that the ingestion of food and beverages containing low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> sweeteners may act via these intestinal mechanisms to increase obesity and the metabolic syndrome due to a loss of equilibrium between taste receptor activation, nutrient assimilation and appetite. However, data from numerous publications on the effects of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> sweeteners on appetite, insulin and glucose levels, food intake and body weight have shown that there is no consistent evidence that low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> sweeteners increase appetite or subsequent food intake, cause insulin <span class="hlt">release</span> or affect blood pressure in normal subjects. Thus, the data from extensive in vivo studies in human subjects show that low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> sweeteners do not have any of the adverse effects predicted by in vitro, in situ or knockout studies in animals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24053716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24053716"><span>Effect of Nd:YAG laser pulse <span class="hlt">energy</span> on mercury vapor <span class="hlt">release</span> from the dental amalgam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Puralibaba, Firooz; Ajami, Hamidreza</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different pulse <span class="hlt">energies</span> of Nd:YAG laser on the amalgam ablation, and its effect on the amount of mercury vapor <span class="hlt">release</span> from amalgam. Toxic vapor <span class="hlt">release</span> from amalgam restorations at the laser focus site is possible. Forty-five amalgam samples (4 mm in diameter and 5 mm in height) were placed in sealed containers and underwent Nd:YAG laser irradiation with pulse <span class="hlt">energies</span> of 50, 150, and 250 mJ at a distance of 1 mm from the amalgam surface for 4 sec. Subsequently, 150 mL of air was collected from the inside of the container using an Apex Pump to analyze the amount of mercury vapor in the air samples using a mercury vapor analyzer. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p<0.05). The amount of mercury vapor <span class="hlt">release</span> significantly increased with an increase in the pulse <span class="hlt">energy</span> of Nd:YAG laser (p<0.001). In addition, the amount of mercury vapor <span class="hlt">release</span> with 250 mJ pulse <span class="hlt">energy</span> was significantly higher compared with the standard mercury vapor concentration (50 μg/m(3)) (p<0.001). Nd:YAG laser produced cavities on the amalgam surface, which increased in size with an increase in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the laser beam. The amount of mercury vapor significantly increased with an increase in the pulse <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the laser beam, and was significantly higher than the standard mercury vapor concentration with 250 mJ pulse <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521015"><span>Stress radiography in the assessment of residual <span class="hlt">deformity</span> in clubfoot following postero-medial soft tissue <span class="hlt">release</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Gul, Arif</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>X-ray is important in the assessment of clubfoot. Stress radiographs give more information than routine radiographs. Because of the inaccuracy of the positioning and the disadvantages of radiation, paediatric orthopaedic surgeons do not like and do not use X-ray examination. In this study we report a technique we use to obtain stress radiographs in paediatric patients with clubfoot using a custom-made radiolucent modular splint. This technique provides better assessment of the initial status and the result of treatment. Although this method has limitations it can help to compare different feet and treatment results with regard to axis and angle. We validated this splint by means of a prospective study in 11 patients with 21 feet having type 2 clubfoot who underwent (PMSTR) in our centre. Two sets of radiographs were taken, one with manual positioning and one with our splint. We found significant differences in the values of midfoot and forefoot radiological parameters between the two sets. We found that the correlation between the clinical and radiological assessment of residual <span class="hlt">deformity</span> improved significantly for these values when a splint was used to obtain stress views. Hence we recommend routine use of a radiolucent splint for taking stress views to assess residual <span class="hlt">deformity</span> in clubfoot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793d0024Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793d0024Z"><span>Experimental study on the initiation and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> behavior of polymer bonded explosive materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wei; Cai, Xuanming; Ye, Nan; Gao, Yubo</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, an initially sealed vented test chamber and a test projectile with polymer bonded explosive materials were designed to complete the experiments. As the initiation takes place on the interior, great amounts of thermo-chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> gases were vented through a hole formed by the penetration process. The gas pressure inside the chamber was used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> behavior of polymer bonded explosive materials. The experimental results reveal that the impact velocity is significant to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> behavior, and in some extent the gas pressure improves with the velocity of the projectile. And the critical initiation velocity and the velocity as the polymer bonded explosive materials reached the maximum reactive efficiency were obtained.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167274','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167274"><span>LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF PICOFLARE CATEGORY <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> <span class="hlt">RELEASES</span> IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ramesh, R.; Sasikumar Raja, K.; Kathiravan, C.; Satya Narayanan, A.</p> <p>2013-01-10</p> <p>We report low-frequency (80 MHz) radio observations of circularly polarized non-thermal type I radio bursts ({sup n}oise storms{sup )} in the solar corona whose estimated <span class="hlt">energy</span> is {approx}10{sup 21} erg. These are the weakest <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> events reported to date in the solar atmosphere. The plot of the distribution of the number of bursts (dN) versus their corresponding peak flux density in the range S to S+dS shows a power-law behavior, i.e., dN {proportional_to} S {sup {gamma}} dS. The power-law index {gamma} is in the range -2.2 to -2.7 for the events reported in the present work. The present results provide independent observational evidence for the existence of picoflare category <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> in the solar atmosphere which are yet to be explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800048656&hterms=energy+input&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Binput','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800048656&hterms=energy+input&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Binput"><span>Transient solution for megajoule <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in a lumped-parameter series RLC circuit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, G.; Dannenberg, R. E.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A method is developed for optimizing the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from a megajoule capacitive discharge in a series RLC circuit with an RL load. Both the resistance and inductance of the load are represented by effective values that characterize their behavior during the discharge. Using Kirchhoff's laws, equations utilizing the load impedance and the external circuit impedance are derived for determining the instantaneous load voltage and <span class="hlt">energy</span> characteristics. A program (ERES) computes and displays the load characteristics and the circuit current. Use of the ERES program allows a designer to perturbate values of the circuit elements in order to produce the desired time distribution for the load <span class="hlt">energy</span> input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930054261&hterms=Solar+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930054261&hterms=Solar+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Benergy"><span>Numerical modeling of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and <span class="hlt">release</span> in solar flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, S. T.; Weng, F. S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports on investigation of the photospheric magnetic field-line footpoint motion (usually referred to as shear motion) and magnetic flux emerging from below the surface in relation to <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage in a solar flare. These causality relationships are demonstrated by using numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. From these results, one may conclude that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored in solar flares is in the form of currents. The dynamic process through which these currents reach a critical value is discussed as well as how these currents lead to <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, such as the explosive events of solar flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930054261&hterms=solar+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930054261&hterms=solar+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy"><span>Numerical modeling of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and <span class="hlt">release</span> in solar flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, S. T.; Weng, F. S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports on investigation of the photospheric magnetic field-line footpoint motion (usually referred to as shear motion) and magnetic flux emerging from below the surface in relation to <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage in a solar flare. These causality relationships are demonstrated by using numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. From these results, one may conclude that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored in solar flares is in the form of currents. The dynamic process through which these currents reach a critical value is discussed as well as how these currents lead to <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, such as the explosive events of solar flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014615','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014615"><span>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in earthquakes, and subduction zone seismicity and stress in slabs. Ph.D. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vassiliou, M. S.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in earthquakes is discussed. Dynamic <span class="hlt">energy</span> from source time function, a simplified procedure for modeling deep focus events, static <span class="hlt">energy</span> estimates, near source <span class="hlt">energy</span> studies, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> and magnitude are addressed. Subduction zone seismicity and stress in slabs are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23680500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23680500"><span>Is the pie-crusting technique safe for MCL <span class="hlt">release</span> in varus <span class="hlt">deformity</span> correction in total knee arthroplasty?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meneghini, R Michael; Daluga, Andrew T; Sturgis, Lindsey A; Lieberman, Jay R</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Established for lateral <span class="hlt">release</span> in TKA, the pie-crusting technique has not been studied for the medial collateral ligament (MCL). In cadaveric knees the MCL was <span class="hlt">release</span> with a pie-crusting technique in one and traditional technique in the contralateral knee. Along with a control group, each MCL was subjected to mechanical testing. The stiffness, force and stress required to cause ligament elongation were less in the pie-crusting group (p < 0.05) compared to the control group, but were not statistically different than the traditional group. The pie-crusting group demonstrated a characteristic "stair-step" failure mode at the joint line, whereas the traditional group failed elastically at the tibial insertion. MCL pie-crusting is likely technique dependent since failure occurs within the ligament itself and further study is warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28272872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28272872"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">Release</span> from Metal-Organic Frameworks Triggered by External Stimuli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Haiqing; Hill, Matthew R</p> <p>2017-03-08</p> <p>Groundbreaking research over the past 15 years has established metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as adsorbents capable of unprecedented gas adsorption capacity. This has encouraged the contemplation of their use in applications such as increasing the storage capacity in natural gas fuel tanks, or the capture of carbon dioxide from coal-fired flue gas streams. However, while the gas adsorption capacity of MOFs is large, not all stored gas can be readily <span class="hlt">released</span> to realize the efficient regeneration of MOF adsorbents. This leads to an increase in <span class="hlt">energy</span> requirements, or working capacities significantly lower than the amount of gas adsorbed. This requirement for low <span class="hlt">energy</span> means to efficiently <span class="hlt">release</span> more stored gas has motivated the research in our group toward the triggered <span class="hlt">release</span> of the stored gas from MOFs. Using CO2 as a typical gas adsorbate, we have developed three new methods of <span class="hlt">releasing</span> stored gas with external stimuli that include light induction swing adsorption, magnetic induction swing adsorption, and their combination, denoted as LISA, MISA and MaLISA, respectively. LISA: Light, being naturally abundant, is particularly interesting for reducing the parasitic <span class="hlt">energy</span> load on coal-fired power stations for regenerating the CO2 adsorbent. We showed that, by incorporating light-responsive organic linkers, exposure of light to a gas-loaded MOF promoted localized movement in the linkers, expelling around 80% of the adsorbed gas, just from the use of concentrated sunlight. Variation of the light-responsive components such as silver nanoparticles in MOFs allowed the response to be moved from UV to visible wavelengths, improving safety and light penetration depth. MISA: In order to expand this discovery to larger scales, more penetrating forms of radiation were sought. MOFs incorporated with magnetic nanoparticles (Magnetic Framework Composites, MFCs) were developed, and absorb the alternating magnetic fields exceptionally efficiently. The rapid heating of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26012939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26012939"><span>Medium-term results of single-stage posteromedial <span class="hlt">release</span> and triple arthrodesis in treatment of neglected clubfoot <span class="hlt">deformity</span> in adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akıncı, Orhan; Akalın, Yavuz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the implementation, in a single session, of both massive posteromedial <span class="hlt">release</span> and triple arthrodesis for rigid neglected clubfoot <span class="hlt">deformities</span> in adult patients, and its effects on clinical and radiological results. The procedures were performed in one session on 15 feet of 11 patients [7 male, 4 female; mean age 26 (range: 15 to 50)]. Staples were used for fixation in all patients. For clinical assessment, the AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) ankle- hindfoot scale was used. Anteroposterior/lateral side talocalcaneal and talus-1st metatarsal angles were used as radiographic parameters. The mean follow-up was 7.5 years (range: 6 to 11). The mean AOFAS score rose from a preoperative 39 (range: 15 to 52) to 88 (range: 76 to 94) in the final follow up (p<0.0001). Among the 15 feet, 9 were evaluated as excellent, 5 as good, and 1 as fair. Significant clinical improvement was obtained between preoperative and postoperative surgical periods (p<0.05). Significant improvements were observed in radiographic parameters (p<0.0001). At final follow-up, radiographic values were within normal physiological limits. Average union time was 12.4 (range: 7 to 36) weeks. While pseudoarthrosis was not observed in any patients, delayed union developed in 2 cases, and talus avascular necrosis in 1. In the preoperative period, 5 patients had various degrees of degenerative changes. Nine patients developed degenerative changes in different joints and of different degrees. The authors believe that massive soft tissue <span class="hlt">release</span> and triple arthrodesis performed in a single session yields satisfactory results cosmetically and functionally in neglected clubfoot cases with severe <span class="hlt">deformities</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15259957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15259957"><span>Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, <span class="hlt">energy</span> impact, and greenhouse effect gases <span class="hlt">release</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guibelin, E</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil <span class="hlt">energy</span> utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) <span class="hlt">release</span>. Thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery, incineration can produce more <span class="hlt">energy</span> than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best ways to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3379975','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3379975"><span>Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Redirection and <span class="hlt">Release</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> redirection and <span class="hlt">release</span> technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of blast shock waves into hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly <span class="hlt">released</span> with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> redirection and <span class="hlt">release</span> technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745740"><span>Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> redirection and <span class="hlt">release</span> technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> redirection and <span class="hlt">release</span> technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of blast shock waves into hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly <span class="hlt">released</span> with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic <span class="hlt">energy</span> redirection and <span class="hlt">release</span> technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740029779&hterms=transition+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtransition%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740029779&hterms=transition+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtransition%2Benergy"><span>Variation of strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate with plate thickness. [fracture mode transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sih, G. C.; Hartranft, R. J.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>An analytical model of a through-thickness crack in a statically stretched plate is presented in which the crack front stress state is permitted to vary in the direction of the plate thickness. The amplitude or intensity of this stress field can be made nearly constant over a major portion of the interior crack front which is in a state of plane strain. The average amount of work available for extending a small segment of the crack across the thickness is associated with an <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate quantity in a manner similar to the two-dimensional Griffith crack model. The theoretically calculated <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate is shown to increase with increasing plate thickness, indicating that available work for crack extension is higher in a thicker plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPB..23.5609L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPB..23.5609L"><span>Statistical Properties of Solar Flares and Comparison to Other Impulsive <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lepreti, Fabio; Kossobokov, Vladimir G.; Carbone, Vincenzo</p> <p></p> <p>Impulsive <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> events are observed in many natural systems. Solar flares are certainly among the most remarkable examples of such processes. In the last years the study of solar flare statistical properties has received considerable attention in the context of solar flare models based on different approaches, such as Self Organized Criticality (SOC) or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. In this talk the main statistical properties of solar flares will be presented and compared to those of other well known impulsive processes, such as earthquakes and soft γ-ray flashes occurring on neutron stars. It is shown that the these phenomena are characterized by different statistics that cannot be rescaled onto a single, universal curve and that this holds even for the same phenomenon, when observed in different periods or at different locations. Our results indicate apparent complexity of impulsive <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> processes, which neither follow a common behavior nor could be attributed to a universal physical mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011944','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011944"><span>Convergence of strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate components for edge-delaminated composite laminates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raju, I. S.; Crews, J. H., Jr.; Aminpour, M. A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates for edge delaminated composite laminates were obtained using quasi 3 dimensional finite element analysis. The problem of edge delamination at the -35/90 interfaces of an 8-ply composite laminate subjected to uniform axial strain was studied. The individual components of the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates did not show convergence as the delamination tip elements were made smaller. In contrast, the total strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate converged and remained unchanged as the delamination tip elements were made smaller and agreed with that calculated using a classical laminated plate theory. The studies of the near field solutions for a delamination at an interface between two dissimilar isotropic or orthotropic plates showed that the imaginary part of the singularity is the cause of the nonconvergent behavior of the individual components. To evaluate the accuracy of the results, an 8-ply laminate with the delamination modeled in a thin resin layer, that exists between the -35 and 90 plies, was analyzed. Because the delamination exists in a homogeneous isotropic material, the oscillatory component of the singularity vanishes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880057797&hterms=convergence+media&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dconvergence%2Bmedia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880057797&hterms=convergence+media&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dconvergence%2Bmedia"><span>Convergence of strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate components for edge-delaminated composite laminates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raju, I. S.; Crews, J. H., Jr.; Aminpour, M. A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates for edge delaminated composite laminates were obtained using quasi 3 dimensional finite element analysis. The problem of edge delamination at the -35/90 interfaces of an 8-ply composite laminate subjected to uniform axial strain was studied. The individual components of the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates did not show convergence as the delamination tip elements were made smaller. In contrast, the total strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate converged and remained unchanged as the delamination tip elements were made smaller and agreed with that calculated using a classical laminated plate theory. The studies of the near field solutions for a delamination at an interface between two dissimilar isotropic or orthotropic plates showed that the imaginary part of the singularity is the cause of the nonconvergent behavior of the individual components. To evaluate the accuracy of the results, an 8-ply laminate with the delamination modeled in a thin resin layer, that exists between the -35 and 90 plies, was analyzed. Because the delamination exists in a homogeneous isotropic material, the oscillatory component of the singularity vanishes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA079723','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA079723"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate Calculations for Interface Edge Cracks Based on a Conservation Integral.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1979-11-01</p> <p>Smelzer and Curtin [2], is that the 3—integral on a small arc about an interface crack is equal to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate, as in the homogeneous case. One...2.. (See Rice [4] and Smelzer and Gurtin (2].) Rence , on this small arc, H is the product of the crack length and the rate of decrease of the <span class="hlt">energy</span>...Solids Structures , 14, 241—250 (1978). 2. R. E. Smelzer and N . E. Gurtin , On the J—integral for bi—material bodies. Tn t . J. Fr act . 13, 382—3S4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013397','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013397"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> from Impacting Prominence Material Following the 2011 June 7 Eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the impacting material (7.6 × 10(exp 26) - 5.8 × 10(exp 27) erg) to the radiative <span class="hlt">energy</span> (approx. 1.9 × 10(exp 25) - 2.5 × 10(exp 26) erg), we find the dominant mechanism of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22215411','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22215411"><span><span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> <span class="hlt">RELEASE</span> FROM IMPACTING PROMINENCE MATERIAL FOLLOWING THE 2011 JUNE 7 ERUPTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A.</p> <p>2013-10-10</p> <p>Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the impacting material (7.6 × 10{sup 26}-5.8 × 10{sup 27} erg) to the radiative <span class="hlt">energy</span> (≈1.9 × 10{sup 25}-2.5 × 10{sup 26} erg), we find the dominant mechanism of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22436671','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22436671"><span>Temperature-dependent ideal strength and stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> of fcc Ni: a first-principles study of shear <span class="hlt">deformation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shang, S L; Wang, W Y; Wang, Y; Du, Y; Zhang, J X; Patel, A D; Liu, Z K</p> <p>2012-04-18</p> <p>Variations of <span class="hlt">energy</span>, stress, and magnetic moment of fcc Ni as a response to shear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and the associated ideal shear strength (τ(IS)), intrinsic (γ(SF)) and unstable (γ(US)) stacking fault <span class="hlt">energies</span> have been studied in terms of first-principles calculations under both the alias and affine shear regimes within the {111} slip plane along the <112> and <110> directions. It is found that (i) the intrinsic stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> γ(SF) is nearly independent of the shear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> regimes used, albeit a slightly smaller value is predicted by pure shear (with relaxation) compared to the one from simple shear (without relaxation); (ii) the minimum ideal shear strength τ(IS) is obtained by pure alias shear of {111}<112>; and (iii) the dissociation of the 1/2[110] dislocation into two partial Shockley dislocations (1/6[211] + 1/6[121]) is observed under pure alias shear of {111}<110>. Based on the quasiharmonic approach from first-principles phonon calculations, the predicted γ(SF) has been extended to finite temperatures. In particular, using a proposed quasistatic approach on the basis of the predicted volume versus temperature relation, the temperature dependence of τ(IS) is also obtained. Both the γ(SF) and the τ(IS) of fcc Ni decrease with increasing temperature. The computed ideal shear strengths as well as the intrinsic and unstable stacking fault <span class="hlt">energies</span> are in favorable accord with experiments and other predictions in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/447261','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/447261"><span>Numerical simulation of the explosion dynamics and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from high-gain ICF targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MacFarlane, J.J.; Sawan, M.E.; Moses, G.A.; Wang, P.; Olson, R.E.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Results from numerical simulations are presented describing the explosion energetics of a high-gain indirect-drive ICF target. The light ion fusion LIBRA-SP target, which consists of an x-ray driven capsule embedded in a spherical foam-filled hohlraum, is imploded using 12 prepulse and 12 full power Li beams containing a total <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 8 MJ. Here, we report on the dynamics of the target <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, focussing in particular on the partitioning of <span class="hlt">energy</span> between x rays, neutrons, and target debris kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Our results indicate that 72% and 22% of the 552 MJ yield is emitted by the target in the form of neutrons and x-rays, respectively. Calculated emergent spectra for the target neutrons and x rays are also presented. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...847L..17I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...847L..17I"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in the Solar Atmosphere from a Stream of Infalling Prominence Debris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Inglis, A. R.; Gilbert, H. R.; Ofman, L.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Recent high-resolution and high-cadence extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) imaging has revealed a new phenomenon, impacting prominence debris, where prominence material from failed or partial eruptions can impact the lower atmosphere, <span class="hlt">releasing</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. We report a clear example of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and EUV brightening due to infalling prominence debris that occurred on 2011 September 7–8. The initial eruption of material was associated with an X1.8-class flare from AR 11283, occurring at 22:30 UT on 2011 September 7. Subsequently, a semicontinuous stream of this material returned to the solar surface with a velocity v > 150 km s‑1, impacting a region remote from the original active region between 00:20 and 00:40 UT on 2011 September 8. Using the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, the differential emission measure of the plasma was estimated throughout this brightening event. We found that the radiated <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the impacted plasma was {L}{rad}∼ {10}27 erg, while the thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> peaked at ∼1028 erg. From this we were able to determine the mass content of the debris to be in the range 2× {10}14< m< 2× {10}15 g. Given typical prominence masses, the likely debris mass is toward the lower end of this range. This clear example of a prominence debris event shows that significant <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> takes place during these events and that such impacts may be used as a novel diagnostic tool for investigating prominence material properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPD....4440405C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPD....4440405C"><span>Radio and X-ray Diagnostics of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Solar Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Bin</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Solar flares involve catastrophic <span class="hlt">release</span> of magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> previously stored in the Sun's corona. This dissertation focuses on studies of radio and hard X-ray emissions as diagnostics of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in flares. A major part of the dissertation is exploiting spatially resolved dynamic spectroscopy to study coherent radio bursts. The Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope Subsystem Testbed, a three-element radio interferometer, provides the first opportunity of doing such studies on zebra-pattern bursts. The observations allow us to identify the relevant emission mechanism, enabling diagnostics of the plasma parameters in the source. With the help of coronal magnetic field extrapolations, the source is placed into a three-dimensional magnetic field configuration and its relation to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is clarified. The next part of the dissertation discusses the "solar mode" commissioning of the upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). As a general purpose telescope, special provisions should be made for the VLA to enable solar observations. Based on the test results on the VLA's hardware, solar observing and calibration strategies are developed. Now the VLA is capable of observing the Sun with simultaneous imaging and dynamic spectroscopy over a large bandwidth at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. The upgraded VLA is used to observe decimetric type III radio bursts, which are the radio signature of propagating fast electron beams produced in flares. The new observing technique allows detailed trajectories of these electron beams to be derived. Combined with multi-wavelength observations, the properties of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> site, electron beams, and the surrounding coronal medium are deduced. The dissertation also presents a study on coronal hard X-ray/gamma-ray sources. Rather extreme conditions are needed to account for some observed coronal hard X-ray/gamma-ray sources using the usually-assumed non-thermal bremsstrahlung emission. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3946412','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3946412"><span>Noninvasive Fluorescence Resonance <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer Imaging of in vivo Premature Drug <span class="hlt">Release</span> from Polymeric Nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zou, Peng; Chen, Hongwei; Paholak, Hayley J.; Sun, Duxin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Understanding in vivo drug <span class="hlt">release</span> kinetics is critical for the development of nanoparticle-based delivery systems. In this study, we developed a fluorescence resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (FRET) imaging approach to noninvasively monitor in vitro and in vivo cargo <span class="hlt">release</span> from polymeric nanoparticles. The FRET donor dye (DiO or DiD) and acceptor dye (DiI or DiR) were individually encapsulated into poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-PS) nanoparticles. When DiO (donor) nanoparticles and DiI (acceptor) nanoparticles were co-incubated with cancer cells for 2 h, increased FRET signals were observed from cell membranes, suggesting rapid <span class="hlt">release</span> of DiO and DiI to cell membranes. Similarly, increased FRET ratios were detected in nude mice after intravenous co-administration of DiD (donor) nanoparticles and DiR (acceptor) nanoparticles. In contrast, another group of nude mice i.v. administrated with DiD/DiR co-loaded nanoparticles showed decreased FRET ratios. Based on the difference in FRET ratios between the two groups, in vivo DiD/DiR <span class="hlt">release</span> half-life from PEO-PS nanoparticles was determined to be 9.2 min. In addition, it was observed that the presence of cell membranes facilitated burst <span class="hlt">release</span> of lipophilic cargos while incorporation of oleic acid-coated iron oxide into PEO-PS nanoparticles slowed the <span class="hlt">release</span> of DiD/DiR to cell membranes. The developed in vitro and in vivo FRET imaging techniques can be used to screening stable nano-formulations for lipophilic drug delivery. PMID:24033270</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21296237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21296237"><span><span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> <span class="hlt">RELEASE</span> AND TRANSFER IN SOLAR FLARES: SIMULATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONNECTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Birn, J.; Fletcher, L.; Hesse, M.; Neukirch, T.</p> <p>2009-04-20</p> <p>Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations we investigate <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and transfer in a three-dimensional extension of the standard two-ribbon flare picture. In this scenario, reconnection is initiated in a thin current sheet (suggested to form below a departing coronal mass ejection) above a bipolar magnetic field. Two cases are contrasted: an initially force-free current sheet (low beta) and a finite-pressure current sheet (high beta), where beta represents the ratio between gas (plasma) and magnetic pressure. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion process from reconnection consists of incoming Poynting flux turned into up- and downgoing Poynting flux, enthalpy flux, and bulk kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> flux. In the low-beta case, the outgoing Poynting flux is the dominant contribution, whereas the outgoing enthalpy flux dominates in the high-beta case. The bulk kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> flux is only a minor contribution in the downward direction. The dominance of the downgoing Poynting flux in the low-beta case is consistent with an alternative to the thick target electron beam model for solar flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> transport, suggested recently by Fletcher and Hudson, whereas the enthalpy flux may act as an alternative transport mechanism. For plausible characteristic parameters of the reconnecting field configuration, we obtain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> timescales and <span class="hlt">energy</span> output rates that compare favorably with those inferred from observations for the impulsive phase of flares. Significant enthalpy flux and heating are found even in the initially force-free case with very small background beta, resulting mostly from adiabatic compression rather than Ohmic dissipation. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion mechanism is most easily understood as a two-step process (although the two steps may occur essentially simultaneously): the first step is the acceleration of the plasma by Lorentz forces in layers akin to the slow shocks in the Petschek reconnection model, involving the conversion of magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> to bulk kinetic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1184278','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1184278"><span>Linear Free <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Correlations for Fission Product <span class="hlt">Release</span> from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Accident</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abrecht, David G.; Schwantes, Jon M.</p> <p>2015-03-03</p> <p>This paper extends the preliminary linear free <span class="hlt">energy</span> correlations for radionuclide <span class="hlt">release</span> performed by Schwantes, et al., following the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Through evaluations of the molar fractionations of radionuclides deposited in the soil relative to modeled radionuclide inventories, we confirm the source of the radionuclides to be from active reactors rather than the spent fuel pool. Linear correlations of the form ln χ = -α (ΔG<sub>rxn</sub>°(T<sub>C</sub>))/(RT<sub>C</sub>)+β were obtained between the deposited concentration and the reduction potential of the fission product oxide species using multiple reduction schemes to calculate ΔG°<sub>rxn</sub>(T<sub>C</sub>). These models allowed an estimate of the upper bound for the reactor temperatures of T<sub>C</sub> between 2130 K and 2220 K, providing insight into the limiting factors to vaporization and <span class="hlt">release</span> of fission products during the reactor accident. Estimates of the <span class="hlt">release</span> of medium-lived fission products <sup>90</sup>Sr, <sup>121m</sup>Sn, <sup>147</sup>Pm, <sup>144</sup>Ce, <sup>152</sup>Eu, <sup>154</sup>Eu, <sup>155</sup>Eu, <sup>151</sup>Sm through atmospheric venting and <span class="hlt">releases</span> during the first month following the accident were performed, and indicate large quantities of <sup>90</sup>Sr and radioactive lanthanides were likely to remain in the damaged reactor cores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/458903','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/458903"><span>{Delta}I = 2 <span class="hlt">energy</span> staggering in normal <span class="hlt">deformed</span> dysprosium nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Riley, M.A.; Brown, T.B.; Archer, D.E.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Very high spin states (I{ge}50{Dirac_h}) have been observed in {sup 155,156,157}Dy. The long regular band sequences, free from sharp backbending effects, observed in these dysprosium nuclei offer the possibility of investigating the occurence of any {Delta}I = 2 staggering in normal <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei. Employing the same analysis techniques as used in superdeformed nuclei, certain bands do indeed demonstrate an apparent staggering and this is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006996','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006996"><span>Enclosure fire hazard analysis using relative <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> criteria. [burning rate and combustion control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Coulbert, C. D.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A method for predicting the probable course of fire development in an enclosure is presented. This fire modeling approach uses a graphic plot of five fire development constraints, the relative <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> criteria (RERC), to bound the heat <span class="hlt">release</span> rates in an enclosure as a function of time. The five RERC are flame spread rate, fuel surface area, ventilation, enclosure volume, and total fuel load. They may be calculated versus time based on the specified or empirical conditions describing the specific enclosure, the fuel type and load, and the ventilation. The calculation of these five criteria, using the common basis of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates versus time, provides a unifying framework for the utilization of available experimental data from all phases of fire development. The plot of these criteria reveals the probable fire development envelope and indicates which fire constraint will be controlling during a criteria time period. Examples of RERC application to fire characterization and control and to hazard analysis are presented along with recommendations for the further development of the concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTA...48..678Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTA...48..678Y"><span>Effect of Cyclic Pre-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> on Uniaxial Tensile Behavior of Cu-16 at. pct Al Alloy with Low Stacking Fault <span class="hlt">Energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Y.; Qi, C. J.; Han, D.; Ji, H. M.; Zhang, M. Q.; Li, X. W.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>To explore the effect of cyclic pre-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> on static mechanical behavior of materials with different stacking fault <span class="hlt">energies</span> (SFEs), polycrystalline Cu-16 at. pct Al alloy with a low SFE is selected as the target material in the present work, and the strengthening micro-mechanisms induced by cyclic pre-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> are compared with the previous studies on pure Al with a high SFE and Cu with an intermediate SFE. The results show that the movement of dislocations exhibits a high slip planarity during cyclic pre-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> at different total strain amplitudes Δ ɛ t/2, and some nano-sized <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twins are formed after subsequent tension. The cyclic pre-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> at an appropriate Δ ɛ t/2 of 1.0 × 10-3 promotes a significant increase in ultimate tensile strength σ UTS nearly without loss of tensile ductility, which primarily stems from the introduction of many mobile planar slip dislocations by cyclic pre-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> as well as the formation of nano-sized <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twins during subsequent tension. Based on the comparison of the strengthening micro-mechanisms induced by cyclic pre-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> in Al, Cu, and Cu-16 at. pct Al alloy, it is deduced that a low-cycle cyclic pre-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> at an appropriate condition is expected to cause a better strengthening effect on the static tensile properties of low SFE metals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/897937','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/897937"><span>Kinetic Modeling of Slow <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Non-Ideal Carbon Rich Explosives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vitello, P; Fried, L; Glaesemann, K; Souers, C</p> <p>2006-06-20</p> <p>We present here the first self-consistent kinetic based model for long time-scale <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in detonation waves in the non-ideal explosive LX-17. Non-ideal, insensitive carbon rich explosives, such as those based on TATB, are believed to have significant late-time slow <span class="hlt">release</span> in <span class="hlt">energy</span>. One proposed source of this <span class="hlt">energy</span> is diffusion-limited growth of carbon clusters. In this paper we consider the late-time <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> problem in detonation waves using the thermochemical code CHEETAH linked to a multidimensional ALE hydrodynamics model. The linked CHEETAH-ALE model dimensional treats slowly reacting chemical species using kinetic rate laws, with chemical equilibrium assumed for species coupled via fast time-scale reactions. In the model presented here we include separate rate equations for the transformation of the un-reacted explosive to product gases and for the growth of a small particulate form of condensed graphite to a large particulate form. The small particulate graphite is assumed to be in chemical equilibrium with the gaseous species allowing for coupling between the instantaneous thermodynamic state and the production of graphite clusters. For the explosive burn rate a pressure dependent rate law was used. Low pressure freezing of the gas species mass fractions was also included to account for regions where the kinetic coupling rates become longer than the hydrodynamic time-scales. The model rate parameters were calibrated using cylinder and rate-stick experimental data. Excellent long time agreement and size effect results were achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005822','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005822"><span>Using Sdo's AIA to Investigate <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transport from a Flare's <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Site to the Chromosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Holman, Gordon D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Coordinated observations of a GOES B4.8 microflare with SDOs Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the RamatyHigh <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) on 2010 July 31 show that emission in all seven of AIAs EUV channels brightened simultaneously nearly 6 min before RHESSI or GOES detected emission from plasma at temperatures around 10 MK. Aims. To help interpret these and AIA flare observations in general, we characterized the expected temporal responses of AIAs 94, 131, 171, 193, 211, and 335 channels to solar flare brightenings by combining (1) AIAs nominal temperature response functions available through SSWIDL with (2) EUV spectral line data observed in a flare loop Coordinated observations of a GOES B4.8 microflare with SDOs Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the RamatyHigh <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) on 2010 July 31 show that emission in all seven of AIAs EUV channels brightenedsimultaneously nearly 6 min before RHESSI or GOES detected emission from plasma at temperatures around 10 MK.Aims. To help interpret these and AIA flare observations in general, we characterized the expected temporal responses of AIAs 94,131, 171, 193, 211, and 335 channels to solar flare brightenings by combining (1) AIAs nominal temperature response functionsavailable through SSWIDL with (2) EUV spectral line data observed in a flare loop</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RScI...74..319C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RScI...74..319C"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> and volume changes induced by photoinitiated proton <span class="hlt">releasing</span> reaction with apomyoglobin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Jungkwon; Terazima, Masahide</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The photodissociation reaction of o-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBA) aqueous solution and of the NBA solution with a protein, apomyoglobin (ApoMb), were studied by the time-resolved transient grating (TG) technique. The amount of <span class="hlt">released</span> thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> and the volume change accompanied with this reaction were determined by the TG and photoacoustic method. Without the protein, the photoproduct of NBA <span class="hlt">releases</span> a proton in the solution (pH jump reaction). The time profile of the grating signal of NBA and ApoMb shows two diffusing species with diffusion coefficients of 1.39±0.15 and 0.14±0.02×10-9 m2 s-1, respectively. From the diffusion coefficients, we suggest that the photoproduct of NBA induces a molecular recombination reaction between ApoMb and another small molecule or ion in the solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1155911','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1155911"><span>Storage and <span class="hlt">release</span> of mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> by contracting frog muscle fibres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cavagna, G A; Heglund, N C; Harry, J D; Mantovani, M</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p> coefficient, Q10, of approximately 2.5. 9. It is suggested that transient shortening against T(o) results from the <span class="hlt">release</span> of mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored within the damped element of the cross-bridges. The cross-bridges are brought into a state of greater potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> not only during the ramp stretch, but also immediately afterwards, during the first phase of stress relaxation. PMID:7707236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7707236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7707236"><span>Storage and <span class="hlt">release</span> of mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> by contracting frog muscle fibres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cavagna, G A; Heglund, N C; Harry, J D; Mantovani, M</p> <p>1994-12-15</p> <p> coefficient, Q10, of approximately 2.5. 9. It is suggested that transient shortening against T(o) results from the <span class="hlt">release</span> of mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored within the damped element of the cross-bridges. The cross-bridges are brought into a state of greater potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> not only during the ramp stretch, but also immediately afterwards, during the first phase of stress relaxation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZaMP...68...26S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZaMP...68...26S"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates for interfacial cracks in elastic bodies with thin semirigid inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shcherbakov, Viktor</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present some rigorous results for an equilibrium problem arising from the study of fiber-reinforced composites. We consider a two-dimensional homogeneous anisotropic linear elastic body containing a thin semirigid inclusion. The semirigid inclusion is an anisotropic thin structure that stretches along one direction and moves like a rigid body possessing both rotational and translatory motion along the perpendicular direction. A pre-existing interfacial crack is subject to nonlinear conditions that do not allow the opposite crack faces to penetrate each other. We focus on a variational approach to modelling the physical phenomenon of equilibrium and to demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate associated with perturbation of the crack along the interface is well defined. A higher regularity result for the displacement field is formulated and proved. Then, taking into account this result, we deduce representations for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates associated with local translation and self-similar expansion of the crack by means of path-independent <span class="hlt">energy</span> integrals along smooth contour surrounding one or both crack tips. Finally, some relations between the integrals obtained are discussed briefly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JEnM...28....1T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JEnM...28....1T"><span>Chemical <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Several Recently Discovered Detonation and Deflagration Flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarver, Craig M.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Several recent experiments on complex detonation and deflagration flows are analyzed in terms of the chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> required to sustain these flows. The observed double cellular structures in detonating gaseous nitromethane-oxygen and NO2-fuel (H2, CH4, and C2H6) mixtures are explained by the amplification of two distinct pressure wave frequencies by two exothermic reactions, the faster reaction forming vibrationally excited NO* and the slower reaction forming highly vibrationally excited N2**. The establishment of a Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) deflagration behind a weak shock wave, the C-J detonation established after a head-on collision with a shock front, and the C-J detonation conditions established in reactive supersonic flows are quantitatively calculated using the chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of a H2 + Cl2 mixture. For these three reactive flows, these calculations illustrate that different fractions of the exothermic chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> are used to sustain steady-state propagation. C-J detonation calculations on the various initial states using the CHEETAH chemical equilibrium code are shown to be in good agreement with experimental detonation velocity measurements for the head-on collision and supersonic flow detonations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522197"><span><span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> <span class="hlt">RELEASE</span> AND INITIATION OF A SUNQUAKE IN A C-CLASS FLARE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sharykin, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Zimovets, I. V.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We present an analysis of the C7.0 solar flare from 2013 February 17, revealing a strong helioseismic response (sunquake) caused by a compact impact observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in the low atmosphere. This is the weakest known C-class flare generating a sunquake event. To investigate the possible mechanisms of this event and understand the role of accelerated charged particles and photospheric electric currents, we use data from three space observatories: RHESSI, SDO, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. We find that the photospheric flare impact does not spatially correspond to the strongest hard X-ray emission source, but both of these events are parts of the same <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. Our analysis reveals a close association of the flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> with a rapid increase in the electric currents and suggests that the sunquake initiation is unlikely to be caused by the impact of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons, but may be associated with rapid current dissipation or a localized impulsive Lorentz force in the lower layers of the solar atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..SHK.K3004Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..SHK.K3004Z"><span>Shock-induced initiation and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> behavior of polymer bonded explosive materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wei; Cai, Xuanming; Hypervelocity Impact Research Center Team</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, an initially sealed vented test chamber and a test projectile with a recessed hole were designed to complete the experiments. As the initiation takes place on the interior, great amounts of thermo-chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> gases were vented through a hole formed by the penetration process. The gas pressure inside the chamber was used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> behavior of polymer bonded explosive materials. The impact pressure of the projectile was measured by the PVDF sensors. Based on the earlier work that the constitutive equation of polymer bonded explosive materials was established, the impact pressure of the projectile was obtained through the numerical simulation. The experimental results reveal that the impact pressure is significant to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> behavior, and in some extent the gas pressure improves with the velocity of the projectile. The impact pressure obtained by the experiments is comparing with which obtained through the numerical simulation, and the results of the comparing is that the value of them are closely relative. The experimental results also indicate that the constitutive equation of polymer bonded explosive materials used in the numerical simulation can correctly describe the mechanical behavior of PBX materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28604867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28604867"><span>How seaweeds <span class="hlt">release</span> the excess <span class="hlt">energy</span> from sunlight to surrounding sea water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koizumi, Kenichi; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Boero, Mauro; Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Hori, Hirokazu; Misonou, Taku; Nakamura, Shinichiro</p> <p>2017-06-21</p> <p>We report an atomistic insight into the mechanism regulating the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> by a porphyra-334 molecule, the ubiquitous photosensitive component of marine algae, in a liquid water environment upon an electron excitation. To quantify this rapidly occurring process, we resort to the Fourier analysis of the mass-weighted auto-correlation function, providing evidence for a remarkable dynamic change in the number of hydrogen bonds among water molecules and between the porphyra-334 and its surrounding hydrating water. Hydrogen bonds between the porphyra-334 and close by water molecules can act directly and rather easily to promote an efficient transfer of the excess kinetic <span class="hlt">energies</span> of the porphyra-334 to the surrounding solvating water molecules via an activation of the collective modes identified as hydrogen-bond stretching modes in liquid water which eventually results in a disruption of the hydrogen bond network. Since porphyra-334 is present in seaweeds, aquatic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae, our findings allow addressing the question how algae in oceans or lakes, upon sunlight absorption, can <span class="hlt">release</span> large amounts of <span class="hlt">energy</span> into surrounding water without destabilizing neither their own nor the H2O molecular structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSeis..18..605B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSeis..18..605B"><span>Significant <span class="hlt">release</span> of shear <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the North Korean nuclear test on February 12, 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barth, Andreas</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>On February 12, 2013 the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) carried out an announced nuclear test, which was the third after tests conducted in 2006 and 2009. An important task in discriminating a man-made explosion and a natural tectonic earthquake is the analysis of seismic waveforms. To determine the isotropic and non-isotropic characteristics of the detonation source, I invert long-period seismic data for the full seismic moment tensor to match the observed seismic signals by synthetic waveforms based on a 3D Earth model. Here, I show that the inversion of long-period seismic data of the 2013 test reveals a clear explosive (isotropic) component combined with a significant <span class="hlt">release</span> of shear <span class="hlt">energy</span> by the double-couple part of the moment tensor. While the isotropic part of the nuclear test in 2009 was similar to that in 2013, the double-couple part was lower by a factor of 0.55 compared to the explosion in 2013. Moreover, the ratio of the isotropic seismic moments of the 2013 and 2009 nuclear tests is 1.4 ± 0.1 and lower than published estimations of the yield ratio, which indicates the importance of considering the <span class="hlt">release</span> of shear <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The determined orientation of the double-couple fault plane is parallel to the dominating geologic fault structures NNE-SSW to NE-SW, but the calculated normal faulting mechanism does not correspond to the general tectonic strike-slip regime. Thus, explanations for the enhanced <span class="hlt">release</span> of shear <span class="hlt">energy</span> might be induced dip-slip motion pre-stressed by the previous test or near source damaging effects due to a changed containment of the nuclear explosion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150010747&hterms=Energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DEnergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150010747&hterms=Energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DEnergy"><span>Spatiotemporal Organization of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Events in the Quiet Solar Corona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvenic interactions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985SoPh...99..159M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985SoPh...99..159M"><span>An evidence of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> buildup and <span class="hlt">release</span> related to magnetic shear and reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Machado, M. E.</p> <p>1985-09-01</p> <p>Series of homologous flares, observed in the active region NOAA 2372 by the HXIS on the Solar Maximum Mission and ground based observatories, are studied. Changes in the flare homology, particularly those related to the location of the hard X-ray emission, show clear correlation with the development of magnetic shear within the active region. Following the early study of Machado et al. (1983), it is proposed that magnetic shear and reconnection are necessary for high power <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, but the former may not be a sufficient condition in an isolated magnetic loop. These results are discussed within the context of a broader study, in order to explore their generality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900052352&hterms=Solar+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900052352&hterms=Solar+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Benergy"><span>Observational clues to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> process in impulsive solar bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Batchelor, David</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The nature of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> process that produces impulsive bursts of hard X-rays and microwaves during solar flares is discussed, based on new evidence obtained using the method of Crannell et al. (1978). It is shown that the hard X-ray spectral index gamma is negatively correlated with the microwave peak frequency, suggesting a common source for the microwaves and X-rays. The thermal and nonthermal models are compared. It is found that the most straightforward explanations for burst time behavior are shock-wave particle acceleration in the nonthermal model and thermal conduction fronts in the thermal model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900052352&hterms=solar+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900052352&hterms=solar+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy"><span>Observational clues to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> process in impulsive solar bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Batchelor, David</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The nature of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> process that produces impulsive bursts of hard X-rays and microwaves during solar flares is discussed, based on new evidence obtained using the method of Crannell et al. (1978). It is shown that the hard X-ray spectral index gamma is negatively correlated with the microwave peak frequency, suggesting a common source for the microwaves and X-rays. The thermal and nonthermal models are compared. It is found that the most straightforward explanations for burst time behavior are shock-wave particle acceleration in the nonthermal model and thermal conduction fronts in the thermal model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060443&hterms=erp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Derp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060443&hterms=erp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Derp"><span>Variation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The variation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120001658&hterms=solar+energy+you&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Byou','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120001658&hterms=solar+energy+you&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Byou"><span>New RHESSI Results on Particle Acceleration and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Solar Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, R. P.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The primary scientific objective of NASA RHESSI mission (launched February 2002) is to investigate the physics of particle acceleration and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in solar flares, through imaging and spectroscopy of X-ray gamma-ray continuum and gamma-ray lines emitted by accelerated electrons and ions, respectively. Here I summarize the new solar observations, including the first hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy, the first high resolution spectroscopy of solar gamma ray lines, the first imaging of solar gamma ray lines and continuum, and the highest sensitivity hard X-ray observations of microflares and type III solar radio bursts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370325','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370325"><span>Spatiotemporal organization of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> events in the quiet solar corona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvénic interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120001658&hterms=Particle+physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DParticle%2Bphysics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120001658&hterms=Particle+physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DParticle%2Bphysics"><span>New RHESSI Results on Particle Acceleration and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Solar Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, R. P.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The primary scientific objective of NASA RHESSI mission (launched February 2002) is to investigate the physics of particle acceleration and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in solar flares, through imaging and spectroscopy of X-ray gamma-ray continuum and gamma-ray lines emitted by accelerated electrons and ions, respectively. Here I summarize the new solar observations, including the first hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy, the first high resolution spectroscopy of solar gamma ray lines, the first imaging of solar gamma ray lines and continuum, and the highest sensitivity hard X-ray observations of microflares and type III solar radio bursts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJFr...59...69L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJFr...59...69L"><span>Variation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The variation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150010747&hterms=Organization+time&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DOrganization%2Btime','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150010747&hterms=Organization+time&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DOrganization%2Btime"><span>Spatiotemporal Organization of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Events in the Quiet Solar Corona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvenic interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060443&hterms=ERP&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DERP','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060443&hterms=ERP&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DERP"><span>Variation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The variation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971227','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971227"><span>Tensor Part of the Skyrme <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Density Functional. II: <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> Properties of Magic and Semi-Magic Nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bender, M.; Bennaceur, K.; Duguet, T.; Heenen, P.-H.; Lesinski, Thomas; Meyer, J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We study systematically the impact of the time-even tensor terms of the Skyrme <span class="hlt">energy</span> density functional, i.e., terms bilinear in the spin-current tensor density, on <span class="hlt">deformation</span> properties of closed-shell nuclei corresponding to 20, 28, 40, 50, 82, and 126 neutron or proton shell closures. We compare results obtained with three different families of Skyrme parameterizations whose tensor terms have been adjusted on properties of spherical nuclei(i)TIJ interactions proposed in the first paper of this series [T. Lesinski et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 014312 (2007)] which were constructed through a complete readjustment of the rest of the functional (ii) parameterizations whose tensor terms have been added perturbatively to existing Skyrme interactions, with or without readjusting the spin-orbit coupling constant. We analyze in detail the mechanisms at play behind the impact of tensor terms on <span class="hlt">deformation</span> properties and how studying the latter can help screen out unrealistic parameterizations. It is expected that findings of the present paper are, to a large extent, independent of remaining deficiencies of the central and spin-orbit interactions, and will be of great value for the construction of future improved <span class="hlt">energy</span> functionals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27351212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27351212"><span>Stretchable and Waterproof Self-Charging Power System for Harvesting <span class="hlt">Energy</span> from Diverse <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> and Powering Wearable Electronics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yi, Fang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Simiao; Li, Shengming; Liao, Qingliang; Xu, Youlong; You, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin</p> <p>2016-07-26</p> <p>A soft, stretchable, and fully enclosed self-charging power system is developed by seamlessly combining a stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator with stretchable supercapacitors, which can be subject to and harvest <span class="hlt">energy</span> from almost all kinds of large-degree <span class="hlt">deformation</span> due to its fully soft structure. The power system is washable and waterproof owing to its fully enclosed structure and hydrophobic property of its exterior surface. The power system can be worn on the human body to effectively scavenge <span class="hlt">energy</span> from various kinds of human motion, and it is demonstrated that the wearable power source is able to drive an electronic watch. This work provides a feasible approach to design stretchable, wearable power sources and electronics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22029874','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22029874"><span>Burnup of rhodium SPND in VVER-1000: Method for determination of linear <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> by SPND readings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kurchenkov, A. Yu.</p> <p>2011-12-15</p> <p>A method for determination of linear <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of a VVER fuel assembly near a rhodium self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is described. The dependence of SPND burnup on the charge passing through it is specified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910020966','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910020966"><span>Residual thermal and moisture influences on the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate analysis of local delaminations from matrix cracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Obrien, T. K.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An analysis utilizing laminated plate theory is developed to calculate the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate associated with local delaminations originating at off-axis, single ply, matrix cracks in laminates subjected to uniaxial loads. The analysis includes the contribution of residual thermal and moisture stresses to the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span>. Examples are calculated for the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate associated with local delaminations originating at 90 degrees and angle-ply (non-90 degrees) matrix ply cracks in glass epoxy and graphite epoxy laminates. The solution developed may be used to assess the relative contribution of mechanical, residual thermal, and moisture stresses on the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate for local delamination for a variety of layups and materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...93a2065B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...93a2065B"><span>Analysis of Wigner <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> process in graphite stack of shut-down uranium-graphite reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bespala, E. V.; Pavliuk, A. O.; Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Data, which finding during thermal differential analysis of sampled irradiated graphite are presented. Results of computational modeling of Winger <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> process from irradiated graphite staking are demonstrated. It's shown, that spontaneous combustion of graphite possible only in adiabatic case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014InJPh..88...35S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014InJPh..88...35S"><span>Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> in matter of vitamins for photon interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for <span class="hlt">energy</span> range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in <span class="hlt">energy</span> range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with <span class="hlt">energy</span> is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with <span class="hlt">energy</span> are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041572&hterms=Alpha+Particle+X-Ray+Spectrometer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAlpha%2BParticle%2BX-Ray%2BSpectrometer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041572&hterms=Alpha+Particle+X-Ray+Spectrometer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAlpha%2BParticle%2BX-Ray%2BSpectrometer"><span>The observed characteristics of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. II - High-speed soft X-ray fronts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Machado, Marcos E.; Xiao, Y. C.; Wu, S. T.; Prokakis, TH.; Dialetis, D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Flare-associated large-scale brightenings of magnetic loop structures have recently been shown to be related to the propagation of soft X-ray fronts, moving at speeds of the order of 1000 km/s. These are also linked with the brightening of remote H-alpha patches and, in many cases, with type II or U radio emission. A detailed study of the best example found in the Solar Maximum Mission's Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer data was performed and with the help of numerical simulations and additional information provided by H-alpha records, it is shown that all together the three <span class="hlt">energy</span> transport processes proposed by previous authors, namely high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> particles, conduction fronts, and shocks, play significant roles in the redistribution of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> within the loops. The observable evidence of thermal flux limitation and the implication of these and previous results on the efficiency ratio between thermal and nonthermal processes in flares are discussed. Finally, these results are placed under the perspective of the interacting loop model of flares discussed in previous papers, to show that only about 10 percent of the total <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion occurs at the interface between loops. The bulk of the flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> seems to be <span class="hlt">released</span> internally within one of the bipolar loop structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041572&hterms=machado&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmachado','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041572&hterms=machado&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmachado"><span>The observed characteristics of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. II - High-speed soft X-ray fronts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Machado, Marcos E.; Xiao, Y. C.; Wu, S. T.; Prokakis, TH.; Dialetis, D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Flare-associated large-scale brightenings of magnetic loop structures have recently been shown to be related to the propagation of soft X-ray fronts, moving at speeds of the order of 1000 km/s. These are also linked with the brightening of remote H-alpha patches and, in many cases, with type II or U radio emission. A detailed study of the best example found in the Solar Maximum Mission's Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer data was performed and with the help of numerical simulations and additional information provided by H-alpha records, it is shown that all together the three <span class="hlt">energy</span> transport processes proposed by previous authors, namely high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> particles, conduction fronts, and shocks, play significant roles in the redistribution of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> within the loops. The observable evidence of thermal flux limitation and the implication of these and previous results on the efficiency ratio between thermal and nonthermal processes in flares are discussed. Finally, these results are placed under the perspective of the interacting loop model of flares discussed in previous papers, to show that only about 10 percent of the total <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion occurs at the interface between loops. The bulk of the flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> seems to be <span class="hlt">released</span> internally within one of the bipolar loop structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25675358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25675358"><span>Linear free <span class="hlt">energy</span> correlations for fission product <span class="hlt">release</span> from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abrecht, David G; Schwantes, Jon M</p> <p>2015-03-03</p> <p>This paper extends the preliminary linear free <span class="hlt">energy</span> correlations for radionuclide <span class="hlt">release</span> performed by Schwantes et al., following the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Through evaluations of the molar fractionations of radionuclides deposited in the soil relative to modeled radionuclide inventories, we confirm the initial source of the radionuclides to the environment to be from active reactors rather than the spent fuel pool. Linear correlations of the form In χ = −α ((ΔGrxn°(TC))/(RTC)) + β were obtained between the deposited concentrations, and the reduction potentials of the fission product oxide species using multiple reduction schemes to calculate ΔG°rxn (TC). These models allowed an estimate of the upper bound for the reactor temperatures of TC between 2015 and 2060 K, providing insight into the limiting factors to vaporization and <span class="hlt">release</span> of fission products during the reactor accident. Estimates of the <span class="hlt">release</span> of medium-lived fission products 90Sr, 121mSn, 147Pm, 144Ce, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu, and 151Sm through atmospheric venting during the first month following the accident were obtained, indicating that large quantities of 90Sr and radioactive lanthanides were likely to remain in the damaged reactor cores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ApMRv..38.1625B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ApMRv..38.1625B"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> protection for pressurized systems. I - Review of studies into blast and fragmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, S. J.</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>Studies of blast and fragmentation hazards associated with a pressure system rupture are presented. Areas of concern related to blast hazards include the system <span class="hlt">energy</span> (prior to its explosive failure), chemical characteristics of the media contained within a bursting pressure system, secondary explosions, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. Such aspects of blast effect as height of the burst (in an above-the-ground explosion), dimensional effects of the explosive, multiple explosions, burning rate of the explosive, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and confinement (for explosions within an enclosed structure) are discussed. Also treated are hazards from fragments or missiles ejected (fragmentation hazards), including initial frament velocity, velocity retardation, range, blast-generated fragments (from adjacent structures), and media and soil ejection. Mathematical treatments and graphs representing the individual aspects of the blast and fragmentation phenomena are included.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..937K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..937K"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage and <span class="hlt">Release</span> in the Solar Atmosphere - Key SDO Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kliem, Bernhard</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has opened several new windows in solar observing. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> processes can now be studied in a very wide temperature range at high resolution, high cadence, and full-Sun field of view. In particular, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) simultaneously images plasmas from transition region up to flare temperatures (11 MK). This has stimulated a series of discoveries as well as verifications of key elements in <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> models. Only some of these can be reviewed. On the largest scales, the corona of a whole hemisphere was found to be magnetically coupled and involved in a sequence of eruption events. At the heart of such events lies a magnetic flux rope, and, for the first time, this structure has been directly imaged in the impulsive phase, and found to be very hot. The association of the rope with the flare current sheet was also verified. SDO allows us to observe a key process in reconnection physics, the breakup of current sheets into filamentary structures. Rapidly forming and expanding cavities provide insight into the genesis of coronal mass ejections and begin to reveal how coronal EUV waves and chromospheric Moreton waves are triggered. Indications for the triggering of two EUV wave fronts were found, possibly resolving the long-standing puzzle of different kinematic properties seen in such waves. At the smallest scales, the multi-temperature data support the hypothesis of nanoflare heating in coronal loops. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) data complete our view of the radiative flare <span class="hlt">energy</span>, allow very detailed diagnostics of flare plasmas, and have enabled the discovery of a second, delayed peak in the EUV flare emission. A very intriguing sun quake was recently discovered in Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data of the first X-class flare of the current solar cycle. This quake challenges current trigger models based on particle precipitation, as it occurred remote from the strong hard X</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.2923V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.2923V"><span>Magnetic Reconnection Rates and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in a Confined X-class Flare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veronig, A. M.; Polanec, W.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We study the <span class="hlt">energy-release</span> process in the confined X1.6 flare that occurred on 22 October 2014 in AR 12192. Magnetic-reconnection rates and reconnection fluxes are derived from three different data sets: space-based data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 1600 Å filter onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and ground-based H\\upalpha and Ca ii K filtergrams from Kanzelhöhe Observatory. The magnetic-reconnection rates determined from the three data sets all closely resemble the temporal profile of the hard X-rays measured by the Ramaty High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), which are a proxy for the flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> into high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons. The total magnetic-reconnection flux derived lies between 4.1 × 10^{21} Mx (AIA 1600 Å) and 7.9 ×10^{21} Mx (H\\upalpha ), which corresponds to about 2 to 4 % of the total unsigned flux of the strong source AR. Comparison of the magnetic-reconnection flux dependence on the GOES class for 27 eruptive events collected from previous studies (covering B to {>} X10 class flares) reveals a correlation coefficient of {≈} 0.8 in double-logarithmic space. The confined X1.6 class flare under study lies well within the distribution of the eruptive flares. The event shows a large initial separation of the flare ribbons and no separation motion during the flare. In addition, we note enhanced emission at flare-ribbon structures and hot loops connecting these structures before the event starts. These observations are consistent with the emerging-flux model, where newly emerging small flux tubes reconnect with pre-existing large coronal loops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27802110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27802110"><span>Base <span class="hlt">Release</span> and Modification in Solid-Phase DNA Exposed to Low-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> Electrons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choofong, Surakarn; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon; Wagner, J Richard</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Ionization generates a large number of secondary low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons (LEEs) with a most probable <span class="hlt">energy</span> of approximately 10 eV, which can break DNA bonds by dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and lead to DNA damage. In this study, we investigated radiation damage to dry DNA induced by X rays (1.5 keV) alone on a glass substrate or X rays combined with extra LEEs (average <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 5.8 eV) emitted from a tantalum (Ta) substrate under an atmosphere of N2 and standard ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. The targets included calf-thymus DNA and double-stranded synthetic oligonucleotides. We developed analytical methods to measure the <span class="hlt">release</span> of non-modified DNA bases from DNA and the formation of several base modifications by LC-MS/MS with isotopic dilution for precise quantification. The results show that the yield of non-modified bases as well as base modifications increase by 20-30% when DNA is deposited on a Ta substrate compared to that on a glass substrate. The order of base <span class="hlt">release</span> (Gua > Ade > Thy ∼ Cyt) agrees well with several theoretical studies indicating that Gua is the most susceptible site toward sugar-phosphate cleavage. The formation of DNA damage by LEEs is explained by DEA leading to the <span class="hlt">release</span> of non-modified bases involving the initial cleavage of N1-C1', C3'-O3' or C5'-O5' bonds. The yield of base modifications was lower than the <span class="hlt">release</span> of non-modified bases. The main LEE-induced base modifications include 5,6-dihydrothymine (5,6-dHT), 5,6-dihydrouracil (5-dHU), 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-HmU) and 5-formyluracil (5-ForU). The formation of base modifications by LEEs can be explained by DEA and cleavage of the C-H bond of the methyl group of Thy (giving 5-HmU and 5-ForU) and by secondary reactions of H atoms and hydride anions that are generated by primary LEE reactions followed by subsequent reaction with Cyt and Thy (giving 5,6-dHU and 5,6-dHT).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006995','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006995"><span>Application of the relative <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> criteria to enclosure fire testing. [aircraft compartments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roschke, E. J.; Coulbert, C. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The five relative <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> criteria (RERC) which are a first step towards formulating a unified concept that can be applied to the development of fires in enclosures, place upper bounds on the rate and amount of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> during a fire. They are independent, calculated readily, and may be applied generally to any enclosure regardless of size. They are useful in pretest planning and for interpreting experimental data. Data from several specific fire test programs were examined to evaluate the potential use of RERC to provide test planning guidelines. The RERC were compared with experimental data obtained in full-scale enclosures. These results confirm that in general the RERC do identify the proper limiting constraints on enclosure fire development and determine the bounds of the fire development envelope. Plotting actual fire data against the RERC reveals new valid insights into fire behavior and reveals the controlling constraints in fire development. The RERC were calculated and plotted for several descrpitions of full-scale fires in various aircraft compartments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25215815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25215815"><span>Vorticity generation by the instantaneous <span class="hlt">release</span> of <span class="hlt">energy</span> near a reflective boundary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moresco, P; Harris, T E; Jodoin, V</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The instantaneous <span class="hlt">release</span> of <span class="hlt">energy</span> in a localized area of a gas results in the formation of a low-density region and a series of shock and expansion waves. If this process occurs near a boundary, the shock reflections can interact with the density inhomogeneity, leading to the baroclinic generation of vorticity and the subsequent organization of the flow into several structures, including a vortex ring. By means of numerical simulations we illustrate the qualitative changes that occur in the pressure wave patterns and vorticity distribution as the distance from the area of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> to the boundary is varied. Those changes are shown to be related to the combined effect of the shock waves that, respectively, initially move away and towards the center of the low-density region. In particular, we describe how for small enough offset distances the shocks internal to the inhomogeneity can make a substantial contribution to the vorticity field, influencing the circulation and characteristics of the resulting flow structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25433200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25433200"><span>Relationships between surface free <span class="hlt">energy</span>, surface texture parameters and controlled drug <span class="hlt">release</span> in hydrophilic matrices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saurí, J; Suñé-Negre, J M; Díaz-Marcos, J; Vilana, J; Millán, D; Ticó, J R; Miñarro, M; Pérez-Lozano, P; García-Montoya, E</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>The study of controlled <span class="hlt">release</span> and drug <span class="hlt">release</span> devices has been dominated by considerations of the bulk or average properties of material or devices. Yet the outermost surface atoms play a central role in their performance. The objective of this article has been to characterize the surface of hydrophilic matrix tablets using the contact angle (CA) method to ascertain the surface free <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy (CM) for the physical characterization of the surface of the hydrophilic matrix. The surface free <span class="hlt">energy</span> results obtained show that hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K15M hinders the spreading of water on the surface of the tablet, such that the concentration of HPMC K15M increases the reaction rate of the hydrophobic interactions between the chains of HPMC K15M which increases with respect to the rate of penetration of water into the tablet. In this study, we developed a new method to characterize the swelling of the tablets and established a relationship between the new method based on microswelling and the swelling ratio parameter. The surface texture parameters have been determined and the morphology of the tablets of the different formulations and the evolution of the surface morphology after interacting with the water, swelling and forming a gel layer were characterized. This work represents significant progress in the characterization of matrix tablets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.T43A3014G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.T43A3014G"><span>Using Helium as a Tracer of Dynamic Rock <span class="hlt">Deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gardner, W. P.; Bauer, S. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present models of noble gas <span class="hlt">release</span> from rocks undergoing triaxial <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and eventual macroscopic failure. Using a newly developed analytical capability, we have shown that accumulated helium in immobile porosity and mineral grains is <span class="hlt">released</span> during <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. We observe that increases in gas <span class="hlt">release</span> are evident before macroscopic failure of the specimen, with a sharp increase in gas <span class="hlt">release</span> during macroscopic failure. Here, we develop dynamic dual permeability models which simulate dynamic permeability generation and fracture-matrix surface area creation during <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. These models are then used to interpret our new signal, and explore the sensitivity of the signal to rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> characteristics. The gas <span class="hlt">release</span> signal is a combination of dynamic permeability creation and an increase in surface area for matrix diffusion as new microcracks intersect gas laden intra and inter crystalline pores. Gas <span class="hlt">release</span> during dilation and rock failure is controlled by permeability increases. The sharp increase in gas <span class="hlt">release</span> during failure is the result of permeability creation during fracturing. Fracture surface area creation is responsible for higher helium <span class="hlt">release</span> rates after fracturing and controls the long term helium <span class="hlt">release</span> signal. Our results indicate that radiogenic noble <span class="hlt">release</span> can be used to monitor and trace mechanical <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of rocks. This new signal can be used to provide information on the characteristics of <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, including fracture permeability and surface area. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Dept. of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>'s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2016-7445 A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070038346','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070038346"><span>A Semi-Analytical Method for Determining the <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate of Cracks in Adhesively-Bonded Single-Lap Composite Joints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Charles; Sun, Wenjun; Tomblin, John S.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A semi-analytical method for determining the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate due to a prescribed interface crack in an adhesively-bonded, single-lap composite joint subjected to axial tension is presented. The field equations in terms of displacements within the joint are formulated by using first-order shear <span class="hlt">deformable</span>, laminated plate theory together with kinematic relations and force equilibrium conditions. The stress distributions for the adherends and adhesive are determined after the appropriate boundary and loading conditions are applied and the equations for the field displacements are solved. Based on the adhesive stress distributions, the forces at the crack tip are obtained and the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of the crack is determined by using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). Additionally, the test specimen geometry from both the ASTM D3165 and D1002 test standards are utilized during the derivation of the field equations in order to correlate analytical models with future test results. The system of second-order differential field equations is solved to provide the adherend and adhesive stress response using the symbolic computation tool, Maple 9. Finite element analyses using J-integral as well as VCCT were performed to verify the developed analytical model. The finite element analyses were conducted using the commercial finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results determined using the analytical method correlated well with the results from the finite element analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210096K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210096K"><span>Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> patterns in seismic activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate <span class="hlt">energy</span> at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism <span class="hlt">releasing</span> considerable <span class="hlt">energy</span> [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> being <span class="hlt">released</span> by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying <span class="hlt">energy</span> management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227308','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227308"><span>Effect of stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> on mechanism of plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in nanotwinned FCC metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Borovikov, Valery; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; King, Alexander H.; LeSar, Richard</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>Starting from a semi-empirical potential designed for Cu, we have developed a series of potentials that provide essentially constant values of all significant (calculated) materials properties except for the intrinsic stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which varies over a range that encompasses the lowest and highest values observed in nature. In addition, these potentials were employed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate how stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> affects the mechanical behavior of nanotwinned face-centered cubic (FCC) materials. The results indicate that properties such as yield strength and microstructural stability do not vary systematically with stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span>, but rather fall into two distinct regimes corresponding to 'low' and 'high' stacking fault <span class="hlt">energies</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JChPh.132p4509G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JChPh.132p4509G"><span>Free <span class="hlt">energy</span> wells for small gas bubbles in soft <span class="hlt">deformable</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldman, Saul</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Thermodynamic expressions are derived for the system relative Gibbs free <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and the relative Gibbs free <span class="hlt">energy</span> per bubble, for all possible equilibrium bubble states that can form in a soft slightly rigid material, initially supersaturated with a dissolved inert gas (N2). While the thermodynamic manipulations are exact, the final expressions are approximate, due to an approximation made in deriving the expression for the elastic free <span class="hlt">energy</span> of a soft material containing more than a single bubble. The expressions predict that provided the shear modulus of the soft material is not negligibly small, free <span class="hlt">energy</span> wells which stabilize small gas bubbles for finite periods of time exist in such materials. This is consistent with a previous calculation, based solely on the bubble pressure equation, which resulted in the conjecture that bubbles found in soft materials with some rigidity (or shear resistance) are likely to be small. The possible relevance of this to the field of decompression sickness is outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227308-effect-stacking-fault-energy-mechanism-plastic-deformation-nanotwinned-fcc-metals','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227308-effect-stacking-fault-energy-mechanism-plastic-deformation-nanotwinned-fcc-metals"><span>Effect of stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> on mechanism of plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in nanotwinned FCC metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Borovikov, Valery; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; King, Alexander H.; ...</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>Starting from a semi-empirical potential designed for Cu, we have developed a series of potentials that provide essentially constant values of all significant (calculated) materials properties except for the intrinsic stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which varies over a range that encompasses the lowest and highest values observed in nature. In addition, these potentials were employed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate how stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> affects the mechanical behavior of nanotwinned face-centered cubic (FCC) materials. The results indicate that properties such as yield strength and microstructural stability do not vary systematically with stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span>, but rather fall into twomore » distinct regimes corresponding to 'low' and 'high' stacking fault <span class="hlt">energies</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22126458','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22126458"><span>Total and partial capture cross sections in reactions with <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei at <span class="hlt">energies</span> near and below the Coulomb barrier</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuzyakin, R. A. Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.</p> <p>2013-06-15</p> <p>Within the quantum diffusion approach, the capture of a projectile nucleus by a target nucleus is studied at bombarding <span class="hlt">energies</span> above and below the Coulomb barrier. The effects of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of interacting nuclei and neutron transfer between them on the total and partial capture cross sections and the mean angular momentum of the captured system are studied. The results obtained for the {sup 16}O + {sup 112}Cd, {sup 152}Sm, and {sup 184}W; {sup 19}F +{sup 175}Lu; {sup 28}Si +{sup 94,100}Mo and {sup 154}Sm; {sup 40}Ca +{sup 96}Zr; {sup 48}Ca+ {sup 90}Zr; and {sup 64}Ni +{sup 58,64}Ni, {sup 92,96}Zr, and {sup 100}Mo reactions are in good agreement with available experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26870379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26870379"><span>Comparison between diffraction contrast tomography and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> diffraction microscopy on a slightly <span class="hlt">deformed</span> aluminium alloy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Renversade, Loïc; Quey, Romain; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Menasche, David; Maddali, Siddharth; Suter, Robert M; Borbély, András</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The grain structure of an Al-0.3 wt%Mn alloy <span class="hlt">deformed</span> to 1% strain was reconstructed using diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> diffraction microscopy (HEDM). 14 equally spaced HEDM layers were acquired and their exact location within the DCT volume was determined using a generic algorithm minimizing a function of the local disorientations between the two data sets. The microstructures were then compared in terms of the mean crystal orientations and shapes of the grains. The comparison shows that DCT can detect subgrain boundaries with disorientations as low as 1° and that HEDM and DCT grain boundaries are on average 4 µm apart from each other. The results are important for studies targeting the determination of grain volume. For the case of a polycrystal with an average grain size of about 100 µm, a relative deviation of about ≤10% was found between the two techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4704077','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4704077"><span>Comparison between diffraction contrast tomography and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> diffraction microscopy on a slightly <span class="hlt">deformed</span> aluminium alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Renversade, Loïc; Quey, Romain; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Menasche, David; Maddali, Siddharth; Suter, Robert M.; Borbély, András</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The grain structure of an Al–0.3 wt%Mn alloy <span class="hlt">deformed</span> to 1% strain was reconstructed using diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> diffraction microscopy (HEDM). 14 equally spaced HEDM layers were acquired and their exact location within the DCT volume was determined using a generic algorithm minimizing a function of the local disorientations between the two data sets. The microstructures were then compared in terms of the mean crystal orientations and shapes of the grains. The comparison shows that DCT can detect subgrain boundaries with disorientations as low as 1° and that HEDM and DCT grain boundaries are on average 4 µm apart from each other. The results are important for studies targeting the determination of grain volume. For the case of a polycrystal with an average grain size of about 100 µm, a relative deviation of about ≤10% was found between the two techniques. PMID:26870379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/32776','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/32776"><span>Relationships between <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, fuel mass loss, and trace gas and aerosol emissions during laboratory biomass fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Patrick H. Freeborn; Martin J. Wooster; Wei Min Hao; Cecily A. Nordgren Ryan; Stephen P. Baker; Charles Ichoku</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Forty-four small-scale experimental fires were conducted in a combustion chamber to examine the relationship between biomass consumption, smoke production, convective <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, and middle infrared (MIR) measurements of fire radiative <span class="hlt">energy</span> (FRE). Fuel bed weights, trace gas and aerosol particle concentrations, stack flow rate and temperature, and concurrent...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ResPh...3....1G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ResPh...3....1G"><span>Extrusion die geometry effects on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorbing properties and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> response of 6063-type Al-Mg-Si aluminum alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gbenebor, O. P.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Inegbenebor, A. O.; Oyawale, F.</p> <p></p> <p>The response of 6063-type Al-Mg-Si alloy to <span class="hlt">deformation</span> via extrusion was studied using tool steel dies with 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 75° entry angles. Compressive loads were subjected to each sample using the AVERY DENISON machine, adapted to supply a compressive load on the punch. The ability of the extrudate to absorb <span class="hlt">energy</span> before fracture was calculated by integrating numerically the polynomial relationship between the compressive stress and sample strains. Strain rate was calculated for each specimen and the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> zone length was mathematically derived from the die geometry to decipher its influence on both lateral and axial <span class="hlt">deformations</span>. Results showed that extruding with a 15° die was the fastest as a result of the low flow stress encountered. Outstanding compressive strength, plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, strain rate and <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorbing capacity were observed for the alloy extruded with a 75° die angle. Increase in die angles led to a decrease in <span class="hlt">deformation</span> zone length and samples <span class="hlt">deformed</span> more in the axial direction than in the lateral except for the 45o die which showed the opposite; the sample also showed the least ductility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPL...625..104K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPL...625..104K"><span>Dissociation <span class="hlt">energy</span> for O2 <span class="hlt">release</span> from gas-phase iron oxide clusters measured by temperature-programmed desorption experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koyama, Kohei; Kudoh, Satoshi; Miyajima, Ken; Mafuné, Fumitaka</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Thermal dissociation of gas phase iron oxide cluster ions, FenOm+ (n = 2-6), was observed by mass spectrometry. The dissociation processes were investigated by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) measurements for different sized clusters. Oxygen molecules were found to be <span class="hlt">released</span> from the cluster ions. The threshold <span class="hlt">energy</span> required for dissociation, determined by analyzing TPD, was compared with the <span class="hlt">energies</span> obtained by experiments of collision-induced dissociation and by calculations of density functional theory. The agreement of the <span class="hlt">energies</span> indicates that the oxygen atoms bonded to the terminal site of clusters are more readily <span class="hlt">released</span> into the gas phase than those in the bridge site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhB...46x5201R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhB...46x5201R"><span>Ion-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon collisions: kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> for specific fragmentation channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reitsma, G.; Zettergren, H.; Boschman, L.; Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlathölter, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We report on 30 keV He2 + collisions with naphthalene (C10H8) molecules, which leads to very extensive fragmentation. To unravel such complex fragmentation patterns, we designed and constructed an experimental setup, which allows for the determination of the full momentum vector by measuring charged collision products in coincidence in a recoil ion momentum spectrometer type of detection scheme. The determination of fragment kinetic <span class="hlt">energies</span> is found to be considerably more accurate than for the case of mere coincidence time-of-flight spectrometers. In fission reactions involving two cationic fragments, typically kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> of 2-3 eV are observed. The results are interpreted by means of density functional theory calculations of the reverse barriers. It is concluded that naphthalene fragmentation by collisions with keV ions clearly is much more violent than the corresponding photofragmentation with energetic photons. The ion-induced naphthalene fragmentation provides a feedstock of various small hydrocarbonic species of different charge states and kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which could influence several molecule formation processes in the cold interstellar medium and facilitates growth of small hydrocarbon species on pre-existing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...835..214P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...835..214P"><span>Stochastic Fermi Energization of Coronal Plasma during Explosive Magnetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis; Anastasiadis, Anastasios</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of charged particles (ions and electrons) with randomly formed particle scatterers (e.g., large-scale local “magnetic fluctuations” or “coherent magnetic irregularities”) using the setup proposed initially by Fermi. These scatterers are formed by the explosive magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and propagate with the Alfvén speed along the irregular magnetic fields. They are large-scale local fluctuations (δB/B ≈ 1) randomly distributed inside the unstable magnetic topology and will here be called Alfvénic Scatterers (AS). We constructed a 3D grid on which a small fraction of randomly chosen grid points are acting as AS. In particular, we study how a large number of test particles evolves inside a collection of AS, analyzing the evolution of their <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution and their escape-time distribution. We use a well-established method to estimate the transport coefficients directly from the trajectories of the particles. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker–Planck equation numerically, we can recover the <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of the particles. We have shown that the stochastic Fermi energization of mildly relativistic and relativistic plasma can heat and accelerate the tail of the ambient particle distribution as predicted by Parker & Tidman and Ramaty. The temperature of the hot plasma and the tail of the energetic particles depend on the mean free path (λsc) of the particles between the scatterers inside the energization volume.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8348E..31P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8348E..31P"><span>Harvesting <span class="hlt">energy</span> from the dynamic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of an aircraft wing under gust loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pozzi, Michele; Guo, Shijun; Zhu, Meiling</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Weight reduction and maintenance simplification are high in the agenda of companies and researchers active in the aerospace sector. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> harvesters are being investigated because they enable the installation of wireless sensor nodes, providing structural health monitoring of the aircraft without additional cabling. This paper presents both a weight-optimized composite wing structure and a piezoelectric harvester for the conversion of mechanical strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> into electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Finite elements modelling was used for the minimum-weight optimisation within a multi-constraints framework (strength, damage tolerance, flutter speed and gust response). The resulting structure is 29% more compliant than the original one, but is also 45% lighter. A strain map was elaborated, which details the distribution of strain on the wing skin in response to gust loading, indicating the optimal locations for the harvesters. To assess the potential for <span class="hlt">energy</span> generation, a piezoelectric harvester fixed to a portion of the wing was modelled with a multi-physics finite elements model developed in ANSYS. The time-domain waveforms of the strain expected when the aircraft encounters a gust (gust frequencies of 1, 2, 5 and 10 Hz were considered) are fed into the model. The effects of harvester thickness and size, as well as adhesive thickness, were investigated. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> generation exceeding 10 J/m2 in the first few second from the beginning of the gust is predicted for 100μ-thick harvesters. The high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density, low profile and weight of the piezoelectric film are greatly advantageous for the envisaged application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6627044','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6627044"><span>Detection of cold gas <span class="hlt">releases</span> in space via low <span class="hlt">energy</span> neutral atom imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> neutral atoms (LENAs) are produced in space plasmas by charge exchange between the ambient magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms. Under normal conditions these cold neutrals come from the terrestrial geocorona, a shroud of few-ev hydrogen atoms surrounding the Earth. As a consequence of this charge exchange, it has become possible to remotely image many regions of the magnetosphere for the first time utilizing recently developed LENA imaging technology. In addition to the natural hydrogen geocorona, conventional explosions and maneuvering thruster firings can also introduce large amounts of cold gas into the space environment. In this paper we examine whether such potentially clandestine activities could also be remotely observed for the first time via LENA imaging. First, we examine the fluxes of LENAs produced in the space environment from a conventional explosion. Then we review the present state of the art in the emerging field of LENA detection and imaging. Recent work has shown that LENAs can be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions with ultra-thin (10s of [Angstrom]) foils and then electrostatically analyzing these newly created ions to reject the large (>10[sup 10] cm[sup [minus]2] [sup [minus]1]) UV background to which the low <span class="hlt">energy</span> detectors are sensitive. We conclude that the sensitivities for present LENA imager designs may be just adequate for detecting some man-made <span class="hlt">releases</span>. With additional improvements in LENA detection capabilities, this technique could become an important new method for monitoring for conventional explosions, as well as other man-made neutral <span class="hlt">releases</span>, in the space environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9188M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9188M"><span>The use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems for the Innovative Methodologies in thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marotta, Enrica; Avino, Rosario; Avvisati, Gala; Belviso, Pasquale; Caliro, Stefano; Caputo, Teresa; Carandente, Antonio; Peluso, Rosario; Sangianantoni, Agata; Sansivero, Fabio; Vilardo, Giuseppe</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Last years have been characterized by a fast development of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems which are becoming cheaper, lighter and more powerful. The concurrent development of high resolution, lightweight and <span class="hlt">energy</span> saving sensors sometimes specifically designed for air-borne applications are together rapidly changing the way in which it is possible to perform monitoring and surveys in hazardous environments such as volcanoes. An example of this convergence is the new methodology we are currently developing at the INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano for the estimation of the thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of volcanic diffuse degassing areas using the ground temperatures from thermal infrared images. Preliminary experiments, carried out during many-years campaigns performed inside at La Solfatara crater by using thermal infrared images and K type thermocouples inserted into the ground at various depths, found a correlation between surface temperature and shallow gradient. Due to the large extent of areas affected by thermal anomalies, an effective and expedite tool to acquire the IR images is a RPAS equipped with high-resolution thermal and visible cameras. These acquisitions allow to quickly acquire the data to produce a heat <span class="hlt">release</span> map. This map is then orthorectified and geocoded in order to be superimposed on digital terrain models or on the orthophotogrammetric mosaic obtained after processing photos acquired by RPAS. Such expedite maps of heat flux, taking in account accurate filtering of atmospheric influence, represents a useful tool for volcanic surveillance monitoring purposes. In order to start all the activities of these drones we had to acquire all necessary permissions required by the complex Italian normative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4562..593M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4562..593M"><span>Low surface <span class="hlt">energy</span> polymeric <span class="hlt">release</span> coating for improved contact print lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mancini, David P.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Gehoski, Kathleen A.; Popovich, Laura L.; Chang, Daniel</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Contact printing has been used for decades in many various lithography applications in the microelectronic industry. While vacuum contact printing processes offer sub-micron resolution and high throughput, they often suffer from some important drawbacks. One of the most common problems is degradation in both resolution and defect density which occurs when the same mask si used for multiple exposures without frequent mask cleans. This is largely due to the relatively high surface <span class="hlt">energy</span> of both quartz and chrome and the tendency of most photoresists to adhere to these surfaces. As a result, when a mask and wafer are pressed into intimate contact, resist will tend to stick to the mask creating a defect on the wafer, effectively propagating defects to subsequent wafers. In this study, DuPont Teflon AF 1601S is used as a photomask coating and evaluated for its ability to act as a <span class="hlt">release</span> agent and reduce defects while maintaining resolution for multiple exposures. Teflon AF is an amorphous, transparent, low surface <span class="hlt">energy</span>, polymeric material that can be spin coated into a thin conformal film. Tests have shown that when using an uncoated mask in vacuum contact, resolution of 0.75 micrometers dense lines is severely degraded after less than 10 consecutive exposures. However, when the mask is coated, 0.75 micrometers dense lines were successfully resolved using vacuum contact for over 200 exposures without cleaning. In addition, it has been demonstrated that Teflon AF coatings impart to a mask a self-cleaning capability, since particles tend to stick to the photoresist rather than the mask. A coated mask, which was purposefully contaminated with particulates, resolved 0.75 micrometers dense lines on all but the first wafer of a series of 25 consecutive exposures. The patented mask <span class="hlt">releases</span> layer process has successfully been demonstrated with a positive novolak resist. Additional data which describes the system chemistry, dilution and coating process, and film morphology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10143182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10143182"><span>Detection of cold gas <span class="hlt">releases</span> in space via low <span class="hlt">energy</span> neutral atom imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> neutral atoms (LENAs) are produced in space plasmas by charge exchange between the ambient magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms. Under normal conditions these cold neutrals come from the terrestrial geocorona, a shroud of few-ev hydrogen atoms surrounding the Earth. As a consequence of this charge exchange, it has become possible to remotely image many regions of the magnetosphere for the first time utilizing recently developed LENA imaging technology. In addition to the natural hydrogen geocorona, conventional explosions and maneuvering thruster firings can also introduce large amounts of cold gas into the space environment. In this paper we examine whether such potentially clandestine activities could also be remotely observed for the first time via LENA imaging. First, we examine the fluxes of LENAs produced in the space environment from a conventional explosion. Then we review the present state of the art in the emerging field of LENA detection and imaging. Recent work has shown that LENAs can be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions with ultra-thin (10s of {Angstrom}) foils and then electrostatically analyzing these newly created ions to reject the large (>10{sup 10} cm{sup {minus}2} {sup {minus}1}) UV background to which the low <span class="hlt">energy</span> detectors are sensitive. We conclude that the sensitivities for present LENA imager designs may be just adequate for detecting some man-made <span class="hlt">releases</span>. With additional improvements in LENA detection capabilities, this technique could become an important new method for monitoring for conventional explosions, as well as other man-made neutral <span class="hlt">releases</span>, in the space environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMPSo..61..873S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMPSo..61..873S"><span>A model for a constrained, finitely <span class="hlt">deforming</span>, elastic solid with rotation gradient dependent strain <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and its specialization to von Kármán plates and beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasa, A. R.; Reddy, J. N.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to develop the governing equations for a fully constrained finitely <span class="hlt">deforming</span> hyperelastic Cosserat continuum where the directors are constrained to rotate with the body rotation. This is the generalization of small <span class="hlt">deformation</span> couple stress theories and would be useful for developing mathematical models for an elastic material with embedded stiff short fibers or inclusions (e.g., materials with carbon nanotubes or nematic elastomers, cellular materials with oriented hard phases, open cell foams, and other similar materials), that account for certain longer range interactions. The theory is developed as a limiting case of a regular Cosserat elastic material where the directors are allowed to rotate freely by considering the case of a high "rotational mismatch <span class="hlt">energy</span>". The theory is developed using the formalism of Lagrangian mechanics, with the static case being based on Castigliano's first theorem. By considering the stretch U and the rotation R as additional independent variables and using the polar decomposition theorem as an additional constraint equation, we obtain the governing and as well as the boundary conditions for finite <span class="hlt">deformations</span>. The resulting equations are further specialized for plane strain and axisymmetric finite <span class="hlt">deformations</span>, <span class="hlt">deformations</span> of beams and plates with small strain and moderate rotation, and for small <span class="hlt">deformation</span> theories. We also show that the boundary conditions for this theory involve "surface tension" like terms due to the higher gradients in the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> function. For beams and plates, the rotational gradient dependent strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> does not require additional variables (unlike Cosserat theories) and additional differential equations; nor do they raise the order of the differential equations, thus allowing us to include a material length scale dependent response at no extra "computational cost" even for finite <span class="hlt">deformation</span> beam/plate theories</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA546504','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA546504"><span><span class="hlt">Deformable</span> Bullnose <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Absorbing System (BEAS). Report 2: Head-On Impact with a <span class="hlt">Deformable</span> BEAS and Introducing a Collapsible Arch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>pile cell filled with concrete is used to support the precast impact beams extending the guide wall and the back-side “stopper” block shown in the...stacked, precast , post-tensioned concrete impact beams are also added that extend the existing guide wall into the <span class="hlt">Deformable</span> BEAS. All lock-side...103 Figure 5.18 Hypothetical Concrete -filled Cellular Bullnose with Precast Beams Tied to the Lock Monolith</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.876a2012H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.876a2012H"><span>In search of a broader microscopic underpinning of the potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> surface in heavy <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hess, P. O.; Ermamatov, M.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Starting from the content of the shell model space and using a simple symplectic as a weight Hamiltonian, the relative positions of different symplectic irreducible representations are deduced. Applying a geometrical mapping leads to a microscopically derived Potential-<span class="hlt">Energy</span>-Surface. After smoothing this surface and fitting a mass parameter to the first excited 6+-state in the ground state band, the spectrum of a nucleus can be reproduced qualitatively. The method is also used to obtain a first estimation of the quadrupole Potential <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Surface of any nucleus, allowing to obtain information about the structure of the nucleus in question. Of special interest is the prediction of the structure of nuclei away from the valley of stability and of super-heavy nuclei. The method will be illustrated at184W. One objective is to show that the Pauli Exclusion Principle is the main driving force for the structure of a nucleus, though some further microscopic input has to be used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013VSD....51..857V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013VSD....51..857V"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> loss in vehicle collisions from permanent <span class="hlt">deformation</span>: an extension of the `Triangle Method'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vangi, Dario; Begani, Filippo</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The paper presents an extension of the 'Triangle Method', to evaluate the <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss in road accidents. The improvement of the method allows to evaluate the <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss by both the colliding vehicles in car to car impacts, considering the main possible configurations of accident. The limits of applicability of the method are those of the Campbell's method [K.E. Campbell, <span class="hlt">Energy</span> basis for collision severity, SAE paper 740565, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, Pennsylvania, 1974; A.G. Fonda, Principles of crush <span class="hlt">energy</span> determination, SAE 1999-01-0106, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, Pennsylvania, 1999; N.S. Tumbas and R.A. Smith, Measurement protocol for quantifying vehicle damage from an <span class="hlt">energy</span> basis point of view, SAE paper 880072, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, Pennsylvania, 1988; G.A. Nystrom, G. Kost, and S.M. Werner, Stiffness parameters for vehicle collision analysis, SAE paper 910119, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, Pennsylvania, 1991; J.A. Neptune, G.Y. Blair, and J.E. Flynn, A method for quantifying vehicle crush stiffness coefficients, SAE paper 920607, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, Pennsylvania, 1992]. The advantage over the usual methods are that the method does not require the knowledge of the stiffness of the vehicles and only two parameters are needed to define the damage geometry. The latter can be easily evaluated by visual inspection on a suitable photographical documentation of the damages, without the need to perform any direct measurement on the vehicles. Furthermore, the method can be used also in the very frequent cases in which some of the damage data about one of the vehicles are missing or in accidents involving lateral parts of the vehicle as zones near the wheels or the front, that have different behaviour from that tested in the classical crash tests. The error analysis developed shows that the errors due to the application of the extended</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH21A2064G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH21A2064G"><span>Intermittent Flare <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span>: A Signature of Contracting Magnetic Islands from Reconnection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guidoni, S. E.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Many flares show short-lived enhancements of emission that protrude above their smooth underlying emission. These spikes have been observed over a vast <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum, from radio to hard x-rays. In hard X-rays, for example, their duration ranges from 0.2 to 2 s, with the majority occurring during the flare impulsive phase (Cheng 2012). In most cases, this intermittent <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is situated at the footpoints of flare arcades where ionized particles, previously accelerated to high <span class="hlt">energies</span> at coronal heights, are decelerated by the dense solar surface. It is not yet understood what mechanisms accelerate ionized particles to the <span class="hlt">energies</span> required to produce the observed emission spikes. Drake et al. (2006) proposed a kinetic mechanism for accelerating electrons from contracting magnetic islands that form as reconnection proceeds, analogous to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> gain of a ball bouncing between converging walls. They estimated that multi-island regions of macroscopic dimensions might account for the required acceleration rates in flares, but at this time it is impractical to simulate large-scale systems in kinetic models. On the other hand, our recent high-resolution MHD simulations of a breakout eruptive flare (Karpen et al. 2012) allow us to resolve in detail the generation and evolution of macroscopic magnetic islands in a flare current sheet. Incorporating a rigorous kinetic model into our global simulations is not feasible at present. However, we intend to breach the gap between kinetic and fluid models by characterizing the contractions of islands as they move away from the main reconnection site, to determine their plausibility as candidates for the observed bursts of radiation. With our null-tracking capabilities, we follow the creation and evolution of the X- and O-type (island) nulls that result from spatially and temporally localized reconnection. Different regimes of current-sheet reconnection (slow/fast), island sizes, rates of island coalescence, and rates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23805840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23805840"><span>Quantification of colloid retention and <span class="hlt">release</span> by straining and <span class="hlt">energy</span> minima in variably saturated porous media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sang, Wenjing; Morales, Verónica L; Zhang, Wei; Stoof, Cathelijne R; Gao, Bin; Schatz, Anna Lottie; Zhang, Yalei; Steenhuis, Tammo S</p> <p>2013-08-06</p> <p>The prediction of colloid transport in unsaturated porous media in the presence of large <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier is hampered by scant information of the proportional retention by straining and attractive interactions at surface <span class="hlt">energy</span> minima. This study aims to fill this gap by performing saturated and unsaturated column experiments in which colloid pulses were added at various ionic strengths (ISs) from 0.1 to 50 mM. Subsequent flushing with deionized water <span class="hlt">released</span> colloids held at the secondary minimum. Next, destruction of the column freed colloids held by straining. Colloids not recovered at the end of the experiment were quantified as retained at the primary minimum. Results showed that net colloid retention increased with IS and was independent of saturation degree under identical IS and Darcian velocity. Attachment rates were greater in unsaturated columns, despite an over 3-fold increase in pore water velocity relative to saturated columns, because additional retention at the readily available air-associated interfaces (e.g., the air-water-solid [AWS] interfaces) is highly efficient. Complementary visual data showed heavy retention at the AWS interfaces. Retention by secondary minima ranged between 8% and 46% as IS increased, and was greater for saturated conditions. Straining accounted for an average of 57% of the retained colloids with insignificant differences among the treatments. Finally, retention by primary minima ranged between 14% and 35% with increasing IS, and was greater for unsaturated conditions due to capillary pinning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890035338&hterms=energy+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfields','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890035338&hterms=energy+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfields"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> dissipation of Alfven wave packets <span class="hlt">deformed</span> by irregular magnetic fields in solar-coronal arches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Similon, Philippe L.; Sudan, R. N.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The importance of field line geometry for shear Alfven wave dissipation in coronal arches is demonstrated. An eikonal formulation makes it possible to account for the complicated magnetic geometry typical in coronal loops. An interpretation of Alfven wave resonance is given in terms of gradient steepening, and dissipation efficiencies are studied for two configurations: the well-known slab model with a straight magnetic field, and a new model with stochastic field lines. It is shown that a large fraction of the Alfven wave <span class="hlt">energy</span> flux can be effectively dissipated in the corona.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890035338&hterms=wave+energy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890035338&hterms=wave+energy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> dissipation of Alfven wave packets <span class="hlt">deformed</span> by irregular magnetic fields in solar-coronal arches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Similon, Philippe L.; Sudan, R. N.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The importance of field line geometry for shear Alfven wave dissipation in coronal arches is demonstrated. An eikonal formulation makes it possible to account for the complicated magnetic geometry typical in coronal loops. An interpretation of Alfven wave resonance is given in terms of gradient steepening, and dissipation efficiencies are studied for two configurations: the well-known slab model with a straight magnetic field, and a new model with stochastic field lines. It is shown that a large fraction of the Alfven wave <span class="hlt">energy</span> flux can be effectively dissipated in the corona.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCoPh.291...82N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCoPh.291...82N"><span>Fully discrete <span class="hlt">energy</span> stable high order finite difference methods for hyperbolic problems in <span class="hlt">deforming</span> domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikkar, Samira; Nordström, Jan</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>A time-dependent coordinate transformation of a constant coefficient hyperbolic system of equations which results in a variable coefficient system of equations is considered. By applying the <span class="hlt">energy</span> method, well-posed boundary conditions for the continuous problem are derived. Summation-by-Parts (SBP) operators for the space and time discretization, together with a weak imposition of boundary and initial conditions using Simultaneously Approximation Terms (SATs) lead to a provable fully-discrete <span class="hlt">energy</span>-stable conservative finite difference scheme. We show how to construct a time-dependent SAT formulation that automatically imposes boundary conditions, when and where they are required. We also prove that a uniform flow field is preserved, i.e. the Numerical Geometric Conservation Law (NGCL) holds automatically by using SBP-SAT in time and space. The developed technique is illustrated by considering an application using the linearized Euler equations: the sound generated by moving boundaries. Numerical calculations corroborate the stability and accuracy of the new fully discrete approximations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999MSMSE...7..851B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999MSMSE...7..851B"><span>Simulation of the orientation dependence of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> during rolling <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of low carbon steels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bacroix, B.; Miroux, A.; Castelnau, O.</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>In order to furnish some input data to Monte Carlo codes developed for the simulation of static recrystallization in low carbon steels, two polycrystalline models are used in conjunction with four different hardening laws to estimate numerically the stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> within individual grains, which is due to the increase in dislocation density during rolling. Three quantities are calculated as a function of final orientation, which are believed to be good estimates of this <span class="hlt">energy</span>: these are the average dislocation density (linked to the square of an average reference shear stress), the total plastic work and the final plastic work rate. It is thus found that the three selected parameters present the same variation trends for a given model, whatever the hardening law. However, the Taylor and VPSC models lead to opposite conclusions: at the end of the simulated rolling process, the icons/Journals/Common/gamma" ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> (respectively icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/>) orientations are the hardest (respectively softest) with the Taylor model and the softest (respectively hardest) with the VPSC one; thus, the present data cannot be used in the present state to perform recrystallization simulations but may be used to validate the different polycrystalline models, since they are more sensitive to the interaction law than the texture evolution or macroscopic response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..96b2706S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..96b2706S"><span>Kinetic-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of fragments from electron-impact dissociation of the molecular hydrogen ion and its isotopologues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scarlett, Liam H.; Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We calculate the kinetic-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> distributions of fragments produced for electron-impact dissociation of the vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen ion H2 + and its isotopologues D2 + and T2 +. Here we apply the adiabatic-nuclei convergent close-coupling method and compare results with several different methods, including the δ approximation. Results are presented for a number of dissociative excitation transitions and dissociative ionization as a function of the initial vibrational state of the molecule. We confirm that the square root approximation is a good approximation for the adiabatic-nuclei kinetic-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> cross sections of H2 +. Agreement with experiment, where available, is good.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6e5002W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6e5002W"><span>Performance of pre-<span class="hlt">deformed</span> flexible piezoelectric cantilever in <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Pengyingkai; Sui, Li; Shi, Gengchen; Liu, Guohua</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel structure for pre-rolled flexible piezoelectric cantilevers that use wind <span class="hlt">energy</span> to power a submunition electrical device. Owing to the particular installation position and working environment, the submunition piezoelectric cantilever should be rolled when not working, but this pre-rolled state can alter the <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesting performance. Herein, a working principle and installation method for piezoelectric cantilevers used in submunitions are introduced. To study the influence of the pre-rolled state, pre-rolled piezoelectric cantilevers of different sizes were fabricated and their performances were studied using finite element analysis simulations and experiments. The simulation results show that the resonance frequency and stiffness of the pre-rolled structure is higher than that of a flat structure. Results show that, (1) for both the pre-rolled and flat cantilever, the peak voltage will increase with the wind speed. (2) The pre-rolled cantilever has a higher critical wind speed than the flat cantilever. (3) For identical wind speeds and cantilever sizes, the peak voltage of the flat cantilever (45 V) is less than that of the pre-rolled cantilever (56 V). (4) Using a full-bridge rectifier, the output of the pre-rolled cantilever can sufficiently supply a 10 μF capacitor, whose output voltage may be up to 23 V after 10 s. These results demonstrate that the pre-rolled piezoelectric cantilever and its installation position used in this work are more suitable for submunition, and its output sufficiently meets submunition requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.15307007T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.15307007T"><span>Precise calculation of neutron-capture reactions contribution in <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> for different types of VVER-1000 fuel assemblies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tikhomirov, Georgy; Bahdanovich, Rynat; Pham, Phu</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Precise calculation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in a nuclear reactor is necessary to obtain the correct spatial power distribution and predict characteristics of burned nuclear fuel. In this work, previously developed method for calculation neutron-capture reactions - capture component - contribution in effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in a fuel core of nuclear reactor is discussed. The method was improved and implemented to the different models of VVER-1000 reactor developed for MCU 5 and MCNP 4 computer codes. Different models of equivalent cell and fuel assembly in the beginning of fuel cycle were calculated. These models differ by the geometry, fuel enrichment and presence of burnable absorbers. It is shown, that capture component depends on fuel enrichment and presence of burnable absorbers. Its value varies for different types of hot fuel assemblies from 3.35% to 3.85% of effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>. Average capture component contribution in effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> for typical serial fresh fuel of VVER-1000 is 3.5%, which is 7 MeV/fission. The method will be used in future to estimate the dependency of capture <span class="hlt">energy</span> on fuel density, burn-up, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1040012','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1040012"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> Intermittency in Individual Crystals of a Ti 7Al Polycrystalline Ensemble Observed through High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> X ray Diffraction Experiments (Preprint)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>work. 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) High-<span class="hlt">energy</span> x-ray diffraction was used to track the evolution of lattice strain in individual grains during...unlimited. Abstract High-<span class="hlt">energy</span> x-ray diffraction was used to track the evolution of lattice strain in individual grains during creep <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of...unlimited. triaxial stress state drives damage evolution -- is accessible with temporal resolution. Studies of kinetics are possible, and suggest the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794432','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794432"><span>A novel strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> relationship for red blood cell membrane skeleton based on spectrin stiffness and its application to micropipette <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Svetina, Saša; Kokot, Gašper; Kebe, Tjaša Švelc; Žekš, Boštjan; Waugh, Richard E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton is a closed two-dimensional elastic network of spectrin tetramers with nodes formed by short actin filaments. Its three-dimensional shape conforms to the shape of the bilayer, to which it is connected through vertical linkages to integral membrane proteins. Numerous methods have been devised over the years to predict the response of the RBC membrane to applied forces and determine the corresponding increase in the skeleton elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> arising either directly from continuum descriptions of its <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, or seeking to relate the macroscopic behavior of the membrane to its molecular constituents. In the current work, we present a novel continuum formulation rooted in the molecular structure of the membrane and apply it to analyze model <span class="hlt">deformations</span> similar to those that occur during aspiration of RBCs into micropipettes. The microscopic elastic properties of the skeleton are derived by treating spectrin tetramers as simple linear springs. For a given local <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of the skeleton, we determine the average bond <span class="hlt">energy</span> and define the corresponding strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> function and stress–strain relationships. The lateral redistribution of the skeleton is determined variationally to correspond to the minimum of its total <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The predicted dependence of the length of the aspirated tongue on the aspiration pressure is shown to describe the experimentally observed system behavior in a quantitative manner by taking into account in addition to the skeleton <span class="hlt">energy</span> an <span class="hlt">energy</span> of attraction between RBC membrane and the micropipette surface. PMID:26376642</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26376642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26376642"><span>A novel strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> relationship for red blood cell membrane skeleton based on spectrin stiffness and its application to micropipette <span class="hlt">deformation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Svetina, Saša; Kokot, Gašper; Kebe, Tjaša Švelc; Žekš, Boštjan; Waugh, Richard E</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton is a closed two-dimensional elastic network of spectrin tetramers with nodes formed by short actin filaments. Its three-dimensional shape conforms to the shape of the bilayer, to which it is connected through vertical linkages to integral membrane proteins. Numerous methods have been devised over the years to predict the response of the RBC membrane to applied forces and determine the corresponding increase in the skeleton elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> arising either directly from continuum descriptions of its <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, or seeking to relate the macroscopic behavior of the membrane to its molecular constituents. In the current work, we present a novel continuum formulation rooted in the molecular structure of the membrane and apply it to analyze model <span class="hlt">deformations</span> similar to those that occur during aspiration of RBCs into micropipettes. The microscopic elastic properties of the skeleton are derived by treating spectrin tetramers as simple linear springs. For a given local <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of the skeleton, we determine the average bond <span class="hlt">energy</span> and define the corresponding strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> function and stress-strain relationships. The lateral redistribution of the skeleton is determined variationally to correspond to the minimum of its total <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The predicted dependence of the length of the aspirated tongue on the aspiration pressure is shown to describe the experimentally observed system behavior in a quantitative manner by taking into account in addition to the skeleton <span class="hlt">energy</span> an <span class="hlt">energy</span> of attraction between RBC membrane and the micropipette surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuMet2016..960V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuMet2016..960V"><span>Effect of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> temperature on the structural refinement of BCC metals with a high stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> during high pressure torsion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voronova, L. M.; Chashchukhina, T. I.; Gapontseva, T. M.; Krasnoperova, Yu. G.; Degtyarev, M. V.; Pilyugin, V. P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The structural evolution in bcc metals (molybdenum, niobium) with a high stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> (300 and 200 mJ/m-2, respectively) is studied during high pressure torsion in Bridgman anvils at temperatures of 290 and 80 K. It is established that cryogenic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of these metals does not result in twinning; however, banded structures are formed at the initial stage of <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Misoriented kink bands, which inhibit the formation of a homogeneous submicrocrystalline structure similarly to twins, form in molybdenum. The banded structures in niobium are characterized by low-angle misorientations; they do not suppress the formation of a submicrocrystalline structure and the refinement of microcrystallites to nanosizes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499628','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499628"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from hadron-quark phase transition in neutron stars and the axial w mode of gravitational waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin Weikang; Li Baoan; Xu Jun; Ko Cheming; Wen Dehua</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>Describing the hyperonic and quark phases of neutron stars with an isospin- and momentum-dependent effective interaction for the baryon octet and the MIT bag model, respectively, and using the Gibbs conditions to construct the mixed phase, we study the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from a neutron star owing to the hadron-quark phase transition. Moreover, the frequency and damping time of the first axial w mode of gravitational waves are studied for both hyperonic and hybrid stars. We find that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is much more sensitive to the bag constant than the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Also, the frequency of the w mode is found to be significantly different with or without the hadron-quark phase transition and depends strongly on the value of the bag constant. Effects of the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry <span class="hlt">energy</span> become, however, important for large values of the bag constant that lead to higher hadron-quark transition densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950021867','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950021867"><span>Static and dynamic strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates in toughened thermosetting composite laminates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cairns, Douglas S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>In this work, the static and dynamic fracture properties of several thermosetting resin based composite laminates are presented. Two classes of materials are explored. These are homogeneous, thermosetting resins and toughened, multi-phase, thermosetting resin systems. Multi-phase resin materials have shown enhancement over homogenous materials with respect to damage resistance. The development of new dynamic tests are presented for composite laminates based on Width Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam (WTDCB) for Mode 1 fracture and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The WTDCB sample was loaded via a low inertia, pneumatic cylinder to produce rapid cross-head displacements. A high rate, piezo-electric load cell and an accelerometer were mounted on the specimen. A digital oscilloscope was used for data acquisition. Typical static and dynamic load versus displacement plots are presented. The ENF specimen was impacted in three point bending with an instrumented impact tower. Fracture initiation and propagation <span class="hlt">energies</span> under static and dynamic conditions were determined analytically and experimentally. The test results for Mode 1 fracture are relatively insensitive to strain rate effects for the laminates tested in this study. The test results from Mode 2 fracture indicate that the toughened systems provide superior fracture initiation and higher resistance to propagation under dynamic conditions. While the static fracture properties of the homogeneous systems may be relatively high, the apparent Mode 2 dynamic critical strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate drops significantly. The results indicate that static Mode 2 fracture testing is inadequate for determining the fracture performance of composite structures subjected to conditions such as low velocity impact. A good correlation between the basic Mode 2 dynamic fracture properties and the performance is a combined material/structural Compression After Impact (CAI) test is found. These results underscore the importance of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3437U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3437U"><span>The statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in small-scale coronal structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulyanov, Artyom; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey</p> <p></p> <p>We present the results of statistical analysis of impulsive flare-like brightenings, which numerously occur in the quiet regions of solar corona. For our study, we utilized high-cadence observations performed with two EUV-telescopes - TESIS/Coronas-Photon and AIA/SDO. In total, we processed 6 sequences of images, registered throughout the period between 2009 and 2013, covering the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. Based on high-speed DEM estimation method, we developed a new technique to evaluate the main parameters of detected events (geometrical sizes, duration, temperature and thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>). We then obtained the statistical distributions of these parameters and examined their variations depending on the level of solar activity. The results imply that near the minimum of the solar cycle the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in quiet corona is mainly provided by small-scale events (nanoflares), whereas larger events (microflares) prevail on the peak of activity. Furthermore, we investigated the coronal conditions that had specified the formation and triggering of registered flares. By means of photospheric magnetograms obtained with MDI/SoHO and HMI/SDO instruments, we examined the topology of local magnetic fields at different stages: the pre-flare phase, the peak of intensity and the ending phase. To do so, we introduced a number of topological parameters including the total magnetic flux, the distance between magnetic sources and their mutual arrangement. The found correlation between the change of these parameters and the formation of flares may offer an important tool for application of flare forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6469238','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6469238"><span>Limits on the thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scott, J.A.</p> <p>1983-03-01</p> <p>The theraml <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300/sup 0/C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SoPh..280..537M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SoPh..280..537M"><span>Study of Flare <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Using Events with Numerous Type III-like Bursts in Microwaves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meshalkina, N. S.; Altyntsev, A. T.; Zhdanov, D. A.; Lesovoi, S. V.; Kochanov, A. A.; Yan, Y. H.; Tan, C. M.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The analysis of narrowband drifting of type III-like structures in radio bursts dynamic spectra allows one to obtain unique information about the primary <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> mechanisms in solar flares. The SSRT (Siberian Solar Radio Telescope) spatially resolved images and its high spectral and temporal resolution allow for direct determination not only of the source positions but also of the exciter velocities along the flare loop. Practically, such measurements are possible during some special time intervals when SSRT is observing the flare region in two high-order fringes near 5.7 GHz; thus, two 1D brightness distributions are recorded simultaneously at two frequency bands. The analysis of type III-like bursts recorded during the flare 14 April 2002 is presented. Using multiwavelength radio observations recorded by the SSRT, the Huairou Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS), the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters (NoRP), and the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), we study an event with series of several tens of drifting microwave pulses with drift rates in the range from -7 to 13 GHz s-1. The sources of the fast-drifting bursts were located near the top of a flare loop in a volume of a few Mm in size. The slow drift of the exciters along the flare loop suggests a high pitch anisotropy of the emitting electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MSSP...22..763P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MSSP...22..763P"><span>The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> approach for modeling cracks in rotors: A state of the art review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papadopoulos, Chris A.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate (SERR) theory, combined with Linear Fracture Mechanics and Rotordynamics theories, has been widely used over the last three decades in order to calculate the compliance that causes a transverse surface crack in a rotating shaft. In this paper, the basic theory of this approach is presented, along with some extensions and limitations of its usage. The SERR theory is applied to a rotating crack and gives good results. The linear or nonlinear cracked rotor behavior depends on the mechanism of opening and closure of the crack during the shaft rotation. A brief history of the SERR theory is presented. In the 1970s, this theory met with rotordynamics as a result of research conducted on the causes of rotor failures in power industries. The main goal of this research was to give the engineer an early warning about the cracked situation of the rotor—in other words, to make the identification of the crack possible. Different methods of crack identification are presented here as well as those for multi-crack identification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780039122&hterms=Activation+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DActivation%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780039122&hterms=Activation+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DActivation%2Benergy"><span>Multiple loop activations and continuous <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the solar flare of June 15, 1973</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Widing, K. G.; Dere, K. P.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The spatial and temporal evolution of the high-temperature plasma in the solar flare of June 15, 1973, is studied using XUV spectroheliograms and X-ray filtergrams obtained from Skylab. The analysis focuses on the changing forms and brightness of Fe XXIII 263-A and Fe XXIV 255-A images. Temperatures and emission measures computed for different times during the flare are compared with those derived from Solrad-9 flux data, the electron temperature in the bright compact core of the Fe XXIV image is determined, and a coronal origin is suggested for this bright core. The observational evidence shows that the overall flare event involved a number of different preexisting loops and arches which were activated in succession. The activation and heating are found to have persisted well past the end of the burst phase, implying that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> did not end when the impulsive phase was over. The overall development of the flare is summarized on the basis of the observed order of appearance of the loops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JChPh.127t4309F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JChPh.127t4309F"><span>Temperature and heat capacity of atomic clusters as estimated in terms of kinetic-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of atomic evaporation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujii, Mikiya; Takatsuka, Kazuo</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>The temperature and heat capacity of isolated atomic clusters are studied in terms of an ab initio statistical theory of kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution by atomic evaporation. Two definitions of canonical temperature are examined and numerically compared: One is based on the most probable kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> (KER), whereas the other is determined with use of the entire distribution of the KER. The mutual relationship and their advantages are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26161808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26161808"><span>Calcium Carbonate Nanoplate Assemblies with Directed High-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> Facets: Additive-Free Synthesis, High Drug Loading, and Sustainable <span class="hlt">Releasing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jing; Li, Yu; Xie, Hao; Su, Bao-Lian; Yao, Bin; Yin, Yixia; Li, Shipu; Chen, Fang; Fu, Zhengyi</p> <p>2015-07-29</p> <p>Developing drug delivery systems (DDSs) with high drug-loading capacity and sustainable <span class="hlt">releasing</span> is critical for long-term chemotherapeutic efficacy, and it still remains challenging. Herein, vaterite CaCO3 nanoplate assemblies with exposed high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> {001} facets have been synthesized via a novel, additive-free strategy. The product shows a high doxorubicin-loading capacity (65%); the best of all the CaCO3-based DDSs so far. Also, the product's sustainable <span class="hlt">releasing</span> performance and its inhibition of the initial burst <span class="hlt">release</span>, together, endow it with long-term drug efficacy. The work may shed light on exposing directed high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> facets for rationally designing of a drug delivery system with long-term efficacy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..408...51Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..408...51Y"><span>Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe2O3) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe2O3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe2O3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> compared to the Al@Fe2O3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The enhanced <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of rGO/Al@Fe2O3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and improved safety characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16896738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16896738"><span>Effects of low and high levels of moderate hypoxia on anaerobic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> during supramaximal cycle exercise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ogura, Yuji; Katamoto, Shizuo; Uchimaru, Jin; Takahashi, Kohei; Naito, Hisashi</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hypoxia can alter anaerobic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> during supramaximal exercise. Seven male subjects performed 12 submaximal cycling tests to establish the relationship between workload and O2 demand. The subjects also performed 40 s Wingate tests (WT) under normoxia (room air), two levels of moderate hypoxia of 16.4% O2 and 12.7% O2. We measured the power output and oxygen uptake (VO2) during each test and estimated the O2 demand, O2 deficit and percentage of anaerobic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> (%AnAER). These data were analyzed for each 20 s interval. At all intervals, there were no differences in Pmean per body mass (BM)(-1), O2 demand per BM(-1) or O2 deficit per BM(-1) among the three O2 conditions. However, under hypoxia of 12.7%, VO2 per BM(-1) was significantly decreased and %AnAER was significantly increased in the late phase (20-40 s) of the WT, compared to normoxia (P<0.05). There were no such significant differences between normoxia and hypoxia of 16.4%. Thus, the present results show that the degree of hypoxia affects the magnitude of the hypoxia-induced increase in anaerobic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the late phase of the WT and suggest that certain degrees of hypoxia induce significant increases in the amount of anaerobic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span>, compared to normoxia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..344..263R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..344..263R"><span>Genesis and implication of soft-sediment <span class="hlt">deformation</span> structures in high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> fluvial deposits of the Alaknanda Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rana, Naresh; Sati, Saraswati Prakash; Sundriyal, Yaspal; Juyal, Navin</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Valley-fill terraces and fluvio-lacustrine sediment successions were investigated for the nature and type of soft-sediment <span class="hlt">deformation</span> structures (SSDS) in the Alaknanda Valley of the Garhwal Himalaya. Based on their morphologies, sediment characteristics and comparison with existing data on SSDS, these features are classified into seismic and aseismic categories. The study indicates that, despite the terrain being in the seismically active domain of the Central Himalaya, the majority of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> structures seem to have been generated aseismically. We attribute their genesis to uneven loading, slope failure and, most importantly, turbulent flow and sudden loading by flash floods. The study suggests that a cautious approach is needed before assigning a seismic origin to <span class="hlt">deformation</span> structures in sediments deposited in high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> fluvial systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMB....56.5187H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMB....56.5187H"><span>Investigation of voxel warping and <span class="hlt">energy</span> mapping approaches for fast 4D Monte Carlo dose calculations in <span class="hlt">deformed</span> geometries using VMC++</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heath, Emily; Tessier, Frederic; Kawrakow, Iwan</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">deformable</span> geometry class for the VMC++ Monte Carlo code was implemented based on the voxel warping method. Alternative geometries which use tetrahedral sub-elements were implemented and efficiency improvements investigated. A new <span class="hlt">energy</span> mapping method, based on calculating the volume overlap between <span class="hlt">deformed</span> reference dose grid and the target dose grid, was also developed. Dose calculations using both the voxel warping and <span class="hlt">energy</span> mapping methods were compared in simple phantoms as well as a patient geometry. The new <span class="hlt">deformed</span> geometry implementation in VMC++ increased calculation times by approximately a factor of 6 compared to standard VMC++ calculations in rectilinear geometries. However, the tetrahedron-based geometries were found to improve computational efficiency, relative to the dodecahedron-based geometry, by a factor of 2. When an exact transformation between the reference and target geometries was provided, the voxel and <span class="hlt">energy</span> warping methods produced identical results. However, when the transformation is not exact, there were discrepancies in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposited on the target geometry which lead to significant differences in the dose calculated by the two methods. Preliminary investigations indicate that these <span class="hlt">energy</span> differences may correlate with registration errors; however, further work is needed to determine the usefulness of this metric for quantifying registration accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201351','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201351"><span>Myth or nightmare: Safety consequences of the <span class="hlt">release</span> of radiation-induced stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> in rock salt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Prij, J.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The disposal of HLW in a salt formation will result in the deposit of gamma <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the rock salt. Most of this <span class="hlt">energy</span> will be converted into heat while a small part will create defects in the salt crystals. It has been shown that <span class="hlt">energy</span> is stored in the defected crystals. Because of uncertainties in the models and differences in the disposal concepts, the estimated values for the stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> range from 10 to 1,000 J/g in the most heavily defected crystals close to the waste containers. Given the uncertainties in the model predictions and in the possible <span class="hlt">release</span> mechanism, this paper concludes that at this moment, an instantaneous <span class="hlt">release</span> of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> cannot be completely excluded. Therefore, the thermomechanical consequences of a postulated instantaneous <span class="hlt">release</span> of an extremely high amount of radiation-induced stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> have been estimated. These estimations are based on the quasi-static solutions for line and point sources. An amplification factor has been derived from mining experience with explosives to account for the dynamic effects and the occurrence of fractures. A validation of this amplification factor has been given using post experimental observations of two nuclear explosions in a salt formation. For some typical disposal concepts in rock salt, the extent of the fractured zone has been estimated. It appears that the radial extent of the fractured zone is limited to 5 m. Given the much larger distance between the individual boreholes and the distance between the boreholes and the boundary of the salt formation (> 100 m), one can conclude that the probability of a <span class="hlt">release</span> of radiation-induced stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> creating a pathway for the nuclides from the containers to the groundwater is negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.6771L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.6771L"><span>Time lag between <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and seismicity along monogenetic volcanic unrest periods: The case of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lamolda, Héctor; Felpeto, Alicia; Bethencourt, Abelardo</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Between 2011 and 2014 there were at least seven episodes of magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island, but only the first one led to a submarine eruption in 2011-2012. In order to study the relationship between GPS <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and seismicity during these episodes, we compare the temporal evolution of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> with the cumulative seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span>. In some of the episodes both <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and seismicity evolve in a very similar way, but in others a time lag appears between them, in which the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> precedes the seismicity. Furthermore, a linear correlation between decimal logarithm of intruded magma volume and decimal logarithm of total seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> along the different episodes has been observed. Therefore, if a future magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island follows this behavior with a proper time lag, we could have an a priori estimate on the order of magnitude the seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> would reach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..327...94D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..327...94D"><span>Understanding the connection between the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> during solar flares and their emission in the lower atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>da Costa, F. Rubio</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>While progress has been made on understanding how <span class="hlt">energy</span> is <span class="hlt">released</span> and deposited along the solar atmosphere during explosive events such as solar flares, the chromospheric and coronal heating through the sudden <span class="hlt">release</span> of magnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> remain an open problem in solar physics. Recent hydrodynamic models allow to investigate the <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition along a flare loop and to study the response of the chromosphere. These results have been improved with the consideration of transport and acceleration of particles along the loop. RHESSI and Fermi/GBM X-ray and gamma-ray observations help to constrain the spectral properties of the injected electrons. The excellent spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of IRIS will also help us to constrain properties of explosive events, such as the continuum emission during flares or their emission in the chromosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28375346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28375346"><span>High <span class="hlt">energy</span>, widely tunable Si-prism-array coupled terahertz-wave parametric oscillator with a <span class="hlt">deformed</span> pump and optimal crystal location for angle tuning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ruiliang; Qu, Yanchen; Zhao, Weijiang; Chen, Zhenlei</p> <p>2017-03-20</p> <p>A high <span class="hlt">energy</span>, widely tunable Si-prism-array coupled terahertz-wave parametric oscillator (TPO) has been demonstrated by using a <span class="hlt">deformed</span> pump. The <span class="hlt">deformed</span> pump is cut from a beam spot of 2 mm in diameter by a 1-mm-wide slit. In comparison with a small pump spot (1-mm diameter), the THz-wave coupling area for the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> pump is increased without limitation to the low-frequency end of the tuning range. Besides, the crystal location is specially designed to eliminate the alteration of the output position of the pump during angle tuning, so the initially adjusted nearest pumped region to the THz-wave exit surface is maintained throughout the tuning range. The tuning range is 0.58-2.5 THz for the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> pump, while its low frequency end is limited at approximately 1.2 THz for the undeformed pump with 2 mm diameter. The highest THz-wave output of 2 μJ, which is 2.25 times as large as that from the pump of 1 mm in diameter, is obtained at 1.15 THz under 38 mJ (300  MW/cm<sup>2</sup>) pumping. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion efficiency is 5.3×10<sup>-5</sup>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15002641','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15002641"><span>Relative Proton Affinities from Kinetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Distributions for Dissociation of Proton-Bound Dimers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hache, John J.; Laskin, Julia ); Futrell, Jean H. )</p> <p>2002-12-19</p> <p>Kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> distributions (KERDs) upon dissociation of proton-bound dimers are utilized along with Finite Heat Bath theory analysis to obtain relative proton affinities of monomeric species composing the dimer. The proposed approach allows accurate measurement of relative proton affinities based on KERD measurements for the compound with unknown thermochemical properties versus a single reference base. It also allows distinguishing the cases when dissociation of proton-bound dimers is associated with reverse activation barrier, for which both our approach and the kinetic method become inapplicable. Results are reported for the n-butanol-n-propanol dimer, for which there is no significant difference in entropy effects for two reactions and for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine dimer, which is characterized by a significant difference in entropy effects for the two competing reactions. Relative protonation affinities of -1.0?0.3 kcal/mol for the n-butanol-n-propanol pair and 0.27?0.10 kcal/mol for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine pair are in good agreement with literature values. Relative reaction entropies were extracted from the branching ratio and KERD measurements. Good correspondence was found between the relative reaction entropies for the n-butanol-n-propanol dimer (D(DS?)=-0.3?1.5 cal/mol K) and the relative protonation entropy for the two monomers (D(DSp)=0). However, the relative reaction entropy for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine dimer is higher than the difference in protonation entropies (D(DS?)=8.2?0.5 cal/mol K vs. D(DSp)=5 cal/mol K).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5906128','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5906128"><span>Carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">releases</span> from fossil-fuel burning: Statement before the Senate Committee on <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and Natural Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marland G.; Boden, T.</p> <p>1989-07-26</p> <p>Discussion of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is given. There are three kinds of human activity that are currently resulting in net <span class="hlt">release</span> of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) to the atmosphere: burning fossil fuels, converting tropical forest area to other land use, and manufacturing cement. Although it is a comparatively small source of CO/sub 2/, cement manufacture involves the calcining of limestone (calcium carbonate) to produce calcium oxide. The associated CO/sub 2/ emissions are included in the figures that follow. Production of one metric ton of cement results in the <span class="hlt">release</span> of 0.136 metric tons of carbon as CO/sub 2/. (This does not count the fuel used in the processing). When forest area is cleared and converted to land uses that have smaller inventories of carbon in the biota and in the surface liter and soil, there is a net <span class="hlt">release</span> of carbon to become CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere. Every cubic meter of timber burned <span class="hlt">releases</span> about 0.26 metric tons of carbon as CO/sub 2/ to the atmosphere, and forest clearing generally results in a <span class="hlt">release</span> of additional carbon from the soil and surface litter. When fossil fuels are burned, carbon that has been long stored in the earth is oxidized and <span class="hlt">released</span> to the atmosphere as CO/sub 2/. Because fossil-fuel burning <span class="hlt">releases</span> heat from the oxidation of both carbon (to produce carbon dioxide) and hydrogen (to produce water), and because the different fuel forms contain different ratios of carbon to hydrogen, the amount of CO/sub 2/ produced per unit of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> is different for the various fuel forms. 14 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MCM....52..469T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MCM....52..469T"><span>Finite-Layer Method: Exact Numerical and Analytical Calculations of the <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate for Unidirectional Composite Specimens in Double-Cantilever Beam and End-Notched Flexure Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Timonin, A. M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Based on the finite-layer method, a method for evaluating the stress-strain state and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate for specimens with delaminations in double-cantilever beam and end-notched flexure tests is proposed. Exact numerical solutions of boundary-value problems for the "stiff" systems of differential equations describing <span class="hlt">deformations</span> of test specimens are obtained. The distributions of forces, moments, displacements, and rotations in the specimens and the distributions of normal and tangential stresses on their midline are presented. New closed-form expressions for these functions and for compliance of the specimens are developed. Calculation results for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate obtained by a numerical differentiation and from analytical relations are presented. Two new techniques for estimating the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate are proposed: (1) using the calculated values of peak stress and jumps of displacements at the tip of delamination; (2) by evaluation of indeterminacy at the tip of delamination with the use of stresses and derivatives of stresses and displacements. The effect of the transverse shear and Poisson ratio on the results is estimated. A comparison of the numerical and analytical solutions obtained with known results and the ASTM standard is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RAA....16...82T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RAA....16...82T"><span>Diagnosing physical conditions near the flare <span class="hlt">energy-release</span> sites from observations of solar microwave type III bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Bao-Lin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana; Huang, Guang-Li</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare <span class="hlt">energy-release</span> sites. However, so far it is unclear how to diagnose these physical conditions. A solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of primary <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of the magnetic field on the plasma density and develops a set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and <span class="hlt">energy</span> of electron beams. We apply these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in an X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flare <span class="hlt">energy-release</span> sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6247257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6247257"><span>Contents, accumulation and <span class="hlt">release</span> of <span class="hlt">energy</span> in green, dead and decomposing plant materials in an upland grassland near Kamenicky, Czechoslovakia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ulehlová, B</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> content was studied in above-ground live plant material and in litter in a natural grassland ecosystem with dominant Nardus stricta L., defined phytosociologically as Polygalo-Nardetum strictae. PREISING 1950 corr. OBERDORFER 1957, and in two of its fertilized variants in the course of 1975 to 1977. Based on the determined production characteristics and data on decomposition processes, the amounts of <span class="hlt">energy</span> accumulated by the green parts of the stands and the amount of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> during decomposition from the litter were calculated. Changes in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> content of litter in different stages of decomposition were determined. With progressing decomposition the <span class="hlt">energy</span> content per gram ash-free decomposing plant litter increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910188A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910188A"><span>Interplay between <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, fluid <span class="hlt">release</span> and migration across a nascent subduction interface: evidence from Oman-UAE and implications for warm subduction zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agard, Philippe; Prigent, Cécile; Soret, Mathieu; Guillot, Stéphane; Dubacq, Benoît</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Frozen-in subduction plate interfaces preserving the first 1-2 My of the subduction history are found beneath ophiolites. These contacts are a key target to study the inception of mantle wedge metasomatism and the mechanical coupling between the upper plate and the top part of the sinking slab shortly after subduction initiation. Combining structural field and EBSD data, detailed petrology, thermodynamic modelling and geochemistry on both sides, i.e. the base of the mantle wedge (Oman-UAE basal peridotites) and the underlying accreted crustal fragments from the subducting slab (metamorphic soles), this study documents the continuous evolution of the plate contact from 1 GPa 900-750°C to 0.6 GPa 750-600°C, with emphasis on strain localization and feedbacks between <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and fluid migration. In the mantle wedge, the (<span class="hlt">de)formation</span> of proto-ultramylonitic peridotites is coeval with mantle metasomatism by focused hydrous fluid migration. Peridotite metasomatism results in the precipitation of new minerals (clinopyroxene, amphibole and spinel ± olivine and orthopyroxene) and their enrichment in FMEs (particularly B, Li and Cs, with concentrations up to 40 times that of the PM). Boron concentrations and isotopes (δ11B of metasomatized peridotites up to +25‰) suggest that these fluids with a "subduction signature" are probably sourced from the dehydrating amphibolitic metamorphic sole. Concomitantly, <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in the lower plate results in the stepwise formation, detachment and accretion to the mylonitic s.l. mantle of successive slices of HT metabasalts from the downgoing slab, equilibrated at amphibolite/granulite conditions (900-750°C). Two major stages may be outlined: - between 900 and 750°C, the garnet-clinopyroxene-amphibole bearing sinking crust (with melting < 6 vol%) gets juxtaposed and mechanically coupled to the mantle, leading to the transfer of subduction fluids and metasomatism (possibly into the arc zone ultimately). <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........37A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........37A"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> mechanisms, architecture, and petrophysical properties of large normal faults in platform carbonates and their role in the <span class="hlt">release</span> of carbon dioxide from earth's interior in central Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agosta, Fabrizio</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>A challenging theme of research in structural geology is the process of faulting in carbonate rocks: how do the resulting internal architecture and petrophysical properties of faults affect subsurface fluid flow. A better understanding of this process is important to evaluate the potential oil and gas recovery from carbonate reservoirs, and to plan CO 2 containment in the depleted reservoirs. Carbonate rocks may <span class="hlt">deform</span> with different mechanisms depending primarily on their original sedimentary fabric, diagenetic history, fluid content, and tectonic environment. In this dissertation I investigate the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanisms, petrophysics, and internal fluid composition of large, seismic, basin-bounding normal faults in low porosity platform carbonates. Based on the nature, orientation, and abutting relationships of the structural elements preserved within the faults and in the surrounding carbonate host rocks, I was able to characterize the mechanisms of fault growth and the fault architecture. Incipient faulting occurred at shallow depths by sequential formation and shearing of pressure solution seams and joints/veins; with ongoing <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and exhumation, the joint-based mechanism became predominant. The end result is a mature normal fault that juxtaposes basin sedimentary rocks of the hanging wall against <span class="hlt">deformed</span> carbonates of the footwall. The <span class="hlt">deformed</span> carbonates of the fault footwalls are composed of rocks with low porosity and permeability and major slip surfaces in the fault core, and fragmented carbonate matrices with high porosity and permeability, and small faults in the damage zone. The degree of fragmentation in the damage zone generally increases towards the fault hanging wall, forming structural domains characterized by different <span class="hlt">deformation</span> intensity. The rocks of the fault core have sub-spherical pores, those of the damage zone have elongated, crack-like, pores. The permeability structure of the normal fault zones is therefore made up of a fault</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41A2865H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41A2865H"><span>Kinematic Models of Southern California <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> calibrated to GPS Velocities and a Strain <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Minimization Criterion: How do they Differ?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hearn, E. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Fault slip rates inferred from GPS-calibrated kinematic models may be influenced by seismic-cycle and other transient effects, whereas models that minimize strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> ("TSEM models") represent average <span class="hlt">deformation</span> rates over geological timescales. To explore differences in southern California fault slip rates inferred from these two approaches, I have developed kinematic, finite-element models incorporating the UCERF3 block model-bounding fault geometry and slip rates from the UCERF3 report (Field et al., 2014). A fault segment (the "Ventura-Oak Ridge segment") was added to represent shortening accommodated collectively by the San Cayetano, Ventura, Oak Ridge, Red Mountain and other faults in the Transverse Ranges. Fault slip rates are randomly sampled from ranges given in the UCERF3 report, assuming a "boxcar" distribution, and models are scored by their misfit to GPS site velocities or to their total strain <span class="hlt">energy</span>, for cases with locked and unlocked faults. Both Monte Carlo and Independence Sampler MCMC methods are used to identify the best models of each category. All four suites of models prefer low slip rates (i.e. less than about 5 mm/yr) on the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system. For TSEM models, low rates (< 12 mm/yr) are strongly preferred for the San Gorgonio segment of the SAF. The GPS-constrained, locked model prefers a high slip rate for the Imperial Fault (over 30 mm/yr), though the TSEM models prefer slip rates lower than 30 mm/yr. When slip rates for the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system are restricted to less than 5 mm/yr, GPS-constrained models show a preference for high slip rates on the southern San Jacinto and Palos Verde Faults ( > 13 and > 3 mm/yr, respectively), and a somewhat low rate for the Mojave segment of the SAF (25-34 mm/yr). Because blind thrust faults of the Los Angeles Basin are not represented in the model, the inferred Ventura-Oak Ridge slip rate should be high, but the opposite is observed. GPS-calibrated models decisively prefer a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA422491','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA422491"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate in a Constrained Polymeric Disk under Internal Pressure and Thermal Loads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-05-31</p> <p>Polymeric Disk under Internal Pressure and Thermal Loads H. K. Chinga, C. T. Liub, and S. C. Yena aMaterials Technology Center, Southern Illinois...centrally perforated star-shaped disk, which was made of a polymeric material, under internal pressure and thermal loads, were determined. The <span class="hlt">deformations</span>...as flaws and cracks may form in polymeric materials due to the manufacturing, handling or ageing. To ensure the integrity and reliability for such</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22318016','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22318016"><span>Net electron-phonon scattering rates in InN/GaN multiple quantum wells: The effects of an <span class="hlt">energy</span> dependent acoustic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xia, H. Patterson, R.; Feng, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G.</p> <p>2014-08-11</p> <p>The rates of charge carrier relaxation by phonon emission are of substantial importance in the field of hot carrier solar cell, primarily in investigation of mechanisms to slow down hot carrier cooling. In this work, <span class="hlt">energy</span> and momentum resolved <span class="hlt">deformation</span> potentials relevant to electron-phonon scattering are computed for wurtzite InN and GaN as well as an InN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) superlattice using ab-initio methods. These <span class="hlt">deformation</span> potentials reveal important features such as discontinuities across the electronic bandgap of the materials and variations over tens of eV. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> dependence of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> potential is found to be very similar for wurtzite nitrides despite differences between the In and Ga pseudopotentials and their corresponding electronic band structures. Charge carrier relaxation by this mechanism is expected to be minimal for electrons within a few eV of the conduction band edge. However, hole scattering at <span class="hlt">energies</span> more accessible to excitation by solar radiation is possible between heavy and light hole states. Moderate reductions in overall scattering rates are observed in MQW relative to the bulk nitride materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28138684','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28138684"><span>Acid-catalysed thermal cycloreversion of a diarylethene: a potential way for triggered <span class="hlt">release</span> of stored light <span class="hlt">energy</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gurke, J; Quick, M; Ernsting, N P; Hecht, S</p> <p>2017-02-09</p> <p>Upon addition of catalytic amounts of acid, a closed diarylethene derivative carrying a fluorenol moiety undergoes facile thermal ring opening. The underlying thermodynamics and kinetics of the entire system have been analysed experimentally as well as computationally. Our work suggests that general acid catalysis provides a useful tool to bypass thermal barriers, by opening new reaction pathways, and to efficiently trigger the <span class="hlt">release</span> of light <span class="hlt">energy</span> stored in photoswitches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880004353','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880004353"><span>Strain-<span class="hlt">energy-release</span> rate analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen using the finite-element method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salpekar, S. A.; Raju, I. S.; Obrien, T. K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional finite-element analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen was performed using 8-node isoparametric, parabolic elements to evaluate compliance and mode II strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates, G sub II. The G sub II values were computed using two different techniques: the virtural crack-closure technique (VCCT) and the rate of change of compliance with crack length (compliance derivative method). The analysis was performed for various crack-length-to-semi-span (a/L) ratios ranging from 0.2 to 0.9. Three material systems representing a wide range of material properties were analyzed. The compliance and strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates of the specimen calculated with the present finite-element analysis agree very well with beam theory equations including transverse shear. The G sub II values calculated using the compliance derivative method compared extremely well with those calculated using the VCCT. The G sub II values obtained by the compliance derivative method using the top or bottom beam deflections agreed closely with each other. The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates from a plane-stress analysis were higher than the plane-strain values by only a small percentage, indicating that either assumption may be used in the analysis. The G sub II values for one material system calculated from the finite-element analysis agreed with one solution in the literature and disagreed with the other solution in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038958&hterms=RATE+CHANGE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DRATE%2BOF%2BCHANGE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038958&hterms=RATE+CHANGE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DRATE%2BOF%2BCHANGE"><span>Strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen using the finite-element method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salpekar, S. A.; Raju, I. S.; O'Brien, T. K.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional finite-element analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen was performed using 8-node isoparametric, parabolic elements to evaluate compliance and mode II strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates, G sub II. The G sub II values were computed using two different techniques: the virtual crack-closure technique (VCCT) and the rate of change of compliance with crack length (compliance derivative method). The analysis was performed for various crack-length-to-semi-span (a/L) ratios ranging from 0.2 to 0.9. Three material systems representing a wide range of material properties were analyzed. The compliance and strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates of the specimen calculated with the present finite-element analysis agree very well with beam theory equations including transverse shear. The G sub II values calculated using the compliance derivative method compared extremely well with those calculated using the VCCT. The G sub II values obtained by the compliance derivative method using the top or bottom beam deflections agreed closely with each other. The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates from a plane-stress analysis were higher than the plane-strain values by only a small percentage, indicating that either assumption may be used in the analysis. The G sub II values for one material system calculated from the finte-element analysis agreed with one solution in the literature and disagreed with the other solution in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038958&hterms=energy+derivatives&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bderivatives','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038958&hterms=energy+derivatives&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bderivatives"><span>Strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen using the finite-element method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salpekar, S. A.; Raju, I. S.; O'Brien, T. K.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional finite-element analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen was performed using 8-node isoparametric, parabolic elements to evaluate compliance and mode II strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates, G sub II. The G sub II values were computed using two different techniques: the virtual crack-closure technique (VCCT) and the rate of change of compliance with crack length (compliance derivative method). The analysis was performed for various crack-length-to-semi-span (a/L) ratios ranging from 0.2 to 0.9. Three material systems representing a wide range of material properties were analyzed. The compliance and strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates of the specimen calculated with the present finite-element analysis agree very well with beam theory equations including transverse shear. The G sub II values calculated using the compliance derivative method compared extremely well with those calculated using the VCCT. The G sub II values obtained by the compliance derivative method using the top or bottom beam deflections agreed closely with each other. The strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates from a plane-stress analysis were higher than the plane-strain values by only a small percentage, indicating that either assumption may be used in the analysis. The G sub II values for one material system calculated from the finte-element analysis agreed with one solution in the literature and disagreed with the other solution in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJD...70..130R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJD...70..130R"><span>Kinetic-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> distributions of fragment anions from collisions of potassium atoms with D-Ribose and tetrahydrofuran*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rebelo, André; Cunha, Tiago; Mendes, Mónica; da Silva, Filipe Ferreira; García, Gustavo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Kinetic-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> distributions have been obtained from the width and shapes of the time-of-flight (TOF) negative ion mass peaks formed in collisions of fast potassium atoms with D-Ribose (DR) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) molecules. Recent dissociative ion-pair formation experiments yielding anion formation have shown that the dominant fragment from D-Ribose is OH- [D. Almeida, F. Ferreira da Silva, G. García, P. Limão-Vieira, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114304 (2013)] whereas in the case of THF is O- [D. Almeida, F. Ferreira da Silva, S. Eden, G. García, P. Limão-Vieira, J. Phys. Chem. A 118, 690 (2014)]. The results for DR and THF show an <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution profile reminiscent of statistical degradation via vibrational excitation and partly due to direct transformation of the excess <span class="hlt">energy</span> in translational <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1226128','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1226128"><span>Fission Fragment Mass Distributions and Total Kinetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> of 235-Uranium and 238-Uranium in Neutron-Induced Fission at Intermediate and Fast Neutron <span class="hlt">Energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duke, Dana Lynn</p> <p>2015-11-12</p> <p>This Ph.D. dissertation describes a measurement of the change in mass distributions and average total kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> (TKE) <span class="hlt">release</span> with increasing incident neutron <span class="hlt">energy</span> for fission of <sup>235</sup>U and <sup>238</sup>U. Although fission was discovered over seventy-five years ago, open questions remain about the physics of the fission process. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the incident neutron, En, changes the division of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the resulting fission fragments, however, the details of <span class="hlt">energy</span> partitioning remain ambiguous because the nucleus is a many-body quantum system. Creating a full theoretical model is difficult and experimental data to validate existing models are lacking. Additional fission measurements will lead to higher-quality models of the fission process, therefore improving applications such as the development of next-generation nuclear reactors and defense. This work also paves the way for precision experiments such as the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for fission cross section measurements and the Spectrometer for Ion Determination in Fission (SPIDER) for precision mass yields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/41871','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/41871"><span>Studies on the effect of window <span class="hlt">deformation</span> on the scattering and <span class="hlt">energy</span> profiles of the beam: Potential effects contributing to target mass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Recently, the authors installed a preformed 18.5 miL thick aluminum window, possessing a 5 mm hemispherical <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, onto a 77 mL volume conical target, but with the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> placed concave into the target. This was done because pressure and beam induced <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of our flat aluminum windows would cause them to bow outward beyond the helium cooling axis, which eventually resulted in window failure. It was thought that placing a preformed window in a concave geometry would provide additional radial strength to minimize further <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, and also optimum window cooling thus increasing window lifetime. The windows were fabricated from 6061 aluminum alloy. The alloy exists in a T{sub 6} state of hardness (the highest level), but can be converted to a T{sub 0} workable state through heating of the alloy for several hours at 500{degrees}C. Once in this state, the windows can be <span class="hlt">deformed</span> over a mandrel with little or no stress added to the surface structure. The alloy automatically reverts back to its original state of hardness over a 48 hour period. In-direct observations made on [{sup 11}C]cocaine specific activity suggested that target mass contributions were somewhat reduced with the window placed in a concave configuration. This has not been verified directly through CO{sub 2} target mass measurements. Even so, this peaked interest in what effect window geometry might have on the scattering and <span class="hlt">energy</span> profiles of the proton beam. These aspects could have significant effects on target surface contributions to mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315347','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315347"><span>Advanced Breeding, Development, and <span class="hlt">Release</span> of High Biomass <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Cane Cultivars in Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Research into alternative <span class="hlt">energy</span> sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral <span class="hlt">energy</span> are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315272','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315272"><span>Advanced Breeding, Development, and <span class="hlt">Release</span> of High Biomass <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Cane Cultivars in Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Research into alternative <span class="hlt">energy</span> sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral <span class="hlt">energy</span> are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ICRC....9...46R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ICRC....9...46R"><span>Optical performance related to mechanical <span class="hlt">deformations</span> of a Davies-Cotton mount for the high <span class="hlt">energy</span> section of the Cherenkov Telescope Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rovero, Adrian C.; Supanitsky, A. Daniel; Ringegni, Pablo; Antico, Federico; Botani, A.; Vallejo, G.; Ochoa, I.; Hughes, G.; Marconi, D.</p> <p></p> <p>The Cherenkov Telescope Array is the next generation ground-based instrument for the observation of very high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> gamma-rays. It will provide an order of magnitude more sensitivity and better angular and <span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution than present systems as well as an increased <span class="hlt">energy</span> range. For the high <span class="hlt">energy</span> portion of this range, the construction of ~6m diameter Cherenkov telescopes is an option under study. We have proposed an innovative design of a Davies-Cotton mount for such a telescope, within Cherenkov Telescope Array specifications, and evaluated its mechanical and optical performance. The mount is a reticulated-type structure with steel tubes and tensioned wires. It consists of three main parts to be assembled on site. In this work we focus on the study of the point-pread-function of collected light for different mirror facet sizes and telescope positions, related to mount <span class="hlt">deformations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPD....4820004V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPD....4820004V"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> from X-ray Flares on Young Stellar Objects with NuSTAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vievering, Juliana; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Smith, David M.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Young stellar objects (YSOs), which tend to flare more frequently and at higher temperatures than what is typically observed on Sun-like stars, are excellent targets for studying the nature of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and transport in large flaring events. Multiple star-forming regions have been observed in the past by soft x-ray missions such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, but the <span class="hlt">energy</span> ranges of these missions fall off prior to the hard x-ray regime, where it would be possible to search for a crossover from thermal to nonthermal emission. To investigate this hard x-ray emission, three 50ks observations of the star-forming region rho Ophiuchi have been taken with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), which is optimized over the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range of 3-79 keV. Multiple stellar flares have been identified in the observations; here we present the current spectral and timing analyses of the brightest of the these events, exploring the way <span class="hlt">energy</span> is <span class="hlt">released</span> as well as the effects of these large flares on the surrounding environment. We compare these results to what is typically observed for solar flares.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JETP..118..534V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JETP..118..534V"><span>Correlated states and transparency of a barrier for low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> particles at monotonic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of a potential well with dissipation and a stochastic force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vysotskii, V. I.; Vysotskyy, M. V.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The features of the formation of correlated coherent states of a particle in a parabolic potential well at its monotonic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> (expansion or compression) in finite limits have been considered in the presence of dissipation and a stochastic force. It has been shown that, in both <span class="hlt">deformation</span> regimes, a correlated coherent state is rapidly formed with a large correlation coefficient | r| → 1, which corresponds at a low <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the particle to a very significant (by a factor of 1050-10100 or larger) increase in the transparency of the potential barrier at its interaction with atoms (nuclei) forming the "walls" of the potential well or other atoms located in the same well. The efficiency of the formation of correlated coherent states, as well as | r|, increases with an increase in the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> interval and with a decrease in the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> time. The presence of the stochastic force acting on the particle can significantly reduce the maximum | r| value and result in the fast relaxation of correlated coherent states with | r| → 0. The effect of dissipation in real systems is weaker than the action of the stochastic force. It has been shown that the formation of correlated coherent states at the fast expansion of the well can underlie the mechanism of nuclear reactions at a low <span class="hlt">energy</span>, e.g., in microcracks developing in the bulk of metal hydrides loaded with hydrogen or deuterium, as well as in a low-pressure plasma in a variable magnetic field in which the motion of ions is similar to a harmonic oscillator with a variable frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23e5005L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23e5005L"><span>A concept for <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesting from quasi-static structural <span class="hlt">deformations</span> through axially loaded bilaterally constrained columns with multiple bifurcation points</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lajnef, N.; Burgueño, R.; Borchani, W.; Sun, Y.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A major obstacle limiting the development of deployable sensing and actuation solutions is the scarcity of power. Converted <span class="hlt">energy</span> from ambient loading using piezoelectric scavengers is a possible solution. Most of the previously developed research focused on vibration-based piezoelectric harvesters which are typically characterized by a response with a narrow natural frequency range. Several techniques were used to improve their effectiveness. These methods focus only on the transducer’s properties and configurations, but do little to improve the stimuli from the source. In contrast, this work proposes to focus on the input <span class="hlt">deformations</span> generated within the structure, and the induction of an amplified amplitude and up-converted frequency toward the harvesters’ natural spectrum. This paper introduces the concept of using mechanically-equivalent <span class="hlt">energy</span> converters and frequency modulators that can transform low-amplitude and low-rate service <span class="hlt">deformations</span> into an amplified vibration input to the piezoelectric transducer. The introduced concept allows <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion within the unexplored quasi-static frequency range (≪1 Hz). The post-buckling behavior of bilaterally constrained columns is used as the mechanism for frequency up-conversion. A bimorph cantilever polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam is used for <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion. Experimental prototypes were built and tested to validate the introduced concept and the levels of extractable power were evaluated for different cases under varying input frequencies. Finally, finite element simulations are reported to provide insight into the scalability and performance of the developed concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B41E0368K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B41E0368K"><span>Influence of ultrasonic <span class="hlt">energy</span> on dispersion of aggregates and <span class="hlt">released</span> amounts of organic matter and polyvalent cations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaiser, M.; Kleber, M.; Berhe, A. A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Aggregates play important roles in soil carbon storage and stabilization. Identification of scale-dependent mechanisms of soil aggregate formation and stability is necessary to predict and eventually manage the flow of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems. Application of ultrasonic <span class="hlt">energy</span> is a common tool to disperse soil aggregates. In this study, we used ultra sonic <span class="hlt">energy</span> (100 to 2000 J cm-3) to determine the amount of polyvalent cations and organic matter involved in aggregation processes in three arable and three forest soils that varied in soil mineral composition. To determine the amount of organic matter and cations <span class="hlt">released</span> after application of different amount of ultrasonic <span class="hlt">energy</span>, we removed the coarse fraction (>250 µm). The remaining residue (<250 µm) was mixed with water and ultrasonically dispersed by application of 100, 200, 400, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 J cm-3 <span class="hlt">energy</span>. After centrifugation the supernatant was filtered and the solid residue freeze dried before we analyzed the amounts of water-extracted organic carbon (OC), Fe, Al, Ca, Mn, and Mg in the filtrates. The extracted OM and solid residues were further characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra Red spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our results show a linear increase in amount of dissolved OC with increasing amounts of ultra sonic <span class="hlt">energy</span> up to 1500 J cm-3 indicating maximum dispersion of soil aggregates at this <span class="hlt">energy</span> level independent from soil type or land use. In contrast to Mn, and Mg, the amounts of dissolved Ca, Fe, and Al increase with increasing ultra sonic <span class="hlt">energy</span> up to 1500 J cm-3. At 1500 J cm-3, the absolute amounts of OC, Ca, Fe, and Al <span class="hlt">released</span> were specific for each soil type, likely indicating differences in type of OM-mineral interactions involved in micro-scaled aggregation processes. The amounts of dissolved Fe, and Al <span class="hlt">released</span> after an application of 1500 J cm-3 are not related to oxalate- and dithionite- extractable, or total Al content indicating less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21388729','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21388729"><span>Measurement of kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in CO fragmentation by charge-changing collisions of fast heavy ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mizuno, T.; Yamada, T.; Tsuchida, H.; Itoh, A.; Nakai, Y.</p> <p>2010-01-15</p> <p>We study ionization and fragmentation of CO in electron loss and capture collisions of B{sup 2+}, O{sup 2+}, and Si{sup 2+} ions at an <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 71.4 keV/u (v=1.69 a.u.). Coincidence measurements of fragment ions from CO and charge-selected ions were performed by means of a momentum three-dimensional imaging technique. Production cross sections of CO{sup r+} and branching ratios into various fragmentation channels were obtained for r=1-4. We also measured kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> (KER) in individual fragmentation channels. The KER spectra for r<=2 are found to be different for electron loss and capture collisions, while the difference becomes small for r>=3. As a measure of the degree of molecular fragmentation, the magnitude of the binding <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the relevant electronic states seems the important parameter both in loss and capture collisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22314728','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22314728"><span>Procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin fields of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the core of VVER-type reactor for the BIPR-8 code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gordienko, P. V. Kotsarev, A. V.; Lizorkin, M. P.</p> <p>2014-12-15</p> <p>The procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin <span class="hlt">energy-release</span> fields for the BIPR-8 code and the algorithm of the BIPR-8 code which is used in nodal computation of the reactor core and on which the recovery of pin-by-pin fields of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is based are briefly described. The description and results of the verification using the module of recovery of pin-by-pin <span class="hlt">energy-release</span> fields and the TVS-M program are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15961531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15961531"><span>Dose-related effects of lauric acid on antropyloroduodenal motility, gastrointestinal hormone <span class="hlt">release</span>, appetite, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> intake in healthy men.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Little, Tanya J; Feltrin, Kate L; Horowitz, Michael; Smout, Andre J P M; Rades, Thomas; Meyer, James H; Pilichiewicz, Amelia N; Wishart, Judith; Feinle-Bisset, Christine</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>We recently reported that intraduodenal infusion of lauric acid (C12) (0.375 kcal/min, 106 mM) stimulates isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs), inhibits antral and duodenal pressure waves (PWs), stimulates <span class="hlt">release</span> of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and suppresses <span class="hlt">energy</span> intake and that these effects are much greater than those seen in response to isocaloric decanoic acid (C10) infusion. Administration of C12 was, however, associated with nausea, confounding interpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different intraduodenal doses of C12 on antropyloroduodenal (APD) motility, plasma CCK and GLP-1 concentrations, appetite, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> intake. Thirteen healthy males were studied on 4 days in double-blind, randomized fashion. APD pressures, plasma CCK and GLP-1 concentrations, and appetite perceptions were measured during 90-min ID infusion of C12 at 0.1 (14 mM), 0.2 (28 mM), or 0.4 (56 mM) kcal/min or saline (control; rate 4 ml/min). <span class="hlt">Energy</span> intake was determined at a buffet meal immediately following infusion. C12 dose-dependently stimulated IPPWs, decreased antral and duodenal motility, and stimulated secretion of CCK and GLP-1 (r > 0.4, P < 0.05 for all). C12 (0.4 kcal/min) suppressed <span class="hlt">energy</span> intake compared with control, C12 (0.1 kcal/min), and C12 (0.2 kcal/min) (P < 0.05). These effects were observed in the absence of nausea. In conclusion, intraduodenal C12 dose-dependently modulated APD motility and gastrointestinal hormone <span class="hlt">release</span> in healthy male subjects, whereas effects on <span class="hlt">energy</span> intake were only apparent with the highest dose infused (0.4 kcal/min), possibly because only at this dose was modulation of APD motility and gastrointestinal hormone secretion sufficient for a suppressant effect on <span class="hlt">energy</span> intake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4981940','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4981940"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> dispersive X-ray microanalysis, fluoride <span class="hlt">release</span>, and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saxena, Sudhanshu; Tiwari, Sonia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aim: The aim of this study was to compare constituents of glass powder, fluoride <span class="hlt">release</span>, and antimicrobial properties of new atraumatic restorative treatment material with zirconia fillers and conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) type IX. Materials and Methods: Thisin vitro study comparing Zirconomer and Fuji IX was executed in three parts: (1) <span class="hlt">energy</span> dispersive X-ray microanalysis of glass powders (2) analysis of fluoride <span class="hlt">release</span> at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day, and (3) antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Candida albicans at 48 hours. Data was analyzed using unpaired t-test and two way analysis of variance followed by least significant difference post hoc test. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: <span class="hlt">Energy</span> dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed that, in both Zirconomer and Fuji IX glass powders, mean atomic percentage of oxygen was more than 50%. According to the weight percentage, zirconium in Zirconomer and silica in Fuji IX were the second main elements. Calcium, zinc, and zirconium were observed only in Zirconomer. At all the time intervals, statistically significant higher amount of fluoride <span class="hlt">release</span> was observed with Zirconomer than Fuji IX. At 48 hours, mean ± standard deviation (SD) of zone of inhibition against Streptococcus mutans was 11.14 ± 0.77 mm and 8.51 ± 0.43 mm for Zirconomer and Fuji IX, respectively. Against Lactobacillus casei, it was 14.06 ± 0.71 mm for Zirconomer and 11.70 ± 0.39 mm for Fuji IX. No antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans by Zirconomer and Fuji IX. Conclusion: Zirconomer had higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei, which may be attributed to its composition and higher fluoride <span class="hlt">release</span>. However, it failed to show antifungal effect againstCandida albicans. PMID:27583226</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22540808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22540808"><span>Field-induced expansion <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in Pb islands on Cu(111): evidence from <span class="hlt">energy</span> shift of empty quantum-well states.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chan, W Y; Huang, H S; Su, W B; Lin, W H; Jeng, H-T; Wu, M K; Chang, C S</p> <p>2012-04-06</p> <p>We use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to measure the <span class="hlt">energy</span> shift of empty quantum-well (QW) states in Pb islands on the Cu(111) surface. It is found that, with an increase of the electric field, the behavior of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> shift can be grouped into two different modes for most QW states. In the first mode, the state <span class="hlt">energy</span> moves toward high <span class="hlt">energy</span> monotonically. In the second mode, the state <span class="hlt">energy</span> shifts to a lower <span class="hlt">energy</span> initially and then turns around to a higher <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Moreover, we have observed that the QW states of higher <span class="hlt">energy</span> behave in preference to the first mode, but they gradually change to the second mode as the Pb island becomes thicker. This thickness-dependent behavior reflects the existence of local expansion in the Pb islands, due to the electric field, and that the expansion is larger for a thicker island. QW states can thus be used for studying the localized lattice <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in the nanometer scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3225D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3225D"><span>Estimation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and thermal properties of ejected clasts from explosive eruptions using a thermal imaging camera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Cárdenas-Sánchez, E.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Thermal images were obtained at Popocatépetl, central Mexico, during the period of high lava-dome destruction activity between 1998 and 2002. Similarly, thermal cameras have operated at Colima volcano, western Mexico during episodes of similar explosive activity in 2005 and 2007. We have developed a method to estimate the relative thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> among explosions, and the degree of conversion into mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> spent in the fragmentation of the ejecta, based on the cooling rate inferred from successive thermal images obtained immediately after each explosion. The thermal imaging cameras were located at about 11 km from the crater at Popocatépetl, and at about 6 km from the crater at Colima. The selected explosions threw significant amounts of hot debris on the volcano flanks. The cooling rate was then measured on selected pixels of the thermal images, and compared with different possible distributions of fragment sizes considering weighted averages of fragments in the pixels. The optimal fitting of fragment distributions reveals the degree of fragmentation of individual explosions, and along with a model for the cooling process, permitted to estimate the relative thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> on the area covered by the image. Additionally, the results indicate that the radiative thermal conductivity plays a significant role on the outer shell of the fragments, suggesting a free mean path of thermal infrared photons that may reach several millimeters or even a few centimeters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V53C2812C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V53C2812C"><span>Volcanic Clast Cooling Model for the Estimation of the Thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> from Vulcanian or Strombolian Explosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cárdenas-Sánchez, E.; De La Cruz-Reyna, S.; Varley, N. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Images were obtained at Popocatepetl and Volcán de Colima, Mexico, during periods of high explosivity, wich resulted lava dome destructions during 1998-2002 and 2005-2007 respectively. We have developed a method to estimate the relative thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> for explosions, and the degree of conversion into mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> spent during fragmentation of the ejecta, based on the cooling rate inferred from successive thermal images obtained immediately after each explosion. The cooling rate was measured on selected pixels of the thermal images, and compared with different possible distributions of fragment sizes considering weighted averages of fragments in the pixels. The selected explosions threw significant amounts of hot debris on the volcano flanks. The optimal fitting of fragment distributions reveals the degree of fragmentation of individual explosions, and along with a model for the cooling process, permitted an estimation of the relative thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> for the area covered by the image. Additionally, the results indicate that radiative thermal conductivity plays a significant role for the outer shell of the fragments, suggesting a free mean path of thermal infrared photons that may reach several millimeters or even a few centimeters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1339442','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1339442"><span><i>In situ</i> high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> X-ray diffraction study of tensile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of neutron-irradiated polycrystalline Fe-9%Cr alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xuan; Li, Meimei; Park, Jun -Sang; Kenesei, Peter; Almer, Jonathan; Xu, Chi; Stubbins, James F.</p> <p>2016-12-30</p> <p>The effect of neutron irradiation on tensile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of a Fe-9wt.%Cr alloy was investigated using <i>in situ</i> high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> synchrotron X-ray diffraction during room-temperature uniaxial tensile tests. New insights into the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanisms were obtained through the measurements of lattice strain evolution and the analysis of diffraction peak broadening using the modified Williamson-Hall method. Two neutron-irradiated specimens, one irradiated at 300 °C to 0.01 dpa and the other at 450 °C to 0.01dpa, were tested along with an unirradiated specimen. The macroscopic stress–strain curves of the irradiated specimens showed increased strength, reduced ductility and work-hardening exponent compared to the unirradiated specimen. The evolutions of the lattice strain, the dislocation density and the coherent scattering domain size in the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> process revealed different roles of the submicroscopic defects in the 300°C/0.01 dpa specimen and the TEM-visible nanometer-sized dislocation loops in the 450°C/0.01 dpa specimen: submicroscopic defects extended the linear work hardening stage (stage II) to a higher strain, while irradiation-induced dislocation loops were more effective in dislocation pinning. Lastly, while the work hardening rate of stage II was unaffected by irradiation, significant dynamic recovery in stage III in the irradiated specimens led to the early onset of necking without stage IV as observed in the unirradiated specimen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1247720','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1247720"><span>High-<span class="hlt">energy</span> X-ray diffuse scattering studies on <span class="hlt">deformation</span>-induced spatially confined martensitic transformations in multifunctional Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, J. P.; Wang, Y. D.; Hao, Y. L.; Wang, H. L.; Wang, Y.; Nie, Z. H.; Su, R.; Wang, D.; Ren, Y.; Lu, Z. P.; Wang, J. G.; Hui, X. D.; Yang, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Two main explanations exist for the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanisms in Ti-Nb-based gum metals, i.e. the formation of reversible nanodisturbance and reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. In this work, we used the in situ synchrotron-based high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> X-ray diffuse-scattering technique to reveal the existence of a specific <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanism, i.e. <span class="hlt">deformation</span>-induced spatially confined martensitic transformations, in Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn-0.10O single crystals with cubic 13 parent phase, which explains well some anomalous mechanical properties of the alloy such as low elastic modulus and nonlinear superelasticity. Two kinds of nanosized martensites with different crystal structures were found during uniaxial tensile loading along the [11 0](beta) axis at room temperature and 190 K, respectively. The detailed changes in the martensitic phase transformation characteristics and the transformation kinetics were experimentally observed at different temperatures. The domain switch from non-modulated martensite to a modulated one occurred at 190 K, with its physical origin attributed to the heterogeneity of local phonon softening depending on temperature and inhomogeneous composition in the parent phase. An in-depth understanding of the formation of stress-induced spatially confined nanosized martensites with a large gradient in chemical composition may benefit designs of high-strength and high-ductility alloys. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83f3103P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83f3103P"><span>On-line determination of Förster resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer efficiency in drying latex films: Correlation of interdiffusion and particle <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pohl, K.; Kussmaul, B.; Adams, J.; Johannsmann, D.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>An instrument is described, which measures the efficiency of Förster resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (FRET) in parallel to the sample's turbidity. The instrument was used to study the film formation from polymer latex dispersions. In this context, the FRET efficiency reflects the diffusion of polymer chains across the interparticle boundaries, while the loss of turbidity reflects the progress of particle <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Particle <span class="hlt">deformation</span> causes tensile in-plane stress, while polymer interdiffusion creates cohesion and thereby helps to prevent cracking. The relative timing between the two therefore is of fundamental importance for successful film formation. The on-line determination of FRET efficiency while the film dries is complicated by the fact that the fluorescence lifetime of the donor, τD, depends on the water content in the vicinity of the donor. In the established procedure for data analysis, drifts in τD induce corresponding artifical drifts in the values of the FRET efficiency. A novel algorithm for the analysis of fluorescence decay profiles is proposed, which makes use of the method of moments. The FRET efficiency is quantified by the upward curvature of the fluorescence decay curve in log-linear display. In the application example, interdiffusion is delayed relative to particle <span class="hlt">deformation</span> by about 10 min. For successful film formation, this delay should be as small as possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10116494','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10116494"><span>FEDS user`s guide: Facility <span class="hlt">energy</span> screening. <span class="hlt">Release</span> 2.10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dirks, J.A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The Facility <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Decision Screening (FEDS) Model is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US DOE Federal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Management Program (DOE-FEMP) and the US Army Construction Engineering REsearch Laboratory (USA-CERL). FEDS is a multi-level <span class="hlt">energy</span> analysis software system designed to provide a comprehensive approach to fuel-neutral, technology-independent, integrated (<span class="hlt">energy</span>) resource planning and acquisition. The FEDS system includes Level-1, which is a top-down, first-pass <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems analysis and <span class="hlt">energy</span> resource acquisition decision software model for buildings and facilities, and the Level-2 software model, which allows specific engineering inputs and provides detailed output. The basic intent of the model is to provide an installation with the information necessary to determine the minimum life-cycle cost (LCC) configuration of the installation`s <span class="hlt">energy</span> generation and consumption infrastructure. The model has no fuel or technology bias; it simply selects the technologies that will provide an equivalent or superior level of service (e.g., heating, cooling, illumination) at the minimum LCC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011915','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011915"><span>Strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate as a function of temperature and preloading history utilizing the edge delamination fatique test method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zimmerman, Richard S.; Adams, Donald F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Static laminate and tension-tension fatigue tests of IM7/8551-7 composite materials was performed. The Edge Delamination Test (EDT) was utilized to evaluate the temperature and preloading history effect on the critical strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate. Static and fatigue testing was performed at room temperature and 180 F (82 C). Three preloading schemes were used to precondition fatigue test specimens prior to performing the normal tension-tension fatigue EDT testing. Computer software was written to perform all fatigue testing while monitoring the dynamic modulus to detect the onset of delamination and record the test information for later retrieval and reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhCS.163a2088C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhCS.163a2088C"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> distributions for C+2 emission from multiply charged C60 and C70 fullerenes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cederquist, H.; Haag, N.; Berényi, Z.; Reinhed, P.; Fischer, D.; Gudmundsson, M.; Johansson, H. A. B.; Schmidt, H. T.; Zettergren, H.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>We present a systematic study of experimental kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> distributions for the asymmetric fission processes Cq+60 → C(iq-1<)+70+ C+2 and Cq+70 → C(q-1)+60+ C+2 for mother ions in charge states q = 4-8 produced in collisions with slow highly charged ions. Somewhat to our surprise, we find that the KERD for asymmetric fission from Cq+60 are considerably wider and have larger most likely values than the Cq+70 distributions in the corresponding charge states when q > 4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24619858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24619858"><span>Low effective activation <span class="hlt">energies</span> for oxygen <span class="hlt">release</span> from metal oxides: evidence for mass-transfer limits at high heating rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jian, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas W; Zachariah, Michael R</p> <p>2014-06-06</p> <p>Oxygen <span class="hlt">release</span> from metal oxides at high temperatures is relevant to many thermally activated chemical processes, including chemical-looping combustion, solar thermochemical cycles and energetic thermite reactions. In this study, we evaluated the thermal decomposition of nanosized metal oxides under rapid heating (~10(5) K s(-1)) with time-resolved mass spectrometry. We found that the effective activation-<span class="hlt">energy</span> values that were obtained using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method are much lower than the values found at low heating rates, indicating that oxygen transport might be rate-determining at a high heating rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246129','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246129"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> independent uptake and <span class="hlt">release</span> of polystyrene nanoparticles in primary mammalian cell cultures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fiorentino, Ilaria; Gualtieri, Roberto; Barbato, Vincenza; Mollo, Valentina; Braun, Sabrina; Angrisani, Alberto; Turano, Mimmo; Furia, Maria; Netti, Paolo A; Guarnieri, Daniela; Fusco, Sabato; Talevi, Riccardo</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Nanoparticle (NPs) delivery systems in vivo promises to overcome many obstacles associated with the administration of drugs, vaccines, plasmid DNA and RNA materials, making the study of their cellular uptake a central issue in nanomedicine. The uptake of NPs may be influenced by the cell culture stage and the NPs physical-chemical properties. So far, controversial data on NPs uptake have been derived owing to the heterogeneity of NPs and the general use of immortalized cancer cell lines that often behave differently from each other and from primary mammalian cell cultures. Main aims of the present study were to investigate the uptake, endocytosis pathways, intracellular fate and <span class="hlt">release</span> of well standardized model particles, i.e. fluorescent 44 nm polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs), on two primary mammalian cell cultures, i.e. bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) and human colon fibroblasts (HCF) by confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetric analysis. Different drugs and conditions that inhibit specific internalization routes were used to understand the mechanisms that mediate PS-NP uptake. Our data showed that PS-NPs are rapidly internalized by both cell types 1) with similar saturation kinetics; 2) through ATP-independent processes, and 3) quickly <span class="hlt">released</span> in the culture medium. Our results suggest that PS-NPs are able to rapidly cross the cell membrane through passive translocation during both uptake and <span class="hlt">release</span>, and emphasize the need to carefully design NPs for drug delivery, to ensure their selective uptake and to optimize their retainment in the targeted cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850041178&hterms=Storage+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DStorage%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850041178&hterms=Storage+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DStorage%2Benergy"><span>Magnetotail <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and <span class="hlt">release</span> during the CDAW 6 substorm analysis intervals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, D. N.; Fritz, T. A.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Fairfield, D. H.; Kamide, Y.; Baumjohann, W.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The concept of the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) grew out of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) program. According to this concept, data are to be pooled from a wide variety of spacecraft and ground-based sources for limited time intervals. These data are to provide the basis for the performance of very detailed correlative analyses, usually with fairly limited physical problems in mind. However, in the case of the CDAW 6 truly global goals are involved. The primary goal is to trace the flow of <span class="hlt">energy</span> from the solar wind through the magnetosphere to its ultimate dissipation by substorm processes. The present investigation has the specific goal to examine the evidence for the storage of solar wind <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the magnetotail prior to substorm expansion phase onsets. Of particular interest is the determination, in individual substorm cases, of the time delays between the loading of <span class="hlt">energy</span> into the magnetospheric system and the subsequent unloading of this <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..18...21A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..18...21A"><span>Fundamental Study of Direct Contact Cold <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> by Flowing Hot Air through Ice Particles Packed Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aoyama, Sigeo; Inaba, Hideo</p> <p></p> <p>This paper has dealt with the direct contact heat exchange characteristics between ice particles (average ice particle diameter : 3.10mm) packed in the rectangular cold <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage vessel and flowing hot air as a heat transfer medium. The hot air bubbles ascended in the fluidized ice particles layer, and they were cooled down directly by melting ice particles. The temperature efficiency increased as Reynolds number Re increased because the hot air flowing in the layer became active. The dehumidity efficiency increased with an increase in modified Stefan number and Re, since the heat capacity of inlet air and heat transfer coefficient increased. Finally, some empirical correlations for temperature efficiency, dehumidity efficiency and the completion time of cold <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> were derived in terms of various nondimensional parameters.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..88x1304P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..88x1304P"><span>Controlled <span class="hlt">energy</span>-selected electron capture and <span class="hlt">release</span> in double quantum dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pont, Federico M.; Bande, Annika; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Highly accurate quantum electron dynamics calculations demonstrate that <span class="hlt">energy</span> can be efficiently transferred between quantum dots. Specifically, in a double quantum dot an incoming electron is captured by one dot and the excess <span class="hlt">energy</span> is transferred to the neighboring dot and used to remove an electron from this dot. This process is due to long-range electron correlation and shown to be operative at rather large distances between the dots. The efficiency of the process is greatly enhanced by preparing the double quantum dot such that the incoming electron is initially captured by a two-electron resonance state of the system. In contrast to atoms and molecules in nature, double quantum dots can be manipulated to achieve this enhancement. This mechanism leads to a surprisingly narrow distribution of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the electron removed in the process which is explained by resonance theory. We argue that the process could be exploited in practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25176577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25176577"><span>Imaging of doxorubicin <span class="hlt">release</span> from theranostic macromolecular prodrugs via fluorescence resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krüger, Harald R; Schütz, Irene; Justies, Aileen; Licha, Kai; Welker, Pia; Haucke, Volker; Calderón, Marcelo</p> <p>2014-11-28</p> <p>Herein we present a FRET-based theranostic macromolecular prodrug (TMP) composed of (a) dendritic polyglycerol (PG) as polymeric nanocarrier, (b) doxorubicin (Dox) linked via a pH-sensitive hydrazone to (c) a tri-functional linker, and (d) an indodicarbocyanine dye (IDCC) attached in close proximity to Dox. The drug fluorescence is quenched via intramolecular FRET until the pH-sensitive hydrazone bond between the TMP and Dox is cleaved at acidic pH. By measuring its fluorescence, we characterized the TMP cleavage kinetics at different pH values in vitro. The intracellular <span class="hlt">release</span> of Dox from the carrier was monitored in real time in intact cancer cells, giving more insight into the mode of action of a polymer drug conjugate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763378','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763378"><span>Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Fusion Reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.</p> <p>1999-08-14</p> <p>Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870004360','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870004360"><span>Q3DG: A computer program for strain-<span class="hlt">energy-release</span> rates for delamination growth in composite laminates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raju, I. S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Q3DG is a computer program developed to perform a quasi-three-dimensional stress analysis for composite laminates which may contain delaminations. The laminates may be subjected to mechanical, thermal, and hygroscopic loads. The program uses the finite element method and models the laminates with eight-noded parabolic isoparametric elements. The program computes the strain-<span class="hlt">energy-release</span> components and the total strain-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in all three modes for delamination growth. A rectangular mesh and data file generator, DATGEN, is included. The DATGEN program can be executed interactively and is user friendly. The documentation includes sections dealing with the Q3D analysis theory, derivation of element stiffness matrices and consistent load vectors for the parabolic element. Several sample problems with the input for Q3DG and output from the program are included. The capabilities of the DATGEN program are illustrated with examples of interactive sessions. A microfiche of all the examples is included. The Q3DG and DATGEN programs have been implemented on CYBER 170 class computers. Q3DG and DATGEN were developed at the Langley Research Center during the early eighties and documented in 1984 to 1985.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CompM..49..459O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CompM..49..459O"><span>Formulation and implementation of a high-order 3-D domain integral method for the extraction of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozer, H.; Duarte, C. A.; Al-Qadi, I. L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This article presents a three dimensional (3-D) formulation and implementation of a high-order domain integral method for the computation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate. The method is derived using surface and domain formulations of the J-integral and the weighted residual method. The J-integral along 3-D crack fronts is approximated by high-order Legendre polynomials. The proposed implementation is tailored for the Generalized/eXtended Finite Element Method and can handle discontinuities arbitrarily located within a finite element mesh. The domain integral calculations are based on the same integration elements used for the computation of the stiffness matrix. Discontinuities of the integrands across crack surfaces and across computational element boundaries are fully accounted for. The proposed method is able to deliver smooth approximations and to capture the boundary layer behavior of the J-integral using tetrahedral meshes. Numerical simulations of mode-I and mixed mode benchmark fracture mechanics examples verify expected convergence rates for the computed <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates. The results are also in good agreement with other numerical solutions available in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27523328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27523328"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> of the Singly and Doubly Charged Methylene Chloride Molecule: The Role of Fast Dissociation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alcantara, K F; Rocha, A B; Gomes, A H A; Wolff, W; Sigaud, L; Santos, A C F</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The center of mass kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> distribution (KERD) spectra of selected ionic fragments, formed through dissociative single and double photoionization of CH2Cl2 at photon <span class="hlt">energies</span> around the Cl 2p edge, were extracted from the shape and width of the experimentally obtained time-of-flight (TOF) distributions. The KERD spectra exhibit either smooth profiles or structures, depending on the moiety and photon <span class="hlt">energy</span>. In general, the heavier the ionic fragments, the lower their average KERDs are. In contrast, the light H(+) fragments are observed with kinetic <span class="hlt">energies</span> centered around 4.5-5.5 eV, depending on the photon <span class="hlt">energy</span>. It was observed that the change in the photon <span class="hlt">energy</span> involves a change in the KERDs, indicating different processes or transitions taking place in the breakup process. In the particular case of double ionization with the ejection of two charged fragments, the KERDs present have characteristics compatible with the Coulombic fragmentation model. Intending to interpret the experimental data, singlet and triplet states at Cl 2p edge of the CH2Cl2 molecule, corresponding to the Cl (2p → 10a1*) and Cl (2p → 4b1*) transitions, were calculated at multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) level and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI). These states were selected to form the spin-orbit coupling matrix elements, which after diagonalization result in a spin-orbit manifold. Minimum <span class="hlt">energy</span> pathways for dissociation of the molecule were additionally calculated aiming to give support to the presence of the ultrafast dissociation mechanism in the molecular breakup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5049949','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5049949"><span>Effects of levomilnacipran extended-<span class="hlt">release</span> on motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> and functioning in adults with major depressive disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Kramer, Kenneth; Sambunaris, Angelo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the relationship between motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> and functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were taken from a phase 3 trial of levomilnacipran extended-<span class="hlt">release</span> (ER) in adults with MDD (NCT01034462; N=429) that used the 18-item Motivation and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Inventory (MEI) to assess motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span>. Two subgroups with lower and higher motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> were defined using baseline MEI total scores (≤28 and >28, respectively). Change from baseline in the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score was analyzed in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and both subgroups. Path analyses were carried out in the ITT population and a lower MEI subgroup to assess the direct and indirect effects of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score change. In the ITT population and the lower MEI subgroup, significant differences were found between levomilnacipran ER and placebo for changes in the SDS total score (−2.6 and −3.9, both P<0.01), but not in the higher MEI subgroup. The indirect effect of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score improvement, as mediated by MEI total score change, was 79.9% in the lower MEI subgroup and 67.2% in the ITT population. Levomilnacipran ER was previously shown to improve motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> in adults with MDD. The current analysis indicates that improvements in functional impairment were considerably mediated by improvements in motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span>, particularly in patients with lower motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> at baseline. PMID:27455513</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455513"><span>Effects of levomilnacipran extended-<span class="hlt">release</span> on motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> and functioning in adults with major depressive disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thase, Michael E; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Kramer, Kenneth; Sambunaris, Angelo</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the relationship between motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> and functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were taken from a phase 3 trial of levomilnacipran extended-<span class="hlt">release</span> (ER) in adults with MDD (NCT01034462; N=429) that used the 18-item Motivation and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Inventory (MEI) to assess motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span>. Two subgroups with lower and higher motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> were defined using baseline MEI total scores (≤28 and >28, respectively). Change from baseline in the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score was analyzed in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and both subgroups. Path analyses were carried out in the ITT population and a lower MEI subgroup to assess the direct and indirect effects of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score change. In the ITT population and the lower MEI subgroup, significant differences were found between levomilnacipran ER and placebo for changes in the SDS total score (-2.6 and -3.9, both P<0.01), but not in the higher MEI subgroup. The indirect effect of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score improvement, as mediated by MEI total score change, was 79.9% in the lower MEI subgroup and 67.2% in the ITT population. Levomilnacipran ER was previously shown to improve motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> in adults with MDD. The current analysis indicates that improvements in functional impairment were considerably mediated by improvements in motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span>, particularly in patients with lower motivation/<span class="hlt">energy</span> at baseline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28565910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28565910"><span>Photochemical <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage and Electrochemically Triggered <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in the Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane System: UV Photochemistry and IR Spectroelectrochemistry in a Combined Experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brummel, Olaf; Waidhas, Fabian; Bauer, Udo; Wu, Yanlin; Bochmann, Sebastian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Papp, Christian; Bachmann, Julien; Libuda, Jörg</p> <p>2017-07-06</p> <p>The two valence isomers norbornadiene (NBD) and quadricyclane (QC) enable solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage in a single molecule system. We present a new photoelectrochemical infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PEC-IRRAS) experiment, which allows monitoring of the complete <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and <span class="hlt">release</span> cycle by in situ vibrational spectroscopy. Both processes were investigated, the photochemical conversion from NBD to QC using the photosensitizer 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone (Michler's ketone, MK) and the electrochemically triggered cycloreversion from QC to NBD. Photochemical conversion was obtained with characteristic conversion times on the order of 500 ms. All experiments were performed under full potential control in a thin-layer configuration with a Pt(111) working electrode. The vibrational spectra of NBD, QC, and MK were analyzed in the fingerprint region, permitting quantitative analysis of the spectroscopic data. We determined selectivities for both the photochemical conversion and the electrochemical cycloreversion and identified the critical steps that limit the reversibility of the storage cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840022388&hterms=earthquake+prediction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dearthquake%2Bprediction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840022388&hterms=earthquake+prediction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dearthquake%2Bprediction"><span>Crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, S. C.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The manner in which the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">deforms</span> during the cycle of stress accumulation and <span class="hlt">release</span> along major faults is investigated. In an investigation of the crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> associated with a thin channel asthenosphere displacements are reduced from those computed for a half space asthenosphere. A previous finding by other workers that displacements are enhanced when flow is confined to a thin channel is based on several invalid approximations. The major predictions of the finite element model are that the near field postseismic displacements and strain rates are less than those for a half space asthenosphere and that the postseismic strain rates at intermediate distances are greater (in magnitude). The finite width of the asthenosphere ceases to have a significant impact on the crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> pattern when its magnitude exceeds about three lithosphere thicknesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840022388&hterms=Earthquake+prediction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DEarthquake%2Bprediction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840022388&hterms=Earthquake+prediction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DEarthquake%2Bprediction"><span>Crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, S. C.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The manner in which the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">deforms</span> during the cycle of stress accumulation and <span class="hlt">release</span> along major faults is investigated. In an investigation of the crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> associated with a thin channel asthenosphere displacements are reduced from those computed for a half space asthenosphere. A previous finding by other workers that displacements are enhanced when flow is confined to a thin channel is based on several invalid approximations. The major predictions of the finite element model are that the near field postseismic displacements and strain rates are less than those for a half space asthenosphere and that the postseismic strain rates at intermediate distances are greater (in magnitude). The finite width of the asthenosphere ceases to have a significant impact on the crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> pattern when its magnitude exceeds about three lithosphere thicknesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518432','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518432"><span>Characterization Techniques Employed to Determine the <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> of Reactive Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>high speed imaging, and radiography , data can be collected and processed to characterize the <span class="hlt">energy</span>...the event consist of high speed imaging, emission spectroscopy, pyrometry, pressure measurements and radiography . Due to limited space, a series of... process . Three distinct high speed imaging techniques are incorporated into the testing process ; regular high speed , ultra high speed , and high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7..870G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7..870G"><span>Calculation and modeling of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> in result of water freezing process (WFP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghodsi Hassanabad, M.; Mehrbadi, A. Dehghani</p> <p></p> <p>Process of water freezing in different pressures has been studied with appropriate accuracy and freezing phenomenon has been tested in variety conditions. The effects of pressure on volume change in constant volume and constant pressure have also been reviewed. Calculation of these changes has been done by using the finite difference. Therefore, experimental model has been designed and built to validate these calculations and this experimental model has been studied the power of freezing water during the freezing process in different conditions. Finally, the results were used to design a machine that has an ability to control the power of freezing and turn it into a new clean <span class="hlt">energy</span>. In this machine, some water is frozen due to temperature difference that is exerting between day and night and <span class="hlt">energy</span> which is produced by this reaction consumes for creating electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The amount of extractable power from the temperature difference between day and night were calculated in different temperatures. As an overall result, the most <span class="hlt">energy</span> extracted from freezing in one cubic meters water with a temperature below -22 °C during the night is 12.8 MJ, the equivalent of using 356 W for 10 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvD..64c6005A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvD..64c6005A"><span>Planck-scale <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of Lorentz symmetry as a solution to the ultrahigh <span class="hlt">energy</span> cosmic ray and the TeV-photon paradoxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Piran, Tsvi</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>One of the most puzzling current experimental physics paradoxes is the arrival on Earth of ultrahigh <span class="hlt">energy</span> cosmic rays (UHECRs) with <span class="hlt">energies</span> above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin threshold (5×1019 eV). Photopion production by cosmic microwave background radiation photons should reduce the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of these protons below this level. The recent observation of 20 TeV photons from Mk 501 (a BL Lac object at a distance of 150 Mpc) is another somewhat similar paradox. These high <span class="hlt">energy</span> photons should have disappeared due to pair production with IR background photons. A common feature of these two paradoxes is that they can both be seen as ``threshold anomalies'': <span class="hlt">energies</span> corresponding to an expected threshold (pion production or pair creation) are reached but the threshold is not observed. Several (relatively speculative) models have been proposed for the UHECR paradox. No solution has yet been proposed for the TeV-γ paradox. Remarkably, the single drastic assumption of the violation of ordinary Lorentz invariance would resolve both paradoxes. We present here a formalism for the systematic description of the type of Lorentz-invariance <span class="hlt">deformation</span> (LID) that could be induced by the nontrivial short-distance structure of space-time, and we show that this formalism is well suited for comparison of experimental data with LID predictions. We use the UHECR and TeV-γ data, as well as upper bounds on time-of-flight differences between photons of different <span class="hlt">energies</span>, to constrain the parameter space of the LID. A model with only two free parameters, an <span class="hlt">energy</span> scale and a dimensionless parameter characterizing the functional dependence on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> scale, is shown to be sufficient to solve both the UHECR and the TeV-γ threshold anomalies while satisfying the time-of-flight bounds. The allowed region of the two-parameter space is relatively small, but, remarkably, it fits perfectly the expectations of the quantum-gravity-motivated space-time models known to support such</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PAN....79.1391S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PAN....79.1391S"><span>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and temperature field in the ultracold neutron source of the WWR-M reactor at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Serebrov, A. P.; Kislitsin, B. V.; Onegin, M. S.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Prudnikov, D. V.; Ilatovskiy, V. A.; Orlov, S. P.; Kirsanov, G. A.; Fomin, A. K.; Filchenkova, D. V.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Results of calculations of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> and temperature fields in the ultracold neutron source under design at the WWR-M reactor are presented. It is shown that, with the reactor power of 18 MW, the power of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the 40-L volume of the source with superfluid helium will amount to 28.5 W, while 356 W will be <span class="hlt">released</span> in a liquid-deuterium premoderator. The lead shield between the reactor core and the source reduces the radiative heat <span class="hlt">release</span> by an order of magnitude. A thermal power of 22 kW is <span class="hlt">released</span> in it, which is removed by passage of water. The distribution of temperatures in all components of the vacuum structure is presented, and the temperature does not exceed 100°C at full reactor power. The calculations performed make it possible to go to design of the source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22614032','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22614032"><span>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and temperature field in the ultracold neutron source of the WWR-M reactor at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Serebrov, A. P. Kislitsin, B. V.; Onegin, M. S.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Prudnikov, D. V.; Ilatovskiy, V. A.; Orlov, S. P.; Kirsanov, G. A.; Fomin, A. K.; Filchenkova, D. V.</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>Results of calculations of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> and temperature fields in the ultracold neutron source under design at the WWR-M reactor are presented. It is shown that, with the reactor power of 18 MW, the power of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the 40-L volume of the source with superfluid helium will amount to 28.5 W, while 356 W will be <span class="hlt">released</span> in a liquid-deuterium premoderator. The lead shield between the reactor core and the source reduces the radiative heat <span class="hlt">release</span> by an order of magnitude. A thermal power of 22 kW is <span class="hlt">released</span> in it, which is removed by passage of water. The distribution of temperatures in all components of the vacuum structure is presented, and the temperature does not exceed 100°C at full reactor power. The calculations performed make it possible to go to design of the source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuMet2016..839B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuMet2016..839B"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> approach to the problem of calculating the stresses at the initial stages of plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of crystalline substances and the appearance of structural defects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belousov, O. K.; Palii, N. A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The critical shear stress and its temperature dependence are calculated for 12 simple substances with different structures and types of bonding. The shear stress for stage II-III of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of single crystals (τII-III) and σ0, y, i.e., the Hall-Petch relation extrapolated to an infinitely large grain size, are estimated. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> of formation of lattice defects (vacancies) is calculated using a proposed expression. The results of calculation of the elastic shear <span class="hlt">energy</span> of a matrix and regions with a high elastic anisotropy are used to estimate the role of elastic anisotropy in lattice stability and fracture. The calculated and experimental results agree satisfactorily with each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U53B0063F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U53B0063F"><span>Kinematics and dynamics of the northern North American Cordillera: <span class="hlt">deformation</span> related to plate convergence, flat-slab subduction, and gravitational potential <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finzel, E.; Flesch, L. M.; Ridgway, K. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We use finite element models to investigate the <span class="hlt">deformational</span> driving forces in Alaska and northwestern Canada as they relate to flat-slab subduction, tectonic extrusion, and existing block models. First, long-term velocity and strain rate fields are quantified using continuous spline functions to interpolate between observed strain rate data inferred from: 1) select GPS sites interpreted to represent the long-term signal of <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, 2) plate and microplate motion models, 3) ridge spreading rates, 4) seismicity, and 5) Quaternary fault slip rates. Our calculated fault slip rates indicate that ~82% of the mostly dextral motion between the Pacific and North American plates is accommodated along the Queen Charlotte fault system to the east, whereas the Aleutian Megathrust accommodates ~60% of the oblique convergence between the Pacific and North American plates to the west. The highest strain rate magnitudes are located along plate margin faults and above the region of flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate. Furthermore, results from our best-fit kinematic model suggest that the interaction between the Pacific, North American, and Bering plates may be the dominant driver controlling southwestward rotation of the velocity field in southern Alaska. Whereas this outcome cannot conclusively rule out the possibility of tectonic extrusion in the study area, it does not support it either. Next, we calculate the two primary sources of deviatoric stress responsible for driving <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in Alaska, namely deviatoric stresses associated with gravitational potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> (GPE) variations in the lithosphere (buoyancy forces) and relative plate motions and basal tractions (boundary forces). We find the affects of incorporating, versus excluding, a subducting slab in GPE calculations for this region to be minimal. Deviatoric stress magnitudes associated with the vertically averaged GPE within a 100-km-thick lithosphere are on the order of 5-10 MPa, whereas magnitudes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/303922','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/303922"><span>Measurement of an upper limit of fission <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in HOLOG using a germanium gamma ray detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, T.F.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>An upper limit of less than 4 mg TNT equivalent fission <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from the HOLOG experiment was determined using a germanium {gamma}-ray detector to measure the ratio of selected fission-product and plutonium {gamma} rays. Only three hours of {gamma}-ray data collected immediately after the zero-time were analyzed to calculate the above limit. We found no peaks corresponding to the {sup 97} Zr - {sup 97} Nb fission product pair at the gamma-ray <span class="hlt">energies</span> of E{sub {gamma}} = 743 keV and E{sub {gamma}} = 658 keV, respectively. No information on the plutonium isotopic ratios is revealed because {gamma}-ray peaks in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> region below 100 keV are not observed due to the high absorption in the containment barrier. The measurement is relatively easy to perform and is not subject to false-positive results because specific fission product and plutonium {gamma} ray <span class="hlt">energies</span> need to be detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18942803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18942803"><span>Photothermal initiation of hybrid organic/inorganic metastable interstitial composites: synergistic effects on the dynamics of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mileham, Melissa L; Park, Chi-Dong; van de Burgt, Lambertus J; Kramer, Michael P; Stiegman, A E</p> <p>2008-12-11</p> <p>The organic high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> material pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was incorporated at low concentrations into Al (100 nm)/Fe(2)O(3) metastable intersitital composites (MIC) to form a hybrid organic/inorganic high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> material. Studies of the dynamics of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> were carried out by initiating the reaction photothermally with a single 8 ns pulse of the 1064 nm fundamental of a Nd:YAG laser. The reaction dynamics were measured using time-resolved spectroscopy of the light emitted from the deflagrating material. Two parameters were measured: the time to initiation and the duration of the deflagration. The presence of small amounts of PETN (16 mg/g of MIC) results in a dramatic decrease in the initiation time. This is attributed to a contribution to the temperature of the reacting system from the combustion of the PETN that, at lower loadings, appears to follow an Arrhenius dependence. The presence of PETN was also found to reduce the <span class="hlt">energy</span> density required for single-pulse photothermal initiation by an order of magnitude, suggesting that hybrid materials such as this may be engineered to optimize their use as an efficient photodetonation medium.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012141&hterms=Renewable+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRenewable%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012141&hterms=Renewable+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRenewable%2Benergy"><span>Surface Meteorology and Solar <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (SSE) Data <span class="hlt">Release</span> 5.1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>The Surface meteorology and Solar <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (SSE) data set contains over 200 parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems.The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6231312','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6231312"><span>Charge, quantum state, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of impurities <span class="hlt">released</span> in plasma-wall interaction processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gruen, D.M.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Conventional wisdom has it that total sputtering yields correlate with high Z-impurity levels found in fusion plasmas. The charge, quantum states and <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of sputtered atoms have been virtually ignored in these considerations. Impurity transport from the wall or limiter to the plasma is, however, strongly influenced by these factors which may play a crucial role in determining impurity levels in the deeper plasma regions. Preliminary calculations have shown that positively charged impurities would most likely be redeposited on their surfaces of origin. The conditions leading to charged or excited state atoms emission and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of such species are reviewed. Techniques for measuring these quantities are discussed and the need for a wider data base in this field is pointed out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052987&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DNeutralization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052987&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DNeutralization"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> transport by energetic electrons <span class="hlt">released</span> during solar flares. II - Current filamentation and plasma heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Pritchett, P. L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations are performed in order to investigate <span class="hlt">energy</span> transport associated with the propagation of energetic electrons through a flaring flux tube. Results indicate that as the energetic electrons flow outward, a return current of ambient plasma electrons is drawn inward (to maintain quasi-neutrality) which can be spatially separate from the primary current carried by the energetic electrons. Return current electrons are shown to accumulate on either side of the acceleration region of the energetic electrons, and depletions of ambient plasma electrons develop in the return current regions. Plasma ions accelerate across the field lines to produce current closure or charge neutralization, achieving <span class="hlt">energies</span> comparable to those of the energetic electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012141&hterms=renewable+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drenewable%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012141&hterms=renewable+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drenewable%2Benergy"><span>Surface Meteorology and Solar <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (SSE) Data <span class="hlt">Release</span> 5.1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>The Surface meteorology and Solar <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (SSE) data set contains over 200 parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems.The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870052713&hterms=joule&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Djoule','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870052713&hterms=joule&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Djoule"><span>Numerical simulation of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> build-up and <span class="hlt">release</span> via Joule dissipation. [solar MHD model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; Wang, J. F.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A new numerical MHD model is developed to study the evolution of an active region due to photospheric converging motion, which leads to magnetic-<span class="hlt">energy</span> buildup in the form of electric current. Because this new MHD model has incorporated finite conductivity, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion occurs from magnetic mode to thermal mode through Joule dissipation. In order to test the causality relationship between the occurrence of flare and photospheric motion, a multiple-pole configuration with neutral point is used. Using these results it is found that in addition to the converging motion, the initial magnetic-field configuration and the redistribution of the magnetic flux at photospheric level enhance the possibility for the development of a flare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7616374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7616374"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> of the Stokes B2 rotary tablet press: quantitation and influence on tablet compaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altaf, S A; Hoag, S W</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Deformations</span> that affect the vertical punch displacement of a Stokes B2 rotary tablet press were characterized with a cathetometer. The press <span class="hlt">deformation</span> was found to be elastic for both the upper and lower compression roller assemblies. However, the upper and lower compression roller assemblies have different Hookian spring constants: 8.58 x 10(4) and 5.18 x 10(4) kN/m for the upper and lower assemblies, respectively. Using two-way analysis of variance, the Hookian spring constants were shown to be independent of compaction phases and lower punch penetration setting. To study the influence of press <span class="hlt">deformation</span> on tablet compaction, the Hookian spring constants were factored into the caculation of the incremental work of compaction for dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate and microcrystalline cellulose. As the peak compression pressure increases, the force-displacement work done on the tablet during the loading phase decreases relative to calculations that neglect press <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. This decrease in force-displacement work was attributed to elastic press <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, which absorbs <span class="hlt">energy</span> during the loading phase and then <span class="hlt">releases</span> this <span class="hlt">energy</span> later in the compaction cycle, altering the punch-displacement profile. The rate at which the press stores and <span class="hlt">releases</span> elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> depends in part upon the viscoelastic properties of the tablet. Based upon these results, the coupling between press elasticity and a tablet's viscoelastic properties should be accounted for when analyzing tablet compaction or trying to simulate the punch-displacement profile of a tablet press that <span class="hlt">deforms</span> during compaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255249','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255249"><span>Azole energetic materials: Initial mechanisms for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from electronical excited nitropyrazoles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yuan, Bing; Yu, Zijun; Bernstein, Elliot R.</p> <p>2014-01-21</p> <p>Decomposition of energetic material 3,4-dinitropyrazole (DNP) and two model molecules 4-nitropyrazole and 1-nitropyrazole is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The initial decomposition mechanisms for these three nitropyrazoles are explored with complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level. The NO molecule is observed as an initial decomposition product from all three materials subsequent to UV excitation. Observed NO products are rotationally cold (<50 K) for all three systems. The vibrational temperature of the NO product from DNP is (3850 ± 50) K, 1350 K hotter than that of the two model species. Potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> surface calculations at the CASSCF(12,8)/6-31+G(d) level illustrate that conical intersections plays an essential role in the decomposition mechanism. Electronically excited S{sub 2} nitropyraozles can nonradiatively relax to lower electronic states through (S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}){sub CI} and (S{sub 1}/S{sub 0}){sub CI} conical intersection and undergo a nitro-nitrite isomerization to generate NO product either in the S{sub 1} state or S{sub 0} state. In model systems, NO is generated in the S{sub 1} state, while in the energetic material DNP, NO is produced on the ground state surface, as the S{sub 1} decomposition pathway is energetically unavailable. The theoretically predicted mechanism is consistent with the experimental results, as DNP decomposes in a lower electronic state than do the model systems and thus the vibrational <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the NO product from DNP should be hotter than from the model systems. The observed rotational <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions for NO are consistent with the final structures of the respective transition states for each molecule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669392"><span>Azole energetic materials: initial mechanisms for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from electronical excited nitropyrazoles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yuan, Bing; Yu, Zijun; Bernstein, Elliot R</p> <p>2014-01-21</p> <p>Decomposition of energetic material 3,4-dinitropyrazole (DNP) and two model molecules 4-nitropyrazole and 1-nitropyrazole is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The initial decomposition mechanisms for these three nitropyrazoles are explored with complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level. The NO molecule is observed as an initial decomposition product from all three materials subsequent to UV excitation. Observed NO products are rotationally cold (<50 K) for all three systems. The vibrational temperature of the NO product from DNP is (3850 ± 50) K, 1350 K hotter than that of the two model species. Potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> surface calculations at the CASSCF(12,8)/6-31+G(d) level illustrate that conical intersections plays an essential role in the decomposition mechanism. Electronically excited S2 nitropyraozles can nonradiatively relax to lower electronic states through (S2/S1)CI and (S1/S0)CI conical intersection and undergo a nitro-nitrite isomerization to generate NO product either in the S1 state or S0 state. In model systems, NO is generated in the S1 state, while in the energetic material DNP, NO is produced on the ground state surface, as the S1 decomposition pathway is energetically unavailable. The theoretically predicted mechanism is consistent with the experimental results, as DNP decomposes in a lower electronic state than do the model systems and thus the vibrational <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the NO product from DNP should be hotter than from the model systems. The observed rotational <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions for NO are consistent with the final structures of the respective transition states for each molecule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880043940&hterms=sound+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880043940&hterms=sound+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Benergy"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> transport by energetic electrons <span class="hlt">released</span> during solar flares. I - Thermal versus nonthermal processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Pritchett, P. L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The propagation of energetic electrons through a flaring flux tube is studied in an attempt to determine how the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the electrons is deposited in the flux tube. One-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations are used in the present investigation. As the energetic electrons propagate into the system, a return current of ambient plasma electrons and some of the energetic electrons is drawn into the energetic electron source. It is found that, as the ambient temperature relative to the ion temperature increases above about 3, the heated return-current electrons can excite ion-sound waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJD...51...81B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJD...51...81B"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> of small amino acids upon interaction with keV ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bari, S.; Alvarado, F.; Postma, J.; Sobocinski, P.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlathölter, T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In chromatin, DNA is tightly packed into one complex together with histone and non-histone proteins. These proteins are known to protect the DNA against indirect and to some extent even direct radiation damage. Radiation action upon amino acids is thus one of the primary steps in biological radiation action. In this paper we investigate the ionization and fragmentation of the gas-phase amino acids glycine, alanine and valine upon interaction with keV α-particles. High resolution coincidence time-of-flight mass spectrometry is used to determine the dominant fragmentation channels as well as fragment kinetic <span class="hlt">energies</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8591M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8591M"><span>Diffuse volcanic degassing and thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> 2015 surveys from the summit cone of Teide volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melián, Gladys; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padilla, Germán; Alonso, Mar; Halliwell, Simon; Sharp, Emerson; Butters, Damaris; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Cook, Jenny; Pérez, Nemesio M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The summit cone of Teide volcano (Spain) is characterized by the presence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground, and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around this area. The temperature of the fumaroles (83° C) corresponds to the boiling point of water at discharge conditions. Water is the major component of these fumarolic emissions, followed by CO2, N2, H2, H2S, HCl, Ar, CH4, He and CO, a composition typical of hydrothermal fluids. Previous diffuse CO2 surveys have shown to be an important tool to detect early warnings of possible impending volcanic unrests at Tenerife Island (Melián et al., 2012; Pérez et al., 2013). In July 2015, a soil and fumarole gas survey was undertaken in order to estimate the diffuse volcanic degassing and thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from the summit cone of Teide volcano. A diffuse CO2 emission survey was performed selecting 170 observation sites according to the accumulation chamber method. Soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2d-1) up to 10,672 g m-2d-1, with an average value of 601 g m-2d-1. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. Measurement of soil CO2 efflux allowed an estimation of 162 ± 14 t d-1 of deep seated derived CO2. To calculate the steam discharge associated with this volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 output, we used the average H2O/CO2 mass ratio equal to 1.19 (range, 0.44-3.42) as a representative value of the H2O/CO2 mass ratios for Teide fumaroles. The resulting estimate of the steam flow associated with the gas flux is equal to 193 t d-1. The condensation of this steam results in a thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of 5.0×1011J d-1 for Teide volcano or a total heat flow of 6 MWt. The diffuse gas emissions and thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">released</span> from the summit of Teide volcano are comparable to those observed at other volcanoes. Sustained surveillance using these methods will be valuable for monitoring the activity of Teide volcano.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHEP...09..078F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHEP...09..078F"><span>A piece of cake: the ground-state <span class="hlt">energies</span> in γ i -<span class="hlt">deformed</span> = 4 SYM theory at leading wrapping order</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fokken, Jan; Sieg, Christoph; Wilhelm, Matthias</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In the non-supersymmetric γi-<span class="hlt">deformed</span> = 4 SYM theory, the scaling dimensions of the operators tr[ Z L ] composed of L scalar fields Z receive finite-size wrapping and prewrapping corrections in the 't Hooft limit. In this paper, we calculate these scaling dimensions to leading wrapping order directly from Feynman diagrams. For L ≥ 3, the result is proportional to the maximally transcendental `cake' integral. It matches with an earlier result obtained from the integrability-based Lüscher corrections, TBA and Y-system equations. At L = 2, where the integrability-based equations yield infinity, we find a finite rational result. This result is renormalization-scheme dependent due to the non-vanishing β-function of an induced quartic scalar double-trace coupling, on which we have reported earlier. This explicitly shows that conformal invariance is broken — even in the 't Hooft limit. [Figure not available: see fulltext.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15559267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15559267"><span>Model verification of thermal programmed desorption-mass spectrometry for estimation of <span class="hlt">release</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on mineral sorbents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicholl, Sara I; Talley, Jeffrey W; Silliman, Stephan</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>The physical availability of organic compounds in soil and sediment strongly influences their bioavailability and toxicity. Previous work has indicated that physical availability changes throughout the processes of aging and treatment and that it can be linked to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> required to <span class="hlt">release</span> the compound from its sorbent matrix, with a higher <span class="hlt">energy</span> indicating a more tightly bound compound. This study focused on determining <span class="hlt">release</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> values for various mineral geosorbents (glass beads, sand, and kaolin) contaminated with a 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixture. The sorbents were analyzed using thermal program desorption/mass spectrometry (TPD/MS) and the <span class="hlt">release</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> values were calculated from the resulting thermograms utilizing a nonlinear fit of the analytical solution to a simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation. This solution method resulted in a series of combinations of values for the pre-exponential factor (v) and <span class="hlt">release</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> (E) that produced desorption rate curves with similar errors when fit to actual data sets. These combinations can be viewed as an error surface, which clearly shows a valley of minimum error values spanning the range of both E and v. This indicates that this method may not provide a unique set of E- and v-values and suggests that the simplified version of the Polanyi-Wigner equation cannot be used to determine <span class="hlt">release</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> based on TPD data alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..169a2007S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..169a2007S"><span>Radiation-induced defects, <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and <span class="hlt">release</span> in nitrogen solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savchenko, E.; Khyzhniy, I.; Uyutnov, S.; Bludov, M.; Barabashov, A.; Gumenchuk, G.; Bondybey, V.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>New trends in the study of radiation effects in nitrogen solids with a focus on the defect-induced processes are presented. An electron beam of subthreshold <span class="hlt">energy</span> was used to generate radiation defects via electronic subsystem. Experimental techniques developed enabled us to detect neutral and charged defects of both signs. Defect production and desorption were monitored using optical and current emission spectroscopy: cathodoluminescence CL, thermally stimulated luminescence TSL and exoelectron emission TSEE along with the detection of postdesorption. Our results show stabilization and accumulation of radiation defects – ionic centres of both signs (N4 +, N3 +, N3 -), trapped electrons and radicals (N, N3). The neutralization reactions: N4 ++e-→N4 *→N2 *(a‘1Σu -)+N2 *(a‘1Σu -) +ΔE 1 →N2 +N2 +2hν+ΔE 2 and N3 ++e-→N*(2D)+N2(1Σg +)+ΔE 3→N(4S)+N2(1Σg +)+h γ+ΔE 3 are shown to be the basis of defect production and anomalous low-temperature post-desorption ALTpD. The part played by pre-existing and radiation-induced defects in <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23344359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23344359"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in the solar corona from spatially resolved magnetic braids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cirtain, J W; Golub, L; Winebarger, A R; De Pontieu, B; Kobayashi, K; Moore, R L; Walsh, R W; Korreck, K E; Weber, M; McCauley, P; Title, A; Kuzin, S; DeForest, C E</p> <p>2013-01-24</p> <p>It is now apparent that there are at least two heating mechanisms in the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona. Wave heating may be the prevalent mechanism in quiet solar periods and may contribute to heating the corona to 1,500,000 K (refs 1-3). The active corona needs additional heating to reach 2,000,000-4,000,000 K; this heat has been theoretically proposed to come from the reconnection and unravelling of magnetic 'braids'. Evidence favouring that process has been inferred, but has not been generally accepted because observations are sparse and, in general, the braided magnetic strands that are thought to have an angular width of about 0.2 arc seconds have not been resolved. Fine-scale braiding has been seen in the chromosphere but not, until now, in the corona. Here we report observations, at a resolution of 0.2 arc seconds, of magnetic braids in a coronal active region that are reconnecting, relaxing and dissipating sufficient <span class="hlt">energy</span> to heat the structures to about 4,000,000 K. Although our 5-minute observations cannot unambiguously identify the field reconnection and subsequent relaxation as the dominant heating mechanism throughout active regions, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> available from the observed field relaxation in our example is ample for the observed heating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22275547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22275547"><span>An exoskeleton using controlled <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and <span class="hlt">release</span> to aid ankle propulsion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wiggin, M Bruce; Sawicki, Gregory S; Collins, Steven H</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Symmetric ankle propulsion is the cornerstone of efficient human walking. The ankle plantar flexors provide the majority of the mechanical work for the step-to-step transition and much of this work is delivered via elastic recoil from the Achilles' tendon - making it highly efficient. Even though the plantar flexors play a central role in propulsion, body-weight support and swing initiation during walking, very few assistive devices have focused on aiding ankle plantarflexion. Our goal was to develop a portable ankle exoskeleton taking inspiration from the passive elastic mechanisms at play in the human triceps surae-Achilles' tendon complex during walking. The challenge was to use parallel springs to provide ankle joint mechanical assistance during stance phase but allow free ankle rotation during swing phase. To do this we developed a novel `smart-clutch' that can engage and disengage a parallel spring based only on ankle kinematic state. The system is purely passive - containing no motors, electronics or external power supply. This `<span class="hlt">energy</span>-neutral' ankle exoskeleton could be used to restore symmetry and reduce metabolic <span class="hlt">energy</span> expenditure of walking in populations with weak ankle plantar flexors (e.g. stroke, spinal cord injury, normal aging). © 2011 IEEE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1339442-situ-high-energy-ray-diffraction-study-tensile-deformation-neutron-irradiated-polycrystalline-fe-cr-alloy','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1339442-situ-high-energy-ray-diffraction-study-tensile-deformation-neutron-irradiated-polycrystalline-fe-cr-alloy"><span>In situ high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> X-ray diffraction study of tensile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of neutron-irradiated polycrystalline Fe-9%Cr alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xuan; Li, Meimei; Park, Jun -Sang; ...</p> <p>2016-12-30</p> <p>The effect of neutron irradiation on tensile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of a Fe-9wt.%Cr alloy was investigated using in situ high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> synchrotron X-ray diffraction during room-temperature uniaxial tensile tests. New insights into the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanisms were obtained through the measurements of lattice strain evolution and the analysis of diffraction peak broadening using the modified Williamson-Hall method. Two neutron-irradiated specimens, one irradiated at 300 °C to 0.01 dpa and the other at 450 °C to 0.01dpa, were tested along with an unirradiated specimen. The macroscopic stress–strain curves of the irradiated specimens showed increased strength, reduced ductility and work-hardening exponent compared to the unirradiated specimen.more » The evolutions of the lattice strain, the dislocation density and the coherent scattering domain size in the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> process revealed different roles of the submicroscopic defects in the 300°C/0.01 dpa specimen and the TEM-visible nanometer-sized dislocation loops in the 450°C/0.01 dpa specimen: submicroscopic defects extended the linear work hardening stage (stage II) to a higher strain, while irradiation-induced dislocation loops were more effective in dislocation pinning. Lastly, while the work hardening rate of stage II was unaffected by irradiation, significant dynamic recovery in stage III in the irradiated specimens led to the early onset of necking without stage IV as observed in the unirradiated specimen.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.foothealthfacts.org/conditions/haglund%E2%80%99s-deformity','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.foothealthfacts.org/conditions/haglund%E2%80%99s-deformity"><span>Haglund's <span class="hlt">Deformity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">deformity</span> is often called “pump bump” because the rigid backs of pump-style shoes can create pressure ... when walking. In fact, any shoes with a rigid back, such as ice skates, men’s dress shoes ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003185.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003185.htm"><span>Contracture <span class="hlt">deformity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Deformity</span> - contracture ... Contracture can be caused by any of the following: Brain and nervous system disorders, such as cerebral ... Follow your health care provider's instructions for treating contracture at home. Treatments may include: Doing exercises and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3786010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3786010"><span>Spinal <span class="hlt">deformity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bunnell, W P</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>Spinal <span class="hlt">deformity</span> is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the <span class="hlt">deformity</span>. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.147f4307Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.147f4307Q"><span>The collision-free photochemistry of methyl azide at 157 nm: Mechanism and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quinto-Hernandez, Alfredo; Lee, Shih-Huang; Wodtke, Alec M.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Synchrotron radiation VUV-photoionization based photofragment translational spectroscopy was used to identify the primary and secondary photodissociation reactions of methyl azide (CH3N3) at 157 nm under collision-free conditions. Two primary dissociation channels are identified, leading to CH3 + N3 (the radical channel) and CH3N + N2 (the molecular elimination channel). The last channel is the major dissociation pathway, but unlike work at longer photolysis wavelengths, here, the radical channel exclusively produces the higher <span class="hlt">energy</span> isomer cyclic-N3. Product time-of-flight data for both channels were obtained and compared with earlier work on methyl azide photochemistry at 193 nm based on electron impact ionization, allowing us to estimate a product branching ratio Φ/CH3-N3 ΦCH3N-N2 =2.3/% ±0.6 % 97.7 % ±0.6 % .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27982749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27982749"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span>-triggered drug <span class="hlt">release</span> from polymer nanoparticles for orthopedic applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pullan, Jessica E; Pullan, Austin T; Taylor, V Bryce; Brooks, Benjamin D; Ewert, Daniel; Brooks, Amanda E</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Sequestra, present in many cancers and orthopedic infections, provide a safe harbor for the development of drug resistance. In the face of burgeoning drug resistance, the importance of nanoscale, microenvironment-triggered drug delivery cannot be overestimated. Such strategies may preserve pharmaceutical efficacy and significantly alter the etiology of many orthopedic diseases. Although temperature-, pH- and redox-responsive nanoparticle-based systems have been extensively studied, local drug delivery from polymeric nanoparticles can be triggered by a variety of <span class="hlt">energy</span> forms. This review offers an overview of the state of the field as well as a perspective on the safety and efficacy of ultrasound, hyperthermia and radio frequency-triggered internal delivery systems in a variety of applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApCM...21..399S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApCM...21..399S"><span>A Novel Method for Calculation of Strain <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate of Asymmetric Double Cantilever Laminated Composite Beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shokrieh, M. M.; Zeinedini, A.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In this research, a novel data reduction method for calculation of the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate ( SERR) of asymmetric double cantilever beams ( ADCB) is presented. For this purpose the elastic beam theory ( EBT) is modified and the new method is called as the modified elastic beam theory ( MEBT). Also, the ADCB specimens are modeled using ABAQUS/Standard software. Then, the initiation of delamination of ADCB specimens is modeled using the virtual crack closure technique ( VCCT). Furthermore, magnitudes of the SERR for different samples are also calculated by an available data reduction method, called modified beam theory ( MBT). Using the hand lay-up method, different laminated composite samples are manufactured by E-glass/epoxy unidirectional plies. In order to measure the SERR, all samples are tested using an experimental setup. The results determined by the new data reduction method ( MEBT) show good agreements with the results of the VCCT and the MBT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870033836&hterms=espacio&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Despacio','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870033836&hterms=espacio&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Despacio"><span>Spatial and temporal characteristics of flare <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> determined from X-ray and radio imaging observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hernandez, A. M.; Machado, M. E.; Vilmer, N.; Trottet, G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Using the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) from the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the morphological aspects and temporal evolution of three major flares which occurred on June 29, 1980 are studied. One of these events, observed at 10:40 UT, is analyzed in particular detail, including Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) data and metric wavelength data from the Nancay radioheliograph. The flares occurred during the interaction of two distinct magnetic structures. There is an early onset phase during which there is a weak level of particle acceleration, perhaps accompanied by strong heating within the magnetic interaction region. The impulsive phase of high power <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is associated with a major interaction between the two structures and accompanied by strong acceleration and heating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JVST...22..837C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JVST...22..837C"><span>Dry <span class="hlt">release</span> of polymer structures with anti-sticking layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, M. C.; Gadre, A. P.; Garra, J. A.; Nijdam, A. J.; Luo, C.; Schneider, T. W.; White, R. C.; Currie, J. F.; Paranjape, M.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>A dry <span class="hlt">release</span> method using a thin Teflon™ layer for SU-8 multilayered polymeric microstructures is presented. The low surface <span class="hlt">energy</span> of Teflon makes the adhesion of SU-8 and substrate poor, enabling the SU-8 polymer photoresist to be removed after the devices have been fully processed. The surface <span class="hlt">energy</span> was measured using the open-crack method, and the surface roughness and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of the <span class="hlt">released</span> SU-8 were minimized in our processing. The dry <span class="hlt">release</span> technique eliminates the diffusion limited problem in wet etching and is suitable to package complex three-dimensional polymer microfluidic devices. One such example, which provided the original impetus to formulate a dry <span class="hlt">release</span> process, is a multilayered SU-8 structure that encapsulates small quantities of fluid. This device is being developed for a biomedical application, and will be used throughout this article as an example of a complex SU-8 structure that uses the dry <span class="hlt">release</span> process. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031804"><span>Microcalorimetric studies on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> of isolated rat mitochondria under different concentrations of gadolinium (III).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Jie; Ma, Long; Xiang, Xun; Guo, Qing-Lian; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Liu, Yi</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Gadolinium-based compounds are most widely utilized for paramagnetic contrast agents, but, the toxicological mechanism of gadolinium (Gd) had not been fully elucidated since the first report about Gd anomaly. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Gd(3+) on mitochondria in vitro by microcalorimetry. Microcalorimetry can provide detailed kinetic and thermodynamic information from thermogenic curve. At the tested concentration, Gd(3+) induced the increase of growth rate constant (k1). At high concentration (100-500 μM), the maximum power output time (tm), the decline rate constant (-k2) and the time of activity recovery phase (tR) decreased with the addition of Gd(3+) and the maximum power output (Pm) increased. At low concentration (0-100 μM), the changes were different from high concentration. From the results we concluded that the effect of different concentrations of Gd(3+) had a relationship with time, high concentration of Gd(3+) induced mitochondrial <span class="hlt">energy</span> metabolism disturb however low concentration may promote mitochondrial adaption to physiological stresses. The effect of low concentration of Gd(3+) need more work to elucidate the mechanism. The results of total heat output (Q) and mitochondrial respiratory activities suggested high concentrations of Gd(3+) could accelerate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption under respiratory system damaged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.H1085Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.H1085Y"><span>Initial Decomposition Mechanism study for the <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> from Electronical Excited Energetic Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Bing</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Decomposition of energetic materials FOX-7 and 3,4-dinitropyrazole (DNP) are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The two energetic model systems 1-nitropyrazole and 4-nitropyrazole are also studied as a comparison for DNP. The NO molecule is observed as an initial decomposition product from all four materials subsequent to UV excitation and the observed NO products are rotationally cold (< 50 K). The vibrational temperature of the NO product from DNP is 3300 K, 1400 K hotter than that of its model species. The vibrational temperature of the NO product from FOX-7 is 1900 K. The initial decomposition mechanisms of these materials are explored at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level. Potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> surface (PES) calculations at the CASSCF(12,8)/6-31+G(d) level illustrate that conical intersections play an essential role in the decomposition mechanism. Electronically excited S2 molecules can nonradiatively relax to lower electronic states through (S2/S1)CI and (S1/S0)CI conical intersections and undergo a nitro-nitrite isomerization to generate an NO product either on the S1 state or S0 state PES. For model systems, NO is generated on the S1 state PES, while for the energetic materials FOX-7 and DNP, NO is produced on the ground state PES,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026530"><span>A method for the monitoring of metal recrystallization based on the in-situ measurement of the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> using neutron diffraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Christien, F; Telling, M T F; Knight, K S; Le Gall, R</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>A method is proposed for the monitoring of metal recrystallization using neutron diffraction that is based on the measurement of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Experiments were performed using <span class="hlt">deformed</span> metal specimens heated in-situ while mounted at the sample position of the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer, HRPD (ISIS Facility), UK. Monitoring the breadth of the resulting Bragg lines during heating not only allows the time-dependence (or temperature-dependence) of the stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> to be determined but also the recrystallized fraction. The analysis method presented here was developed using pure nickel (Ni270) specimens with different <span class="hlt">deformation</span> levels from 0.29 to 0.94. In situ temperature ramping as well as isothermal annealing was undertaken. The method developed in this work allows accurate and quantitative monitoring of the recrystallization process. The results from neutron diffraction are satisfactorily compared to data obtained from calorimetry and hardness measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86e3901C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86e3901C"><span>A method for the monitoring of metal recrystallization based on the in-situ measurement of the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> using neutron diffraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christien, F.; Telling, M. T. F.; Knight, K. S.; Le Gall, R.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>A method is proposed for the monitoring of metal recrystallization using neutron diffraction that is based on the measurement of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Experiments were performed using <span class="hlt">deformed</span> metal specimens heated in-situ while mounted at the sample position of the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer, HRPD (ISIS Facility), UK. Monitoring the breadth of the resulting Bragg lines during heating not only allows the time-dependence (or temperature-dependence) of the stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> to be determined but also the recrystallized fraction. The analysis method presented here was developed using pure nickel (Ni270) specimens with different <span class="hlt">deformation</span> levels from 0.29 to 0.94. In situ temperature ramping as well as isothermal annealing was undertaken. The method developed in this work allows accurate and quantitative monitoring of the recrystallization process. The results from neutron diffraction are satisfactorily compared to data obtained from calorimetry and hardness measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392501','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392501"><span>A method for the monitoring of metal recrystallization based on the in-situ measurement of the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> using neutron diffraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Christien, F. Le Gall, R.; Telling, M. T. F.; Knight, K. S.</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>A method is proposed for the monitoring of metal recrystallization using neutron diffraction that is based on the measurement of stored <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Experiments were performed using <span class="hlt">deformed</span> metal specimens heated in-situ while mounted at the sample position of the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer, HRPD (ISIS Facility), UK. Monitoring the breadth of the resulting Bragg lines during heating not only allows the time-dependence (or temperature-dependence) of the stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> to be determined but also the recrystallized fraction. The analysis method presented here was developed using pure nickel (Ni270) specimens with different <span class="hlt">deformation</span> levels from 0.29 to 0.94. In situ temperature ramping as well as isothermal annealing was undertaken. The method developed in this work allows accurate and quantitative monitoring of the recrystallization process. The results from neutron diffraction are satisfactorily compared to data obtained from calorimetry and hardness measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23340460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23340460"><span>Correction of postburn equinus <span class="hlt">deformity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hur, Gi-Yeun; Rhee, Byung-Jun; Ko, Jang-Hyu; Seo, Dong-Kook; Choi, Jai-Koo; Jang, Young-Chul; Lee, Jong-Wook</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Equinus <span class="hlt">deformity</span> is characterized by an abnormal tiptoe gait and does not allow normal walking, hence needing correction. Congenital causes of equinus <span class="hlt">deformity</span> include neurological diseases such as cerebral palsy and poliomyelitis. Acquired causes include injuries such as extensive trauma. We have corrected equinus <span class="hlt">deformity</span> from extensive lower leg burns by a single operation through excisional <span class="hlt">release</span> of the scar, Achilles lengthening, and radial forearm free flap. Fifteen patients with postburn equinus <span class="hlt">deformity</span> who were treated between January 2000 and March 2012 were retrospectively studied. We investigated their age, sex, cause and severity of burn injury, equinus degree, ankle range of motion and the changes in the activity, extent of Achilles lengthening, flap size, complication, and the recurrence in these patients. The average degree of equinus <span class="hlt">deformity</span> before the operation was 45 degrees. With an average Achilles lengthening of 4.6 cm, all patients achieved neutral position. The patients who had poor activity due to tiptoe gait before the operation showed good to fair levels of walking ability postoperatively. During an average follow-up period of 3 years and 9 months, no patients had a recurrence. Equinus <span class="hlt">deformity</span> causes significant restrictions to walking and the reconstruction is a challenging problem. Although prevention is more important during the initial stages of treatment, we have successfully corrected patients with existing equinus <span class="hlt">deformity</span> by scar <span class="hlt">release</span>, Z-tenoplasty of Achilles, and radial forearm free flap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391034','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391034"><span>Quasilocal <span class="hlt">energy</span> for three-dimensional massive gravity solutions with chiral <span class="hlt">deformations</span> of AdS{sub 3} boundary conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garbarz, Alan; Giribet, Gaston E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar; Goya, Andrés E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar; Leston, Mauricio</p> <p>2015-03-26</p> <p>We consider critical gravity in three dimensions; that is, the New Massive Gravity theory formulated about Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space with the specific value of the graviton mass for which it results dual to a two-dimensional conformai field theory with vanishing central charge. As it happens with Kerr black holes in four-dimensional critical gravity, in three-dimensional critical gravity the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes have vanishing mass and vanishing angular momentum. However, provided suitable asymptotic conditions are chosen, the theory may also admit solutions carrying non-vanishing charges. Here, we give simple examples of exact solutions that exhibit falling-off conditions that are even weaker than those of the so-called Log-gravity. For such solutions, we define the quasilocal stress-tensor and use it to compute conserved charges. Despite the drastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of AdS{sub 3} asymptotic, these solutions have finite mass and angular momentum, which are shown to be non-zero.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhSS...57.1166G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhSS...57.1166G"><span>Effect of the milling <span class="hlt">energy</span> on the anisotropy of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> distortions in nanocrystalline powders of nonstoichiometric tantalum carbide TaC y</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gusev, A. I.; Kurlov, A. S.; Bel'kov, A. M.; Bel'kova, T. D.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The effect of the milling <span class="hlt">energy</span> and nonstoichiometry of cubic tantalum carbide TaC y (0.81 ≤ y ≤ 0.96) on the strain anisotropy of the crystal and the size of particles in nanocrystalline powders has been experimentally investigated using X-ray diffraction. The functional dependence of the reduced broadening of diffraction reflections on the scattering vector, which takes into account the contributions of the size, strain, and inhomogeneous broadenings, has been obtained. The average size of coherent scattering regions and the crystallite microstrain accounting for the anisotropy of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> distortions have been estimated. It has been shown that a more precise description of the experimental data on the broadening of diffraction reflections is achieved by the inclusion of the microstrain anisotropy and inhomogeneous broadening in the analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22350794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22350794"><span>Improving the mechanical properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glass by controlling the activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> for β-relaxation through plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adachi, Nozomu; Todaka, Yoshikazu Umemoto, Minoru; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko</p> <p>2014-09-29</p> <p>The mechanism of plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is widely believed to be based on a shear transformation zone (STZ). This model assumes that a shear-induced atomic rearrangement occurs at local clusters that are a few to hundreds of atoms in size. It was recently postulated that the potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier for STZ activation, W{sub STZ}, calculated using the cooperative shear model, is equivalent to the activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> for β-relaxation, E{sub β}. This result suggested that the fundamental process for STZ activation is the mechanically activated β-relaxation. Since the E{sub β} value and the glass transition temperature T{sub g} of BMGs have a linear relation, that is, because E{sub β} ≈ 26RT{sub g}, the composition of the BMG determines the ease with which the STZ can be activated. Enthalpy relaxation experiments revealed that the BMG Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} when <span class="hlt">deformed</span> by high-pressure torsion (HPT) has a lower E{sub β} of 101 kJ/mol. The HPT-processed samples accordingly exhibited tensile plastic elongation (0.34%) and marked decreases in their yield strength (330 MPa). These results suggest that mechanically induced structural defects (i.e., the free volume and the anti-free volume) effectively act to reduce W{sub STZ} and increase the number of STZs activated during tensile testing to accommodate the plastic strain without requiring a change in the composition of the BMG. Thus, this study shows quantitatively that mechanically induced structural defects can overcome the compositional limitations of E{sub β} (or W{sub STZ}) and result in improvements in the mechanical properties of the BMG.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.843a2004K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.843a2004K"><span>Theoretical prediction of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3526686','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3526686"><span>Is Spreading Depolarization Characterized by an Abrupt, Massive <span class="hlt">Release</span> of Gibbs Free <span class="hlt">Energy</span> from the Human Brain Cortex?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dreier, Jens P.; Isele, Thomas; Reiffurth, Clemens; Offenhauser, Nikolas; Kirov, Sergei A.; Dahlem, Markus A.; Herreras, Oscar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the evolution of the cerebral cortex, the sophisticated organization in a steady state far away from thermodynamic equilibrium has produced the side effect of two fundamental pathological network events: ictal epileptic activity and spreading depolarization. Ictal epileptic activity describes the partial disruption, and spreading depolarization describes the near-complete disruption of the physiological double Gibbs–Donnan steady state. The occurrence of ictal epileptic activity in patients has been known for decades. Recently, unequivocal electrophysiological evidence has been found in patients that spreading depolarizations occur abundantly in stroke and brain trauma. The authors propose that the ion changes can be taken to estimate relative changes in Gibbs free <span class="hlt">energy</span> from state to state. The calculations suggest that in transitions from the physiological state to ictal epileptic activity to spreading depolarization to death, the cortex <span class="hlt">releases</span> Gibbs free <span class="hlt">energy</span> in a stepwise fashion. Spreading depolarization thus appears as a twilight state close to death. Consistently, electrocorticographic recordings in the core of focal ischemia or after cardiac arrest display a smooth transition from the initial spreading depolarization component to the later ultraslow negative potential, which is assumed to reflect processes in cellular death. PMID:22829393</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22140168','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22140168"><span>FIELD LINES TWISTING IN A NOISY CORONA: IMPLICATIONS FOR <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> STORAGE AND <span class="hlt">RELEASE</span>, AND INITIATION OF SOLAR ERUPTIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, M.; Einaudi, G.</p> <p>2013-07-10</p> <p>We present simulations modeling closed regions of the solar corona threaded by a strong magnetic field where localized photospheric vortical motions twist the coronal field lines. The linear and nonlinear dynamics are investigated in the reduced magnetohydrodynamic regime in Cartesian geometry. Initially the magnetic field lines get twisted and the system becomes unstable to the internal kink mode, confirming and extending previous results. As typical in this kind of investigations, where initial conditions implement smooth fields and flux-tubes, we have neglected fluctuations and the fields are laminar until the instability sets in. However, previous investigations indicate that fluctuations, excited by photospheric motions and coronal dynamics, are naturally present at all scales in the coronal fields. Thus, in order to understand the effect of a photospheric vortex on a more realistic corona, we continue the simulations after kink instability sets in, when turbulent fluctuations have already developed in the corona. In the nonlinear stage the system never returns to the simple initial state with ordered twisted field lines, and kink instability does not occur again. Nevertheless, field lines get twisted, although in a disordered way, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> accumulates at large scales through an inverse cascade. This <span class="hlt">energy</span> can subsequently be <span class="hlt">released</span> in micro-flares or larger flares, when interaction with neighboring structures occurs or via other mechanisms. The impact on coronal dynamics and coronal mass ejections initiation is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MsT..........6D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MsT..........6D"><span>Recuperation d'<span class="hlt">energie</span> issue des <span class="hlt">deformations</span> de structures aeronautiques a l'aide de materiaux piezoelectriques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Debeaux, Sebastien</p> <p></p> <p>Aerospace structural maintenance (fuselage, wings) is a major component of operational costs which requires aircraft to be grounded and some of its parts to be dismantled in order to proceed to inspection. In order to allow <italic> in situ</italic> monitoring, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been proposed where sensors and actuators are integrated on the structure. To avoid extensive wiring of the nodes, wireless sensors and actuators are attractive but should be self powered to fully benefit from them. One idea is to convert the mechanical <span class="hlt">energy</span> (vibrations) available all over an aircraft into electricity using piezoelectric materials. This work investigates the potential of strain-based <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesters (as opposed to inertial harvesters) to supply wireless nodes on typical aircraft structures. A simple model is used to describe typical dynamic behavior of aircraft components: a beam representing the whole wing subjected to aerodynamic loading and a plate representing a fuselage panel subjected to pressure fields (jet noise and turbulent boundary layer). Various configurations of piezoelectric materials are tested such as bulk PZT, PZT fiber composite and Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) in order to evaluate the influence of their characteristics (size, polarization, electrodes' shape, capacitance...) on the harvested power. The results show that for a typical aerospace excitation of the beam (10 Hz and 56 μdef), the <span class="hlt">energy</span> produced is up to 40 mJ with bulk PZT for a 7 minutes loading time. From the literature, this appears sufficient for RF transmission (25 μJ). For other excitation sources (for instance jet noise), the <span class="hlt">energy</span> produced is up to only 1 mJ with bulk PZT for a 25 minutes loading time. The drawback is that we should wait for several seconds in order to charge the harvester's battery. And, considering that many other components than the RF transceiver will require <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the meantime, the time laps between two' measures could increase to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMMR33C2605O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMMR33C2605O"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> Monitoring of AN Active Fault</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ostapchuk, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The discovery of low frequency earthquakes, slow slip events and other <span class="hlt">deformation</span> phenomena, new for geophysics, change our understanding of how the <span class="hlt">energy</span> accumulated in the Earth's crust do <span class="hlt">release</span>. The new geophysical data make one revise the underlying mechanism of geomechanical processes taking place in fault zones. Conditions for generating different slip modes are still unclear. The most vital question is whether a certain slip mode is intrinsic for a fault or may be controlled by external factors. This work presents the results of two and a half year <span class="hlt">deformation</span> monitoring of a discontinuity in the zone of the Main Sayanskiy Fault. Main Sayanskiy Fault is right-lateral strike-slip fault. Observations were performed in the tunnel of Talaya seismic station (TLY), Irkutsk region, Russia. Measurements were carried out 70 m away from the entrance of the tunnel, the thickness of overlying rock was about 30 m. Inductive sensors of displacement were mounted at the both sides of a discontinuity, which recorded three components of relative fault side displacement with the accuracy of 0.2 mcm. Temperature variation inside the tunnel didn't exceed 0.5oC during the all period of observations. Important information about <span class="hlt">deformation</span> properties of an active fault was obtained. A pronounced seasonality of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> characteristics of discontinuity is observed in the investigated segment of rock. A great number of slow slip events with durations from several hours to several weeks were registered. Besides that alterations of fault <span class="hlt">deformation</span> characteristics before the megathrust earthquake M9.0 Tohoku Oki 11 March 2011 and reaction to the event itself were detected. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 14-17-00719).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJWC..6603075S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJWC..6603075S"><span>Microscopic time-dependent analysis of neutrons transfers at low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> nuclear reactions with spherical and <span class="hlt">deformed</span> nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samarin, Viacheslav</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Time-dependent Schrödinger equation is numerically solved by difference method for external neutrons of nuclei 6He, 18O, 48Са, 238U at their grazing collisions with <span class="hlt">energies</span> in the vicinity of a Coulomb barrier. The spin-orbital interaction and Pauli's exclusion principle were taken into consideration during the solution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P41B1619H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P41B1619H"><span>True polar wander of a quasi-fluid planet with a fossil shape: Effect of strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> due to tidal <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harada, Y.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In the present study, temporal variation of a paleo-pole position due to TPW is formulated and calculated based on strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> in a previous study. Especially, quasi-fluid approximation is suitable to deal with large-scale and long-term variation of a paleo-pole position. Thus, an orientation of a paleo-rotation axis in each time step is estimated in here by following conventional formulation with the quasi-fluid approximation for TPW, and simultaneously by taking total <span class="hlt">energy</span> minimization into account. In practice, this procedure is physically same as to incorporate elastic torque due to tidal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of a lithosphere into the Liouville equation including the quasi-fluid approximation. In this study, like the previous one, only one symmetric surface load is regarded as a driving force of TPW for convenience sake. In this calculation, variable parameters are defined as follows: a location of emplacement, duration of formation, and maximum of intensity of a load. The result with strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> is compared with that without strain <span class="hlt">energy</span>. As a result, the case with the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> indicates different characteristics from that without the strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the following points. First, the paleo-poles under steady states are different each other in the cases for same parameters. These results are not consistent even with the previous results concerning just the final condition. Second, also in the cases for same parameters, time scales when the paleo-poles reach the static limits are different. These results demonstrate the fact that strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> within a lithosphere effectively weakens influence of a load on TPW. Although this kind of influence has already been pointed out by the previous results just in the cases of the steady states, the present results further revealed similar effect also on a characteristic time scale of TPW. Strictly speaking, however, it is impossible to estimate this exact time scale only by reducing an effective size of a load. This is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhA.tmp..295S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhA.tmp..295S"><span>Variation in electromagnetic radiation during plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> under tension and compression of metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Ranjana; Lal, S. P.; Misra, Ashok</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents some significant variations in the intermittent electromagnetic radiation (EMR) during plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> under tension and compression of some metals with selected crystal structure, viz. zinc, hexagonal closed packed (hcp), copper, face-centred cubic (fcc: stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> 0.08 J/m2), aluminium (fcc: stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> 0.2 J/m2) and 0.18 % carbon steel, body-centred cubic (bcc). The intermittent EMR signals starting near yielding are either oscillatory or exponential under both modes of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> except a very few intermediate signals, random in nature, in zinc under compression. The number and amplitude of EMR signals exhibit marked variations under tension and compression. The smooth correlation between elastic strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate and average EMR <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate suggests a novel technique to determine the fracture toughness of metals. The first EMR emission amplitude and EMR <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate occurring near the yield increase, but maximum EMR <span class="hlt">energy</span> burst frequency decreases almost linearly with increase in Debye temperature of the metals under tension while all EMR parameters decrease nonlinearly under compression. These results can be developed into a new technique to evaluate dislocation velocity. The EMR amplitude and <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate of the first EMR emission vary parabolically showing a maxima with increase in electronic heat constant of the metals under tension while they first sharply decrease and then become asymptotic during compression. However, the variation in EMR maximum <span class="hlt">energy</span> burst frequency is apparently similar under both modes of <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. These results strongly suggest that the mechanism of EMR emission during plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of metals involves not only the interaction of conduction electrons with the lattice periodic potential as presented in the previous theoretical models but also the interaction of conduction electrons with phonons. However, during crack propagation and fracture</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5471218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5471218"><span>Quaternary <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, R.D. Jr.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Displaced or <span class="hlt">deformed</span> rock units and landforms record the past 2 m.y. of faulting, folding, uplift, and subsidence in California. Properly interpreted, such evidence provides a quantitative basis for predicting future earthquake activity and for relating many diverse structures and landforms to the 5 cm/yr of horizontal motion at the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Modern techniques of geologic dating and expanded research on earthquake hazards have greatly improved our knowledge of the San Andreas fault system. Much of this new knowledge has been gained since 1965, and that part which concerns crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> during the past 2 m.y. is briefly summarized here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41C2916T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41C2916T"><span>Experimental <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> of Magnetite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Till, J. L.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Magnetite is an important iron ore mineral and the most prominent Fe-oxide phase in the Earth's crust. The systematic occurrence of magnetite in zones of intense <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in oceanic core complexes suggests that it may play a role in strain localization in some silicate rocks. We performed a series of high-temperature <span class="hlt">deformation</span> experiments on synthetic magnetite aggregates and natural single crystals to characterize the rheological behavior of magnetite. As starting material, we used fine-grained magnetite powder that was hot isostatically pressed at 1100°C for several hours, resulting in polycrystalline material with a mean grain size of around 40 μm and containing 3-5% porosity. Samples were <span class="hlt">deformed</span> to 15-20% axial strain under constant load (approximating constant stress) conditions in a Paterson-type gas apparatus for triaxial <span class="hlt">deformation</span> at temperatures between 900 and 1100°C and 300 MPa confining pressure. The aggregates exhibit typical power-law creep behavior. At high stresses, samples <span class="hlt">deformed</span> by dislocation creep exhibit stress exponents close to 3, revealing a transition to near-Newtonian creep with stress exponents around 1.3 at lower stresses. Natural magnetite single crystals <span class="hlt">deformed</span> at 1 atm pressure and temperatures between 950°C and 1150 °C also exhibit stress exponents close to 3, but with lower flow stresses and a lower apparent activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> than the aggregates. Such behavior may result from the different oxygen fugacity buffers used. Crystallographic-preferred orientations in all polycrystalline samples are very weak and corroborate numerical models of CPO development, suggesting that texture development in magnetite may be inherently slow compared with lower symmetry phases. Comparison of our results with experimental <span class="hlt">deformation</span> data for various silicate minerals suggests that magnetite should be weaker than most silicates during ductile creep in dry igneous rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcGeo..65..565G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcGeo..65..565G"><span>Spatio-temporal evolution of aftershock <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> following the 1989, MW6.9, LOMA Prieta earthquake in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gospodinov, Dragomir</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We apply a stochastic model to study Benioff strain <span class="hlt">release</span> after the Mw6.9 October 18, 1989 Loma Prieta strong earthquake in north California, USA. The model is developed, following a compound Poisson process and contours the evolution of strain <span class="hlt">release</span> during the aftershock sequence following the main shock occurrence. First, the temporal evolution of the aftershock decay rate was modeled by the Restricted Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (RETAS) model and after that the recognized best fit model is integrated into the strain <span class="hlt">release</span> stochastic analysis. The applied stochastic model of Benioff strain <span class="hlt">release</span> empowers a more detailed study by detecting possible deviations between observed data and model. Real values of the cumulative Benioff strain <span class="hlt">release</span> surpass the expected modeled ones, indicating, that large aftershocks cluster at the beginning of the Loma Prieta sequence immediately after the occurrence of the main shock. Strain <span class="hlt">release</span> spatial analysis reveals <span class="hlt">release</span> patterns, which change during the aftershock sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...588A.115W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...588A.115W"><span>Constraints on <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in solar flares from RHESSI and GOES X-ray observations. I. Physical parameters and scalings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Aims: We constrain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and particle acceleration processes in solar flares by means of comprehensively characterizing the physical parameters of both the thermal plasma and the accelerated nonthermal particles using X-ray data. Our aim is to bridge the gap between detailed case studies and large statistical studies. Methods: We obtained time series of spectral fits and images for 24 flares ranging from GOES class C3.4 to X17.2 using RHESSI hard X-ray observations. These data were used to derive basic physical parameters for the thermal plasma (using the isothermal approximation) and the injected nonthermal electrons (assuming the thick-target model). For the thermal component, this was supplemented by GOES soft X-ray data. We derived the ranges and distributions of the various parameters, the scaling with flare importance, and the relation between thermal parameters derived from RHESSI and GOES. Finally, we investigated the relation between thermal and nonthermal parameters. Results: Temperature and emission measure of the thermal plasma are strongly correlated with the peak GOES X-ray flux. Higher emission measures result both from a larger source volume and a higher density, with the latter effect being more important. RHESSI consistently gives higher temperatures and lower emission measures than GOES does, which is a signature of a multithermal plasma. The discrepancy between RHESSI and GOES is particularly pronounced in the early flare phase, when the thermal X-ray sources tend to be large and located higher in the corona. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> input rate by nonthermal electrons is correlated with temperature and with the increase rate of emission measure and thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Conclusions: The derived relations between RHESSI- and GOES-derived thermal parameters and the relation between thermal parameters and <span class="hlt">energy</span> input by nonthermal electrons are consistent with a two-component model of the thermal flare plasma. Both RHESSI and GOES observe a cooler plasma</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17a1004E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17a1004E"><span>Three-color Förster resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer within single FOF1-ATP synthases: monitoring elastic <span class="hlt">deformations</span> of the rotary double motor in real time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ernst, Stefan; Düser, Monika G.; Zarrabi, Nawid; Börsch, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Catalytic activities of enzymes are associated with elastic conformational changes of the protein backbone. Förster-type resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer, commonly referred to as FRET, is required in order to observe the dynamics of relative movements within the protein. Förster-type resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between two specifically attached fluorophores provides a ruler with subnanometer resolution between 3 and 8 nm, submillisecond time resolution for time trajectories of conformational changes, and single-molecule sensitivity to overcome the need for synchronization of various conformations. FOF1-ATP synthase is a rotary molecular machine which catalyzes the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The Escherichia coli enzyme comprises a proton driven 10 stepped rotary FO motor connected to a 3-stepped F1 motor, where ATP is synthesized. This mismatch of step sizes will result in elastic <span class="hlt">deformations</span> within the rotor parts. We present a new single-molecule FRET approach to observe both rotary motors simultaneously in a single FOF1-ATP synthase at work. We labeled this enzyme with three fluorophores, specifically at the stator part and at the two rotors. Duty cycle-optimized with alternating laser excitation, referred to as DCO-ALEX, allowed to control enzyme activity and to unravel associated transient twisting within the rotors of a single enzyme during ATP hydrolysis and ATP synthesis. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the rotor twisting is larger than 36 deg.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20957889','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20957889"><span>Chemical <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> and Radical Formation in Cluster-Induced Sputtering of Diatomic Molecular Targets: A Molecular-Dynamics Model Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anders, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.</p> <p>2007-07-13</p> <p>Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we perform a systematic study of cluster-induced sputtering. Two model systems of diatomic molecular solids are employed, which have identical cohesive <span class="hlt">energy</span> but differ in their dissociation <span class="hlt">energy</span> and the possible reaction pathways. Sputtering occurs by the flow of gasified material out of the spike volume into the vacuum above it. Because of the entrainment of radicals and reaction products with the flow, only a minority of this debris is left behind in the target. The excitation of internal molecular degrees of freedom (rotation and vibration) slightly reduces the sputter yield in comparison to the sputtering of an atomic system, while the chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> due to exothermic reactions of radicals formed enhances the yield in proportion to the chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17678262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17678262"><span>Chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and radical formation in cluster-induced sputtering of diatomic molecular targets: a molecular-dynamics model study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anders, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M</p> <p>2007-07-13</p> <p>Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we perform a systematic study of cluster-induced sputtering. Two model systems of diatomic molecular solids are employed, which have identical cohesive <span class="hlt">energy</span> but differ in their dissociation <span class="hlt">energy</span> and the possible reaction pathways. Sputtering occurs by the flow of gasified material out of the spike volume into the vacuum above it. Because of the entrainment of radicals and reaction products with the flow, only a minority of this debris is left behind in the target. The excitation of internal molecular degrees of freedom (rotation and vibration) slightly reduces the sputter yield in comparison to the sputtering of an atomic system, while the chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> due to exothermic reactions of radicals formed enhances the yield in proportion to the chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25113140','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25113140"><span>Oestradiol modulates the effects of leptin on <span class="hlt">energy</span> homeostasis by corticotrophin-<span class="hlt">releasing</span> factor type 2 receptor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marangon, P B; Silva, L E C M; Rorato, R; Gomiero Alves, P; Antunes-Rodrigues, J; Elias, L L K</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In addition to its action in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, corticotrophin-<span class="hlt">releasing</span> factor (CRF) has been described as an anorexigenic neuropeptide, modulating food intake and <span class="hlt">energy</span> expenditure. CRF synthesis is influenced by leptin, which would act to increase CRF neurone activation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Gonadal hormones also participate in the regulation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> homeostasis. The reduction of food intake and body weight gain in ovariectomised (OVX) rats treated with oestradiol is associated with an increase in CRF mRNA expression in the PVN. The present study aimed to investigate the role of CRF as a mediator of leptin responsiveness in the presence of oestradiol. Wistar female rats were bilaterally OVX and divided into three groups: OVX, OVX+E (i.e. treated with oestradiol) and OVX+PF (i.e. OVX pairfed with OVX+E). The rats received daily s.c. injections of either oestradiol cypionate or vehicle for 8 days. To evaluate the role of CRF on the effects of leptin, we performed an i.c.v. leptin injection (10 μg/5 μl) with or without previous i.c.v. treatment with an CRF-R2 antagonist. We observed that oestradiol replacement in OVX rats reduced body weight gain and food intake. The effects of exogenous leptin administration with respect to decreasing food intake and body weight, and increasing uncoupling protein-1 expression in the brown adipose tissue and neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus, were reversed by previous administration of a CRF-R2 antagonist only in oestradiol-treated OVX rats. These effects appear to be mediated by CRF-2 receptor because the antagonist of this receptor reversed the action of oestradiol on the effects of leptin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApJ...666..222T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApJ...666..222T"><span>Spitzer Observations of Transient, Extended Dust in Two Elliptical Galaxies: New Evidence of Recent Feedback <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Galactic Cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Spitzer observations of extended dust in two optically normal elliptical galaxies provide a new confirmation of buoyant feedback outflow in the hot gas atmospheres around these galaxies. AGN feedback <span class="hlt">energy</span> is required to prevent wholesale cooling and star formation in these group-centered galaxies. In NGC 5044 we observe interstellar (presumably PAH) emission at 8 μm out to about 5 kpc. Both NGC 5044 and NGC 4636 have extended 70 μm emission from cold dust exceeding that expected from stellar mass loss. The sputtering lifetime of this extended dust in the ~1 keV interstellar gas, ~107 yr, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Evidently the extended dust originated in dusty disks or clouds, commonly observed in elliptical galaxy cores, that were disrupted, heated, and buoyantly transported outward. The surviving central dust in NGC 5044 and NGC 4636 has been disrupted into many small filaments. It is remarkable that the asymmetrically extended 8 μm emission in NGC 5044 is spatially coincident with Hα+[N II] emission from warm gas. A calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in buoyant hot gas moving out from the galactic core can cool within a few kiloparsecs in ~107 yr, explaining the optical line emission observed. The X-ray images of both galaxies are disturbed. All timescales for transient activity-restoration of equilibrium and buoyant transport in the hot gas, dynamics of surviving dust fragments, and dust sputtering-are consistent with a central <span class="hlt">release</span> of feedback <span class="hlt">energy</span> in both galaxies about 107 years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AIPC..420.1423C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AIPC..420.1423C"><span>The <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Interaction Model: A promising new methodology for projecting GPHS-RTG cladding failures, <span class="hlt">release</span> amounts & respirable <span class="hlt">release</span> fractions for postulated pre-launch, launch, and post-reentry earth impact accidents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coleman, James R.; Sholtis, Joseph A.; McCulloch, William H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Safety analyses and evaluations must be scrutable, defensible, and credible. This is particularly true when nuclear systems are involved, with their attendant potential for <span class="hlt">releases</span> of radioactive materials (source terms) to the unrestricted environment. Analytical projections of General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) source terms, for safety analyses conducted to date, have relied upon generic data correlations using a single parameter of cladding damage, termed ``distortion.'' However, distortion is not an unequivocal measure of cladding insult, failure, or <span class="hlt">release</span>. Furthermore, the analytical foundation, applicability, and broad use of distortion are argumentative and, thus, somewhat troublesome. In an attempt to avoid the complications associated with the use of distortion, a new methodology, referred to as the <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Interaction Model (EIM), has been preliminarily developed. This new methodology is based upon the physical principles of <span class="hlt">energy</span> and <span class="hlt">energy</span> exchange during mechanical interactions. Specifically, the EIM considers the <span class="hlt">energy</span> imparted to GPHS-RTG components (bare fueled clads, GPHS modules, and full GPHS-RTGs) when exposed to mechanical threats (blast/overpressure, shrapnel and fragment impacts, and Earth surface impacts) posed by the full range of potential accidents. Expected forms are developed for equations intended to project cladding failure probabilities, the number of cladding failures expected, <span class="hlt">release</span> amounts, and the fraction <span class="hlt">released</span> as respirable particles. The coefficients of the equations developed are then set to fit the GPHS-RTG test data, ensuring good agreement with the experimental database. This assured, fitted agreement with the test database, along with the foundation of the EIM in first principles, provides confidence in the model's projections beyond the available database. In summary, the newly developed EIM methodology is described and discussed. The conclusions reached are that the EIM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4641554','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4641554"><span>A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Deprivation and Glutamate <span class="hlt">Release</span> From System xc− Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thorn, Trista L.; He, Yan; Jackman, Nicole A.; Lobner, Doug; Hewett, James A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc−) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc− expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes—either cultured alone or with neurons—to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between <span class="hlt">energy</span> deprivation and glutamate <span class="hlt">release</span> from astrocyte system xc− mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death. PMID:26553727</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28806559','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28806559"><span>Assessment of chemicals <span class="hlt">released</span> in the marine environment by dielectric elastomers useful as active elements in wave <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanda; Bele, Adrian; Vasiliu, Lavinia; Gradinaru, Luiza; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Racles, Carmen; Cazacu, Maria</p> <p>2018-01-05</p> <p>A series of elastomers, either natural or synthetic (some of them commercial, while others prepared in the laboratory), suitable for use as active elements in devices for wave <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesting, were evaluated concerning their behavior and effects on the marine environment. In this aim, the elastomer films, initially evaluated regarding their aspect, structure, surface wettability, and tolerance of microorganisms growth, were immersed in synthetic seawater (SSW) within six months for assessing compounds <span class="hlt">released</span>. There were analyzed the changes occurred both in the elastomers and salt water in which they were immersed. For this, water samples taken at set time intervals were analyzed by using a sequence of sensitive spectral techniques: UV-vis, IR, and in relevant cases (1)H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), able to detect and identify organic compounds, while after six months, they were also investigated from the point of view of aspect, presence of metal traces, pH, and biological activity. The changes in aspect, structure and morphology of the dielectric films at the end of the dipping period were also evaluated by visual inspection, IR spectroscopy by using spectral subtraction method, and SEM-EDX technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..110a2014N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..110a2014N"><span>Using and assessing <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency of electrical ovens with unit-type <span class="hlt">releasing</span> intended for thermal energization of sungulite-vermiculite conglomerates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nizhegorodov, A. I.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The paper deals with assessing <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency of electric ovens supplied with unit-type <span class="hlt">releasing</span> to be used in the thermal activation technology of vermiculite - phlogopite conglomerates. The analysis of a heat absorption process is given on the basis of the conglomerate particles moving in the conditions of heat radiation induced by an outer source and heat absorption taking place inside a special nonelectric unit on the account of inner <span class="hlt">energy</span> accumulated by the particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890052477&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890052477&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism"><span>Shock metamorphism of <span class="hlt">deformed</span> quartz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on <span class="hlt">deformed</span> synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously <span class="hlt">deformed</span> and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during <span class="hlt">release</span>. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during <span class="hlt">release</span>, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890052477&hterms=Quartz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DQuartz','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890052477&hterms=Quartz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DQuartz"><span>Shock metamorphism of <span class="hlt">deformed</span> quartz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on <span class="hlt">deformed</span> synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously <span class="hlt">deformed</span> and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during <span class="hlt">release</span>. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during <span class="hlt">release</span>, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhA...44J5303A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhA...44J5303A"><span>Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum <span class="hlt">deformed</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear <span class="hlt">deformed</span> algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other <span class="hlt">deformed</span> models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise <span class="hlt">energy</span> level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter <span class="hlt">deformation</span> formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff <span class="hlt">deformed</span> oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels of the <span class="hlt">deformed</span> system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CP....472...95D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CP....472...95D"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> on the hydrogen bonding interactions in gas phase 3-X catechol ⋯ H2O complexes (X = H, F, Cl, Br): The effect of approach of a water molecule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deb, Debojit Kumar; Sarkar, Biplab</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The conformations and nature of hydrogen bonding interactions for 3-X catechol ⋯ H2O (X = H, F, Cl, Br) has been investigated by ab initio MP2, CCSD(T), and density functional B3LYP, wB97XD and M06-2X methods. The changes in interaction <span class="hlt">energies</span> due to <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of the structures has been studied in detail. The intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions due to the different direction of approach of water molecule have been discussed. A detailed natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) based <span class="hlt">energy</span> decomposition analysis has been carried out to elucidate interaction strength and properties in these hydrogen bonded systems. The charge transfer percentage (CTP) has been derived which will be universally useful for correlating binding <span class="hlt">energy</span>, <span class="hlt">deformation</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> and the geometrical parameters such as angles, bond lengths, etc. for other systems as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27943638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27943638"><span>Controlling Heat <span class="hlt">Release</span> from a Close-Packed Bisazobenzene-Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Assembly Film for High-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> Solid-State Photothermal Fuels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Xiaoze; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Yang, Weixiang; Si, Qianyu; Feng, Wei</p> <p>2017-04-10</p> <p>A closed-cycle system for light-harvesting, storage, and heat <span class="hlt">release</span> is important for utilizing and managing renewable <span class="hlt">energy</span>. However, combining a high-<span class="hlt">energy</span>, stable photochromic material with a controllable trigger for solid-state heat <span class="hlt">release</span> remains a great challenge for developing photothermal fuels (PTFs). This paper presents a uniform PTF film fabricated by the assembly of close-packed bisazobenzene (bisAzo) grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The assembled rGO-bisAzo template exhibited a high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density of 131 Wh kg(-1) and a long half-life of 37 days owing to inter- or intramolecular H-bonding and steric hindrance. The rGO-bisAzo PTF film <span class="hlt">released</span> and accumulated heat to realize a maximum temperature difference (DT) of 15 °C and a DT of over 10 °C for 30 min when the temperature difference of the environment was greater than100 °C. Controlling heat <span class="hlt">release</span> in the solid-state assembly paves the way to develop highly efficient and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> PTFs for a multitude of applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.3911D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.3911D"><span>Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Panchromatic Data <span class="hlt">Release</span> (far-UV-far-IR) and the low-z <span class="hlt">energy</span> budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Driver, Simon P.; Wright, Angus H.; Andrews, Stephen K.; Davies, Luke J.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Lange, Rebecca; Moffett, Amanda J.; Mannering, Elizabeth; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Vinsen, Kevin; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Andrae, Ellen; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bauer, Amanda E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bourne, Nathan; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Croom, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Conselice, Christopher J.; da Cunha, Elisabete; De Propris, Roberto; Drinkwater, Michael; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve; Edge, Alastair; Frenk, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Grootes, Meiert; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Ibar, Edo; van Kampen, Eelco; Kelvin, Lee S.; Jarrett, Tom; Jones, D. Heath; Lara-Lopez, Maritza A.; Liske, Jochen; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R.; Loveday, Jon; Maddox, Steve J.; Madore, Barry; Mahajan, Smriti; Meyer, Martin; Norberg, Peder; Penny, Samantha J.; Phillipps, Steven; Popescu, Cristina; Tuffs, Richard J.; Peacock, John A.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Prescott, Matthew; Rowlands, Kate; Sansom, Anne E.; Seibert, Mark; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Sutherland, Will J.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Vazquez-Mata, J. Antonio; Wang, Lingyu; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Williams, Richard</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We present the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Panchromatic Data <span class="hlt">Release</span> (PDR) constituting over 230 deg2 of imaging with photometry in 21 bands extending from the far-UV to the far-IR. These data complement our spectroscopic campaign of over 300k galaxies, and are compiled from observations with a variety of facilities including: GALaxy Evolution eXplorer, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Visible and Infrared Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and Herschel, with the GAMA regions currently being surveyed by VLT Survey Telescope (VST) and scheduled for observations by Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). These data are processed to a common astrometric solution, from which photometry is derived for ˜221 373 galaxies with r < 19.8 mag. Online tools are provided to access and download data cutouts, or the full mosaics of the GAMA regions in each band. We focus, in particular, on the reduction and analysis of the VISTA VIsta Kilo-degree INfrared Galaxy data, and compare to earlier data sets (i.e. 2MASS and UKIDSS) before combining the data and examining its integrity. Having derived the 21-band photometric catalogue, we proceed to fit the data using the <span class="hlt">energy</span> balance code MAGPHYS. These measurements are then used to obtain the first fully empirical measurement of the 0.1-500 μm <span class="hlt">energy</span> output of the Universe. Exploring the cosmic spectral <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution across three time-intervals (0.3-1.1, 1.1-1.8, and 1.8-2.4 Gyr), we find that the Universe is currently generating (1.5 ± 0.3) × 1035 h70 W Mpc-3, down from (2.5 ± 0.2) × 1035 h70 W Mpc-3 2.3 Gyr ago. More importantly, we identify significant and smooth evolution in the integrated photon escape fraction at all wavelengths, with the UV escape fraction increasing from 27(18) per cent at z = 0.18 in NUV(FUV) to 34(23) per cent at z = 0.06. The GAMA PDR can be found at: http://gama-psi.icrar.org/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048367','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048367"><span>Analysis of the <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> Behavior of Mg-RE and Mg-Li Alloys using In-situ <span class="hlt">Energy</span>-dispersive Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lentz, Martin; Clausen, Bjorn; Reimers, Walter</p> <p>2012-08-06</p> <p>EPSC-Model is able to predict the complex <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior of Mg-RE and Mg-Li alloys within a wide range of strains. Modification of the texture by RE-elements and the addition of Li increases the activity of slip systems at low strains - Reorientation due to twinning is stretch over a larger range of plastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> at high strains is realized mainly by the basal and the <c+a>-pyramidal slip systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21650176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21650176"><span>The influence of solutes on the enthalpy/entropy change of the actinomycin D binding to DNA: hydration, <span class="hlt">energy</span> compensation and long-range <span class="hlt">deformation</span> on DNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galo, André L; Rugiero Neto, João; Brognaro, Dulcinea P; Caetano, Renato C; Souza, Fátima P; Colombo, Márcio F</p> <p>2011-07-21</p> <p>The effects of the changes in the temperature and in the water chemical potential on the energetic of the actinomycin D (ACTD) interaction with natural DNA are studied. At reduced water chemical potential, induced by the addition of neutral solute (sucrose), the ACTD-to-DNA binding isotherms show that the drug accesses two types of binding sites: strong and weak. The binding constants to the stronger sites are sensitive to changes in the temperature and in the water chemical potential, while the weak sites are practically insensitive to these changes. The van't Hoff analyses of the binding in different water chemical potential shows that the binding process to the more specific sites is endothermic in phosphate buffer (ΔH(vH) ∼ 1 kcal/mol) and becomes exothermic when the water chemical potential decreases (ΔH(vH) = -11 kcal/mol in sucrose 30%). The number of water molecules <span class="hlt">released</span> on the binding to the stronger sites, obtained from the slopes of linkage plots in different temperatures, increases with the decrease in the temperature. Ring closure reactions in the presence of neutral solutes have shown that the reduction in the water activity induces DNA unwinding. It was observed that both reduced water chemical potential and small ratios of daunomycin bound per base pairs have the same effects on the ACTD binding isotherms and consequently on the binding thermodynamic parameters. The results presented indicate that the ACTD binding to the recognition site is enthalpycally unfavorable, which should be compensated by the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in the DNA. This compensation would probably be the origin of the synergism observed for these two drugs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995RvGeS..33..371L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995RvGeS..33..371L"><span>Crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larson, Kristine M.</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>Geodetic measurements of crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> provide direct tests of geophysical models which are used to describe the dynamics of the Earth. Although geodetic observations have been made throughout history, only in the last several hundred years have they been sufficiently precise for geophysical studies. In the 19th century, these techniques included leveling and triangulation. Approximately 25 years ago, trilateration measurements were initiated by the USGS (United States Geological Survey) to monitor active faults in the United States. Several years later, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) begin an effort to measure plate tectonic motions on a global scale, using space geodetic techniques, VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging). The period covered by this report to the IUGG, 1991-1994, was a transition period in the field of crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Trilateration measurements (previously the backbone of measurements across plate boundaries in the western United States and Alaska) have been abandoned. This system was labor-intensive, involved highly trained crews to carry out the observations, and only measured the length between sites. In addition, NASA drastically cut the budgets for VLBI and SLR during this period. Fixed site VLBI systems are still operational, but mobile VLBI measurements in North America have ceased. SLR measurements continue on a global scale, but the remaining crustal <span class="hlt">deformation</span> measurements are now being made with the Global Positioning System (GPS). Nonetheless, because of the time scales involved, older geodetic data (including leveling, triangulation, and trilateration) continue to be important for many geophysical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15007727','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15007727"><span>Comparison of Model and Experimental Results for Material and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Flow in a Titanium Evaporation System with <span class="hlt">Deforming</span> Interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McClelland, M A; Westerberg, K W; Meier, T C; Braun, D G; Frischknecht, K D; Anklam, T M</p> <p>2003-05-12</p> <p>Finite element calculations and measurements are compared for material and <span class="hlt">energy</span> flow in a system to evaporate pure titanium. A 40 kW electron beam is used to heat the end of a 7.62 cm diameter cylindrical rod which is fed vertically through a water-cooled crucible. Vapor emanates from a liquid pool in which flow is driven strongly by buoyancy and capillary forces. At high evaporation rates, the vapor exerts strong shear and normal forces on the liquid-vapor interface. The MELT finite element code is used to calculate steady-state, axisymmetric flow and temperature fields along with liquid-solid and liquid-vapor interface locations. The influence of the vapor on the liquid top surface is treated using boundary conditions with parameters derived from Monte Carlo simulations. The upper and lower interfaces of the liquid pool are tracked using a mesh structured with rotating spines. Experimental evaporation rates are obtained from measured feed rates, and heat flow rates are determined from measured temperature rises in the cooling water. The finite element model provides a good representation of the measured evaporation rates, heat flows, and lower pool boundary locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1375905-ozdes-multifibre-spectroscopy-dark-energy-survey-three-year-results-first-data-release','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1375905-ozdes-multifibre-spectroscopy-dark-energy-survey-three-year-results-first-data-release"><span>OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Survey: Three year results and first data <span class="hlt">release</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Childress, M. J.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; ...</p> <p>2017-07-26</p> <p>We present results for the first three years of OzDES, a six-year programme to obtain redshifts for objects in the Dark <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Survey (DES) supernova fields using the 2dF fibre positioner and AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. OzDES is a multi-object spectroscopic survey targeting multiple types of targets at multiple epochs over a multi-year baseline, and is one of the first multi-object spectroscopic surveys to dynamically include transients into the target list soon after their discovery. At the end of three years, OzDES has spectroscopically confirmed almost 100 supernovae, and has measured redshifts for 17,000 objects, including the redshiftsmore » of 2,566 supernova hosts. We examine how our ability to measure redshifts for targets of various types depends on signal-to-noise, magnitude, and exposure time, finding that our redshift success rate increases significantly at a signal-to-noise of 2 to 3 per 1-Angstrom bin. We also find that the change in signal-to-noise with exposure time closely matches the Poisson limit for stacked exposures as long as 10 hours. We use these results to predict the redshift yield of the full OzDES survey, as well as the potential yields of future surveys on other facilities such as the 4m Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope (4MOST), the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS), and the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE). This work marks the first OzDES data <span class="hlt">release</span>, comprising 14,693 redshifts. OzDES is on target to obtain over a yield of approximately 5,700 supernova host-galaxy redshifts.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/540906','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/540906"><span>High <span class="hlt">energy</span> X-ray diffraction measurement of the superstructure reflection (100) for a creep <span class="hlt">deformed</span> AM1 single crystal superalloy specimen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Royer, A.; Bastie, P.; Veron, M.</p> <p>1997-10-15</p> <p>Due to its importance for industrial applications, the microstructural behavior of single crystal nickel base superalloys as a function of the thermo-mechanical history of the material is the subject of many studies. However, some controversies remain concerning parameters which are driving the coarsening of {gamma}{prime} precipitates. In particular the role of the lattice parameter mismatch between the {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} phases (usually defined as {Delta}d/d = (a{gamma}{prime} {minus} a{gamma})/<a> where a{gamma}{prime} and a{gamma} represent respectively the lattice parameter value of the {gamma}{prime} and {gamma} phases) and of the internal stresses at the interfaces has to be clarified. An experiment was performed on a creep <span class="hlt">deformed</span> sample using high <span class="hlt">energy</span> synchrotron radiation and a Triple Crystal Diffractometer set-up (TCD) which allow nondestructive measurements and probe the bulk of the sample. With this method the superstructure reflection (100) was measured with a good accuracy and a reasonable statistics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106u1902S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106u1902S"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> behavior of metallic glass composites reinforced with shape memory nanowires studied via molecular dynamics simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Şopu, D.; Stoica, M.; Eckert, J.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior and mechanism of Cu64Zr36 composite structures reinforced with B2 CuZr nanowires are strongly influenced by the martensitic phase transformation and distribution of these crystalline precipitates. When nanowires are distributed in the glassy matrix along the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> direction, a two-steps stress-induced martensitic phase transformation is observed. Since the martensitic transformation is driven by the elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, the strain localization behavior in the glassy matrix is strongly affected. Therefore, the composite materials reinforced with a crystalline phase, which shows stress-induced martensitic transformation, represent a route for controlling the properties of glassy materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNuM..440...81W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNuM..440...81W"><span>In situ characterization of Grade 92 steel during tensile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> using concurrent high <span class="hlt">energy</span> X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Leyun; Li, Meimei; Almer, Jonathan</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The tensile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in Grade 92 steel was studied in situ using simultaneous high <span class="hlt">energy</span> X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD), radiography, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at room temperature (RT), 400, and 650 °C. Temperature-dependent elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, were measured for α-Fe matrix, M23C6 and Nb(C,N) phases in various crystallographic orientation. Significant differences in the evolution of lattice strain, peak broadening/sharpening, and void development in the α-Fe matrix, M23C6 and Nb(C,N) precipitates revealed markedly different <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and damage mechanisms at low and high temperature in the alloy. The strengthening effect of each type of precipitates measured by lattice strain agrees with the dislocation pile-up model at room temperature, while a different dislocation behavior was observed at 650 °C. Void volume fraction as a function of strain measured by SAXS can be described by a classic void nucleation and growth model at room temperature but not at 650 °C, implying a different damage process at high temperature. The ultimate tensile strength is ordered as RT > 400 °C > 650 °C; strain to failure is ordered as 650 °C > RT > 400 °C. For the 650 °C test, there was a long softening stage between the UTS and specimen necking. M23C6 and Nb(C,N) precipitates were identified in the Fe matrix. At RT and 400 °C, apparent load transfer from the matrix to the precipitates took place after the matrix's early yielding. Measured von Mises stresses in the precipitates can be quantitatively explained using the established models of precipitate strengthening. Increase of dislocation density with <span class="hlt">deformation</span> caused peak broadening in both matrix and precipitates. At 650 °C, load transfer was much less, and peak broadening was also largely subdued at 650 °C. Anisotropy of lattice strains was observed both in the matrix and precipitates. The elastic modulus of Fe (2 0 0) is lower than Fe (2 1 1) and Fe (2 2 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22007412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22007412"><span>[Spectrum research on metamorphic and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of tectonically <span class="hlt">deformed</span> coals].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xiao-Shi; Ju, Yi-Wen; Hou, Quan-Lin; Lin, Hong</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The structural and compositive evolution of tectonically <span class="hlt">deformed</span> coals (TDCs) and their influencing factors were investigated and analyzed in detail through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and laser Raman spectra analysis. The TDC samples (0.7% < Ro,max <3.1%) were collected from Huaibei coalfield with different <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanisms and intensity. The FTIR of TDCs shows that the metamorphism and the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> affect the degradation and polycondensation process of macromolecular structure to different degree. The Raman spectra analysis indicates that secondary structure defects can be produced mainly by structural <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, also the metamorphism influences the secondary structure defects and aromatic structure. Through comprehensive analysis, it was discussed that the ductile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> could change to strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> through the increase and accumulation of dislocation in molecular structure units of TDC, and it could make an obvious influence on degradation and polycondensation. While the brittle <span class="hlt">deformation</span> could change to frictional heat <span class="hlt">energy</span> and promote the metamorphism and degradation of TDC structure, but has less effect on polycondensation. Furthermore, degradation is the main reason for affecting the structural evolution of coal in lower metamorphic stage, and polycondensation is the most important controlling factor in higher metamorphic stage. Under metamorphism and <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, the small molecules which break and fall off from the macromolecular tructure of TDC are preferentially replenished and embedded into the secondary structure defects or the residual aromatic rings were formed into aromatic structure by polycondensation. This process improved the stability of coal structure. It is easier for ductile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of coal to induce the secondary structure defects than brittle <span class="hlt">deformation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3964400','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3964400"><span>Regulatory effect and mechanisms of carbon monoxide-<span class="hlt">releasing</span> molecule II on hepatic <span class="hlt">energy</span> metabolism in septic mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liang, Feng; Cao, Jie; Qin, Wei-Ting; Wang, Xu; Qiu, Xue-Feng; Sun, Bing-Wei</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To investigate the possible mechanisms of exogenous carbon monoxide-<span class="hlt">releasing</span> molecule II (CORM-2) intervention on hepatic <span class="hlt">energy</span> metabolism in experimental sepsis. METHODS: Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): sham group; cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group; CLP + CORM-2 group and CLP + iCORM-2 (inactive CORM-2) group. Survival rates were determined after 72 h. Twenty-four similarly treated mice (n = 6 in each group) were assayed for post-operative continuous blood glucose in the first 36 h. Thirty-six similarly treated mice (n = 9 in each group) underwent micro-positron emission tomography (PET) scanning after tail vein injection of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) 24 h after operation. Plasma and liver specimens were collected for assay of liver pathology, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities. Hepatic glucokinase activity, lactic acid levels and mitochondrial swelling were also determined. RESULTS: Improved survival was observed in CORM-2 treated mice. Both the CLP and CLP + CORM-2 groups had sustained low blood glucose levels within the first post-operative 36 h. 18F-FDG micro-PET images showed abnormally high levels of hepatic glucose metabolism (standardized uptake value) in the CLP group (2.76 ± 0.39 vs 0.84 ± 0.14, P < 0.01), which declined to normal levels after CORM-2 intervention (1.29 ± 0.32 vs 2.76 ± 0.39, P < 0.05). glucokinase activity was markedly increased in the CLP group (6.38 ± 0.56 U/g vs 4.60 ± 0.21 U/g, P < 0.01), but was normal after CORM-2 intervention (4.74 ± 0.14 U/g vs 6.38 ± 0.56 U/g, P < 0.05). CORM-2 suppressed plasma lactic acid levels (4.02 ± 0.02 mmol/L vs 7.72 ± 2.37 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and protected hepatic mitochondria in CLP mice. CORM-2 intervention also reduced elevated plasma AST (199.67 ± 11.08 U/L vs 379.67 ± 16.34 U/L, P < 0.05) and ALT (63.67 ± 12.23 U/L vs 112.67 ± 9.74 U/L, P < 0.05) activities in CLP mice. CONCLUSION: The <span class="hlt">release</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..371..407Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..371..407Z"><span>Detailed analysis of surface asperity <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, C.; Li, H.; Li, M. Q.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanism in similar diffusion bonding as well as on the fabrication of high quality martensitic stainless steel hollow structural components. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to observe the extent of surface asperity <span class="hlt">deformation</span> under different bonding pressures. Results showed that an undamaged hollow structural component has been obtained with full interfacial contact and the same shear strength to that of base material. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity <span class="hlt">deformation</span> as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity <span class="hlt">deformation</span> not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also <span class="hlt">released</span> <span class="hlt">deformation</span> heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity <span class="hlt">deformation</span> readily introduced stored <span class="hlt">energy</span> difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/664644','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/664644"><span>The {ital <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Interaction Model}: A promising new methodology for projecting GPHS-RTG cladding failures, <span class="hlt">release</span> amounts & respirable <span class="hlt">release</span> fractions for postulated pre-launch, launch, and post-reentry earth impact accidents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coleman, J.R.; Sholtis, J.A. Jr.; McCulloch, W.H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Safety analyses and evaluations must be scrutable, defensible, and credible. This is particularly true when nuclear systems are involved, with their attendant potential for <span class="hlt">releases</span> of radioactive materials (source terms) to the unrestricted environment. Analytical projections of General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) source terms, for safety analyses conducted to date, have relied upon generic data correlations using a single parameter of cladding damage, termed {open_quotes}distortion.{close_quotes} However, distortion is not an unequivocal measure of cladding insult, failure, or <span class="hlt">release</span>. Furthermore, the analytical foundation, applicability, and broad use of distortion are argumentative and, thus, somewhat troublesome. In an attempt to avoid the complications associated with the use of distortion, a new methodology, referred to as the {ital <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Interaction Model (EIM)}, has been preliminarily developed. This new methodology is based upon the physical principles of <span class="hlt">energy</span> and <span class="hlt">energy</span> exchange during mechanical interactions. Specifically, the {ital EIM} considers the <span class="hlt">energy</span> imparted to GPHS-RTG components (bare fueled clads, GPHS modules, and full GPHS-RTGs) when exposed to mechanical threats (blast/overpressure, shrapnel and fragment impacts, and Earth surface impacts) posed by the full range of potential accidents. Expected forms are developed for equations intended to project cladding failure probabilities, the number of cladding failures expected, <span class="hlt">release</span> amounts, and the fraction <span class="hlt">released</span> as respirable particles. The coefficients of the equations developed are then set to fit the GPHS-RTG test data, ensuring good agreement with the experimental database. This assured, fitted agreement with the test database, along with the foundation of the {ital EIM} in first principles, provides confidence in the model{close_quote}s projections beyond the available database. In summary, the newly developed {ital EIM} methodology is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17478753','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17478753"><span>Bunionette <span class="hlt">deformity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these <span class="hlt">deformities</span> often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJST.222...61S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJST.222...61S"><span>Protein transfer to membranes upon shape <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sagis, L. M. C.; Bijl, E.; Antono, L.; de Ruijter, N. C. A.; van Valenberg, H.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Red blood cells, milk fat droplets, or liposomes all have interfaces consisting of lipid membranes. These particles show significant shape <span class="hlt">deformations</span> as a result of flow. Here we show that these shape <span class="hlt">deformations</span> can induce adsorption of proteins to the membrane. Red blood cell <span class="hlt">deformability</span> is an important factor in several diseases involving obstructions of the microcirculatory system, and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> induced protein adsorption will alter the rigidity of their membranes. <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> induced protein transfer will also affect adsorption of cells onto implant surfaces, and the performance of liposome based controlled <span class="hlt">release</span> systems. Quantitative models describing this phenomenon in biomaterials do not exist. Using a simple quantitative model, we provide new insight in this phenomenon. We present data that show convincingly that for cells or droplets with diameters upwards of a few micrometers, shape <span class="hlt">deformations</span> induce adsorption of proteins at their interface even at moderate flow rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016memm.conf..395S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016memm.conf..395S"><span>Storage and <span class="hlt">Release</span> of Thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> of Phase Change Materials Based on Linear Low Density of Polyethylene, Parafin Wax and Expanded Graphite Applicable in Building Industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sobolciak, Patrik; Karkri, Mustapha; Krupa, Igor; Maadeed, Mariam Al.</p> <p></p> <p>In this contribution, the phase change materials based on linear low density polyethylene paraffin wax and expanded graphite were used as new <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage system to study the heat transfer characteristics of paraffin wax during melting and solidification processes. Pronounced increase of thermal conductivity with increasing of expanded graphite content has been observed. Differencial scanning calorimetry was used for an estimation of the specific enthalpy of melting. The ability to store and <span class="hlt">release</span> the thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> of Phase Change Materials were investigated by specific home-made equipment based on the transient hot guarded plane method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28701741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28701741"><span>Preparation of mono-dispersed, high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span>, core/shell structure Al nanopowders and their application in HTPB propellant as combustion enhancers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Fengyi; Wu, Zhiguo; Shangguan, Xushui; Sun, Yunqiang; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Zhongyou; Chen, Luyang; Zuo, Shiyong; Zhuo, Renfu; Yan, Pengxun</p> <p>2017-07-12</p> <p>Mono-dispersed, spherical and core/shell structure aluminum nanopowders (ANPs) were produced massively by high <span class="hlt">energy</span> ion beam evaporation (HEIBE). And the number weighted average particle size of the ANPs is 98.9 nm, with an alumina shell (3-5 nm). Benefiting from the passivation treatment, the friction, impact and electrostatic spark sensitivity of the ANPs are almost equivalent to those of aluminum micro powders. The result of TG-DSC indicates the active aluminum content of ANPs is 87.14%, the enthalpy <span class="hlt">release</span> value is 20.37 kJ/g, the specific heat <span class="hlt">release</span> S 1/Δm 1* (392-611 °C) which determined the ability of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> is 19.95 kJ/g. And the value of S 1/Δm 1* is the highest compared with ANPs produced by other physical methods. Besides, the ANPs perfectly compatible with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), 3 wt. % of ANPs were used in HTPB propellant replaced micron aluminum powders, and improved the burning rate in the 3-12 MPa pressure range and reduced the pressure exponential by more than 31% in the 3-16 MPa pressure range. The production technology of ANPs with excellent properties will greatly promote the application of ANPs in the field of energetic materials such as propellant, explosive and pyrotechnics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhLB..727..548B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhLB..727..548B"><span><span class="hlt">Deformed</span> self-dual magnetic monopoles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bazeia, D.; Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M.; da Hora, E.; Losano, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We develop a <span class="hlt">deformation</span> method for attaining new magnetic monopole analytical solutions consistent with generalized Yang-Mills-Higgs model introduced recently. The new solutions fulfill the usual radially symmetric ansatz and the boundary conditions suitable to assure finite <span class="hlt">energy</span> configurations. We verify our prescription by studying some particular cases involving both exactly and partially analytical initial configurations whose <span class="hlt">deformation</span> leads to new analytic BPS monopoles. The results show consistency among the models, the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> procedure and the profile of the new solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..304..294C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..304..294C"><span>Carbon dioxide diffuse emission and thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> from hydrothermal systems at Copahue-Caviahue Volcanic Complex (Argentina)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiodini, Giovanni; Cardellini, Carlo; Lamberti, María Clara; Agusto, Mariano; Caselli, Alberto; Liccioli, Caterina; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Caliro, Stefano</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The north-western sector of Caviahue caldera (Argentina), close to the active volcanic system of Copahue, is characterized by the presence of several hydrothermal sites that host numerous fumarolic emissions, anomalous soil diffuse degassing of CO2 and hot soils. In March 2014, measurements of soil CO2 fluxes in 5 of these sites (namely, Las Máquinas, Las Maquinitas I, Las Maquinitas II, Anfiteatro, and Termas de Copahue) allowed an estimation that ~ 165 t of deeply derived CO2 is daily <span class="hlt">released</span>. The gas source is likely related to a relatively shallow geothermal reservoir containing a single vapor phase as also suggested by both the geochemical data from the 3 deep wells drilled in the 1980s and gas geoindicators applied to the fumarolic discharges. Gas equilibria within the H-C-O gas system indicate the presence of a large, probably unique, single phase vapor zone at 200-210 °C feeding the hydrothermal manifestations of Las Máquinas, Las Maquinitas I and II and Termas de Copahue. A natural thermal <span class="hlt">release</span> of 107 MW was computed by using CO2 as a tracer of the original vapor phase. The magmatic signature of the incondensable fumarolic gases, the wide expanse of the hydrothermal areas and the remarkable high amount of gas and heat <span class="hlt">released</span> by fluid expulsion seem to be compatible with an active magmatic intrusion beneath this portion of the Caviahue caldera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28884569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28884569"><span>Endogenous MicroRNA-Triggered and Real-Time Monitored Drug <span class="hlt">Release</span> via Cascaded <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer Payloads.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Fan; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Li, Shan-Shan; Song, Pei; Zhang, Kai; Guan, Qi-Yuan; Kang, Bin; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan</p> <p>2017-10-03</p> <p>It is a great challenge to design a drug delivery system with a controlled manner, especially one triggered by an exclusive endogenous disease marker and with an easily tracked <span class="hlt">release</span> process. Herein, we developed a drug delivery platform of carbon dots which were connected to a stem-loop molecular beacon loaded with doxorubicin and polyethylene glycol modified folic acid. Such a platform enables one to <span class="hlt">release</span> drugs on demand under the stimuli of endogenous microRNA-21, and turn on the fluorescence of carbon dots and doxorubicin, which allows one to monitor the drug <span class="hlt">release</span> process. The intracellular experiment indicated that folic acid could mediate endocytosis of the nanocarrier, and the overexpressed endogenous microRNA-21 served as a unique key to unlock the drug nanocarrier by competitive hybridization with the molecular beacon, which finally resulted in fluorescence recovery and realized a chemotherapeutic effect within human breast cancer cells. The nanocarrier may have potential application in personalized treatment of different cancer subtypes in which the corresponding miRNAs are overexpressed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JChPh.106.6538F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JChPh.106.6538F"><span>The photodissociation dynamics of OClO between 306 and 370 nm: Fragment translational <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and recoil anisotropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Furlan, Alan; Scheld, Heiner A.; Huber, J. Robert</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>The photodissociation OClO(à 2A2)→ClO(X˜ 2Π)+O(3P) was studied at wavelengths between 306 and 370 nm using photofragment translational <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectroscopy. The flight time distributions and anisotropies of the recoiling fragments were measured with the photolysis wavelength tuned to 10 maxima of the structured absorption spectrum, corresponding to a vibronic excitation of the parent molecule with 9-18 quanta in the symmetric stretching coordinate on the à 2A2 surface. The translational <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions show that the ClO fragments are created in highly inverted vibrational state distributions which become extremely broad [v(Cl-O)˜1-15] with increasing excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The large fraction of vibrationally hot ClO fragments produced-particularly at λ<325 nm-could enhance various thermodynamically unfavorable atmospheric reactions in connection with ozone depletion. The main mechanistic features of the dissociation process, which account for the almost constant average translational <span class="hlt">energy</span> and linearly increasing vibrational <span class="hlt">energy</span> of ClO as a function of the excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span>, can be interpreted, to a first approximation, as vibrational predissociation on the à 2A2 potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> surface involving a relatively late exit barrier. From the measured translational <span class="hlt">energies</span> the barrier height is estimated to be about 48 kJ/mol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S42A0622T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S42A0622T"><span>Identification of Seismic Gap and Quiescence by Way of Monitoring Spatio-temporal Changes in Seismic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Releases</span> and Recurrence Patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toya, Y.; Kasahara, M.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>This study presents a technique to graphically illustrate seismic gap and seismic quiescence in the space-time history of seismicity. There have been many attempts in the past to identify seismic gaps by classifying large seismic events into rather rough categories, while at the same time, seismic quiescence anomalies have been recognized in some artificially modified catalogs, e.g., declustered ones. Ideally, however, the seismicity should be treated as a continuous and dynamic process if possible, besides testing/confirming the homogeneity and completeness of catalogs in use. Here, we attempt to delineate seismic gaps and quiescence zones by mapping the spatio-temporal distributions of seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> and inter-event times in a selected magnitude range of events, along the subduction zones near Japan. First, the distribution of seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">releases</span> and their cumulative values are described in a series of maps and a space-time diagram along the subduction zone. The cumulative seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> (described in log \\Sigma{E}\\) is obtained by summing the <span class="hlt">energy</span> equivalent to all the sampled earthquakes within a unit space-time window, using the Gutenberg-Richter's equation for each event: logE=11.8+1.5MS (assumed MJMA roughly equals MS for M>=4), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Catalog (1926.0-2001.5; Depth<=60km). Importantly, the sampling window size for each segment of the subduction zone was decided in reference to known fault parameter estimates (dimension LxW) of a recent characteristic event in the study area. Generating these diagrams helps highlight the areas of relatively low cumulative seismic <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> and their time history. Then, another series of maps and a space-time diagram of the inter-event times for a given magnitude class are produced. The graphical representation of inter-event time distribution well depict some behaviors of local seismic activities, such as seismic quiescence, migration of epicenters, and some site</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4249591','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4249591"><span>Single Image Super-resolution using <span class="hlt">Deformable</span> Patches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Yanning; Yuille, Alan L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We proposed a <span class="hlt">deformable</span> patches based method for single image super-resolution. By the concept of <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, a patch is not regarded as a fixed vector but a flexible <span class="hlt">deformation</span> flow. Via <span class="hlt">deformable</span> patches, the dictionary can cover more patterns that do not appear, thus becoming more expressive. We present the <span class="hlt">energy</span> function with slow, smooth and flexible prior for <span class="hlt">deformation</span> model. During example-based super-resolution, we develop the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> similarity based on the minimized <span class="hlt">energy</span> function for basic patch matching. For robustness, we utilize multiple <span class="hlt">deformed</span> patches combination for the final reconstruction. Experiments evaluate the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> effectiveness and super-resolution performance, showing that the <span class="hlt">deformable</span> patches help improve the representation accuracy and perform better than the state-of-art methods. PMID:25473254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23316185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23316185"><span>Central urocortin 3 and type 2 corticotropin-<span class="hlt">releasing</span> factor receptor in the regulation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> homeostasis: critical involvement of the ventromedial hypothalamus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Peilin; Hover, Christine Van; Lindberg, Daniel; Li, Chien</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The vital role of the corticotropin-<span class="hlt">releasing</span> factor (CRF) peptide family in the brain in coordinating response to stress has been extensively documented. The effects of CRF are mediated by two G-protein-coupled receptors, type 1 and type 2 CRF receptors (CRF(1) and CRF(2)). While the functional role of CRF(1) in hormonal and behavioral adaptation to stress is well-known, the physiological significance of CRF(2) remains to be fully appreciated. Accumulating evidence has indicated that CRF(2) and its selective ligands including urocortin 3 (Ucn 3) are important molecular mediators in regulating <span class="hlt">energy</span> balance. Ucn 3 is the latest addition of the CRF family of peptides and is highly selective for CRF(2). Recent studies have shown that central Ucn 3 is important in a number of homeostatic functions including suppression of feeding, regulation of blood glucose levels, and thermoregulation, thus reinforcing the functional role of central CRF(2) in metabolic regulation. The brain loci that mediate the central effects of Ucn 3 remain to be fully determined. Anatomical and functional evidence has suggested that the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), where CRF(2) is prominently expressed, appears to be instrumental in mediating the effects of Ucn 3 on <span class="hlt">energy</span> balance, permitting Ucn 3-mediated modulation of feeding and glycemic control. Thus, the Ucn 3-VMH CRF(2) system is an important neural pathway in the regulation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> homeostasis and potentially plays a critical role in <span class="hlt">energy</span> adaptation in response to metabolic perturbations and stress to maintain <span class="hlt">energy</span> balance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308371','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308371"><span>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron induced cytosine base <span class="hlt">release</span> in 2′-deoxycytidine-3′-monophosphate via glycosidic bond cleavage: A time-dependent wavepacket study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bhaskaran, Renjith; Sarma, Manabendra</p> <p>2014-09-14</p> <p>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron (LEE) induced cytosine base <span class="hlt">release</span> in a selected pyrimidine nucleotide, viz., 2′-deoxycytidine-3′-monophosphate is investigated using ab initio electronic structure methods and time dependent quantum mechanical calculations. It has been noted that the cytosine base scission is comparatively difficult process than the 3′ C–O bond cleavage from the lowest π{sup *} shape resonance in <span class="hlt">energy</span> region <1 eV. This is mainly due to the high activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier associated with the electron transfer from the π{sup *} orbital of the base to the σ{sup *} orbital of the glycosidic N–C bond. In addition, the metastable state formed after impinging LEE (0–1 eV) has very short lifetime (10 fs) which may decay in either of the two competing auto-detachment or dissociation process simultaneously. On the other hand, the selected N–C mode may cleave to form the cytosine base anion at higher <span class="hlt">energy</span> regions (>2 eV) via tunneling of the glycosidic bond. Resonance states generated within this <span class="hlt">energy</span> regime will exist for a duration of ∼35–55 fs. Comparison of salient features of the two dissociation events, i.e., 3′ C–O single strand break and glycosidic N–C bond cleavage in 3′-dCMPH molecule are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17222439','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17222439"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">release</span> and mass flux partitioning of PCDD/Fs during normal and transient operation of full scale waste to <span class="hlt">energy</span> plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grosso, Mario; Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Lonati, Giovanni; Rigamonti, Lucia</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The paper reports on global <span class="hlt">release</span> and mass partitioning in the flux of residues of PCDD/Fs, evaluated with dedicated field campaigns at a municipal solid waste incineration plant during normal and transient operation. Results are compared with those obtained in other installations equipped with furnaces, <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery options and flue gas treatment technologies representative of most of the European incineration plants currently in operation. Levels of the pollutants of interest were determined in all the solid, liquid and gaseous residues produced by every single facility, and the results analysed in terms of the effects arising from the fed waste and the configuration of the plant. PCDD/Fs total <span class="hlt">release</span> between 1.5 and 45 microg I-TEQ per ton of burned waste was evaluated, with lower values resulting from the adoption of catalytic conversion process for flue gas treatment. Most of the mass flux emitted is associated with solid residues deriving from activated carbon PCCD/F dry removal options, with significant contributions also from fly ash produced by particulate removal devices located immediately downstream the boiler and from scrubber blowdowns treatment sludge. During transient operating conditions the dioxin total <span class="hlt">release</span> may increase by 50% with comparison to steady-state functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.830a2041Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.830a2041Y"><span>Computer simulation of <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> modes in discharge channel and its influence on stress-strained state formation in solid material under electro-blasting technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yudin, A. S.; Voitenko, N. V.; Kuznetsova, N. S.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>In an electro-blasting technology for the solid destruction, the pulse power generators with different types of switches is used. One of them is a triggered vacuum switch, that for an easy operation, has a suitable lifetime of 104-105 commutations in average and can pass about 100 coulombs of charge. However, in most cases it passes only a half-cycle of the current in the ringing mode operation. In this paper, the influence of the ringing current pulse duration on the stress-strained state formation is investigated. Simulation results of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> modes in a discharge channel are given. The crowbar mode of operation is also investigated and a comparison with the ringing mode are presented. It is shown that in a dumping oscillations mode with a damping factor of about 7, the second and the subsequent oscillations contribute only about 5 % of a total <span class="hlt">energy</span> into the shock-wave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.JH008D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.JH008D"><span>Mass Yields and Average Total Kinetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> in Fission for 235U, 238U, and 239Pu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duke, Dana</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Mass yield distributions and average total kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> (TKE) in neutron induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets were measured with a gridded ionization chamber. Despite decades of fission research, our understanding of how fragment mass yields and TKE depend on incident neutron <span class="hlt">energy</span> is limited, especially at higher <span class="hlt">energies</span> (above 5-10 MeV). Improved accuracy in these quantities is important for nuclear technology as it enhances our simulation capabilities and increases the confidence in diagnostic tools. The data can also guide and validate theoretical fission models where the correlation between the fragment mass and TKE is of particular value for constraining models. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE - WNR) provides a neutron beam with <span class="hlt">energies</span> from thermal to hundreds of MeV, well-suited for filling in the gaps in existing data and exploring fission behavior in the fast neutron region. The results of the studies on target nuclei 235U, 238U, and 239Pu will be presented with a focus on exploring data trends as a function of neutron <span class="hlt">energy</span> from thermal through 30 MeV. Results indicate clear evidence of structure due to multi-chance fission in the TKE . LA-UR-15-24761.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23443121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23443121"><span>Recent advances in nanoparticle-based Förster resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer for biosensing, molecular imaging and drug <span class="hlt">release</span> profiling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Nai-Tzu; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Liu, Ching-Ping; Souris, Jeffrey S; Chen, Chen-Tu; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lo, Leu-Wei</p> <p>2012-12-05</p> <p>Förster resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (FRET) may be regarded as a "smart" technology in the design of fluorescence probes for biological sensing and imaging. Recently, a variety of nanoparticles that include quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, polymer, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and upconversion nanoparticles have been employed to modulate FRET. Researchers have developed a number of "visible" and "activatable" FRET probes sensitive to specific changes in the biological environment that are especially attractive from the biomedical point of view. This article reviews recent progress in bringing these nanoparticle-modulated <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer schemes to fruition for applications in biosensing, molecular imaging and drug delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3546710','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3546710"><span>Recent Advances in Nanoparticle-Based Förster Resonance <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer for Biosensing, Molecular Imaging and Drug <span class="hlt">Release</span> Profiling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Nai-Tzu; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Liu, Ching-Ping; Souris, Jeffrey S.; Chen, Chen-Tu; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lo, Leu-Wei</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Förster resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (FRET) may be regarded as a “smart” technology in the design of fluorescence probes for biological sensing and imaging. Recently, a variety of nanoparticles that include quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, polymer, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and upconversion nanoparticles have been employed to modulate FRET. Researchers have developed a number of “visible” and “activatable” FRET probes sensitive to specific changes in the biological environment that are especially attractive from the biomedical point of view. This article reviews recent progress in bringing these nanoparticle-modulated <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer schemes to fruition for applications in biosensing, molecular imaging and drug delivery. PMID:23443121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5197991','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5197991"><span>Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, Omar; Matinmanesh, Ali; Phull, Sunjeev; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Zalzal, Paul; Clarkin, Owen M.; Papini, Marcello; Towler, Mark R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO2 incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) closer to the substrate’s (Ti6Al4V) CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO2 in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO2 to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO2 incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass® and Pyrex. PMID:27916951</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27916951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27916951"><span>Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, Omar; Matinmanesh, Ali; Phull, Sunjeev; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zalzal, Paul; Clarkin, Owen M; Papini, Marcello; Towler, Mark R</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO₂ incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) closer to the substrate's (Ti6Al4V) CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO₂ in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO₂ to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO₂ incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass(®) and Pyrex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo/special/pdf/temptrnd.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo/special/pdf/temptrnd.pdf"><span>Impact of Temperature Trends on Short-Term <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Demand, The (<span class="hlt">Released</span> in the STEO September 1999)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The past few years have witnessed unusually warm weather, as evidenced by both mild winters and hot summers. The analysis shows that the 30-year norms--the basis of weather-related <span class="hlt">energy</span> demand projections--do not reflect the warming trend or its regional and seasonal patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/emeu/steo/pub/special/weather/temptrnd.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/emeu/steo/pub/special/weather/temptrnd.pdf"><span>Impact of Temperature Trends on Short-Term <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Demand, The (<span class="hlt">Released</span> in the STEO September 1999)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The past few years have witnessed unusually warm weather, as evidenced by both mild winters and hot summers. The analysis shows that the 30-year norms--the basis of weather-related <span class="hlt">energy</span> demand projections--do not reflect the warming trend or its regional and seasonal patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..407..137K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..407..137K"><span>Rapid fabrication of superhydrophobic Al/Fe2O3 nanothermite film with excellent <span class="hlt">energy-release</span> characteristics and long-term storage stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ke, Xiang; Zhou, Xiang; Hao, Gaozi; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Wei</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>One of the challenges for the application of energetic materials is their <span class="hlt">energy</span>-retaining capabilities after long-term storage. In this study, we report a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic Al/Fe2O3 nanothermite film by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. Different concentrations of dispersion solvents and additives are investigated to optimize the deposition parameters. Meanwhile, the dependence of deposition rates on nanoparticle concentrations is also studied. The surface morphology and chemical composition are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray <span class="hlt">energy</span>-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A static contact angles as high as 156° shows the superhydrophobicity of the nanothermite film. Natural and accelerated aging tests are performed and the thermal behavior is analyzed. Thermal analysis shows that the surface modification contributes to significantly improved <span class="hlt">energy-release</span> characteristics for both fresh and aged samples, which is supposed to be attributed to the preignition reaction between Al2O3 shell and FAS-17. Superhydrophobic Al/Fe2O3 nanothermite film exhibits excellent long-time storage stability with 83.4% of <span class="hlt">energy</span> left in natural aging test and 60.5% in accelerated aging test. This study is instructive to the practical applications of nanothermites, especially in highly humid environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113436"><span>Finite <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> of Magnetoelastic Film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barham, Matthew Ian</p> <p>2011-05-31</p> <p>A nonlinear two-dimensional theory is developed for thin magnetoelastic lms capable of large <span class="hlt">deformations</span>. This is derived directly from three-dimensional theory. Signi cant simpli cations emerge in the descent from three dimensions to two, permitting the self eld generated by the body to be computed a posteriori. The model is specialized to isotropic elastomers with two material models. First weak magnetization is investigated leading to a free <span class="hlt">energy</span> where magnetization and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> are un-coupled. The second closely couples the magnetization and <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Numerical solutions are obtained to equilibrium boundary-value problems in which the membrane is subjected to lateral pressure and an applied magnetic eld. An instability is inferred and investigated for the weak magnetization material model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ies..conf...89H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ies..conf...89H"><span>Accelerated expansion of the Universe as the most powerful source of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> in cosmic objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harutyunian, H. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The available data on the expansion effects in the shorter scales are considered. It is mentioned that the prevailing opinion on the gravitationally bound states of the short-scale physical systems like solar system or galaxies is not provable but results from the a priori accepted ideas of their formation due to condensation. On the contrary, a lot of observational data speaks in favor of existence of Hubble expansion for all the scales. Some estimates of gravitational <span class="hlt">energy</span> accumulation in cosmic objects owing to dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> physical work are done. These estimates show that a cluster of galaxies could be formed from a pre-cluster via matter ejection during the Hubble time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FBS....56..231P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FBS....56..231P"><span>Cubic Wavefunction <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> of Compressed Atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Portela, Pedro Calvo; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We hypothesize that in a non-metallic crystalline structure under extreme pressures, atomic wavefunctions <span class="hlt">deform</span> to adopt a reduced rotational symmetry consistent with minimizing interstitial space in the crystal. We exemplify with a simple numeric variational calculation that yields the <span class="hlt">energy</span> cost of this <span class="hlt">deformation</span> for Helium to 25 %. Balancing this with the free <span class="hlt">energy</span> gained by tighter packing we obtain the pressures required to effect such <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. The consequent modification of the structure suggests a decrease in the resistance to tangential stress, and an associated decrease of the crystal's shear modulus. The atomic form factor is also modified. We also compare with neutron matter in the interior of compact stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ArRMA.225.1025B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ArRMA.225.1025B"><span>Second-Order Structured <span class="hlt">Deformations</span>: Relaxation, Integral Representation and Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barroso, Ana Cristina; Matias, José; Morandotti, Marco; Owen, David R.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Second-order structured <span class="hlt">deformations</span> of continua provide an extension of the multiscale geometry of first-order structured <span class="hlt">deformations</span> by taking into account the effects of submacroscopic bending and curving. We derive here an integral representation for a relaxed <span class="hlt">energy</span> functional in the setting of second-order structured <span class="hlt">deformations</span>. Our derivation covers inhomogeneous initial <span class="hlt">energy</span> densities (i.e., with explicit dependence on the position); finally, we provide explicit formulas for bulk relaxed <span class="hlt">energies</span> as well as anticipated applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DokPh..60..539M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DokPh..60..539M"><span>Effect of ultrasound on the characteristics of superplastic <span class="hlt">deformation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myshlyaev, M. M.; Shpeizman, V. V.; Klubovich, V. V.; Kulak, M. M.; Lyu, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of aluminum-lithium alloy 1420 is investigated in the region of temperatures of its superplasticity T = 320-395°C under the simultaneous action of stretching load and axial ultrasonic vibrations. The estimates of the activation parameters of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> show that the activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> during stretching with ultrasonic vibrations and without them are close both at the stage of hardening and at the stage of softening. It is concluded that the ultrasonic vibrations facilitate intragranular <span class="hlt">deformation</span> at the hardening stage and promote an increase in its contribution to the total <span class="hlt">deformation</span> without changing the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanisms.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMI....21..227J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMI....21..227J"><span>Determination of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanism of Fe-Mn alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jo, Minho; Koo, Yang Mo; Kwon, Se Kyun</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> parameters of planar defects are decisive for understanding the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanisms of metals. The stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> has been regarded as a key parameter to determine the activation of the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanisms of the face-centered cubic metals and alloys. However, it is still under a long debate why the stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> can be treated to be such an exclusive parameter among the general planar fault <span class="hlt">energies</span>. We have employed molecular dynamics method to examine the effects of Mn alloying on the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> behavior of austenitic Fe-Mn systems. The <span class="hlt">energies</span> of stable and unstable states are calculated by sliding the (111) plane and are analyzed in two different schemes, stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> and <span class="hlt">energy</span> barriers, which leads to a contradiction between them. We show that a linear relationship can be identified among the <span class="hlt">energy</span> barriers. This finding is used to identify the activated <span class="hlt">deformation</span> mechanism. A new parameter is also suggested to characterize the material <span class="hlt">deformation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27870528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27870528"><span>Catalytically Triggered <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> from Strained Organic Molecules: The Surface Chemistry of Quadricyclane and Norbornadiene on Pt(111).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bauer, Udo; Mohr, Susanne; Döpper, Tibor; Bachmann, Philipp; Späth, Florian; Düll, Fabian; Schwarz, Matthias; Brummel, Olaf; Fromm, Lukas; Pinkert, Ute; Görling, Andreas; Hirsch, Andreas; Bachmann, Julien; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Libuda, Jörg; Papp, Christian</p> <p>2017-01-31</p> <p>We have investigated the surface chemistry of the polycyclic valence-isomer pair norbornadiene (NBD) and quadricyclane (QC) on Pt(111). The NBD/QC system is considered to be a prototype for <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage in strained organic compounds. By using a multimethod approach, including UV photoelectron, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron, and IR reflection-absorption spectroscopic analysis and DFT calculations, we could unambiguously identify and differentiate between the two molecules in the multilayer phase, which implies that the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-loaded QC molecule is stable in this state. Upon adsorption in the (sub)monolayer regime, the different spectroscopies yielded identical spectra for NBD and QC at 125 and 160 K, when multilayer desorption takes place. This behavior is explained by a rapid cycloreversion of QC to NBD upon contact with the Pt surface. The NBD adsorbs in a η(2) :η(1) geometry with an agostic Pt-H interaction of the bridgehead CH2 subunit and the surface. Strong spectral changes are observed between 190 and 220 K because the hydrogen atom that forms the agostic bond is broke. This reaction yields a norbornadienyl intermediate species that is stable up to approximately 380 K. At higher temperatures, the molecule dehydrogenates and decomposes into smaller carbonaceous fragments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10193638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10193638"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> twinning: Influence of strain rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gray, G.T. III</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> is decreased or the rate of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twins. Under high-strain rate or shock-loading/impact conditions <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault <span class="hlt">energy</span> FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily <span class="hlt">deform</span> via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shock wave <span class="hlt">deformation</span> the competition between slip and <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of strain rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-strain-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of <span class="hlt">deformation</span> twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..APR.X4007K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..APR.X4007K"><span>Measurement of the Total Kinetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> (TKE) in 232 Th(n,f) with En = 2.59 - 87.31 MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King, Jonathan; Yanez, Ricardo; Barrett, Jonathan; Loveland, Walter; Tovesson, Fredrik; Fotiades, Nick; Lee, Hye Young</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Experimental results for the Total Kinetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Release</span> (TKE) of 232 Th(n,f) with En = 2.59 - 87.31 MeV will be presented. The experiment was performed at the 15R beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research(WNR) facility at LANL-LANSCE. WNR provides a white spectrum of neutrons peaking at 2 MeV and reaching up to 800 MeV, with neutron <span class="hlt">energies</span> being deduced from measurements of the neutron time of flight (TOF). A thin-backed 232 ThF4 target of 2 cm diameter with a thorium areal density of 178.9 μg/cm2 was placed between two arrays of Hammamatsu PIN diodes (active area 4 cm2 each). The beam was collimated to 1 cm diameter. The target was placed 45 degrees off of the beam axis, with the detectors at 60 degrees and 120 degrees from the beam axis. Over 25,000 fission fragment coincidence events were recorded, allowing for sixteen <span class="hlt">energy</span> bins between 2.59 and 87.31 MeV. We believe that this will be the most comprehensive published measurement of the TKE for 232 Th(n,f) with En = 2.59 - 87.31 MeV. This work was supported in part by the Director, Office of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Research, Division of Nuclear Physics of the Office of High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and Nuclear Physics of the USDoE under Grant DE-FG06-97ER41026. This work has benefited from the use of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This facility is funded by the USDoE under DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880009586','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880009586"><span><span class="hlt">Deformations</span> in VLBI antennas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clark, T. A.; Thomsen, P.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A study is presented of <span class="hlt">deformations</span> in antennas with the emphasis on their influence on VLBI measurements. The GIFTS structural analysis program has been used to model the VLBI antenna in Fairbanks (Alaska). The report identifies key <span class="hlt">deformations</span> and studies the effect of gravity, wind, and temperature. Estimates of expected <span class="hlt">deformations</span> are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814195','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814195"><span>Supplemental <span class="hlt">Release</span> Limits for the Directed Reuse of Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coleman, R.L.</p> <p>2001-08-22</p> <p>The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) as part of the U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>'s commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead and lead products by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead as a waste within the complex. This approach would promote the safe and cost-effective reuse of DOE's scrap and surplus lead in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and lead products by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were selected--with slight modification--from the recently published American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance (ANSI/HPS 1999) and are being submitted for formal approval by the DOE. Health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMI....23..132C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMI....23..132C"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> and annealing textures of surface layers of copper sheets cold-rolled under unlubricated condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Hyun-Sik; Han, Heung Nam; Lee, Dong Nyung</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The texture of rolled sheets is known to vary with depth from the shear texture in the surface layer to the planestrain-compression texture in the center layer. This study has interpreted the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> and annealing textures evolved in the surface layer of a four-layered-copper sheet cold-rolled by 93% reduction in thickness without lubrication at room temperature. The surface and center layers were separated from the cold-rolled four-layered copper sheet. The <span class="hlt">deformed</span> surface layer was annealed for 1 h at 823 K. The <span class="hlt">deformation</span> texture of the surface layer could be simulated by straining the {112}<111> oriented fcc crystals by a true strain of 2.66 in the rolling direction at 0 ≤ | e 13/ e 11| ≤ 1.4, where eij are the displacement gradients and the subscripts 1 and 3 represent the sheet rolling and sheet surface normal directions, respectively, using a visco-plastic self-consistent scheme. The annealing texture could be approximated by the simulated shear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> orientations plus near the {001}<100> orientation that was approximated by the recrystallization orientations calculated from the simulated <span class="hlt">deformation</span> orientations. The recrystallization orientations were calculated by the strain-<span class="hlt">energy-release</span>-maximization theory for the recrystallization texture evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MRE.....3d5601K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MRE.....3d5601K"><span>Transformation-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> bands in C60 after the treatment in a shear diamond anvil cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Blank, V. D.; Levitas, V. I.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Popov, M. Yu; Kirichenko, A. N.; Tyukalova, E. V.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The C60 fullerene has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss spectroscopy in a shear diamond anvil cell after applying pressure and shear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> treatment of fcc phase. Shear transformation-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> bands are revealed consisting of shear-strain-induced nanocrystals of linearly polymerized fullerene and polytypes, the triclinic, monoclinic, and hcp C60, fragments of amorphous structures, and voids. Consequently, after pressure <span class="hlt">release</span>, the plastic strain retains five high pressure phases, which is potentially important for their engineering applications. Localized shear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> initially seems contradictory because high pressure phases of C60 are stronger than the initial low pressure phase. However, this was explained by transformation-induced plasticity during localized phase transformations. It occurs due to a combination of applied stresses and internal stresses from a volume reduction during phase transformations. Localized phase transformations and plastic shear <span class="hlt">deformation</span> promote each other, which produce positive mechanochemical feedback and cascading transformation-<span class="hlt">deformation</span> processes. Since the plastic shear in a band is much larger than is expected based on the torsion angle, five phase transformations occur in the same region with no transformation outside the band. The results demonstrate that transformation kinetics cannot be analyzed in terms of prescribed shear, and methods to measure local shear should be developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212943M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212943M"><span>Pathways of sulfur <span class="hlt">release</span> and redox state track the change from low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> to highly-explosive eruptions at Mt. Etna (Sicily)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moretti, Roberto; Marini, Luigi; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Métrich, Nicole; Gambardella, Barbara; Hunziker, Johannes</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Many basaltic volcanoes are characterized by large amounts of volatiles, most often reflecting fluid <span class="hlt">release</span> from subducting slabs and consequent injection in the above mantle wedge. Because of this, basaltic volcanoes can experience a wide spectrum of activity, up to Plinian. At Mt. Etna, high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Plinian eruptions took place in the past (e.g., 122 BC), and still represent the major volcanic threat for the town of Catania and its surroundings. Joint melt inclusion-based investigation of sulfur <span class="hlt">release</span> and bulk rock S-isotope study from classic Strombolian or lava-fountain based activity to Plinian eruptions may provide useful indications to discriminate the evolution to either high or low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> eruptions. We show here that different Etna magmas follow different paths of sulfur elimination. Depending on initial water contents and oxidation states, Etnean magmas can soon reach the limit of sulfide saturation or get rid of sulfur on degassing only. Melt inclusion data indicate that the magma involved in the high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Plinian eruption of 122 BC is richer in sulfate than other magmas. The relationship between the high sulfate contents in melts, hence system oxidation, and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the eruption does not seem to be fortuitous and reflects involvement of the hydrous-rich and oxidized parental source of magma, deep seated in a fluid-contaminated mantle. Consistent with melt inclusion findings, S-isotope data support the idea that most oxidized conditions known for Etna could be considered as a proxy for the most violent explosive eruptions, such as the 122 BC Plinian event. Because the whole plumbing system is dominated by CO2 and invested by gas-fluxing, melt dehydration is a common process. Dehydrated magma portions are also more reduced than those ascending from the water-rich source. In light of this, and due to the clear role of water as oxidizing agent, we propose that the explosivity associated with oxidized Etna magmas reflects the fast ascent of deep</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/899401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/899401"><span><span class="hlt">Deformable</span> Nanolaminate Optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olivier, S S; Papavasiliou, A P; Barbee, T W; Miles, R R; Walton, C C; Cohn, M B; Chang, K</p> <p>2006-05-12</p> <p>We are developing a new class of <span class="hlt">deformable</span> optic based on electrostatic actuation of nanolaminate foils. These foils are engineered at the atomic level to provide optimal opto-mechanical properties, including surface quality, strength and stiffness, for a wide range of <span class="hlt">deformable</span> optics. We are combining these foils, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with commercial metal processing techniques to produce prototype <span class="hlt">deformable</span> optics with aperture sizes up to 10 cm and actuator spacing from 1 mm to 1 cm and with a range of surface <span class="hlt">deformation</span> designed to be as much as 10 microns. The existing capability for producing nanolaminate foils at LLNL, coupled with the commercial metal processing techniques being used, enable the potential production of these <span class="hlt">deformable</span> optics with aperture sizes of over 1 m, and much larger <span class="hlt">deformable</span> optics could potentially be produced by tiling multiple <span class="hlt">deformable</span> segments. In addition, based on the fabrication processes being used, <span class="hlt">deformable</span> nanolaminate optics could potentially be produced with areal densities of less than 1 kg per square m for applications in which lightweight <span class="hlt">deformable</span> optics are desirable, and <span class="hlt">deformable</span> nanolaminate optics could potentially be fabricated with intrinsically curved surfaces, including aspheric shapes. We will describe the basic principles of these devices, and we will present details of the design, fabrication and characterization of the prototype <span class="hlt">deformable</span> nanolaminate optics that have been developed to date. We will also discuss the possibilities for future work on scaling these devices to larger sizes and developing both devices with lower areal densities and devices with curved surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004384"><span>PRE-FLARE ACTIVITY AND MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DURING THE EVOLUTIONARY STAGES OF <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> <span class="hlt">RELEASE</span> IN A SOLAR ERUPTIVE FLARE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Joshi, Bhuwan; Veronig, Astrid M.; Bong, Su-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar</p> <p>2011-12-20</p> <p>In this paper, we present a multi-wavelength analysis of an eruptive white-light M3.2 flare that occurred in active region NOAA 10486 on 2003 November 1. The excellent set of high-resolution observations made by RHESSI and the TRACE provides clear evidence of significant pre-flare activities for {approx}9 minutes in the form of an initiation phase observed at EUV/UV wavelengths followed by an X-ray precursor phase. During the initiation phase, we observed localized brightenings in the highly sheared core region close to the filament and interactions among short EUV loops overlying the filament, which led to the opening of magnetic field lines. The X-ray precursor phase is manifested in RHESSI measurements below {approx}30 keV and coincided with the beginning of flux emergence at the flaring location along with early signatures of the eruption. The RHESSI observations reveal that both plasma heating and electron acceleration occurred during the precursor phase. The main flare is consistent with the standard flare model. However, after the impulsive phase, an intense hard X-ray (HXR) looptop source was observed without significant footpoint emission. More intriguingly, for a brief period, the looptop source exhibited strong HXR emission with <span class="hlt">energies</span> up to {approx}50-100 keV and significant non-thermal characteristics. The present study indicates a causal relation between the activities in the pre-flare and the main flare. We also conclude that pre-flare activities, occurring in the form of subtle magnetic reorganization along with localized magnetic reconnection, played a crucial role in destabilizing the active region filament, leading to a solar eruptive flare and associated large-scale phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR13A2226B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR13A2226B"><span>Rate-dependent <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of rocks in the brittle regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baud, P.; Brantut, N.; Heap, M. J.; Meredith, P. G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Rate-dependent brittle <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of rocks, a phenomenon relevant for long-term interseismic phases of <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, is poorly understood quantitatively. Rate-dependence can arise from chemically-activated, subcritical crack growth, which is known to occur in the presence of aqueous fluids. Here we attempt to establish quantitative links between this small scale process and its macroscopic manifestations. We performed a series of brittle <span class="hlt">deformation</span> experiments in porous sandstones, in creep (constant stress) and constant strain rate conditions, in order to investigate the relationship between their short- and long-term mechanical behaviors. Elastic wave velocities measurements indicate that the amount of microcracking follows the amount of inelastic strain in a trend which does not depend upon the timescale involved. The comparison of stress-strain curves between constant strain rate and creep tests allows us to define a stress difference between the two, which can be viewed as a difference in <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">release</span> rate. We empirically show that the creep strain rates are proportional to an exponential function of this stress difference. We then establish a general method to estimate empirical micromechanical functions relating the applied stresses to mode I stress intensity factors at microcrack tips, and we determine the relationship between creep strain rates and stress intensity factors in our sandstone creep experiments. We finally provide an estimate of the sub-critical crack growth law parameters, and find that they match -within the experimental errors and approximations of the method- the typical values observed in independent single crack tests. Our approach provides a comprehensive and unifying explanation for the origin and the macroscopic manifestation of time-dependent brittle <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in brittle rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940873','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940873"><span>The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. III Constraints on Dark <span class="hlt">Energy</span> From The Third Data <span class="hlt">Release</span> Quasar Lens Catalog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oguri, M; Inada, N; Strauss, M A; Kochanek, C S; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Becker, R H; Fukugita, M; Gregg, M D; Hall, P B; Hennawi, J F; Johnston, D E; Kayo, I; Keeton, C R; Pindor, B; Shin, M; Turner, E; White, R L; York, D G; Anderson, S F; Bahcall, N A; Brunner, R J; Burles, S; Castander, F J; Chiu, K; Clocchiatti, A; Einsenstein, D; Frieman, J; Kawano, Y; Lupton, R; Morokuma, T; Rix, H; Scranton, R; Sheldon, E S</p> <p>2007-09-12</p> <p>We present cosmological results from the statistics of lensed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Lens Search. By taking proper account of the selection function, we compute the expected number of quasars lensed by early-type galaxies and their image separation distribution assuming a flat universe, which is then compared with 7 lenses found in the SDSS Data <span class="hlt">Release</span> 3 to derive constraints on dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> under strictly controlled criteria. For a cosmological constant model (w = -1) we obtain {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.74{sub -0.15}{sup +0.11}(stat.){sub -0.06}{sup +0.13}(syst.). Allowing w to be a free parameter we find {Omega}{sub M} = 0.26{sub -0.06}{sup +0.07}(stat.){sub -0.05}{sup +0.03}(syst.) and w = -1.1 {+-} 0.6(stat.){sub -0.5}{sup +0.3}(syst.) when combined with the constraint from the measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations in the SDSS luminous red galaxy sample. Our results are in good agreement with earlier lensing constraints obtained using radio lenses, and provide additional confirmation of the presence of dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> consistent with a cosmological constant, derived independently of type Ia supernovae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED51A0870Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED51A0870Z"><span>Developing a Virtual Rock <span class="hlt">Deformation</span> Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and <span class="hlt">energy</span> resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span> facilities. A virtual <span class="hlt">deformation</span> laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock <span class="hlt">deformation</span>. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual <span class="hlt">deformation</span> laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial <span class="hlt">deformation</span> apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual <span class="hlt">deformation</span> machine to observe how <span class="hlt">deformation</span> changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of <span class="hlt">deformed</span> rocks are up-loaded and linked to different <span class="hlt">deformation</span> tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the <span class="hlt">deformation</span> data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1936R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1936R"><span><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> transients in the brittle regime: Insights from spring-wedge experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenau, Matthias; Santimano, Tasca; Oncken, Onno</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Deformation</span> of the earth's crust varies over timescales ranging from the seismic cycle to plate tectonic phases. Seismic cycles can generically be explained by sudden coseismic <span class="hlt">release</span> of strain <span class="hlt">energy</span> accumulated slowly over the interseismic period. The simplest models of such transient behavior is a spring-slider system where the spring stores elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> and the slider is characterized by static and dynamic friction at its base allowing cyclic occurrence of slip instabilities. Here we extend this model by allowing the slider to <span class="hlt">deform</span> in an accretionary wedge type system. Because cyclic thrust formation is associated with bulk strain weakening this should introduce slip instabilities at the time-scale of accretionary cycles superimposed on seismic cycles which are controlled by static and dynamic friction at the wedge base. To test this hypothesis we set up sandbox-type experiments where the backwall is not rigid but elastic. We vary stiffness, friction coefficients and amount of strain weakening during fault formation and reactivation within realistic ranges when scaled to nature and monitor backwall push force and surface <span class="hlt">deformation</span> at high resolution. We observe slip instabilities both at seismic and accretionary cycle scale. Depending on the ratio of the amount of strain weakening to elastic stiffness, shortening rate increases transiently by a factor of 2-3 during fault growth. Applied to nature our observation suggests that episodic <span class="hlt">deformation</span> transients might be interpreted as longterm slip instabilities related to crustal weakening at all relevant spatial scales: At local scale "slow earthquakes" might be interpreted as the result of the interplay between matrix stiffness and strain weakening in fault gouge material. At regional scale, applying buckling theory, we predict that <span class="hlt">deformation</span> zones bordered by "soft" oceanic plates (e.g. the Andes) are more susceptible to <span class="hlt">deformation</span> transients than "stiff" intracontinental settings (e.g. the Himalaya).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2884252','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2884252"><span>Electrostatics of <span class="hlt">Deformable</span> Lipid Membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vorobyov, Igor; Bekker, Borislava; Allen, Toby W.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Abstract It was recently demonstrated that significant local <span class="hlt">deformations</span> of biological membranes take place due to the fields of charged peptides and ions, challenging the standard model of membrane electrostatics. The ability of ions to retain their immediate hydration environment, combined with the lack of sensitivity of permeability to ion type or even ion pairs, led us to question the extent to which hydration energetics and electrostatics control membrane ion permeation. Using the arginine analog methyl-guanidinium as a test case, we find that although hydrocarbon electronic polarizability causes dramatic changes in ion solvation free <span class="hlt">energy</span>, as well as a significant change (∼0.4 V) in the membrane dipole potential, little change in membrane permeation energetics occurs. We attribute this to compensation of solvation terms from polar and polarizable nonpolar components within the membrane, and explain why the dipole potential is not fully sensed in terms of the locally <span class="hlt">deformed</span> bilayer interface. Our descriptions provide a deeper understanding of the translocation process and allow predictions for poly-ions, ion pairs, charged lipids, and lipid flip-flop. We also report simulations of large hydrophobic-ion-like membrane defects and the ionophore valinomycin, which exhibit little membrane <span class="hlt">deformation</span>, as well as hydrophilic defects and the ion channel gramicidin A, to provide parallels to membranes <span class="hlt">deformed</span> by unassisted ion permeation. PMID:20550903</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1236962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1236962"><span>The evolution of internal stress and dislocation during tensile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> in a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel investigated by high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> X-rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Zhangjian; Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Liu, Xiang; Almer, Jonathan; Stubbins, James F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>An application of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> wide angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction to investigate the tensile <span class="hlt">deformation</span> of 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel is presented. With tensile loading and in-situ Xray exposure, the lattice strain development of matrix was determined. The lattice