Science.gov

Sample records for deformation linear response

  1. Dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of maraging steel linear cellular alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam E.; Fredenberg, David A.; McCoy, Tammy; Thadhani, Naresh; Cochran, Joe K.

    2012-03-01

    The dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of 25% dense 9-cell linear cellular alloy (LCA) made of unaged 250 maraging steel, fabricated using a direct reduction and extrusion technique, is investigated. Explicit finite element simulations were implemented using AUTODYN finite element code. The maraging steel properties were defined using a Johnson-Cook strength model with previously validated parameters. Rod-on-anvil impact tests were performed using the 7.6mm helium gas gun and the transient deformation and fragmentation response was recorded with highspeed imaging. Analysis of observed deformation states of specimens and finite element simulations reveal that in the case of the 9-cell LCA, dissipation of stress and strain occurs along the interior cell wells resulting in significant and ubiquitous buckling prior to confined fragmentation.

  2. Dynamic Deformation and Fragmentation Response of Maraging Steel Linear Cellular Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, D. A.; McCoy, T.; Thadhani, N. N.; Cochran, J.

    2011-06-01

    The dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of 25% dense 9-cell linear cellular alloy (LCA) made of unaged 250 maraging steel, fabricated using a direct reduction and extrusion technique, is investigated. Explicit finite element simulations were implemented using AUTODYN. The maraging steel properties were defined using a Johnson-Cook strength model with previously validated parameters. Rod-on-anvil impact tests were performed using the 7.6 mm helium gas gun and the transient deformation and fragmentation response was recorded with high-speed imaging. For purpose of comparison, the response of 25% dense hollow cylinders of same density as the 9-cell LCA was also studied. Analysis of observed states of specimens and finite element simulations reveal that in the case of the 9-cell LCA, dissipation of stress and strain occurs along the interior cell wells resulting in significant and ubiquitous buckling prior to confined fragmentation. In comparison, the simple hollow cylinder undergoes significant radial lipping, eventually producing larger sized, external fragments. DTRA Grant No. HDTRA1-07-1-0018 and NDSEG Fellowship Program.

  3. Materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y.; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90° in ≈1 cm) and linear stretching to “rubber-band” levels of strain (e.g., up to ≈140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics. PMID:19015528

  4. Relation of deformed nonlinear algebras with linear ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, A.; Tkachuk, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    The relation between nonlinear algebras and linear ones is established. For a one-dimensional nonlinear deformed Heisenberg algebra with two operators we find the function of deformation for which this nonlinear algebra can be transformed to a linear one with three operators. We also establish the relation between the Lie algebra of total angular momentum and corresponding nonlinear one. This relation gives a possibility to simplify and to solve the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian in a nonlinear case using the reduction of this problem to the case of linear algebra. It is demonstrated in an example of a harmonic oscillator.

  5. Linear and Nonlinear Photoinduced Deformations of Cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, D.; Warner, M.

    2007-10-01

    Glassy and elastomeric nematic networks with dye molecules present can be very responsive to illumination, huge reversible strains being possible. If absorption is appreciable, strain decreases with depth into a cantilever, leading to bend that is the basis of micro-opto-mechanical systems (MOMS). Bend actually occurs even when Beer’s law suggests a tiny penetration of light into a heavily dye-doped system. We model the nonlinear opto-elastic processes behind this effect. In the regime of cantilever thickness giving optimal bending for a given incident light intensity, there are three neutral surfaces. In practice such nonlinear absorptive effects are very important since heavily doped systems are commonly used.

  6. Inter and intra-modal deformable registration: continuous deformations meet efficient optimal linear programming.

    PubMed

    Glocker, Ben; Paragios, Nikos; Komodakis, Nikos; Tziritas, Georgios; Navab, Nassir

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel non-rigid volume registration based on discrete labeling and linear programming. The proposed framework reformulates registration as a minimal path extraction in a weighted graph. The space of solutions is represented using a set of a labels which are assigned to predefined displacements. The graph topology corresponds to a superimposed regular grid onto the volume. Links between neighborhood control points introduce smoothness, while links between the graph nodes and the labels (end-nodes) measure the cost induced to the objective function through the selection of a particular deformation for a given control point once projected to the entire volume domain, Higher order polynomials are used to express the volume deformation from the ones of the control points. Efficient linear programming that can guarantee the optimal solution up to (a user-defined) bound is considered to recover the optimal registration parameters. Therefore, the method is gradient free, can encode various similarity metrics (simple changes on the graph construction), can guarantee a globally sub-optimal solution and is computational tractable. Experimental validation using simulated data with known deformation, as well as manually segmented data demonstrate the extreme potentials of our approach.

  7. Linear Response for Intermittent Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Todd, Mike

    2016-11-01

    We consider the one parameter family {α mapsto T_{α}} ({α in [0,1)}) of Pomeau-Manneville type interval maps {T_{α}(x) = x(1+2^{α} x^{α})} for {x in [0,1/2)} and {T_{α}(x)=2x-1} for {x in [1/2, 1]}, with the associated absolutely continuous invariant probability measure {μ_{α}}. For {α in (0,1)}, Sarig and Gouëzel proved that the system mixes only polynomially with rate {n^{1-1/{α}}} (in particular, there is no spectral gap). We show that for any {ψ in Lq}, the map {α to int_01 ψ d μ_{α}} is differentiable on {[0,1-1/q)}, and we give a (linear response) formula for the value of the derivative. This is the first time that a linear response formula for the SRB measure is obtained in the setting of slowly mixing dynamics. Our argument shows how cone techniques can be used in this context. For {α ≥ 1/2} we need the {n^{-1/{α}}} decorrelation obtained by Gouëzel under additional conditions.

  8. Continuum Mechanics Based Bi-linear Shear Deformable Shell Element Using Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-07

    the convergent solution in the case of the continuum mechanics based bi- linear shear deformable ANCF shell element. 5.3 Slit Annular Plate Subjected...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. #24515 CONTINUUM MECHANICS BASED BI- LINEAR SHEAR DEFORMABLE SHELL ELEMENT...MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED 07-01-2014 to 04-03-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CONTINUUM MECHANICS BASED BI- LINEAR

  9. Chemically tuned linear energy transfer dependent quenching in a deformable, radiochromic 3D dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, Ellen Marie; Skyt, Peter S.; Balling, Peter; Muren, Ludvig P.; Taasti, Vicki T.; Swakoń, Jan; Mierzwińska, Gabriela; Rydygier, Marzena; Bassler, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen B. B.

    2017-02-01

    Most solid-state detectors, including 3D dosimeters, show lower signal in the Bragg peak than expected, a process termed quenching. The purpose of this study was to investigate how variation in chemical composition of a recently developed radiochromic, silicone-based 3D dosimeter influences the observed quenching in proton beams. The dependency of dose response on linear energy transfer, as calculated through Monte Carlo simulations of the dosimeter, was investigated in 60 MeV proton beams. We found that the amount of quenching varied with the chemical composition: peak-to-plateau ratios (1 cm into the plateau) ranged from 2.2 to 3.4, compared to 4.3 using an ionization chamber. The dose response, and thereby the quenching, was predominantly influenced by the curing agent concentration, which determined the dosimeter’s deformation properties. The dose response was found to be linear at all depths. All chemical compositions of the dosimeter showed dose-rate dependency; however this was not dependent on the linear energy transfer. Track-structure theory was used to explain the observed quenching effects. In conclusion, this study shows that the silicone-based dosimeter has potential for use in measuring 3D-dose-distributions from proton beams.

  10. Shape-based image reconstruction using linearized deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öktem, Ozan; Chen, Chong; Onur Domaniç, Nevzat; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a reconstruction framework that can account for shape related prior information in imaging-related inverse problems. It is a variational scheme that uses a shape functional, whose definition is based on deformable template machinery from computational anatomy. We prove existence and, as a proof of concept, we apply the proposed shape-based reconstruction to 2D tomography with very sparse and/or highly noisy measurements.

  11. Prediction of formability for non-linear deformation history using generalized forming limit concept (GFLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Wolfram; Suh, Joungsik

    2013-12-01

    The prediction of formability is one of the most important tasks in sheet metal process simulation. The common criterion in industrial applications is the Forming Limit Curve (FLC). The big advantage of FLCs is the easy interpretation of simulation or measurement data in combination with an ISO standard for the experimental determination. However, the conventional FLCs are limited to almost linear and unbroken strain paths, i.e. deformation histories with non-linear strain increments often lead to big differences in comparison to the prediction of the FLC. In this paper a phenomenological approach, the so-called Generalized Forming Limit Concept (GFLC), is introduced to predict the localized necking on arbitrary deformation history with unlimited number of non-linear strain increments. The GFLC consists of the conventional FLC and an acceptable number of experiments with bi-linear deformation history. With the idea of the new defined "Principle of Equivalent Pre-Forming" every deformation state built up of two linear strain increments can be transformed to a pure linear strain path with the same used formability of the material. In advance this procedure can be repeated as often as necessary. Therefore, it allows a robust and cost effective analysis of beginning instability in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for arbitrary deformation histories. In addition, the GFLC is fully downwards compatible to the established FLC for pure linear strain paths.

  12. Optically isolated signal coupler with linear response

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An optocoupler for isolating electrical signals that translates an electrical input signal linearly to an electrical output signal. The optocoupler comprises a light emitter, a light receiver, and a light transmitting medium. The light emitter, preferably a blue, silicon carbide LED, is of the type that provides linear, electro-optical conversion of electrical signals within a narrow wavelength range. Correspondingly, the light receiver, which converts light signals to electrical signals and is preferably a cadmium sulfide photoconductor, is linearly responsive to light signals within substantially the same wavelength range as the blue LED.

  13. Linear ubiquitination signals in adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2015-07-01

    Ubiquitin can form eight different linkage types of chains using the intrinsic Met 1 residue or one of the seven intrinsic Lys residues. Each linkage type of ubiquitin chain has a distinct three-dimensional topology, functioning as a tag to attract specific signaling molecules, which are so-called ubiquitin readers, and regulates various biological functions. Ubiquitin chains linked via Met 1 in a head-to-tail manner are called linear ubiquitin chains. Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of cellular signaling, including the best-characterized tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Linear ubiquitin chains are specifically generated by an E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and hydrolyzed by a deubiquitinase (DUB) called ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN). LUBAC linearly ubiquitinates critical molecules in the TNF pathway, such as NEMO and RIPK1. The linear ubiquitin chains are then recognized by the ubiquitin readers, including NEMO, which control the TNF pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates an importance of the LUBAC complex in the regulation of apoptosis, development, and inflammation in mice. In this article, I focus on the role of linear ubiquitin chains in adaptive immune responses with an emphasis on the TNF-induced signaling pathways.

  14. Linear Response Laws and Causality in Electrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuffa, Alex J.; Scales, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Linear response laws and causality (the effect cannot precede the cause) are of fundamental importance in physics. In the context of classical electrodynamics, students often have a difficult time grasping these concepts because the physics is obscured by the intermingling of the time and frequency domains. In this paper, we analyse the linear…

  15. Prediction of Undsteady Flows in Turbomachinery Using the Linearized Euler Equations on Deforming Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William S.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1994-01-01

    A linearized Euler solver for calculating unsteady flows in turbomachinery blade rows due to both incident gusts and blade motion is presented. The model accounts for blade loading, blade geometry, shock motion, and wake motion. Assuming that the unsteadiness in the flow is small relative to the nonlinear mean solution, the unsteady Euler equations can be linearized about the mean flow. This yields a set of linear variable coefficient equations that describe the small amplitude harmonic motion of the fluid. These linear equations are then discretized on a computational grid and solved using standard numerical techniques. For transonic flows, however, one must use a linear discretization which is a conservative linearization of the non-linear discretized Euler equations to ensure that shock impulse loads are accurately captured. Other important features of this analysis include a continuously deforming grid which eliminates extrapolation errors and hence, increases accuracy, and a new numerically exact, nonreflecting far-field boundary condition treatment based on an eigenanalysis of the discretized equations. Computational results are presented which demonstrate the computational accuracy and efficiency of the method and demonstrate the effectiveness of the deforming grid, far-field nonreflecting boundary conditions, and shock capturing techniques. A comparison of the present unsteady flow predictions to other numerical, semi-analytical, and experimental methods shows excellent agreement. In addition, the linearized Euler method presented requires one or two orders-of-magnitude less computational time than traditional time marching techniques making the present method a viable design tool for aeroelastic analyses.

  16. Deformation of Brillouin gain spectrum shape caused by strain varying linearly with respect to time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Ayako; Tateda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-01

    The shape of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) that is produced in an optical fiber undergoing strain varying linearly with respect to time, which is a typical example of temporally non-uniform strain, is theoretically derived through an analysis similar to that by which the BGS under spatially non-uniform strain would be derived. The BGS shape that is theoretically derived agrees well with the shape experimentally observed. The characteristics of the BGS deformation and strain measurement error under the temporally linear strain are discussed based on their similarity to the BGS shape derived under spatially linear strain.

  17. Linear Response Function of Bond-Order

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nayuta; Mitsuta, Yuki; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Yamanaka, Shusuke

    2016-01-01

    We present the linear response function of bond-orders (LRF-BO) based on a real space integration scheme for molecular systems. As in the case of the LRF of density, the LRF-BO is defined as the response of the bond order of the molecule for the virtual perturbation. Our calculations show that the LRF-BO enables us not only to detect inductive and resonating effects of conjugating systems, but also to predict pKa values on substitution groups via linear relationships between the Hammett constants and the LRF-BO values for meta- and para-substituted benzoic acids. More importantly, the LRF-BO values for the O-H bonds strongly depend on the sites to which the virtual perturbation is applied, implying that the LRF-BO values include essential information about reaction mechanism of the acid-dissociation of substituted benzoic acids. PMID:27792148

  18. An update on the nonequilibrium linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiesi, M.; Maes, C.

    2013-01-01

    The unique fluctuation-dissipation theorem for equilibrium stands in contrast with the wide variety of nonequilibrium linear response formulae. Their most traditional approach is ‘analytic’, which, in the absence of detailed balance, introduces the logarithm of the stationary probability density as observable. The theory of dynamical systems offers an alternative with a formula that continues to work even when the stationary distribution is not smooth. We show that this method works equally well for stochastic dynamics, and we illustrate it with a numerical example for the perturbation of circadian cycles. A second ‘probabilistic’ approach starts from dynamical ensembles and expands the probability weights on path space. This line suggests new physical questions, as we meet the frenetic contribution to linear response, and the relevance of the change in dynamical activity in the relaxation to a (new) nonequilibrium condition.

  19. Raman study of uniaxial deformation of single-crystal mats of ultrahigh molecular weight linear polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavgorodnev, Yu V.; Chvalun, S. N.; Nikolaeva, G. Yu; Sagitova, E. A.; Pashinin, P. P.; Gordeyev, S. A.; Prokhorov, K. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present for the first time a Raman spectroscopic study of the deformation process of solution-crystallized single-crystal mats of ultrahigh molecular weight linear polyethylene (UHMW PE). We study the deformed regions of the films, drawn only until the formation of the neck, and the films of much higher draw ratios, just before rupture starts. For comparison, we have also carried out Raman investigations of films produced by compression of UHMW PE powder. We have found that the uniaxial molecular orientation in the neck region of the single-crystal mat films develops more slowly as compared to the films, prepared by compression of the UHMW PE powder.

  20. A non-linear elastic constitutive framework for replicating plastic deformation in solids.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Scott Alan; Schunk, Peter Randall

    2014-02-01

    Ductile metals and other materials typically deform plastically under large applied loads; a behavior most often modeled using plastic deformation constitutive models. However, it is possible to capture some of the key behaviors of plastic deformation using only the framework for nonlinear elastic mechanics. In this paper, we develop a phenomenological, hysteretic, nonlinear elastic constitutive model that captures many of the features expected of a plastic deformation model. This model is based on calculating a secant modulus directly from a materials stress-strain curve. Scalar stress and strain values are obtained in three dimensions by using the von Mises invariants. Hysteresis is incorporated by tracking an additional history variable and assuming an elastic unloading response. This model is demonstrated in both single- and multi-element simulations under varying strain conditions.

  1. Nonlinearity and Strain-Rate Dependence in the Deformation Response of Polymer Matrix Composites Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    There has been no accurate procedure for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials, but such an analytical capability will be required in designing reliable lightweight engine-containment systems. The majority of the models in use assume a linear elastic material response that does not vary with strain rate. However, for containment systems, polymer matrix composites incorporating ductile polymers are likely to be used. For such a material, the deformation response is likely to be nonlinear and to vary with strain rate. An analytical model has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field that incorporates both of these features. A set of constitutive equations that was originally developed to analyze the viscoplastic deformation of metals (Ramaswamy-Stouffer equations) was modified to simulate the nonlinear, rate-dependent deformation of polymers. Specifically, the effects of hydrostatic stresses on the inelastic response, which can be significant in polymers, were accounted for by a modification of the definition of the effective stress. The constitutive equations were then incorporated into a composite micromechanics model based on the mechanics of materials theory. This theory predicts the deformation response of a composite material from the properties and behavior of the individual constituents. In this manner, the nonlinear, rate-dependent deformation response of a polymer matrix composite can be predicted.

  2. Random Response of Linear Hysteretic Damping

    SciTech Connect

    Floris, Claudio

    2008-07-08

    The probabilistic characterization of the response of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with linear hysteretic damping excited by ground motion described by zero mean stationary Gaussian processes is achieved by profiting from a steady-state solution of the motion equation, valid when the excitation is given by the superposition of harmonics. The model of linear hysteretic damping has been introduced to fit damping mechanisms in which the dissipation rate is independent of frequency, and mathematically it is described by the Hilbert transform of the response. Though this model is debated since it violates the principle of causality, its intrinsic simplicity makes it preferable to other models. The steady-state solution of the motion equation proposed in this paper allows a closed form evaluation of the respone mean square value. However, the numerical examples show that this quantity is affected by the mechanism of energy dissipation only when this is large. On the contrary, for a low capacity of dissipation the response mean square value is rather insensitive to the dissipation mechanism.

  3. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    SciTech Connect

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  4. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    DOE PAGES

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less

  5. Linear friction weld process monitoring of fixture cassette deformations using empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, O. J.; Gibson, C.; Wilson, P.; Lohse, N.; Popov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Due to its inherent advantages, linear friction welding is a solid-state joining process of increasing importance to the aerospace, automotive, medical and power generation equipment industries. Tangential oscillations and forge stroke during the burn-off phase of the joining process introduce essential dynamic forces, which can also be detrimental to the welding process. Since burn-off is a critical phase in the manufacturing stage, process monitoring is fundamental for quality and stability control purposes. This study aims to improve workholding stability through the analysis of fixture cassette deformations. Methods and procedures for process monitoring are developed and implemented in a fail-or-pass assessment system for fixture cassette deformations during the burn-off phase. Additionally, the de-noised signals are compared to results from previous production runs. The observed deformations as a consequence of the forces acting on the fixture cassette are measured directly during the welding process. Data on the linear friction-welding machine are acquired and de-noised using empirical mode decomposition, before the burn-off phase is extracted. This approach enables a direct, objective comparison of the signal features with trends from previous successful welds. The capacity of the whole process monitoring system is validated and demonstrated through the analysis of a large number of signals obtained from welding experiments.

  6. Characterization of material deformation and failure responses from ultrasonic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. B.

    Recent advances in ultrasonic techniques to characterize the structure of materials are presented. Observable parameters include the velocity, attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves and their variation with propagation direction and frequency. Applications are described in which information obtained from such measurements is used to characterize the deformation and failure responses of metals, metal-metal bonds, heavily deformed metal-metal composites and thick, filament-wound composites. In each case, unsolved mechanics problems whose solutions are needed to improve the application results are identified.

  7. Minimum deformations of commutative algebra and linear group GL(n)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupnik, B. M.

    1993-06-01

    In the algebra of formal series M q ( x i ), the relations of generalized commutativity that preserve the tensor I q grading and depend on parameters q(i, k) are considered. A norm of the differential calculus on M q consistent with the I q grading is chosen. A new construction of a symmetrized tensor product of algebras of the type M q ( x i ) and a corresponding definition of the minimally deformed linear group QGL(n) and Lie algebra qgl(n) are proposed. A study is made of the connection of QGL(n) and qgl(n) with the special matrix algebra Mat( n, Q), which consists of matrices with noncommuting elements. The deformed determinant in the algebra Mat( n, Q) is defined. The exponential mapping in the algebra Mat( n, Q) is considered on the basis of the Campbell-Hausdorff formula.

  8. Study of non-linear deformation of vocal folds in simulations of human phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurabh, Shakti; Bodony, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation is performed on a two-dimensional compressible, viscous fluid interacting with a non-linear, viscoelastic solid as a model for the generation of the human voice. The vocal fold (VF) tissues are modeled as multi-layered with varying stiffness in each layer and using a finite-strain Standard Linear Solid (SLS) constitutive model implemented in a quadratic finite element code and coupled to a high-order compressible Navier-Stokes solver through a boundary-fitted fluid-solid interface. The large non-linear mesh deformation is handled using an elliptic/poisson smoothening technique. Supra-glottal flow shows asymmetry in the flow, which in turn has a coupling effect on the motion of the VF. The fully compressible simulations gives direct insight into the sound produced as pressure distributions and the vocal fold deformation helps study the unsteady vortical flow resulting from the fluid-structure interaction along the full phonation cycle. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER Award Number 1150439).

  9. Deformation of Indian Ocean Lithosphere Implies Highly Non-linear Rheological Law for Oceanic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Richard; Houseman, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    The width of diffuse oceanic plate boundaries is determined by the rheology of oceanic lithosphere. Here we apply thin viscous sheet models, which have been successfully applied to deformation in several continental deforming zones, to investigate the deformation of oceanic lithosphere in the diffuse oceanic plate boundaries between the India, Capricorn, and Australia plates. We apply kinematic boundary conditions based on the current motion between these plates. We neglect buoyancy forces due to plate thinning or thickening and assume that the thin viscous sheet has the same depth-integrated non-linear viscosity coefficient everywhere. Our initial models have only one adjustable parameter, n, the power-law exponent, with n=1, 3, 10, 30, 100. The predicted width of the deforming zone decreases with increasing n, with n ≥ 30 explaining the observations. This n-value is higher than has been estimated for continental lithosphere, and suggests that more of the strength of oceanic lithosphere lies in layers deforming by faulting or by dislocation glide than for continental lithosphere. To obtain a stress field that better fits the distribution and type of earthquake focal mechanisms in the diffuse oceanic plate boundary, we add a second adjustable parameter, representing the effect of slab-pull stretching the oceanic plate near the Sumatra trench. We show that an average velocity increment on this boundary segment of 5 mm/a (relative to the average velocity of the India and Australia plates) fits the observed distribution of fault types better than velocities of 3.3 mm/a or 10 mm/a.

  10. Deformation and annealing response of TD-nickel chromium sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, R. D.; Ebert, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The deformation and annealing response of TD-nickel chromium (TD-NiCr) 0.1 inch thick sheet was examined using various cold-rolling and annealing treatments. Upon annealing (above 816 C (1500 F), the as-received material was converted from an initially ultra-fine grain size (average grain dimension 0.51 micron) to a large grain structure. Increases in grain size by a factor of 100 to 200 were observed for this transformation. However, in those material states where the large grain transformation was absent, a fine grain recrystallized structure formed upon annealing (above 732 C (1350 F)). The deformation and annealing response of TD-NiCr sheet was evaluated with respect to the processing related variables as mode and severity of deformation and annealing temperature. Results indicate that the large grain transformation, classical primary recrystallization occurs. Using selected materials produced during the deformation and annealing study, the elevated temperature tensile properties of TD-NiCr sheet were examined in the temperature range 593 C (1100 F) to 1093 C (2000 F). It was observed that the elevated temperature tensile properties of TD-NiCr sheet could be optimized by the stabilization of a large grain size in this material using the cold working and/or annealing treatments developed during the present investigation.

  11. Non Linear Effects of Applied Loads and Large Deformations on Aircraft Normal Modes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    the sBams secteo lia base for the solution of many structural dynamics and static dermations. aeroelastic problems (flutter, response to gust and 0...manufacturing and certification of the Horizontal Tailplanes (HTP). In the case of a megaliner, the Figure 1. Beam with static axial load and dynamic...method. The effect of in-plane loading is considered large static deformations. in two parts. First, effects of direct in-plane loading only Most of the

  12. Development of experimental verification techniques for non-linear deformation and fracture.

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Neville Reid; Bahr, David F.

    2003-12-01

    This project covers three distinct features of thin film fracture and deformation in which the current experimental technique of nanoindentation demonstrates limitations. The first feature is film fracture, which can be generated either by nanoindentation or bulge testing thin films. Examples of both tests will be shown, in particular oxide films on metallic or semiconductor substrates. Nanoindentations were made into oxide films on aluminum and titanium substrates for two cases; one where the metal was a bulk (effectively single crystal) material and the other where the metal was a 1 pm thick film grown on a silica or silicon substrate. In both cases indentation was used to produce discontinuous loading curves, which indicate film fracture after plastic deformation of the metal. The oxides on bulk metals fractures occurred at reproducible loads, and the tensile stress in the films at fracture were approximately 10 and 15 GPa for the aluminum and titanium oxides respectively. Similarly, bulge tests of piezoelectric oxide films have been carried out and demonstrate film fracture at stresses of only 100's of MPa, suggesting the importance of defects and film thickness in evaluating film strength. The second feature of concern is film adhesion. Several qualitative and quantitative tests exist today that measure the adhesion properties of thin films. A relatively new technique that uses stressed overlayers to measure adhesion has been proposed and extensively studied. Delamination of thin films manifests itself in the form of either telephone cord or straight buckles. The buckles are used to calculate the interfacial fracture toughness of the film-substrate system. Nanoindentation can be utilized if more energy is needed to initiate buckling of the film system. Finally, deformation in metallic systems can lead to non-linear deformation due to 'bursts' of dislocation activity during nanoindentation. An experimental study to examine the structure of dislocations around

  13. Normal and shear strain imaging using 2D deformation tracking on beam steered linear array datasets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Varghese, Tomy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous publications have reported on the use of one-dimensional cross-correlation analysis with beam-steered echo signals. However, this approach fails to accurately track displacements at larger depths (>4.5 cm) due to lower signal-to-noise. In this paper, the authors present the use of adaptive parallelogram shaped two-dimensional processing blocks for deformation tracking. Methods: Beam-steered datasets were acquired using a VFX 9L4 linear array transducer operated at a 6 MHz center frequency for steered angles from −15 to 15° in increments of 1°, on both uniformly elastic and single-inclusion tissue-mimicking phantoms. Echo signals were acquired to a depth of 65 mm with the focus set at 40 mm corresponding to the center of phantom. Estimated angular displacements along and perpendicular to the beam direction are used to compute axial and lateral displacement vectors using a least-squares approach. Normal and shear strain tensor component are then estimated based on these displacement vectors. Results: Their results demonstrate that parallelogram shaped two-dimensional deformation tracking significantly improves spatial resolution (factor of 7.79 along the beam direction), signal-to-noise (5 dB improvement), and contrast-to-noise (8–14 dB improvement) associated with strain imaging using beam steering on linear array transducers. Conclusions: Parallelogram shaped two-dimensional deformation tracking is demonstrated in beam-steered radiofrequency data, enabling its use in the estimation of normal and shear strain components. PMID:23298118

  14. Non-linear optical deformation potentials in uniaxially strained ZnO microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, C.; Wille, M.; Lenzner, J.; Khujanov, S.; Grundmann, M.

    2017-02-01

    The emission properties of bent ZnO microwires with diameters ranging from 1.5 μm to 7.3 μm are systematically investigated by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at T ≈ 10 K . We induced uniaxial strains along the c-axis of up to ± 2.9 % . At these high strain values, we observe a non-linear shift of the emission energy with respect to the induced strain, and the magnitude of the energy shift depends on the sign of the strain. The linear and non-linear deformation potentials were determined to be D 1 = - 2.50 ± 0.05 eV and D 2 = - 15.0 ± 0.5 eV , respectively. The non-linearity of the energy shift is also reflected in the observed spectral broadening of the emission peak as a function of the locally induced strain, which decreases with increasing strain on the compressive side and increases on the tensile side.

  15. Analysis of axial deformation response during reverse shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, T. C.; Lipkin, J.

    T HE RESPONSE of a polycrystalline metal undergoing torsional shearing deformation is examined in detail using a strain-rate dependent model of the deformation of polycrystals. Several boundary value problems are solved to determine the roles of anisotropic elasticity and boundary constraints on the stresses and strains that develop along the torsion axis during forward and reverse shearing deformation. An initially random orientation distribution of 300 grains is assumed, and boundary conditions are chosen to represent a thin-walled tube with fixed, free and intermediate stiffness end constraints. A constant quasi-static shear strain rate of γ = 0.00775 s -1 is imposed to prestrain the polycrystal to a maximum shear strain γ = 1.6. At this point the sign of the shear strain rale is reversed and deformation is continued until the shear strain is reduced to essentially zero. For calculations in which some degree of axial constraint is imposed, the axial stress increases monotonically in compression during forward shearing. During reverse shearing, the axial stress response depends sensitively upon the degree of axial constraint, the textural anisotropy induced during forward shearing of the polycrystal. and the elastic anisotropy of the constituent grains. The model predictions demonstrate the role of anisotropic elasticity and the importance of minor strain components when modeling elastic plastic transients in textured polycrystals. Finally, the model predictions are compared with the results of experiments on short, thin-walled tubes of 304L stainless steel. Satisfactory agreement between a number of predicted and measured features of the response was obtained.

  16. Extension of non-linear beam models with deformable cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I.; Krylov, S.; Harari, I.

    2015-12-01

    Geometrically exact beam theory is extended to allow distortion of the cross section. We present an appropriate set of cross-section basis functions and provide physical insight to the cross-sectional distortion from linear elastostatics. The beam formulation in terms of material (back-rotated) beam internal force resultants and work-conjugate kinematic quantities emerges naturally from the material description of virtual work of constrained finite elasticity. The inclusion of cross-sectional deformation allows straightforward application of three-dimensional constitutive laws in the beam formulation. Beam counterparts of applied loads are expressed in terms of the original three-dimensional data. Special attention is paid to the treatment of the applied stress, keeping in mind applications such as hydrogel actuators under environmental stimuli or devices made of electroactive polymers. Numerical comparisons show the ability of the beam model to reproduce finite elasticity results with good efficiency.

  17. The large deformation elastic response of woven Kevlar fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The large deformation elastic response of a plane woven Kevlar fabric is investigated analytically and experimentally. The analysis assumes the undeformed geometry to be a sequence of interlaced arcs of circles which reverse at each yarn midpoint, ad each yarn is modeled as an extensible elastical subject to certain compatibility conditions. Deflection-force relations for the fabric are determined in terms of the initial weave geometry and the elastic properties of the individual yarns. The theoretical results agree well with the results of experiments performed on a fabric woven from 400 denier Kevlar yarns under conditions of uniaxial loading in both warp and fill directions. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Deformation response of conformally coated carbon nanotube forest.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Parisa Pour Shahid Saeed; Maschmann, Matthew R; Baur, Jeffery W; Graham, Samuel; Cola, Baratunde A

    2013-11-29

    The deformation mechanism and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests conformally coated with alumina using atomic layer deposition (ALD) are investigated using in situ and ex situ micro-indentation. While micro-indentation of a CNT forest coated with a thin discontinuous layer using 20 ALD cycles results in a deformation response similar to the response of uncoated CNT forests, a similar test on a CNT forest coated with a sufficiently thick and continuous layer using 100 ALD cycles causes fracture of both the alumina coatings and the core CNTs. With a 10 nm coating, 4-fold and 14-fold stiffness increases are measured using a flat punch and a Berkovich tip, respectively. Indentation testing with the Berkovich tip also reveals increased recoverability at relatively low strains. The results show that ALD coated CNT forests could be useful for applications that require higher stiffness or recoverability. Also, fracturing of the nanotubes shows that upper limits exist in the loading of conformally coated CNT forests.

  19. Linear response theory for open systems: Quantum master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Masashi; Kitajima, Sachiko; Arimitsu, Toshihico; Shibata, Fumiaki

    2017-02-01

    A linear response theory for open quantum systems is formulated by means of the time-local and time-nonlocal quantum master equations, where a relevant quantum system interacts with a thermal reservoir as well as with an external classical field. A linear response function that characterizes how a relaxation process deviates from its intrinsic process by a weak external field is obtained by extracting the linear terms with respect to the external field from the quantum master equation. It consists of four parts. One represents the linear response of a quantum system when system-reservoir correlation at an initial time and correlation between reservoir states at different times are neglected. The others are correction terms due to these effects. The linear response function is compared with the Kubo formula in the usual linear response theory. To investigate the properties of the linear response of an open quantum system, an exactly solvable model for a stochastic dephasing of a two-level system is examined. Furthermore, the method for deriving the linear response function is applied for calculating two-time correlation functions of open quantum systems. It is shown that the quantum regression theorem is not valid for open quantum systems unless their reduced time evolution is Markovian.

  20. A material sensitivity study on the accuracy of deformable organ registration using linear biomechanical models.

    PubMed

    Chi, Y; Liang, J; Yan, D

    2006-02-01

    Model-based deformable organ registration techniques using the finite element method (FEM) have recently been investigated intensively and applied to image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART). These techniques assume that human organs are linearly elastic material, and their mechanical properties are predetermined. Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of the tissue material properties is challenging and the properties usually vary between patients. A common issue is therefore the achievable accuracy of the calculation due to the limited access to tissue elastic material constants. In this study, we performed a systematic investigation on this subject based on tissue biomechanics and computer simulations to establish the relationships between achievable registration accuracy and tissue mechanical and organ geometrical properties. Primarily we focused on image registration for three organs: rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate. The tissue anisotropy due to orientation preference in tissue fiber alignment is captured by using an orthotropic or a transversely isotropic elastic model. First we developed biomechanical models for the rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate using simplified geometries and investigated the effect of varying material parameters on the resulting organ deformation. Then computer models based on patient image data were constructed, and image registrations were performed. The sensitivity of registration errors was studied by perturbating the tissue material properties from their mean values while fixing the boundary conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that registration error for a subvolume increases as its distance from the boundary increases. Also, a variable associated with material stability was found to be a dominant factor in registration accuracy in the context of material uncertainty. For hollow thin organs such as rectal walls and bladder walls, the registration errors are limited. Given 30% in material uncertainty

  1. A material sensitivity study on the accuracy of deformable organ registration using linear biomechanical models

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Y.; Liang, J.; Yan, D.

    2006-02-15

    Model-based deformable organ registration techniques using the finite element method (FEM) have recently been investigated intensively and applied to image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART). These techniques assume that human organs are linearly elastic material, and their mechanical properties are predetermined. Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of the tissue material properties is challenging and the properties usually vary between patients. A common issue is therefore the achievable accuracy of the calculation due to the limited access to tissue elastic material constants. In this study, we performed a systematic investigation on this subject based on tissue biomechanics and computer simulations to establish the relationships between achievable registration accuracy and tissue mechanical and organ geometrical properties. Primarily we focused on image registration for three organs: rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate. The tissue anisotropy due to orientation preference in tissue fiber alignment is captured by using an orthotropic or a transversely isotropic elastic model. First we developed biomechanical models for the rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate using simplified geometries and investigated the effect of varying material parameters on the resulting organ deformation. Then computer models based on patient image data were constructed, and image registrations were performed. The sensitivity of registration errors was studied by perturbating the tissue material properties from their mean values while fixing the boundary conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that registration error for a subvolume increases as its distance from the boundary increases. Also, a variable associated with material stability was found to be a dominant factor in registration accuracy in the context of material uncertainty. For hollow thin organs such as rectal walls and bladder walls, the registration errors are limited. Given 30% in material uncertainty

  2. Descriptive Linear modeling of steady-state visual evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Junker, A. M.; Kenner, K.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to explore use of the steady state visual-evoke electrocortical response as an indicator of cognitive task loading. Application of linear descriptive modeling to steady state Visual Evoked Response (VER) data is summarized. Two aspects of linear modeling are reviewed: (1) unwrapping the phase-shift portion of the frequency response, and (2) parsimonious characterization of task-loading effects in terms of changes in model parameters. Model-based phase unwrapping appears to be most reliable in applications, such as manual control, where theoretical models are available. Linear descriptive modeling of the VER has not yet been shown to provide consistent and readily interpretable results.

  3. The response of the deformable earth to different driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. W.; Tie, Q. X.; Yang, L.

    2007-10-01

    The space-time variations of the earth deformation and gravitational field have important meaning, whether in basic theoretical research or building space geographical information. The earth would come into being deformation under the function of every kind of mechanical mechanisms, this deformation again induced change of gravitational potential, namely, deformable accession potential or Eulerian increments of gravitational potential. This paper had been based on the theory of vector spherical harmonic functions, discussed influences of the tidal generating force, the loading force, the surface and boundary stress on the earth deformation and the incremental gravitational potential. At one time, presented the material expressions Eulerian increment of gravitational potential and the theoretical relationship among Love numbers, for a homogeneous and incompressible deformable earth. This work could provided reference and gist for theoretical research of the earth deformation.

  4. Linear and nonlinear response in sheared soft spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tighe, Brian

    2013-11-01

    Packings of soft spheres provide an idealized model of foams, emulsions, and grains, while also serving as the canonical example of a system undergoing a jamming transition. Packings' mechanical response has now been studied exhaustively in the context of ``strict linear response,'' i.e. by linearizing about a stable static packing and solving the resulting equations of motion. Both because the system is close to a critical point and because the soft sphere pair potential is non-analytic at the point of contact, it is reasonable to ask under what circumstances strict linear response provides a good approximation to the actual response. We simulate sheared soft sphere packings close to jamming and identify two distinct strain scales: (i) the scale on which strict linear response fails, coinciding with a topological change in the packing's contact network; and (ii) the scale on which linear superposition of the averaged stress-strain curve breaks down. This latter scale provides a ``weak linear response'' criterion and is likely to be more experimentally relevant.

  5. Linear response of an instrument entitled Sky Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Dong; Xu, Wen-qing; Fan, Ren-jie

    2016-11-01

    In order to validate the good linear response of an instrument entitled Sky Radiometer(abbreviated to DTL-1) and check the great accuracy of radiance, the experiments which checked the DTL-1 using the large diameter integrating sphere system verified that the instrument had fine linearity and working stability. At the same time, the sky radiance in Hefei was measured, and the validity and correctness of DTL-1 were verified using fibre-optical spectrometer. The results indicated that the instrument had fine work ability, including good linear response, and could satisfy the scientific research and the actual application. However, the linear response of the instrument entitled Sky Radiometer in different region will be validated.

  6. Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.

  7. Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano

    2014-07-28

    We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.

  8. Abrupt onset of tongue deformation and phase space response of ions in magnetically-confined plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Moon, C.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    An abrupt onset of the new tongue-shaped deformation of magnetic surface in magnetized plasmas, which was conjectured in since the 1960s but has not been observed, is experimentally identified just before an abrupt onset of a large-scale collapse event. Two novel properties of the event are identified. First, the transition of symmetry of perturbation (rather than a growth of linearly unstable MHD modes) was found to be a key for the onset of abrupt collapse, i.e., the transition of symmetry gives a new route to the collapse from stable state. Second, as a phase-space response of ions, the distortion from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of epithermal ions was observed for the first time. PMID:27796370

  9. Abrupt onset of tongue deformation and phase space response of ions in magnetically-confined plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Moon, C.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-10-01

    An abrupt onset of the new tongue-shaped deformation of magnetic surface in magnetized plasmas, which was conjectured in since the 1960s but has not been observed, is experimentally identified just before an abrupt onset of a large-scale collapse event. Two novel properties of the event are identified. First, the transition of symmetry of perturbation (rather than a growth of linearly unstable MHD modes) was found to be a key for the onset of abrupt collapse, i.e., the transition of symmetry gives a new route to the collapse from stable state. Second, as a phase-space response of ions, the distortion from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of epithermal ions was observed for the first time.

  10. Learning in higher order Boltzmann machines using linear response.

    PubMed

    Leisink, M A; Kappen, H J

    2000-04-01

    We introduce an efficient method for learning and inference in higher order Boltzmann machines. The method is based on mean field theory with the linear response correction. We compute the correlations using the exact and the approximated method for a fully connected third order network of ten neurons. In addition, we compare the results of the exact and approximate learning algorithm. Finally we use the presented method to solve the shifter problem. We conclude that the linear response approximation gives good results as long as the couplings are not too large.

  11. Deformation Response of Conformally Coated Carbon Nanotube Forests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-05

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The deformation mechanism and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests conformally coated with alumina...of conformally coated carbon nanotube forests Parisa Pour Shahid Saeed Abadi1, Matthew R Maschmann2,3, Jeffery W Baur2, Samuel Graham1,4 and Baratunde...stacks.iop.org/Nano/24/475707 Abstract The deformation mechanism and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests conformally coated with alumina using

  12. Assessment of regional non-linear tissue deformation and air volume change of human lungs via image registration.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Nariman; Yin, Youbing; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-05-07

    We evaluate the non-linear characteristics of the human lung via image registration-derived local variables based on volumetric multi-detector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) lung image data of six normal human subjects acquired at three inflation levels: 20% of vital capacity (VC), 60% VC and 80% VC. Local variables include Jacobian (ratio of volume change) and maximum shear strain for assessment of lung deformation, and air volume change for assessment of air distribution. First, the variables linearly interpolated between 20% and 80% VC images to reflect deformation from 20% to 60% VC are compared with those of direct registration of 20% and 60% VC images. The result shows that the linearly-interpolated variables agree only qualitatively with those of registration (P<0.05). Then, a quadratic (or linear) interpolation is introduced to link local variables to global air volumes of three images (or 20% and 80% VC images). A sinusoidal breathing waveform is assumed for assessing the time rate of change of these variables. The results show significant differences between two-image and three-image results (P<0.05). The three-image results for the whole lung indicate that the peak of the maximum shear rate occurs at about 37% of the maximum volume difference between 20% and 80% VC, while the peaks for the Jacobian and flow rate occur at 50%. This is in agreement with accepted physiology whereby lung tissues deform more at lower lung volumes due to lower elasticity and greater compliance. Furthermore, the three-image results show that the upper and middle lobes, even in the recumbent, supine posture, reach full expansion earlier than the lower lobes.

  13. Qubit Measurement with a Nonlinear Cavity Detector Beyond Linear Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflamme, Catherine; Clerk, Aashish

    2012-02-01

    We consider theoretically the use of a driven, nonlinear superconducting microwave cavity to measure a coupled superconducting qubit. This is similar to setups studied in recent experiments.ootnotetextM. Hatridge et al. Phys.Rev.B, 83,134501 (2011)^,ootnotetextF.R. Ong et al. PRL 106,167002 (2011) In a previous work, we demonstrated that for weak coupling (where linear response theory holds) one misses the quantum limit on QND detection in this system by a large factor proportional to the parametric gain.ootnotetextC. Laflamme and A.A. Clerk, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033803 (2011) Here we calculate measurement backaction beyond linear response by using an approximate mapping to a detuned degenerate parametric amplifier having both linear and dispersive couplings to the qubit. We find surprisingly that the backaction dephasing rate is far more sensitive to corrections beyond linear response than the detector response. Thus, increasing the coupling strength can significantly increase the efficiency of the measurement. We interpret this behavior in terms of the non-Gaussian photon number fluctuations of the nonlinear cavity. Our results have applications to quantum information processing and quantum amplification with superconducting microwave circuits.

  14. Chaos pass filter: linear response of synchronized chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Steffen; Kestler, Johannes; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The linear response of synchronized time-delayed chaotic systems to small external perturbations, i.e., the phenomenon of chaos pass filter, is investigated for iterated maps. The distribution of distances, i.e., the deviations between two synchronized chaotic units due to external perturbations on the transferred signal, is used as a measure of the linear response. It is calculated numerically and, for some special cases, analytically. Depending on the model parameters this distribution has power law tails in the region of synchronization leading to diverging moments of distances. This is a consequence of multiplicative and additive noise in the corresponding linear equations due to chaos and external perturbations. The linear response can also be quantified by the bit error rate of a transmitted binary message which perturbs the synchronized system. The bit error rate is given by an integral over the distribution of distances and is calculated analytically and numerically. It displays a complex nonmonotonic behavior in the region of synchronization. For special cases the distribution of distances has a fractal structure leading to a devil's staircase for the bit error rate as a function of coupling strength. The response to small harmonic perturbations shows resonances related to coupling and feedback delay times. A bidirectionally coupled chain of three units can completely filter out the perturbation. Thus the second moment and the bit error rate become zero.

  15. Pipeline response to permanent ground deformation: A benchmark case

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rourke, T.D.; O`Rourke, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Permanent ground deformation on Balboa Blvd. and McLennon Ave. during the 1994 Northridge earthquake affected four gas transmission, one oil transmission, and two water trunk pipelines. Deformation occurred as sliding of a relatively coherent soil mass parallel to the longitudinal axes of the pipelines, rupturing three lines and leaving the other four undamaged. Relevant pipe, soil, and geometric conditions are reported in this paper. Analytical results from sliding block models of soil-pipeline interaction are compared with observed pipeline performance. The analytical results compare favorably with field performance, and thus provide a benchmark case history from which design and siting decisions can be made for pipelines under similar conditions of ground deformation.

  16. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed.

  17. A linear chromatic mechanism drives the pupillary response.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, S.; Wolffsohn, J. S.; Gilmartin, B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a chromatic mechanism can drive pupil responses. The aim of this research was to clarify whether a linear or nonlinear chromatic mechanism drives pupillary responses by using test stimuli of various colours that are defined in cone contrast space. The pupil and accommodation responses evoked by these test stimuli were continuously and simultaneously objectively measured by photorefraction. The results with isochromatic and isoluminant stimuli showed that the accommodative level remained approximately constant (< 0.25 D change in mean level) even when the concurrent pupillary response was large (ca. 0.30 mm). The pupillary response to an isoluminant grating was sustained, delayed (by ca. 60 ms) and larger in amplitude than that for a isochromatic uniform stimulus, which supports previous work suggesting that the chromatic mechanism contributes to the pupillary response. In a second experiment, selected chromatic test gratings were used and isoresponse contours in cone contrast space were obtained. The results showed that the isoresponse contour in cone contrast space is well described (r(2) = 0.99) by a straight line with a positive slope. The results indicate that a /L - M/ linear chromatic mechanism, whereby a signal from the long wavelength cone is subtracted from that of the middle wavelength cone and vice versa, drives pupillary responses. PMID:11674867

  18. Linearity in the response of photopolymers as optical recording media.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sergi; Marquez, Andrés; Guardiola, Francisco J; Riquelme, Marina; Fernández, Roberto; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2013-05-06

    Photopolymer are appealing materials for diffractive elements recording. Two of their properties when they are illuminated are useful for this goal: the relief surface changes and the refractive index modifications. To this goal the linearity in the material response is crucial to design the optimum irradiance for each element. In this paper we measured directly some parameters to know how linear is the material response, in terms of the refractive index modulation versus exposure, then we can predict the refractive index distributions during recording. We have analyzed at different recording intensities the evolution of monomer diffusion during recording for photopolymers based on PVA/Acrylamide. This model has been successfully applied to PVA/Acrylamide photopolymers to predict the transmitted diffracted orders and the agreement with experimental values has been increased.

  19. Development of experimental verification techniques for non-linear deformation and fracture on the nanometer scale.

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Neville Reid; Bahr, David F.

    2005-11-01

    This work covers three distinct aspects of deformation and fracture during indentations. In particular, we develop an approach to verification of nanoindentation induced film fracture in hard film/soft substrate systems; we examine the ability to perform these experiments in harsh environments; we investigate the methods by which the resulting deformation from indentation can be quantified and correlated to computational simulations, and we examine the onset of plasticity during indentation testing. First, nanoindentation was utilized to induce fracture of brittle thin oxide films on compliant substrates. During the indentation, a load is applied and the penetration depth is continuously measured. A sudden discontinuity, indicative of film fracture, was observed upon the loading portion of the load-depth curve. The mechanical properties of thermally grown oxide films on various substrates were calculated using two different numerical methods. The first method utilized a plate bending approach by modeling the thin film as an axisymmetric circular plate on a compliant foundation. The second method measured the applied energy for fracture. The crack extension force and applied stress intensity at fracture was then determined from the energy measurements. Secondly, slip steps form on the free surface around indentations in most crystalline materials when dislocations reach the free surface. Analysis of these slip steps provides information about the deformation taking place in the material. Techniques have now been developed to allow for accurate and consistent measurement of slip steps and the effects of crystal orientation and tip geometry are characterized. These techniques will be described and compared to results from dislocation dynamics simulations.

  20. Linear response of tripartite entanglement to infinitesimal noise

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2014-10-15

    Recent experimental progress in prolonging the coherence time of a quantum system prompts us to explore the behavior of quantum entanglement at the beginning of the decoherence process. The response of the entanglement under an infinitesimal noise can serve as a signature of the robustness of entangled states. A crucial problem of this topic in multipartite systems is to compute the degree of entanglement in a mixed state. We find a family of global noise in three-qubit systems, which is composed of four W states. Under its influence, the linear response of the tripartite entanglement of a symmetrical three-qubit pure state is studied. A lower bound of the linear response is found to depend completely on the initial tripartite and bipartite entanglement. This result shows that the decay of tripartite entanglement is hastened by the bipartite one. - Highlights: • We study a set of W-type noise and its linear effect on symmetric pure states. • Its effect on two-qubit entanglement depends only on the initial concurrence. • A lower bound of the effect on 3-tangle is found in terms of initial entanglements. • We obtain the time of three-tangle sudden death for two families of typical states. • These reveal that the bipartite entanglement speeds up the decay of the tripartite one.

  1. The Exact Solution for Linear Thermoelastic Axisymmetric Deformations of Generally Laminated Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed exact solution is presented for laminated-composite circular cylinders with general wall construction and that undergo axisymmetric deformations. The overall solution is formulated in a general, systematic way and is based on the solution of a single fourth-order, nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients in which the radial displacement is the dependent variable. Moreover, the effects of general anisotropy are included and positive-definiteness of the strain energy is used to define uniquely the form of the basis functions spanning the solution space of the ordinary differential equation. Loading conditions are considered that include axisymmetric edge loads, surface tractions, and temperature fields. Likewise, all possible axisymmetric boundary conditions are considered. Results are presented for five examples that demonstrate a wide range of behavior for specially orthotropic and fully anisotropic cylinders.

  2. Linear-scaling time-dependent density-functional theory in the linear response formalism.

    PubMed

    Zuehlsdorff, T J; Hine, N D M; Spencer, J S; Harrison, N M; Riley, D J; Haynes, P D

    2013-08-14

    We present an implementation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) in the linear response formalism enabling the calculation of low energy optical absorption spectra for large molecules and nanostructures. The method avoids any explicit reference to canonical representations of either occupied or virtual Kohn-Sham states and thus achieves linear-scaling computational effort with system size. In contrast to conventional localised orbital formulations, where a single set of localised functions is used to span the occupied and unoccupied state manifold, we make use of two sets of in situ optimised localised orbitals, one for the occupied and one for the unoccupied space. This double representation approach avoids known problems of spanning the space of unoccupied Kohn-Sham states with a minimal set of localised orbitals optimised for the occupied space, while the in situ optimisation procedure allows for efficient calculations with a minimal number of functions. The method is applied to a number of medium sized organic molecules and a good agreement with traditional TDDFT methods is observed. Furthermore, linear scaling of computational cost with system size is demonstrated on (10,0) carbon nanotubes of different lengths.

  3. Non-linear feedbacks affecting sea ice deformation in the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A.; Maslowski, W.; Mills, T.; Hunke, E. C.; Craig, A.; Osinski, R.; Cassano, J. J.; Duvivier, A.; Hughes, M.; Zeng, X.; Brunke, M.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Fisel, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present the latest results of high-resolution sea ice simulations from the fully coupled Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), including explicit melt ponds, form drag and anisotropic sea ice rheology. RASM is a pan-Arctic model composed of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and Los Alamos Sea ice Model (CICE5) at ~9km resolution, coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model at 50km resolution using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupling framework. Using RASM, we have analyzed coupled feedbacks resulting from different sea ice mechanics formulations. Strong spatial and temporal scaling of sea ice deformation has been observed in the Arctic using the Radarsat Geophysical Processing System and Global Positioning System equipped buoys. Whereas previous results from stand-alone ice-ocean simulations suggest that the established Elastic Viscous Plastic (EVP) rheology is unable to replicate these features, RASM simulates the observed scaling using EVP, with a spatial scaling fractal dimension of around -0.23, as compared to the observed range of -0.18 to -0.20. Using this metric, we extend our analysis to test for spatial scaling in sea ice deformation using a recently revised EVP formulation, as well as the new Elastic Plastic Anistropic rheology in CICE5. Our results suggest that a fundamental source of scaling stems from feedbacks associated with frequent coupling between high resolution ocean and atmospheric models, and this result serves as an example of the broader utility of limited-area, fully coupled models in isolating coupled feedbacks and evaluating them using daily in-situ and satellite measurements.

  4. Thermoelectric effects in quantum Hall systems beyond linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Rosa; Hwang, Sun-Yong; Sánchez, David

    2014-12-01

    We consider a quantum Hall system with an antidot acting as a energy dependent scatterer. In the purely charge case, we find deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law that take place in the nonlinear regime of transport. We also discuss Peltier effects beyond linear response and describe both effects using magnetic-field asymmetric transport coefficients. For the spin case such as that arising along the helical edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator, we investigate the generation of spin currents as a result of applied voltage and temperature differences in samples attached to ferromagnetic leads. We find that in the parallel configuration the spin current can be tuned with the leads' polarization even in the linear regime of transport. In contrast, for antiparallel magnetizations the spin currents has a strict nonlinear dependence on the the applied fields.

  5. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John

    2013-04-19

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  6. The Overall Response of Composite Materials Undergoing Large Elastic Deformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-13

    linear case, it has been shown (MILTON, 1985; AVELLANEDA , 1987) that the DSC estimates can be attained by particular microstructures. Then, we could...with the support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant No. 89-0288. 26 P. CASTA.EDA REFERENCES AVELLANEDA . N. 1987 Commun. Pure appl

  7. The Overall Response of Composite Materials Undergoing Large Elastic Deformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-30

    procedure in general to es.et the energy of the composite W (i). For the linear case, it has been shown (MILTON, 1985; AVELLANEDA , 1987) that the DSC...No. 89-0288. 26 P. . CASTAFEDA REFRENcEs AVELLANEDA . M. 1987 Commun. Pure appi. Math. 40, 527. BOUCHER. S. 1974 J. Compos. Mater. 8, 82. BUDIANSKY, B

  8. The Overall Response of Composite Materials Undergoing Large Deformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-15

    University, December 11, 1991. "Propiedades effectivas de materiales compuestos." & "Propiedades effectivas de materiales compuestos no- lineales ...unlike the corresponding problem for a general composite. simplifies to an algebraic one. Although. in principle. the resulting problem can always...take the form of complicated sets of nonlinear algebraic equations. However, if the composite is made up of linear phases (with quadratic energy

  9. Estimating the strength of bone using linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2002-12-01

    Accurate diagnostic tools are required for effective management of osteoporosis; one method to identify additional diagnostics is to search for observable consequences of bone loss. An analysis of a model system is used to show that weakening of a bone is accompanied by a reduction of the fraction of the bone that participates in load transmission. On the basis of this observation, it is argued that the ratio Γ of linear responses of a network to dc and high-frequency ac driving can be used as a surrogate for their strength. Protocols needed to obtain Γ for bone samples are discussed.

  10. Linear control of neuronal spike timing using phase response curves.

    PubMed

    Stigen, Tyler; Danzl, Per; Moehlis, Jeff; Netoff, Theoden

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple, robust, linear method to control the spike timing of a periodically firing neuron. The control scheme uses the neuron's phase response curve to identify an area of optimal sensitivity for the chosen stimulation parameters. The spike advance as a function of current pulse amplitude is characterized at the optimal phase and a linear least-squares regression is fit to the data. The inverted regression is used as the control function for this method. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated through numerical simulations of a Hodgkin-Huxley style neuron model as well as in real neurons from rat hippocampal slice preparations. The study shows a proof of concept for the application of a linear control scheme to control neuron spike timing in-vitro. This study was done on an individual cell level, but translation to a tissue or network level is possible. Control schemes of this type could be implemented in a closed loop implantable device to treat neuromotor disorders involving pathologically neuronal activity such as epilepsy or Parkinson's disease.

  11. Linear response theory for magnon transport in ferromagnetic insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Ryo

    2012-02-01

    We study transverse response of magnons in ferromagnetic insulators within linear response theory. In analogy with the corresponding theory for electrons [1], magnon transverse response is described, including the Hall effect, Nernst effect, and thermal Hall effect. As is also the case for electrons [1], the response functions for magnons consist of the Kubo-formula term, and the term corresponding to the orbital angular momentum. We can rewrite the response functions in terms of the Berry curvature in momentum space [2]. We apply this theory to the (quantum-mechanical) magnons and to the classical magnetostatic waves. For the magnetostatic waves, the eigenmodes are given by a generalized eigenvalue problem, giving rise to the special form of the Berry curvature [2]. We explain various properties of this Berry curvature for the generalized eigenvalue problem, and discuss its implications for the physical properties of magnetostatic modes. [1] L. Smrcka and P. Streda, J. Phys. C, 10, 2153 (1977); H. Oji, P. Streda, Phys. Rev. B 31, 7291 (1985); [2] R. Matsumoto and S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 197202 (2011); Phys. Rev. B 84, 184406 (2011).

  12. Efficient calculation of optical linear response of large silicon clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gefei; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2005-03-01

    Nanoscale silicon clusters have potential applications as light-emitting devices and bio-sensors. Ab initio calculations of the optical linear response of small-size nanoparticles have been performed via time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)^1 and by solving many-body Bethe-Salpeter equations (MBSE)^2,3. We show that the ab initio calculations can be made much more efficient when the nanocluster possess high point group symmetry and symmetrized basis functions are used. This allows us to extend the ab initio calculation to much larger Si clusters (up to a few hundred Si atoms) on a personal computer. The optical linear response of Si nanocluster (passivated with hydrogen) as a function of cluster size is examined. The effect of phosphorus doping of Si nanocluster on its optical properties is also studied.1. Ogũt,S., J. R. Chelikowsky, and S. G. Louie, PRL 80, 3162(1998); Marques, M., A. Castro, and A. Rubio, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3006(2001). 2. Rohlfing, M., and S. G. Louie, PRL 80, 3320(1998);PRB 62, 4927(2000). 3. Grossman, J. C., M. Rohlfing, L. Mitas, S. G. Louie, and M. L. Cohen,PRL 86, 472(2001).

  13. Geyser periodicity and the response of geysers to deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical simulations of multiphase fluid and heat transport through a porous medium define combinations of rock properties and boundary conditions which lead to geyser-like periodic discharge. Within the rather narrow range of conditions that allow geyser-like behavior, eruption frequency and discharge are highly sensitive to the intrinsic permeabilities of the geyser conduit and the surrounding rock matrix, to the relative permeability functions assumed, and to pressure gradients in the matrix. In theory, heats pipes (concomitant upward flow of steam and downward flow of liquid) can exist under similar conditions, but our simulations suggest that the periodic solution is more stable. Simulated time series of geyser discharge are chaotic, but integrated quantities such as eruption frequency and mass discharge per eruption are free of chaos. These results may explain the observed sensitivity of natural geysers to small strains such as those caused by remote earthquakes, if ground motion is sufficient to induce permeability changes. Changes in geyser behavior caused by minor preseismic deformation, periodic surface loading, and Earth tides are more difficult to explain in the context of our current model. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Scaling the Non-linear Impact Response of Flat and Curved Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Feraboli, Paolo; Jackson, Wade C.

    2005-01-01

    The application of scaling laws to thin flat and curved composite panels exhibiting nonlinear response when subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Previous research has shown that the elastic impact response of structural configurations exhibiting geometrically linear response can be effectively scaled. In the present paper, a preliminary experimental study is presented to assess the applicability of the scaling laws to structural configurations exhibiting geometrically nonlinear deformations. The effect of damage on the scalability of the structural response characteristics, and the effect of scale on damage development are also investigated. Damage is evaluated using conventional methods including C-scan, specimen de-plying and visual inspection of the impacted panels. Coefficient of restitution and normalized contact duration are also used to assess the extent of damage. The results confirm the validity of the scaling parameters for elastic impacts. However, for the panels considered in the study, the extent and manifestation of damage do not scale according to the scaling laws. Furthermore, the results indicate that even though the damage does not scale, the overall panel response characteristics, as indicated by contact force profiles, do scale for some levels of damage.

  15. Mechanical Response of DNA–Nanoparticle Crystals to Controlled Deformation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of DNA-conjugated nanoparticles represents a promising avenue toward the design of engineered hierarchical materials. By using DNA to encode nanoscale interactions, macroscale crystals can be formed with mechanical properties that can, at least in principle, be tuned. Here we present in silico evidence that the mechanical response of these assemblies can indeed be controlled, and that subtle modifications of the linking DNA sequences can change the Young’s modulus from 97 kPa to 2.1 MPa. We rely on a detailed molecular model to quantify the energetics of DNA–nanoparticle assembly and demonstrate that the mechanical response is governed by entropic, rather than enthalpic, contributions and that the response of the entire network can be estimated from the elastic properties of an individual nanoparticle. The results here provide a first step toward the mechanical characterization of DNA–nanoparticle assemblies, and suggest the possibility of mechanical metamaterials constructed using DNA. PMID:27725959

  16. Direct calculation of the linear thermal expansion coefficients of MoS2 via symmetry-preserving deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chee Kwan; Liu, Yu Yang Fredrik

    2016-10-01

    Using density-functional perturbation theory and the Grüneisen formalism, we directly calculate the linear thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) of a hexagonal bulk system MoS2 in the crystallographic a and c directions. The TEC calculation depends critically on the evaluation of a temperature-dependent quantity Ii(T ) , which is the integral of the product of heat capacity and Γi(ν ) , of frequency ν and strain type i , where Γi(ν ) is the phonon density of states weighted by the Grüneisen parameters. We show that to determine the linear TECs we may use minimally two uniaxial strains in the z direction and either the x or y direction. However, a uniaxial strain in either the x or y direction drastically reduces the symmetry of the crystal from a hexagonal one to a base-centered orthorhombic one. We propose to use an efficient and accurate symmetry-preserving biaxial strain in the x y plane to derive the same result for Γ (ν ) . We highlight that the Grüneisen parameter associated with a biaxial strain may not be the same as the average of Grüneisen parameters associated with two separate uniaxial strains in the x and y directions due to possible preservation of degeneracies of the phonon modes under a biaxial deformation. Large anisotropy of TECs is observed where the linear TEC in the c direction is about 1.8 times larger than that in the a or b direction at high temperatures. Our theoretical TEC results are compared with experiment. The symmetry-preserving approach adopted here may be applied to a broad class of two lattice-parameter systems such as hexagonal, trigonal, and tetragonal systems, which allows many complicated systems to be treated on a first-principles level.

  17. Dynamic Deformation Response of Maraging Steel Hollow Sphere and Aluminum Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Gregory; Scripka, David; Welchel, Ricky; Cochran, Joe; Sanders, Tom; Thadhani, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    The dynamic deformation response of a light-weight composite system consisting of maraging steel hollow spheres in an aluminum matrix is investigated. The composite system made by in-filtrating aluminum alloy melt around the high strength and toughness maraging steel hollow spheres, enables design of a light-weight energy-absorbing structural material. Rod-on-anvil Taylor impact tests are conducted to study the behavior of the composite material under uniaxial stress loading. The transient deformation states are captured using high-speed digital imaging for correlation with AUTODYN simulations. The recovered impacted samples are characterized using microscopy to determine the deformation response of the hollow spheres and the influence of the matrix-sphere interface on the overall properties of the composite material.

  18. Quantum optimal control theory in the linear response formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Alberto; Tokatly, I. V.

    2011-09-15

    Quantum optimal control theory (QOCT) aims at finding an external field that drives a quantum system in such a way that optimally achieves some predefined target. In practice, this normally means optimizing the value of some observable, a so-called merit function. In consequence, a key part of the theory is a set of equations, which provides the gradient of the merit function with respect to parameters that control the shape of the driving field. We show that these equations can be straightforwardly derived using the standard linear response theory, only requiring a minor generalization: the unperturbed Hamiltonian is allowed to be time dependent. As a result, the aforementioned gradients are identified with certain response functions. This identification leads to a natural reformulation of QOCT in terms of the Keldysh contour formalism of the quantum many-body theory. In particular, the gradients of the merit function can be calculated using the diagrammatic technique for nonequilibrium Green's functions, which should be helpful in the application of QOCT to computationally difficult many-electron problems.

  19. Magnetoelectric Effect in Topological Insulator Films Beyond Linear Response Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretiakov, Oleg; Baasanjav, Dashdeleg; Nomura, Kentaro

    2014-03-01

    We study the response of topological insulator films to strong magnetic and electric fields beyond the linear response theory. As a model, we use three-dimensional lattice Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian where we simultaneously introduce both magnetic field as Aharonov Bohm phase and electric field as potential energy depending on lattice coordinate. We compute the energy spectrum by numerically diagonalizing this Hamiltonian for electrons and obtain the quantized magnetoelectric polarizability. In addition, we find that the magnetoelectric effect vanishes as width of the film decreases, due to the hybridization of surface wavefunctions. Furthermore, by applying a gate voltage between the surfaces, we observe multiple quantized plateaus of θ-term. We explain that the multiple quantization rule of θ is mainly determined by the physics of Landau level structures on the top and bottom surfaces of topological insulator, whereas the small deviations from the exact quantization are coming from the asymmetry of the surface wavefunctions in the bulk. We also show that the magnetoelectric effect persists even for strong bulk interactions with magnetic field or magnetic impurities. We acknowledge support by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 24740211, No. 25800184, and No. 25247056) from the MEXT, Japan.

  20. Nonlinear viscoelastic response of highly filled elastomers under multiaxial finite deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Steven T. J.; Landel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    A biaxial tester was used to obtain precise biaxial stress responses of highly filled, high strain capability elastomers. Stress-relaxation experiments show that the time-dependent part of the relaxation response can be reasonably approximated by a function which is strain and biaxiality independent. Thus, isochronal data from the stress-relaxation curves can be used to determine the stored energy density function. The complex behavior of the elastomers under biaxial deformation may be caused by dewetting.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of the Impact Response of Filled and Unfilled Linear Cellular Alloys for Structural Energetic Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, Anthony; Thadhani, Naresh

    2008-04-01

    We are investigating the mechanics of impact-induced stress transfer between a linear cellular alloy (LCA) and a reactive filler to determine the effect of cell geometry on deformation and fragmentation. LCAs are honeycomb structures made of maraging steel, and provide structural integrity for the reactive filler such as a powder mixture of Ta+Fe2O3. 3-D computations are used to determine stress and strain distributions in both filled and unfilled LCAs during impact. The strength and failure models used for maraging steel and the response of Ta+Fe2O3 are validated through experiment. The failure response of three different geometries: 9-cell, pie, and reinforced pie, are compared with the response of a hollow cylinder, for impact velocities of 100, 200, and 300 m/s. Unfilled, the cylindrical geometry provides the least resistance to deformation and fragmentation, while the reinforced pie LCA provides the most resistance. Understanding of the mechanics of deformation and failure is used to determine the most effective geometry for stress transfer to the filler.

  2. The Effect of Crosslinking on the Microscale Stress Response and Molecular Deformations in Actin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurmessa, Bekele; Fitzpatrick, Robert; Valdivia, Jonathon; Anderson, Rae M. R.

    Actin, the most abundant protein in eukaryotic cells, is a semi-flexible biopolymer in the cytoskeleton that plays a crucial structural and mechanical role in cell stability, motion and replication, as well as muscle contraction. Most of these mechanically driven structural changes in cells stem from the complex viscoelastic nature of entangled actin networks and the presence of a myriad of proteins that cross-link actin filaments. Despite their importance, the mechanical response of actin networks is not yet well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here, we use optical trapping - coupled with fluorescence microscopy - to characterize the microscale stress response and induced filament deformations in entangled and cross-linked actin networks subject to localized mechanical perturbations. In particular, we actively drive a microsphere 10 microns through an entangled or cross- linked actin network at a constant speed and measure the resistive force that the deformed actin filaments exert on the bead during and following strain. We simultaneously visualize and track individual sparsely-labeled actin filaments to directly link force response to molecular deformations, and map the propagation of the initially localized perturbation field throughout the rest of the network (~100 um). By varying the concentration of actin and cross-linkers we directly determine the role of crosslinking and entanglements on the length and time scales of stress propagation, molecular deformation and relaxation mechanisms in actin networks.

  3. The deformation and failure response of closed-cell PMDI foams subjected to dynamic impact loading

    DOE PAGES

    Koohbor, Behrad; Mallon, Silas; Kidane, Addis; ...

    2015-04-07

    The present work aims to investigate the bulk deformation and failure response of closed-cell Polymeric Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (PMDI) foams subjected to dynamic impact loading. First, foam specimens of different initial densities are examined and characterized in quasi-static loading conditions, where the deformation behavior of the samples is quantified in terms of the compressive elastic modulus and effective plastic Poisson's ratio. Then, the deformation response of the foam specimens subjected to direct impact loading is examined by taking into account the effects of material compressibility and inertia stresses developed during deformation, using high speed imaging in conjunction with 3D digitalmore » image correlation. The stress-strain response and the energy absorption as a function of strain rate and initial density are presented and the bulk failure mechanisms are discussed. As a result, it is observed that the initial density of the foam and the applied strain rates have a substantial influence on the strength, bulk failure mechanism and the energy dissipation characteristics of the foam specimens.« less

  4. The deformation and failure response of closed-cell PMDI foams subjected to dynamic impact loading

    SciTech Connect

    Koohbor, Behrad; Mallon, Silas; Kidane, Addis; Lu, Wei -Yang

    2015-04-07

    The present work aims to investigate the bulk deformation and failure response of closed-cell Polymeric Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (PMDI) foams subjected to dynamic impact loading. First, foam specimens of different initial densities are examined and characterized in quasi-static loading conditions, where the deformation behavior of the samples is quantified in terms of the compressive elastic modulus and effective plastic Poisson's ratio. Then, the deformation response of the foam specimens subjected to direct impact loading is examined by taking into account the effects of material compressibility and inertia stresses developed during deformation, using high speed imaging in conjunction with 3D digital image correlation. The stress-strain response and the energy absorption as a function of strain rate and initial density are presented and the bulk failure mechanisms are discussed. As a result, it is observed that the initial density of the foam and the applied strain rates have a substantial influence on the strength, bulk failure mechanism and the energy dissipation characteristics of the foam specimens.

  5. Viscoelastoplastic Deformation and Damage Response of Titanium Alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Saleeb, Atef F.; Kasemer, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Time-dependent deformation and damage behavior can significantly affect the life of aerospace propulsion components. Consequently, one needs an accurate constitutive model that can represent both reversible and irreversible behavior under multiaxial loading conditions. This paper details the characterization and utilization of a multi-mechanism constitutive model of the GVIPS class (Generalized Viscoplastic with Potential Structure) that has been extended to describe the viscoelastoplastic deformation and damage of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Associated material constants were characterized at five elevated temperatures where viscoelastoplastic behavior was observed, and at three elevated temperatures where damage (of both the stiffness reduction and strength reduction type) was incurred. Experimental data from a wide variety of uniaxial load cases were used to correlate and validate the proposed GVIPS model. Presented are the optimized material parameters, and the viscoelastoplastic deformation and damage responses at the various temperatures.

  6. Process Setting through General Linear Model and Response Surface Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjuntichai, Angsumalin

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the efficiency of the flow-wrap packaging process in soap industry through the reduction of defectives. At the 95% confidence level, with the regression analysis, the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimper are found to be the significant factors for the flow-wrap process with respect to the number/percentage of defectives. Twenty seven experiments have been designed and performed according to three levels of each controllable factor. With the general linear model (GLM), the suggested values for the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimpers are 185, 85 and 85° C, respectively while the response surface method (RSM) provides the optimal process conditions at 186, 89 and 88° C. Due to different assumptions between percentage of defective and all three temperature parameters, the suggested conditions from the two methods are then slightly different. Fortunately, the estimated percentage of defectives at 5.51% under GLM process condition and the predicted percentage of defectives at 4.62% under RSM process condition are not significant different. But at 95% confidence level, the percentage of defectives under RSM condition can be much lower approximately 2.16% than those under GLM condition in accordance with wider variation. Lastly, the percentages of defectives under the conditions suggested by GLM and RSM are reduced by 55.81% and 62.95%, respectively.

  7. Linear response formula for piecewise expanding unimodal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Smania, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    The average R(t)=\\int \\varphi\\,\\rmd \\mu_t of a smooth function phiv with respect to the SRB measure μt of a smooth one-parameter family ft of piecewise expanding interval maps is not always Lipschitz (Baladi 2007 Commun. Math. Phys. 275 839-59, Mazzolena 2007 Master's Thesis Rome 2, Tor Vergata). We prove that if ft is tangent to the topological class of f, and if ∂t ft|t = 0 = X circle f, then R(t) is differentiable at zero, and R'(0) coincides with the resummation proposed (Baladi 2007) of the (a priori divergent) series \\sum_{n=0}^\\infty \\int X(y) \\partial_y (\\varphi \\circ f^n)(y)\\,\\rmd \\mu_0(y) given by Ruelle's conjecture. In fact, we show that t map μt is differentiable within Radon measures. Linear response is violated if and only if ft is transversal to the topological class of f.

  8. A noble refractive optical scanner with linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mega, Yair J.; Lai, Zhenhua; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-03-01

    Many applications in various fields of science and engineering use steered optical beam systems. Currently, many methods utilize mirrors in order to steer the beam. However, this approach is an off-axis solution, which normally increases the total size of the system as well as its error and complexity. Other methods use a "Risely Prisms" based solution, which is on-axis solution, however it poses some difficulties from an engineering standpoint, and therefore isn't widely used. We present here a novel technique for steering a beam on its optical axis with a linear deflection response. We derived the formulation for the profile required of the refractive optical component necessary for preforming the beam steering. The functionality of the device was simulated analytically using Matlab, as well as using a ray-tracing software, Zemax, and showed agreement with the analytical model. An optical element was manufactured based on the proposed design and the device was tested. The results show agreement with our hypothesis. We also present some proposed geometries of the several other devices, all based on the same concept, which can be used for higher performance applications such as two-dimensional scanner, video rate scanner etc.

  9. Impact response of restrained PMHS in frontal sled tests: skeletal deformation patterns under seat belt loading.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Greg; Parent, Dan; Purtsezov, Sergey; Lessley, David; Crandall, Jeff; Kent, Richard; Guillemot, Herve; Ridella, Stephen A; Takhounts, Erik; Martin, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated the response of restrained post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in 40 km/h frontal sled tests. Eight male PMHS were restrained on a rigid planar seat by a custom 3-point shoulder and lap belt. A video motion tracking system measured three-dimensional trajectories of multiple skeletal sites on the torso allowing quantification of ribcage deformation. Anterior and superior displacement of the lower ribcage may have contributed to sternal fractures occurring early in the event, at displacement levels below those typically considered injurious, suggesting that fracture risk is not fully described by traditional definitions of chest deformation. The methodology presented here produced novel kinematic data that will be useful in developing biofidelic human models. Additional analysis of the data produced by the reported tests as well as additional tests with a variety of loading conditions are required to fully characterize torso response including ribcage fracture tolerance.

  10. Simulating Thermal Cycling and Isothermal Deformation Response of Polycrystalline NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manchiraju, Sivom; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Anderson, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A microstructure-based FEM model that couples crystal plasticity, crystallographic descriptions of the B2-B19' martensitic phase transformation, and anisotropic elasticity is used to simulate thermal cycling and isothermal deformation in polycrystalline NiTi (49.9at% Ni). The model inputs include anisotropic elastic properties, polycrystalline texture, DSC data, and a subset of isothermal deformation and load-biased thermal cycling data. A key experimental trend is captured.namely, the transformation strain during thermal cycling is predicted to reach a peak with increasing bias stress, due to the onset of plasticity at larger bias stress. Plasticity induces internal stress that affects both thermal cycling and isothermal deformation responses. Affected thermal cycling features include hysteretic width, two-way shape memory effect, and evolution of texture with increasing bias stress. Affected isothermal deformation features include increased hardening during loading and retained martensite after unloading. These trends are not captured by microstructural models that lack plasticity, nor are they all captured in a robust manner by phenomenological approaches. Despite this advance in microstructural modeling, quantitative differences exist, such as underprediction of open loop strain during thermal cycling.

  11. Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kevin; Suchowski, Haim; Rho, Junsuk; Salandrino, Alessandro; Kante, Boubacar; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of optical second harmonic generation in 1961 started modern nonlinear optics. Soon after, R. C. Miller found empirically that the nonlinear susceptibility could be predicted from the linear susceptibilities. This important relation, known as Miller's Rule, allows a rapid determination of nonlinear susceptibilities from linear properties. In recent years, metamaterials, artificial materials that exhibit intriguing linear optical properties not found in natural materials, have shown novel nonlinear properties such as phase-mismatch-free nonlinear generation, new quasi-phase matching capabilities and large nonlinear susceptibilities. However, the understanding of nonlinear metamaterials is still in its infancy, with no general conclusion on the relationship between linear and nonlinear properties. The key question is then whether one can determine the nonlinear behaviour of these artificial materials from their exotic linear behaviour. Here, we show that the nonlinear oscillator model does not apply in general to nonlinear metamaterials. We show, instead, that it is possible to predict the relative nonlinear susceptibility of large classes of metamaterials using a more comprehensive nonlinear scattering theory, which allows efficient design of metamaterials with strong nonlinearity for important applications such as coherent Raman sensing, entangled photon generation and frequency conversion.

  12. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Cahyna, P.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  13. Analysis of the finite deformation response of shape memory polymers: I. Thermomechanical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Brent L.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Chen, Yi-Chao; Whitley, Karen S.

    2010-07-01

    This study presents the analysis of the finite deformation response of a shape memory polymer (SMP). This two-part paper addresses the thermomechanical characterization of SMPs, the derivation of material parameters for a finite deformation phenomenological model, the numerical implementation of such a model, and the predictions from the model with comparisons to experimental data. Part I of this work presents the thermomechanical characterization of the material behavior of a shape memory polymer. In this experimental investigation, the vision image correlation system, a visual-photographic apparatus, was used to measure displacements in the gauge area. A series of tensile tests, which included nominal values of the extension of 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100%, were performed on SMP specimens. The effects on the free recovery behavior of increasing the value of the applied deformation and temperature rate were considered. The stress-extension relationship was observed to be nonlinear for increasing values of the extension, and the shape recovery was observed to occur at higher temperatures upon increasing the temperature rate. The experimental results, aided by the advanced experimental apparatus, present components of the material behavior which are critical for the development and calibration of models to describe the response of SMPs.

  14. A single charge in the actin binding domain of fascin can independently tune the linear and non-linear response of an actin bundle network.

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Müller, K W; Heussinger, C; Köhler, S; Wall, W A; Bausch, A R; Lieleg, O

    2015-05-01

    Actin binding proteins (ABPs) not only set the structure of actin filament assemblies but also mediate the frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli of cross-linked and bundled actin networks. Point mutations in the actin binding domain of those ABPs can tune the association and dissociation dynamics of the actin/ABP bond and thus modulate the network mechanics both in the linear and non-linear response regime. We here demonstrate how the exchange of a single charged amino acid in the actin binding domain of the ABP fascin triggers such a modulation of the network rheology. Whereas the overall structure of the bundle networks is conserved, the transition point from strain-hardening to strain-weakening sensitively depends on the cross-linker off-rate and the applied shear rate. Our experimental results are consistent both with numerical simulations of a cross-linked bundle network and a theoretical description of the bundle network mechanics which is based on non-affine bending deformations and force-dependent cross-link dynamics.

  15. Linear and non-linear dose-response functions reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2008-10-16

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear dose-response relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

  16. The strain path dependence of plastic deformation response of AA5754: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Minh-Son; Hu, Lin; Iadicola, Mark; Creuziger, Adam; Rollett, Anthony D.

    2013-12-16

    This work presents modeling of experiments on a balanced biaxial (BB) pre-strained AA5754 alloy, subsequently reloaded uniaxially along the rolling direction and transverse direction. The material exhibits a complex plastic deformation response during the change in strain path due to 1) crystallographic texture, 2) aging (interactions between dislocations and Mg atoms) and 3) recovery (annihilation and re-arrangement of dislocations). With a BB prestrain of about 5 %, the aging process is dominant, and the yield strength for uniaxially deformed samples is observed to be higher than the flow stress during BB straining. The strain hardening rate after changing path is, however, lower than that for pre-straining. Higher degrees of pre-straining make the dynamic recovery more active. The dynamic recovery at higher strain levels compensates for the aging effect, and results in: 1) a reduction of the yield strength, and 2) an increase in the hardening rate of re-strained specimens along other directions. The yield strength of deformed samples is further reduced if these samples are left at room temperature to let static recovery occur. The synergistic influences of texture condition, aging and recovery processes on the material response make the modeling of strain path dependence of mechanical behavior of AA5754 challenging. In this study, the influence of crystallographic texture is taken into account by incorporating the latent hardening into a visco-plastic self-consistent model. Different strengths of dislocation glide interaction models in 24 slip systems are used to represent the latent hardening. Moreover, the aging and recovery effects are also included into the latent hardening model by considering strong interactions between dislocations and dissolved atom Mg and the microstructural evolution. These microstructural considerations provide a powerful capability to successfully describe the strain path dependence of plastic deformation behavior of AA5754.

  17. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  18. The linear and non-linear magnetic response of a tri-uranium single molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaram, B. S.; Colineau, E.; Griveau, J.; Kumar, P.; Celli, V.

    2017-03-01

    We report here low temperature magnetization isotherms for the single molecule magnet, (UO2-L)3. By analyzing the low temperature magnetization in terms of M  =  χ 1 B  +  χ 3 B 3 we extract the linear susceptibility χ 1 and the leading order nonlinear susceptibility χ 3. We find that χ 1 exhibits a peak at a temperature of T 1  =  10.4 K with χ 3 also exhibiting a peak but at a reduced temperature T 3  =  5 K. At the lowest temperatures the isotherms exhibit a critical field B c  =  11.5 T marked by a clear point of inflection. A minimal Hamiltonian employing S  =  1 (pseudo) spins with only a single energy scale (successfully used to model the behavior of bulk f-electron metamagnets) is shown to provide a good description of the observed linear scaling between T 1, T 3 and B c. We further show that a Heisenberg Hamiltonian previously employed by Carretta et al (2013 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25 486001) to model this single molecule magnet gives formulas for the angle averaged susceptibilities (in the Ising limit) very similar to those of the minimal model.

  19. On the response of Escherichia coli to high rates of deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzmaurice, B. C.; Painter, J. D.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Hazael, R.; McMillan, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    While a large body of work exists on the low strain-rate loading of biological systems such as bacteria, there is a paucity of information on the response of such organisms at high rates of deformation. Here, the response of a readily accessible strain of bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), has been examined under shock loading conditions. Although previous studies have shown greatly reduced growth in shock conditions up to several GPa, relationships between loading conditions and bacterial response have yet to be fully elucidated. Initial results of a more rigorous investigation into the 1D shock loading response of E. coli are presented here, expectantly leading to a more comprehensive view of its behaviour when exposed to high pressures. Comparison has been drawn to provide insight into the importance of the nature of the loading regime to the survival of these biological systems.

  20. Response of silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M. O.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based linear energy transfer (LET) telescope,(e. g., DOSTEL and RRMD) have recently been flown in space. LET spectra measured using tissue equivalent proportional counters show differences that need to be fully understood. A Monte Carlo technique based on: 1. radiation transport cluster intra-cascade model. 2. Landau-Vavilov distribution, 3. telescope geometry and detector coincidence & discriminator settings, 4. spacecraft shielding geometry, and 5. the external free space radiation environment, including recent albedo measurements, was developed.

  1. The Simplest Complete Model of Choice Response Time: Linear Ballistic Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold. Activity in the accumulators increases in a linear and deterministic manner. The simplicity of the model allows…

  2. Using crosscorrelation techniques to determine the impulse response of linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallabetta, Michael J.; Li, Harry W.; Demuth, Howard B.

    1993-01-01

    A crosscorrelation method of measuring the impulse response of linear systems is presented. The technique, implementation, and limitations of this method are discussed. A simple system is designed and built using discrete components and the impulse response of a linear circuit is measured. Theoretical and software simulation results are presented.

  3. Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationships in Biology, Toxicology and Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The purpose of the conference was to attract researchers from diverse backgrounds who are working in the common area of non-linear dose - response relationships...This unique interdisciplinary conference represents an important step in furthering the understanding of the occurrence, origin, mechanisms, significance and practical applications of non-linear dose - response relationships.

  4. Cell response to nanocrystallized metallic substrates obtained through severe plastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Bagherifard, Sara; Ghelichi, Ramin; Khademhosseini, Ali; Guagliano, Mario

    2014-06-11

    Cell-substrate interface is known to control the cell response and subsequent cell functions. Among the various biophysical signals, grain structure, which indicates the repeating arrangement of atoms in the material, has also proved to play a role of significant importance in mediating the cell activities. Moreover, refining the grain size through severe plastic deformation is known to provide the processed material with novel mechanical properties. The potential application of such advanced materials as biomedical implants has recently been evaluated by investigating the effect of different substrate grain sizes on a wide variety of cell activities. In this review, recent advances in biomedical applications of severe plastic deformation techniques are highlighted with special attention to the effect of the obtained nano/ultra-fine-grain size on cell-substrate interactions. Various severe plastic deformation techniques used for this purpose are discussed presenting a brief description of the mechanism for each process. The results obtained for each treatment on cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, as well as the in vivo studies, are discussed. Finally, the advantages and challenges regarding the application of these techniques to produce multifunctional bio-implant materials are addressed.

  5. SU-E-J-148: Evaluating Tumor Response with a Commercially Available Deformable Registration System

    SciTech Connect

    Bowling, J; Ramsey, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present a method for evaluating the response to treatment using a commercially available deformable image registration software package (Velocity Medical Systems) and repeat PET/CT imaging. This technique can be used to identify volumes that are risk for tumor recurrence. Methods: Response to treatment was evaluated using PET/CT images acquired prior-to and post-treatment for radiation therapy patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. Velocity (Version 3.0.1) was used to deform the initial PET/CT to the post treatment PET/CT. The post-treatment PET images were then subtracted from the pre-treatment PET images. The resulting re-sampled image is a three-dimensional SUV difference map that shows pixels with increasing SUV values. SUV values increases greater than 2.5 in the post treatment images were identified for additional follow-up. Results: A total of 5 Lung patients were analyzed as part of this study. One lung patient in the cohort had an SUV increase of +3.28 that was identified using the SUV difference map. This volume of increased uptake was located outside the treatment field and adjacent to the 35 Gy isodose line. The remaining four patients all had SUV decreases inside the planning target volume, and no unexpected areas of increase outside the irradiated volumes. All five patients were analyzed using standard tools inside the Velocity application. Conclusion: The response to treatment can easily be measured using serial PET/CT images and a commercially available deformable image registration. This provides both the radiation oncologists and medical oncologists with a quantitative assessment of their treatment to use in patient follow-up.

  6. Linear ubiquitination by LUBEL has a role in Drosophila heat stress response.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Tomoko; Almagro, Jorge; Ehrhardt, Christine; Tsai, Isabella; Schleiffer, Alexander; Deszcz, Luiza; Junttila, Sini; Ringrose, Leonie; Mechtler, Karl; Kavirayani, Anoop; Gyenesei, Attila; Hofmann, Kay; Duchek, Peter; Rittinger, Katrin; Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2016-11-01

    The HOIP ubiquitin E3 ligase generates linear ubiquitin chains by forming a complex with HOIL-1L and SHARPIN in mammals. Here, we provide the first evidence of linear ubiquitination induced by a HOIP orthologue in Drosophila We identify Drosophila CG11321, which we named Linear Ubiquitin E3 ligase (LUBEL), and find that it catalyzes linear ubiquitination in vitro We detect endogenous linear ubiquitin chain-derived peptides by mass spectrometry in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells and adult flies. Furthermore, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we establish linear ubiquitination-defective flies by mutating residues essential for the catalytic activity of LUBEL Linear ubiquitination signals accumulate upon heat shock in flies. Interestingly, flies with LUBEL mutations display reduced survival and climbing defects upon heat shock, which is also observed upon specific LUBEL depletion in muscle. Thus, LUBEL is involved in the heat response by controlling linear ubiquitination in flies.

  7. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel models (MLMs) are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF) and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation…

  8. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT

    SciTech Connect

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue; Govind, Niranjan; Yang, Chao; Saad, Yousef; Ng, Esmond

    2015-10-06

    We present two iterative algorithms for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within linear response of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. These methods do not attempt to compute eigenvalues or eigenvectors of the linear response matrix. They are designed to approximate the absorption spectrum as a function directly. They take advantage of the special structure of the linear response matrix. Neither method requires the linear response matrix to be constructed explicitly. They only require a procedure that performs the multiplication of the linear response matrix with a vector. These methods can also be easily modified to efficiently estimate the density of states (DOS) of the linear response matrix without computing the eigenvalues of this matrix. We show by computational experiments that the methods proposed in this paper can be much more efficient than methods that are based on the exact diagonalization of the linear response matrix. We show that they can also be more efficient than real-time TDDFT simulations. We compare the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost.

  9. Linear response of homogeneous nuclear matter with energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, A.; Davesne, D.; Navarro, J.

    2015-03-01

    Response functions of infinite nuclear matter with arbitrary isospin asymmetry are studied in the framework of the random phase approximation. The residual interaction is derived from a general nuclear Skyrme energy density functional. Besides the usual central, spin-orbit and tensor terms it could also include other components as new density-dependent terms or three-body terms. Algebraic expressions for the response functions are obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the particle-hole propagator. Applications to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter are presented and discussed. Spin-isospin strength functions are analyzed for varying conditions of density, momentum transfer, isospin asymmetry, and temperature for some representative Skyrme functionals. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of instabilities, either real or unphysical, which could manifest in finite nuclei.

  10. Research of dynamical Characteristics of slow deformation Waves as Massif Responses on Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The research of massif state with use of approaches of open system theory [1-3] was developed for investigation the criterions of dissipation regimes for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. For realization of that research we used the data of seismic catalogue of Tashtagol mine. As a result of the analyze of that data we defined character morphology of phase trajectories of massif response, which was locally in time in a stable state: on the phase plane with coordinates released by the massif during the dynamic event energy E and lg(dE/dt) there is a local area as a ball of twisted trajectories and some not great bursts from that ball, which are not greater than 105 joules. In some time intervals that burst can be larger, than 105 joules, achieving 106 joules and yet 109 joules. [3]. Evidently there are two reciprocal depend processes: the energy accumulation in the attracted phase trajectories area and resonance fault of the accumulated energy. But after the fault the system returns again to the same attracted phase trajectories area. For analyzing of the thin structure of the chaotic area we decided to add the method of processing of the seismic monitoring data by new parameters. We shall consider each point of explosion as a source of seismic or deformation waves. Using the kinematic approach of seismic information processing we shall each point of the massif response use as a time point of the first arrival of the deformation wave for calculation of the wave velocity, because additionally we know the coordinates of the fixed response and the coordinates of explosion. The use of additional parameter-velocity of slow deformation wave propagation allowed us with use method of phase diagrams identify their hierarchic structure, which allow us to use that information for modeling and interpretation the propagation seismic and deformation waves in hierarchic structures. It is researched with use of that suggested processing method the thin

  11. Influence of the elastic deformation of a foam on its mobility in channels of linearly varying width.

    PubMed

    Dollet, Benjamin; Jones, Siân A; Méheust, Yves; Cantat, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    We study foam flow in an elementary model porous medium consisting of a convergent and a divergent channel positioned side by side and possessing a fixed joint porosity. Configurations of converging or diverging channels are ubiquitous at the pore scale in porous media, as all channels linking pores possess a converging and diverging part. The resulting flow kinematics imposes asymmetric bubble deformations in the two channels, which modulate foam-wall friction and strongly impact the flux distribution. We measure, as well as quantitatively predict, the ratio of the fluxes in the two channels as a function of the channel widths by modeling pressure drops of both viscous and capillary origins. This study reveals the crucial importance of boundary-induced bubble deformation on the mobility of a flowing foam, resulting in particular in flow irreversibility.

  12. Separating Non-Linear Deformation And Atmospheric Phase Screen (APS) For INSAR Time Series Analysis Using Least-Square Collocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Hanssen, R. F.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; Hooper, A.; Van Leijen, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method for separating ground defor- mation from atmospheric phase screen (APS) based on PSInSAR. By stochastic modeling of ground deformation and APS via their variance-covariance functions we can not only estimate the signals with the best accuracy but also assess the estimation accuracy using least-squares collocation[5]. We evaluate the APS estimated by our method and the APS obtained from a commonly used window-based filtering method [6] by comparing them to repeat-pass interferograms over ground surfaces outside the subsiding region of Mexico City. The comparison shows that our method results in a better estimation of APS than the filtering method which ignores the temporal variability of APS variance. Our method is desired when there are temporal gaps in a SAR time series. In such a case, the filtering method needs a large temporal window to suppress APS, which may lead to leakage from ground deformation to APS.

  13. An Alternative Three-Term Decomposition for Single Crystal Deformation Motivated by Non-Linear Elastic Dislocation Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    irreversible deformation, the three-term model allows for residual elastic strains— including dilatation observed in experiments and atomic simulations...residual elastic strains—including dilatation observed in experiments and atomic simulations—not addressed by conventional two-term crystal plasticity...gradient for an element of crystalline material. For simplicity, thermal effects are omitted, gliding dislocations are the only kind of defect considered

  14. The linearity and selectivity of neuronal responses in awake visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Anand, Sanjiv; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Macknik, Stephen L.; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A.; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are frequently classified based on their response linearity: the extent in which their visual responses to drifting gratings resemble a linear replica of the stimulus. This classification is supported by the finding that response linearity is bimodally distributed across neurons in area V1 of anesthetized animals. However, recent studies suggest that such bimodal distribution may not reflect two neuronal types but a nonlinear relationship between the membrane potential and the spike output. A main limitation of these previous studies is that they measured response linearity in anesthetized animals, where the distance between the neuronal membrane potential and spike threshold is artificially increased by anesthesia. Here, we measured V1 response linearity in the awake brain and its correlation with the neuronal spontaneous firing rate, which is related to the distance between membrane potential and threshold. Our results demonstrate that response linearity is bimodally distributed in awake V1 but that it is poorly correlated with spontaneous firing rate. In contrast, the spontaneous firing rate is best correlated to the response selectivity and response latency to stimuli. PMID:19761345

  15. Thermal shifts and intermittent linear response of aging systems.

    PubMed

    Sibani, Paolo; Christiansen, Simon

    2008-04-01

    At time t after an initial quench, an aging system responds to a perturbation turned on at time twresponse on the ratio t/tw . Further insight is obtained imposing small temperature steps, so-called T shifts. The average response as a function of t/tw,eff , where tw,eff is the effective age, is similar to the response of a system aged isothermally at the final temperature. Using an Ising model with plaquette interactions, the applicability of analytic formulas for the average isothermal magnetization is confirmed. The T -shifted aging behavior of the model is approximately described using effective ages. Large positive shifts nearly reset the effective age. Negative T shifts offer a more detailed probe of the dynamics. Assuming the marginal stability of the "current" attractor against thermal noise fluctuations, the scaling form tw,eff=tw x and the dependence of the exponent x on the aging temperatures before and after the shift are theoretically available. The predicted form of x has no adjustable parameters. Both the algebraic scaling of the effective age and the form of the exponent reasonably agree with the data. The present simulations thus confirm the crucial role of marginal stability in glassy relaxation.

  16. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  17. [Modeling and simulation of responses from ultrasonic linear phased array].

    PubMed

    He, Wenjing; Zhu, Yuanzhong; Wang, Yufeng; He, Lingli; Lai, Siyu

    2012-10-01

    Phased array transducers are very attractive because the beam generated by the arrays can be electronically focused and steered. The present work characterizes far-field 2D properties of phased array system by functions that are deduced from rectangle source, rectangle line array and phased array based on point source. Results are presented for the distribution of ultrasound intensity on plane xoz and on x-axis by simulation using numerical calculation. It is shown that the shape of response of rectangle line array is modulated by the single array element. It is also demonstrated that the delay time of phased array is the key to steer the beam, sacrificing the value of main lobe and increasing the number of side lobes.

  18. An implicit three-dimensional model for describing the inelastic response of solids undergoing finite deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, K. R.; Srinivasa, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a new unified class of 3D nonlinear anisotropic finite deformation inelasticity model that (1) exhibits rate-independent or dependent hysteretic response (i.e., response wherein reversal of the external stimuli does not cause reversal of the path in state space) with or without yield surfaces. The hysteresis persists with quasistatic loading. (2) Encompasses a wide range of different types of inelasticity models (such as Mullins effect in rubber, rock and soil mechanics, traditional metal plasticity, hysteretic behavior of shape memory materials) into a simple unified framework that is relatively easy to implement in computational schemes and (3) does not require any a priori particular notion of plastic strain or yield function. The core idea behind the approach is the development of an system of implicit rate equations that allow for the continuity of the response but with different rates along different directions. The theory, which is in purely mechanical setting, subsumes and generalizes many commonly used approaches for hypoelasticity and rate-independent plasticity. We illustrate its capability by modeling the Mullins effect which is the inelastic behavior of certain rubbery materials. We are able to simulate the entire cyclic response without the use of additional internal variables, i.e., the entire response is modeled by using an implicit function of stress and strain measures and their rates.

  19. Peripharyngeal tissue deformation, stress distributions, and hyoid bone movement in response to mandibular advancement.

    PubMed

    Amatoury, Jason; Kairaitis, Kristina; Wheatley, John R; Bilston, Lynne E; Amis, Terence C

    2015-02-01

    Mandibular advancement (MA) increases upper airway (UA) patency and decreases collapsibility. Furthermore, MA displaces the hyoid bone in a cranial-anterior direction, which may contribute to MA-associated UA improvements via redistribution of peripharyngeal tissue stresses (extraluminal tissue pressure, ETP). In the present study, we examined effects of MA on ETP distributions, deformation of the peripharyngeal tissue surface (UA geometry), and hyoid bone position. We studied 13 supine, anesthetized, tracheostomized, spontaneously breathing adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Graded MA was applied from 0 to ∼4.5 mm. ETP was measured at six locations distributed throughout three UA regions: tongue, hyoid, and epiglottis. Axial computed tomography images of the UA (nasal choanae to glottis) were acquired and used to measure lumen geometry (UA length; regional cross-sectional area) and hyoid displacement. MA resulted in nonuniform decreases in ETP (greatest at tongue region), ranging from -0.11 (-0.15 to -0.06) to -0.82 (-1.09 to -0.54) cmH2O/mm MA [linear mixed-effects model slope (95% confidence interval)], across all sites. UA length decreased by -0.5 (-0.8 to -0.2) %/mm accompanied by nonuniform increases in cross-sectional area (greatest at hyoid region) ranging from 7.5 (3.6-11.4) to 18.7 (14.9-22.5) %/mm. The hyoid bone was displaced in a cranial-anterior direction by 0.42 (0.36-0.44) mm/mm MA. In summary, MA results in nonuniform changes in peripharyngeal tissue pressure distributions and lumen geometry. Displacement of the hyoid bone with MA may play a pivotal role in redistributing applied MA loads, thus modifying tissue stress/deformation distributions and determining resultant UA geometry outcomes.

  20. Linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and the variation of constants method. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  1. Prediction of Nociceptive Responses during Sedation by Linear and Non-Linear Measures of EEG Signals in High Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Borrat, Xavier; Valencia, Jose Fernando; Jospin, Mathieu; Jensen, Erik Weber; Gambus, Pedro; Caminal, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, affected by the interaction between the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and the pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the quantification of analgesia still remains an open problem. The purpose of this work is to improve the prediction of nociceptive responses with linear and non-linear measures calculated from EEG signal filtered in frequency bands higher than the traditional bands. Power spectral density and auto-mutual information function was applied in order to predict the presence or absence of the nociceptive responses to different stimuli during sedation in endoscopy procedure. The proposed measures exhibit better performances than the bispectral index (BIS). Values of prediction probability of Pk above 0.75 and percentages of sensitivity and specificity above 70% were achieved combining EEG measures from the traditional frequency bands and higher frequency bands. PMID:25901571

  2. Prediction of Nociceptive Responses during Sedation by Linear and Non-Linear Measures of EEG Signals in High Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Borrat, Xavier; Valencia, Jose Fernando; Jospin, Mathieu; Jensen, Erik Weber; Gambus, Pedro; Caminal, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, affected by the interaction between the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and the pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the quantification of analgesia still remains an open problem. The purpose of this work is to improve the prediction of nociceptive responses with linear and non-linear measures calculated from EEG signal filtered in frequency bands higher than the traditional bands. Power spectral density and auto-mutual information function was applied in order to predict the presence or absence of the nociceptive responses to different stimuli during sedation in endoscopy procedure. The proposed measures exhibit better performances than the bispectral index (BIS). Values of prediction probability of Pk above 0.75 and percentages of sensitivity and specificity above 70% were achieved combining EEG measures from the traditional frequency bands and higher frequency bands.

  3. Ligand-Induced Protein Responses and Mechanical Signal Propagation Described by Linear Response Theories

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lee-Wei; Kitao, Akio; Huang, Bang-Chieh; Gō, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a general linear response theory (LRT) is formulated to describe time-dependent and -independent protein conformational changes upon CO binding with myoglobin. Using the theory, we are able to monitor protein relaxation in two stages. The slower relaxation is found to occur from 4.4 to 81.2 picoseconds and the time constants characterized for a couple of aromatic residues agree with those observed by UV Resonance Raman (UVRR) spectrometry and time resolved x-ray crystallography. The faster “early responses”, triggered as early as 400 femtoseconds, can be best described by the theory when impulse forces are used. The newly formulated theory describes the mechanical propagation following ligand-binding as a function of time, space and types of the perturbation forces. The “disseminators”, defined as the residues that propagate signals throughout the molecule the fastest among all the residues in protein when perturbed, are found evolutionarily conserved and the mutations of which have been shown to largely change the CO rebinding kinetics in myoglobin. PMID:25229149

  4. Response of a fluid-immersed microcantilever close to a deformable body

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R. J.; Lee, T. C.; Cater, J. E.; Bachtiar, V.; Minton, J.

    2015-03-07

    The importance of hydrodynamics upon the response of a microcantilever immersed in a viscous fluid has been well established [J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 64 (1998); C. A. Eysden and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044908 (2007)]. It has previously been shown that the presence of a nearby rigid planar surface can significantly alter a microcantilever's non-contact response, through microcantilever–surface hydrodynamic interactions [C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, Phys. Fluids 17, 073102 (2005); C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114913 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., J. Fluid Mech. 545, 397426 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050801 (2006).]. In cases where the nearby surface is a finite-sized deformable body, such as in noncontact microrheology measurements, we expect to see further changes in the microcantilever's response. Hence, we here compute the thermal spectra of several microcantilevers in the presence of different compliant samples that have the characteristics of soft biological fibres. Our findings demonstrate that the elastohydrodynamic regime can substantially dictate the extent to which the compliance of a given body is evident in the microcantilever's thermal spectra, and suggest that certain nondimensional quantities should lie within particular, ranges for this to be the case. We expect these findings to be of interest in areas such as Atomic Force Microscopy, microsensing, and non-contact microrheology.

  5. Activation of Bone Remodeling after Fatigue: Differential Response to Linear Microcracks and Diffuse Damage

    PubMed Central

    Herman, B.C.; Cardoso, L.; Majeska, R.J.; Jepsen, K.J.; Schaffler, M.B

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments point to two predominant forms of fatigue microdamage in bone: linear microcracks (tens to a few hundreds microns in length) and “diffuse damage” (patches of diffuse stain uptake in fatigued bone comprised of clusters of sublamellar-sized cracks). The physiological relevance of diffuse damage in activating bone remodeling is not known. In this study microdamage amount and type were varied to assess whether linear or diffuse microdamage have similar effects on the activation of intracortical resorption. Activation of resorption was correlated to the number of linear microcracks (Cr.Dn) in the bone (R2=0.60, p<0.01). In contrast, there was no activation of resorption in response to diffuse microdamage alone. Furthermore, there was no significant change in osteocyte viability in response to diffuse microdamage, suggesting that osteocyte apoptosis, which is know to activate remodeling at typical linear microcracks in bone, does not result from sublamellar damage. These findings indicate that inability of diffuse microdamage to activate resorption may be due to lack of a focal injury response. Finally, we found that duration of loading does not affect the remodeling response. In conclusion, our data indicate that osteocytes activate resorption in response to linear microcracks but not diffuse microdamage, perhaps due to lack of a focal injury-induced apoptotic response. PMID:20633708

  6. Explicit solvent simulations of the aqueous oxidation potential and reorganization energy for neutral molecules: gas phase, linear solvent response, and non-linear response contributions.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Jennifer J; Tentscher, Peter R; Seijo, Marianne; Samuel Arey, J

    2015-06-14

    First principles simulations were used to predict aqueous one-electron oxidation potentials (Eox) and associated half-cell reorganization energies (λaq) for aniline, phenol, methoxybenzene, imidazole, and dimethylsulfide. We employed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the oxidized and reduced species in an explicit aqueous solvent, followed by EOM-IP-CCSD computations with effective fragment potentials for diabatic energy gaps of solvated clusters, and finally thermodynamic integration of the non-linear solvent response contribution using classical MD. A priori predicted Eox and λaq values exhibit mean absolute errors of 0.17 V and 0.06 eV, respectively, compared to experiment. We also disaggregate Eox into several well-defined free energy properties, including the gas phase adiabatic free energy of ionization (7.73 to 8.82 eV), the solvent-induced shift in the free energy of ionization due to linear solvent response (-2.01 to -2.73 eV), and the contribution from non-linear solvent response (-0.07 to -0.14 eV). The linear solvent response component is further apportioned into contributions from the solvent-induced shift in vertical ionization energy of the reduced species (ΔVIEaq) and the solvent-induced shift in negative vertical electron affinity of the ionized species (ΔNVEAaq). The simulated ΔVIEaq and ΔNVEAaq are found to contribute the principal sources of uncertainty in computational estimates of Eox and λaq. Trends in the magnitudes of disaggregated solvation properties are found to correlate with trends in structural and electronic features of the solute. Finally, conflicting approaches for evaluating the aqueous reorganization energy are contrasted and discussed, and concluding recommendations are given.

  7. Variational finite-difference methods in linear and nonlinear problems of the deformation of metallic and composite shells (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimyuk, V. A.; Storozhuk, E. A.; Chernyshenko, I. S.

    2012-11-01

    Variational finite-difference methods of solving linear and nonlinear problems for thin and nonthin shells (plates) made of homogeneous isotropic (metallic) and orthotropic (composite) materials are analyzed and their classification principles and structure are discussed. Scalar and vector variational finite-difference methods that implement the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses analytically or algorithmically using Lagrange multipliers are outlined. The Timoshenko hypotheses are implemented in a traditional way, i.e., analytically. The stress-strain state of metallic and composite shells of complex geometry is analyzed numerically. The numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and tables and used to assess the efficiency of using the variational finite-difference methods to solve linear and nonlinear problems of the statics of shells (plates)

  8. Linearized theory of peridynamic states.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2009-04-01

    A state-based peridynamic material model describes internal forces acting on a point in terms of the collective deformation of all the material within a neighborhood of the point. In this paper, the response of a state-based peridynamic material is investigated for a small deformation superposed on a large deformation. The appropriate notion of a small deformation restricts the relative displacement between points, but it does not involve the deformation gradient (which would be undefined on a crack). The material properties that govern the linearized material response are expressed in terms of a new quantity called the modulus state. This determines the force in each bond resulting from an incremental deformation of itself or of other bonds. Conditions are derived for a linearized material model to be elastic, objective, and to satisfy balance of angular momentum. If the material is elastic, then the modulus state is obtainable from the second Frechet derivative of the strain energy density function. The equation of equilibrium with a linearized material model is a linear Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. An analogue of Poincare's theorem is proved that applies to the infinite dimensional space of all peridynamic vector states, providing a condition similar to irrotationality in vector calculus.

  9. Deformation responses of slow moving landslides to precipitation in the Northern Apennines (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Benedikt; Simoni, Alessandro; Schmidt, David; Bertello, Lara; Berti, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Slow moving landslides are a frequent feature in the Northern Apennines of Italy and one of the main landscape forming agents. Among the most common landslide types are complex earth flows that occur in chaotic clay-shales and complex rock slides in highly fractured flysch. We present the results of an InSAR-based survey in the Reno and Panaro river catchments, which are located South of Bologna and Modena in the Northern Apennines of Italy. We processed Envisat and Cosmo-SkyMed radar data using the Stanford Method of Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) and documented movement on 62 deep-seated landslides. These landslides were compared to the regional landslide inventory that contains information about the type of landslide, its state of activity and the lithological characteristics of the host rock. Of the landslides found using InSAR, 42 % correspond to active landslide bodies in the regional inventory, while 48 % are mapped as dormant and 10% are not previously mapped. InSAR-derived landslides often do not correspond to the exact extent of mapped landslide bodies. InSAR results show two recurring styles of deformation: (1) earthflows involving chaotic clay-shale units that exhibit steady state displacement, or exhibit long-term (multi-annual) accelerations and decelerations, or (2) complex landslides in flysch units that are characterized by distinct increases in displacement rate following periods (weeks-to-months) of intense precipitation. Such differences in behavior might be due to inherent differences in the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the material in relation to the specific climatic forcing experienced during the observation period (2003 and 2015). Flysch units are relatively more fragile and have higher permeability when compared to clay-shale units. Hence the deformation response to the precipitation is likely faster and characterized by more abrupt accelerations and decelerations.

  10. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: Theory and application to atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fias, Stijn Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N{sub s}] and [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r′) to a quantity χ(r, r{sup ′}), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ{sub αβ}(r, r{sup ′}), χ{sub βα}(r, r{sup ′}), and χ{sub SS}(r, r{sup ′}) plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α{sub αα}, α{sub αβ}, α{sub βα}, and α{sub ββ} have been calculated.

  11. A review of linear response theory for general differentiable dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2009-04-01

    The classical theory of linear response applies to statistical mechanics close to equilibrium. Away from equilibrium, one may describe the microscopic time evolution by a general differentiable dynamical system, identify nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) and study how these vary under perturbations of the dynamics. Remarkably, it turns out that for uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems (those satisfying the 'chaotic hypothesis'), the linear response away from equilibrium is very similar to the linear response close to equilibrium: the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations hold, and the fluctuation-dispersion theorem survives in a modified form (which takes into account the oscillations around the 'attractor' corresponding to the NESS). If the chaotic hypothesis does not hold, two new phenomena may arise. The first is a violation of linear response in the sense that the NESS does not depend differentiably on parameters (but this nondifferentiability may be hard to see experimentally). The second phenomenon is a violation of the dispersion relations: the susceptibility has singularities in the upper half complex plane. These 'acausal' singularities are actually due to 'energy nonconservation': for a small periodic perturbation of the system, the amplitude of the linear response is arbitrarily large. This means that the NESS of the dynamical system under study is not 'inert' but can give energy to the outside world. An 'active' NESS of this sort is very different from an equilibrium state, and it would be interesting to see what happens for active states to the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem.

  12. Quasilaminar regime in the linear response of a turbulent flow to wall waviness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, Paolo; Charru, François

    2017-01-01

    The linear response of the wall-shear stress of a turbulent flow to wall waviness is analyzed in the context of a comparison between existing experiments, direct numerical simulations, and analytical approximations. The spectral region where the response is largest is found to be amenable to a simplified quasilaminar analysis. The end result is a parameterless description of this phenomenon that completely captures its physics in a single analytical formula, a Padé approximation of the response function.

  13. Signal amplification in immunohistochemistry: loose-jointed deformable heteropolymeric HRP conjugates vs. linear polymer backbone HRP conjugates.

    PubMed

    Buchwalow, Igor; Boecker, Werner; Wolf, Eduard; Samoilova, Vera; Tiemann, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Improvements in reagents and protocols for immunohistochemistry have led to increased sensitivity of detection systems. A significant level of signal amplification was achieved by the chain-polymer conjugate technology utilizing enzyme-labeled inert "backbone" molecule of dextran (Dako). However, the relatively large size of the dextran molecule in aqueous phase appears to create spatial hindrance compromising the penetrative ability of the detection reagent. Novel AmpliStain™ detection systems (SDT GmbH, Baesweiler, Germany) seem to overcome these constraints offering a more compact and deformable conjugate design that facilitates agile penetration through the narrowest diffusion pathways in tissue sections. Here, we compared the level of signal amplification achievable with AmpliStain™-HRP (SDT) and EnVision™+-HRP (Dako). Our results show that the AmpliStain™-HRP systems allow higher dilutions of primary antibodies in both immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Compared with EnVision™+, anti-mouse AmpliStain™ enables at least three times more sensitive detection of mouse antibodies, whereas anti-rabbit AmpliStain™ is ten times more sensitive than anti-rabbit EnVision™+.

  14. Effects of negative ageing on deformation and strength response of geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M.; Towhata, I.; Yamada, S.; Qureshi, M. U.; Kawano, K.

    2009-04-01

    Negative ageing or decay of grains with time is often ignored in conventional geotechnical investigations. Geology is always vital in such a scenario but the micro-scale geotechnical point of concern is the time-dependent loss of strength and deformation characteristics. This paper presents unique data from torsional shear tests on crushed soft rocks from Yokosuka, Japan and 2005-Kashmir earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. Material being sensitive to disintegrate by water-action allowed to simulate the long-term stress-strain and volume change response under saturated conditions whereas dry tests on similar soil represent initial intact response of the material. Negative ageing is manipulated by an enormous decrease in shear strength parameters, changes in grain size curve and increase in volumetric compression. It is concluded that for long-term hazard evaluation of various geotechnical structures, the effects of loss of strength due to decay of grains with time should be incorporated in conventional analysis and design models.

  15. Linear-response calculation in the time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Inakura, Tsunenori; Avogadro, Paolo; Ebata, Shuichiro; Sato, Koichi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2012-11-12

    Linear response calculations based on the time-dependent density-functional theory are presented. Especially, we report results of the finite amplitude method which we have recently proposed as an alternative and feasible approach to the (quasiparticle-)random-phase approximation. Calculated properties of the giant resonances and low-energy E1 modes are discussed. We found a universal linear correlation between the low-energy E1 strength and the neutron skin thickness.

  16. Project REPONS: Offshore Faults, Tectonic Deformation and Turbidite Record in Response to the January 12 2010 Earthquake, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, C. M.; Gulick, S. P.; Cormier, M.; Dieudonne, N.; Diebold, J. B.; Douilly, R.; Hornbach, M.; Johnson, H. E.; Mishkin, K.; Seeber, L.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Symithe, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an NSF RAPID response to the January 12, 2010 earthquake, we mapped the underwater continuation of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGF) west of Léogâne. Multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, chirp subbottom profiler, sediment sampling and CTD measurements were conducted in water depths of 2 m to 1750 m from the R/V Endeavor and from a small inflatable boat. The offshore segment of the EPGF is manifested by two steep, 50-80 m high linear ridges and at least two subsurface faults. The submarine EPGF is part of a transition from releasing to restraining segment. To the east, it joins its onshore trace in a releasing bend and continues to the west in a restraining bend that perhaps caused the Tapion ridge. Within the Baies de Petit and Grand Goâve, river outlets are correlated with lateral spreading and/or subsidence where we observed increased local damage to structures. Lateral spreading and/or subsidence appears to have increased tsunami effects locally. Coral uplift NE and SW of offshore fault traces offer evidence of the January 12, 2010 surface deformation. While a seafloor rupture is not evident from the data collected we do image deformation within the upper 20 m in both bays. Mass wasting and gravity flow deposits from the last and older earthquakes were tracked from the Léogâne delta and along the coast to the deepest depocenter. Th-234 and Be-7 with half-lives of 24 and 53 days, respectively verified the January 12 turbidite and indicated an influx of terrigenous sediment mixed with marine sources. Coral debris was sampled in the shelf and upper slope (100-300 m) near the EPGF; basalt sand derived from the highlands and wood fragments at intermediate water depths (1000-1100 m); lastly an ~0.03 km3 and >1 m thick turbidite was deposited over 50 km2 in the Canal du Sud depocenter (1750 m). The sandy parts of all cores recovered from Canal du Sud depocenter have alternate episodes of traction deposition and erosion that reflect

  17. Linear response theory for symmetry improved two particle irreducible effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Kosov, Daniel S.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the linear response of an O (N ) scalar quantum field theory subject to external perturbations using the symmetry-improved two-particle irreducible effective action (SI-2PIEA) formalism [A. Pilaftsis and D. Teresi, Nucl. Phys. B874, 594 (2013)]. Despite satisfactory equilibrium behavior, we find a number of unphysical effects at the linear response level. Goldstone boson field fluctuations are overdetermined, with the only consistent solution being to set the fluctuations and their driving sources to zero, except for momentum modes where the Higgs and Goldstone self-energies obey a particular relationship. Also Higgs field fluctuations propagate masslessly, despite the Higgs propagator having the correct mass. These pathologies are independent of any truncation of the effective action and still exist even if we relax the overdetermining Ward identities, so long as the constraint is formulated O (N ) covariantly. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent incompatibility of the constraints and linear response approximation and possible ways forward.

  18. Determining the continuous family of quantum Fisher information from linear-response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitara, Tomohiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-12-01

    The quantum Fisher information represents a continuous family of metrics on the space of quantum states and places the fundamental limit on the accuracy of quantum state estimation. We show that the entire family of quantum Fisher information can be determined from linear-response theory through generalized covariances. We derive the generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates linear-response functions to generalized covariances and hence allows us to determine the quantum Fisher information from linear-response functions, which are experimentally measurable quantities. As an application, we examine the skew information, which is a quantum Fisher information, of a harmonic oscillator in thermal equilibrium, and show that the equality of the skew-information-based uncertainty relation holds.

  19. Dielectric function beyond the random-phase approximation: kinetic theory versus linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, H; Röpke, G

    2012-03-01

    Calculating the frequency-dependent dielectric function for strongly coupled plasmas, the relations within kinetic theory and linear response theory are derived and discussed in comparison. In this context, we give a proof that the Kohler variational principle can be extended to arbitrary frequencies. It is shown to be a special case of the Zubarev method for the construction of a nonequilibrium statistical operator from the principle of the extremum of entropy production. Within kinetic theory, the commonly used energy-dependent relaxation time approach is strictly valid only for the Lorentz plasma in the static case. It is compared with the result from linear response theory that includes electron-electron interactions and applies for arbitrary frequencies, including bremsstrahlung emission. It is shown how a general approach to linear response encompasses the different approximations and opens options for systematic improvements.

  20. Cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei mirror cortical force-related-BOLD responses: Beyond all (linear) expectations.

    PubMed

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S; Friston, Karl J; Toosy, Ahmed T; D'Angelo, Egidio; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2017-02-27

    The relationship between the BOLD response and an applied force was quantified in the cerebellum using a power grip task. To investigate whether the cerebellum responds in an on/off way to motor demands or contributes to motor responses in a parametric fashion, similarly to the cortex, five grip force levels were investigated under visual feedback. Functional MRI data were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers and their responses were analyzed using a cerebellum-optimized pipeline. This allowed us to evaluate, within the cerebellum, voxelwise linear and non-linear associations between cerebellar activations and forces. We showed extensive non-linear activations (with a parametric design), covering the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum with a BOLD-force relationship that is region-dependent. Linear responses were mainly located in the anterior lobe, similarly to the cortex, where linear responses are localized in M1. Complex responses were localized in the posterior lobe, reflecting its key role in attention and executive processing, required during visually guided movement. Given the highly organized responses in the cerebellar cortex, a key question is whether deep cerebellar nuclei show similar parametric effects. We found positive correlations with force in the ipsilateral dentate nucleus and negative correlations on the contralateral side, suggesting a somatotopic organization of the dentate nucleus in line with cerebellar and cortical areas. Our results confirm that there is cerebellar organization involving all grey matter structures that reflect functional segregation in the cortex, where cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei contribute to complex motor tasks with different BOLD response profiles in relation to the forces. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Application of linear response theory to magnetotransport properties of dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J. R.; Redmer, R.; Reinholz, H.

    2010-03-15

    Linear response theory, as developed within the Zubarev formalism, is a quantum statistical approach for describing systems out of but close to equilibrium, which has been successfully applied to a wide variety of plasmas in an external electric field and/or containing a temperature gradient. We present here an extension of linear response theory to include the effects of an external magnetic field. General expressions for the complete set of relevant transport properties are given. In particular, the Hall effect and the influence of a magnetic field on the dc electrical conductivity are discussed. Low-density limits including electron-electron scattering are presented as well as results for arbitrary degeneracy.

  2. Near-linear response of mean monsoon strength to a broad range of radiative forcings.

    PubMed

    Boos, William R; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-02-09

    Theoretical models have been used to argue that seasonal mean monsoons will shift abruptly and discontinuously from wet to dry stable states as their radiative forcings pass a critical threshold, sometimes referred to as a "tipping point." Further support for a strongly nonlinear response of monsoons to radiative forcings is found in the seasonal onset of the South Asian summer monsoon, which is abrupt compared with the annual cycle of insolation. Here it is shown that the seasonal mean strength of monsoons instead exhibits a nearly linear dependence on a wide range of radiative forcings. First, a previous theory that predicted a discontinuous, threshold response is shown to omit a dominant stabilizing term in the equations of motion; a corrected theory predicts a continuous and nearly linear response of seasonal mean monsoon strength to forcings. A comprehensive global climate model is then used to show that the seasonal mean South Asian monsoon exhibits a near-linear dependence on a wide range of isolated greenhouse gas, aerosol, and surface albedo forcings. This model reproduces the observed abrupt seasonal onset of the South Asian monsoon but produces a near-linear response of the mean monsoon by changing the duration of the summer circulation and the latitude of that circulation's ascent branch. Thus, neither a physically correct theoretical model nor a comprehensive climate model support the idea that seasonal mean monsoons will undergo abrupt, nonlinear shifts in response to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol emissions, or land surface albedo.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of the Impact Response of Maraging Steel Linear Cellular Alloys for Structural Energetic Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, Anthony; McCoy, Tammy; Cochran, Joe; Thadhani, Naresh

    2009-06-01

    A refined Johnson-Cook material strength model is developed for predicting the dynamic strain and fracture response of Maraging 250 steel at high-strain rates. Finite element simulations of rod-on-anvil impacts are carried out at velocities exceeding 100m/s and compared with experimental impact tests performed on a 7.62mm gas gun. The transient and final dimensions of the simulated and experimentally impacted rods are compared and Johnson-Cook strength parameters are modified accordingly. The newly developed Maraging 250 steel Johnson-cook strength model is then applied to simulate the impact response of multiple, 25% dense linear cellular alloys (LCA) of various geometries at velocities exceeding 100m/s. Analyses of the deformation, fragmentation, and stress transfer behavior of the simulated LCAs are performed and validated through comparison of corresponding impact experiments performed on the LCAs produced via an extrusion and reduction process. Stress transfer to the interior walls varies as a function of LCA geometry, which also influences the outward fragmentation and energy retention at the cross-section of impact.

  4. Mechanical characterization and modeling of non-linear deformation and fracture of a fiber reinforced metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.

    1991-01-01

    The nonlinear anisotropic mechanical behavior of an aluminum alloy metal matrix composite reinforced with continuous alumina fibers was determined experimentally. The mechanical behavior of the composite were modeled by assuming that the composite has a periodical microstructure. The resulting unit cell problem was solved with the finite element method. Excellent agreement was found between theoretically predicted and measured stress-strain responses for various tensile and shear loadings. The stress-strain responses for transverse and inplane shear were found to be identical and this will provide a simplification of the constitutive equations for the composite. The composite has a very low ductility in transverse tension and a limited ductility in transverse shear that was correlated to high hydrostatic stresses that develop in the matrix. The shape of the initial yield surface was calculated and good agreement was found between the calculated shape and the experimentally determined shape.

  5. Evolution of a fold-thrust belt deforming a unit with pre-existing linear asperities: Insights from analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burberry, Caroline M.; Swiatlowski, Jerlyn L.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneity, whether geometric or rheologic, in crustal material undergoing compression affects the geometry of the structures produced. This study documents the thrust fault geometries produced when discrete linear asperities are introduced into an analog model, scaled to represent bulk upper crustal properties, and compressed. Varying obliquities of the asperities are used, relative to the imposed compression, and the resultant development of thrust fault traces and branch lines in map view is tracked. Once the model runs are completed, cross-sections are created and analyzed. The models show that asperities confined to the base layer promote the clustering of branch lines in the surface thrusts. Strong clustering in branch lines is also noted where several asperities are in close proximity or cross. Slight reverse-sense reactivation of asperities cut through the sedimentary sequence is noted in cross-section, where the asperity and the subsequent thrust belt interact. The model results are comparable to the situation in the Dinaric Alps, where pre-existing faults to the SW of the NE Adriatic Fault Zone contribute to the clustering of branch lines developed in the surface fold-thrust belt. These results can therefore be used to evaluate the evolution of other basement-involved fold-thrust belts worldwide.

  6. Experimental Validation of Two-dimensional Finite Element Method for Simulating Constitutive Response of Polycrystals During High Temperature Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sumit; Briant, Clyde L.; Krajewski, Paul E.; Bower, Allan F.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2007-04-01

    A finite element method was recently designed to model the mechanisms that cause superplastic deformation (A.F. Bower and E. Wininger, A Two-Dimensional Finite Element Method for Simulating the Constitutive Response and Microstructure of Polycrystals during High-Temperature Plastic Deformation, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2004, 52, p 1289-1317). The computations idealize the solid as a collection of two-dimensional grains, separated by sharp grain boundaries. The grains may deform plastically by thermally activated dislocation motion, which is modeled using a conventional crystal plasticity law. The solid may also deform by sliding on the grain boundaries, or by stress-driven diffusion of atoms along grain boundaries. The governing equations are solved using a finite element method, which includes a front-tracking procedure to monitor the evolution of the grain boundaries and surfaces in the solid. The goal of this article is to validate these computations by systematically comparing numerical predictions to experimental measurements of the elevated-temperature response of aluminum alloy AA5083 (M.-A. Kulas, W.P. Green, E.M. Taleff, P.E. Krajewski, and T.R. McNelley, Deformation Mechanisms in Superplastic AA5083 materials. Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, 36(5), p 1249-1261). The experimental work revealed that a transition occurs from grain-boundary sliding to dislocation (solute-drag) creep at approximately 0.001/s for temperatures between 425 and 500 °C. In addition, increasing the grain size from 7 to 10 μm decreased the transition to significantly lower strain rates. Predictions from the finite element method accurately predict the effect of grain size on the transition in deformation mechanisms.

  7. A theoretical and experimental investigation of the linear and nonlinear impulse responses from a magnetoplasma column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grody, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear responses of a magnetoplasma resulting from inhomogeneity in the background plasma density are studied. The plasma response to an impulse electric field was measured and the results are compared with the theory of an inhomogeneous cold plasma. Impulse responses were recorded for the different plasma densities, static magnetic fields, and neutral pressures and generally appeared as modulated, damped oscillations. The frequency spectra of the waveforms consisted of two separated resonance peaks. For weak excitation, the results correlate with the linear theory of a cold, inhomogeneous, cylindrical magnetoplasma. The damping mechanism is identified with that of phase mixing due to inhomogeneity in plasma density. With increasing excitation voltage, the nonlinear impulse responses display stronger damping and a small increase in the frequency of oscillation.

  8. Flutter and Forced Response Analyses of Cascades using a Two-Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, O.

    1999-01-01

    Flutter and forced response analyses for a cascade of blades in subsonic and transonic flow is presented. The structural model for each blade is a typical section with bending and torsion degrees of freedom. The unsteady aerodynamic forces due to bending and torsion motions. and due to a vortical gust disturbance are obtained by solving unsteady linearized Euler equations. The unsteady linearized equations are obtained by linearizing the unsteady nonlinear equations about the steady flow. The predicted unsteady aerodynamic forces include the effect of steady aerodynamic loading due to airfoil shape, thickness and angle of attack. The aeroelastic equations are solved in the frequency domain by coupling the un- steady aerodynamic forces to the aeroelastic solver MISER. The present unsteady aerodynamic solver showed good correlation with published results for both flutter and forced response predictions. Further improvements are required to use the unsteady aerodynamic solver in a design cycle.

  9. Effects of Cyclic and Monotonic Deformations on Nonlinear Ultrasonic Response of Austenitic Stainless Steel: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Xiang, Yanxun; Zhao, Peng

    2016-05-01

    The effect of plastic deformations on the nonlinear ultrasonic response in austenite stainless steel was investigated under the tensile, asymmetric cyclic, and symmetric cyclic loadings. Nonlinear ultrasonic wave measurement was performed on the interrupted specimens. Results show that cyclic and monotonic plastic deformations lead to the significantly different acoustic nonlinear response. The increase of dislocation density and martensite transformation causes the increase of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrast, the well-developed cell structures decrease the acoustic nonlinear response. Under the asymmetric cyclic loading condition, the lightly decrease of acoustic nonlinearity is caused by the development of cell structures, while the slight increase of acoustic nonlinearity should be attributed to the increase of martensite transformation. Comparatively, the severe increase of acoustic nonlinearity during the first stage under symmetric cyclic loading is ascribed to the fast generation of dislocation structures and martensite transformation.

  10. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  11. Determining polarizable force fields with electrostatic potentials from quantum mechanical linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Weitao

    2016-06-01

    We developed a new method to calculate the atomic polarizabilities by fitting to the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations within the linear response theory. This parallels the conventional approach of fitting atomic charges based on electrostatic potentials from the electron density. Our ESP fitting is combined with the induced dipole model under the perturbation of uniform external electric fields of all orientations. QM calculations for the linear response to the external electric fields are used as input, fully consistent with the induced dipole model, which itself is a linear response model. The orientation of the uniform external electric fields is integrated in all directions. The integration of orientation and QM linear response calculations together makes the fitting results independent of the orientations and magnitudes of the uniform external electric fields applied. Another advantage of our method is that QM calculation is only needed once, in contrast to the conventional approach, where many QM calculations are needed for many different applied electric fields. The molecular polarizabilities obtained from our method show comparable accuracy with those from fitting directly to the experimental or theoretical molecular polarizabilities. Since ESP is directly fitted, atomic polarizabilities obtained from our method are expected to reproduce the electrostatic interactions better. Our method was used to calculate both transferable atomic polarizabilities for polarizable molecular mechanics' force fields and nontransferable molecule-specific atomic polarizabilities.

  12. IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?
    Preston, RJ. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    For considerations of cancer risk assessment from exposure to environmenta...

  13. Determining polarizable force fields with electrostatic potentials from quantum mechanical linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Weitao

    2016-06-14

    We developed a new method to calculate the atomic polarizabilities by fitting to the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations within the linear response theory. This parallels the conventional approach of fitting atomic charges based on electrostatic potentials from the electron density. Our ESP fitting is combined with the induced dipole model under the perturbation of uniform external electric fields of all orientations. QM calculations for the linear response to the external electric fields are used as input, fully consistent with the induced dipole model, which itself is a linear response model. The orientation of the uniform external electric fields is integrated in all directions. The integration of orientation and QM linear response calculations together makes the fitting results independent of the orientations and magnitudes of the uniform external electric fields applied. Another advantage of our method is that QM calculation is only needed once, in contrast to the conventional approach, where many QM calculations are needed for many different applied electric fields. The molecular polarizabilities obtained from our method show comparable accuracy with those from fitting directly to the experimental or theoretical molecular polarizabilities. Since ESP is directly fitted, atomic polarizabilities obtained from our method are expected to reproduce the electrostatic interactions better. Our method was used to calculate both transferable atomic polarizabilities for polarizable molecular mechanics' force fields and nontransferable molecule-specific atomic polarizabilities.

  14. Disentangling linear and nonlinear brain responses to evoked deep tissue pain

    PubMed Central

    Loggia, Marco L.; Edwards, Robert R.; Kim, Jieun; Vangel, Mark G.; Wasan, Ajay; Gollub, Randy L.; Harris, Richard E.; Park, Kyungmo; Napadow, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    Pain stimuli evoke widespread responses in the brain. However, our understanding of the physiological significance underlying heterogeneous response within different pain-activated and -deactivated regions is still limited. Using functional MRI, we evaluated brain responses to a wide range of stimulus intensity levels (1 innocuous, 7 painful) in order to estimate region-specific stimulus-response functions, which we hypothesized could illuminate that region’s functional relationship to pain. Linear and nonlinear brain responses to pain were estimated through independent Legendre polynomial transformations of pain ratings within a general linear model. This approach identified at least five different, regionally-specific activity profiles in the brain. Linearly increasing (e.g., primary somatosensory/motor cortex, insulae) and intensity-independent (e.g., secondary somatosensory cortex) activation was noted in traditional pain processing areas, potentially reflecting sensory encoding and all-or-none salience responses, respectively. Multiple activity profiles were seen in areas of the default mode network (DMN): intensity-independent deactivation (e.g., posterior cingulate cortex), linearly decreasing (e.g., contralateral inferior parietal lobule), and quadratic (U-shaped; e.g., medial prefrontal cortex). The latter observation suggests that: 1) different DMN subregions exhibit functional heterogeneity and 2) some DMN subregions respond in a percept-related manner to pain, suggesting closer linkage between the DMN and pain processing than previously thought. Future studies should apply a similar approach using innocuous stimuli of multiple intensities in order to evaluate whether the response profiles reported here can also be generalized to nonpainful somatosensory processing. PMID:22883925

  15. Linear response theory for annealing of radiation damage in semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, Vitaly

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study of the radiation/annealing response of MOS ICs is described. Although many experiments have been performed in this field, no comprehensive theory dealing with radiation/annealing response has been proposed. Many attempts have been made to apply linear response theory, but no theoretical foundation has been presented. The linear response theory outlined here is capable of describing a broad area of radiation/annealing response phenomena in MOS ICs, in particular, both simultaneous irradiation and annealing, as well as short- and long-term annealing, including the case when annealing is nearing completion. For the first time, a simple procedure is devised to determine the response function from experimental radiation/annealing data. In addition, this procedure enables us to study the effect of variable temperature and dose rate, effects which are of interest in spaceflight. In the past, the shift in threshold potential due to radiation/annealing has usually been assumed to depend on one variable: the time lapse between an impulse dose and the time of observation. While such a suggestion of uniformity in time is certainly true for a broad range of radiation annealing phenomena, it may not hold for some ranges of the variables of interest (temperature, dose rate, etc.). A response function is projected which is dependent on two variables: the time of observation and the time of the impulse dose. This dependence on two variables allows us to extend the theory to the treatment of a variable dose rate. Finally, the linear theory is generalized to the case in which the response is nonlinear with impulse dose, but is proportional to some impulse function of dose. A method to determine both the impulse and response functions is presented.

  16. Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars - Linear and nonlinear response to a glitch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpar, M. A.; Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of pinned superfluid in neutron stars is determined by the thermal 'creep' of vortices. Vortex creep can respond to changes in the rotation rate of the neutron star crust and provide the observed types of dynamical relaxation following pulsar glitches. It also gives rise to energy dissipation, which determines the thermal evolution of pulsars once the initial heat content has been radiated away. The different possible regimes of vortex creep are explored, and it is shown that the nature of the dynamical response of the pinned superfluid evolves with a pulsar's age. Younger pulsars display a linear regime, where the response is linear in the initial perturbation and is a simple exponential relaxation as a function of time. A nonliner response, with a characteristic nonlinear dependence on the initial perturbation, is responsible for energy dissipation and becomes the predominant mode of response as the pulsar ages. The transition from the linear to the nonlinear regime depends sensitively on the temperature of the neutron star interior. A preliminary review of existing postglitch observations is given within this general evolutionary framework.

  17. Vestibular afferent responses to linear accelerations in the alert squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Christopher J.; Schor, Robert H.; Tomko, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous activity of 40 otolith afferents and 44 canal afferents was recorded in 4 alert, intact squirrel monkeys. Polarization vectors and response properties of otolith afferents were determined during static re-orientations relative to gravity and during Earth-horizontal, sinusoidal, linear oscillations. Canal afferents were tested for sensitivity to linear accelerations. For regular otolith afferents, a significant correlation between upright discharge rate and sensitivity to dynamic acceleration in the horizontal plane was observed. This correlation was not present in irregular units. The sensitivity of otolith afferents to both static tilts and dynamic linear acceleration was much greater in irregularly discharging units than in regularly discharging units. The spontaneous activity and static and dynamic response properties of regularly discharging otolith afferents were similar to those reported in barbiturate-anesthetized squirrel monkeys. Irregular afferents also had similar dynamic response properties when compared to anesthetized monkeys. However, this sample of irregular afferents in alert animals had higher resting discharge rates and greater sensitivity to static tilts. The majority of otolith polarization vectors were oriented near the horizontal in the plane of the utricular maculae; however, directions of maximum sensitivity were different during dynamic and static testing. Canal afferents were not sensitive to static tilts or linear oscillations of the head.

  18. Application of linear response theory to experimental data of simultaneous radiation and annealing response of a CMOS device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, V.

    1988-01-01

    Results from the application of linear response theory are compared to experimental data from simultaneous radiation and annealing response of a CMOS device. In particular, a method is applied which was developed earlier to determine the characteristic time, t(0), as well as the parameters A and C in the 1n(t) dependence of the linear response function R(t) = -C + A1n(1-t/t(0)). The method is based on a study of the linear response for t being much less than t(0), when R(t) can be expanded in a power series of t: R(t) = R(0) + R'(0)t + 1/2R''(0)t-squared + 1/3R'''(0)t-cubed + ..., where R'(0) and R''(0) are, respectively, the first and second derivatives of R with respect to t. To find the linear response, R(t-t') is substituted in the form of this power series equation into a general equation for the shift of the threshold potential. To test the method, irradiation experiments were conducted on RCA 10(6) rad-hard CMOS IC's. A dose rate of approximately 130 rads/min was used. An IC was irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays for several hours, taking measurements of the threshold potential for one n-channel and one p-channel transistor every ten minutes. For the p-channel transistor, t(0) was found to be approximately 110 min and for the n-channel, t(0) was approximately 70 min. For the p-channel, the theoretical curve deviates from the experimental points only after 70 min; for the n-channel, the deviation takes place after 45 min. Additional findings are discussed and the application of the method to pure annealing is described.

  19. Encoding of head acceleration in vestibular neurons. I. Spatiotemporal response properties to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, G. A.; Perachio, A. A.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    1. Extracellular recordings were made in and around the medial vestibular nuclei in decerebrated rats. Neurons were functionally identified according to their semicircular canal input on the basis of their responses to angular head rotations around the yaw, pitch, and roll head axes. Those cells responding to angular acceleration were classified as either horizontal semicircular canal-related (HC) or vertical semicircular canal-related (VC) neurons. The HC neurons were further characterized as either type I or type II, depending on the direction of rotation producing excitation. Cells that lacked a response to angular head acceleration, but exhibited sensitivity to a change in head position, were classified as purely otolith organ-related (OTO) neurons. All vestibular neurons were then tested for their response to sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. 2. Convergence of macular and canal inputs onto central vestibular nuclei neurons occurred in 73% of the type I HC, 79% of the type II HC, and 86% of the VC neurons. Out of the 223 neurons identified as receiving macular input, 94 neurons were further studied, and their spatiotemporal response properties to sinusoidal stimulation with pure linear acceleration were quantified. Data were obtained from 33 type I HC, 22 type II HC, 22 VC, and 17 OTO neurons. 3. For each neuron the angle of the translational stimulus vector was varied by 15, 30, or 45 degrees increments in the horizontal head plane. In all tested neurons, a direction of maximum sensitivity was identified. An interesting difference among neurons was their response to translation along the direction perpendicular to that that produced the maximum response ("null" direction). For the majority of neurons tested, it was possible to evoke a nonzero response during stimulation along the null direction always had response phases that varied as a function of stimulus direction. 4. These spatiotemporal response properties were quantified in two

  20. Procedure for preventing response strain on random interval schedules with a linear feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil

    2016-03-01

    An experiment examined the impact of a procedure designed to prevent response or extinction strain occurring on random interval schedules with a linear feedback loop (i.e., an RI+ schedule). Rats lever-pressed for food reinforcement on either a RI+ or a random interval (RI) schedule that was matched to the RI+ schedule in terms of reinforcement rate. Two groups of rats responded on an RI+ and two on an RI schedule matched for rate of reinforcement. One group on each schedule also received response-independent food if there had been no response for 60 s, and response-independent food continued to be delivered on an RT-60 schedule until a response was made. Rats on the RI and RI+ obtained similar rates of reinforcement and had similar reinforced inter-response times to one another. On the schedules without response-independent food, rats had similar rates of response to one another. However, while the delivery of response-independent food reduced rates of response on an RI schedule, they enhanced response rates on an RI+ schedule. These results suggest that rats can display sensitivity to the molar aspects of the free-operant contingency, when procedures are implemented to reduce the impact of factors such as extinction-strain.

  1. The Mexican Ridges Fold Belt, Gulf of Mexico: Deformation, Dynamics of Deposition of Growth Strata, and the Delay of Sedimentary Response to Tectonic Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbuh Lugo, U. I.; Contreras, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation of the Mexican Ridges fold belt (MRFB), western Gulf of Mexico, initiated in the Late Neogene in response to normal faulting along the Quetzalcoatl Extensional System offshore Veracruz. Previous authors analyzed stacking patterns of growth strata concluding deformation occurred in two stages: the western section of the fold belt developed during the Upper Miocene whereas the eastern part became active during the Lower Pliocene. Here we analyze a regional seismic line to determine whether deformation migrated progressively eastward. In contrast to previous studies we do not use stacking patterns but excess area. This parameter provides direct information of both linear shortening, and superficial mass transport. We construct excess-area plots for each of the folds comprising the MRFB; from them we estimate the shortening and the degradation path of the seafloor deformed by folding. Moreover, by assuming denudation is in steady state, we are able to differentiate sediments derived locally from sediments transported from distant sources. Results show tectonic transport in the MRFB is 11.8 km; shortening of individual folds ranges 3-16%, with an average strain for the entire MRFB of ~10%; structures grew at a mean uplift rate of 0.2 mm/yr. We estimate the constant of mass diffusivity, which controls the rate of degradation, has a mean value of 0.27 m2/yr. This value is characteristic of rapid, episodic mass movements. Finally, the sedimentation rate is ~0.2 mm/yr. Those parameters, however, are not constant; they decrease toward the deepwater portion of the fold belt. The structures proximal to the continental shelf are rising rapidly and are being degraded more intensely than those in the distal part of the fold belt. Our results reveal that deformation started synchronously throughout the MRFB during the Late Miocene and not in two episodes as previously reported. The reason for the seeming discrepancy is due to the copious sedimentation in the eastern

  2. Near-linear response of mean monsoon strength to a broad range of radiative forcings

    PubMed Central

    Boos, William R.; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models have been used to argue that seasonal mean monsoons will shift abruptly and discontinuously from wet to dry stable states as their radiative forcings pass a critical threshold, sometimes referred to as a “tipping point.” Further support for a strongly nonlinear response of monsoons to radiative forcings is found in the seasonal onset of the South Asian summer monsoon, which is abrupt compared with the annual cycle of insolation. Here it is shown that the seasonal mean strength of monsoons instead exhibits a nearly linear dependence on a wide range of radiative forcings. First, a previous theory that predicted a discontinuous, threshold response is shown to omit a dominant stabilizing term in the equations of motion; a corrected theory predicts a continuous and nearly linear response of seasonal mean monsoon strength to forcings. A comprehensive global climate model is then used to show that the seasonal mean South Asian monsoon exhibits a near-linear dependence on a wide range of isolated greenhouse gas, aerosol, and surface albedo forcings. This model reproduces the observed abrupt seasonal onset of the South Asian monsoon but produces a near-linear response of the mean monsoon by changing the duration of the summer circulation and the latitude of that circulation’s ascent branch. Thus, neither a physically correct theoretical model nor a comprehensive climate model support the idea that seasonal mean monsoons will undergo abrupt, nonlinear shifts in response to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol emissions, or land surface albedo. PMID:26811462

  3. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real-time electronic event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-09-01

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations. PACS

  4. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-09-08

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations.

  5. The role of twinning deformation on the hardening response of polycrystalline magnesium from discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; ...

    2015-04-13

    The mechanical response of micro-twinned polycrystalline magnesium was studied through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). A systematic interaction model between dislocations and (1012) tension twin boundaries (TBs) was proposed and introduced into the DDD framework. In addition, a nominal grain boundary (GB) model agreeing with experimental results was also introduced to mimic the GB’s barrier effect. The current simulation results show that TBs act as a strong obstacle to gliding dislocations, which contributes significantly to the hardening behavior of magnesium. On the other hand, the deformation accommodated by twinning plays a softening role. Therefore, the concave shape of the Mgmore » stress-strain curve results from the competition between dislocation-TB induced hardening and twinning deformation induced softening. At low strain levels, twinning deformation induced softening dominates and a decreasing hardening rate is observed in Stage-I. In Stage-II, both the hardening and softening effects decline, but twinning deformation induced softening declines faster, which leads to an increasing hardening rate.« less

  6. The role of twinning deformation on the hardening response of polycrystalline magnesium from discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; El-Awady, Jaafar A.

    2015-04-13

    The mechanical response of micro-twinned polycrystalline magnesium was studied through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). A systematic interaction model between dislocations and (1012) tension twin boundaries (TBs) was proposed and introduced into the DDD framework. In addition, a nominal grain boundary (GB) model agreeing with experimental results was also introduced to mimic the GB’s barrier effect. The current simulation results show that TBs act as a strong obstacle to gliding dislocations, which contributes significantly to the hardening behavior of magnesium. On the other hand, the deformation accommodated by twinning plays a softening role. Therefore, the concave shape of the Mg stress-strain curve results from the competition between dislocation-TB induced hardening and twinning deformation induced softening. At low strain levels, twinning deformation induced softening dominates and a decreasing hardening rate is observed in Stage-I. In Stage-II, both the hardening and softening effects decline, but twinning deformation induced softening declines faster, which leads to an increasing hardening rate.

  7. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  8. Nonrigid, Resistive Linear Plasma Response Models Based on Perturbed Equilibria for Axisymmetric Tokamak Control Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D. A.; Ferron, J. R.; Leuer, J. A.; Walker, M. L.; Welander, A. S.

    2003-10-01

    Linear, perturbed equilibrium plasma response models can accurately represent the experimental response of tokamak plasmas to applied fields [A. Coutlis, et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 663 (1999)]. However, agreement between experiment and model is much better when average flux over the plasma, rather than at each fluid element, is conserved [P. Vyas, et al., Nucl. Fusion 38, 1043 (1998)]. The close experimental agreement of average flux-conserving models is consistent with approximating field penetration effects produced by finite plasma resistivity, particularly in the edge region. We report on the development of nonrigid linear plasma response models which include finite local plasma resistivity in order to more accurately represent the dynamic response due to this field penetration. Such response models are expected to be important for designing profile control algorithms in advanced tokamaks. Accounting for finite plasma resistivity is also important in designing multivariable integrated controllers which must simultaneously regulate plasma shape and plasma current. Consequences of including resisitivity will be illustrated and comparisons with DIII-D experimental plasma responses will be made.

  9. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature and decision making in flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Daniel; Giomi, Luca

    The Vicsek model is the prototypical system for studying collective behavior of interacting self propelled particles (SPPs). It has formed the basis for models explaining the collective behavior of many active systems including flocks of birds and swarms of insects. To the standard Vicsek model we introduce a small angular torque to a subset of the particles and observe how this effects the direction of polarisation of the entire swarm. This is analogous to a few informed birds trying to lead the rest of a large flock by initiating a turn. We find a linear response to this perturbation and fluctuations that are in agreement with fluctuation dissipation theorem. This allows the identification of an effective temperature for the Vicsek model that follows a power law with the noise amplitude. The linear response can also be extended to the process of decision-making, wherein flocks must decide between the behaviors of two competing subgroups of individuals.

  10. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature, and decision making in flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Daniel J. G.; Giomi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Large collections of autonomously moving agents, such as animals or micro-organisms, are able to flock coherently in space even in the absence of a central control mechanism. While the direction of the flock resulting from this critical behavior is random, this can be controlled by a small subset of informed individuals acting as leaders of the group. In this article we use the Vicsek model to investigate how flocks respond to leadership and make decisions. Using a combination of numerical simulations and continuous modeling we demonstrate that flocks display a linear response to leadership that can be cast in the framework of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, identifying an effective temperature reflecting how promptly the flock reacts to the initiative of the leaders. The linear response to leadership also holds in the presence of two groups of informed individuals with competing interests, indicating that the flock's behavioral decision is determined by both the number of leaders and their degree of influence.

  11. Challenges within the linear response approximation when studying enzyme catalysis and effects of mutations.

    PubMed

    Sharir-Ivry, Avital; Varatharaj, Rajapandian; Shurki, Avital

    2015-01-13

    Various aspects of the linear response approximation (LRA) approach were examined when calculating reaction barriers within an enzyme and its different mutants. Scaling the electrostatic interactions is shown to slightly affect the absolute values of the barriers but not the overall trend when comparing wild-type and mutants. Convergence of the overall energetics was shown to depend on the sampling. Finally, the contribution of particular residues was shown to be significant, despite its small value.

  12. Excited states with internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis; Hanauer, Matthias; Köhn, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the linear response (LR) theory for the variant of internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) theory described by Hanauer and Köhn [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 204211 (2011)] has been formulated and implemented for the computation of the excitation energies relative to a ground state of pronounced multireference character. We find that straightforward application of the linear-response formalism to the time-averaged ic-MRCC Lagrangian leads to unphysical second-order poles. However, the coupling matrix elements that cause this behavior are shown to be negligible whenever the internally contracted approximation as such is justified. Hence, for the numerical implementation of the method, we adopt a Tamm-Dancoff-type approximation and neglect these couplings. This approximation is also consistent with an equation-of-motion based derivation, which neglects these couplings right from the start. We have implemented the linear-response approach in the ic-MRCC singles-and-doubles framework and applied our method to calculate excitation energies for a number of molecules ranging from CH2 to p-benzyne and conjugated polyenes (up to octatetraene). The computed excitation energies are found to be very accurate, even for the notoriously difficult case of doubly excited states. The ic-MRCC-LR theory is also applicable to systems with open-shell ground-state wavefunctions and is by construction not biased towards a particular reference determinant. We have also compared the linear-response approach to the computation of energy differences by direct state-specific ic-MRCC calculations. We finally compare to Mk-MRCC-LR theory for which spurious roots have been reported [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044116 (2012)], being due to the use of sufficiency conditions to solve the Mk-MRCC equations. No such problem is present in ic-MRCC-LR theory.

  13. Excited states with internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis; Hanauer, Matthias; Köhn, Andreas

    2014-04-07

    In this paper, the linear response (LR) theory for the variant of internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) theory described by Hanauer and Köhn [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 204211 (2011)] has been formulated and implemented for the computation of the excitation energies relative to a ground state of pronounced multireference character. We find that straightforward application of the linear-response formalism to the time-averaged ic-MRCC Lagrangian leads to unphysical second-order poles. However, the coupling matrix elements that cause this behavior are shown to be negligible whenever the internally contracted approximation as such is justified. Hence, for the numerical implementation of the method, we adopt a Tamm-Dancoff-type approximation and neglect these couplings. This approximation is also consistent with an equation-of-motion based derivation, which neglects these couplings right from the start. We have implemented the linear-response approach in the ic-MRCC singles-and-doubles framework and applied our method to calculate excitation energies for a number of molecules ranging from CH2 to p-benzyne and conjugated polyenes (up to octatetraene). The computed excitation energies are found to be very accurate, even for the notoriously difficult case of doubly excited states. The ic-MRCC-LR theory is also applicable to systems with open-shell ground-state wavefunctions and is by construction not biased towards a particular reference determinant. We have also compared the linear-response approach to the computation of energy differences by direct state-specific ic-MRCC calculations. We finally compare to Mk-MRCC-LR theory for which spurious roots have been reported [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044116 (2012)], being due to the use of sufficiency conditions to solve the Mk-MRCC equations. No such problem is present in ic-MRCC-LR theory.

  14. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.230602]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics.

  15. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011)]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics.

  16. Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Morgan, S. H.; Henderson, D. O.; Park, S. Y.; Weeks, R. A.; Magruder, R. H.; Zuhr, R. A.

    1995-10-01

    We report the linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica with doses of 6 × 10 16 ions/cm 2. The nonlinear refractive index, n2, was measured using a Z-scan technique with a mode locked Ti:sapphire laser operating in 140 fs pulse duration at 770 nm wavelength. It is found that the nonlinear refractive index n2 of as-implanted samples is large, in the order of 10 -10 cm 2/W and the n2 value of Bi as-implanted sample is about 2.4 times lager than that of Sb as-implanted sample. The large n2 response is attributed to the presence of nanosized metal particles in the implanted layer observed by transmission electron microscopy. We also report the changes of linear and nonlinear optical response when implanted samples were subsequently annealed at temperatures from 500 to 1000 C in argon and oxygen atmospheres. The annealing effect on optical properties is found to be strongly dependent on the annealing atmospheres. Our results indicate that annealing treatment in O 2 affects the local environment of the implanted metal ions and hence the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the metal-dielectric composite. We suggest that a new phase of metal-oxygen-silicate was formed during annealing in O 2 atmosphere.

  17. Development of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for cascade gust response predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    A method for predicting the unsteady aerodynamic response of a cascade of airfoils to entropic, vortical, and acoustic gust excitations is being developed. Here, the unsteady flow is regarded as a small perturbation of a nonuniform isentropic and irrotational steady background flow. A splitting technique is used to decompose the linearized unsteady velocity into rotational and irrotational parts leading to equations for the complex amplitudes of the linearized unsteady entropy, rotational velocity, and velocity potential that are coupled only sequentially. The entropic and rotational velocity fluctuations are described by transport equations for which closed-form solutions in terms of the mean-flow drift and stream functions can be determined. The potential fluctuation is described by an inhomogeneous convected wave equation in which the source term depends on the rotational velocity field, and is determined using finite-difference procedures. The analytical and numerical techniques used to determine the linearized unsteady flow are outlined. Results are presented to indicate the status of the solution procedure and to demonstrate the impact of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the aerodynamic response of cascades to vortical gust excitations. The analysis described herein leads to very efficient predictions of cascade unsteady aerodynamic response phenomena making it useful for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications.

  18. Computed Linear/Nonlinear Acoustic Response of a Cascade for Single/Multi Frequency Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Hixon, R.; Sawyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines mode generation and propagation characteristics of a 2-D cascade due to incident vortical disturbances using a time domain approach. Full nonlinear Euler equations are solved employing high order accurate spatial differencing and time marching techniques. The solutions show the generation and propagation of mode orders that are expected from theory. Single frequency excitations show linear response over a wide range of amplitudes. The response for multi-frequency excitations tend to become nonlinear due to interaction between frequencies and self interaction.

  19. Dynamic response analysis of linear stochastic truss structures under stationary random excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Jianjun; Cui, Mingtao; Cheng, Yi

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new method for the dynamic response analysis of linear stochastic truss structures under stationary random excitation. Considering the randomness of the structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions, the computational expressions of the mean value, variance and variation coefficient of the mean square value of the structural displacement and stress response under the stationary random excitation are developed by means of the random variable's functional moment method and the algebra synthesis method from the expressions of structural stationary random response of the frequency domain. The influences of the randomness of the structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions on the randomness of the mean square value of the structural displacement and stress response are inspected by the engineering examples.

  20. Research the dynamical characteristics of slow deformation waves as a rock massif response to explosions during its outworking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    As a result of long-term natural geomechanics and geophysical observation data on mines of complex ore rocks, generalization of the non-linear reaction of rock massif to heavy dynamic influences have been established. In addition, pendulum type waves have been observed and the sources of them have been located inside geoblocks of different hierarchic levels (Oparin et al., 2010). At the same time, these waves propagate with wide low (compared with seismic waves) velocity values (Kurlenja et al., 1993; Oparin et al., 2006). Research into the massif state with the use of the dynamic systems theory approach (Naimark et al., 2009; Chulichkov, 2003; Hachay et al., 2010) has been developed to ascertain the criteria of dissipative regimes changing for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. To realize such research we used the data from the seismic record of the Tashtagol mine for the two-year period from June 2006 up to June 2008. We used the space-time coordinates for all dynamic massif event responses, which occurred during that period inside the mine space and for the explosions - values fixed by seismic station energy (Hachay et al., 2010). The phase diagrams of the massif state for the northern and southern parts of the mine space were plotted in coordinates Ev(t) and d(Ev(t))/dt, t - time - in parts of 24 hours, Ev - the dissipated massive seismic energy - in joules. Hachay et al., (2010) analysed the morphology of seismic response phase trajectories on the explosion influences during different serial intervals in the southern part of the mine. In that period, according to data for different explosions in the mine, the majority of the total energy had been injected into the southern part of the mine. Moreover, at the end of 2007, just in the southern part, the strongest rock burst during the whole history of the working mine happened. We developed a new processing method of seismological information in real, which we can use directly in the

  1. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation responses to intermittent and continuous artificial gravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marijke, Grau; Vera, Abeln; Tobias, Vogt; Wilhelm, Bloch; Stefan, Schneider

    2017-02-01

    Artificial gravity protocols are used to improve g-tolerance of aviators and discussed as countermeasure during prolonged space flight. Little is known about the impact of artificial gravity on the red blood cells (RBC). The purpose of the study was to test how artificial gravity affects RBC deformability and aggregation, which are important determinants of microcirculation. Nine male subjects were exposed to two hypergravity protocols using a short arm human centrifuge: a continuous (CONT) protocol with constant +2 Gz for 30 min and an intermittent (INTER) protocol with repeated intervals of +2 Gz and rest. Blood was sampled pre and post interventions to measure basal blood parameters, RBC nitrite, RBC deformability, aggregation, and to determine the shear rate balancing aggregation and disaggregation (γ at dIsc min). To test for orthostasis effects, five male subjects were asked to stay for 46 min, corresponding to the length of the centrifuge protocols, with blood sampling pre and post intervention. Artificial gravity programs did not affect basal blood parameters or RBC nitrite levels; a marker for RBC deformability influencing nitric oxide. The INTER program did not affect any of the tested parameters. The CONT program did not remarkably affect RBC deformability or γ at dIsc min but significantly aggravated aggregation. Orthostasis effects were thus excluded. The results indicate that continuous artificial gravity, especially with higher g-forces applied, may negatively affect the RBC system and that for a prolonged space flight intermittent but not continuous artificial gravity might represent an appropriate countermeasure.

  2. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation responses to intermittent and continuous artificial gravity exposure.

    PubMed

    Marijke, Grau; Vera, Abeln; Tobias, Vogt; Wilhelm, Bloch; Stefan, Schneider

    2017-02-01

    Artificial gravity protocols are used to improve g-tolerance of aviators and discussed as countermeasure during prolonged space flight. Little is known about the impact of artificial gravity on the red blood cells (RBC). The purpose of the study was to test how artificial gravity affects RBC deformability and aggregation, which are important determinants of microcirculation. Nine male subjects were exposed to two hypergravity protocols using a short arm human centrifuge: a continuous (CONT) protocol with constant +2Gz for 30min and an intermittent (INTER) protocol with repeated intervals of +2Gz and rest. Blood was sampled pre and post interventions to measure basal blood parameters, RBC nitrite, RBC deformability, aggregation, and to determine the shear rate balancing aggregation and disaggregation (γ at dIsc min). To test for orthostasis effects, five male subjects were asked to stay for 46min, corresponding to the length of the centrifuge protocols, with blood sampling pre and post intervention. Artificial gravity programs did not affect basal blood parameters or RBC nitrite levels; a marker for RBC deformability influencing nitric oxide. The INTER program did not affect any of the tested parameters. The CONT program did not remarkably affect RBC deformability or γ at dIsc min but significantly aggravated aggregation. Orthostasis effects were thus excluded. The results indicate that continuous artificial gravity, especially with higher g-forces applied, may negatively affect the RBC system and that for a prolonged space flight intermittent but not continuous artificial gravity might represent an appropriate countermeasure.

  3. The response of single crystal and polycrystal nickel to quasistatic and shock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Follansbee, P.S.; Gray, G.T. III

    1989-01-01

    Stress-strain measurements and TEM observations in shock-deformed nickel single and polycrystalline samples are reported. When the stress measurements are normalized by the appropriate Taylor factor, the shock induced strain hardening is shown to be similar in all materials studied. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Non-linear resonances in the forced responses of plates. I - Symmetric responses of circular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, S.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamic analogue of the von Karman equations is used to study the symmetric response of a circular plate to a harmonic excitation when the frequency of the excitation is near one of the natural frequencies. It is shown that, in general, when there is no internal resonance (i.e., the natural frequencies are not commensurable), only the mode having a frequency near that of the excitation is strongly excited (i.e., is needed to represent the response in the first approximation). A clamped, circular plate is used as a numerical example to show that, when there is an internal resonance, more than one of the modes involved in this resonance can be strongly excited; moreover, when more than one mode is strongly excited, the lower modes can dominate the response, even when the frequency of the excitation is near that of the highest mode. This possibility was not revealed by any of the earlier studies which were based on the same governing equations.

  5. Properties of a novel linear sulfur response mode in a multiple flame photometric detector.

    PubMed

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2014-01-24

    A new linear sulfur response mode was established in the multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) by monitoring HSO* emission in the red spectral region above 600nm. Optimal conditions for this mode were found by using a 750nm interference filter and oxygen flows to the worker flames of this device that were about 10mL/min larger than those used for monitoring quadratic S2* emission. By employing these parameters, this mode provided a linear response over about 4 orders of magnitude, with a detection limit near 5.8×10(-11)gS/s and a selectivity of sulfur over carbon of about 3.5×10(3). Specifically, the minimum detectable masses for 10 different sulfur analytes investigated ranged from 0.4 to 3.6ng for peak half-widths spanning 4-6s. The response toward ten different sulfur compounds was examined and produced an average reproducibility of 1.7% RSD (n=10) and an average equimolarity value of 1.0±0.1. In contrast to this, a conventional single flame S2* mode comparatively yielded respective values of 6.7% RSD (n=10) and 1.1±0.4. HSO* emission in the mFPD was also found to be relatively much less affected by response quenching due to hydrocarbons compared to a conventional single flame S2* emission mode. Results indicate that this new alternative linear mFPD response mode could be beneficial for sulfur monitoring applications.

  6. Linearization of dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Chan, Maria F.; Lewis, Dave

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Methods: Functional form [{zeta}= (-1){center_dot}netOD{sup (2/3)}/ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Results: Obtained R{sup 2} values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign EBT3 film model are well within {+-}2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also

  7. SANTOS - a two-dimensional finite element program for the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.M.

    1997-07-01

    SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  8. Laser speckle strain and deformation sensor using linear array image cross-correlation method for specifically arranged triple-beam triple-camera configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafzadeh-Khoee, Adel K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides a method of triple-beam and triple-sensor in a laser speckle strain/deformation measurement system. The triple-beam/triple-camera configuration combined with sequential timing of laser beam shutters is capable of providing indications of surface strain and structure deformations. The strain and deformation quantities, the four variables of surface strain, in-plane displacement, out-of-plane displacement and tilt, are determined in closed form solutions.

  9. Spatiotemporal processing of linear acceleration: primary afferent and central vestibular neuron responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Spatiotemporal convergence and two-dimensional (2-D) neural tuning have been proposed as a major neural mechanism in the signal processing of linear acceleration. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the firing properties of primary otolith afferents and central otolith neurons that respond exclusively to horizontal linear accelerations of the head (0.16-10 Hz) in alert rhesus monkeys. Unlike primary afferents, the majority of central otolith neurons exhibited 2-D spatial tuning to linear acceleration. As a result, central otolith dynamics vary as a function of movement direction. During movement along the maximum sensitivity direction, the dynamics of all central otolith neurons differed significantly from those observed for the primary afferent population. Specifically at low frequencies (linear velocity, in contrast to primary afferents that peaked in phase with linear acceleration. At least three different groups of central response dynamics were described according to the properties observed for motion along the maximum sensitivity direction. "High-pass" neurons exhibited increasing gains and phase values as a function of frequency. "Flat" neurons were characterized by relatively flat gains and constant phase lags (approximately 20-55 degrees ). A few neurons ("low-pass") were characterized by decreasing gain and phase as a function of frequency. The response dynamics of central otolith neurons suggest that the approximately 90 degrees phase lags observed at low frequencies are not the result of a neural integration but rather the effect of nonminimum phase behavior, which could arise at least partly through spatiotemporal convergence. Neither afferent nor central otolith neurons discriminated between gravitational and inertial components of linear acceleration. Thus response sensitivity was indistinguishable during 0.5-Hz pitch oscillations and fore-aft movements

  10. Discrete-time linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses for efficient CFD analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Walter Arturo

    This dissertation discusses the mathematical existence and the numerical identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This will establish the aerodynamic discrete-time impulse response function as the most fundamental and computationally efficient aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this dissertation help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. Nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses are identified using the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems. The theory is described and a discrete-time kernel identification technique is presented. The kernel identification technique is applied to a simple nonlinear circuit for illustrative purposes. The method is then applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example of an application to a simple CFD model. Finally, the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear

  11. Relevance of sampling schemes in light of Ruelle's linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Kuna, Tobias; Wouters, Jeroen; Faranda, Davide

    2012-05-01

    We reconsider the theory of the linear response of non-equilibrium steady states to perturbations. We first show that using a general functional decomposition for space-time dependent forcings, we can define elementary susceptibilities that allow us to construct the linear response of the system to general perturbations. Starting from the definition of SRB measure, we then study the consequence of taking different sampling schemes for analysing the response of the system. We show that only a specific choice of the time horizon for evaluating the response of the system to a general time-dependent perturbation allows us to obtain the formula first presented by Ruelle. We also discuss the special case of periodic perturbations, showing that when they are taken into consideration the sampling can be fine-tuned to make the definition of the correct time horizon immaterial. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results in terms of strategies for analysing the outputs of numerical experiments by providing a critical review of a formula proposed by Reick.

  12. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle based optical fiber humidity sensor with linear response and enhanced sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Aneesh, R; Khijwania, Sunil K

    2012-04-20

    An optical fiber humidity sensor employing an in-house scaled TiO2-nanoparticle doped nanostructured thin film as the fiber sensing cladding and evanescent wave absorption is reported. The main objective of the present work is to achieve a throughout-linear sensor response with high sensitivity, possibly over a wide dynamic range using the simplest possible sensor geometry. In order to realize this, first, the nanostructured sensing film is synthesized over a short length of a centrally decladded straight and uniform optical fiber and then a comprehensive experimental investigation is carried out to optimize the design configuration/parameters of the nanostructured sensing film and to achieve the best possible sensor response. Much improved sensitivity of 27.1 mV/%RH is observed for the optimized sensor along with a throughout-linear sensor response over a dynamic range as wide as 24% to 95%RH with an average response time of 0.01 s for humidification and 0.06 s for desiccation. In addition, the sensor exhibits a very good degree of reversibility and repeatability.

  13. Non-Markovian linear response theory for quantum open systems and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. Z.; Li, D. X.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-01-01

    The Kubo formula is an equation that expresses the linear response of an observable due to a time-dependent perturbation. It has been extended from closed systems to open systems in recent years under the Markovian approximation, but is barely explored for open systems in non-Markovian regimes. In this paper, we derive a formula for the linear response of an open system to a time-independent external field. This response formula is available for both Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics depending on parameters in the spectral density of the environment. As an illustration of the theory, the Hall conductance of a two-band system subjected to environments is derived and discussed. With the tight-binding model, we point out the Hall conductance changes from Markovian to non-Markovian dynamics by modulating the spectral density of the environment. Our results suggest a way to the controlling of the system response, which has potential applications for quantum statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics.

  14. Non-Markovian linear response theory for quantum open systems and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shen, H Z; Li, D X; Yi, X X

    2017-01-01

    The Kubo formula is an equation that expresses the linear response of an observable due to a time-dependent perturbation. It has been extended from closed systems to open systems in recent years under the Markovian approximation, but is barely explored for open systems in non-Markovian regimes. In this paper, we derive a formula for the linear response of an open system to a time-independent external field. This response formula is available for both Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics depending on parameters in the spectral density of the environment. As an illustration of the theory, the Hall conductance of a two-band system subjected to environments is derived and discussed. With the tight-binding model, we point out the Hall conductance changes from Markovian to non-Markovian dynamics by modulating the spectral density of the environment. Our results suggest a way to the controlling of the system response, which has potential applications for quantum statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics.

  15. Linearized formulation for fluid-structure interaction: Application to the linear dynamic response of a pressurized elastic structure containing a fluid with a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schotté, J.-S.; Ohayon, R.

    2013-05-01

    To control the linear vibrations of structures partially filled with liquids is of prime importance in various industries such as aerospace, naval, civil and nuclear engineering. It is proposed here to investigate a linearized formulation adapted to a rational computation of the vibrations of such coupled systems. Its particularity is to be fully Lagrangian since it considers the fluid displacement field with respect to a static equilibrium configuration as the natural variable describing the fluid motion, as classically done in structural dynamics. As the coupled system considered here is weakly damped in the low frequency domain (low modal density), the analysis of the vibrations of the associated undamped conservative system constitutes the main objective of this paper. One originality of the present formulation is to take into account the effect of the pressurization of the tank on the dynamics of the system, particularly in the case of a compressible liquid. We propose here a new way of deriving the linearized equations of the coupled problem involving a deformable structure and an inner inviscid liquid with a free surface. A review of the classical case considering a heavy incompressible liquid is followed by an application to the new case involving a light compressible liquid. A solution procedure in the frequency domain is proposed and a numerical discretization using the finite element method is discussed. In order to reduce the computational costs, an appropriate reduced order matrix model using modal synthesis approach is also presented.

  16. On the subsystem formulation of linear-response time-dependent DFT.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Michele

    2013-05-28

    A new and thorough derivation of linear-response subsystem time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is presented and analyzed in detail. Two equivalent derivations are presented and naturally yield self-consistent subsystem TD-DFT equations. One reduces to the subsystem TD-DFT formalism of Neugebauer [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 134116 (2007)]. The other yields Dyson type equations involving three types of subsystem response functions: coupled, uncoupled, and Kohn-Sham. The Dyson type equations for subsystem TD-DFT are derived here for the first time. The response function formalism reveals previously hidden qualities and complications of subsystem TD-DFT compared with the regular TD-DFT of the supersystem. For example, analysis of the pole structure of the subsystem response functions shows that each function contains information about the electronic spectrum of the entire supersystem. In addition, comparison of the subsystem and supersystem response functions shows that, while the correlated response is subsystem additive, the Kohn-Sham response is not. Comparison with the non-subjective partition DFT theory shows that this non-additivity is largely an artifact introduced by the subjective nature of the density partitioning in subsystem DFT.

  17. Investigation of the longitudinal magnetic field effect on dynamic response of viscoelastic graphene sheet based on sinusoidal shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour; Jalaei, M. H.

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of a longitudinal magnetic field on the dynamic response of single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) resting on viscoelastic foundation based on the nonlocal sinusoidal shear deformation theory. The present model is capable of capturing both small scale effect and transverse shear deformation effects of nanoplate, and does not require shear correction factors. The material properties of graphene sheet are assumed orthotropic viscoelastic using Kelvin-Voigt model. Utilizing Hamilton's principle governing equations of motion are derived and solved analytically. The parametric study is conducted, focusing on the remarkable effects of the magnetic field, structural damping, stiffness and damping coefficient of the foundation, nonlocal parameter, aspect ratio and length to thickness ratio on the dynamic response of the SLGS. Results indicate that the longitudinal magnetic field exerted on the SLGS decreases the amplitude of dynamic response. In addition, it is observed that the magnetic field effect on the dynamic response is more distinguished as the nonlocal parameter increases while by increasing the foundation and structural damping coefficients, this effect diminishes. The results of this study can be used in design and manufacturing of nanomechanical devices in the presence of magnetic field as a parametric controller.

  18. Continuous deflation and plate spreading at the Askja volcanic system, Iceland: Constrains on deformation processes from finite element models using temperature-dependent non-linear rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariqul Islam, Md.; Sturkell, Erik; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Drouin, Vincent Jean Paul B.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.

    2014-05-01

    Iceland is located on the mid Atlantic ridge, where the spreading rate is nearly 2 cm/yr. The high rate of magmatism in Iceland is caused by the interaction between the Iceland hotspot and the divergent mid-Atlantic plate boundary. Iceland hosts about 35 volcanoes or volcanic systems that are active. Most of these are aliened along the plate boundary. The best studied magma chamber of central volcanoes (e.g., Askja, Krafla, Grimsvötn, Katla) have verified (suggested) a shallow magma chamber (< 5 km), which has been model successfully with a Mogi source, using elastic and/or elastic-viscoelastic half-space. Maxwell and Newtonian viscosity is mainly considered for viscoelastic half-space. Therefore, rheology may be oversimplified. Our attempt is to study deformation of the Askja volcano together with plate spreading in Iceland using temperature-dependent non-linear rheology. It offers continuous variation of rheology, laterally and vertically from rift axis and surface. To implement it, we consider thermo-mechanic coupling models where rheology follows dislocation flow in dry condition based on a temperature distribution. Continuous deflation of the Askja volcanic system is associated with solidification of magma in the magma chamber and post eruption relaxation. A long time series of levelling data show its subsidence trend to exponentially. In our preliminary models, a magma chamber at 2.8 km depth with 0.5 km radius is introduced at the ridge axis as a Mogi source. Simultaneously far field of rift axis stretching by 18.4 mm/yr (measured during 2007 to 20013) is applied to reproduce plate spreading. Predicted surface deformation caused of combined effect of tectonic-volcanic activities is evaluated with GPS during 2003-2009 and RADARSAT InSAR data during 2000 to 2010. During 2003-2009, data from the GPS site OLAF (close to the centre of subsidence) shows average rate of subsidence 19±1 mm/yr relative to the ITRF2005 reference frame. The MASK (Mid ASKJA) site is

  19. Transient response of multidegree-of-freedom linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    Optimal control theory is applied to analyze the transient response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with unknown time dependence but having known bounds. Particular attention is given to forcing functions which include: (1) maximum displacement of any given mass element, (2) maximum relative displacement of any two adjacent masses, and (3) maximum acceleration of a given mass. Linear mechanical systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom and only one forcing function acting are considered. In the general case, the desired forcing function is found to be a function that switches from the upper-to-lower bound and vice-versa at certain moments of time. A general procedure for finding such switching times is set forth.

  20. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  1. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Tbeodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modem three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  2. Vestibular short latency responses to pulsed linear acceleration in unanesthetized animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Linear acceleration transients were used to elicit vestibular compound action potentials in non-invasively prepared, unanesthetized animals for the first time (chicks, Gallus domesticus, n = 33). Responses were composed of a series of up to 8 dominant peaks occurring within 8 msec of the stimulus. Response amplitudes for 1.0 g stimulus ranged from 1 to 10 microV. A late, slow, triphasic, anesthesia-labile component was identified as a dominant response feature in unanesthetized animals. Amplitudes increased and latencies decreased as stimulus intensity was increased (MANOVA P less than 0.05). Linear regression slope ranges were: amplitudes = 1.0-5.0 microV/g; latencies = -300 to -1100 microseconds/g. Thresholds for single polarity stimuli (0.035 +/- 0.022 g, n = 11) were significantly lower than those of alternating polarity (0.074 +/- 0.028 g, n = 18, P less than 0.001). Bilateral labyrinthectomy eliminated responses whereas bilateral extirpation of cochleae did not significantly change response thresholds. Intense acoustic masking (100/104 dB SL) produced no effect in 2 animals, but did produce small to moderate effects on response amplitudes in 7 others. Changes were attributed to effects on vestibular end organs. Results of unilateral labyrinth blockade (tetrodotoxin) suggest that P1 and N1 preferentially reflect ipsilateral eighth nerve compound action potentials whereas components beyond approximately 2 msec reflect activity from vestibular neurons that depend on both labyrinths. The results demonstrate that short latency vestibular compound action potentials can be measured in unanesthetized, non-invasively prepared animals.

  3. Thin-skinned mass-wasting responsible for edifice-wide deformation at Arenal Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebmeier, Susanna; Biggs, Juliet; Muller, Cyril; Avard, Geoffroy

    2014-12-01

    The shape and stability of a volcano’s edifice depends on the relationship between eruption rate and the loss or redistribution of material due to erosion, mass-wasting or deformation. This work provides measurements of deformation and shallow mass-wasting at a stratovolcano immediately after an extended period of growth, and demonstrates that high rates of deformation can be associated with shallow edifice processes. We measure displacements and surface property changes on the upper flanks of Arenal, Costa Rica, after a ~40 year period of edifice growth. We present high-resolution satellite radar imagery of the 2011-2013 period that provides evidence of frequent rockfalls and of at least 16 slow-moving, shallow landslides (estimated to be 5-11 m thick, total volume = 2.4×107 m3 DRE). The 2012 Nicoya Earthquake (Mw 7.4) had no measurable impact on the velocities of sliding units at Arenal, but did result in an increase in the area affected by rockfall.

  4. Linear Modeling and Evaluation of Controls on Flow Response in Western Post-Fire Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxe, S.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes throughout the western United States, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified subregions and determination of the impact of climate and geophysical variables in post-fire flow response. Fire events were collected through federal and state-level databases and streamflow data were collected from U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. 263 watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. For each watershed, percent changes in runoff ratio (RO), annual seven day low-flows (7Q2) and annual seven day high-flows (7Q10) were calculated from pre- to post-fire. Numerous independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, land cover, climate, burn severity, and soils data. The national watersheds were divided into five regions through K-clustering and a lasso linear regression model, applying the Leave-One-Out calibration method, was calculated for each region. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the resulting models. The regions encompassing the United States along and west of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the coastal watersheds, produced the most accurate linear models. The Pacific coast region models produced poor and inconsistent results, indicating that the regions need to be further subdivided. Presently, RO and HF response variables appear to be more easily modeled than LF. Results of linear regression modeling showed varying importance of watershed and fire event variables, with conflicting correlation between land cover types and soil types by region. The addition of further independent variables and constriction of current variables based on correlation indicators is ongoing and should allow for more accurate linear regression modeling.

  5. Correlation spectroscopy based on non-linear response of silver colloids (including SEHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, G.; Sauer, G.; Fritz, N.; Schneider, S.; Zaitsev, S.

    2005-02-01

    The non-linear response (second harmonic generation, SHG, hyper-Rayleigh scattering, HRS, surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering, SEHRS, and continuum generation) of two different types of silver colloids is compared by stationary and correlation spectroscopy. Employing a poly-disperse colloid prepared after the protocol of Lee and Meisel we found that the efficiency of all types of non-linear response is greatly enhanced if the colloid is 'activated' by addition of chloride ions. This activation is also necessary to observe SEHRS with both the Lee-Meisel and the mono-disperse colloid prepared by hydrazine reduction. The correlation curves of both types of colloid show one step (τ1/2∼10 ms) which can be associated with lateral diffusion of the individual particles. Its τ1/2-value is larger for the poly-disperse colloid, which contains larger particles. In addition, we find a second step, its relative amplitude being dependent on experimental parameters, whose τ1/2-value is, however, essentially the same for all samples investigated (τ‧1/2∼50 μs). We assign this correlation time to processes that lead to a restructuring of the surface and the formation and destruction of so-called 'hot spots'. Under optimum condition, the efficiency for all non-linear processes connected with one such 'hot spot' is extremely high. 'Hot particles' contain at least one hot spot and can therefore dominate the non-linear signal without the need of aggregation (field enhancement in the gap between particles).

  6. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  7. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Ayers, Paul W. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Vela, Alberto E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  8. Thermodynamic bounds and general properties of optimal efficiency and power in linear responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-10-01

    We study the optimal exergy efficiency and power for thermodynamic systems with an Onsager-type "current-force" relationship describing the linear response to external influences. We derive, in analytic forms, the maximum efficiency and optimal efficiency for maximum power for a thermodynamic machine described by a N ×N symmetric Onsager matrix with arbitrary integer N. The figure of merit is expressed in terms of the largest eigenvalue of the "coupling matrix" which is solely determined by the Onsager matrix. Some simple but general relationships between the power and efficiency at the conditions for (i) maximum efficiency and (ii) optimal efficiency for maximum power are obtained. We show how the second law of thermodynamics bounds the optimal efficiency and the Onsager matrix and relate those bounds together. The maximum power theorem (Jacobi's Law) is generalized to all thermodynamic machines with a symmetric Onsager matrix in the linear-response regime. We also discuss systems with an asymmetric Onsager matrix (such as systems under magnetic field) for a particular situation and we show that the reversible limit of efficiency can be reached at finite output power. Cooperative effects are found to improve the figure of merit significantly in systems with multiply cross-correlated responses. Application to example systems demonstrates that the theory is helpful in guiding the search for high performance materials and structures in energy researches.

  9. Nonlocal density functionals and the linear response of the homogeneous electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, I. I.; Singh, D. J.

    1998-03-01

    The known and usable truly nonlocal functionals for exchange-correlation energy of the inhomogeneous electron gas are the ADA (average density approximation) and the WDA (weighted density approximation). ADA, by design, yields the correct linear response function of the uniform electron gas. The WDA is constructed so that it is exact in the opposite limit of one-electron systems, and it was conjectured that the WDA is also accurate in the uniform gas limit. To test this conjecture, we derive an expression for the linear response of the uniform gas in the WDA, and calculate it for several flavors of the WDA. We then compare the results with the Monte Carlo data on the exchange-correlation local-field correction, and identify the weak points of conventional WDA in the homogeneous limit. We suggest how the WDA can be modified to improve the response function. The resulting approximation is a good one in both opposite limits. Future testing should show whether it will also be better than conventional WDA and ADA for practical nonlocal density-functional calculations.

  10. Nonlocal density functionals and the linear response of the homogeneous electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, I. I.; Singh, D. J.

    1998-03-01

    The known and usable truly nonlocal exchange-correlation density functionals are the ADA (average density approximation) and the WDA (weighted density approximation). The ADA, by design, yields the correct linear response of the uniform electron gas. WDA is constructed so that it is exact for one-electron systems, and was shown to yield good results for solids, too. While the WDA has correct one-electron behavior, it is important to access the accuracy of the method in the opposite limit of the nearly homogeneous electron gas. To do so, we derive an expression for the linear response of the uniform gas in the WDA, and calculate it for several flavors of WDA. We compare our results with Monte-Carlo data on the exchange-correlation local field correction, and identify the weak points of the conventional WDA in this limit. The WDA can be modified to improve the response function in the short wavelength regime. The exchange-correlation local field correction includes a term derived from the correlation part of the kinetic energy, which does not decay at qarrow ∞. This can be reproduced by adding a delta-function part to the WDA weight function. The resulting approximation is good in both limits, and may be useful for practical density functional calculations. (More at this URL.)

  11. Linear and fractional response for the SRB measure of smooth hyperbolic attractors and discontinuous observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Kuna, Tobias; Lucarini, Valerio

    2017-03-01

    We consider a smooth one-parameter family t\\mapsto ≤ft( {{f}t}:M\\to M\\right) of diffeomorphisms with compact transitive Axiom A attractors {{ Λ }t} , denoting by \\text{d}{ρt} the SRB measure of {{f}t}{{|}{{ Λ t}}} . Our first result is that for any function θ in the Sobolev space Hpr(M) , with 1 and 0  <  r  <  1/p, the map t\\mapsto {\\int}θ \\text{d}{ρt} is α-Hölder continuous for all α . This applies to θ (x)=h(x) \\Theta ≤ft(g(x)-a\\right) (for all α <1 ) for h and g smooth and \\Theta the Heaviside function, if a is not a critical value of g. Our second result says that for any such function θ (x)=h(x) \\Theta ≤ft(g(x)-a\\right) so that in addition the intersection of ≤ft\\{x|g(x)=a\\right\\} with the support of h is foliated by ‘admissible stable leaves’ of f t , the map t\\mapsto {\\int}θ \\text{d}{ρt} is differentiable. (We provide distributional linear response and fluctuation-dissipation formulas for the derivative.) Obtaining linear response or fractional response for such observables θ is motivated by extreme-value theory.

  12. Linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing fields.

    PubMed

    Peng, Degao; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    Recent development in particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) broadens the perspective on ground state correlation energies [H. van Aggelen, Y. Yang, and W. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 030501 (2013), Y. Yang, H. van Aggelen, S. N. Steinmann, D. Peng, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174110 (2013); D. Peng, S. N. Steinmann, H. van Aggelen, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104112 (2013)] and N ± 2 excitation energies [Y. Yang, H. van Aggelen, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 224105 (2013)]. So far Hartree-Fock and approximated density-functional orbitals have been utilized to evaluate the pp-RPA equation. In this paper, to further explore the fundamentals and the potential use of pairing matrix dependent functionals, we present the linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing fields with both adiabatic and frequency-dependent kernels. This theory is related to the density-functional theory and time-dependent density-functional theory for superconductors, but is applied to normal non-superconducting systems for our purpose. Due to the lack of the proof of the one-to-one mapping between the pairing matrix and the pairing field for time-dependent systems, the linear-response theory is established based on the representability assumption of the pairing matrix. The linear response theory justifies the use of approximated density-functionals in the pp-RPA equation. This work sets the fundamentals for future density-functional development to enhance the description of ground state correlation energies and N ± 2 excitation energies.

  13. Long-term prediction test procedure for most ICs, based on linear response theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, V.; Ivakhnenko, I.

    1991-01-01

    Experimentally, thermal annealing is known to be a factor which enables a number of different integrated circuits (IC's) to recover their operating characteristics after suffering radiation damage in the space radiation environment; thus, decreasing and limiting long term cumulative total-dose effects. This annealing is also known to be accelerated at elevated temperatures both during and after irradiation. Linear response theory (LRT) was applied, and a linear response function (LRF) to predict the radiation/annealing response of sensitive parameters of IC's for long term (several months or years) exposure to the space radiation environment were constructed. Compressing the annealing process from several years in orbit to just a few hours or days in the laboratory is achieved by subjecting the IC to elevated temperatures or by increasing the typical spaceflight dose rate by several orders of magnitude for simultaneous radiation/annealing only. The accomplishments are as follows: (1) the test procedure to make predictions of the radiation response was developed; (2) the calculation of the shift in the threshold potential due to the charge distribution in the oxide was written; (3) electron tunneling processes from the bulk Si to the oxide region in an MOS IC were estimated; (4) in order to connect the experimental annealing data to the theoretical model, constants of the model of the basic annealing process were established; (5) experimental data obtained at elevated temperatures were analyzed; (6) time compression and reliability of predictions for the long term region were shown; (7) a method to compress test time and to make predictions of response for the nonlinear region was proposed; and (8) nonlinearity of the LRF with respect to log(t) was calculated theoretically from a model.

  14. A Revolute Joint With Linear Load-Displacement Response for Precision Deployable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Warren, Peter A.; Peterson, Lee D.

    1996-01-01

    NASA Langley Research center is developing key structures and mechanisms technologies for micron-accuracy, in-space deployment of future space instruments. Achieving micron-accuracy deployment requires significant advancements in deployment mechanism design such as the revolute joint presented herein. The joint presented herein exhibits a load-cycling response that is essentially linear with less than two percent hysteresis, and the joint rotates with less than one in.-oz. of resistance. A prototype reflector metering truss incorporating the joint exhibits only a few microns of kinematic error under repeated deployment and impulse loading. No other mechanically deployable structure found in literature has been demonstrated to be this kinematically accurate.

  15. Reduced Order Models Based on Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for the identification and application of reduced-order models based on linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems and an appropriate kernel identification technique are described. Insight into the nature of kernels is provided by applying the method to the nonlinear Riccati equation in a non-aerodynamic application. The method is then applied to a nonlinear aerodynamic model of an RAE 2822 supercritical airfoil undergoing plunge motions using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Results demonstrate the computational efficiency of the technique.

  16. Constructing quasi-linear V̇O2 responses from nonlinear parameters.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Samuel L; Broxterman, Ryan M; Barstow, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics have been shown to be governed by a nonlinear control system across a range of work rates. However, the linearity of the V̇O2 response to ramp incremental exercise would appear to be the result of a linear control system. This apparent contradiction could represent a balancing of changing V̇O2 kinetics parameter values across a range of work rates. To test this, six healthy men completed bouts of ramp incremental exercise at 15, 30, and 60 W/min (15R, 30R, 60R, respectively) and four bouts of an extended-step incremental exercise. V̇O2 parameter values were derived from the step exercise using two monoexponential models: one starting at time zero and encompassing the entire stage (MONO), and the other truncated to the first 5 min and allowing a time delay (5TD). The resulting parameter values were applied to an integrative model to estimate the ramp responses. As work rate increased, gain values increased (P < 0.001 for MONO and 5TD), as did mean response time (or time constant) values (MONO: P < 0.001; 5TD: P = 0.003). Up to maximal V̇O2 (V̇O(2 max)), the gains of the estimated ramp responses from both models were not different from the gains of the actual observed V̇O2 responses for 15R and 30R (15R: 11.3 ± 1.2, 11.7 ± 0.7, 10.9 ± 0.3; 30R: 10.5 ± 0.8, 11.0 ± 0.5, 10.7 ± 0.3 ml O2·min(-1)·W(-1), for actual, MONO, 5TD, respectively) but were significantly greater for 60R (8.7 ± 1.0, 9.9 ± 0.4, 10.3 ± 0.3 ml O2·min(-1)·W(-1) for actual, MONO, 5TD, respectively). Up to 80%V̇O(2 max) gain values were not significantly different for any ramp rate (P > 0.05 for all). We conclude that the apparent linearity of the V̇O2 response to ramp incremental exercise is consequent to a balancing of increasing time constant and gain parameter values.

  17. The neuronal response at extended timescales: a linearized spiking input–output relation

    PubMed Central

    Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Many biological systems are modulated by unknown slow processes. This can severely hinder analysis – especially in excitable neurons, which are highly non-linear and stochastic systems. We show the analysis simplifies considerably if the input matches the sparse “spiky” nature of the output. In this case, a linearized spiking Input–Output (I/O) relation can be derived semi-analytically, relating input spike trains to output spikes based on known biophysical properties. Using this I/O relation we obtain closed-form expressions for all second order statistics (input – internal state – output correlations and spectra), construct optimal linear estimators for the neuronal response and internal state and perform parameter identification. These results are guaranteed to hold, for a general stochastic biophysical neuron model, with only a few assumptions (mainly, timescale separation). We numerically test the resulting expressions for various models, and show that they hold well, even in cases where our assumptions fail to hold. In a companion paper we demonstrate how this approach enables us to fit a biophysical neuron model so it reproduces experimentally observed temporal firing statistics on days-long experiments. PMID:24765073

  18. Linearization of EBT3 film dose response and virtual film dosimetry for SBRT quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, M.; Archibald-Heeren, B.; Wang, Y.; Metcalfe, P.

    2017-01-01

    EBT3 film offers high spatial resolution and low energy dependence, making it a suitable choice for quality assurance where high dose gradients are present, such as the case for SBRT. This work presents a simple method to adjust scanner settings so that dose response becomes linear. This linearity eliminates the need to obtain a calibration curve and associated uncertainties in curve fitting. Relative dosimetry can be performed after dose normalization to a reference point. Linearity is also a more robust condition than calibration curve with respect to scanner warm-up conditions, resulting in reduced uncertainty in dose measurement. An in-house developed program reads the film scan and a 2D dose map then constructs both to virtual films using grayscale values. Film intensity value was normalized to dose at reference point. Relative dosimetry was performed by comparing the two resulting images. Patient specific quality assurance was conducted for two SBRT cases. In both plans more than 95% gamma function points passed the gamma criteria of 2%/3mm.

  19. Geomorphic response to tectonically-induced ground deformation in the Wabash Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, G.S.; Thompson, T.A.; Olyphant, G.A.; Furer, L.; Bennett, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous low- to moderate-intensity earthquakes have been recorded in a zone of diffuse modern seismicity in southwest Indiana, southeast Illinois, and northernmost Kentucky. Structural elements within the zone include the Wabash Valley Fault System, the LaSalle Anticlinal Belt in western Illinois, and the Rough Creek-Shawneetown Fault System in northern Kentucky. The presence of seismically-induced liquefaction features in the near-surface alluvial sediments in the region indicates that strong ground motion has occurred in the recent geological past, but because the glacial and alluvial sediments in the Wabash Valley appear to be otherwise undisturbed, post-Paleozoic ground deformation resulting from movement on these structural elements has not yet been documented. Morphometric analysis of the land surface, detailed mapping of geomorphic elements in the valley, reconnaissance drilling of the Holocene and Pleistocene alluvium, and structural analysis of the bedrock underlying the valley were used to determine whether the geomorphology of the valley and the patterns of alluviation of the Wabash River were affected by surface deformation associated with the seismic zone during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Among the observed features in the valley that can be attributed to deformation are: (1) tilting of the modern land surface to the west, (2) preferred channel migration toward the west side of the valley, with concomitant impact on patterns of soil development and sedimentation rate, (3) a convex longitudinal profile of the Wabash River where it crosses the LaSalle Anticlinal Belt, and (4) increased incision of the river into its floodplain downstream from the anticlinal belt.

  20. Multiple linear and principal component regressions for modelling ecotoxicity bioassay response.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana I; Pires, José C M; Figueiredo, Sónia A; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2014-01-01

    The ecotoxicological response of the living organisms in an aquatic system depends on the physical, chemical and bacteriological variables, as well as the interactions between them. An important challenge to scientists is to understand the interaction and behaviour of factors involved in a multidimensional process such as the ecotoxicological response. With this aim, multiple linear regression (MLR) and principal component regression were applied to the ecotoxicity bioassay response of Chlorella vulgaris and Vibrio fischeri in water collected at seven sites of Leça river during five monitoring campaigns (February, May, June, August and September of 2006). The river water characterization included the analysis of 22 physicochemical and 3 microbiological parameters. The model that best fitted the data was MLR, which shows: (i) a negative correlation with dissolved organic carbon, zinc and manganese, and a positive one with turbidity and arsenic, regarding C. vulgaris toxic response; (ii) a negative correlation with conductivity and turbidity and a positive one with phosphorus, hardness, iron, mercury, arsenic and faecal coliforms, concerning V. fischeri toxic response. This integrated assessment may allow the evaluation of the effect of future pollution abatement measures over the water quality of Leça River.

  1. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  2. DNA microarray mediated transcriptional profiling of Nitrosomonas europaea in response to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Junpei; Inaba, Kazuho; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2008-05-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) constitute, quantitatively, the most important group of synthetic surfactants used today. We studied the gene expression of Nitrosomonas europaea in response to LAS using a DNA microarray because ammonia-oxidizers are thought to be more sensitive to LAS than other microorganisms. Our objective was to elucidate which genes are expressed for N. europaea in response to LAS exposure. Microarray analysis and real-time PCR assay revealed that c. 30 genes were significantly expressed after LAS exposure, in particular genes associated with energy production and conversion. Our findings demonstrate that physical disruption of membrane structures, which contain enzymes associated with energy production and conversion, might be an important explanation for the high sensitivity of N. europaea to LAS exposure.

  3. Linear response of hydrodynamically-coupled particles under a nonequilibrium reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolcu, Cem; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    A recent experiment driving colloids electromagnetically, by Bérut et al 2014 Europhys. Lett. 107 60004, is an ideal paradigm for illustrating a linear response theory for nonequilibrium overdamped systems including hydrodynamic interactions and, unusually, a reservoir itself out of equilibrium. Indeed, in this setup one finds a nonequilibrium environment in which the mobility and diffusivity of free particles are not simply proportional to each other. We derive both the response to a mechanical forcing and to temperature variations in terms of correlations between an observable and a path-weight action. The time-antisymmetric component of the latter turns out not to be simply proportional to the heat flowing into the environment. These results are visualized with simulations resembling conditions and protocols easily realizable in the experiment, thereby tracing a path for experimental verifications of the theory.

  4. Non-linear modeling of the plasma response to RMPs in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, F.; Hölzl, M.; Viezzer, E.; Dunne, M.; Bécoulet, M.; Cahyna, P.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Morales, J.; Willensdorfer, M.; Suttrop, W.; Kirk, A.; Pamela, S.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Strumberger, E.; Lessig, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    The plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in ASDEX Upgrade is modeled with the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, using input profiles that match those of the experiments as closely as possible. The RMP configuration for which edge localized modes are best mitigated in experiments is related to the largest edge kink response observed near the X-point in modeling. On the edge resonant surfaces q  =  m/n, the coupling between the kink component (m  >  nq) and the m resonant component is found to induce the amplification of the resonant magnetic perturbation. The ergodicity and the 3D-displacement near the X-point induced by the resonant amplification can only partly explain the density pumpout observed in experiments.

  5. General linear response formula for non integrable systems obeying the Vlasov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patelli, Aurelio; Ruffo, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Long-range interacting N-particle systems get trapped into long-living out-of-equilibrium stationary states called quasi-stationary states (QSS). We study here the response to a small external perturbation when such systems are settled into a QSS. In the N → ∞ limit the system is described by the Vlasov equation and QSS are mapped into stable stationary solutions of such equation. We consider this problem in the context of a model that has recently attracted considerable attention, the Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model. For such a model, stationary inhomogeneous and homogeneous states determine an integrable dynamics in the mean-field effective potential and an action-angle transformation allows one to derive an exact linear response formula. However, such a result would be of limited interest if restricted to the integrable case. In this paper, we show how to derive a general linear response formula which does not use integrability as a requirement. The presence of conservation laws (mass, energy, momentum, etc.) and of further Casimir invariants can be imposed a posteriori. We perform an analysis of the infinite time asymptotics of the response formula for a specific observable, the magnetization in the HMF model, as a result of the application of an external magnetic field, for two stationary stable distributions: the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium distribution and the Fermi-Dirac one. When compared with numerical simulations the predictions of the theory are very good away from the transition energy from inhomogeneous to homogeneous states. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  6. Linear, Star, and Comb Oxidation-Responsive Polymers: Effect of Branching Degree and Topology on Aggregation and Responsiveness.

    PubMed

    d'Arcy, Richard; Gennari, Arianna; Donno, Roberto; Tirelli, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    Families of amphiphilic oxidation-responsive polymers (poly(ethylene glycol)-polysulfides) with different architectures (linear, 4, 6, and 8-armed stars and 10, 15, and 20-armed combs) and compositions (variable ethylene sulfide/propylene sulfide ratio) are prepared. In water, all the polymers assemble in spherical micelles, with critical micellar concentrations <0.01 mg mL(-1) for all the branched polymers. Triple-detection gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) with dynamic and static light scattering detection, respectively, show an increasing compaction of the polymeric coil and a strong reduction of the aggregation number with increasing degree of branching. The key finding of this study is that the kinetics of the oxidative response sharply depend on the branching; in particular, it is highlighted that the degree of branching influences the lag time before a response can be observed rather than the speed of the response itself, a phenomenon that is attributed to a branching-dependent solubility of the oxidant in the polysulfide matrix.

  7. Linear response, fluctuation-dissipation, and finite-system-size effects in superdiffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-07-01

    Lévy walks (LWs) are a popular stochastic tool to model anomalous diffusion and have recently been used to describe a variety of phenomena. We study the linear response behavior of this generic model of superdiffusive LWs in finite systems to an external force field under both stationary and nonstationary conditions. These finite-size LWs are based on power-law waiting time distributions with a finite-time regularization at τc, such that the physical requirements are met to apply linear response theory and derive the power spectrum with the correct short frequency limit, without the introduction of artificial cutoffs. We obtain the generalized Einstein relation for both ensemble and time averages over the entire process time and determine the turnover to normal Brownian motion when the full system is explored. In particular, we obtain an exact expression for the long time diffusion constant as a function of the scaling exponent of the waiting time density and the characteristic time scale τc.

  8. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method: Applications to solids, surfaces, and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens. J.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2011-06-01

    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single-particle eigenstates can be expanded on a real space grid or in atomic-orbital basis for increased efficiency. The exchange-correlation kernel is treated at the level of the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) and crystal local field effects are included. The calculated static and dynamical dielectric functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001) surface with plasmon energies deviating by less than 0.2 eV. Finally, the method is applied to study the influence of substrates on the plasmon excitations in graphene.

  9. Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group: efficient algorithms for strongly correlated excited states.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-01-14

    Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.

  10. Lead-lag relationships between stock and market risk within linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysov, Stanislav; Balatsky, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We study historical correlations and lead-lag relationships between individual stock risks (standard deviation of daily stock returns) and market risk (standard deviation of daily returns of a market-representative portfolio) in the US stock market. We consider the cross-correlation functions averaged over stocks, using historical stock prices from the Standard & Poor's 500 index for 1994-2013. The observed historical dynamics suggests that the dependence between the risks was almost linear during the US stock market downturn of 2002 and after the US housing bubble in 2007, remaining at that level until 2013. Moreover, the averaged cross-correlation function often had an asymmetric shape with respect to zero lag in the periods of high correlation. We develop the analysis by the application of the linear response formalism to study underlying causal relations. The calculated response functions suggest the presence of characteristic regimes near financial crashes, when individual stock risks affect market risk and vice versa. This work was supported by VR 621-2012-2983.

  11. Recent developments in time-dependent density-functional theory within and beyond linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, E. K. U.

    2013-03-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a popular and rather successful method in the description of photo-absorption spectra of atoms and molecules in the linear response regime. In extended solids, however, a satisfactory description of excitonic effects has become possible only recently with the advent of advanced approximations for the exchange-correlation kernel fxc. One of these advanced approximations is the so-called bootstrap kernel [S. Sharma et al, PRL 107, 186401 (2011)]. We shall explore the performance of this kernel in the long-wavelength limit and for finite values of q, looking at electron-loss as well as photo-absorption spectra. We find, in particular, that excitonic effects in LiF and Ar are enhanced for values of q away from the Γ-point [S. Sharma et al, New J Phys 14, 053052 (2012)]. Then we present two recent developments in TDDFT beyond the linear-response regime: (i) By using a geometrical partitioning, we calculate the angle and energy resolved photo-electron spectra of finite systems including multi-photon effects [De Giovannini, et al, A. Rubio, PRA 86, 062515 (2012)]. (ii) Finally we show how the dynamics of many-electron systems can be controlled with lasers by marrying TDDFT with optimal control theory [A. Castro et al, PRL 109, 153603 (2012)].

  12. Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group: Efficient algorithms for strongly correlated excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-01-01

    Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.

  13. Functional imaging of kinetic parameters from the time dependent linear response function by dynamic scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Stritzke, P.; Knop, J.; Spielmann, R.P.; Montz, R.; Schneider, C.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is proposed to determine the locally differing time dependent linear response function h(r,t) of a radioactive tracer injected into a patients blood pool B(t) by mathematical analysis of a dynamic scintigraphic study A(r,t). Transit times, uptake rates and clearance rates of different tracers are calculated from the linear response function at every matrix point by one computer program. The parameters are presented in functional images on a standard computer display. Thus the whole information from a dynamic study can be condensed within a few images. The integral equation A=h+B +c(r)*B (+ means convolution, c(r)*B(t)=nontarget activity) derived from tracer theory is deconvoluted by mathematical methods, which are unsensitive against noise contamination of the input data. The numerical technique is successfully applied in Iodide-123-Hippuran and Tc-99m-DMSA kidney studies, in Tc-99m-MDP and -DPD bone studies, in Tl-201 myocardial studies and in Iodide-123 thyroid studies. Because the regional blood pool-or nontarget activity is calculated and subtracted, the kinetic parameters are considered to be free from nontarget contributions in all dynamic scintigraphic studies. Examples are demonstrated and the usefulness for clinical application is discussed.

  14. Practical methods for dealing with 'not applicable' item responses in the AMC Linear Disability Score project

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Rebecca; Glas, Cees AW; Lindeboom, Robert; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; de Haan, Rob J

    2004-01-01

    Background Whenever questionnaires are used to collect data on constructs, such as functional status or health related quality of life, it is unlikely that all respondents will respond to all items. This paper examines ways of dealing with responses in a 'not applicable' category to items included in the AMC Linear Disability Score (ALDS) project item bank. Methods The data examined in this paper come from the responses of 392 respondents to 32 items and form part of the calibration sample for the ALDS item bank. The data are analysed using the one-parameter logistic item response theory model. The four practical strategies for dealing with this type of response are: cold deck imputation; hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. Results The item and respondent population parameter estimates were very similar for the strategies involving hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. The estimates obtained using the cold deck imputation method were substantially different. Conclusions The cold deck imputation method was not considered suitable for use in the ALDS item bank. The other three methods described can be usefully implemented in the ALDS item bank, depending on the purpose of the data analysis to be carried out. These three methods may be useful for other data sets examining similar constructs, when item response theory based methods are used. PMID:15200681

  15. Radiation dose response simulation for biomechanical-based deformable image registration of head and neck cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Hunter, Shannon; Brock, Kristy

    2015-11-01

    Biomechanical-based deformable image registration is conducted on the head and neck region. Patient specific 3D finite element models consisting of parotid glands (PG), submandibular glands (SG), tumor, vertebrae (VB), mandible, and external body are used to register pre-treatment MRI to post-treatment MR images to model the dose response using image data of five patients. The images are registered using combinations of vertebrae and mandible alignments, and surface projection of the external body as boundary conditions. In addition, the dose response is simulated by applying a new loading technique in the form of a dose-induced shrinkage using the dose-volume relationship. The dose-induced load is applied as dose-induced shrinkage of the tumor and four salivary glands. The Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is calculated for the four salivary glands, and tumor to calculate the volume overlap of the structures after deformable registration. A substantial improvement in the registration is found by including the dose-induced shrinkage. The greatest registration improvement is found in the four glands where the average DSC increases from 0.53, 0.55, 0.32, and 0.37 to 0.68, 0.68, 0.51, and 0.49 in the left PG, right PG, left SG, and right SG, respectively by using bony alignment of vertebrae and mandible (M), body (B) surface projection and dose (D) (VB+M+B+D).

  16. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  17. Exchange Energy Density Functionals that reproduce the Linear Response Function of the Free Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Aldea, David; Alvarellos, J. E.

    2009-03-01

    We present several nonlocal exchange energy density functionals that reproduce the linear response function of the free electron gas. These nonlocal functionals are constructed following a similar procedure used previously for nonlocal kinetic energy density functionals by Chac'on-Alvarellos-Tarazona, Garc'ia-Gonz'alez et al., Wang-Govind-Carter and Garc'ia-Aldea-Alvarellos. The exchange response function is not known but we have used the approximate response function developed by Utsumi and Ichimaru, even we must remark that the same ansatz can be used to reproduce any other response function with the same scaling properties. We have developed two families of new nonlocal functionals: one is constructed with a mathematical structure based on the LDA approximation -- the Dirac functional for the exchange - and for the second one the structure of the second order gradient expansion approximation is took as a model. The functionals are constructed is such a way that they can be used in localized systems (using real space calculations) and in extended systems (using the momentum space, and achieving a quasilinear scaling with the system size if a constant reference electron density is defined).

  18. Fully relativistic description of spin-orbit torques by means of linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, S.; Chadova, K.; Seemann, M.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.

    2016-08-01

    Symmetry and magnitude of spin-orbit torques (SOT), i.e., current-induced torques on the magnetization of systems lacking inversion symmetry, are investigated in a fully relativistic linear response framework based on the Kubo formalism. By applying all space-time symmetry operations contained in the magnetic point group of a solid to the relevant response coefficient, the torkance expressed as torque-current correlation function, restrictions to the shape of the direct and inverse response tensors are obtained. These are shown to apply to the corresponding thermal analogs as well, namely the direct and inverse thermal SOT in response to a temperature gradient or heat current. Using an implementation of the Kubo-Bastin formula for the torkance into a first-principles multiple-scattering Green function framework and accounting for disorder effects via the so-called coherent potential approximation, all contributions to the SOT in pure systems, dilute as well as concentrated alloys can be treated on equal footing. This way, material specific values for all torkance tensor elements in the fcc (111) trilayer alloy system Pt| FexCo1 -x|Cu are obtained over a wide concentration range and discussed in comparison to results for electrical and spin conductivity, as well as to previous work—in particular concerning symmetry with respect to magnetization reversal and the nature of the various contributions.

  19. DEFORM-4: fuel pin characterization and transient response in the SAS4A accident analysis code system

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, K.J.; Hill, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The DEFORM-4 module is the segment of the SAS4A Accident Analysis Code System that calculates the fuel pin characterization in response to a steady state irradiation history, thereby providing the initial conditions for the transient calculation. The various phenomena considered include fuel porosity migration, fission gas bubble induced swelling, fuel cracking and healing, fission gas release, cladding swelling, and the thermal-mechanical state of the fuel and cladding. In the transient state, the module continues the thermal-mechanical response calculation, including fuel melting and central cavity pressurization, until cladding failure is predicted and one of the failed fuel modules is initiated. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated the validity of the modeling approach.

  20. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D.

    PubMed

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2015-05-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals' budget set created by the famous "donut hole," where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from "filling" the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that "filling" the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects "anticipatory" behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows - in a highly stylized way - for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year.

  1. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals’ budget set created by the famous “donut hole,” where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from “filling” the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that “filling” the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects “anticipatory” behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows – in a highly stylized way – for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year. PMID:26769984

  2. Exactly isochoric deformations of soft solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggins, John S.; Wei, Z.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-12-01

    Many materials of contemporary interest, such as gels, biological tissues and elastomers, are easily deformed but essentially incompressible. Traditional linear theory of elasticity implements incompressibility only to first order and thus permits some volume changes, which become problematically large even at very small strains. Using a mixed coordinate transformation originally due to Gauss, we enforce the constraint of isochoric deformations exactly to develop a linear theory with perfect volume conservation that remains valid until strains become geometrically large. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by calculating the response of an infinite soft isochoric solid to a point force that leads to a nonlinear generalization of the Kelvin solution. Our approach naturally generalizes to a range of problems involving deformations of soft solids and interfaces in two-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries, which we exemplify by determining the solution to a distributed load that mimics muscular contraction within the bulk of a soft solid.

  3. MCP PMT with high time response and linear output current for neutron time-of-flight detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolotov, A. S.; Konovalov, P. I.; Nurtdinov, R. I.

    2016-09-01

    A microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a subnanosecond time response and a high linear output current has been developed. PMT is designed for detection of weak pulses of radiation in UV-, visible and nearer-IR ranges and can be used in neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors in experiments on laser compression of thermonuclear fuel. The results of measurements of MCP PMT main parameters are presented: photocathode spectral sensitivity, gain, maximum linear output current, and time response.

  4. OREGANO_VE: a new parallelised 3D solver for the general (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic problem: validation and application to the calculation of surface deformation in the earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Houseman, Gregory; Hamling, Ian; Postek, Elek

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new parallelized 3-D numerical code, OREGANO_VE, for the solution of the general visco-elastic problem in a rectangular block domain. The mechanical equilibrium equation is solved using the finite element method for a (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic rheology. Time-dependent displacement and/or traction boundary conditions can be applied. Matrix assembly is based on a tetrahedral element defined by 4 vertex nodes and 6 nodes located at the midpoints of the edges, and within which displacement is described by a quadratic interpolation function. For evaluating viscoelastic relaxation, an explicit time-stepping algorithm (Zienkiewicz and Cormeau, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 8, 821-845, 1974) is employed. We test the accurate implementation of the OREGANO_VE by comparing numerical and analytic (or semi-analytic half-space) solutions to different problems in a range of applications: (1) equilibration of stress in a constant density layer after gravity is switched on at t = 0 tests the implementation of spatially variable viscosity and non-Newtonian viscosity; (2) displacement of the welded interface between two blocks of differing viscosity tests the implementation of viscosity discontinuities, (3) displacement of the upper surface of a layer under applied normal load tests the implementation of time-dependent surface tractions (4) visco-elastic response to dyke intrusion (compared with the solution in a half-space) tests the implementation of all aspects. In each case, the accuracy of the code is validated subject to use of a sufficiently small time step, providing assurance that the OREGANO_VE code can be applied to a range of visco-elastic relaxation processes in three dimensions, including post-seismic deformation and post-glacial uplift. The OREGANO_VE code includes a capability for representation of prescribed fault slip on an internal fault. The surface displacement associated with large earthquakes can be detected by some geodetic observations

  5. A fresh look at linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  6. Near-LTE linear response calculations with a collisional-radiative model for He-like Al ions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.; Kato, T.

    1998-04-06

    We investigate non-equilibrium atomic kinetics using a collisional- radiative model modified to include line absorption. Steady-state emission is calculated for He-like aluminum immersed in a specified radiation field having fixed deviations from a Planck spectrum. The calculated net emission is presented as a NLTE response matrix. In agreement with a rigorous general rule of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the linear response is symmetric. We compute the response matrix for 1% and {+-} 50% changes in the photon temperature and find linear response over a surprisingly large range.

  7. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ /ωb<0.26 ), which includes the turnover region. The dominant correction to the linear response theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength (up to ˜10 % ) within the

  8. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ/ω_{b}<0.26), which includes the turnover region. The dominant correction to the linear response theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength

  9. Tests of the linear, no-threshold dose-response relationship for high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-05-01

    It is pointed out that induction of lung cancer by exposure to Rn daughters, applied at high doses to miners and at low doses to exposures in homes, provides a very stringent and sensitive test of the linear, no-threshold dose-response relationship for high-LET radiation, because this relationship predicts that a substantial fraction of lung cancer among non-smokers is due to average Rn levels. Therefore, it predicts an easily observable elevation of lung cancer rates in areas where Rn levels are many times greater than the average, especially at times before cigarette smoking began to have important effects on lung cancer statistics. While more data are needed (and will be forthcoming), some of the early indications of these studies are reviewed here. Several cases are now known where average Rn levels are very high, and in all of these cases lung cancer rates are well below average. Methods for analyzing these data are discussed, and it is concluded that, based on current evidence, they indicate at least a factor of 4 disagreement with linear, no-threshold predictions.

  10. Linear sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of major West Antarctic ice basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, M.; Feldmann, J.; Levermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise has recently been increasing. Whether its ice discharge will become unstable and decouple from anthropogenic forcing or increase linearly with the warming of the surrounding ocean is of fundamental importance. Under unabated greenhouse-gas emissions, ocean models indicate an abrupt intrusion of warm circumpolar deep water into the cavity below West Antarctica's Filchner-Ronne ice shelf within the next two centuries. The ice basin's retrograde bed slope would allow for an unstable ice-sheet retreat, but the buttressing of the large ice shelf and the narrow glacier troughs tend to inhibit such instability. It is unclear whether future ice loss will be dominated by ice instability or anthropogenic forcing. Here we show in regional and continental-scale ice-sheet simulations, which are capable of resolving unstable grounding-line retreat, that the sea-level response of the Filchner-Ronne ice basin is not dominated by ice instability and follows the strength of the forcing quasi-linearly. We find that the ice loss reduces after each pulse of projected warm water intrusion. The long-term sea-level contribution is approximately proportional to the total shelf-ice melt. Although the local instabilities might dominate the ice loss for weak oceanic warming, we find that the upper limit of ice discharge from the region is determined by the forcing and not by the marine ice-sheet instability.

  11. Indoor calibration of Sky Quality Meters: Linearity, spectral responsivity and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravettoni, M.; Strepparava, D.; Cereghetti, N.; Klett, S.; Andretta, M.; Steiger, M.

    2016-09-01

    The indoor calibration of brightness sensors requires extremely low values of irradiance in the most accurate and reproducible way. In this work the testing equipment of an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory for electrical testing, qualification and type approval of solar photovoltaic modules was modified in order to test the linearity of the instruments from few mW/cm2 down to fractions of nW/cm2, corresponding to levels of simulated brightness from 6 to 19 mag/arcsec2. Sixteen Sky Quality Meter (SQM) produced by Unihedron, a Canadian manufacturer, were tested, also assessing the impact of the ageing of their protective glasses on the calibration coefficients and the drift of the instruments. The instruments are in operation on measurement points and observatories at different sites and altitudes in Southern Switzerland, within the framework of OASI, the Environmental Observatory of Southern Switzerland. The authors present the results of the calibration campaign: linearity; brightness calibration, with and without protective glasses; transmittance measurement of the glasses; and spectral responsivity of the devices. A detailed uncertainty analysis is also provided, according to the ISO 17025 standard.

  12. Linear frequency response analysis of a high subsonic and a supersonic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Oliver; Colonius, Tim; Brès, Guillaume

    2016-11-01

    A linear frequency response, or resolvent analysis of two turbulent jet mean flows is conducted. The mean flows are obtained from two high-fidelity large eddy simulations of a Mach 0.9 and a Mach 1.5 turbulent jet at Reynolds numbers of 1 ×106 and 3 ×105 , respectively. For both cases, curves of the optimal and sub-optimal output gains are calculated as a function of frequency for different azimuthal wavenumbers. The gain curves bring to light pseudo-resonances associated with different linear instability mechanisms. The same mechanisms are recovered in global stability analyses, and the results are compared. In the case of the Mach 0.9 jet, the resolvent analysis allows for a detailed study of trapped acoustic modes inside the potential core that were subject to previous stability studies. The structure of the resolvent and global modes are compared to POD mode estimates of the LES data. Additionally, the projection of the LES data onto the modes allows for quantitative assessment of how well the modal structures represent the coherent structures in the jet.

  13. Non-Linear Dynamic Response of a Spur Gear Pair: Modelling and Experimental Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARKER, R. G.; VIJAYAKAR, S. M.; IMAJO, T.

    2000-10-01

    The dynamic response of a spur gear pair is investigated using a finite element/contact mechanics model that offers significant advantages for dynamic gear analyses. The gear pair is analyzed across a wide range of operating speeds and torques. Comparisons are made to other researchers' published experiments that reveal complex non-linear phenomena. The non-linearity source is contact loss of the meshing teeth, which, in contrast to the prevailing understanding, occurs even for large torques despite the use of high-precision gears. A primary feature of the modelling is that dynamic mesh forces are calculated using a detailed contact analysis at each time step as the gears roll through the mesh; there is no need to externally specify the excitation in the form of time-varying mesh stiffness, static transmission error input, or the like. A semi-analytical model near the tooth surface is matched to a finite element solution away from the tooth surface, and the computational efficiency that results permits dynamic analysis. Two-single-degree-of-freedom models are also studied. While one gives encouragingly good results, the other, which appears to have better mesh stiffness modelling, gives poor comparisons with experiments. The results indicate the sensitivity of such models to the Fourier spectrum of the changing mesh stiffness.

  14. The influence of the density ratio on the linear frequency response of low-density jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenen, Wilfried; Sevilla, Alejandro; Lesshafft, Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Low-density jets support global self-sustained oscillations when the jet-to-ambient density ratio is sufficiently small, a phenomenon that has been linked to the presence of a region of local absolute instability in the underlying parallel base flow. However, the use of local stability analysis requires introducing ad-hoc criteria to match the experimental observations (see). In this work we therefore use a global approach, where the wavepacket structures are temporal eigenmodes of the linearized equations of motion in a 2D domain. The resulting eigenvalue spectra show that, when the density ratio is decreased, a discrete eigenmode becomes increasingly dominant, eventually reaching a positive growth rate for a certain critical density ratio. For the particular case of a He/air jet, this critical density ratio, as well as the corresponding oscillation frequency, is in good quantitative agreement with the experiments of. The influence of the density ratio on the linear frequency response of the jet under globally stable conditions is also investigated. Supported by Spanish MINECO under project DPI 2011-28356-C03-02.

  15. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  16. Linear-response theory for Mukherjee's multireference coupled-cluster method: excitation energies.

    PubMed

    Jagau, Thomas-C; Gauss, Jürgen

    2012-07-28

    The recently presented linear-response function for Mukherjee's multireference coupled-cluster method (Mk-MRCC) [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044115 (2012)] is employed to determine vertical excitation energies within the singles and doubles approximation (Mk-MRCCSD-LR) for ozone as well as for o-benzyne, m-benzyne, and p-benzyne, which display increasing multireference character in their ground states. In order to assess the impact of a multireference ground-state wavefunction on excitation energies, we compare all our results to those obtained at the single-reference coupled-cluster level of theory within the singles and doubles as well as within the singles, doubles, and triples approximation. Special attention is paid to the artificial splitting of certain excited states which arises from the redundancy intrinsic to Mk-MRCC theory and hinders the straightforward application of the Mk-MRCC-LR method.

  17. Ab initio calculation of the Gilbert damping parameter via the linear response formalism.

    PubMed

    Ebert, H; Mankovsky, S; Ködderitzsch, D; Kelly, P J

    2011-08-05

    A Kubo-Greenwood-like equation for the Gilbert damping parameter α is presented that is based on the linear response formalism. Its implementation using the fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker band structure method in combination with coherent potential approximation alloy theory allows it to be applied to a wide range of situations. This is demonstrated with results obtained for the bcc alloy system Fe(1-x)Co(x) as well as for a series of alloys of Permalloy with 5d transition metals. To account for the thermal displacements of atoms as a scattering mechanism, an alloy-analogy model is introduced. The corresponding calculations for Ni correctly describe the rapid change of α when small amounts of substitutional Cu are introduced.

  18. Response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Riley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is made of the maximum response of discrete, linear mechanical systems to arbitrary forcing functions which lie within specified bounds. Primary attention is focused on the complete determination of the forcing function which will engender maximum displacement to any particular mass element of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. In general, the desired forcing function is found to be a bang-bang type function, i.e., a function which switches from the maximum to the minimum bound and vice-versa at certain instants of time. Examples of two-degree-of-freedom systems, with and without damping, are presented in detail. Conclusions are drawn concerning the effect of damping on the switching times and the general procedure for finding these times is discussed.

  19. Effects of Initial Geometric Imperfections On the Non-Linear Response of the Space Shuttle Superlightweight Liquid-Oxygen Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Young, Richard D.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the elastic buckling and nonlinear behavior of the liquid-oxygen tank for the new Space Shuttle superlightweight external fuel tank are presented. Selected results that illustrate three distinctly different types of non-linear response phenomena for thin-walled shells which are subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads are presented. These response phenomena consist of a bifurcation-type buckling response, a short-wavelength non-linear bending response and a non-linear collapse or "snap-through" response associated with a limit point. The effects of initial geometric imperfections on the response characteristics are emphasized. The results illustrate that the buckling and non-linear response of a geometrically imperfect shell structure subjected to complex loading conditions may not be adequately characterized by an elastic linear bifurcation buckling analysis, and that the traditional industry practice of applying a buckling-load knock-down factor can result in an ultraconservative design. Results are also presented that show that a fluid-filled shell can be highly sensitive to initial geometric imperfections, and that the use a buckling-load knock-down factor is needed for this case.

  20. Dynamic elastic moduli in magnetic gels: Normal modes and linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessot, Giorgio; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2016-09-01

    In the perspective of developing smart hybrid materials with customized features, ferrogels and magnetorheological elastomers allow a synergy of elasticity and magnetism. The interplay between elastic and magnetic properties gives rise to a unique reversible control of the material behavior by applying an external magnetic field. Albeit few works have been performed on the time-dependent properties so far, understanding the dynamic behavior is the key to model many practical situations, e.g., applications as vibration absorbers. Here we present a way to calculate the frequency-dependent elastic moduli based on the decomposition of the linear response to an external stress in normal modes. We use a minimal three-dimensional dipole-spring model to theoretically describe the magnetic and elastic interactions on the mesoscopic level. Specifically, the magnetic particles carry permanent magnetic dipole moments and are spatially arranged in a prescribed way, before they are linked by elastic springs. An external magnetic field aligns the magnetic moments. On the one hand, we study regular lattice-like particle arrangements to compare with previous results in the literature. On the other hand, we calculate the dynamic elastic moduli for irregular, more realistic particle distributions. Our approach measures the tunability of the linear dynamic response as a function of the particle arrangement, the system orientation with respect to the external magnetic field, as well as the magnitude of the magnetic interaction between the particles. The strength of the present approach is that it explicitly connects the relaxational modes of the system with the rheological properties as well as with the internal rearrangement of the particles in the sample, providing new insight into the dynamics of these remarkable materials.

  1. Linear response of the hydrogen atom in Stark states to a harmonic uniform electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Marian, T.A.

    1989-04-15

    The influence of a weak harmonic uniform electric field, switched on adiabatically, on a nonrelativistic hydrogenlike atom is examined. Each of the phi- and A-gauge first-order corrections to the wave function of a stationary state chemically bondN> is determined by a vector function that we denote v/sub N/ and w/sub N/, respectively. The absolute starting point of our calculations is Schwinger's formula for the Coulomb Green's function in momentum space. In the case of a bound state with definite angular momentum, we report a compact integral representation and also an explicit expression of the phi-gauge vector v/sub n//sub l//sub m/, which are analogous to those of the corresponding A-gauge vector w/sub n//sub l//sub m/ studied previously. We have derived compact analytic expressions of the linear-response vectors v/sub n//sub >//sub xi/n/sub eta/m$ and w/sub n//sub >//sub xi/n/sub eta/m$ associated to an arbitrary Stark state. These are written first as contour integrals, and then explicitly in terms of a new generalized hypergeometric function with five variables, /sub 2/phi/sub H/, which is a finite sum of Humbert functions phi/sub 1/. We have calculated the static limit of the regular part of the vector v/sub n//sub >//sub xi/n/sub eta/m$. Also discussed are the Sturmian-function expansions of the linear-response vectors for angular momentum states.

  2. Linear β-1,3 Glucans Are Elicitors of Defense Responses in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Klarzynski, Olivier; Plesse, Bertrand; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Kopp, Marguerite; Kloareg, Bernard; Fritig, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Laminarin, a linear β-1,3 glucan (mean degree of polymerization of 33) was extracted and purified from the brown alga Laminaria digitata. Its elicitor activity on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was compared to that of oligogalacturonides with a mean degree of polymerization of 10. The two oligosaccharides were perceived by suspension-cultured cells as distinct chemical stimuli but triggered a similar and broad spectrum of defense responses. A dose of 200 μg mL−1 laminarin or oligogalacturonides induced within a few minutes a 1.9-pH-units alkalinization of the extracellular medium and a transient release of H2O2. After a few hours, a strong stimulation of Phe ammonia-lyase, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, and lipoxygenase activities occurred, as well as accumulation of salicylic acid. Neither of the two oligosaccharides induced tissue damage or cell death nor did they induce accumulation of the typical tobacco phytoalexin capsidiol, in contrast with the effects of the proteinaceous elicitor β-megaspermin. Structure activity studies with laminarin, laminarin oligomers, high molecular weight β-1,3–1,6 glucans from fungal cell walls, and the β-1,6–1,3 heptaglucan showed that the elicitor effects observed in tobacco with β-glucans are specific to linear β-1,3 linkages, with laminaripentaose being the smallest elicitor-active structure. In accordance with its strong stimulating effect on defense responses in tobacco cells, infiltration of 200 μg mL−1 laminarin in tobacco leaves triggered accumulation within 48 h of the four families of antimicrobial pathogenesis-related proteins investigated. Challenge of the laminarin-infiltrated leaves 5 d after treatment with the soft rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora resulted in a strong reduction of the infection when compared with water-treated leaves. PMID:11080280

  3. Thermal Cycling and Isothermal Deformation Response of Polycrystalline NiTi: Simulations vs. Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manchiraju, Sivom; Gaydosh, Darrell; Benafan, Othmane; Noebe, Ronald; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Anderson, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A recent microstructure-based FEM model that couples crystal-based plasticity, the B2<-> MB190 phase transformation and anisotropic elasticity at the grain scale is calibrated to recent data for polycrystalline NiTi (49.9 at.% Ni). Inputs include anisotropic elastic properties, texture and differential scanning calorimetry data, as well as a subset of recent isothermal deformation and load-biased thermal cycling data. The model is assessed against additional experimental data. Several experimental trends are captured - in particular, the transformation strain during thermal cycling monotonically increases and reaches a peak with increasing bias stress. This is achieved, in part, by modifying the martensite hardening matrix proposed by Patoor et al. [Patoor E, Eberhardt A, Berveiller M. J Phys IV 1996;6:277]. Some experimental trends are underestimated - in particular, the ratcheting of macrostrain during thermal cycling. This may reflect a model limitation that transformation-plasticity coupling is captured on a coarse (grain) scale but not on a fine (martensitic plate) scale.

  4. On spurious detection of linear response and misuse of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in finite time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Wormell, J. P.; Wouters, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    Using a sensitive statistical test we determine whether or not one can detect the breakdown of linear response given observations of deterministic dynamical systems. A goodness-of-fit statistics is developed for a linear statistical model of the observations, based on results for central limit theorems for deterministic dynamical systems, and used to detect linear response breakdown. We apply the method to discrete maps which do not obey linear response and show that the successful detection of breakdown depends on the length of the time series, the magnitude of the perturbation and on the choice of the observable. We find that in order to reliably reject the assumption of linear response for typical observables sufficiently large data sets are needed. Even for simple systems such as the logistic map, one needs of the order of 106 observations to reliably detect the breakdown with a confidence level of 95 %; if less observations are available one may be falsely led to conclude that linear response theory is valid. The amount of data required is larger the smaller the applied perturbation. For judiciously chosen observables the necessary amount of data can be drastically reduced, but requires detailed a priori knowledge about the invariant measure which is typically not available for complex dynamical systems. Furthermore we explore the use of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in cases with limited data length or coarse-graining of observations. The FDT, if applied naively to a system without linear response, is shown to be very sensitive to the details of the sampling method, resulting in erroneous predictions of the response.

  5. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm{sup 3} and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm{sup 2}. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a {+-}0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping

  6. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, Mohammed K.; Nakamura, Koichi; A. H. Gepreel, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti-X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus.

  7. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gouda, Mohammed K. Gepreel, Mohamed A. H.; Nakamura, Koichi

    2015-06-07

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti–X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus.

  8. The Effect of Training Structure on the Latency of Responses to a Five-Term Linear Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Thomas; Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2005-01-01

    The current experiment investigated the effect of differential training histories on responses to a 5-term linear chain of nonsense syllables (described here with sequential, alphabetical characters; A [is less than] B [is less than] C [is less than] D [is less than] E) across unreinforced probe trials. Participants' responses to nonarbitrary…

  9. Response of Non-Linear Shock Absorbers-Boundary Value Problem Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. A.; Ahmed, U.; Uddin, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    A nonlinear boundary value problem of two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) untuned vibration damper systems using nonlinear springs and dampers has been numerically studied. As far as untuned damper is concerned, sixteen different combinations of linear and nonlinear springs and dampers have been comprehensively analyzed taking into account transient terms. For different cases, a comparative study is made for response versus time for different spring and damper types at three important frequency ratios: one at r = 1, one at r > 1 and one at r <1. The response of the system is changed because of the spring and damper nonlinearities; the change is different for different cases. Accordingly, an initially stable absorber may become unstable with time and vice versa. The analysis also shows that higher nonlinearity terms make the system more unstable. Numerical simulation includes transient vibrations. Although problems are much more complicated compared to those for a tuned absorber, a comparison of the results generated by the present numerical scheme with the exact one shows quite a reasonable agreement

  10. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    SciTech Connect

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan; Kongsted, Jacob Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2015-03-21

    We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory, molecular properties such as excitation energies and oscillator strengths can be obtained. The PE-MC-srDFT method and the additional terms required for linear response have been implemented in a development version of DALTON. To benchmark the PE-MC-srDFT approach against the literature data, we have investigated the low-lying electronic excitations of acetone and uracil, both immersed in water solution. The PE-MC-srDFT results are consistent and accurate, both in terms of the calculated solvent shift and, unlike regular PE-MCSCF, also with respect to the individual absolute excitation energies. To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality to CASSCF/CASPT2 benchmarks.

  11. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method.

    PubMed

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan; Kongsted, Jacob; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2015-03-21

    We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory, molecular properties such as excitation energies and oscillator strengths can be obtained. The PE-MC-srDFT method and the additional terms required for linear response have been implemented in a development version of Dalton. To benchmark the PE-MC-srDFT approach against the literature data, we have investigated the low-lying electronic excitations of acetone and uracil, both immersed in water solution. The PE-MC-srDFT results are consistent and accurate, both in terms of the calculated solvent shift and, unlike regular PE-MCSCF, also with respect to the individual absolute excitation energies. To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality to CASSCF/CASPT2 benchmarks.

  12. Thin-skinned Mass-wasting Responsible for Rapid, Edifice-wide Deformation at Arenal Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebmeier, S. K.; Biggs, J.; Muller, C.; Avard, G.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic edifices are built rapidly, at rates far exceeding those of erosion. The resulting mechanical failure of the edifices of both active and quiescent volcanoes can result in hazards on a range of scales, from rockfall to sector collapse. The stability of a volcanic edifice depends on the ratio of its exogenous growth to mass loss due to erosion, deformation and mass wasting. Geodetic measurements of edifice spreading have mostly been associated with local zones of extension at island volcanoes and relatively few observations have been made at continental stratovolcanoes. We present measurements of displacement and surface property changes at Arenal, Costa Rica, a continental stratovolcano that stopped erupting in 2010 after almost 42 years of activity. High resolution TerraSAR-X data (2011-2013) have increased the area covered geodetically by ~40%, allowing us to make measurements of displacements close to Arenal's summit for the first time. InSAR and intensity change observations provide evidence of frequent rockfalls and of shallow landslides (5-11 m thick, total volume = 1.9×107 m3 DRE). Rockfall and shallow translational landsliding have a stabilizing effect on Volcán Arenal's edifice that reduces the potential for external triggering of slope failure. We map 16 shallow landslides (5-11 m depth, 4% of post-1968 deposits) and expect failure planes to be associated with layers of blocky debris and lava crust. Unstable material on Arenal's upper slopes is removed steadily, potentially reducing sensitivity to external triggers: the 2012 Nicoya Earthquake (Mw 7.6) had no measurable impact on the velocities of sliding units, but did result in an elevated area of rockfall. This demonstrates the importance of mass wasting for the stability of young volcanic edifices.

  13. Plastic deformation in a metallic granular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson, Ryan W.; Carlson, William

    2016-03-01

    Solitary wave response was investigated in a metallic granular chain-piston system using LS-DYNA. A power law hardening material model was used to show that localized plastic deformation is present in a metallic granular chain for an impact velocity of 0.5 m/s. This loss due to plastic deformation was quantified via impulse, and it was shown that the loss scales nearly linearly with impact velocity. Therefore, metallic grains may not be suitable for devices that require high-amplitude solitary waves. There would be too much energy lost to plastic deformation. One can assume that ceramics will behave elastically; therefore, the response of an aluminum oxide granular chain was compared to that of a steel chain.

  14. Targeting the finite-deformation response of wavy biological tissues with bio-inspired material architectures.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenqiong; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm driven by a homogenized-based model is employed to target the response of three types of heart-valve chordae tendineae with different stiffening characteristics due to different degrees of waviness of collagen fibril/fiber bundles. First, geometric and material parameters are identified through an extensive parametric study that produce excellent agreement of the simulated response based on simplified unit cell architectures with the actual response of the complex biological tissue. These include amplitude and wavelength of the crimped chordae microstructure, elastic moduli of the constituent phases, and degree of microstructural refinement of the stiff phase at fixed volume fraction whose role in the stiffening response is elucidated. The study also reveals potential non-uniqueness of bio-inspired wavy microstructures in attaining the targeted response of certain chordae tendineae crimp configurations. The homogenization-based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, whose predictions are validated through the parametric study, is then shown to be an excellent tool in identifying optimal unit cell architectures in the design space that exhibits very steep gradients. Finally, defect criticality of optimal unit cell architectures is investigated in order to assess their feasibility in replacing actual biological tendons with stiffening characteristics.

  15. Time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of weakly disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, C. A.; Vignale, G.

    2002-05-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDFT) provides a way of calculating, in principle exactly, the linear response of interacting many-electron systems, and thus allows one to obtain their excitation energies. For extended systems, there exist excitations of a collective nature, such as bulk and surface plasmons in metals or intersubband plasmons in doped semiconductor quantum wells. This paper develops a quantitatively accurate first-principles description for the frequency and the linewidth of such excitations in inhomogeneous weakly disordered systems. A finite linewidth in general has intrinsic and extrinsic sources. At low temperatures and outside the region where electron-phonon interaction occurs, the only intrinsic damping mechanism is provided by electron-electron interaction. This kind of intrinsic damping can be described within TDFT, but one needs to go beyond the adiabatic approximation and include retardation effects. It has been shown [G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich, and S. Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4878 (1997)] that a density-functional response theory that is local in space but nonlocal in time has to be constructed in terms of the currents, rather than the density. This theory will be reviewed in the first part of this paper. For quantitatively accurate linewidths, extrinsic dissipation mechanisms, such as impurities or disorder, have to be included in the response theory. In the second part of this paper, we discuss how extrinsic dissipation can be described within the so-called memory-function formalism. This formalism will first be introduced and reviewed for homogeneous systems. We will then present a synthesis of TDFT with the memory function formalism for inhomogeneous systems, which allows one to simultaneously account for intrinsic and extrinsic damping of collective excitations. As an example where both sources of dissipation are important and where high-quality experimental data are available for comparison, we discuss intersubband

  16. Influence of Cutting Time on Brush Response: Implications for Herbivory in Linear (Transportation) Corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Roy V.; Child, Kenneth N.; Spata, David P.; MacDonald, Douglas

    2007-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence the time of brush-cutting can have on plant regrowth and attractiveness to herbivores that browse in linear corridors. The influence of cutting time on leaf flush and senescence, shoot morphometry, and biomass was measured for 3 consecutive years after initial brush-cutting. Results indicate that morphological and phenological attributes of three woody deciduous plants were influenced by the timing of brush-cutting for up to 3 years after initial cutting. Brush-cutting generally stimulated plants to produce larger than normal shoots and delay leaf senescence. The degree to which plants were affected, however, varied with the timing of initial cutting and the species in question. Generally, plants cut later in the year resprouted more vigorously and were taller in the third year after cutting but produced less overall biomass than when cut earlier. In the years following brush-cutting, plants cut earlier flushed leaves earlier in the spring but delayed leaf senescence in the fall when compared to uncut controls. Results of these trials suggest that brush-cutting time influences plant response and several plant attributes known to influence plant attractiveness to moose and other herbivores. We therefore recommend that roadside and railside vegetation management plans consider the influence of cutting time on plant regrowth. Such considerations can ensure that brush is cut to reduce the attractiveness of plant regrowth in these linear corridors, reduce the utilization of such brush by herbivores, and, as such, mitigate collision risk between motorists and herbivores such as moose.

  17. A New Approach to Evaluate Drug Treatment Response of Ovarian Cancer Patients Based on Deformable Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Maxine; Li, Zheng; Qiu, Yuchen; McMeekin, Scott D.; Thai, Theresa C.; Ding, Kai; Moore, Kathleen N.; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) is the current clinical guideline to assess size change of solid tumors after therapeutic treatment, it has a relatively lower association to the clinical outcome of progression free survival (PFS) of the patients. In this paper, we presented a new approach to assess responses of ovarian cancer patients to new chemotherapy drugs in clinical trials. We first developed and applied a multi-resolution B-spline based deformable image registration method to register two sets of computed tomography (CT) image data acquired pre- and post-treatment. The B-spline difference maps generated from the co-registered CT images highlight the regions related to the volumetric growth or shrinkage of the metastatic tumors, and density changes related to variation of necrosis inside the solid tumors. Using a testing dataset involving 19 ovarian cancer patients, we compared patients’ response to the treatment using the new image registration method and RECIST guideline. The results demonstrated that using the image registration method yielded higher association with the six-month PFS outcomes of the patients than using RECIST. The image registration results also provided a solid foundation of developing new computerized quantitative image feature analysis schemes in the future studies. PMID:26336119

  18. Impact of ghosts on the viscoelastic response of gelatinized corn starch dispersions subjected to small strain deformations.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Navas, H; Avila-de la Rosa, G; Gómez-Luría, D; Meraz, M; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2014-09-22

    Corn starch dispersions (5.0% w/w) were gelatinized by heating at 90°C for 20 min using gentle stirring. Under these conditions, ghosts, which are insoluble material with high amylopectin content, were detected by optical microscopy. Strain sweep tests showed that the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD) exhibited a loss modulus (G″) overshoot at relatively low strains (∼1%). In order to achieve a greater understanding as to the mechanisms giving rise to this uncharacteristic nonlinear response at low strains, very small constant torques (from 0.05 to 0.5 μN m) were applied in the bulk of the GSD with a rotating biconical disc. This resulted in small deformations exhibiting torque-dependent inertio-elastic damped oscillations which were subjected to phenomenological modelling. Inertial effects played an important role in the starch mechanical response. The model parameters varied with the magnitude of constant small applied torque and could be related to microstructural changes of ghosts and to the viscoelastic response of GSD.

  19. Factors limiting the linearity of response of tissue equivalent proportional counters used in micro- and nano-dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, T. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Proportional counters filled with tissue equivalent gas mixtures are extremely useful instruments and are being used extensively as sensitive detectors for all types of radiations to measure the energy transferred to small tissue volumes. The linearity of their response is of primary importance. So the investigation and clarification of the physical phenomena taking place in the counter and of the limits within which useful results may be obtained would contribute to a more efficient use and a wider application of these counters. The linearity of response in the dose and in the gas gain has been determined. Linearity in the dose is limited by the total count rate effect, while linearity in the gas gain is limited by secondary processes occurring in the electron avalanche and by the self-induced space charge effect.

  20. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed wing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative impact of Deformedwing virus (DWV) on European honey bees Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks, pure Russian honey bees (RHB) and out-crossed Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees, Pol-line (POL)...

  1. A shear deformable theory of laminated composite shallow shell-type panels and their response analysis. II - Static response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khdeir, A. A.; Librescu, L.; Frederick, D.

    1989-01-01

    In the second part of this paper, by using the static counterparts of the governing equations derived in Librescu (1989), the static response of shallow composite shell-type panels subjected to a sinusoidal transverse load is investigated. The numerical applications, encompassing a large number of boundary conditions and various lamination schemes, allow one to obtain some conclusions which are formulated in the paper.

  2. Influence of transverse-shear and large-deformation effects on the low-speed impact response of laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Prasad, Chunchu B.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical procedure is presented for determining the transient response of simply supported, rectangular laminated composite plates subjected to impact loads from airgun-propelled or dropped-weight impactors. A first-order shear-deformation theory is included in the analysis to represent properly any local short-wave-length transient bending response. The impact force is modeled as a locally distributed load with a cosine-cosine distribution. A double Fourier series expansion and the Timoshenko small-increment method are used to determine the contact force, out-of-plane deflections, and in-plane strains and stresses at any plate location due to an impact force at any plate location. The results of experimental and analytical studies are compared for quasi-isotropic laminates. The results indicate that using the appropriate local force distribution for the locally loaded area and including transverse-shear-deformation effects in the laminated plate response analysis are important. The applicability of the present analytical procedure based on small deformation theory is investigated by comparing analytical and experimental results for combinations of quasi-isotropic laminate thicknesses and impact energy levels. The results of this study indicate that large-deformation effects influence the response of both 24- and 32-ply laminated plates, and that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is required for predicting the response accurately.

  3. Some Aspects of the Deformation Response of Swirl-Mat Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Elahi, M.; Weitsman, Y.J.

    1999-10-01

    This report concerns the mechanical response of random glass fiber strand swirl-mat/urethane matrix composite under static and cyclic loads as well as under elevated temperatures and exposure to distilled water. The article presents an extensive amount of experimental data as well as predictions based on a couple damage/viscoelastic constitutive formulation generated to model the specific behavior of the material at hand. Damage evolution relations are derived from an empirical relationship. This work extends previously published results. It is shown that the current model has the capability to predict long-term response on the basis of short-term data and account for time-varying stresses and temperatures.

  4. Hydrogeology and deformation of sandbars in response to fluctuations in flow of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, M.C.; Carruth, R.L.; Fink, J.B.; Boling, J.K.; Cluer, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring develop on seepage faces of many sandbars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. These processes, observed at low river stage, are a response to residual head gradients in the sandbars caused by the river-stage fluctuation. Three sandbars were instrumented with sensors for continual monitoring of pore pressure and ground-water temperature within the sandbars and river stage. Two of the sandbars also had tilt sensors to aid in determining the relation between ground-water flow within and out of the sandbars and sandbar deformation. Tilting at sandbar 43.1L occurred on the downward limb of the hydrograph in the absence of scour, indicating slumping or a slump-creep sequence. The deformation was caused by outward-flowing bank storage, oversteepening of the lower part of the slope in the zone of fluctuating river stage by filling, and increased effective stress. At sandbar 172.3L, tilts were probably all related to scour and occurred on the rising limb of a hydrograph. Tilt occurred on April 17, May 7, May 13, June 18, and September 1, 1991. On September 1, the entire face of sandbar 172.3L was scoured. Rill erosion and slumping accompanied by measured tilts continued in reduced magnitude on sandbar 43.1L during interim flows. Thus, reduction in the range of discharge does not eliminate degradation caused by rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring. The importance of the ground-water processes is that they occur on every sandbar and become increasingly important on all sandbars in the absence of sandbar-building flows.

  5. Gain in stochastic resonance: precise numerics versus linear response theory beyond the two-mode approximation.

    PubMed

    Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Denk, Claus; Gómez-Ordóñez, José; Morillo, Manuel; Hänggi, Peter

    2003-03-01

    In the context of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), we study the correlation function, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ratio of output over input SNR, i.e., the gain, which is associated to the nonlinear response of a bistable system driven by time-periodic forces and white Gaussian noise. These quantifiers for SR are evaluated using the techniques of linear response theory (LRT) beyond the usually employed two-mode approximation scheme. We analytically demonstrate within such an extended LRT description that the gain can indeed not exceed unity. We implement an efficient algorithm, based on work by Greenside and Helfand (detailed in the Appendix), to integrate the driven Langevin equation over a wide range of parameter values. The predictions of LRT are carefully tested against the results obtained from numerical solutions of the corresponding Langevin equation over a wide range of parameter values. We further present an accurate procedure to evaluate the distinct contributions of the coherent and incoherent parts of the correlation function to the SNR and the gain. As a main result we show for subthreshold driving that both the correlation function and the SNR can deviate substantially from the predictions of LRT and yet the gain can be either larger or smaller than unity. In particular, we find that the gain can exceed unity in the strongly nonlinear regime which is characterized by weak noise and very slow multifrequency subthreshold input signals with a small duty cycle. This latter result is in agreement with recent analog simulation results by Gingl et al. [ICNF 2001, edited by G. Bosman (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 545-548; Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L181 (2001)].

  6. Design and sample size for evaluating combinations of drugs of linear and loglinear dose-response curves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hong-Bin; Tian, Guo-Liang; Li, Wei; Tan, Ming

    2009-07-01

    The study of drug combinations has become important in drug development due to its potential for efficacy at lower, less toxic doses and the need to move new therapies rapidly into clinical trials. The goal is to identify which combinations are additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Although there exists statistical framework for finding doses and sample sizes needed to detect departure from additivity, e.g., the power maximized F-test, different classes of drugs of different does-response shapes require different derivation for calculating sample size and finding doses. Motivated by two anticancer combination studies that we are involved with, this article proposes dose-finding and sample size method for detecting departures from additivity of two drugs with linear and log-linear single dose-response curves. The first study involves combination of two drugs, where one single drug dose-response curve is linear and the other is log-linear. The second study involves combinations of drugs whose single drug dose-response curves are linear. The experiment had been planned with the common fixed ratio design before we were consulted, but the resulting data missed the synergistic combinations. However, the experiment based on the proposed design was able to identify the synergistic combinations as anticipated. Thus we shall summarize the analysis of the data collected according to the proposed design and discuss why the commonly used fixed ratio method failed and the implications of the proposed method for other combination studies.

  7. A Bayesian approach for inducing sparsity in generalized linear models with multi-category response

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The dimension and complexity of high-throughput gene expression data create many challenges for downstream analysis. Several approaches exist to reduce the number of variables with respect to small sample sizes. In this study, we utilized the Generalized Double Pareto (GDP) prior to induce sparsity in a Bayesian Generalized Linear Model (GLM) setting. The approach was evaluated using a publicly available microarray dataset containing 99 samples corresponding to four different prostate cancer subtypes. Results A hierarchical Sparse Bayesian GLM using GDP prior (SBGG) was developed to take into account the progressive nature of the response variable. We obtained an average overall classification accuracy between 82.5% and 94%, which was higher than Support Vector Machine, Random Forest or a Sparse Bayesian GLM using double exponential priors. Additionally, SBGG outperforms the other 3 methods in correctly identifying pre-metastatic stages of cancer progression, which can prove extremely valuable for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Importantly, using Geneset Cohesion Analysis Tool, we found that the top 100 genes produced by SBGG had an average functional cohesion p-value of 2.0E-4 compared to 0.007 to 0.131 produced by the other methods. Conclusions Using GDP in a Bayesian GLM model applied to cancer progression data results in better subclass prediction. In particular, the method identifies pre-metastatic stages of prostate cancer with substantially better accuracy and produces more functionally relevant gene sets. PMID:26423345

  8. Path-following analysis of the dynamical response of a piecewise-linear capsule system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páez Chávez, Joseph; Liu, Yang; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Wiercigroch, Marian

    2016-08-01

    The dynamical response of a piecewise-linear capsule system is studied by means of path-following techniques in this paper. As the capsule model belongs to the class of piecewise-smooth dynamical systems involving impact and friction, a special care is taken in order to divide the trajectory of the system into a smooth vector field in each disjoint subregion. Specifically we study a two-sided drifting system focusing on directional control and energy consumption. We aim to address two practical problems which are maximizing the rate of progression and directional control of the system by following a typical period-1 trajectory. The one-parameter analysis shows that two types of bifurcations, grazing bifurcation and boundary-intersection crossing bifurcation are found, and the maximal rate of progression is achieved when the capsule performs the oscillations without sticking phases. In our two-parameter study, the control parameters for which the rate of progression is maximal are identified using fixed value of power consumption, and the curves which divide the motion of the capsule between forward and backward progression are obtained.

  9. Non-Linear Optical Response Simulations for Strongly Corellated Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliksetyan, Areg; Bondarev, Igor; Gelin, Maxim

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid carbon nanotube systems, nanotubes containing extrinsic atomic type species (dopants) such as semiconductor quantum dots, extrinsic atoms, or ions, are promising candidates for the development of the new generation of tunable nanooptoelectronic devices - both application oriented, e.g., photovoltaic devices of improved light-harvesting efficiency, and devices for use in fundamental research. Here, we simulate non-linear optical response signals for a pair of spatially separated two-level dipole emitters (to model the dopants above) in the regime where they are coupled strongly to a low-energy surface plasmon resonance of a metallic carbon nanotube. Such a coupling makes them entangled, and we show that the cross-peaks in 2D photon-echo spectra are indicative of the bipartite entanglement being present in the system. We simulate various experimental conditions and formulate practical recommendations for the reliable experimental observation of this unique quantum phenomenon of relevance to the solid-state quantum information science. ARO-W911NF-11-1-0189 (AM), DOE-DE-SC0007117 (IB), DFG-MAP (MG)

  10. Linear ground-water flow, flood-wave response program for programmable calculators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernodle, John Michael

    1978-01-01

    Two programs are documented which solve a discretized analytical equation derived to determine head changes at a point in a one-dimensional ground-water flow system. The programs, written for programmable calculators, are in widely divergent but commonly encountered languages and serve to illustrate the adaptability of the linear model to use in situations where access to true computers is not possible or economical. The analytical method assumes a semi-infinite aquifer which is uniform in thickness and hydrologic characteristics, bounded on one side by an impermeable barrier and on the other parallel side by a fully penetrating stream in complete hydraulic connection with the aquifer. Ground-water heads may be calculated for points along a line which is perpendicular to the impermeable barrie and the fully penetrating stream. Head changes at the observation point are dependent on (1) the distance between that point and the impermeable barrier, (2) the distance between the line of stress (the stream) and the impermeable barrier, (3) aquifer diffusivity, (4) time, and (5) head changes along the line of stress. The primary application of the programs is to determine aquifer diffusivity by the flood-wave response technique. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Calculation of excitation energies from the CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baudin, Pablo; Marín, José Sánchez; Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-03-14

    A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model is reported. It employs a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals that significantly reduces the computational cost and the storage requirements of the method compared to standard implementations. Our algorithm also exploits a partitioning form of the CC2 equations which reduces the dimension of the problem and avoids the storage of doubles amplitudes. We present calculation of excitation energies of benzene using a hierarchy of basis sets and compare the results with conventional CC2 calculations. The reduction of the scaling is evaluated as well as the effect of the Cholesky decomposition parameter on the quality of the results. The new algorithm is used to perform an extrapolation to complete basis set investigation on the spectroscopically interesting benzylallene conformers. A set of calculations on medium-sized molecules is carried out to check the dependence of the accuracy of the results on the decomposition thresholds. Moreover, CC2 singlet excitation energies of the free base porphin are also presented.

  12. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT.

    PubMed

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue; Govind, Niranjan; Yang, Chao; Saad, Yousef; Ng, Esmond G

    2015-11-10

    We present a special symmetric Lanczos algorithm and a kernel polynomial method (KPM) for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within the linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework in the product form. In contrast to existing algorithms, the new algorithms are based on reformulating the original non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem as a product eigenvalue problem and the observation that the product eigenvalue problem is self-adjoint with respect to an appropriately chosen inner product. This allows a simple symmetric Lanczos algorithm to be used to compute the desired absorption spectrum. The use of a symmetric Lanczos algorithm only requires half of the memory compared with the nonsymmetric variant of the Lanczos algorithm. The symmetric Lanczos algorithm is also numerically more stable than the nonsymmetric version. The KPM algorithm is also presented as a low-memory alternative to the Lanczos approach, but the algorithm may require more matrix-vector multiplications in practice. We discuss the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost. Applications to a set of small and medium-sized molecules are also presented.

  13. Energy loss of ions in a magnetized plasma: conformity between linear response and binary collision treatments.

    PubMed

    Nersisyan, H B; Zwicknagel, G; Toepffer, C

    2003-02-01

    The energy loss of a heavy ion moving in a magnetized electron plasma is considered within the linear response (LR) and binary collision (BC) treatments with the purpose to look for a connection between these two models. These two complementary approaches yield close results if no magnetic field is present, but there develop discrepancies with growing magnetic field at ion velocities that are lower than, or comparable with, the thermal velocity of the electrons. We show that this is a peculiarity of the Coulomb interaction which requires cutoff procedures to account for its singularity at the origin and its infinite range. The cutoff procedures in the LR and BC treatments are different as the order of integrations in velocity and in ordinary (Fourier) spaces is reversed in both treatments. While BC involves a velocity average of Coulomb logarithms, there appear in LR Coulomb logarithms of velocity averaged cutoffs. The discrepancies between LR and BC vanish, except for small contributions of collective modes, for smoothened potentials that require no cutoffs. This is shown explicitly with the help of an improved BC in which the velocity transfer is treated up to second order in the interaction in Fourier space.

  14. Adding salt to a surfactant solution: Linear rheological response of the resulting morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudino, Danila; Pasquino, Rossana Grizzuti, Nino

    2015-11-15

    The micellar system composed of Cetylpyridinium Chloride-Sodium Salicylate (CPyCl-NaSal) in brine aqueous solutions has been studied by systematically changing the salt concentration, in order to investigate the rheology of the arising morphologies. In particular, the zero-shear viscosity and the linear viscoelastic response have been measured as a function of the NaSal concentration (with [CPyCl] = 100 mM). The Newtonian viscosity shows a nonmonotonic dependence upon concentration, passing through a maximum at NaSal/CPyCl ≈ 0.6, and eventually dropping at higher salt concentrations. The progressive addition of salt determines first a transition from a Newtonian to a purely Maxwell-like behavior as the length of the micelles significantly increases. Beyond the peak viscosity, the viscoelastic data show two distinct features. On the one hand, the main relaxation time of the system strongly decreases, while the plateau modulus remains essentially constant. Calculations based on the rheological data show that, as the binding salt concentration increases, there is a decrease in micelles breaking rate and a decrease in their average length. On the other hand, in the same concentration region, a low-frequency elastic plateau is measured. Such a plateau is considered as the signature of a tenuous, but persistent branched network, whose existence is confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy images.

  15. Linear-response reflection coefficient of the recorder air-jet amplifier.

    PubMed

    Price, John C; Johnston, William A; McKinnon, Daniel D

    2015-11-01

    In a duct-flute such as the recorder, steady-state oscillations are controlled by two parameters, the blowing pressure and the frequency of the acoustic resonator. As in most feedback oscillators, the oscillation amplitude is determined by gain-saturation of the amplifier, and thus it cannot be controlled independently of blowing pressure and frequency unless the feedback loop is opened. In this work, the loop is opened by replacing the recorder body with a waveguide reflectometer: a section of transmission line with microphones, a signal source, and an absorbing termination. When the mean flow from the air-jet into the transmission line is not blocked, the air-jet amplifier is unstable to edge-tone oscillations through a feedback path that does not involve the acoustic resonator. When it is blocked, the air-jet is deflected somewhat outward and the system becomes stable. It is then possible to measure the reflection coefficient of the air-jet amplifier versus blowing pressure and acoustic frequency under linear response conditions, avoiding the complication of gain-saturation. The results provide a revealing test of flute drive models under the simplest conditions and with few unknown parameters. The strengths and weaknesses of flute drive models are discussed.

  16. Linear-response reflection coefficient of the recorder air-jet amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, John C.; Johnston, William A.; McKinnon, Daniel D.

    2015-11-01

    In a duct-flute such as the recorder, steady-state oscillations are controlled by two parameters, the blowing pressure and the frequency of the acoustic resonator. As in most feedback oscillators, the oscillation amplitude is determined by gain-saturation of the amplifier, and thus it cannot be controlled independently of blowing pressure and frequency unless the feedback loop is opened. In this work, the loop is opened by replacing the recorder body with a waveguide reflectometer: a section of transmission line with microphones, a signal source, and an absorbing termination. When the mean flow from the air-jet into the transmission line is not blocked, the air-jet amplifier is unstable to edge-tone oscillations through a feedback path that does not involve the acoustic resonator. When it is blocked, the air-jet is deflected somewhat outward and the system becomes stable. It is then possible to measure the reflection coefficient of the air-jet amplifier versus blowing pressure and acoustic frequency under linear response conditions, avoiding the complication of gain-saturation. The results provide a revealing test of flute drive models under the simplest conditions and with few unknown parameters. The strengths and weaknesses of flute drive models are discussed.

  17. Understanding the structure and deformation of titanium-containing silicate glasses from their elastic responses to external stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannell, Garth

    The responses of structure and properties to composition and temperature have been investigated for glasses in TiO2-SiO2 and Na2O-TiO2-SiO2 systems. Additionally, the response of Na2O-TiO2-SiO2 glasses to plastic deformation has been studied. (x)TiO2-(1-x)SiO2 glasses were prepared through the sol-gel process with compositions 0 ≤ x ≤ 10 mol% and compared to commercial glasses prepared through flame hydrolysis deposition with x = 0, 5.4, and 8.3 mol%. (x) Na2O - (y) TiO 2 - (1-x-y) SiO2 glasses were prepared with x = 10, 15, 20, and 25 mol% and y = 4, 7, and 10 mol% through a melt-quench process. Density and index of refraction of glasses was measured through the Archimedes's method and using a prism coupler, respectively. The glass transition temperature of Na2O-TiO2-SiO2 glasses was measured through differential thermal analysis. The structure and elastic moduli have been studied through Raman spectroscopy and Brillouin light scattering, respectively, at room temperature and in-situ up to 1200 °C for TiO2-SiO2 glasses and up to 800 °C for Na2O-TiO2-SiO2 glasses. Young's modulus was observed to decrease from 72 GPa to 66 GPa with the addition of 8.3 mol% TiO2 in TiO2-SiO2 glasses and to increase from 65 GPa to 73 GPa with the addition of 10 mol% TiO2 in 10 Na2O - (0-10) TiO2-SiO2 glasses. The addition of TiO2 was observed to shift the 460, 490, and 600 cm-1 Raman peaks to lower frequencies in TiO2-SiO2 glasses, suggesting a more open and flexible network, and the 720, 800, and 840 cm -1 Raman peaks to higher frequencies in Na2O-TiO2 -SiO2 glasses, suggesting a lower free volume and stiffer network. The addition of TiO2 has little effect on the temperature response of the elastic moduli in either system, but decreases the thermal expansion and increases the frequency shifts in the 950 and 1100 cm -1 Raman peaks in the TiO2-SiO2 system while the thermal expansion increases with initial additions of TiO2 and then remains constant in the Na2O-TiO2-SiO 2 system

  18. Evolution of Channels Draining Mount St. Helens: Linking Non-Linear and Rapid, Threshold Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens buried the valley of the North Fork Toutle River (NFT) to a depth of up to 140 m. Initial integration of a new drainage network took place episodically by the “filling and spilling” (from precipitation and seepage) of depressions formed during emplacement of the debris avalanche deposit. Channel incision to depths of 20-30 m occurred in the debris avalanche and extensive pyroclastic flow deposits, and headward migration of the channel network followed, with complete integration taking place within 2.5 years. Downstream reaches were converted from gravel-cobble streams with step-pool sequences to smoothed, infilled channels dominated by sand-sized materials. Subsequent channel evolution was dominated by channel widening with the ratio of changes in channel width to changes in channel depth ranging from about 60 to 100. Widening resulted in significant adjustment of hydraulic variables that control sediment-transport rates. For a given discharge over time, flow depths were reduced, relative roughness increased and flow velocity and boundary shear stress decreased non-linearly. These changes, in combination with coarsening of the channel bed with time resulted in systematically reduced rates of degradation (in upstream reaches), aggradation (in downstream reaches) and sediment-transport rates through much of the 1990s. Vertical adjustments were, therefore, easy to characterize with non-linear decay functions with bed-elevation attenuating with time. An empirical model of bed-level response was then created by plotting the total dimensionless change in elevation against river kilometer for both initial and secondary vertical adjustments. High magnitude events generated from the generated from upper part of the mountain, however, can cause rapid (threshold) morphologic changes. For example, a rain-on-snow event in November 2006 caused up to 9 m of incision along a 6.5 km reach of Loowit Creek and the upper NFT. The event

  19. Near-LTE linear response calculations with a collisional-radiative model for He-like Al ions

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.; Kato, T.

    1998-01-06

    We investigate the non-equilibrium atomic kinetics using a collisional-radiative (CR) model modified to include line absorption. Steady-state emission is calculated for He-like aluminum ions immersed in a specified radiation field having fixed deviations from a Planck spectrum. The net emission is interpreted in terms of NLTE population changes. The calculation provides an NLTE response matrix, and in agreement with a general relation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the response matrix is symmetric. We compute the response matrix for 1% and 50% changes in the photon temperature and find linear response over a surprisingly large range.

  20. Functions Represented as Linear Sequential Data: Relationships between Presentation and Student Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' ways of attending to linear sequential data in two tasks, and conjectures possible relationships between those ways and elements of the task design. Drawing on the substantial literature about such situations, we focus for this paper on linear rate of change, and on covariation and correspondence approaches to…

  1. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  2. Tracking hydrothermal feature changes in response to seismicity and deformation at Mud Volcano thermal area, Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Hurwitz, S.; Murphy, F.; Evans, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mud Volcano thermal area in Yellowstone National Park comprises many hydrothermal features including fumaroles, mudpots, springs, and thermal pools. Observations of hydrothermal changes have been made for decades in the Mud Volcano thermal area, and include reports of significant changes (the appearance of new features, increased water levels in pools, vigor of activity, and tree mortality) following an earthquake swarm in 1978 that took place beneath the area. However, no quantitative method to map and measure surface feature changes through time has been applied. We present an analysis of aerial photographs from 1954 to present to track temporal changes in the boundaries between vegetated and thermally barren areas, as well as location, extent, color, clarity, and runoff patterns of hydrothermal features within the Mud Volcano thermal area. This study attempts to provide a detailed, long-term (>50 year) inventory of hydrothermal features and change detection at Mud Volcano thermal area that can be used to identify changes in hydrothermal activity in response to seismicity, uplift and subsidence episodes of the adjacent Sour Creek resurgent dome, or other potential causes.

  3. Depositional response to foreland deformation in the Carboniferous of eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Tankard, A.J.

    1986-06-01

    The Appalachian basin is a typical foreland basin that has subsided episodically under the loads of successive thrust sheets. The dynamics of basin subsidence and upwarping of basin-margin arch systems reflects the flex-ural properties of the lithosphere. Quantitative models of the lithosphere depend on assumed rheological properties. This study attempts to test these geodynamic models in a part of the Appalachian basin. Mississippian deposition is correlated with waning Acadian tectonism. Orogenic quiescence coincided with basin overdeepening and uplift of the Cincinnati arch or fore-bulge. Although the foreland basin was mudstone dominated, shoaling along the crest of the basin-margin arch system resulted in reworking and wedges of unconformities. In contrast, the onset of Alleghenian orogenesis during the Pennsylvanian is reflected in a thick wedge of terrigenous clastic sediments. The Pennsylvanian basin fluctuated between underfilled (restricted marine) and overfilled (nonmarine) conditions. Rapid response of the basin to thrust-sheet loading is inferred. These characteristics of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian deposition support a viscoelastic model of the lithosphere.

  4. NIKE3D: an implicit, finite-deformation, finite element code for analyzing the static and dynamic response of three-dimensional solids

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1981-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for NIKE3D, a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation static and dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node constant pressure solid elements. Bandwidth minimization is optional. Post-processors for NIKE3D include GRAPE for plotting deformed shapes and stress contours and DYNAP for plotting time histories.

  5. The role of retardation in the structure and linear response of finite nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Crecca, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional random phase approximation (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) calculations of nuclear structure and the linear response employ interactions between nucleons that are instantaneous. However, N-N interactions derived from the exchange of mesons between nucleons must depend on the space-time separation of the nucleons since the mesons travel at finite speeds. Furthermore, a quantum field theory that contains interacting meson and nucleon degrees of freedom employ the Feynman propagator, i{Delta}{sub F}(x - x{prime}), to connect the nucleon-meson vertices of Feynman diagrams. This raises the question of whether calculations done with space-time dependent interactions differ significantly from the conventional calculations that employ instantaneous forces, and what are the qualitative features of the difference. The inquiry into this question begins by generalizing the traditional RPA and TDA equations into the domain of retarded (space-time dependant) interactions. This entails establishing an integral equation (the Bethe-Salpeter equation) for the polarization propagator with the appropriate RPA or TDA kernel such that the integral equation reduces to the usual RPA or TDA matrix equation for the polarization propagator as the interaction becomes instantaneous. After establishing this generalization of the RPA and TDA, a TDA calculation is performed for an interaction arising from the exchange of a scalar meson. The results are compared with those obtained from the conventional instantaneous reduction of the scalar meson exchange interaction, the Yukawa potential. Upon comparing these results one finds that in general the nuclear structure obtained from scalar meson exchange differ little less than 10%.

  6. Self-consistent linear response for the spin-orbit interaction related properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    In many cases, the relativistic spin-orbit (SO) interaction can be regarded as a small perturbation to the electronic structure of solids and treated using regular perturbation theory. The major obstacle on this route comes from the fact that the SO interaction can also polarize the electron system and produce some additional contributions to the perturbation theory expansion, which arise from the electron-electron interactions in the same order of the SO coupling. In electronic structure calculations, it may even lead to the necessity of abandoning the perturbation theory and returning to the original self-consistent solution of Kohn-Sham-like equations with the effective potential v̂, incorporating simultaneously the effects of the electron-electron interactions and the SO coupling, even though the latter is small. In this work, we present the theory of self-consistent linear response (SCLR), which allows us to get rid of numerical self-consistency and formulate the last step fully analytically in the first order of the SO coupling. This strategy is applied to the unrestricted Hartree-Fock solution of an effective Hubbard-type model, derived from the first-principles electronic structure calculations in the basis of Wannier functions for the magnetically active states. We show that by using v̂, obtained in SCLR, one can successfully reproduce results of ordinary self-consistent calculations for the orbital magnetization and other properties, which emerge in the first order of the SO coupling. Particularly, SCLR appears to be an extremely useful approach for calculations of antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions based on the magnetic force theorem, where only by using the total perturbation one can make a reliable estimate for the DM parameters. Furthermore, due to the powerful 2n+1 theorem, the SCLR theory allows us to obtain the total energy change up to the third order of the SO coupling, which can be used in calculations of magnetic anisotropy

  7. Investigation of linear coupling between single-event blood flow responses and interictal discharges in a model of experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vanzetta, Ivo; Flynn, Corey; Ivanov, Anton I; Bernard, Christophe; Bénar, Christian G

    2010-06-01

    A successful outcome of epilepsy neurosurgery relies on an accurate delineation of the epileptogenic region to be resected. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) would allow doing this noninvasively at high spatial resolution. However, a clear, quantitative description of the relationship between hemodynamic changes and the underlying epileptiform neuronal activity is still missing, thereby preventing the systematic use of fMRI for routine epilepsy surgery planning. To this aim, we used a local epilepsy model to record simultaneously cerebral blood flow (CBF) with laser Doppler (LD) and local field potentials (LFP) in rat frontal cortex. CBF responses to individual interictal-like spikes were large and robust. Their amplitude correlated linearly with spike amplitude. Moreover, the CBF response added linearly in time over a large range of spiking rates. CBF responses could thus be predicted by a linear model of the kind currently used for the interpretation of fMRI data, but including also the spikes' amplitudes as additional information. Predicted and measured CBF responses matched accurately. For high spiking frequencies (above approximately 0.2 Hz), the responses saturated but could eventually recover, indicating the presence of multiple neurovascular coupling mechanisms, which might act at different spatiotemporal scales. Spatially, CBF responses peaked at the center of epileptic activity and displayed a spatial specificity at least as good as the millimeter. These results suggest that simultaneous electroencephalographic and blood flow-based fMRI recordings should be suitable for the noninvasive precise localization of hyperexcitable regions in epileptic patients candidate for neurosurgery.

  8. Linear interference and the northern annular mode response to El Niño and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Christopher G.; Minokhin, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    The northern annular mode (NAM) characterizes a significant fraction of wintertime climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Understanding the processes governing changes in the NAM on interannual and longer timescales is therefore of critical importance. Previous work reveals a consensus around the negative NAM response to El Niño events (ELN), but considerable disagreement among model projections of the NAM response to climate change (CC), despite the tropical oceans warming in both cases. This work presents numerical simulations with two atmospheric GCMs that reveal robust opposite-signed NAM responses to prescribed sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies representing ELN (negative NAM) and CC (positive NAM). The primary driver of the sign and amplitude of the NAM response is the linear interference between the planetary waves generated in response to the SST perturbations, and the climatological stationary waves. However, the linear interference framework breaks down in the case involving CC, because the total wave driving of the NAM involves a balance between a strong negative contribution from the eddies related to linear interference, and a strong positive contribution from nonlinear and higher frequency eddies. In addition, the response to CC is less robust in the two models, which may be related to the models' parameterizations causing differences in the sensitivity to imposed SST anomalies.

  9. Tidal deformations of a spinning compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Maselli, Andrea; Ferrari, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    The deformability of a compact object induced by a perturbing tidal field is encoded in the tidal Love numbers, which depend sensibly on the object's internal structure. These numbers are known only for static, spherically-symmetric objects. As a first step to compute the tidal Love numbers of a spinning compact star, here we extend powerful perturbative techniques to compute the exterior geometry of a spinning object distorted by an axisymmetric tidal field to second order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic deformations and new classes of induced Love numbers emerge. For example, a spinning object immersed in a quadrupolar, electric tidal field can acquire some induced mass, spin, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole moments to second order in the spin. The deformations are encoded in a set of inhomogeneous differential equations which, remarkably, can be solved analytically in vacuum. We discuss certain subtleties in defining the tidal Love numbers in general relativity, which are due to the difficulty in separating the tidal field from the linear response of the object in the solution, even in the static case. By extending the standard procedure to identify the linear response in the static case, we prove analytically that the Love numbers of a Kerr black hole remain zero to second order in the spin. As a by-product, we provide the explicit form for a slowly-rotating, tidally-deformed Kerr black hole to quadratic order in the spin, and discuss its geodesic and geometrical properties.

  10. Self-characterization of linear and nonlinear adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Peter J.; Conan, Rodolphe; Keskin, Onur; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan

    2008-01-01

    We present methods used to determine the linear or nonlinear static response and the linear dynamic response of an adaptive optics (AO) system. This AO system consists of a nonlinear microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror (DM), a linear tip-tilt mirror (TTM), a control computer, and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The system is modeled using a single-input-single-output structure to determine the one-dimensional transfer function of the dynamic response of the chain of system hardware. An AO system has been shown to be able to characterize its own response without additional instrumentation. Experimentally determined models are given for a TTM and a DM.

  11. Predicting the nonlinear optical response in the resonant region from the linear characterization: a self-consistent theory for the first-, second-, and third-order (non)linear optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Moreno, Javier; Clays, Koen; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a self-consistent theory for the description of the optical linear and nonlinear response of molecules that is based strictly on the results of the experimental characterization. We show how the Thomas-Kuhn sum-rules can be used to eliminate the dependence of the nonlinear response on parameters that are not directly measurable. Our approach leads to the successful modeling of the dispersion of the nonlinear response of complex molecular structures with different geometries (dipolar and octupolar), and can be used as a guide towards the modeling in terms of fundamental physical parameters.

  12. Constitutive modeling of the rate, temperature, and hydration dependent deformation response of Nafion to monotonic and cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Meredith N.; Boyce, Mary C.

    modeled to decrease with increasing temperature and hydration, in particular mimicking the reduction in these barriers as the material approaches and enters the glass transition regime, successfully capturing the strong temperature and hydration dependence of the stress-strain behavior. The highly nonlinear post-yield unloading and reloading suggest the development of a back stress during inelastic deformation which aids reverse plastic flow during unloading. Inclusion of a back stress which saturates after reaching a critical level provides an ability to capture the highly nonlinear cyclic loading stress response. Hence, the proposed model provides the capability to describe the complex evolution of stress and strain that occurs in PEM membranes due to the constrained hygrothermal cyclic swelling/deswelling characteristic of membranes in operating fuel cells.

  13. Transcriptional responses, metabolic activity and mouthpart deformities in natural populations of Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Planelló, Rosario; Servia, María J; Gómez-Sande, Pablo; Herrero, Óscar; Cobo, Fernando; Morcillo, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Biomarkers are an important tool in laboratory assays that link exposure or effect of specific toxicants to key molecular and cellular events, but they have not been widely used in invertebrate populations exposed to complex mixtures of environmental contaminants in their natural habitats. The present study focused on a battery of biomarkers and their comparative analysis in natural populations of the benthic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera), sampled in three differentially polluted rivers (the Con, Sar, and Louro in Galicia, Spain). In our study, some parameters were identified, such as hsp70 gene activity, GST enzymatic activity, total glycogen content and mouthpart deformities, which showed significant differences among populations from the three rivers that differed in the levels and types of sedimentary contaminants analyzed (metals, organic-chlorine pesticides, alkylphenols, pharmaceutical, and personal care products). In contrast to these sensitive biomarkers, other parameters showed no significant differences (hsc70 gene, EcR gene, P450 gene, RNA:DNA ratio, total protein content), and were stable even when comparing field and nonexposed laboratory populations. The hsp70 gene seems to be particularly sensitive to conditions of pollutant exposure, while its constitutive counterpart hsc70 showed invariable expression, suggesting that the hsc70/hsp70 ratio may be a potential indicator of polluted environments. Although further studies are required to understand the correlation between molecular responses and the ecological effects of pollutants on natural populations, the results provide new data about the biological responses to multiple-stressor environments. This field study adds new molecular endpoints, including gene expression, as suitable tools that, complementing other ecotoxicological parameters, may help to improve the methodologies of freshwater monitoring under the increasing burden of xenobiotics.

  14. Comparison of Nonlinear Random Response Using Equivalent Linearization and Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed finite-element-based equivalent linearization approach for the analysis of random vibrations of geometrically nonlinear multiple degree-of-freedom structures is validated. The validation is based on comparisons with results from a finite element based numerical simulation analysis using a numerical integration technique in physical coordinates. In particular, results for the case of a clamped-clamped beam are considered for an extensive load range to establish the limits of validity of the equivalent linearization approach.

  15. Step-response of a torsional device with multiple discontinuous non-linearities: Formulation of a vibratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krak, Michael D.; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    A vehicle clutch damper is intentionally designed to contain multiple discontinuous non-linearities, such as multi-staged springs, clearances, pre-loads, and multi-staged friction elements. The main purpose of this practical torsional device is to transmit a wide range of torque while isolating torsional vibration between an engine and transmission. Improved understanding of the dynamic behavior of the device could be facilitated by laboratory measurement, and thus a refined vibratory experiment is proposed. The experiment is conceptually described as a single degree of freedom non-linear torsional system that is excited by an external step torque. The single torsional inertia (consisting of a shaft and torsion arm) is coupled to ground through parallel production clutch dampers, which are characterized by quasi-static measurements provided by the manufacturer. Other experimental objectives address physical dimensions, system actuation, flexural modes, instrumentation, and signal processing issues. Typical measurements show that the step response of the device is characterized by three distinct non-linear regimes (double-sided impact, single-sided impact, and no-impact). Each regime is directly related to the non-linear features of the device and can be described by peak angular acceleration values. Predictions of a simplified single degree of freedom non-linear model verify that the experiment performs well and as designed. Accordingly, the benchmark measurements could be utilized to validate non-linear models and simulation codes, as well as characterize dynamic parameters of the device including its dissipative properties.

  16. A Fast Method to Calculate the Spatial Impulse Response for 1-D Linear Ultrasonic Phased Array Transducers.

    PubMed

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Muhammad, Salman; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2016-11-08

    A method is developed to accurately determine the spatial impulse response at the specifically discretized observation points in the radiated field of 1-D linear ultrasonic phased array transducers with great efficiency. In contrast, the previously adopted solutions only optimize the calculation procedure for a single rectangular transducer and required approximation considerations or nonlinear calculation. In this research, an algorithm that follows an alternative approach to expedite the calculation of the spatial impulse response of a rectangular linear array is presented. The key assumption for this algorithm is that the transducer apertures are identical and linearly distributed on an infinite rigid plane baffled with the same pitch. Two points in the observation field, which have the same position relative to two transducer apertures, share the same spatial impulse response that contributed from corresponding transducer, respectively. The observation field is discretized specifically to meet the relationship of equality. The analytical expressions of the proposed algorithm, based on the specific selection of the observation points, are derived to remove redundant calculations. In order to measure the proposed methodology, the simulation results obtained from the proposed method and the classical summation method are compared. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed strategy can speed up the calculation procedure since it accelerates the speed-up ratio which relies upon the number of discrete points and the number of the array transducers. This development will be valuable in the development of advanced and faster linear ultrasonic phased array systems.

  17. A Fast Method to Calculate the Spatial Impulse Response for 1-D Linear Ultrasonic Phased Array Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Muhammad, Salman; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to accurately determine the spatial impulse response at the specifically discretized observation points in the radiated field of 1-D linear ultrasonic phased array transducers with great efficiency. In contrast, the previously adopted solutions only optimize the calculation procedure for a single rectangular transducer and required approximation considerations or nonlinear calculation. In this research, an algorithm that follows an alternative approach to expedite the calculation of the spatial impulse response of a rectangular linear array is presented. The key assumption for this algorithm is that the transducer apertures are identical and linearly distributed on an infinite rigid plane baffled with the same pitch. Two points in the observation field, which have the same position relative to two transducer apertures, share the same spatial impulse response that contributed from corresponding transducer, respectively. The observation field is discretized specifically to meet the relationship of equality. The analytical expressions of the proposed algorithm, based on the specific selection of the observation points, are derived to remove redundant calculations. In order to measure the proposed methodology, the simulation results obtained from the proposed method and the classical summation method are compared. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed strategy can speed up the calculation procedure since it accelerates the speed-up ratio which relies upon the number of discrete points and the number of the array transducers. This development will be valuable in the development of advanced and faster linear ultrasonic phased array systems. PMID:27834799

  18. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2015-05-01

    Transient sensory, motor or cognitive event elicit not only phase-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG), but also induce non-phase-locked modulations of ongoing EEG oscillations. These modulations can be detected when single-trial waveforms are analysed in the time-frequency domain, and consist in stimulus-induced decreases (event-related desynchronization, ERD) or increases (event-related synchronization, ERS) of synchrony in the activity of the underlying neuronal populations. ERD and ERS reflect changes in the parameters that control oscillations in neuronal networks and, depending on the frequency at which they occur, represent neuronal mechanisms involved in cortical activation, inhibition and binding. ERD and ERS are commonly estimated by averaging the time-frequency decomposition of single trials. However, their trial-to-trial variability that can reflect physiologically-important information is lost by across-trial averaging. Here, we aim to (1) develop novel approaches to explore single-trial parameters (including latency, frequency and magnitude) of ERP/ERD/ERS; (2) disclose the relationship between estimated single-trial parameters and other experimental factors (e.g., perceived intensity). We found that (1) stimulus-elicited ERP/ERD/ERS can be correctly separated using principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition with Varimax rotation on the single-trial time-frequency distributions; (2) time-frequency multiple linear regression with dispersion term (TF-MLRd) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of ERP/ERD/ERS in single trials, and provides an unbiased estimation of their latency, frequency, and magnitude at single-trial level; (3) these estimates can be meaningfully correlated with each other and with other experimental factors at single-trial level (e.g., perceived stimulus intensity and ERP magnitude). The methods described in this article allow exploring fully non-phase-locked stimulus-induced cortical

  19. Seismic response of structures: from non-stationary to non-linear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Mucciarelli, Marco; Smith, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The need for an effective seismic protection of buildings, and all the problems related to their management and maintenance over time, have led to a growing interest associated to develop of new integrated techniques for structural health monitoring and for damage detection and location during both ambient vibration and seismic events. It is well known that the occurrence of damage on any kind of structure is able to modify its dynamic characteristics. Indeed, the main parameters affected by the changes in stiffness characteristics are: periods of vibration, mode shapes and all the related equivalent viscous damping factors. With the aim to evaluate structural dynamic characteristics, their variation over time and after earthquakes, several Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods have been proposed in the last years. Most of these are based on simplified relationship that provide the maximum inter-story drift evaluated combining structural variations in terms of: peak ground acceleration and/or structural eigenfrequencies and/or equivalent viscous damping factors related the main modes of the monitored structure. The NDE methods can be classified into four different levels. The progress of the level increases the quality and the number of the information. The most popular are certainly Level I methods being simple in implementation and economic in management. These kinds of methods are mainly based on the fast variation (less than 1 minute) of the structural fundamental frequency and the related variation of the equivalent viscous damping factor. Generally, it is possible to distinguish two types of variations: the long term variations, which may also be linked to external factors (temperature change, water content in the foundation soils, etc.) and short period variations (for example, due to seismic events), where apparent frequencies variations could occurred due to non-stationary phenomena (particular combination of input and structural response). In these

  20. Modeling the Non-Linear Response of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Using a Combined Damage/Plasticity Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Pettermann, Heinz E.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is concerned with modeling the non-linear response of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Recent experimental data suggests that the non-linearity is not only caused by matrix cracking but also by matrix plasticity due to shear stresses. To capture the effects of those two mechanisms, a model combining a plasticity formulation with continuum damage has been developed to simulate the non-linear response of laminates under plane stress states. The model is used to compare the predicted behavior of various laminate lay-ups to experimental data from the literature by looking at the degradation of axial modulus and Poisson s ratio of the laminates. The influence of residual curing stresses and in-situ effect on the predicted response is also investigated. It is shown that predictions of the combined damage/plasticity model, in general, correlate well with the experimental data. The test data shows that there are two different mechanisms that can have opposite effects on the degradation of the laminate Poisson s ratio which is captured correctly by the damage/plasticity model. Residual curing stresses are found to have a minor influence on the predicted response for the cases considered here. Some open questions remain regarding the prediction of damage onset.

  1. Linearized blade row compression component model. Stability and frequency response analysis of a J85-3 compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, W. A.; Moszee, R. H.; Steenken, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    NASA developed stability and frequency response analysis techniques were applied to a dynamic blade row compression component stability model to provide a more economic approach to surge line and frequency response determination than that provided by time-dependent methods. This blade row model was linearized and the Jacobian matrix was formed. The clean-inlet-flow stability characteristics of the compressors of two J85-13 engines were predicted by applying the alternate Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion to the Jacobian matrix. The predicted surge line agreed with the clean-inlet-flow surge line predicted by the time-dependent method to a high degree except for one engine at 94% corrected speed. No satisfactory explanation of this discrepancy was found. The frequency response of the linearized system was determined by evaluating its Laplace transfer function. The results of the linearized-frequency-response analysis agree with the time-dependent results when the time-dependent inlet total-pressure and exit-flow function amplitude boundary conditions are less than 1 percent and 3 percent, respectively. The stability analysis technique was extended to a two-sector parallel compressor model with and without interstage crossflow and predictions were carried out for total-pressure distortion extents of 180 deg, 90 deg, 60 deg, and 30 deg.

  2. Linear and third-order nonlinear optical responses of multilayered Ag:Si3N4 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Toudert, J; Fernandez, H; Babonneau, D; Camelio, S; Girardeau, T; Solis, J

    2009-11-25

    The linear and third-order nonlinear responses of tailored Si3N4/Ag/Si3N4 trilayers and (Si3N4/Ag)n/Si3N4 multilayers grown by alternating ion-beam sputtering have been studied by combining complementary characterization techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and degenerate four-wave mixing. The linear optical response dominated by the surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles has been measured over the whole visible range while the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been probed at the surface plasmon resonance wavelength. Due to the weak in-plane interaction between Ag nanoparticles, the linear and nonlinear optical responses of the Si3N4/Ag/Si3N4 trilayers are mainly influenced by the size and shape of the nanoparticles. A maximum value of 1.1 x 10(-7) esu has been found at 635 nm for the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the trilayer with the highest amount of silver. The linear optical response of the (Si3N4/Ag)n/Si3N4 multilayers is shown to be dominated by the surface plasmon resonance of isolated layers of weakly interacting nanoparticles at wavelengths shorter than 600 nm whereas a contribution due to vertical interactions has been shown for higher wavelengths. Below the vertical percolation threshold, their nonlinear optical response at the surface plasmon resonance wavelength is similar to the one of an isolated assembly of nanoparticles, and the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility is slightly increased by decreasing the thickness of the Si3N4 spacer.

  3. Statistical linearization based estimation of the peak response of nonlinear systems subject to the EC8 design spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, Pol D.; Giaralis, Agathoklis

    2008-07-08

    A stochastic approach is proposed to obtain reliable estimates of the peak response of nonlinear systems to excitations specified via a response/design seismic spectrum. This is achieved without resorting to numerical integration of the governing nonlinear equations of motion. First, a numerical scheme is utilized to derive a power spectrum which is compatible in a stochastic sense to a given elastic design spectrum. This spectrum is then treated as the excitation spectrum in the context of the statistical linearization method to determine effective parameters, damping and stiffness, corresponding to an equivalent linear system (ELS). The obtained parameters are used in conjunction with the linear design spectrum, for various values of damping, to estimate the response of certain nonlinear systems. The case of single-degree-of-freedom systems with cubic stiffness nonlinearity and hysteretic systems whose restoring force traces a bilinear law are considered in conjunction with the elastic design spectrum prescribed by the European aseismic code provisions (EC8). Monte Carlo simulations pertaining to an ensemble of non-stationary EC 8 design spectrum compatible accelerograms are conducted to confirm that the average peak response of the nonlinear systems compare reasonably well with that of the ELS. This is true, even in cases where the response of the nonlinear oscillators deviates significantly from the linear one. In this manner, the proposed approach yields ELS which can reliably replace the original nonlinear systems in carrying out computationally efficient analyses in the initial stages of the aseismic design of structures under severe seismic excitations. Furthermore, the potential of this approach for developing inelastic design spectra from a given elastic design spectrum is established.

  4. Geomorphic Responses to Crustal Deformation: the Sensitivity of Surface Processes to Bedrock Displacement, Weakening, and Comminution Associated with Brittle Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. G.; Koons, P. O.; Tucker, G. E.; Upton, P.; Smith, S. M.; Gerbi, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical properties of the lithosphere are increasingly recognized as having a quantifiable influence on the rates and patterns of surface processes. Strain localization, controlled by the mechanical response to local tectonic and topographic stress fields, manifests as tabular fault damage zones that impose displacement, strength, and grain size distribution patterns on the Earth's surface. Brittle failure and comminution associated with seismogenic cataclasis can reduce bedrock cohesion by several orders of magnitude and generate dense fracture networks, such that the grains released by rock weathering are much finer than those produced by weathering of the surrounding undamaged, intact bedrock. We combine models of landscape evolution and crustal mechanics to investigate how strain-induced crustal failure can exert significant controls on the rates and patterns of landscape development and adjustment. Based on our model results, drainage network patterns tend to reflect the geometry of underlying active or inactive tectonic structures due to the rapid erosion and transport of fault gouge. Fault erosion can be over an order of magnitude faster than erosion of intact bedrock. Fault zones with shallow dip angle are capable of enforcing lateral migration of their structurally confined rivers. Deep valleys created by eroding faults quickly become armored by coarse sediments transported from nearby intact bedrock. Differential displacement affects drainage network patterns by deforming and uplifting the surface relative to baselevel while simultaneously exposing fresh fault damage zones. Topography produced from these processes reflects the strong mechanical anisotropy associated with strain localization and brittle failure over many length scales, contrasting with the absence of a strong directional dependence from dendritic rivers incising into a predominantly homogeneous substrate. Our methods have been used to produce accurate predictions about local and

  5. A potentially robust plasma profile control approach for ITER using real-time estimation of linearized profile response models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Lister, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    An active plasma profile control approach for ITER, which is potentially robust by being tolerant to changing and uncertain physics, has been explored in this work, using a technique based on real-time estimation of linearized profile response models. The linearized models approximate static responses of the plasma profiles to power changes in auxiliary heating and current drive systems. These models are updated in real-time, differing from the model-based technique which deduces a dynamic model from identification experiments. The underlying physics is simplified with several assumptions to allow real-time update of the profile response models; however, without significant loss of information necessary for feedback control of the plasma profiles. The response of the electron temperature profile is modelled by simplifying the electron heat transport equation. The response of the safety factor profile is computed by directly relating it to the changes in source current density profiles. The required actuator power changes are directly computed by inverting the response matrix using the singular value decomposition technique. The saturation of the actuator powers is taken into account and the capability of using quantized auxiliary powers is provided. The potential of our active control approach has been tested by applying it to simulations of the ITER hybrid mode operation using CRONOS. In these simulations, either a global transport model or a theory-based local transport model has been used and the electron temperature and safety factor profiles were well controlled either independently or simultaneously.

  6. Higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions for the analysis of non-linear systems with harmonic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuij, P. W. J. M.; Bosgra, O. H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2006-11-01

    For high-precision motion systems, modelling and control design specifically oriented at friction effects is instrumental. The sinusoidal input describing function theory represents an approximative mathematical framework for analysing non-linear system behaviour. This theory, however, limits the description of the non-linear system behaviour to a quasi-linear amplitude-dependent relation between sinusoidal excitation and sinusoidal response. In this paper, an extension to higher-order describing functions is realised by introducing the concept of the harmonics generator. The resulting higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions (HOSIDFs) relate the magnitude and phase of the higher harmonics of the periodic response of the system to the magnitude and phase of a sinusoidal excitation. Based on this extension two techniques to measure HOSIDFs are presented. The first technique is FFT based. The second technique is based on IQ (in-phase/quadrature-phase) demodulation. In a simulation, the measurement techniques have been tested by comparing the simulation results to analytically derived results from a known (backlash) non-linearity. In a subsequent practical case study both techniques are used to measure the changes in dynamic behaviour as a function of drive level due to friction in an electric motor. Both methods prove successful for measuring HOSIDFs.

  7. Preliminary investigation and application of a novel deformable PRESAGE® dosimeter

    PubMed Central

    Juang, T; Newton, J; Das, S; Adamovics, J; Oldham, M

    2013-01-01

    Deformable 3D dosimeters have potential applications in validating deformable dose mapping algorithms. This study evaluates a novel deformable PRESAGE® dosimeter and its application toward validating the deformable algorithm employed by VelocityAI. The deformable PRESAGE® dosimeter exhibited a linear dose response with a sensitivity of 0.0032 ΔOD/(Gy/cm). Comparison of an experimental dosimeter irradiated with an MLC pencilbeam checkerboard pattern under lateral compression up to 27% to a non-deformed control dosimeter irradiated with the same pattern verified dose tracking under deformation. CTs of the experimental dosimeter prior to and during compression were exported into VelocityAI and used to map an Eclipse dose distribution calculated on the compressed dosimeter to its original shape. A comparison between the VelocityAI dose distribution and the distribution from the dosimeter showed field displacements up to 7.3 mm and up to a 175% difference in field dimensions. These results highlight the need for validating deformable dose mapping algorithms to ensure patient safety and quality of care. PMID:24454522

  8. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Ojha, A.; Garg, A. D.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Senecha, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  9. Comparison of Damage Models for Predicting the Non-Linear Response of Laminates Under Matrix Dominated Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Five models for matrix damage in fiber reinforced laminates are evaluated for matrix-dominated loading conditions under plane stress and are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. The emphasis of this study is on a comparison of the response of embedded plies subjected to a homogeneous stress state. Three of the models are specifically designed for modeling the non-linear response due to distributed matrix cracking under homogeneous loading, and also account for non-linear (shear) behavior prior to the onset of cracking. The remaining two models are localized damage models intended for predicting local failure at stress concentrations. The modeling approaches of distributed vs. localized cracking as well as the different formulations of damage initiation and damage progression are compared and discussed.

  10. Vestibular responses to linear acceleration are absent in otoconia-deficient C57BL/6JEi-het mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Erway, L. C.; Bergstrom, R. A.; Schimenti, J. C.; Jones, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) were measured in normal mice and in mice homozygous for the head tilt mutation (het/het, abbr. het). The het mice lack otoconia, the inertial mass critical for natural stimulation of inner ear gravity receptors. Our findings demonstrate that vestibular neural responses to pulsed linear acceleration are absent in het mice. The results: (1) confirm that adequate sensory stimuli fail to activate gravity receptors in the het model; and (2) serve as definitive evidence that far-field vestibular responses to pulsed linear acceleration depend critically on otolith end organs. The C57BL/6JEi-het mouse may be an excellent model of gravity receptor sensory deprivation.

  11. Linear and nonlinear optical response of one-dimensional semiconductors: finite-size and Franz–Keldysh effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonabi, Farzad; Pedersen, Thomas G.

    2017-04-01

    The dipole moment formalism for the optical response of finite electronic structures breaks down in infinite ones, for which a momentum-based method is better suited. Focusing on simple chain structures, we compare the linear and nonlinear optical response of finite and infinite one-dimensional semiconductors. This comparison is then extended to cases including strong electro-static fields breaking translational invariance. For large electro-static fields, highly non-perturbative Franz–Keldysh (FK) features are observed in both linear and nonlinear spectra. It is demonstrated that dipole and momentum formalisms agree in the limit of large structures provided the intraband momentum contributions are carefully treated. This convergence is established even in the presence of non-perturbative electro-static fields.

  12. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of the direct strike lightning response of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, T. H.; Perala, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the work reported here is to develop a methodology by which electromagnetic measurements of inflight lightning strike data can be understood and extended to other aircraft. A linear and time invariant approach based on a combination of Fourier transform and three dimensional finite difference techniques is demonstrated. This approach can obtain the lightning channel current in the absence of the aircraft for given channel characteristic impedance and resistive loading. The model is applied to several measurements from the NASA F106B lightning research program. A non-linear three dimensional finite difference code has also been developed to study the response of the F106B to a lightning leader attachment. This model includes three species air chemistry and fluid continuity equations and can incorporate an experimentally based streamer formulation. Calculated responses are presented for various attachment locations and leader parameters. The results are compared qualitatively with measured inflight data.

  13. The stability of a predator-prey system with linear mass-action functional response perturbed by white noise.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiumei; Wen, Xiangdan; Jiang, Daqing; Liu, Zhenwen

    The present paper deals with the problem of an ecoepidemiological model with linear mass-action functional response perturbed by white noise. The essential mathematical features are analyzed with the help of the stochastic stability, its long time behavior around the equilibrium of deterministic ecoepidemiological model, and the stochastic asymptotic stability by Lyapunov analysis methods. Numerical simulations for a hypothetical set of parameter values are presented to illustrate the analytical findings.

  14. Numerical tailoring of linear response from plasmonic nano-resonators grown on a layer of polystyrene spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetti, A. Belardini, A.; Veroli, A.; Centini, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2014-10-28

    We developed a geometrical method to reproduce the morphology of hybrid structures composed by self-ordered dielectric nanospheres covered by anisotropic plasmonic structures. Numerical analysis allowed to investigate the optical response of the considered system, and to identify the relevant parameters to achieve efficient and versatile light manipulation. In particular, we show that the overall structure, acting as a hybrid plasmonic-photonics meta-surface, can be engineered in order to maximize its linear and circular dichroic behavior at optical frequencies.

  15. Density and spin linear response of atomic Fermi superfluids with population imbalance in the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Li, Yang; He, Yan; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2014-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of the density and spin (representing the two components) linear response of Fermi superfluids with tunable attractive interactions and population imbalance. In both linear response theories, we find that the fluctuations of the order parameter must be treated on equal footing with the gauge transformations associated with the symmetries of the Hamiltonian so that important constraints including various sum rules can be satisfied. Both theories can be applied to the whole BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover. The spin linear responses are qualitatively different with and without population imbalance because collective-mode effects from the fluctuations of the order parameter survive in the presence of population imbalance, even though the associated symmetry is not broken by the order parameter. Since a polarized superfluid becomes unstable at low temperatures in the weak and intermediate coupling regimes, we found that the density and spin susceptibilities diverge as the system approaches the unstable regime, but the emergence of phase separation preempts the divergence.

  16. Precision Interval Estimation of the Response Surface by Means of an Integrated Algorithm of Neural Network and Linear Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1999-01-01

    The integration of Radial Basis Function Networks and Back Propagation Neural Networks with the Multiple Linear Regression has been accomplished to map nonlinear response surfaces over a wide range of independent variables in the process of the Modem Design of Experiments. The integrated method is capable to estimate the precision intervals including confidence and predicted intervals. The power of the innovative method has been demonstrated by applying to a set of wind tunnel test data in construction of response surface and estimation of precision interval.

  17. Ecological versus case-control studies for testing a linear-no threshold dose-response relationship.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B L

    1990-09-01

    The two basic problems with ecological studies are (A) individuals studied are not necessarily the individuals who are at risk, and (B) they are very vulnerable to confounding factors. It is shown that where the study is designed to test a linear-no threshold dose-response theory, (A) does not apply. Where the ecological study deals with the average dose and response in a large number of US counties, the available data and computer capability for reducing effects of confounders are so powerful that (B) may be no more important for the ecological than for a case-control study. The migration problem is treated and found to be relatively unimportant.

  18. No Evidence for a Low Linear Energy Transfer Adaptive Response in Irradiated RKO Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Goetz, Wilfried; Baulch, Janet E.; Lewis, Adam J.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-01-06

    It has become increasingly evident from reports in the literature that there are many confounding factors that are capable of modulating radiation induced non-targeted responses such as the bystander effect and the adaptive response. In this paper we examine recent data that suggest that the observation of non-targeted responses may not be universally observable for differing radiation qualities. We have conducted a study of the adaptive response following low LET exposures for human colon carcinoma cells and failed to observe adaption for the endpoints of clonogenic survival or micronucleus formation.

  19. Comparison of several methods for obtaining the time response of linear systems to either a unit impulse or arbitrary input from frequency-response data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J; Huss, Carl R

    1957-01-01

    Several methods of obtaining the time response of Linear systems to either a unit impulse or an arbitrary input from frequency-response data are described and compared. Comparisons indicate that all the methods give good accuracy when applied to a second-order system; the main difference is the required computing time. The methods generally classified as inverse Laplace transform methods were found to be most effective in determining the response to a unit impulse from frequency-response data of higher order systems. Some discussion and examples are given of the use of such methods as flight-data-analysis techniques in predicting loads and motions of a flexible aircraft on the basis of simple calculations when the aircraft frequency response is known.

  20. Effect of stride length on overarm throwing delivery: A linear momentum response.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L; White, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Changing stride length during overhand throwing delivery is thought to alter total body and throwing arm linear momentums, thereby altering the proportion of throwing arm momentum relative to the total body. Using a randomized cross-over design, nineteen pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to pitch two simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An 8-camera motion capture system (240Hz) integrated with two force plates (960Hz) and radar gun tracked each throw. Segmental linear momentums in each plane of motion were summed yielding throwing arm and total body momentums, from which compensation ratio's (relative contribution between the two) were derived. Pairwise comparisons at hallmark events and phases identified significantly different linear momentum profiles, in particular, anteriorly directed total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios (P⩽.05) as a result of manipulating stride length. Pitchers with shorter strides generated lower forward (anterior) momentum before stride foot contact, whereas greater upward and lateral momentum (toward third base) were evident during the acceleration phase. The evidence suggests insufficient total body momentum in the intended throwing direction may potentially influence performance (velocity and accuracy) and perhaps precipitate throwing arm injuries.

  1. Linear time delay methods and stability analyses of the human spine. Effects of neuromuscular reflex response.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Timothy C; Granata, Kevin P; Madigan, Michael L; Hendricks, Scott L

    2008-08-01

    Linear stability methods were applied to a biomechanical model of the human musculoskeletal spine to investigate effects of reflex gain and reflex delay on stability. Equations of motion represented a dynamic 18 degrees-of-freedom rigid-body model with time-delayed reflexes. Optimal muscle activation levels were identified by minimizing metabolic power with the constraints of equilibrium and stability with zero reflex time delay. Muscle activation levels and associated muscle forces were used to find the delay margin, i.e., the maximum reflex delay for which the system was stable. Results demonstrated that stiffness due to antagonistic co-contraction necessary for stability declined with increased proportional reflex gain. Reflex delay limited the maximum acceptable proportional reflex gain, i.e., long reflex delay required smaller maximum reflex gain to avoid instability. As differential reflex gain increased, there was a small increase in acceptable reflex delay. However, differential reflex gain with values near intrinsic damping caused the delay margin to approach zero. Forward-dynamic simulations of the fully nonlinear time-delayed system verified the linear results. The linear methods accurately found the delay margin below which the nonlinear system was asymptotically stable. These methods may aid future investigations in the role of reflexes in musculoskeletal stability.

  2. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Lemos-Pinto, M M P; Cadena, M; Santos, N; Fernandes, T S; Borges, E; Amaral, A

    2015-05-26

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates.

  3. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Lemos-Pinto, M M P; Cadena, M; Santos, N; Fernandes, T S; Borges, E; Amaral, A

    2015-10-01

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates.

  4. Control and large deformations of marginal disordered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Arvind; Pinson, Matthew; Chen, Elizabeth

    Designed deformations, such as origami patterns, provide a way to make easily controlled mechanical metamaterials with tailored responses to external forces. We focus on an often overlooked regime of origami - non-linear deformations of large disordered origami patterns with no symmetries. We find that practical questions of control in origami have counterintuitive answers, because of intimate connections to spin glasses and neural networks. For example, 1 degree of freedom origami structures are actually difficult to control about the flat state with a single actuator; the actuator is thrown off by an exponential number of `red herring' zero modes for small deformations, all but one of which disappear at larger deformations. Conversely, structures with multiple programmed motions are much easier to control than expected - in fact, they are as easy to control as a dedicated single-motion structure if the number of programmed motions is below a threshold (`memory capacity').

  5. Linearity and uniformity response as an indicator of performance for Agfa ADC-MD10 computed radiography plates.

    PubMed

    Zullo, John R; Bloch, Charles; Chi, Pai-Chun; Kudchadker, Rajat

    2004-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) plates are currently used in radiation therapy clinics to acquire digital radiographic images for the purpose of verifying the treatment field size, shape, and location. Each CR plate may be used numerous times, and the use of these digital images allows for easy storage and retrieval of patient data. Over prolonged repeat exposures of the CR plates, however, the image quality begins to degrade, making it increasingly more difficult for the therapists and physicians to determine where one anatomical structure begins, and the other ends. The purpose of this project was to analyze and compare the linearity and uniformity responses of new CR plates, versus CR plates that have been used clinically for a period of 2 years, and determine whether linearity or uniformity response may be used as an indicator of image quality degradation. To determine this, 44 old Agfa MD10 CR plates and 56 new Agfa MD10 CR plates were tested. When comparing the results of the uniformity test, we found both the old and the new plates varied from approximately 0.5% to 3.2%. When comparing the results of the linearity test, we found that the correlation coefficient, R(2), for both the old and the new plates varied from approximately 0.996 to 0.998, with the mean values being 0.9972 and 0.9979, respectively. We concluded that linearity and uniformity response cannot be used as an effective method for the evaluation of CR plate performance. Additional research is currently underway to evaluate various other methods of assessing CR plate performance.

  6. Head kinematics in mini-sled tests of foam padding: relevance of linear responses from free motion headform (FMH) testing to head angular responses.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, J; Viano, D C; Lövsund, P; Parnaik, Y

    2003-08-01

    The revised Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 201 specifies that the safety performance of vehicle upper interiors is determined from the resultant linear acceleration response of a free motion headform (FMH) impacting the interior at 6.7 m/s. This study addresses whether linear output data from the FMH test can be used to select an upper interior padding that decreases the likelihood of rotationally induced brain injuries. Using an experimental setup consisting of a Hybrid III head-neck structure mounted on a mini-sled platform, sagittal plane linear and angular head accelerations were measured in frontal head impacts into foam samples of various stiffness and density with a constant thickness (51 mm) at low (approximately 5.0 m/s), intermediate (approximately 7.0 m/s), and high (approximately 9.6 m/s) impact speeds. Provided that the foam samples did not bottom out, recorded peak values of angular acceleration and change in angular velocity increased approximately linearly with increasing peak resultant linear acceleration and value of the Head Injury Criterion (HIC36). The results indicate that the padding that produces the lowest possible peak angular acceleration and peak change in angular velocity without causing high peak forces is the one that produces the lowest possible HIC36 without bottoming out in the FMH test.

  7. Non-linear analysis of body responses to functional electrical stimulation on hemiplegic subjects.

    PubMed

    Yu, W W; Acharya, U R; Lim, T C; Low, H W

    2009-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a method of applying low-level electrical currents to restore or improve body functions lost through nervous system impairment. FES is applied to peripheral nerves that control specific muscles or muscle groups. Application of advanced signal computing techniques to the medical field has helped to achieve practical solutions to the health care problems accurately. The physiological signals are essentially non-stationary and may contain indicators of current disease, or even warnings about impending diseases. These indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random on the timescale. However, to study and pinpoint these subtle changes in the voluminous data collected over several hours is tedious. These signals, e.g. walking-related accelerometer signals, are not simply linear and involve non-linear contributions. Hence, non-linear signal-processing methods may be useful to extract the hidden complexities of the signal and to aid physicians in their diagnosis. In this work, a young female subject with major neuromuscular dysfunction of the left lower limb, which resulted in an asymmetric hemiplegic gait, participated in a series of FES-assisted walking experiments. Two three-axis accelerometers were attached to her left and right ankles and their corresponding signals were recorded during FES-assisted walking. The accelerometer signals were studied in three directions using the Hurst exponent H, the fractal dimension (FD), the phase space plot, and recurrence plots (RPs). The results showed that the H and FD values increase with increasing FES, indicating more synchronized variability due to FES for the left leg (paralysed leg). However, the variation in the normal right leg is more chaotic on FES.

  8. Atypical response to treatment in linear IgA bullous dermatosis of childhood: Revision of literature.

    PubMed

    Moleiro, Susana; Santos, Vera; Calha, Manuela; Pessoa, Graça

    2011-06-15

    A three-year-old boy presented with 2 months of worsening skin lesions characterized by multiple clear vesicles and bullae. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed changes consistent with linear IgA bullous dermatosis of childhood. Treatment with dapsone and prednisolone resulted in gradual clinical improvement. However, within a week of therapy he presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, the onset of type I diabetes mellitus. Since then, keeping this child asymptomatic has been a challenge. This case emphasizes the importance of close monitoring of patients taking systemic corticosteroids; the coexistence of other immune mediated conditions may influence the success of treatment.

  9. Perception of tilt (somatogravic illusion) in response to sustained linear acceleration during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural and head vertical (dorsoventral) linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g during constant velocity rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out (Gy centrifugation), or lay supine along the centrifuge arm with their head off-axis (Gz centrifugation). Pre-flight centrifugation, producing linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g along the Gy (interaural) axis, induced illusions of roll-tilt of 20 degrees and 34 degrees for gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) vector tilts of 27 degrees and 45 degrees , respectively. Pre-flight 0.5 g and 1 g Gz (head dorsoventral) centrifugation generated perceptions of backward pitch of 5 degrees and 15 degrees , respectively. In the absence of gravity during space flight, the same centrifugation generated a GIA that was equivalent to the centripetal acceleration and aligned with the Gy or Gz axes. Perception of tilt was underestimated relative to this new GIA orientation during early in-flight Gy centrifugation, but was close to the GIA after 16 days in orbit, when subjects reported that they felt as if they were 'lying on side'. During the course of the mission, inflight roll-tilt perception during Gy centrifugation increased from 45 degrees to 83 degrees at 1 g and from 42 degrees to 48 degrees at 0.5 g. Subjects felt 'upside-down' during in-flight Gz centrifugation from the first in-flight test session, which reflected the new GIA orientation along the head dorsoventral axis. The different levels of in-flight tilt perception during 0.5 g and 1 g Gy centrifugation suggests that other non-vestibular inputs, including an internal estimate of the body vertical and somatic sensation, were utilized in generating tilt perception. Interpretation of data by a weighted sum of body vertical and somatic vectors, with an estimate of the GIA from the otoliths, suggests that

  10. Importance of the spatial heterogeneity in the non-linear response of a small Mediterranean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Pérez, Guiomar; Medici, Chiara; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar; Gallart, Francesc; Francés, Félix

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that Mediterranean catchments are characterized by a complex hydrological behavior and strong non-linearities (Ye et al., 1998, Piñol et al., 1999). Therefore, modeling hydrology of a small Mediterranean catchment still represents a great challenge for modelers. To this end, the practical superiority of distributed or semi-distributed approaches over lumped ones remains an open question (see e.g. Loague and Freeze, 1985; Michaud and Sorooshian, 1994; Refsgaard and Knudsen, 1996; Loumagne et al., 1999; Zhang et al., 2003). In fact, a variety of earlier studies have inter-compared distributed versus lumped model simulations reaching opposite conclusions. With the present work, we tried to answer the following research question: Are observed non-linearities due to spatial heterogeneity or to non-linear mechanisms that should be taken into account in a model conceptual scheme? To address these issues the hydrological modeling of the Can Vila catchment (Vallcebre, Eastern Pyrenees, Spain) was carried out. Three hydrological models were considered: two lumped models called LU3 and LU4 (Medici et al., 2008), and a fully distributed model called TETIS (Francés et al., 2007). The TETIS model has the same conceptual schema as the LU3 model at cell-scale and the LU4 model's structure is based on the LU3 model, but it splits the aquifer storage in two tanks: shallow aquifer and deep aquifer. Percolation to the deep aquifer occurs only when soil water content exceeds a threshold value. So, the difference between the LU3 model and the TETIS model is the incorporation of the spatial heterogeneity and the difference between the LU3 model and the LU4 model is an additional strong non-linearity with the threshold which actives the deep percolation. The graphical comparison with the observations and the goodness of fit indexes employed showed that: (1) the LU3 model could not reproduce reasonably well the wet and dry period with the same set of parameters while (2

  11. Non-linearity dynamics in ecosystem response to climate change: Case studies and policy implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Wilcox, D.A.; Stottlemyer, R.; Barrow, W.; Fagre, D.; Baron, J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Allen, C.D.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggerone, G.; Doyle, T.

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate cna lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  12. A study of thermal response of concrete towers employing linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, Mehdi; Zarbaf, Seyed Ehsan Haji Agha Mohammad; Dalvi, Aditi; Hunt, Victor; Helmicki, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    It has been shown that the variations of structural properties due to changing environmental conditions such as temperature can be as significant as those caused by structural damage and even liveload. Therefore, tracking changes that are correlated with environmental variations is a necessary step in order to detect and assess structural damage in addition to the normal structural response to traffic. In this paper, daily measurement data that is collected from the concrete towers of the Ironton-Russell Bridge will be presented and correlation of the collected measurement data and temperature will be overviewed. Variation of the daily thermal response of tower concrete walls will be compared with the daily thermal responses of the steel box within the tower and finally, thermal coefficient for compensating the thermal induced responses will be estimated.

  13. Linear Response of One-Dimensional Liquid ^4{He} to External Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.; Bertaina, G.; Vitali, E.; Galli, D. E.; Rossi, M.

    2016-11-01

    We study the response of one-dimensional liquid ^4{He} to weak perturbations relying on the dynamical structure factor, S(q,ω ) , recently obtained via ab-initio techniques (Bertaina et al. in Phys Rev Lett 116:135302, 2016). We evaluate the drag force, F_v , experienced by an impurity moving along the system with velocity v and the static response function, χ (q) , describing the density modulations induced by a periodic perturbation with wave vector q.

  14. Real-time Needle Steering in Response to Rolling Vein Deformation by a 9-DOF Image-Guided Autonomous Venipuncture Robot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alvin I; Balter, Max L; Maguire, Timothy J; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    Venipuncture is the most common invasive medical procedure performed in the United States and the number one cause of hospital injury. Failure rates are particularly high in pediatric and elderly patients, whose veins tend to deform, move, or roll as the needle is introduced. To improve venipuncture accuracy in challenging patient populations, we have developed a portable device that autonomously servos a needle into a suitable vein under image guidance. The device operates in real time, combining near-infrared and ultrasound imaging, computer vision software, and a 9 degrees-of-freedom robot that servos the needle. In this paper, we present the kinematic and mechanical design of the latest generation robot. We then investigate in silico and in vitro the mechanics of vessel rolling and deformation in response to needle insertions performed by the robot. Finally, we demonstrate how the robot can make real-time adjustments under ultrasound image guidance to compensate for subtle vessel motions during venipuncture.

  15. Real-time Needle Steering in Response to Rolling Vein Deformation by a 9-DOF Image-Guided Autonomous Venipuncture Robot

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alvin I.; Balter, Max L.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Venipuncture is the most common invasive medical procedure performed in the United States and the number one cause of hospital injury. Failure rates are particularly high in pediatric and elderly patients, whose veins tend to deform, move, or roll as the needle is introduced. To improve venipuncture accuracy in challenging patient populations, we have developed a portable device that autonomously servos a needle into a suitable vein under image guidance. The device operates in real time, combining near-infrared and ultrasound imaging, computer vision software, and a 9 degrees-of-freedom robot that servos the needle. In this paper, we present the kinematic and mechanical design of the latest generation robot. We then investigate in silico and in vitro the mechanics of vessel rolling and deformation in response to needle insertions performed by the robot. Finally, we demonstrate how the robot can make real-time adjustments under ultrasound image guidance to compensate for subtle vessel motions during venipuncture. PMID:26779381

  16. Linear and nonlinear auditory response properties of interneurons in a high-order avian vocal motor nucleus during wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Raksin, Jonathan N; Glaze, Christopher M; Smith, Sarah; Schmidt, Marc F

    2012-04-01

    Motor-related forebrain areas in higher vertebrates also show responses to passively presented sensory stimuli. However, sensory tuning properties in these areas, especially during wakefulness, and their relation to perception, are poorly understood. In the avian song system, HVC (proper name) is a vocal-motor structure with auditory responses well defined under anesthesia but poorly characterized during wakefulness. We used a large set of stimuli including the bird's own song (BOS) and many conspecific songs (CON) to characterize auditory tuning properties in putative interneurons (HVC(IN)) during wakefulness. Our findings suggest that HVC contains a diversity of responses that vary in overall excitability to auditory stimuli, as well as bias in spike rate increases to BOS over CON. We used statistical tests to classify cells in order to further probe auditory responses, yielding one-third of neurons that were either unresponsive or suppressed and two-thirds with excitatory responses to one or more stimuli. A subset of excitatory neurons were tuned exclusively to BOS and showed very low linearity as measured by spectrotemporal receptive field analysis (STRF). The remaining excitatory neurons responded well to CON stimuli, although many cells still expressed a bias toward BOS. These findings suggest the concurrent presence of a nonlinear and a linear component to responses in HVC, even within the same neuron. These characteristics are consistent with perceptual deficits in distinguishing BOS from CON stimuli following lesions of HVC and other song nuclei and suggest mirror neuronlike qualities in which "self" (here BOS) is used as a referent to judge "other" (here CON).

  17. Do Responses to Different Anthropogenic Forcings Add Linearly in Climate Models?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvel, Kate; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew; Bonfils, Celine; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Many detection and attribution and pattern scaling studies assume that the global climate response to multiple forcings is additive: that the response over the historical period is statistically indistinguishable from the sum of the responses to individual forcings. Here, we use the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (CCSM) simulations from the CMIP5 archive to test this assumption for multi-year trends in global-average, annual-average temperature and precipitation at multiple timescales. We find that responses in models forced by pre-computed aerosol and ozone concentrations are generally additive across forcings; however, we demonstrate that there are significant nonlinearities in precipitation responses to di?erent forcings in a configuration of the GISS model that interactively computes these concentrations from precursor emissions. We attribute these to di?erences in ozone forcing arising from interactions between forcing agents. Our results suggest that attribution to specific forcings may be complicated in a model with fully interactive chemistry and may provide motivation for other modeling groups to conduct further single-forcing experiments.

  18. Do responses to different anthropogenic forcings add linearly in climate models?

    SciTech Connect

    Marvel, Kate; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew; Bonfils, Celine; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2015-10-14

    Many detection and attribution and pattern scaling studies assume that the global climate response to multiple forcings is additive: that the response over the historical period is statistically indistinguishable from the sum of the responses to individual forcings. Here, we use the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) simulations from the CMIP5 archive to test this assumption for multi-year trends in global-average, annual-average temperature and precipitation at multiple timescales. We find that responses in models forced by pre-computed aerosol and ozone concentrations are generally additive across forcings. However, we demonstrate that there are significant nonlinearities in precipitation responses to different forcings in a configuration of the GISS model that interactively computes these concentrations from precursor emissions. We attribute these to differences in ozone forcing arising from interactions between forcing agents. Lastly, our results suggest that attribution to specific forcings may be complicated in a model with fully interactive chemistry and may provide motivation for other modeling groups to conduct further single-forcing experiments.

  19. Do responses to different anthropogenic forcings add linearly in climate models?

    DOE PAGES

    Marvel, Kate; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew; ...

    2015-10-14

    Many detection and attribution and pattern scaling studies assume that the global climate response to multiple forcings is additive: that the response over the historical period is statistically indistinguishable from the sum of the responses to individual forcings. Here, we use the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) simulations from the CMIP5 archive to test this assumption for multi-year trends in global-average, annual-average temperature and precipitation at multiple timescales. We find that responses in models forced by pre-computed aerosol and ozone concentrations are generally additive across forcings. However,more » we demonstrate that there are significant nonlinearities in precipitation responses to different forcings in a configuration of the GISS model that interactively computes these concentrations from precursor emissions. We attribute these to differences in ozone forcing arising from interactions between forcing agents. Lastly, our results suggest that attribution to specific forcings may be complicated in a model with fully interactive chemistry and may provide motivation for other modeling groups to conduct further single-forcing experiments.« less

  20. Characterization of Photon-Counting Detector Responsivity for Non-Linear Two-Photon Absorption Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sburlan, S. E.; Farr, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-band absorption at 1550 nm has been demonstrated and characterized on silicon Geiger mode detectors which normally would be expected to have no response at this wavelength. We compare responsivity measurements to singlephoton absorption for wavelengths slightly above the bandgap wavelength of silicon (approx. 1100 microns). One application for this low efficiency sub-band absorption is in deep space optical communication systems where it is desirable to track a 1030 nm uplink beacon on the same flight terminal detector array that monitors a 1550 nm downlink signal for pointingcontrol. The currently observed absorption at 1550 nm provides 60-70 dB of isolation compared to the response at 1064 nm, which is desirable to avoid saturation of the detector by scattered light from the downlink laser.

  1. A Step Response Based Mixed-Signal BIST Approach for Continuous-time Linear Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Alvernon; Lala, P. K.

    2001-01-01

    A new Mixed-Signal Built-in self-test approach that is based upon the step response of a reconfigurable (or multifunction) analog block is presented in this paper. The technique requires the overlapping step response of the Circuit Under Test (CUT) for two circuit configurations. Each configuration can be realized by changing the topology of the CUT or by sampling two CUT nodes with differing step responses. The technique can effectively detect both soft and hard faults and does not require an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and/or digital-to-analog converter(DAC). It also does not require any precision voltage sources or comparators. This approach does not require any additional analog circuits to realize the test signal generator and sample circuits. The paper is concluded with the application of the proposed approach to a circuit found in the work of Epstein et al and two ITC 97 analog benchmark circuits.

  2. Aging and linear response in the Hébraud–Lequeux model for amorphous rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollich, Peter; Olivier, Julien; Bresch, Didier

    2017-04-01

    We analyse the aging dynamics of the Hébraud–Lequeux model, a self-consistent stochastic model for the evolution of local stress in an amorphous material. We show that the model exhibits initial-condition dependent freezing: the stress diffusion constant decays with time as D∼ 1/{{t}2} during aging so that the cumulative amount of memory that can be erased, which is given by the time integral of D(t), is finite. Accordingly the shear stress relaxation function, which we determine in the long-time regime, only decays to a plateau and becomes progressively elastic as the system ages. The frequency-dependent shear modulus exhibits a corresponding overall decay of the dissipative part with system age, while the characteristic relaxation times scale linearly with age as expected.

  3. Analog Techniques for Measuring the Frequency Response of Linear Physical Systems Excited by Frequency-Sweep Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Wilmer H., III; Hall, Albert W.; Barker, Lawrence E., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    Data-reduction methods using general-purpose analog computer equipment and compatible testing techniques for determining the frequency response of linear physical systems are examined. The techniques considered may be classed as steady state or transient depending on the method of excitation. The relative merits of periodic, slow sweep, and transient (rapid sweep) forcing functions are discussed and applications are given that relate to dynamic-response tests of aeroelastic systems. Two frequency-sweep-input methods are considered in detail. one case the sweep rate is sufficiently slow that the response is approximately the same as that for steady-state conditions. With this input the frequency response can be evaluated and displayed in real time while the test is in progress. Errors due to treating sweep data as steady state can be eliminated, when desired, by reanalyzing tape-recorded time histories of the input and output as transient rather than as periodic data. In the second method the frequency-response function is deter- mined from the system's transient response to a very rapid sweep input. The purpose of frequency sweep in this case is to provide sufficient harmonic content in the input to overcome noise while keeping the test time as short as possible. tests and limited flight-test data presented herein, it appears that a transient-type rapid-sweep forcing function offers a considerable saving in test time while preserving the accuracy possible with steady-state sinusoidal inputs.

  4. Linear-scaling implementation of molecular response theory in self-consistent field electronic-structure theory.

    PubMed

    Coriani, Sonia; Høst, Stinne; Jansík, Branislav; Thøgersen, Lea; Olsen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul; Reine, Simen; Pawłowski, Filip; Helgaker, Trygve; Sałek, Paweł

    2007-04-21

    A linear-scaling implementation of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham self-consistent field theories for the calculation of frequency-dependent molecular response properties and excitation energies is presented, based on a nonredundant exponential parametrization of the one-electron density matrix in the atomic-orbital basis, avoiding the use of canonical orbitals. The response equations are solved iteratively, by an atomic-orbital subspace method equivalent to that of molecular-orbital theory. Important features of the subspace method are the use of paired trial vectors (to preserve the algebraic structure of the response equations), a nondiagonal preconditioner (for rapid convergence), and the generation of good initial guesses (for robust solution). As a result, the performance of the iterative method is the same as in canonical molecular-orbital theory, with five to ten iterations needed for convergence. As in traditional direct Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham theories, the calculations are dominated by the construction of the effective Fock/Kohn-Sham matrix, once in each iteration. Linear complexity is achieved by using sparse-matrix algebra, as illustrated in calculations of excitation energies and frequency-dependent polarizabilities of polyalanine peptides containing up to 1400 atoms.

  5. Response analysis of a laminar premixed M-flame to flow perturbations using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, M.; Schuller, T.; Sipp, D.; Schmid, P. J.

    2015-04-15

    The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to flow perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base flow is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting flow, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the linearized solver. This linear numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of flow disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady flow field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant flow field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean flow stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the flow field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of flow disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the flow in the fresh reactant flow field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated.

  6. LINEAR STRUCTURAL MODELS FOR RESPONSE AND LATENCY PERFORMANCE IN ARITHMETIC. PSYCHOLOGY SERIES, TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUPPES, PATRICK; AND OTHERS

    A LEARNING MODEL TO IDENTIFY FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DIFFICULTY OF A PROBLEM ITEM WAS SUPPORTED EMPIRICALLY, AND INDICATED THAT THE NUMBER OF STEPS REQUIRED TO SOLVE A PROBLEM WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT VARIABLE IN PREDICTING BOTH ERROR PROBABILITY AND RESPONSE LATENCY. THE MODEL, IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH DIFFERENTIAL PREDICTIONS OF DIFFICULTY IN…

  7. Local control theory using trajectory surface hopping and linear-response time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Curchod, Basile F E; Penfold, Thomas J; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of local control theory using nonadiabatic molecular dynamics within the framework of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory is discussed. The method is applied to study the photoexcitation of lithium fluoride, for which we demonstrate that this approach can efficiently generate a pulse, on-the-fly, able to control the population transfer between two selected electronic states. Analysis of the computed control pulse yields insights into the photophysics of the process identifying the relevant frequencies associated to the curvature of the initial and final state potential energy curves and their energy differences. The limitations inherent to the use of the trajectory surface hopping approach are also discussed.

  8. Three-dimensional deformation response of a NiTi shape memory helical-coil actuator during thermomechanical cycling: experimentally validated numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, B.; Nicholson, D. E.; Saleeb, A. F.; Padula, S. A., II; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators often operate under a complex state of stress for an extended number of thermomechanical cycles in many aerospace and engineering applications. Hence, it becomes important to account for multi-axial stress states and deformation characteristics (which evolve with thermomechanical cycling) when calibrating any SMA model for implementation in large-scale simulation of actuators. To this end, the present work is focused on the experimental validation of an SMA model calibrated for the transient and cyclic evolutionary behavior of shape memory Ni49.9Ti50.1, for the actuation of axially loaded helical-coil springs. The approach requires both experimental and computational aspects to appropriately assess the thermomechanical response of these multi-dimensional structures. As such, an instrumented and controlled experimental setup was assembled to obtain temperature, torque, degree of twist and extension, while controlling end constraints during heating and cooling of an SMA spring under a constant externally applied axial load. The computational component assesses the capabilities of a general, multi-axial, SMA material-modeling framework, calibrated for Ni49.9Ti50.1 with regard to its usefulness in the simulation of SMA helical-coil spring actuators. Axial extension, being the primary response, was examined on an axially-loaded spring with multiple active coils. Two different conditions of end boundary constraint were investigated in both the numerical simulations as well as the validation experiments: Case (1) where the loading end is restrained against twist (and the resulting torque measured as the secondary response) and Case (2) where the loading end is free to twist (and the degree of twist measured as the secondary response). The present study focuses on the transient and evolutionary response associated with the initial isothermal loading and the subsequent thermal cycles under applied constant axial load. The experimental

  9. Microhydrodynamics of deformable particles: surprising responses of drops and vesicles to uniform electric field or shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahovska, Petia

    2015-11-01

    Particle motion in a viscous fluid is a classic problem that continues to surprise researchers. In this talk, I will discuss some intriguing, experimentally-observed behaviors of droplets and giant vesicles (cell-size lipid membrane sacs) in electric or flow fields. In a uniform electric field, a droplet deforms into an ellipsoid that can either be steadily tilted relative to the applied field direction or undergo unsteady motions (periodic shape oscillations or irregular flipping); a spherical vesicle can adopt a transient square shape or reversibly porate. In a steady shear flow, a vesicle can tank-tread, tumble or swing. Theoretical models show that the nonlinear drop dynamics originates from the interplay of Quincke rotation and interface deformation, while the vesicle dynamics stems from the membrane inextensibility. The practical motivation for this research lies in an improved understanding of technologies that rely on the manipulation of drops and cells by flow or electric fields.

  10. Extreme responses of non-linear dynamic systems using constrained simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Harland, L.A.; Vugts, J.H.; Jonathan, P.; Taylor, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    The dynamic behavior of structures in the offshore environment is complex, especially in extreme storm conditions. The most accurate methods for estimating structural behavior are based on extensive random time domain simulations of the ocean surface to obtain statistics of the extreme response in (typically) a 3 hour period of a severe storm. However, random time domain simulation is time-consuming and expensive for both the computer and the engineer. In this work the authors use a method to determine the distribution of the extreme structural response in a robust, faster and cheaper way than with full random simulations. This method, which is based on constrained random simulations, has been successfully developed using a grossly simplified model of a jack-up. The aim of this study is now to include more realistic modelling parameters in order to demonstrate that the method can be successfully applied to real problems and that accurate results can be obtained with relatively little effort.

  11. Non-linear lattice response of Sm oxypnictides to hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liarokapis, E.; Calamiotou, M.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Karpinski, J.

    2013-10-01

    Hydrostatic pressure Raman measurements at room temperature have been carried out on the SmFeAsO (Sm1111) series of oxypnictides with various substitutions (F for O and Co for Fe) and transition temperature in order to investigate lattice modifications and their connection to doping and superconductivity. Synchrotron XRD data on some of these compounds indicated that at low doping the lattice constants vary smoothly with pressure, but with further increasing of the carrier concentration there is a deviation from the normal equation of state and these effects are related with modifications in the superconducting FeAs4 tetrahedra. The hydrostatic pressure Raman measurements indicate that the A1g mode of the rare earth atom for the superconducting compounds deviates from the linear pressure dependence at the same pressures where the XRD results show pressure-induced lattice anomalies. A similar anomaly is found for the As phonon of the same symmetry. As in cuprates, the effect is diminished in the non-superconducting compounds and it is not related with the F substitution being present in the Sm(Fe1-xCox)AsO as well. The calculated Grüneisen parameters indicate a more anharmonic phonon for the Fe atom compared with the Sm and As atoms.

  12. Miniature amperometric self-powered continuous glucose sensor with linear response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zenghe; Cho, Brian; Ouyang, Tianmei; Feldman, Ben

    2012-04-03

    Continuous glucose measurement has improved the treatment of type 1 diabetes and is typically provided by externally powered transcutaneous amperometric sensors. Self-powered glucose sensors (SPGSs) could provide an improvement over these conventionally powered devices, especially for fully implanted long-term applications where implanted power sources are problematic. Toward this end, we describe a robust SPGS that may be built from four simple components: (1) a low-potential, wired glucose oxidase anode; (2) a Pt/C cathode; (3) an overlying glucose flux-limiting membrane; and (4) a resistor bridging the anode and cathode. In vitro evaluation showed that the sensor output is linear over physiologic glucose concentrations (2-30 mM), even at low O(2) concentrations. Output was independent of the connecting resistor values over the range from 0 to 10 MΩ. The output was also stable over 60 days of continuous in vitro operation at 37 °C in 30 mM glucose. A 5-day trial in a volunteer demonstrated that the performance of the device was virtually identical to that of a conventional amperometric sensor. Thus, this SPGS is an attractive alternative to conventionally powered devices, especially for fully implanted long-term applications.

  13. Impact of observed North Atlantic multidecadal variations to European summer climate: a linear baroclinic response to surface heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Rohit; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Baehr, Johanna; Bader, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    The observed prominent multidecadal variations in the central to eastern (C-E) European summer temperature are closely related to the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV). Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis project version 2 data for the period of 1930-2012, we present a mechanism by which the multidecadal variations in the C-E European summer temperature are associated to a linear baroclinic atmospheric response to the AMV-related surface heat flux. Our results suggest that over the north-western Atlantic, the positive heat flux anomaly triggers a surface baroclinic pressure response to diabatic heating with a negative surface pressure anomaly to the east of the heat source. Further downstream, this response induces an east-west wave-like pressure anomaly. The east-west wave-like response in the sea level pressure structure, to which we refer as North-Atlantic-European East West (NEW) mode, is independent of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation and is the principal mode of variations during summer over the Euro-Atlantic region at multidecadal time scales. The NEW mode causes warming of the C-E European region by creating an atmospheric blocking-like situation. Our findings also suggest that this NEW mode is responsible for the multidecadal variations in precipitation over the British Isles and north-western Europe.

  14. A bias in the "mass-normalized" DTT response - An effect of non-linear concentration-response curves for copper and manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrier, Jessica G.; McFall, Alexander S.; Vu, Kennedy K.-T.; Baroi, James; Olea, Catalina; Hasson, Alam; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-11-01

    The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay is widely used to measure the oxidative potential of particulate matter. Results are typically presented in mass-normalized units (e.g., pmols DTT lost per minute per microgram PM) to allow for comparison among samples. Use of this unit assumes that the mass-normalized DTT response is constant and independent of the mass concentration of PM added to the DTT assay. However, based on previous work that identified non-linear DTT responses for copper and manganese, this basic assumption (that the mass-normalized DTT response is independent of the concentration of PM added to the assay) should not be true for samples where Cu and Mn contribute significantly to the DTT signal. To test this we measured the DTT response at multiple PM concentrations for eight ambient particulate samples collected at two locations in California. The results confirm that for samples with significant contributions from Cu and Mn, the mass-normalized DTT response can strongly depend on the concentration of PM added to the assay, varying by up to an order of magnitude for PM concentrations between 2 and 34 μg mL-1. This mass dependence confounds useful interpretation of DTT assay data in samples with significant contributions from Cu and Mn, requiring additional quality control steps to check for this bias. To minimize this problem, we discuss two methods to correct the mass-normalized DTT result and we apply those methods to our samples. We find that it is possible to correct the mass-normalized DTT result, although the correction methods have some drawbacks and add uncertainty to DTT analyses. More broadly, other DTT-active species might also have non-linear concentration-responses in the assay and cause a bias. In addition, the same problem of Cu- and Mn-mediated bias in mass-normalized DTT results might affect other measures of acellular redox activity in PM and needs to be addressed.

  15. Response analysis of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao

    2016-08-01

    The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.

  16. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees AW; Dijkgraaf, Marcel GW; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J; Lindeboom, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. Methods This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55%) residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23%) patients with chronic pain; 127 (13%) inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9%) patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Results Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. Conclusion The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations. PMID:16381611

  17. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis.

  18. Swelling and shrinking properties of thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid hydrogels with embedded linear pNIPAAM.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Simon; Florea, Larisa; Fraser, Kevin J; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-03-27

    In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN) hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50-80 °C), it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%). This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL.

  19. Swelling and Shrinking Properties of Thermo-Responsive Polymeric Ionic Liquid Hydrogels with Embedded Linear pNIPAAM

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Simon; Florea, Larisa; Fraser, Kevin J.; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN) hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50–80 °C), it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%). This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL. PMID:24681582

  20. Identification of linear and threshold responses in streams along a gradient of urbanization in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ourso, R.T.; Frenzel, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined biotic and physiochemical responses in urbanized Anchorage, Alaska, to the percent of impervious area within stream basins, as determined by high-resolution IKONOS satellite imagery and aerial photography. Eighteen of the 86 variables examined, including riparian and instream habitat, macroinvertebrate communities, and water/sediment chemistry, were significantly correlated with percent impervious area. Variables related to channel condition, instream substrate, water chemistry, and residential and transportation right-of-way land uses were identified by principal components analysis as significant factors separating site groups. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the macroinvertebrate communities responded to an urbanization gradient closely paralleling the percent of impervious area within the subbasin. A sliding regression analysis of variables significantly correlated with percent impervious area revealed 8 variables exhibiting threshold responses that correspond to a mean of 4.4-5.8% impervious area, much lower than mean values reported in other, similar investigations. As contributing factors to a subbasin's impervious area, storm drains and roads appeared to be important elements influencing the degradation of water quality with respect to the biota.

  1. Glycemic Response and Fermentation of Crystalline Short Linear α-Glucans from Debranched Waxy Maize Starch.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Lauren R; Weber, Casey; Haub, Mark; Cai, Liming; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2015-11-04

    The glycemic index (GI) is used to rank foods based on postprandial blood glucose response. GI test requires that 50 g of available carbohydrate be used. Available carbohydrate is often calculated as total carbohydrate minus dietary fiber; yet, AOAC fiber methods do not always include resistant starch (RS). The objective of this study was to examine GI response and fermentation properties of crystalline short-chain α-glucan (CSCA), which has high RS content, but no total dietary fiber (TDF) content as measured by AOAC method 991.43. Using the standard GI method, 10 adults were fed 50 g of waxy maize starch and CSCA, consumed alone and in mixed formulation. Breath hydrogen was also determined over 6 h. Fifty grams of CSCA was not entirely available in vivo, and breath hydrogen testing indicated that CSCA was as likely to ferment. Products high in RS, but with no TDF, would yield reduced GI values, and this calls for the need of a method to define available carbohydrate.

  2. Leukocyte deformability: finite element modeling of large viscoelastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Skalak, R

    1992-09-21

    An axisymmetric deformation of a viscoelastic sphere bounded by a prestressed elastic thin shell in response to external pressure is studied by a finite element method. The research is motivated by the need for understanding the passive behavior of human leukocytes (white blood cells) and interpreting extensive experimental data in terms of the mechanical properties. The cell at rest is modeled as a sphere consisting of a cortical prestressed shell with incompressible Maxwell fluid interior. A large-strain deformation theory is developed based on the proposed model. General non-linear, large strain constitutive relations for the cortical shell are derived by neglecting the bending stiffness. A representation of the constitutive equations in the form of an integral of strain history for the incompressible Maxwell interior is used in the formulation of numerical scheme. A finite element program is developed, in which a sliding boundary condition is imposed on all contact surfaces. The mathematical model developed is applied to evaluate experimental data of pipette tests and observations of blood flow.

  3. Non-linear buffeting response analysis of long-span suspension bridges with central buckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Aiqun; Zhao, Gengwen; Li, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The rigid central buckle employed in the Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB) was the first time it was used in a suspension bridge in China. By using a spectral representation method and FFT technique combined with measured data, a 3D fluctuating wind field considering the tower wind effect is simulated. A novel FE model for buffeting analysis is then presented, in which a specific user-defined Matrix27 element in ANSYS is employed to simulate the aeroelastic forces and its stiffness or damping matrices are parameterized by wind velocity and vibration frequency. A nonlinear time history analysis is carried out to study the influence of the rigid central buckle on the wind-induced buffeting response of a long-span suspension bridge. The results can be used as a reference for wind resistance design of long-span suspension bridges with a rigid central buckle in the future.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of the non-linear dynamic viscoplastic response of 2-d structures with respect to material parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Makarand; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the viscoplastic response of structures subjected to dynamic loading. A state of plane stress is assumed to exist in the structure, a velocity strain-Cauchy stress formulation is used, and the geometric non-linearities arising from large strains are incorporated. The Jaumann rate is used as a frame indifferent stress rate. The material model is chosen to be isothermal viscoplasticity, and an associated flow rule is used with a von Mises effective stress. The equations of motion emanating from a finite element semi-discretization are integrated using an explicit central difference scheme with an implicit stress update. The sensitivity coefficients are evaluated using a direct differentiation approach. Since the domain of integration is the current configuration, the sensitivity coefficients of the spatial derivatives of the shape functions must be included. Numerical results are presented for a thin plate with a central cutout subjected to an in-plane compressive loading. The sensitivity coefficients are generated by evaluating the derivatives of the response quantities with respect to Young's modulus, and two of the material parameters characterizing the viscoplastic response. Time histories of the response and sensitivity coefficients, and spatial distributions at selected times are presented.

  5. Towards obtaining spatiotemporally precise responses to continuous sensory stimuli in humans: a general linear modeling approach to EEG.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Nuno R; Whelan, Robert; Foxe, John J; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-08-15

    Noninvasive investigation of human sensory processing with high temporal resolution typically involves repeatedly presenting discrete stimuli and extracting an average event-related response from scalp recorded neuroelectric or neuromagnetic signals. While this approach is and has been extremely useful, it suffers from two drawbacks: a lack of naturalness in terms of the stimulus and a lack of precision in terms of the cortical response generators. Here we show that a linear modeling approach that exploits functional specialization in sensory systems can be used to rapidly obtain spatiotemporally precise responses to complex sensory stimuli using electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrate the method by example through the controlled modulation of the contrast and coherent motion of visual stimuli. Regressing the data against these modulation signals produces spatially focal, highly temporally resolved response measures that are suggestive of specific activation of visual areas V1 and V6, respectively, based on their onset latency, their topographic distribution and the estimated location of their sources. We discuss our approach by comparing it with fMRI/MRI informed source analysis methods and, in doing so, we provide novel information on the timing of coherent motion processing in human V6. Generalizing such an approach has the potential to facilitate the rapid, inexpensive spatiotemporal localization of higher perceptual functions in behaving humans.

  6. Brittle deformation along the Gulf of Alaska margin in response to Paleocene-Eocene triple junction migration: in Sisson

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    A spreading center was subducted diachronously along a 2200 km segment of what is now the Gulf of Alaska margin between 61 and 50 Ma, and left in its wake near-trench intrusions and high-T, low-P metamorphic rocks. Gold-quartz veins and dikes, linked to ridge subduction by geochronological and relative timing evidence, provide a record of brittle deformation during and after passage of the ridge. The gold-quartz veins are typically hosted by faults, and their regional extent indicates there was widespread deformation of the forearc above the slab window at the time of ridge subduction. Considerable variability in the strain pattern was associated with the slab window and the trailing plate. A diffuse network of dextral, sinistral, and normal faults hosted small lode-gold deposits (<50,000 oz) in south-central Alaska, whereas crustal-scale dextral faults in southeastern Alaska are spatially associated with large gold deposits (up to 800,000 oz).We interpret the gold-quartz veins as having formed above an eastward-migrating slab window, where the forearc crust responded to the diminishing influence of the forward subducting plate, the increasing influence of the trailing plate, and the thermal pulse and decreased basal friction from the slab window. In addition, extensional deformation of the forearc resulted from the diverging motions of the two oceanic plates at the margins of the slab window. Factors that complicate interpretations of fault kinematics and near-trench dike orientations include a change in plate motions at ca. 52 Ma, northward translation of the accretionary complex, oroclinal bending of the south-central Alaska margin, and subduction of transform segments. We find the pattern of syn-ridge subduction faulting in southern Alaska is remarkably similar to brittle faults near the Chile triple junction and to earthquake focal mechanisms in the Woodlark basin - the two modern sites of ridge subduction. Therefore, extensional and strike-slip deformation

  7. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate-carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC-1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8-2.5 K TtC-1.

  8. Homologous recombination with linear DNA to insert antigenic protein in the flagellin: improvement of the Th1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Le Moigne, Vincent; Robreau, Georges; Mahana, Wahib

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin is a surface protein with numerous advantages for the presentation of exogenous peptides. However, the production of recombinant bacteria and the expression of fusion proteins is laborious and time consuming. Here, we present a simple way to produce modified bacteria. Partially deleted, non-functional, chromosomal flagellin gene (fliC ) was changed using homologous recombination by a functional linear fliC gene in which we introduced an exogenous oligonucleotide encoding for the peptide of interest. The modified fliC gene was produced by polymerase chain amplification. Linear amplicons were introduced into the non-motile E. coli by electroporation. The formation of functional flagellar filaments allowed the discrimination of motile transformants from non-motile, non-transformed cells. Thus antibiotic selection and gene expression inductors are not required since transformed bacteria can be easily isolated and used as a vector and adjuvant for immunization. To validate this hypothesis, we studied the immune response against the N-terminal peptide of Clostridium tyrobutyricum flagellin fragment. BALB/c mice were immunized either with the protein displayed as flagellin fusion protein on the surface of E. coli, with the recombinant protein in Freund's adjuvant (FA), or with the pcDNA3 vector bearing the DNA fragment encoding this protein. Immunization with the flagellin recombinant bacteria induced a strong Th1 response as measured by high level of IFN-gamma production and the lack of IL-4 production. The results indicate that the flagellar filament protein carrying a specific epitope can be a potent inducer of the Th1 cellular response.

  9. Origins of Total-Dose Response Variability in Linear Bipolar Microcircuits

    SciTech Connect

    BARNABY,H.J.; CIRBA,C.R.; SCHRIMPF,R.D.; FLEETWOOD,D.M.; PEASE,R.L.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; TURFLINGER,T.; KRIEG,J.F.; MAHER,M.C.

    2000-11-15

    LM1ll voltage comparators exhibit a wide range of total-dose-induced degradation. Simulations show this variability may be a natural consequence of the low base doping of the substrate PNP (SPNP) input transistors. Low base doping increases the SPNP's collector to base breakdown voltage, current gain, and sensitivity to small fluctuations in the radiation-induced oxide defect densities. The build-up of oxide trapped charge (N{sub ot}) and interface traps (N{sub it}) is shown to be a function of pre-irradiation bakes. Experimental data indicate that, despite its structural similarities to the LM111, irradiated input transistors of the LM124 operational amplifier do not exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in pre-irradiation thermal cycles. Further disparities in LM111 and LM124 responses may result from a difference in the oxide defect build-up in the two part types. Variations in processing, packaging, and circuit effects are suggested as potential explanations.

  10. Non-linear responses of glaciated prairie wetlands to climate warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Carter; Werner, Brett; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    The response of ecosystems to climate warming is likely to include threshold events when small changes in key environmental drivers produce large changes in an ecosystem. Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) are especially sensitive to climate variability, yet the possibility that functional changes may occur more rapidly with warming than expected has not been examined or modeled. The productivity and biodiversity of these wetlands are strongly controlled by the speed and completeness of a vegetation cover cycle driven by the wet and dry extremes of climate. Two thresholds involving duration and depth of standing water must be exceeded every few decades or so to complete the cycle and to produce highly functional wetlands. Model experiments at 19 weather stations employing incremental warming scenarios determined that wetland function across most of the PPR would be diminished beyond a climate warming of about 1.5–2.0 °C, a critical temperature threshold range identified in other climate change studies.

  11. Non-Linear Vibration Characteristics of Clamped Laminated Shallow Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ABE, A.; KOBAYASHI, Y.; YAMADA, G.

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines non-linear free vibration characteristics of first and second vibration modes of laminated shallow shells with rigidly clamped edges. Non-linear equations of motion for the shells based on the first order shear deformation and classical shell theories are derived by means of Hamilton's principle. We apply Galerkin's procedure to the equations of motion in which eigenvectors for first and second modes of linear vibration obtained by the Ritz method are employed as trial functions. Then simultaneous non-linear ordinary differential equations are derived in terms of amplitudes of the first and second vibration modes. Backbone curves for the first and second vibration modes are solved numerically by the Gauss-Legendre integration method and the shooting method respectively. The effects of lamination sequences and transverse shear deformation on the behavior are discussed. It is also shown that the motion of the first vibration mode affects the response for the second vibration mode.

  12. Evolution of entanglements during the response to a uniaxial deformation of lamellar triblock copolymers and polymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonforte, F.

    2010-10-01

    Using coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations, a generic styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene triblock copolymer under lamellar conformation is used in order to investigate the mutual entanglement evolution when a structure of alternating glassy (S)/rubbery (B) layers is submitted to an imposed deformation. By varying the amount of loop chains between each phase, i.e., noncrossing chains, it is possible to generate different types of S/B interface definitions. A specific boundary driven tensile strain protocol has been developed in order to mimic “real” experiments and measure the stress-strain curve. The same protocol is also applied to a reference state consisting in a directed glassy homopolymers, as well as to an isotropic glassy polymer. The evolution of initial mutual entanglements from the undeformed samples during the whole deformation process is monitored. It is shown for all considered systems that initial entanglements mostly participate to the preyield regime of the stress-strain curve and that this network is debonded during the strain-hardening regime. For triblocks with a non-null amount of crossing chains, the lower the amount is, the longer the memory effect of the initial entanglement network in the postyield regime is. On the fly distributions of entanglements, which depart from the postyield regime, depict memory effects and long-time correlations during the strain-hardening regime. For triblocks, loop chains reinforce these effects.

  13. Evolution of entanglements during the response to a uniaxial deformation of lamellar triblock copolymers and polymer glasses.

    PubMed

    Léonforte, F

    2010-10-01

    Using coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations, a generic styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene triblock copolymer under lamellar conformation is used in order to investigate the mutual entanglement evolution when a structure of alternating glassy (S)/rubbery (B) layers is submitted to an imposed deformation. By varying the amount of loop chains between each phase, i.e., noncrossing chains, it is possible to generate different types of S/B interface definitions. A specific boundary driven tensile strain protocol has been developed in order to mimic "real" experiments and measure the stress-strain curve. The same protocol is also applied to a reference state consisting in a directed glassy homopolymers, as well as to an isotropic glassy polymer. The evolution of initial mutual entanglements from the undeformed samples during the whole deformation process is monitored. It is shown for all considered systems that initial entanglements mostly participate to the preyield regime of the stress-strain curve and that this network is debonded during the strain-hardening regime. For triblocks with a non-null amount of crossing chains, the lower the amount is, the longer the memory effect of the initial entanglement network in the postyield regime is. On the fly distributions of entanglements, which depart from the postyield regime, depict memory effects and long-time correlations during the strain-hardening regime. For triblocks, loop chains reinforce these effects.

  14. Plastic Deformation of Accreted Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, J.

    2005-08-01

    The early stages of planetesimal growth follow an accretion model (Weidenschilling, Icarus 2000), which influences the intrinsic strength of a body and may control how its shape evolves after growth. In previous work we have determined the stress field of an accreted planetesimal accounting for possible variation in the object's spin as it accretes (Kadish et al., IJSS In Press) At the end of growth, these objects are subject to transport mechanisms that can distribute them throughout the solar system. As they are transported these objects can be spun-up by tidal forces (Scheeres et al, Icarus 2000), YORP (Bottke et al., Asteroids III 2002), and collisions (Binzel et al., Asteroids II 1989). Such an increase of spin will cause perturbations to the initial stress field and may lead to failure. We are able to show analytically that failure is initiated on the object's surface and a plastic zone propagates inward as the object's spin is increased. If we model an accreted body as a conglomeration of rocks similar to a gravel or sand, the deformation in the region of failure is characterized using a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with negligible cohesion and zero hardening(e.g. Holsapple, Icarus 2001). Such a response is highly non-linear and must be solved using finite elements and iterative methods (Simo and Hughes, Computational Inelasticity 1998). Using the commercial finite element code ABAQUS, we present the shape deformation resulting from an elasto-plastic analysis of a spinning, self-gravitating accreted sphere that is spun-up after growth is complete. The methodology can be extended to model plastic deformation due to local failure for more complex planetesimal shapes, such as for the asteroid Kleopatra. This work has implications for the evolution of planetesimal shapes, the creation of binary and contact binary asteroids, and for the maximum spin rate of small planetary bodies.

  15. A Unified Material Description for Light Induced Deformation in Azobenzene Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Jonghoon; Oates, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Complex light-matter interactions in azobenzene polymers have limited our understanding of how photoisomerization induces deformation as a function of the underlying polymer network and form of the light excitation. A unified modeling framework is formulated to advance the understanding of surface deformation and bulk deformation of polymer films that are controlled by linear or circularly polarized light or vortex beams. It is shown that dipole forces strongly respond to polarized light in contrast to higher order quadrupole forces that are often used to describe surface relief grating deformation through a field gradient constitutive law. The modeling results and comparisons with a broad range of photomechanical data in the literature suggest that the molecular structure of the azobenzene monomers dramatically influences the photostrictive behavior. The results provide important insight for designing azobenzene monomers within a polymer network to achieve enhanced photo-responsive deformation. PMID:26437598

  16. Non-linear finite element analysis for prediction of seismic response of buildings considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelebi, E.; Göktepe, F.; Karahan, N.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper focuses primarily on the numerical approach based on two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method for analysis of the seismic response of infinite soil-structure interaction (SSI) system. This study is performed by a series of different scenarios that involved comprehensive parametric analyses including the effects of realistic material properties of the underlying soil on the structural response quantities. Viscous artificial boundaries, simulating the process of wave transmission along the truncated interface of the semi-infinite space, are adopted in the non-linear finite element formulation in the time domain along with Newmark's integration. The slenderness ratio of the superstructure and the local soil conditions as well as the characteristics of input excitations are important parameters for the numerical simulation in this research. The mechanical behavior of the underlying soil medium considered in this prediction model is simulated by an undrained elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb model under plane-strain conditions. To emphasize the important findings of this type of problems to civil engineers, systematic calculations with different controlling parameters are accomplished to evaluate directly the structural response of the vibrating soil-structure system. When the underlying soil becomes stiffer, the frequency content of the seismic motion has a major role in altering the seismic response. The sudden increase of the dynamic response is more pronounced for resonance case, when the frequency content of the seismic ground motion is close to that of the SSI system. The SSI effects under different seismic inputs are different for all considered soil conditions and structural types.

  17. Dose-Volume Response Relationship for Brain Metastases Treated with Frameless Single-Fraction Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianmin; Yusuf, Mehran B; Dragun, Anthony; Dunlap, Neal; Guan, Timothy; Boling, Warren; Rai, Shesh; Woo, Shiao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to identify a dose-volume response relationship for brain metastases treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: We reviewed patients who underwent frameless single-fraction linear accelerator SRS for brain metastases between 2007 and 2013 from an institutional database. Proportional hazards modeling was used to identify predictors of outcome. A ratio of maximum lesion dose per mm-diameter (Gy/mm) was constructed to establish a dose-volume relationship. Results: There were 316 metastases evaluated in 121 patients (2 - 33 mm in the largest diameter). The median peripheral dose was 18.0 Gy (range: 10.0 – 24.0 Gy). Local control was 84.8% for all lesions and was affected by location, peripheral dose, maximum dose, and lesion size (p values < 0.050). A dose-volume response relationship was constructed using the maximum dose and lesion size. A unit increase in Gy/mm was associated with decreased local failure (p = 0.005). Local control of 80%, 85%, and 90% corresponded to maximum doses per millimeter of 1.67 Gy/mm, 2.86 Gy/mm, and 4.4 Gy/mm, respectively. Toxicity was uncommon and only 1.0% of lesions developed radionecrosis requiring surgery. Conclusions: For brain metastases less than 3 cm, a dose-volume response relationship exists between maximum radiosurgical dose and lesion size, which is predictive of local control. PMID:27284495

  18. Measurement of deformation and frequency response characteristic of PZT tube in tunable fiber laser with short period based on coherent laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhi; Zeng, Xiaodong; Fan, Zhaojin; Xu, Zhichen

    2016-09-01

    The parameters of light source in synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) is very important to both the design of system and the signal processing algorithm. As the light source in the SAL, the fiber laser use PZT (piezoelectric ceramics) tube stretching the fiber Bragg grating in order to tune the laser frequency. So it is necessary to obtain the deformation and frequency response of PZT tube driven by saw-tooth voltage of different periods. Accordingly, the homodyne detection is used to measure the girth variation of PZT tube. Meanwhile, the frequency response of PZT tube can be viewed with the homodyne signal. The results from measuring a PZT tube show that the method can work well.

  19. Heating/ethanol-response of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with gradient pre-deformation and potential temperature sensor and anti-counterfeit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Huang, Wei Min; Lian Wu, Xue; Ge, Yu Chun; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Yong; Geng, Junfeng

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the heating/ethanol-response of a commercial poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is investigated. All PMMA samples are pre-deformed by means of impression (surface compression with a mold) to introduce a gradient pre-strain/stress field. Two types of molds are applied in impression. One is a Singaporean coin and the other is a particularly designed mold with a variable protrusive feature on top. Two potential applications—temperature sensors to monitor overheating temperatures and anti-counterfeit labels with a water-mark that appears only upon heating to a particular temperature—are demonstrated. Since the heating-responsive shape memory effect (SME) is an intrinsic feature of almost all polymers, other conventional polymers may be used in such applications as well.

  20. Enlarging the linear response range of velocity with optimum imaging parameters and modified data processing in laser speckle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianjun; Li, Pengcheng; Ul'yanov, Sergey S.; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2008-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) technique is considered as a promising method of accessing cerebral blood flow (CBF) of animals for its high spatiotemporal resolution and simplicity. It is important in LSI that optimum imaging parameters and limited noises should be confirmed to promote the imaging precision. We investigated in this paper different factors which may affect the imaging results with a moving white plate model, and then proposed a method of enlarging the linear response range of velocity. Through experiment, we proposed in our LSI system the optimum imaging parameters, including the numerical aperture and magnification of microscopy, the integration time, the gain mode of CCD camera. The average intensity was found optimum at about 800 counts out of 4096 grey level, which permits the highest contrast in our experiment. To eliminate the influence of uneven illumination, a direct current weight of 27 counts was subtracted during data processing. The result indicated that the relationship between measured velocity and the real one remained linear with R2 equaling to 0.99 throughout the scale of 80 mm/s.

  1. Lower Rydberg series of methane: a combined coupled cluster linear response and molecular quantum defect orbital calculation.

    PubMed

    Velasco, A M; Pitarch-Ruiz, J; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M J; Sánchez-Marín, J; Martin, I

    2006-03-28

    Vertical excitation energies as well as related absolute photoabsorption oscillator strength data are very scarce in the literature for methane. In this study, we have characterized the three existing series of low-lying Rydberg states of CH4 by computing coupled cluster linear response (CCLR) vertical excitation energies together with oscillator strengths in the molecular-adapted quantum defect orbital formalism from a distorted Cs geometry selected on the basis of outer valence green function calculations. The present work provides a wide range of data of excitation energies and absolute oscillator strengths which correspond to the Rydberg series converging to the three lower ionization potential values of the distorted methane molecule, in energy regions for which experimentally measured data appear to be unavailable.

  2. Image-based biomechanical modeling of aortic wall stress and vessel deformation: response to pulsatile arterial pressure simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazer, Dilana; Bauer, Miriam; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Richter, Götz-M.

    2008-03-01

    Image-based modeling of cardiovascular biomechanics may be very helpful for patients with aortic aneurysms to predict the risk of rupture and evaluate the necessity of a surgical intervention. In order to generate a reliable support it is necessary to develop exact patient-specific models that simulate biomechanical parameters and provide individual structural analysis of the state of fatigue and characterize this to the potential of rupture of the aortic wall. The patient-specific geometry used here originates from a CT scan of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). The computations are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and simulate the wall stress distribution and the vessel deformation. The wall transient boundary conditions are based on real time-dependent pressure simulations obtained from a previous computational fluid dynamics study. The physiological wall material properties consider a nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive model, based on realistic ex-vivo analysis of the aneurismal arterial tissue. The results showed complex deformation and stress distribution on the AAA wall. The maximum stresses occurred at the systole and are found around the aneurismal bulge in regions close to inflection points. Biomechanical modeling based on medical images and coupled with patient-specific hemodynamics allows analysing and quantifying the effects of dilatation of the arterial wall due to the pulsatile aortic pressure. It provides a physical and realistic insight into the wall mechanics and enables predictive simulations of AAA growth and assessment of rupture. Further development integrating endovascular models would help evaluating non-invasively individual treatment strategies for optimal placement and improved device design.

  3. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.Y.; Kwak, H.S.; Choi, J.S.; Ahn, H.K.; Oh, Y.J.; Velázquez-Armenta, E.Y.; Nava-Ocampo, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  4. Direct forecasting of subsurface flow response from non-linear dynamic data by linear least-squares in canonical functional principal component space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satija, Aaditya; Caers, Jef

    2015-03-01

    Inverse modeling is widely used to assist with forecasting problems in the subsurface. However, full inverse modeling can be time-consuming requiring iteration over a high dimensional parameter space with computationally expensive forward models and complex spatial priors. In this paper, we investigate a prediction-focused approach (PFA) that aims at building a statistical relationship between data variables and forecast variables, avoiding the inversion of model parameters altogether. The statistical relationship is built by first applying the forward model related to the data variables and the forward model related to the prediction variables on a limited set of spatial prior models realizations, typically generated through geostatistical methods. The relationship observed between data and prediction is highly non-linear for many forecasting problems in the subsurface. In this paper we propose a Canonical Functional Component Analysis (CFCA) to map the data and forecast variables into a low-dimensional space where, if successful, the relationship is linear. CFCA consists of (1) functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for dimension reduction of time-series data and (2) canonical correlation analysis (CCA); the latter aiming to establish a linear relationship between data and forecast components. If such mapping is successful, then we illustrate with several cases that (1) simple regression techniques with a multi-Gaussian framework can be used to directly quantify uncertainty on the forecast without any model inversion and that (2) such uncertainty is a good approximation of uncertainty obtained from full posterior sampling with rejection sampling.

  5. Large Deformations of a Soft Porous Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMinn, Christopher W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2016-04-01

    Compressing a porous material will decrease the volume of the pore space, driving fluid out. Similarly, injecting fluid into a porous material can expand the pore space, distorting the solid skeleton. This poromechanical coupling has applications ranging from cell and tissue mechanics to geomechanics and hydrogeology. The classical theory of linear poroelasticity captures this coupling by combining Darcy's law with Terzaghi's effective stress and linear elasticity in a linearized kinematic framework. Linear poroelasticity is a good model for very small deformations, but it becomes increasingly inappropriate for moderate to large deformations, which are common in the context of phenomena such as swelling and damage, and for soft materials such as gels and tissues. The well-known theory of large-deformation poroelasticity combines Darcy's law with Terzaghi's effective stress and nonlinear elasticity in a rigorous kinematic framework. This theory has been used extensively in biomechanics to model large elastic deformations in soft tissues and in geomechanics to model large elastoplastic deformations in soils. Here, we first provide an overview and discussion of this theory with an emphasis on the physics of poromechanical coupling. We present the large-deformation theory in an Eulerian framework to minimize the mathematical complexity, and we show how this nonlinear theory simplifies to linear poroelasticity under the assumption of small strain. We then compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of large-deformation poroelasticity in the context of two uniaxial model problems: fluid outflow driven by an applied mechanical load (the consolidation problem) and compression driven by a steady fluid throughflow. We explore the steady and dynamical errors associated with the linear model in both situations, as well as the impact of introducing a deformation-dependent permeability. We show that the error in linear poroelasticity is due primarily to kinematic

  6. Landscape response to recent tectonic deformation in the SW Pannonian Basin: Evidence from DEM-based morphometric analysis of the Bilogora Mt. area, NE Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoš, Bojan; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Tomljenović, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Bilogora Mt. area is a transpressional structure located in the NE of Croatia, linked with the tectonic evolution of the Drava Depression. The structure formed during Pliocene and Quaternary from the inversion of NW-striking Drava Depression Boundary Fault, which originated as a normal fault and was reactivated as a dextral strike-slip fault. During Pliocene and Quaternary time, Bilogora Mt. area underwent more than 400 m of differential uplift, while still ongoing tectonic deformation is documented by historical and instrumental seismicity (3.5 ≤ ML ≤ 5.6). In this geomorphic study, the recent deformation in the Bilogora Mt. area, although obscured by landscape evolution variables, was assessed using DEM-based landscape morphometry and a set of morphometric indexes. Local relief and slope angle variability distributions were combined with morphometric indexes computed at the scale of the drainage basin. We analyzed hypsometric curves with the hypsometric integral (HI), basin asymmetry (AF) and parameters of longitudinal stream profiles (Cf, Cmax, Δl/L, θ, and ksn). Analyzed morphometric parameters were combined into a cumulative index of relative tectonic activity (RTA). This index summarizes drainage basin response to the possible recent tectonic activity. Results suggest that most of the tectonic activity is probably located along the NE front of the Bilogora Mt. area, in its NW and central part. This activity could be likely related to recent tectonic activity along the Kalnik Mt. Fault zone and Drava Depression Boundary Fault zones, respectively. A subordinate area characterized by recent tectonic activity could be suggested within the southernmost part of the study area. Quaternary activity in this area is probably related to NE-striking faults in vicinity of the town Daruvar that continue towards the northeast into the study area. Though methodology presented here represents a good identification tool of possible ongoing deformation, this study will be

  7. One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis - A case study of collapsed Margalla Tower in Islamabad during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Rehman, Zia-ur-; Farooq, Khalid; Memon, Shazim Ali

    2016-07-01

    One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis was conducted in the Margalla Tower building in Islamabad, which collapsed during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake. The analyses were conducted in DEEPSOIL software, without considering the effect of ground water table. The input subsoil data were selected from laboratory and field tests conducted for the site with bedrock at a depth of 21 m as per site condition. The field and laboratory testing data showed that the subsoil beneath the Tower site was silty clay to lean clay according to the unified soil classification system. Four different accelerograms with PGA values of 0.17 g, 0.15 g, 0.22 g and 0.21 g, compatible with the earthquake in the target area were applied at the bedrock. The surface response spectra showed that, except the Accelerogram-1 all other three were amplified near the fundamental period of the site. The analyses showed that different PGA values (0.26 g, 0.21 g, 0.36 g and 0.21 g) were produced at the surface which can be explained due to the difference in the Fourier amplitude of input accelerograms. Furthermore, the different input accelerograms produced a different shear strain and thus mobilized different shear strengths along the soil profile depth. Finally, the calculated response spectra of accelerograms were compared with the response spectra of Islamabad. The calculated spectral acceleration values were found to be higher than reported by the Building Code of Pakistan (0.16 g to 0.24 g).

  8. Integrable Deformations of T -Dual σ Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Wulff, Linus

    2016-12-01

    We present a method to deform (generically non-Abelian) T duals of two-dimensional σ models, which preserves classical integrability. The deformed models are identified by a linear operator ω on the dualized subalgebra, which satisfies the 2-cocycle condition. We prove that the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations are equivalent, via a field redefinition, to our deformed models when ω is invertible. We explain the details for deformations of T duals of principal chiral models, and present the corresponding generalization to the case of supercoset models.

  9. Changing the Risk Paradigms Can be Good for Our Health: J-Shaped, Linear and Threshold Dose-Response Models.

    PubMed

    Ricci, P F; Straja, S R; Cox, A L

    2012-01-01

    Both the linear (at low doses)-no-threshold (LNT) and the threshold models (S-shapes) dose-response lead to no benefit from low exposure. We propose three new models that allow and include, but do not require - unlike LNT and S-shaped models - this strong assumption. We also provide the means to calculate benefits associated with bi-phasic biological behaviors, when they occur and propose:THREE HORMETIC (PHASIC) MODELS: the J-shaped, inverse J-shaped, the min-max, andMethod for calculating the direct benefits associated with the J and inverse J-shaped models.The J-shaped and min-max models for mutagens and carcinogenic agents include an experimentally justified repair stage for toxic and carcinogenic damage. We link these to stochastic transition models for cancer and show how abrupt transitions in cancer hazard rates, as functions of exposure concentrations and durations, can emerge naturally in large cell populations even when the rates of cell-level events increase smoothly (e.g., proportionally) with concentration. In this very general family of models, J-shaped dose-response curves emerge. These results are universal, i.e., independent of specific biological details represented by the stochastic transition networks. Thus, using them suggests a more complete and realistic way to assess risks at low doses or dose-rates.

  10. The mechanical response of a 6061-T6 Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal matrix composite at high rates of deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, S.; Chichili, D.R.; Ramesh, K.T.

    1995-12-01

    The mechanical properties of a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy reinforced with a 20 vol% fraction of alumina particles and of an unreinforced 6061-T6 alloy are studied over a range of strain rates (10{sup {minus}4} to 6 {times} 10{sup 5} s{sup {minus}1}) using quasistatic compression, compression and torsion Kolsky Bars, and high strain rate pressure-shear plate impact. At a given strain rate the composite displays increased strength but essentially the same strain hardening as the matrix. However, the composite displays a stronger rate-sensitivity than does the unreinforced alloy at high rates of deformation (> 10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}). The rate-sensitivity of the unreinforced alloy is shown to be largely the result of the imposed strain rate rather than of the rate history. For quasistatic deformations, a model proposed by Bao et al. (1991) describes the behavior of the composite fairly accurately given the behavior of the unreinforced alloy. This paper presents an extension of the model that is able to predict the dynamic behavior of the composite given the dynamic response of the monolithic alloy.

  11. Responses to rotating linear acceleration vectors considered in relation to a model of the otolith organs. [human oculomotor response to transverse acceleration stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, A. J.; Barnes, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Human subjects were exposed to a linear acceleration vector that rotated in the transverse plane of the skull without angular counterrotation. Lateral eye movements showed a sinusoidal change in slow phase velocity and an asymmetry or bias in the same direction as vector rotation. A model is developed that attributes the oculomotor response to otolithic mechanisms. It is suggested that the bias component is the manifestation of torsion of the statoconial plaque relative to the base of the utricular macula and that the sinusoidal component represents the translational oscillation of the statoconia. The model subsumes a hypothetical neural mechanism which allows x- and y-axis accelerations to be resolved. Derivation of equations of motion for the statoconial plaque in torsion and translation, which take into account forces acting in shear and normal to the macula, yield estimates of bias and sinusoidal components that are in qualitative agreement with the diverse experimental findings.

  12. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B₁ levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-08-14

    Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B₁ (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed.

  13. Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

  14. Transient Earth system responses to cumulative carbon dioxide emissions: linearities, uncertainties, and probabilities in an observation-constrained model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2016-02-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil CO2 emissions and multiple climate targets is essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient response of a climate or environmental variable per trillion tonnes of CO2 emissions, termed TRE, is quantified for a set of impact-relevant climate variables and from a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization. An ˜ 1000-member ensemble of the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model is applied and model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte Carlo-type framework. Uncertainties in TRE estimates include both scenario uncertainty and model response uncertainty. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.9 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.3 to 2.7 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and a steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic meridional overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The constrained model ensemble is also applied to determine the response to a pulse-like emission and in idealized CO2-only simulations. The transient climate response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the equilibrium climate sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  15. Dissipation in deforming chaotic billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Alexander Harvey

    Chaotic billiards (hard-walled cavities) in two or more dimensions are paradigm systems in the fields of classical and quantum chaos. We study the dissipation (irreversible heating) rate in such billiard systems due to general shape deformations which are periodic in time. We are motivated by older studies of one-body nuclear dissipation and by anticipated mesoscopic applications. We review the classical and quantum linear response theories of dissipation rate and demonstrate their correspondence in the semiclassical limit. In both pictures, heating is a result of stochastic energy spreading. The heating rate can be expressed as a frequency-dependent friction coefficient μ(ω), which depends on billiard shape and deformation choice. We show that there is a special class of deformations for which μ vanishes as like a power law in the small- ω limit. Namely, for deformations which cause translations and dilations μ ~ ω4 whereas for those which cause rotations μ ~ ω2. This contrasts the generic case for which μ ~ ω4 We show how a systematic treatment of this special class leads to an improved version of the `wall formula' estimate for μ(0). We show that the special nature of dilation (a new result) is semiclassically equivalent to a quasi- orthogonality relation between the (undeformed) billiard quantum eigenstates on the boundary. This quasi- orthogonality forms the heart of a `scaling method' for the numerical calculation of quantum eigenstates, invented recently by Vergini and Saraceno. The scaling method is orders of magnitude more efficient than any other known billiard quantization method, however an adequate explanation for its success has been lacking until now. We explain the scaling method, its errors, and applications. We also present improvements to Heller's plane wave method. Two smaller projects conclude the thesis. Firstly, we give a new formalism for quantum point contact (QPC) conductance in terms of scattering cross-section in the half

  16. Nonlinear and linear site response and basin effects in Seattle for the M 6.8 Nisqually, Washington, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Carver, D.L.; Williams, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We used recordings of the M 6.8 Nisqually earthquake and its ML 3.4 aftershock to study site response and basin effects for 35 locations in Seattle, Washington. We determined site amplification from Fourier spectral ratios of the recorded horizontal ground motions, referenced to a soft-rock site. Soft-soil sites (generally National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program [NEHRP] class E) on artificial fill and young alluvium have the largest 1-Hz amplifications (factors of 3-7) for both the mainshock and aftershock. These amplifications are correlated with areas of higher damage from the mainshock to major buildings and liquefaction. There are several indications of nonlinear response at the soft-soil sites for the mainshock ground motions, despite relatively modest peak accelerations in the S waves of 15%-22%g. First, the mainshock spectral ratios do not show amplification at 2-8 Hz as do the aftershock spectral ratios. Spectral peaks at frequencies below 2 Hz generally occur at lower frequencies for the mainshock spectral ratios than for the aftershock ratios. At one soft-soil site, there is a clear shift of the resonant frequency to a lower frequency for the mainshock compared with the aftershock. The frequency of this resonance increases in the coda of the mainshock record, indicating that the site response during the weaker motions of the coda is more linear than that of the initial S wave. Three of the soft-soil sites display cusped, one-sided mainshock accelerograms after the S wave. These soft-soil sites also show amplification at 10-20 Hz in the S wave, relative to the rock site, that is not observed for the aftershock. The cusped waveforms and 10-20-Hz amplification are symptomatic of nonlinear response at the soft-soil sites. These sites had nearby liquefaction. The largest amplifications for 0.5 Hz occur at soft-soil sites on the southern portion of the Seattle Basin. Stiff-soil sites (NEHRP classes D and C) on Pleistocene-age glacial deposits display

  17. Response of deformation patterns to reorganization of the southern San Andreas fault system since ca. 1.5 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattaruso, Laura A.; Cooke, Michele L.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Housen, Bernard A.

    2016-12-01

    Between 1.5 and 1.1 Ma, the southern San Andreas fault system underwent a major reorganization that included initiation of the San Jacinto fault zone and termination of slip on the extensional West Salton detachment fault. The southern San Andreas fault itself has also evolved since this time, with several shifts in activity among fault strands within San Gorgonio Pass. We use three-dimensional mechanical Boundary Element Method models to investigate the impact of these changes to the fault network on deformation patterns. A series of snapshot models of the succession of active fault geometries explore the role of fault interaction and tectonic loading in abandonment of the West Salton detachment fault, initiation of the San Jacinto fault zone, and shifts in activity of the San Andreas fault. Interpreted changes to uplift patterns are well matched by model results. These results support the idea that initiation and growth of the San Jacinto fault zone led to increased uplift rates in the San Gabriel Mountains and decreased uplift rates in the San Bernardino Mountains. Comparison of model results for vertical-axis rotation to data from paleomagnetic studies reveals a good match to local rotation patterns in the Mecca Hills and Borrego Badlands. We explore the mechanical efficiency at each step in the modeled fault evolution, and find an overall trend toward increased efficiency through time. Strain energy density patterns are used to identify regions of incipient faulting, and support the notion of north-to-south propagation of the San Jacinto fault during its initiation.

  18. Threshold and other departures from linear-quadratic curvature in the non-cancer mortality dose-response curve in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark P

    2004-07-01

    Recently released data on non-cancer mortality in Japanese atomic bomb survivors are analysed using a variety of generalised relative risk models that take account of errors in estimates of dose to assess the dose-response at low doses. If linear-threshold, quadratic-threshold or linear-quadratic-threshold relative risk models (the dose-response is assumed to be linear, quadratic or linear-quadratic above the threshold, respectively) are fitted to the non-cancer data there are no statistically significant ( p>0.10) indications of threshold departures from linearity, quadratic curvature or linear-quadratic curvature. These findings are true irrespective of the assumed magnitude of dosimetric error, between 25%-45% geometric standard deviations. In general, increasing the assumed magnitude of dosimetric error had little effect on the central estimates of the threshold, but somewhat widened the associated confidence intervals. If a power of dose model is fitted, there is little evidence ( p>0.10) that the power of dose in the dose-response is statistically significantly different from 1, again irrespective of the assumed magnitude of dosimetric errors in the range 25%-45%. Again, increasing the size of the errors resulted in wider confidence intervals on the power of dose, without marked effect on the central estimates. In general these findings remain true for various non-cancer disease subtypes.

  19. On the need for comprehensive validation of deformable image registration, investigated with a novel 3D deformable dosimeter

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Titania; Das, Shiva; Adamovics, John; Benning, Ron; Oldham, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms may enable multi-fraction dose tracking and improved treatment response assessment, but the accuracy of these methods must be investigated. This study introduces and evaluates a novel deformable 3D dosimetry system (Presage-Def/Optical-CT) and its application toward investigating the accuracy of dose deformation in a commercial DIR package. Methods and Materials Presage-Def is a new dosimetry material consisting of an elastic polyurethane matrix doped with radiochromic leuco dye. Radiological and mechanical properties were characterized using standard techniques. Dose-tracking feasibility was evaluated by comparing dose distributions between dosimeters irradiated with and without 27% lateral compression. A checkerboard plan of 5 mm square fields enabled precise measurement of true deformation using 3D dosimetry. Predicted deformation was determined from a commercial DIR algorithm. Results Presage-Def exhibited a linear dose response with sensitivity of 0.0032 ΔOD/(Gy·cm). Mass density is 1.02 g/cm3 and effective atomic number is within 1.5% of water over a broad (0.03–10 MeV) energy range, indicating good water-equivalence. Elastic characteristics were close to liver tissue, with Young’s modulus of 13.5–887 kPa over a stress range of 0.233–303 kPa, and Poisson’s ratio of 0.475 (SE=0.036). The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system successfully imaged the non-deformed and deformed dose distributions with isotropic resolution of 1 mm. Comparison with the predicted deformed 3D dose distribution identified inaccuracies in the commercial DIR algorithm. While external contours were accurately deformed (sub-millimeter accuracy), volumetric dose deformation was poor. Checkerboard field positioning and dimension errors of up to 9 and 14 mm respectively were identified, and the 3D DIR-deformed dose gamma passing rate was only γ3%/3mm=60.0%. Conclusions The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system shows strong potential for

  20. Non-linear optical response of an impurity in a cylindrical quantum dot under the action of a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portacio, Alfonso A.; Rodríguez, Boris A.; Villamil, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical response in a cylindrical quantum dot (CQD) of GaAs / Ga0.6Al0.4 As with a donor impurity in a uniform magnetic field applied in the axial direction of the cylinder is studied theoretically. The calculations were carried out in approximations of effective mass and two-level quantum systems. Using the variational method, the binding energies and the wave functions of the 1s-like y 2pz-like states for different positions of the impurity inside the CQD were found. It was found that the binding energy is greatest in the center of the CQD and diminishes as the impurity moves radially and/or axially. The optical rectification, the change in the refractive index, and the optical absorption were studied as functions of the energy of a photon incident on the CQD and different intensities of the magnetic field, with an impurity located at various positions. It was found that in a CDQ with an impurity inside, the effect of the variation of the intensity of the magnetic field on the optical response is much less than the effect produced by the variation of the position of the impurity. The physical reason for this behavior is that in nanostructures with impurities the Coulomb confinement is stronger than the magnetic confinement. It was also found that when the impurity is in the center of the quantum dot, the optical rectification coefficient is zero, due to the symmetry that the wave function of the impurity exhibits at this geometric point. When the impurity moves in the axial direction, the symmetry is broken and the optical rectification coefficient is different from zero, and its value increases as the impurity moves away from the center of the CQD.

  1. Investigating the sources of variability in the dynamic response of built-up structures through a linear analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfathi, Ali; O'Boy, Dan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Fisher, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that the dynamic response of a number of nominally identical built-up structures are often different and the variability increases with increasing complexity of the structure. Furthermore, the effects of the different parameters, for example the variation in joint locations or the range of the Young's modulus, on the dynamic response of the system are not the same. In this paper, the effects of different material and geometric parameters on the variability of a vibration transfer function are compared using an analytical model of a simple linear built-up structure that consist of two plates connected by a single mount. Similar results can be obtained if multiple mounts are used. The scope of this paper is limited to a low and medium frequency range where usually deterministic models are used for vibrational analysis. The effect of the mount position and also the global variation in the properties of the plate, such as modulus of elasticity or thickness, is higher on the variability of vibration transfer function than the effect of the mount properties. It is shown that the vibration transfer function between the plates is independent of the mount property if a stiff enough mount with a small mass is implemented. For a soft mount, there is a direct relationship between the mount impedance and the variation in the vibration transfer function. Furthermore, there are a range of mount stiffnesses between these two extreme cases at which the vibration transfer function is more sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the mount than when compared to a soft mount. It is found that the effect of variation in the mount damping and the mount mass on the variability is negligible. Similarly, the effect of the plate damping on the variability is not significant.

  2. Linear Superposition of Retinal Action Potentials to Predict Electrical Flicker Responses from the Eye of the Wolf Spider, Lycosa baltimoriana (Keyserling)

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Robert D.

    1962-01-01

    Retinal action potentials were elicited from light-adapted posterior median ocelli of the wolf spider Lycosa baltimoriana (Keyserling) by rectangular shaped photic stimuli representing 8 per cent increments or decrements of the background illumination. Responses to trains of recurrent incremental or decremental flashes were successfully predicted by graphical linear superposition of a single flash response, which was repeatedly drawn and added to itself at intervals equal to the period of the intermittent stimulus. Incremental stimuli inverted to form decremental stimuli elicited responses which were also inverted. Responses to single incremental flashes were successfully predicted by linear superposition of the response to one incremental step stimulus, which was inverted and added to itself at an interval equal to the duration of the flash. PMID:13884591

  3. Linear response of heat conductivity of normal-superfluid interface of a polarized Fermi gas to orbital magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimian, N.; Mehrafarin, M.; Afzali, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using perturbed Bogoliubov equations, we study the linear response to a weak orbital magnetic field of the heat conductivity of the normal-superfluid interface of a polarized Fermi gas at sufficiently low temperature. We consider the various scattering regions of the BCS regime and analytically obtain the transmission coefficients and the heat conductivity across the interface in an arbitrary weak orbital field. For a definite choice of the field, we consider various values of the scattering length in the BCS range and numerically obtain the allowed values of the average and species-imbalance chemical potentials. Thus, taking Andreev reflection into account, we describe how the heat conductivity is affected by the field and the species imbalance. In particular, we show that the additional heat conductivity due to the orbital field increases with the species imbalance, which is more noticeable at higher temperatures. Our results indicate how the heat conductivity may be controlled, which is relevant to sensitive magnetic field sensors/regulators at the interface.

  4. Optimizing the general linear model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy: an adaptive hemodynamic response function approach

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Minako; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Dan, Haruka; Watanabe, Eiju

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies utilize a general linear model (GLM) approach, which serves as a standard statistical method for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. While fMRI solely measures the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, fNIRS measures the changes of oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) signals at a temporal resolution severalfold higher. This suggests the necessity of adjusting the temporal parameters of a GLM for fNIRS signals. Thus, we devised a GLM-based method utilizing an adaptive hemodynamic response function (HRF). We sought the optimum temporal parameters to best explain the observed time series data during verbal fluency and naming tasks. The peak delay of the HRF was systematically changed to achieve the best-fit model for the observed oxy- and deoxy-Hb time series data. The optimized peak delay showed different values for each Hb signal and task. When the optimized peak delays were adopted, the deoxy-Hb data yielded comparable activations with similar statistical power and spatial patterns to oxy-Hb data. The adaptive HRF method could suitably explain the behaviors of both Hb parameters during tasks with the different cognitive loads during a time course, and thus would serve as an objective method to fully utilize the temporal structures of all fNIRS data. PMID:26157973

  5. Linear oxygen-sensing response from a rhenium complex induced by heavy atom: synthesis, characterization, photophysical study and sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Pu; Zhao, Lun; Wang, Lisha; Xu, Guangyang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesized a Br-containing ligand of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and its corresponding Re(I) complex. Their synthesis, characterization, single crystal structure, electronic transitions and photophysical property were presented and discussed in detail. This Re(I) complex was found to be a yellow emitter with slim π→π* radiative decay contribution, and its emission was also found to be sensitive towards O2. By doping this Re(I) complex into a polymer matrix, the oxygen-sensing performance of the resulted composite nanofibers was also investigated. Owing to the porous structure of the supporting matrix, the optimal sample gave the highest sensitivity of 3.91 with short response time of only 9 s. In addition, the linearity of the Stern-Volmer plots was greatly improved due to the highly pure emissive center triggered by heavy-atom turbulence effect from Br atom, as indicted by theoretical calculation result.

  6. Linear Response Equilibrium versus echo-planar encoding for fast high-spatial resolution 3D chemical shift imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Rudolf Fritz; Baltes, Christof; Weiss, Kilian; Pazhenkottil, Aju; Rudin, Markus; Boesiger, Peter; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    In this work Linear Response Equilibrium (LRE) and Echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) are compared in terms of sensitivity per unit time and power deposition. In addition an extended dual repetition time scheme to generate broad stopbands for improved inherent water suppression in LRE is presented. The feasibility of LRE and EPSI for assessing cholesterol esters in human carotid plaques with high spatial resolution of 1.95 × 1.15 × 1.15 mm 3 on a clinical 3T MR system is demonstrated. In simulations and phantom experiments it is shown that LRE has comparable but lower sensitivity per unit time relative to EPSI despite stronger signal generated. This relates to the lower sampling efficiency in LRE relative to EPSI as a result of limited gradient performance on clinical MR systems. At the same time, power deposition of LRE is significantly reduced compared to EPSI making it an interesting niche application for in vivo high field spectroscopic imaging of metabolites within a limited bandwidth.

  7. Reappraisal of nuclear quadrupole moments of atomic halogens via relativistic coupled cluster linear response theory for the ionization process.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rajat K; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Mahapatra, Uttam Sinha

    2013-11-27

    The coupled cluster based linear response theory (CCLRT) with four-component relativistic spinors is employed to compute the electric field gradients (EFG) of (35)Cl, (79)Br, and (127)I nuclei. The EFGs resulting from these calculations are combined with experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCC) to determine the nuclear quadrupole moments (NQM), Q of the halide nuclei. Our estimated NQMs [(35)Cl = -81.12 mb, (79)Br = 307.98 mb, and (127)I = -688.22 mb] agree well with the new atomic values [(35)Cl = -81.1(1.2), (79)Br = 302(5), and (127)I = -680(10) mb] obtained via Fock space multireference coupled cluster method with the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. Although our estimated Q((79)Br) value deviates from the accepted reference value of 313(3) mb, it agrees well with the recently recommended value, Q((79)Br) = 308.7(20) mb. Good agreement with current reference data indicates the accuracy of the proposed value for these halogen nuclei and lends credence to the results obtained via CCLRT approach. The electron affinities yielded by this method with no extra cost are also in good agreement with experimental values, which bolster our belief that the NQMs values for halogen nuclei derived here are reliable.

  8. Linear oxygen-sensing response from a rhenium complex induced by heavy atom: Synthesis, characterization, photophysical study and sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Wan; Lun, Zhao; Lisha, Wang; Guangyang, Xu

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesized a Br-containing ligand of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and its corresponding Re(I) complex. Their synthesis, characterization, single crystal structure, electronic transitions and photophysical property were presented and discussed in detail. This Re(I) complex was found to be a yellow emitter with slim π → π* radiative decay contribution, and its emission was also found to be sensitive towards O2. By doping this Re(I) complex into a polymer matrix, the oxygen-sensing performance of the resulted composite nanofibers was also investigated. Owing to the porous structure of the supporting matrix, the optimal sample gave the highest sensitivity of 3.91 with short response time of only 9 s. In addition, the linearity of the Stern-Volmer plots was greatly improved due to the highly pure emissive center triggered by heavy-atom turbulence effect from Br atom, as indicted by theoretical calculation result.

  9. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical/continuum style solvation model: Linear response theory, variational treatment, and nuclear gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Linear response and variational treatment are formulated for Hartree-Fock (HF) and Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) methods and combined discrete-continuum solvation models that incorporate self-consistently induced dipoles and charges. Due to the variational treatment, analytic nuclear gradients can be evaluated efficiently for these discrete and continuum solvation models. The forces and torques on the induced point dipoles and point charges can be evaluated using simple electrostatic formulas as for permanent point dipoles and point charges, in accordance with the electrostatic nature of these methods. Implementation and tests using the effective fragment potential (EFP, a polarizable force field) method and the conductorlike polarizable continuum model (CPCM) show that the nuclear gradients are as accurate as those in the gas phase HF and DFT methods. Using B3LYP/EFP/CPCM and time-dependent-B3LYP/EFP/CPCM methods, acetone S0→S1 excitation in aqueous solution is studied. The results are close to those from full B3LYP/CPCM calculations.

  10. Smoothly deformed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenholm, Stig

    1993-01-01

    A single mode cavity is deformed smoothly to change its electromagnetic eigenfrequency. The system is modeled as a simple harmonic oscillator with a varying period. The Wigner function of the problem is obtained exactly by starting with a squeezed initial state. The result is evaluated for a linear change of the cavity length. The approach to the adiabatic limit is investigated. The maximum squeezing is found to occur for smooth change lasting only a fraction of the oscillational period. However, only a factor of two improvement over the adiabatic result proves to be possible. The sudden limit cannot be investigated meaningfully within the model.

  11. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Ian N; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Therien, Michael J

    2014-05-21

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device

  12. Utilization of the Generalized Method of Cells to Analyze the Deformation Response of Laminated Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to practically utilize ceramic matrix composites in aircraft engine components, robust analysis tools are required that can simulate the material response in a computationally efficient manner. The MAC/GMC software developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, based on the Generalized Method of Cells micromechanics method, has the potential to meet this need. Utilizing MAC/GMC, the effective stiffness properties, proportional limit stress and ultimate strength can be predicted based on the properties and response of the individual constituents. In this paper, the effective stiffness and strength properties for a representative laminated ceramic matrix composite with a large diameter fiber are predicted for a variety of fiber orientation angles and laminate orientations. As part of the analytical study, methods to determine the in-situ stiffness and strength properties of the constituents required to appropriately simulate the effective composite response are developed. The stiffness properties of the representative composite have been adequately predicted for all of the fiber orientations and laminate configurations examined in this study. The proportional limit stresses and strains and ultimate stresses and strains were predicted with varying levels of accuracy, depending on the laminate orientation. However, for the cases where the predictions did not have the desired level of accuracy, the specific issues related to the micromechanics theory were identified which could lead to difficulties that were encountered that could be addressed in future work.

  13. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X

    2016-10-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending. Kinematic analysis revealed a multiphase bio-mechanical response of elongation rate and curvature in 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils.

  14. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces

    PubMed Central

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2016-01-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young’s elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending. Kinematic analysis revealed a multiphase bio-mechanical response of elongation rate and curvature in 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils. PMID:27664958

  15. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  16. Nested generalized linear mixed model with ordinal response: Simulation and application on poverty data in Java Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningsih, Yekti; Saefuddin, Asep; Notodiputro, Khairil A.; Wigena, Aji H.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this research is to build a nested generalized linear mixed model using an ordinal response variable with some covariates. There are three main jobs in this paper, i.e. parameters estimation procedure, simulation, and implementation of the model for the real data. At the part of parameters estimation procedure, concepts of threshold, nested random effect, and computational algorithm are described. The simulations data are built for 3 conditions to know the effect of different parameter values of random effect distributions. The last job is the implementation of the model for the data about poverty in 9 districts of Java Island. The districts are Kuningan, Karawang, and Majalengka chose randomly in West Java; Temanggung, Boyolali, and Cilacap from Central Java; and Blitar, Ngawi, and Jember from East Java. The covariates in this model are province, number of bad nutrition cases, number of farmer families, and number of health personnel. In this modeling, all covariates are grouped as ordinal scale. Unit observation in this research is sub-district (kecamatan) nested in district, and districts (kabupaten) are nested in province. For the result of simulation, ARB (Absolute Relative Bias) and RRMSE (Relative Root of mean square errors) scale is used. They show that prov parameters have the highest bias, but more stable RRMSE in all conditions. The simulation design needs to be improved by adding other condition, such as higher correlation between covariates. Furthermore, as the result of the model implementation for the data, only number of farmer family and number of medical personnel have significant contributions to the level of poverty in Central Java and East Java province, and only district 2 (Karawang) of province 1 (West Java) has different random effect from the others. The source of the data is PODES (Potensi Desa) 2008 from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik).

  17. Hypoxia decreases the expression of the two enzymes responsible for producing linear and cyclic tetrapyrroles in the heme biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Patrick D; Furuyama, Kazumichi; Sassa, Shigeru; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2008-12-01

    Heme is synthesized in all cell types in aerobic organisms. Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) and uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) catalyze two consecutive reactions in the heme biosynthetic pathway, generating the first linear and the first cyclic tetrapyrroles, respectively. Each of the HMBS and UROS genes contains the two separate promoters that generate ubiquitous and erythroid-specific mRNAs. Despite the functional significance of HMBS and UROS, regulation of their gene expression remains to be investigated. Here, we showed that hypoxia (1% O(2)) decreased the expression of ubiquitous mRNAs for HMBS and UROS by three- and twofold, respectively, in human hepatic cells (HepG2 and Hep3B), whereas the expression of ubiquitous and erythroid HMBS and UROS mRNAs remained unchanged in erythroid cells (YN-1 and K562). Unexpectedly, hypoxia did not decrease the half-life of HMBS mRNA (8.4 h under normoxia versus 9.1 h under hypoxia) or UROS mRNA (9.0 versus 10.4 h) in hepatic cells. It is therefore unlikely that a change in mRNA stability is responsible for the hypoxia-mediated decrease in the expression levels of these mRNAs. Furthermore, expression levels of HMBS and UROS mRNAs were decreased under normoxia by treatment with deferoxamine or cobalt chloride in hepatic cells, while hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha was accumulated. Thus, the decrease in the expression of ubiquitous HMBS and UROS mRNAs is associated with accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha protein. In conclusion, the expression of HMBS and UROS mRNAs may be coordinately regulated, which represents a newly identified mechanism that is important for heme homeostasis.

  18. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.

  19. Low dose radiation and cancer in A-bomb survivors: latency and non-linear dose-response in the 1950–90 mortality cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dropkin, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Background Analyses of Japanese A-bomb survivors' cancer mortality risks are used to establish recommended annual dose limits, currently set at 1 mSv (public) and 20 mSv (occupational). Do radiation doses below 20 mSv have significant impact on cancer mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors, and is the dose-response linear? Methods I analyse stomach, liver, lung, colon, uterus, and all-solid cancer mortality in the 0 – 20 mSv colon dose subcohort of the 1950–90 (grouped) mortality cohort, by Poisson regression using a time-lagged colon dose to detect latency, while controlling for gender, attained age, and age-at-exposure. I compare linear and non-linear models, including one adapted from the cellular bystander effect for α particles. Results With a lagged linear model, Excess Relative Risk (ERR) for the liver and all-solid cancers is significantly positive and several orders of magnitude above extrapolations from the Life Span Study Report 12 analysis of the full cohort. Non-linear models are strongly superior to the linear model for the stomach (latency 11.89 years), liver (36.90), lung (13.60) and all-solid (43.86) in fitting the 0 – 20 mSv data and show significant positive ERR at 0.25 mSv and 10 mSv lagged dose. The slope of the dose-response near zero is several orders of magnitude above the slope at high doses. Conclusion The standard linear model applied to the full 1950–90 cohort greatly underestimates the risks at low doses, which are significant when the 0 – 20 mSv subcohort is modelled with latency. Non-linear models give a much better fit and are compatible with a bystander effect. PMID:17233918

  20. Characterization of the Earwig, Doru lineare, as a Predator of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda: A Functional Response Study

    PubMed Central

    Sueldo, Mabel Romero; Bruzzone, Octavio A.; Virla, Eduardo G.

    2010-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered as the most important pest of maize in almost all tropical America. In Argentina, the earwig Doru lineare Eschscholtz (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been observed preying on S. frugiperda egg masses in corn crops, but no data about its potential role as a biocontrol agent of this pest have been provided. The predation efficiency of D. lineare on newly emerged S. frugiperda larva was evaluated through a laboratory functional response study. D. lineare showed type II functional response to S. frugiperda larval density, and disc equation estimations of searching efficiency and handling time were (a) = 0.374 and (t) = 182.9 s, respectively. Earwig satiation occurred at 39.4 S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:20575739

  1. Integration of aquatic fate and ecological responses to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in model stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Belanger, S E; Bowling, J W; Lee, D M; LeBlanc, E M; Kerr, K M; McAvoy, D C; Christman, S C; Davidson, D H

    2002-06-01

    An integrated model stream ecosystem fate and effect study of dodecyl linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C(12)LAS) was performed in the summer and fall of 1996. The study addressed responses of periphytic microbes, immature benthic fauna including abundance, drift, and emergence of adult insects in a 56-day exposure. Exposures ranged from 126 to 2978 microg/L and were continuously presented in a single-pass, flow-through test system. Microbial heterotrophs acclimated to C(12)LAS exposure quickly (14 days) and biodegraded C(12)LAS at all concentrations. Blue-green algae responded by increasing in abundance with increasing C(12)LAS concentration. Invertebrates responded by increased drift and reduced benthic abundances at concentrations exceeding 293 microg/L. Emergence at 927 microg/L also declined relative to the control. Adverse responses for mayflies and chironomids were indicated using univariate statistical techniques. Multivariate techniques indicated these taxa plus mollusks, aquatic worms, caddisflies, and stoneflies were impaired at some concentrations. Bioavailability of C(12)LAS was investigated in streams as a function of the total suspended solid load in the water column driven by local weather and watershed patterns. A continuous bioavailability model indicated exposure was reduced by an average of 8.5+/-8.9%. A model ecosystem no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was concluded to be 293 microg/L based on measured water column exposure and adjusted to 268 microg/L by the bioavailability model. A literature review of 13 available model ecosystem studies was conducted and NOEC conclusions were adjusted by a structure-activity relationship to a dodecyl chain length (sulfophenyl position and distribution being ignored due to lack of information in the reviewed studies). Lentic studies (n=7) were found to have higher NOECs than lotic studies (n=6) and were more variable. Mean NOECs+/-SD for all studies, lentic studies only, and lotic studies only were 3320

  2. Kernel-Smoothing Estimation of Item Characteristic Functions for Continuous Personality Items: An Empirical Comparison with the Linear and the Continuous-Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2004-01-01

    This study used kernel-smoothing procedures to estimate the item characteristic functions (ICFs) of a set of continuous personality items. The nonparametric ICFs were compared with the ICFs estimated (a) by the linear model and (b) by Samejima's continuous-response model. The study was based on a conditioned approach and used an error-in-variables…

  3. The Effectiveness of an Electronic Student Response System in Teaching Biology to the Non-Major Utilizing Nine Group-Paced, Linear Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessler, William Carl

    This paper presents the procedures, results, and conclusions of a study designed to determine the effectiveness of an electronic student response system in teaching biology to the non-major. Nine group-paced linear programs were used. Subjects were 664 college students divided into treatment and control groups. The effectiveness of the response…

  4. Breakdown of linear response theory under low-power excitation in NMR. I. The case of long-lived signals in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhaoyuan; Walls, Jamie D.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the application of linear response theory to the problem of low-power excitation in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems when the strength of the radiofrequency (RF) pulse, νRF, is smaller than the inhomogeneous linewidth. Even for small overall excitations [Θ = 2πνRFTp ≪ 1 where Tp is the RF pulse length], linear response theory is shown to break down for spins with resonance frequencies that are on the order of νRF, which is due to the fact that the RF interaction cannot be treated as a small perturbation in this case. This breakdown in linear response theory can be partially corrected for by enforcing unitarity in the linear response. Furthermore, the nature of the spin echo generated by a πX-pulse applied immediately after a low-power pulse is investigated. Numerical calculations and experiments performed in an inhomogeneously broadened H2O/D2O solution confirm the theoretical predictions presented in this work.

  5. Breakdown of linear response theory under low-power excitation in NMR. I. The case of long-lived signals in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhaoyuan; Walls, Jamie D

    2016-10-28

    In this work, we examine the application of linear response theory to the problem of low-power excitation in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems when the strength of the radiofrequency (RF) pulse, νRF, is smaller than the inhomogeneous linewidth. Even for small overall excitations [Θ = 2πνRFTp ≪ 1 where Tp is the RF pulse length], linear response theory is shown to break down for spins with resonance frequencies that are on the order of νRF, which is due to the fact that the RF interaction cannot be treated as a small perturbation in this case. This breakdown in linear response theory can be partially corrected for by enforcing unitarity in the linear response. Furthermore, the nature of the spin echo generated by a πX-pulse applied immediately after a low-power pulse is investigated. Numerical calculations and experiments performed in an inhomogeneously broadened H2O/D2O solution confirm the theoretical predictions presented in this work.

  6. High dynamic range measurement of spectral responsivity and linearity of a radiation thermometer using a super-continuum laser and LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N.

    2013-09-11

    To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.

  7. A fluid pressure and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-06-07

    We present a hydro-mechanical model and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process in greater detail. In order for analytical solutions, the simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the theory of linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. The model was derived through coupling the two parts using the standard linear poroelasticity theory. Analytical solutions for fluid pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario and the solutions for ground deformation were obtained using the method of Green’s function. Solutions predict the temporal and spatial variation of fluid pressure, the effect of permeability and elastic modulus on the fluid pressure, the ground surface uplift, and the radial deformation during the entire injection period.

  8. Consecutive Rosochatius deformations of the Neumann system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Baoqiang; Zhou, Ruguang

    2013-10-01

    Consecutive Rosochatius deformations of the Neumann system are investigated. It is first shown that different realizations of a classical sl(2) Gaudin magnet model yield different integrable Hamiltonian systems. Then an algorithm of constructing infinitely many symplectic realizations of sl(2) algebra from a known one is presented and thus the Neumann system can be deformed consecutively. The second Rosochatius deformation of the Neumann system is taken as an illustrative example to show that the deformed systems admit separations of variables and may be linearized on the Jacobi variety.

  9. Bunionette deformity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W

    2007-05-01

    The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these deformities often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.

  10. A Study of Time-dependent and Anisotropic Effects on the Deformation Response of Two Flywheel Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, Atef F.; Arnold, Steven M.; Al-Zoubi, Nasser R.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of material time dependency and anisotropy in the context of two specific flywheel designs-preload and multi-directional composite (MDC)--is investigated. In particular, we focus on the following aspects: 1) geometric constraints, 2) material constraints, 3) loading type, and 4) the fundamental character of the time-dependent response, i.e., reversible or irreversible. The bulk of the results presented were obtained using a composite (PMC IM7/8552 at 135 C) material system. The material was characterized using a general multimechanism hereditary (viscoelastoplastic) model. As a general conclusion, the results have clearly shown that both the preload and the MDC rotor designs are significantly affected by time-dependent material behavior, which may impact the state of rotor balance and potentially reduce its operating life. In view of the results of the parametric studies and predictions made in the present study, the need for actual experimentation focusing on the time-dependent behavior of full-scale flywheel rotors is self-evident.

  11. Non-linear signal response functions and their effects on the statistical and noise cancellation properties of isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, W.

    2013-07-01

    A nebulizer-centric response function model of the analytical inductively coupled argon plasma ion source was used to investigate the statistical frequency distributions and noise reduction factors of simultaneously measured flicker noise limited isotope ion signals and their ratios. The response function model was extended by assuming i) a single gaussian distributed random noise source (nebulizer gas pressure fluctuations) and ii) the isotope ion signal response is a parabolic function of the nebulizer gas pressure. Model calculations of ion signal and signal ratio histograms were obtained by applying the statistical method of translation to the non-linear response function model of the plasma. Histograms of Ni, Cu, Pr, Tl and Pb isotope ion signals measured using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer were, without exception, negative skew. Histograms of the corresponding isotope ratios of Ni, Cu, Tl and Pb were either positive or negative skew. There was a complete agreement between the measured and model calculated histogram skew properties. The nebulizer-centric response function model was also used to investigate the effect of non-linear response functions on the effectiveness of noise cancellation by signal division. An alternative noise correction procedure suitable for parabolic signal response functions was derived and applied to measurements of isotope ratios of Cu, Ni, Pb and Tl. The largest noise reduction factors were always obtained when the non-linearity of the response functions was taken into account by the isotope ratio calculation. Possible applications of the nebulizer-centric response function model to other types of analytical instrumentation, large amplitude signal noise sources (e.g., lasers, pumped nebulizers) and analytical error in isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry are discussed.

  12. Geometry optimization based on linear response free energy with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method: applications to Menshutkin-type and Claisen rearrangement reactions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Kato, Shigeki

    2007-04-14

    The authors present a method based on a linear response theory that allows one to optimize the geometries of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) systems on the free energy surfaces. Two different forms of linear response free energy functionals are introduced, and electronic wave functions of the QM region, as well as the responses of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones potentials between QM and MM regions, are self-consistently determined. The covariant matrix relating the QM charge distribution to the MM response is evaluated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the MM system. The free energy gradients with respect to the QM atomic coordinates are also calculated using the MD trajectory results. They apply the present method to calculate the free energy profiles of Menshutkin-type reaction of NH3 with CH3Cl and Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether in aqueous solution. For the Menshutkin reaction, the free energy profile calculated with the modified linear response free energy functional is in good agreement with that by the free energy perturbation calculations. They examine the nonequilibrium solvation effect on the transmission coefficient and the kinetic isotope effect for the Claisen rearrangement.

  13. Mesh Deformation Based on Fully Stressed Design: The Method and Two-Dimensional Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Su-Yuen; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2007-01-01

    Mesh deformation in response to redefined boundary geometry is a frequently encountered task in shape optimization and analysis of fluid-structure interaction. We propose a simple and concise method for deforming meshes defined with three-node triangular or four-node tetrahedral elements. The mesh deformation method is suitable for large boundary movement. The approach requires two consecutive linear elastic finite-element analyses of an isotropic continuum using a prescribed displacement at the mesh boundaries. The first analysis is performed with homogeneous elastic property and the second with inhomogeneous elastic property. The fully stressed design is employed with a vanishing Poisson s ratio and a proposed form of equivalent strain (modified Tresca equivalent strain) to calculate, from the strain result of the first analysis, the element-specific Young s modulus for the second analysis. The theoretical aspect of the proposed method, its convenient numerical implementation using a typical linear elastic finite-element code in conjunction with very minor extra coding for data processing, and results for examples of large deformation of two-dimensional meshes are presented in this paper. KEY WORDS: Mesh deformation, shape optimization, fluid-structure interaction, fully stressed design, finite-element analysis, linear elasticity, strain failure, equivalent strain, Tresca failure criterion

  14. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants

    PubMed Central

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants. PMID:26340594

  15. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants.

  16. The physician's breach of the duty to inform the parent of deformities and abnormalities in the foetus: "wrongful life" actions, a new frontier of medical responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    A recent decision of the Italian Highest Court for the first time legitimized wrongful life suits. The Court stated the following principles: (a) the contract between the mother and the doctor has also protective effects in favour of third parties (father, siblings and the disabled child) who have the right to be compensated; (b) the right to compensation is neither based on the right not to be born nor on the right to be born healthy, but rather it is based on the breach of duty of care which coincides with the child's disabled status; (c) siblings may suffer the reduced availability of their parents; (d) the doctor is held responsible for not providing full information to the mother about the foetal deformity. The Supreme Court once again emphasized the importance of information on the matter of very personal choices, such as termination of pregnancy in case of foetal malformations. In the present case, the gynaecologist breached the duty to inform, especially after the patient requested diagnostic tests designed to highlight any foetal malformations and informed the doctor of the possibility of an eventual subsequent termination of pregnancy if foetal malformations were found.

  17. On the Need for Comprehensive Validation of Deformable Image Registration, Investigated With a Novel 3-Dimensional Deformable Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Titania; Das, Shiva; Adamovics, John; Benning, Ron; Oldham, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To introduce and evaluate a novel deformable 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system (Presage-Def/Optical-CT) and its application toward investigating the accuracy of dose deformation in a commercial deformable image registration (DIR) package. Methods and Materials: Presage-Def is a new dosimetry material consisting of an elastic polyurethane matrix doped with radiochromic leuco dye. Radiologic and mechanical properties were characterized using standard techniques. Dose-tracking feasibility was evaluated by comparing dose distributions between dosimeters irradiated with and without 27% lateral compression. A checkerboard plan of 5-mm square fields enabled precise measurement of true deformation using 3D dosimetry. Predicted deformation was determined from a commercial DIR algorithm. Results: Presage-Def exhibited a linear dose response with sensitivity of 0.0032 ΔOD/(Gy∙cm). Mass density is 1.02 g/cm{sup 3}, and effective atomic number is within 1.5% of water over a broad (0.03-10 MeV) energy range, indicating good water-equivalence. Elastic characteristics were close to that of liver tissue, with Young's modulus of 13.5-887 kPa over a stress range of 0.233-303 kPa, and Poisson's ratio of 0.475 (SE, 0.036). The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system successfully imaged the nondeformed and deformed dose distributions, with isotropic resolution of 1 mm. Comparison with the predicted deformed 3D dose distribution identified inaccuracies in the commercial DIR algorithm. Although external contours were accurately deformed (submillimeter accuracy), volumetric dose deformation was poor. Checkerboard field positioning and dimension errors of up to 9 and 14 mm, respectively, were identified, and the 3D DIR-deformed dose γ passing rate was only γ{sub 3%/3} {sub mm} = 60.0%. Conclusions: The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system shows strong potential for comprehensive investigation of DIR algorithm accuracy. Substantial errors in a commercial DIR were found in the conditions

  18. DEFORMATION RESPONSE OF THE ILIOTIBIAL BAND-TENSOR FASCIA LATA COMPLEX TO CLINICAL-GRADE LONGITUDINAL TENSION LOADING IN-VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Mark; Matthijs, Omer; Browne, Kevin; Seeber, Gesine; Matthijs, Anja; Sizer, Phillip S.; Brismée, Jean-Michel; James, C. Roger

    2017-01-01

    Background Iliotibial Band (ITB) syndrome is a troublesome condition with prevalence as high as 12% in runners. Stretching has been utilized as a conservative treatment. However, there is limited evidence supporting ITB elongation in response to a stretching force. Purpose/Hypotheses The purpose of this study was to describe the iliotibial band tensor fascia lata complex (ITBTFLC) tissue elongation response to a simulated clinical stretch in-vitro. The authors hypothesized that the ITBTFLC would undergo statistically significant elongation when exposed to a clinical-grade stretching regimen, with the majority of the elongation occurring within the proximal ITBTFLC region. Study Design Within subjects repeated measures in-vitro design. Methods The strain response of six un-embalmed ITBTFLCs to a simulated clinical stretch of 2.75% elongation was assessed. Four sets of array marks were placed along the length of the ITBTFLC. Photographic images were taken in resting position (with 1.0% in-situ elongation) and with an additional 2.75% elongation. Tissue elongation was compared between proximal, middle, and distal ITBTFLC regions. Results A paired samples t-test demonstrated a significantly longer ITBTFLC in the “stretched” versus resting condition (p = 0.001). Significant elongation was observed in the proximal (3.96mm (SD = 1.35); p = 0.001), middle (2.12mm (SD = 1.49); p = 0.018) and distal (2.25mm (SD = 1.37); p = 0.01) regions during the “stretched” versus the resting condition. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant main effect for region (p = 0.002). The proximal region exhibited significantly greater elongation versus the middle (p = 0.003) and distal (p = 0.007) regions, with no significant difference between the middle and distal regions (p = 0.932). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the ITBTFLC is capable of elongation in response to a clinically simulated stretch. The proximal ITB region underwent significantly greater

  19. Deformations of Geometric Structures in Topological Sigma Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytsenko, A. A.

    2010-11-01

    We study a Lie algebra of formal vector fields Wn with it application to the perturbative deformed holomorphic symplectic structure in the A-model, and a Calabi-Yau manifold with boundaries in the B-model. We show that equivalent classes of deformations are described by a Hochschild cohomology of the DG-algebra A = (A,Q), Q = ∂¯+∂deform, which is defined to be the cohomology of (-1)nQ+dHoch. Here ∂¯ is the initial non-deformed BRST operator while ∂deform is the deformed part whose algebra is a Lie algebra of linear vector fields gln.

  20. TU-F-12A-03: Using 18F-FDG-PET-CT and Deformable Registration During Head-And-Neck Cancer (HNC) Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) to Predict Treatment Response

    SciTech Connect

    Vergalasova, I; Mowery, Y; Yoo, D; Brizel, D; Das, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of deformable vs. rigid registration of pre-treatment 18F-FDG-PET-CT to intra-treatment 18F-FDG-PET-CT on different standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters and investigate which parameters correlate best with post-treatment response in patients undergoing IMRT for HNC. Methods: Pre-treatment and intra-treatment PET-CT (after 20Gy) scans were acquired, in addition to a 12 week post-treatment PET-CT to assess treatment response. Primary and lymph node gross tumor volumes (GTV-PRI and GTV-LN) were contoured on the pre-treatment CT. These contours were then mapped to intra-treatment PET images via rigid and deformable registration. Absolute changes from pre- to intra-treatment scans for rigid and deformable registration were extracted for the following parameters: SUV-MAX, SUV-MEAN, SUV-20%, SUV-40%, and SUV-60% (SUV-X% is the minimum SUV to the highest-intensity X% volume). Results: Thirty-eight patients were evaluated, with 27 available for classification as complete or incomplete response (CR/ICR). The pre-treatment average tumor volumes for the patients were 24.05cm{sup 3} for GTV-PRI and 23.4cm{sup 3} for GTV-LN. For GTV-PRI, there was no statistically significant difference between rigid vs. deformable registration across all ΔSUV parameters. For GTV-LN contours, all parameters were significantly different except for ΔSUV-MAX. For deformably-registered GTV-PRI, changes in the following metrics were significantly different for CR vs. ICR: SUV-MEAN(p=0.003), SUV-20%(p=0.02), SUV-40%(p=0.02), and SUV-60%(p=0.008). The following cutoff values separated CR from ICR with high sensitivity and specificity: ΔSUV-MEAN=1.49, ΔSUV-20%=2.39, ΔSUV-40%=1.80 and ΔSUV-60%=1.31. Corresponding areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve were 0.90, 0.81, 0.81, and 0.85, respectively. Conclusion: Rigidly and deformably registered contours yielded statistically similar SUV parameters for GTV-PRI, but not GTV-LN. This implies that

  1. Simulating the three-dimensional deformation of in vivo facial skin.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Cormac; Taberner, Andrew J; Nielsen, Poul M F; Fels, Sidney

    2013-12-01

    Characterising the mechanical properties of human facial skin is a challenging but important endeavour with applications in biomedicine, surgery simulation, forensics, and animation. Many existing computer models of the face are not based on in vivo facial skin deformation data but rather on experiments using in vitro facial skin or other soft tissues. The facial skin of five volunteers was subjected to a rich set of deformations using a micro-robotic device. The force-displacement response was recorded for each deformation. All volunteers' facial skin exhibited a non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic force-displacement response. We propose a finite element model that simulated the experimental deformations with error-of-fits ranging from 11% to 23%. The skin was represented by an Ogden strain energy function and a quasi-linear viscoelastic law. From non-linear optimisation procedures, we determined material parameters and in vivo pre-stresses for the central cheek area of five volunteers and five other facial points on one volunteer. Pre-stresses ranged from 15.9kPa to 89.4kPa.

  2. Deformable micro torque swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Imai, Yohsuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modeled as a capsule with a hyper elastic membrane enclosing Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary beat were modeled as torques distributed above the cell body. Effects of the membrane elasticity, the aspect ratio of cell's reference shape and the density difference between the cell and the surrounding fluid were investigated. The results showed that the cell deformed like heart shape when Capillary number (Ca) was sufficiently large, and the swimming velocity decreased as Ca was increased. The gravity effect on the membrane tension suggested that the upwards and downwards swimming velocities of Paramecium might be reglated by the calcium ion channels distributed locally around the anterior end. Moreover, the gravity induced deformation made a cell directed vertically downwards, which resulted in a positive geotaxis like behavior with physical origin. These results are important to understand physiology of ciliate's biological responses to mechanical stimuli.

  3. Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham time-dependent response theory in a second-quantization atomic-orbital formalism suitable for linear scaling.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Thomas; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe; Coriani, Sonia; Helgaker, Trygve

    2008-08-07

    We present a second-quantization based atomic-orbital method for the computation of time-dependent response functions within Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density-functional theories. The method is suited for linear scaling. Illustrative results are presented for excitation energies, one- and two-photon transition moments, polarizabilities, and hyperpolarizabilities for hexagonal BN sheets with up to 180 atoms.

  4. Simulation of Earthquake-Generated Sea-Surface Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Chris; Leveque, Randy

    2016-11-01

    Earthquake-generated tsunamis can carry with them a powerful, destructive force. One of the most well-known, recent examples is the tsunami generated by the Tohoku earthquake, which was responsible for the nuclear disaster in Fukushima. Tsunami simulation and forecasting, a necessary element of emergency procedure planning and execution, is typically done using the shallow-water equations. A typical initial condition is that using the Okada solution for a homogeneous, elastic half-space. This work focuses on simulating earthquake-generated sea-surface deformations that are more true to the physics of the materials involved. In particular, a water layer is added on top of the half-space that models the seabed. Sea-surface deformations are then simulated using the Clawpack hyperbolic PDE package. Results from considering the water layer both as linearly elastic and as "nearly incompressible" are compared to that of the Okada solution.

  5. Deformed chiral nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C. E.; Shepard, J. R.

    1991-04-01

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear σ-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and gA. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations.

  6. Finite deformation analysis of geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeremi, Boris; Runesson, Kenneth; Sture, Stein

    2001-07-01

    The mathematical structure and numerical analysis of classical small deformation elasto-plasticity is generally well established. However, development of large deformation elastic-plastic numerical formulation for dilatant, pressure sensitive material models is still a research area.In this paper we present development of the finite element formulation and implementation for large deformation, elastic-plastic analysis of geomaterials. Our developments are based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic and plastic parts. A consistent linearization of the right deformation tensor together with the Newton method at the constitutive and global levels leads toward an efficient and robust numerical algorithm. The presented numerical formulation is capable of accurately modelling dilatant, pressure sensitive isotropic and anisotropic geomaterials subjected to large deformations. In particular, the formulation is capable of simulating the behaviour of geomaterials in which eigentriads of stress and strain do not coincide during the loading process.The algorithm is tested in conjunction with the novel hyperelasto-plastic model termed the B material model, which is a single surface (single yield surface, affine single ultimate surface and affine single potential surface) model for dilatant, pressure sensitive, hardening and softening geomaterials. It is specifically developed to model large deformation hyperelasto-plastic problems in geomechanics.We present an application of this formulation to numerical analysis of low confinement tests on cohesionless granular soil specimens recently performed in a SPACEHAB module aboard the Space Shuttle during the STS-89 mission. We compare numerical modelling with test results and show the significance of added confinement by the thin hyperelastic latex membrane undergoing large stretching.

  7. A chemo-electro-mechanical model for simulation of responsive deformation of glucose-sensitive hydrogels with the effect of enzyme catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Luo, Rongmo; Birgersson, Erik; Lam, Khin Yong

    2009-02-01

    A multi-effect-coupling glucose-stimulus (MECglu) model is developed and solved numerically for the swelling behavior of soft smart hydrogels responding to changes in the environmental glucose concentration. The model considers the effect of the glucose oxidation reaction catalyzed by enzymes including glucose oxidase and catalase. It is composed of the Nernst-Planck equation for the mobile species in the solvent, the Poisson equation for the electric potential, and a nonlinear mechanical equation for the large deformations of the hydrogel that arise due to the conversion of chemical energy to mechanical. Based on the theory of the chemo-electro-mechanical-coupled fields, the formulation of the fixed charge groups bound onto the cross-linked polymer network is associated with the change of the ambient solution pH. The MECglu model is validated by comparison between the steady-state computation and experimental equilibrium swelling curves, and good agreement is obtained. A parameter study is then conducted by steady-state simulations to ascertain the impact of various solvent parameters on the responsive swelling behavior of the hydrogel. One key parameter is the glucose concentration, which is varied within the range of practical physiological glucose concentrations from 0 to 16.5 mM (300 mg/ml) to support the design and optimization of an insulin delivery system based on a glucose-sensitive hydrogel with immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase. The influence of oxygen and glucose concentrations in the solvent is then further studied for the distributive profiles of reacting and diffusive species concentrations, the electric potential, the displacement, as well as the swelling ratio of the glucose-sensitive hydrogel.

  8. Specific absorption rate calculations of magnetite, using a modified linear response model for applications in magnetic hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández S, A. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Cano, M. E. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Torres-Arenas, J.

    2014-11-07

    Currently the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by magnetic nanoparticles is studied for biomedical applications of cancer thermotherapy. Several experiments are conduced following the framework of the Rosensweig model, in order to estimate their specific absorption rate. Nevertheless, this linear approximation involves strong simplifications which constrain their accuracy and validity range. The main aim of this work is to incorporate the deviation of the sphericity assumption in particles shapes, to improve the determination of their specific absorption rate. The correction to the effective particles volume is computed as a measure of the apparent amount of magnetic material, interacting with the external AC magnetic field. Preliminary results using the physical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, exhibit an important correction in their estimated specific absorption rate, as a function of the apparent mean particles radius. Indeed, we have observed using a small deviation (6% of the apparent radius), up to 40% of the predicted specific absorption rate by the Rosensweig linear approximation.

  9. Resonance of Non-Linear Systems Subjected to Multi-Parametrically Excited Structures: (Comparison Between two Methods, Response and Stability)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bassiouny, A. F.; Eissa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Most mechanical systems or structures are subject to parametric or self excitations. In the present work, simultaneous principal parametric resonance of two-degree-of-freedom systems with quadratic and cubic non-linearities subject to multi-frequency parametric excitations in the presence of two-to-one internal resonance is investigated. Two approximate methods are applied to construct a set of first order, non-linear ordinary differential equations governing the modulation of the amplitudes and phases of oscillations. The applied methods are; the method of multiple time scale perturbation and the generalized synchronization methods. Steady state solutions and their stability are studied for selected values of the different parameters. The obtained results from both methods are in excellent agreement.

  10. Dynamic Deformation of Thermosetting Polymers---All Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Mesfin; Shenogina, Natalia; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila; Patnaik, Soumya

    2013-03-01

    We are using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interconnection between structural and mechanical properties of highly cross-linked polymer networks. In this study we focused on the widely used resin-hardener system composed of DGEBA epoxy oligomers and aromatic amine hardener DETDA. Accurate cross-linked models were developed using the effective cross-linking procedure that enables to generate thermoset structures with realistic structural characteristics. These models were used to examine the elastic properties of thermosetting networks with various degrees of curing and length of resin strands both in glassy and rubbery states. In our recent study we employed static deformation approach to estimate potential energy contribution to the mechanical response. In the present work we are using dynamic deformation approach which takes into account both potential energy and thermal motions in the structure. Uniaxial, volumetric and shear dynamic deformation modes were used to obtain Young's, bulk, shear moduli and Poisson's ratio directly. We also calculated elastic constants using formulae of linear elasticity and analyzed the results obtained by direct deformation and interconversion methods. The elastic properties determined from these two approaches are in good agreement with each other and also with experimental data.

  11. Positive linear dose-response relationships, but no J-shaped relationship, between drinking habits and estimated glomerular filtration rate in middle-aged Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Yoshiro; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Endoh, Kaori; Miyauchi, Rie; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between drinking frequency and amount of alcohol consumption (i.e., drinking habits) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We aimed to clarify either a linear or J-shaped dose-response relationship between drinking habits and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a biomarker for identifying individuals at high risk of CKD. In a large-scale cross-sectional study, 403 men and 121 women with an eGFR of 30-60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) were defined as cases, and 1209 men and 363 women with ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were randomly extracted as controls (one case subject was matched with three control subjects, matched according to age and season of data collection). We calculated multivariate-adjusted CKD risk and the corresponding mean eGFR according to drinking habits. In men, negative and positive linear relationships with drinking habits were found for CKD risk and mean eGFR (p < 0.001 for all linear terms), respectively, but there were no corresponding J-shaped relationships (not significant for all quadratic terms). In regard to the mean eGFR, however, positive linear relationships were only shown in men in the highest eGFR quartile (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 for drinking frequency and amount of alcohol consumption, respectively). In women, no association was found. Regarding each drinking habit, we found a positive linear dose-response relationship to eGFR in middle-aged men with an eGFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m(2).

  12. Effect of -OH functionalization, C2 methylation, and high radiation fields on the non-linear optical response of imidazolium ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namboodiri, Vinu V.; Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K.

    2017-04-01

    Considering the impending applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in various areas involving high optical and radiation fields, it is pertinent to probe the structure-property correlation of these solvents exposed to such conditions. Herein, femtosecond Z-scan technique (at high pulse repetition rate, 80 MHz) was employed to investigate the non-linear optical response of imidazolium RTILs in 3 scenarios: (1) -OH functionalization, (2) C2 methylation, and (3) influence of high radiation fields. Large negative non-linear refractive values ( n 2) were observed in all the RTIL samples and have been attributed predominantly due to the thermal effects. In order to isolate and determine the contribution of electronic Kerr effect, the Z-scan experiments were also carried out at low pulse repetition rate (i.e. 500 Hz) by means of a mechanical chopper. The closed aperture transmittance profile showed the valley-peak pattern, which signifies positive non-linearity. Nonetheless, the variation in the n2 values of the RTILs follows the same trend in low pulse repetition rate as was observed in case of high pulse repetition rate. The trend in the n 2 values clearly showed the decrease in the non-linearity in the first two cases and has been attributed to the weakening of the ion-pair formation, which adversely affects the charge transfer between the ionic moieties via C2 position. However, an increase in the n 2 values was observed in case of ILs irradiated to high radiation doses. This enhancement in the non-linearity has been assigned to the formation of double bond order radiolytic products. These results clearly indicate a strong correlation between the non-linearity and the strength of cation-anion interaction amongst them. Therefore, such information about these solvents may significantly contribute to the fundamental understanding of their structure-property relationships.

  13. Nonlinear flexural response of a slender cantilever beam of constant thickness and linearly-varying width to a primary resonance excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Clodoaldo J.; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2017-02-01

    Despite the shear amount of research studies on nonlinear flexural dynamics of cantilever beams, very few efforts address the practical geometry involving a constant thickness and linearly-varying width. This stems from the nature of the associated linear eigenvalue problem which cannot be easily solved in closed form. In this paper, we present a closed-form solution to this particular linear eigenvalue problem in the form of a general Meijer-G differential equation for which a solution is readily available in the shape of the Meijer-G functions. Using this approach, the exact linear modal frequencies and shapes are obtained and used in the discretization of the nonlinear partial-differential equation describing the dynamics of the system. The discretized system of ordinary-differential equations is then solved using the method of multiple scales to obtain an approximate analytical solution describing the primary resonance behavior of a given vibration mode. An analytical expression for the modal effective nonlinearity is obtained and used to analyze the influence of the beam's tapering on the nonlinear primary resonance behavior of the response (softening/hardening). Results are then compared to a finite element (FE) solution of the linear eigenvalue problem in which the modal shapes obtained using the FE method are fit into a set of orthogonal polynomial functions and used to discretize the nonlinear problem. It is shown that, while the modal frequencies obtained using the FE method approximate those obtained analytically with negligible error (less than 1%), there is a substantial error in the resulting estimates of the modal effective nonlinearity. This indicates that, even negligible errors in the approximate solution of the linear problem, can propagate to become significant when analyzing the nonlinear problem further reinforcing the importance of the exact solution.

  14. Finite element analysis of large transient elastic-plastic deformations of simple structures, with application to the engine rotor fragment containment/deflection problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, R. W.; Witmer, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Assumed-displacement versions of the finite-element method are developed to predict large-deformation elastic-plastic transient deformations of structures. Both the conventional and a new improved finite-element variational formulation are derived. These formulations are then developed in detail for straight-beam and curved-beam elements undergoing (1) Bernoulli-Euler-Kirchhoff or (2) Timoshenko deformation behavior, in one plane. For each of these categories, several types of assumed-displacement finite elements are developed, and transient response predictions are compared with available exact solutions for small-deflection, linear-elastic transient responses. The present finite-element predictions for large-deflection elastic-plastic transient responses are evaluated via several beam and ring examples for which experimental measurements of transient strains and large transient deformations and independent finite-difference predictions are available.

  15. Towards a unifying theory for the first-, second-, and third-order molecular (non)linear optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Moreno, Javier; Clays, Koen; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2010-05-01

    We present a procedure for the modeling of the dispersion of the nonlinear optical response of complex molecular structures that is based strictly on the results from experimental characterization. We show how under some general conditions, the use of the Thomas-Kuhn sum-rules leads to a successful modeling of the nonlinear response of complex molecular structures.

  16. Vibrational absorption spectra from vibrational coupled cluster damped linear response functions calculated using an asymmetric Lanczos algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Bo; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove

    2012-03-01

    We report the theory and implementation of vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) damped response functions. From the imaginary part of the damped VCC response function the absorption as function of frequency can be obtained, requiring formally the solution of the now complex VCC response equations. The absorption spectrum can in this formulation be seen as a matrix function of the characteristic VCC Jacobian response matrix. The asymmetric matrix version of the Lanczos method is used to generate a tridiagonal representation of the VCC response Jacobian. Solving the complex response equations in the relevant Lanczos space provides a method for calculating the VCC damped response functions and thereby subsequently the absorption spectra. The convergence behaviour of the algorithm is discussed theoretically and tested for different levels of completeness of the VCC expansion. Comparison is made with results from the recently reported [P. Seidler, M. B. Hansen, W. Györffy, D. Toffoli, and O. Christiansen, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 164105 (2010)] vibrational configuration interaction damped response function calculated using a symmetric Lanczos algorithm. Calculations of IR spectra of oxazole, cyclopropene, and uracil illustrate the usefulness of the new VCC based method.

  17. Vibrational absorption spectra from vibrational coupled cluster damped linear response functions calculated using an asymmetric Lanczos algorithm.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Bo; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove

    2012-03-28

    We report the theory and implementation of vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) damped response functions. From the imaginary part of the damped VCC response function the absorption as function of frequency can be obtained, requiring formally the solution of the now complex VCC response equations. The absorption spectrum can in this formulation be seen as a matrix function of the characteristic VCC Jacobian response matrix. The asymmetric matrix version of the Lanczos method is used to generate a tridiagonal representation of the VCC response Jacobian. Solving the complex response equations in the relevant Lanczos space provides a method for calculating the VCC damped response functions and thereby subsequently the absorption spectra. The convergence behaviour of the algorithm is discussed theoretically and tested for different levels of completeness of the VCC expansion. Comparison is made with results from the recently reported [P. Seidler, M. B. Hansen, W. Györffy, D. Toffoli, and O. Christiansen, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 164105 (2010)] vibrational configuration interaction damped response function calculated using a symmetric Lanczos algorithm. Calculations of IR spectra of oxazole, cyclopropene, and uracil illustrate the usefulness of the new VCC based method.

  18. Non-Linear Neuronal Responses as an Emergent Property of Afferent Networks: A Case Study of the Locust Lobula Giant Movement Detector

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez i Badia, Sergi; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In principle it appears advantageous for single neurons to perform non-linear operations. Indeed it has been reported that some neurons show signatures of such operations in their electrophysiological response. A particular case in point is the Lobula Giant Movement Detector (LGMD) neuron of the locust, which is reported to locally perform a functional multiplication. Given the wide ramifications of this suggestion with respect to our understanding of neuronal computations, it is essential that this interpretation of the LGMD as a local multiplication unit is thoroughly tested. Here we evaluate an alternative model that tests the hypothesis that the non-linear responses of the LGMD neuron emerge from the interactions of many neurons in the opto-motor processing structure of the locust. We show, by exposing our model to standard LGMD stimulation protocols, that the properties of the LGMD that were seen as a hallmark of local non-linear operations can be explained as emerging from the dynamics of the pre-synaptic network. Moreover, we demonstrate that these properties strongly depend on the details of the synaptic projections from the medulla to the LGMD. From these observations we deduce a number of testable predictions. To assess the real-time properties of our model we applied it to a high-speed robot. These robot results show that our model of the locust opto-motor system is able to reliably stabilize the movement trajectory of the robot and can robustly support collision avoidance. In addition, these behavioural experiments suggest that the emergent non-linear responses of the LGMD neuron enhance the system's collision detection acuity. We show how all reported properties of this neuron are consistently reproduced by this alternative model, and how they emerge from the overall opto-motor processing structure of the locust. Hence, our results propose an alternative view on neuronal computation that emphasizes the network properties as opposed to the local

  19. A note on the relationships between multiple imputation, maximum likelihood and fully Bayesian methods for missing responses in linear regression models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingxia; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2014-07-01

    Multiple Imputation, Maximum Likelihood and Fully Bayesian methods are the three most commonly used model-based approaches in missing data problems. Although it is easy to show that when the responses are missing at random (MAR), the complete case analysis is unbiased and efficient, the aforementioned methods are still commonly used in practice for this setting. To examine the performance of and relationships between these three methods in this setting, we derive and investigate small sample and asymptotic expressions of the estimates and standard errors, and fully examine how these estimates are related for the three approaches in the linear regression model when the responses are MAR. We show that when the responses are MAR in the linear model, the estimates of the regression coefficients using these three methods are asymptotically equivalent to the complete case estimates under general conditions. One simulation and a real data set from a liver cancer clinical trial are given to compare the properties of these methods when the responses are MAR.

  20. [DNA double-strand breaks in human lymphocytes after single irradiation by low doses of pulsed X-rays: non-linear dose-response relationship].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, S A; Stepanova, E Iu; Kutenkov, O P; Belenko, A A; Zharkova, L P; Bol'shakov, M A; Lebedev, I N; Rostov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation registered in cells after low dose irradiation are still poorly understood. A pulsed mode of irradiation is even more problematic in terms of predicting the radiation-induced response in cells. Thus, the aim of this paper was to study and analyze the effects of dose and frequency of pulsed X-rays on the frequency of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks and their repair kinetics in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Analysis of radiation-induced gammaH2AX and 53BP1 repair foci was used to assess the DNA damage in these cells. The dose-response curve of radiation-induced foci of both proteins has shown deviations from linearity to a higher effect in the 12-32 mGy dose range and a lower effect at 72 mGy. The dose-response curve was linear at doses higher than 100 mGy. The number of radiation-induced gammaH2AX and 53BP1 foci depended on the frequency of X-ray pulses: the highest effect was registered at 13 pulses per second. Moreover, slower repair kinetics was observed for those foci induced by very low doses with a nonlinear dose-response relationship.

  1. An update on modeling dose-response relationships: Accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variance in linear and nonlinear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M A D; Bello, N M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    Advanced methods for dose-response assessments are used to estimate the minimum concentrations of a nutrient that maximizes a given outcome of interest, thereby determining nutritional requirements for optimal performance. Contrary to standard modeling assumptions, experimental data often present a design structure that includes correlations between observations (i.e., blocking, nesting, etc.) as well as heterogeneity of error variances; either can mislead inference if disregarded. Our objective is to demonstrate practical implementation of linear and nonlinear mixed models for dose-response relationships accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variances. To illustrate, we modeled data from a randomized complete block design study to evaluate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio dose-response on G:F of nursery pigs. A base linear mixed model was fitted to explore the functional form of G:F relative to Trp:Lys ratios and assess model assumptions. Next, we fitted 3 competing dose-response mixed models to G:F, namely a quadratic polynomial (QP) model, a broken-line linear (BLL) ascending model, and a broken-line quadratic (BLQ) ascending model, all of which included heteroskedastic specifications, as dictated by the base model. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (version 9.4) was used to fit the base and QP models and the NLMIXED procedure was used to fit the BLL and BLQ models. We further illustrated the use of a grid search of initial parameter values to facilitate convergence and parameter estimation in nonlinear mixed models. Fit between competing dose-response models was compared using a maximum likelihood-based Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The QP, BLL, and BLQ models fitted on G:F of nursery pigs yielded BIC values of 353.7, 343.4, and 345.2, respectively, thus indicating a better fit of the BLL model. The BLL breakpoint estimate of the SID Trp:Lys ratio was 16.5% (95% confidence interval [16.1, 17.0]). Problems with

  2. Highly deformable nanofilaments in flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowska, S.

    2016-10-01

    Experimental analysis of hydrogel nanofilaments conveyed by flow is conducted to help in understanding physical phenomena responsible for transport properties and shape deformations of long bio-objects, like DNA or proteins. Investigated hydrogel nanofilaments exhibit typical macromolecules-like behavior, as spontaneous conformational changes and cross-flow migration. Results of the experiments indicate critical role of thermal fluctuations behavior of single filaments.

  3. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood.

  4. A shear deformable theory of laminated composite shallow shell-type panels and their response analysis. I - Free vibration and buckling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Librescu, L.; Khdeir, A. A.; Frederick, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the substantiation of a shear deformable theory of cross-ply laminated composite shallow shells. While the developed theory preserves all the advantages of the first order transverse shear deformation theory it succeeds in eliminating some of its basic shortcomings. The theory is further employed in the analysis of the eigenvibration and static buckling problems of doubly curved shallow panels. In this context, the state space concept is used in conjunction with the Levy method, allowing one to analyze these problems in a unified manner, for a variety of boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented and some pertinent conclusions are formulated.

  5. Laboratory determination of effective stress laws for deformation and permeability of chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Teufel, L W; Warpinski, N R

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory deformation and permeability measurements have been made on chalk samples from Ekofisk area fields as a function of confining stress and pore pressure to determine the effective stress laws for chalk. An understanding of the effective stress law is essential to obtain correct reservoir-property data from core analysis and is critical for reservoir management studies and reservoir compaction models. A powerful statistical technique known as the response surface method has been used to analyze our laboratory data determine the form of the effective stress law for deformation and permeability. Experiments were conducted on chalk samples that had a range of porosities from 15% to 36%, because porosity is the dominant intrinsic property that effects deformation and permeability behavior of chalk. Deformation of a 36% porosity chalk was highly nonlinear, but the effective stress law was linear, with {alpha} equal to about unity. Lower-porosity samples showed linear strain behavior and a linear effective stress law with {alpha} as low as 0.74. Analysis of the effective stress law for permeability is presented only for the lowest porosity chalk sample because changes in permeability in the higher-porosity chalk samples due to increasing confining stress or pore pressure were not were large enough, to deduce meaningful effective stress relationships. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  7. Microstructure of deformed graywacke sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, L.A.

    1980-03-05

    Microsctures in low-permeability graywacke sandstones were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM specimens were prepared by ion-bombardment of thick polished samples. The undeformed rock contains grains in a matrix composed primarily of authigenic chlorite and kaolinite. Chlorite platelets are randomly arranged in face-to-edge relation to one another. Kaolinite occurs as pseudohexagonal crystals stacked face-to-face in pore filling books. Uniaxial-stress experiments covered a range of confining pressures from .1 to 600 MPa. Below 50 MPa confining pressure, intergranular fracturing occurs within the fault zone and near the sample's cylindrical surface. Between 100 and 300 MPa confining pressure, fault zones contain highly fractured grains, gauge and slickensides on grain surfaces. At 600 MPa, the sample contains a diffuse shear zone of highly fractured grains and no well-defined fault. In all samples, the distribution of microcracks is heterogeneous. Different clay minerals exhibit different modes of deformation. Chlorite structure responds to applied stress by compaction, reducing both pore size and volume. Chlorite platelets are plastically deformed in even the least strained samples. Kaolinite does not deform plastically in any of the samples examined. Deformation of kaolinite is restricted to toppling of the book structure. Dilatant crack growth was studied in two samples unloaded prior to failure. Uniaxially-strained samples deform primarily along grain boundaries, producing intergranular cracks and realignment of chlorite platelets. Intragranular crack density is linearly related to axial-strain, although grains are less fractured than in uniaxially-stressed samples tested at equivalent mean pressures. Cracks are rarely longer than a grain diameter. Nuclear-explosively deformed samples were recovered after the Rio Blanco gas stimulation experiment. (JGB)

  8. The Iflaviruses Sacbrood virus and Deformed wing virus evoke different transcriptional responses in the honeybee which may facilitate their horizontal or vertical transmission

    PubMed Central

    Fannon, Jessica M.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Wood, Graham R.; Evans, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are evolutionarily related positive-strand RNA viruses, members of the Iflavirus group. They both infect the honeybee Apis mellifera but have strikingly different levels of virulence when transmitted orally. Honeybee larvae orally infected with SBV usually accumulate high levels of the virus, which halts larval development and causes insect death. In contrast, oral DWV infection at the larval stage usually causes asymptomatic infection with low levels of the virus, although high doses of ingested DWV could lead to DWV replicating to high levels. We investigated effects of DWV and SBV infection on the transcriptome of honeybee larvae and pupae using global RNA-Seq and real-time PCR analysis. This showed that high levels of SBV replication resulted in down-regulation of the genes involved in cuticle and muscle development, together with changes in expression of putative immune-related genes. In particular, honeybee larvae with high levels of SBV replication, with and without high levels of DWV replication, showed concerted up-regulated expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), and down-regulated expression of the prophenoloxidase activating enzyme (PPAE) together with up-regulation of the expression of a putative serpin, which could lead to the suppression of the melanisation pathway. The effects of high SBV levels on expression of these immune genes were unlikely to be a consequence of SBV-induced developmental changes, because similar effects were observed in hone