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Sample records for deformity locus distinguishes

  1. Strain gage network distinguishes between thermal and mechanical deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepollina, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Strain gage network measures the thermal coefficient of linear expansion of composite metal structures. The network consists of a test gage and two dummy gages arranged to distinguish thermally induced deformation from mechanical strain.

  2. Distinguishing shocked from tectonically deformed quartz by the use of the SEM and chemical etching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gratz, A.J.; Fisler, D.K.; Bohor, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple sets of crystallographically-oriented planar deformation features (PDFs) are generated by high-strain-rate shock waves at pressures of > 12 GPa in naturally shocked quartz samples. On surfaces, PDFs appear as narrow (50-500 nm) lamellae filled with amorphosed quartz (diaplectic glass) which can be etched with hydrofluoric acid or with hydrothermal alkaline solutions. In contrast, slow-strain-rate tectonic deformation pressure produces wider, semi-linear and widely spaced arrays of dislocation loops that are not glass filled. Etching samples with HF before examination in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows for unambiguous visual distinction between glass-filled PDFs and glass-free tectonic deformation arrays in quartz. This etching also reveals the internal 'pillaring' often characteristic of shock-induced PDFs. This technique is useful for easily distinguishing between shock and tectonic deformation in quartz, but does not replace optical techniques for characterizing the shock features.

  3. Smooth and Rough Biotypes of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Can Be Genetically Distinguished at the Arcanolysin Locus

    PubMed Central

    Ruther, Haley S.; Phillips, Kalyn; Ross, Dolores; Crawford, Alyssa; Weidner, M. Payton; Sammra, Osama; Lämmler, Christoph; McGee, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a Gram-positive, β-hemolytic emerging human pathogen that is classified into smooth or rough biotypes. This bacterial species is also a rare pathogen of animals. Smooth biotypes possess smooth colony edges, are moderate to strong in β-hemolysis, and predominately cause wound infections. In contrast, rough biotypes possess rough and irregular colony edges, have weak to no β-hemolytic activity, and predominately cause pharyngitis. Using horse erythrocytes we confirmed that smooth isolates are generally more hemolytic than rough isolates. A hemolysin from A. haemolyticum, arcanolysin (aln/ALN), was recently discovered and is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family. PCR amplification of aln from all 36 smooth A. haemolyticum isolates yielded the expected 2.0 kb product. While 21 rough isolates yielded the 2.0 kb product, 16 isolates had a 3.2 kb product. The extra 1.2 kb segment was 99% identical to IS911 (insertion sequence) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the upstream region of aln revealed ~40 nucleotide polymorphisms among 73 clinical isolates from Finland, Denmark, Germany and United States (Nebraska). Remarkably, multi-sequence alignments of the aln upstream region demonstrated that ~90% of the isolates phylogenetically clustered as either smooths or roughs. Differential restriction enzyme analysis of the aln upstream region also demonstrated that the aln upstream region of most (~75%) smooth isolates was cleaved with ClaI while this region in most (~86%) rough isolates was cleaved with XcmI. We conclude that the aln upstream region can be used to genetically distinguish between smooth and rough biotypes of this important emerging pathogen. PMID:26382754

  4. Using GPS loading deformation to distinguish different hydrological measurements and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; van Dam, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The earth's lithosphere is deformed elastically by seasonal and inter-annual surface mass variations. The Global Positioning System (GPS) accurately measures 3D crustal deformation caused by surface hydrological mass movements. In this study, we calculate the loading deformation using different hydrological models and in-situ hydrological measurements, and compare those modeled results with actual deformation measurements of the dense GPS network in United States and Europe. Therefore, GPS can be used as an independent tool to evaluate the differences between hydrological measurements and models. We are particularly interested in comparing the snow volume differences between in-situ snow measurement (such as SNOTEL) and the snow components of simulated models (such as GLDAS or NLDAS). We, therefore, demonstrate that GPS as a geodetic observation can provide valuable information for hydrological studies.

  5. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Presents the following lists of distinguished books: "Best Books of 1998"; "Best Young Adult Books"; "Notable Children's Videos"; "Best Children's Books"; "Notable Recordings for Children"; "Notable Software and Web Sites for Children"; "Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers"; "Bestsellers of 1998"; and "Literary Prizes, 1998." (AEF)

  6. Image simulation using LOCUS

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Roberts, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The LOCUS data base program has been used to simulate images and to solve simple equations. This has been accomplished by making each record (which normally would represent a data entry)represent sequenced or random number pairs.

  7. Distinguishing Radiculopathies from Mononeuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Robblee, Jennifer; Katzberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Identifying “where is the lesion” is particularly important in the approach to the patient with focal dysfunction where a peripheral localization is suspected. This article outlines a methodical approach to the neuromuscular patient in distinguishing focal neuropathies versus radiculopathies, both of which are common presentations to the neurology clinic. This approach begins with evaluation of the sensory examination to determine whether there are irritative or negative sensory signs in a peripheral nerve or dermatomal distribution. This is followed by evaluation of deep tendon reflexes to evaluate if differential hyporeflexia can assist in the two localizations. Finally, identification of weak muscle groups unique to a nerve or myotomal pattern in the proximal and distal extremities can most reliably assist in a precise localization. The article concludes with an application of the described method to the common scenario of distinguishing radial neuropathy versus C7 radiculopathy in the setting of a wrist drop and provides additional examples for self-evaluation and reference. PMID:27468275

  8. Distinguishing Noise from Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, O. A.; Larrondo, H. A.; Martin, M. T.; Plastino, A.; Fuentes, M. A.

    2007-10-01

    Chaotic systems share with stochastic processes several properties that make them almost undistinguishable. In this communication we introduce a representation space, to be called the complexity-entropy causality plane. Its horizontal and vertical axis are suitable functionals of the pertinent probability distribution, namely, the entropy of the system and an appropriate statistical complexity measure, respectively. These two functionals are evaluated using the Bandt-Pompe recipe to assign a probability distribution function to the time series generated by the system. Several well-known model-generated time series, usually regarded as being of either stochastic or chaotic nature, are analyzed so as to illustrate the approach. The main achievement of this communication is the possibility of clearly distinguishing between them in our representation space, something that is rather difficult otherwise.

  9. Tension versus ecological zones in a two-locus system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng

    2005-08-01

    Previous theories show that tension and ecological zones are indistinguishable in terms of gene frequency clines. Here I analytically show that these two types of zones can be distinguished in terms of genetic statistics other than gene frequency. A two-locus cline model is examined with the assumptions of random mating, weak selection, no drift, no mutation, and multiplicative viabilities. The genetic statistics for distinguishing the two types of zones are the deviations of one- or two-locus genotypic frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) or from random association of gametes (RAG), and the deviations of additive and dominance variances from the values at HWE. These deviations have a discontinuous distribution in space and different extents of interruptions in the ecological zone with a sharp boundary, but exhibit a continuous distribution in the tension zone. Linkage disequilibrium enhances the difference between the deviations from HWE and from RAG for any two-locus genotypic frequency.

  10. Haglund's Deformity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Haglund’s Deformity? Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft ... the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes. This often leads to painful ...

  11. HIC1 Expression Distinguishes Intestinal Carcinomas Sensitive to Chemotherapy12

    PubMed Central

    Janeckova, Lucie; Kolar, Michal; Svec, Jiri; Lanikova, Lucie; Pospichalova, Vendula; Baloghova, Nikol; Vojtechova, Martina; Sloncova, Eva; Strnad, Hynek; Korinek, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic growth is frequently associated with genomic DNA methylation that causes transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. We used a collection of colorectal polyps and carcinomas in combination with bioinformatics analysis of large datasets to study the expression and methylation of Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1), a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many neoplasms. In premalignant stages, HIC1 expression was decreased, and the decrease was linked to methylation of a specific region in the HIC1 locus. However, in carcinomas, the HIC1 expression was variable and, in some specimens, comparable to healthy tissue. Importantly, high HIC1 production distinguished a specific type of chemotherapy-responsive tumors. PMID:27084425

  12. Distinguishing among electron injection types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three types of electron injections taking place in the near-earth region of the magnetotail have been distinguished previously using SCATHA particle and field data. Defining characteristics are given here for each type of event, and the positions of the magnetosphere where they are expected to occur are discussed. These three event types can be difficult to distinguish in data sets that are more limited than the SCATHA set that carried instruments detecting magnetic fields and charged particles over an energy range from eVs to MeVs. It is suggested that determining the magnetospheric regions at which each of these event types occurs will considerably clarify the phenomenological description of substorms available for theoretical analysis.

  13. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis. PMID:3786010

  14. Fixing the broken system of genetic locus symbols

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Katja; Lang, Anthony; Klein, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Originally, locus symbols (e.g., DYT1) were introduced to specify chromosomal regions that had been linked to a familial disorder with a yet unknown gene. Symbols were systematically assigned in a numerical series to designate mapped loci for a specific phenotype or group of phenotypes. Since the system of designating and using locus symbols was originally established, both our knowledge and our techniques of gene discovery have evolved substantially. The current system has problems that are sources of confusion, perpetuate misinformation, and misrepresent the system as a useful reference tool for a list of inherited disorders of a particular phenotypic class. These include erroneously assigned loci, duplicated loci, missing symbols, missing loci, unconfirmed loci in a consecutively numbered system, combining causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we describe these problems and their impact, and propose solutions. The system could be significantly improved by creating distinct lists for clinical and research purposes, creating more informative locus symbols, distinguishing disease-causing mutations from risk factors, raising the threshold of evidence prior to assigning a locus symbol, paying strict attention to the predominant phenotype when assigning symbols lists, and having a formal system for reviewing and continually revising the list that includes input from both clinical and genetics experts. PMID:22454269

  15. Distinguishing ichthyoses by protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Rice, Robert H; Bradshaw, Katie M; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Rocke, David M; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S; Schmuth, Matthias; Gruber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back), demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG) deficiency), recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency) and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) deficiency). The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency) permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations.

  16. Quaternary deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Displaced or deformed rock units and landforms record the past 2 m.y. of faulting, folding, uplift, and subsidence in California. Properly interpreted, such evidence provides a quantitative basis for predicting future earthquake activity and for relating many diverse structures and landforms to the 5 cm/yr of horizontal motion at the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Modern techniques of geologic dating and expanded research on earthquake hazards have greatly improved our knowledge of the San Andreas fault system. Much of this new knowledge has been gained since 1965, and that part which concerns crustal deformation during the past 2 m.y. is briefly summarized here.

  17. Locus of control and obesity.

    PubMed

    Neymotin, Florence; Nemzer, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    In the developed world, the hazards associated with obesity have largely outstripped the risk of starvation. Obesity remains a difficult public health issue to address, due in large part to the many disciplines involved. A full understanding requires knowledge in the fields of genetics, endocrinology, psychology, sociology, economics, and public policy - among others. In this short review, which serves as an introduction to the Frontiers in Endocrinology research topic, we address one cross-disciplinary relationship: the interaction between the hunger/satiation neural circuitry, an individual's perceived locus of control, and the risk for obesity. Mammals have evolved a complex system for modulating energy intake. Overlaid on this, in humans, there exists a wide variation in "perceived locus of control" - that is, the extent to which an individual believes to be in charge of the events that affect them. Whether one has primarily an internal or external locus of control itself affects, and is affected by, external and physiological factors and has been correlated with the risk for obesity. Thus, the path from hunger and satiation to an individual's actual behavior may often be moderated by psychological factors, included among which is locus of control. PMID:25339940

  18. Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem on distinguishability

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2006-08-15

    The presence of an additive-conserved quantity imposes a limitation on the measurement process. According to the Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem, perfect repeatability and distinguishability of the apparatus cannot be attained simultaneously. Instead of repeatability, in this paper, the distinguishability in both systems is examined. We derive a trade-off inequality between the distinguishability of the final states on the system and the one on the apparatus. An inequality shows that perfect distinguishability of both systems cannot be attained simultaneously.

  19. Distinguishing cell type using epigenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wytock, Thomas; Motter, Adilson E.

    Recently, researchers have proposed that unique cell types are attractors of their epigenetic dynamics including gene expression and chromatin conformation patterns. Traditionally, cell types have been classified by their function, morphology, cytochemistry, and other macroscopically observable properties. Because these properties are the result of many proteins working together, it should be possible to predict cell types from gene expression or chromatin conformation profiles. In this talk, I present a maximum entropy approach to identify and distinguish cell type attractors on the basis of correlations within these profiles. I will demonstrate the flexibility of this method through its separate application to gene expression and chromatin conformation datasets. I show that our method out-performs other machine-learning techniques and uncorrelated benchmarks. We adapt our method to predict growth rate from gene expression in E. coli and S. cerevisiae and compare our predictions with those from metabolic models. In addition, our method identifies a nearly convex region of state-space associated with each cell type attractor basin. Estimates of the growth rate and attractor basin make it possible to rationally control gene regulatory networks independent of a model. This research was supported by NSF-GRFP, NSF-GK12, GAANN, and Northwestern's NIH-NIGMS Molecular Biophysics Training Grant.

  20. Distinguishability of generic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.

  1. Locus of Control and Status Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Miriam Roza; Haller, Archibald O.

    Utilizing data derived from 277 rural, male respondents initially enrolled in Lenawee County, Michigan high schools, the Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was employed to test the hypothesis that locus of control will have interactive rather than additive effects on the process of status attainment. Locus of control was defined as…

  2. Crustal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kristine M.

    1995-07-01

    Geodetic measurements of crustal deformation provide direct tests of geophysical models which are used to describe the dynamics of the Earth. Although geodetic observations have been made throughout history, only in the last several hundred years have they been sufficiently precise for geophysical studies. In the 19th century, these techniques included leveling and triangulation. Approximately 25 years ago, trilateration measurements were initiated by the USGS (United States Geological Survey) to monitor active faults in the United States. Several years later, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) begin an effort to measure plate tectonic motions on a global scale, using space geodetic techniques, VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging). The period covered by this report to the IUGG, 1991-1994, was a transition period in the field of crustal deformation. Trilateration measurements (previously the backbone of measurements across plate boundaries in the western United States and Alaska) have been abandoned. This system was labor-intensive, involved highly trained crews to carry out the observations, and only measured the length between sites. In addition, NASA drastically cut the budgets for VLBI and SLR during this period. Fixed site VLBI systems are still operational, but mobile VLBI measurements in North America have ceased. SLR measurements continue on a global scale, but the remaining crustal deformation measurements are now being made with the Global Positioning System (GPS). Nonetheless, because of the time scales involved, older geodetic data (including leveling, triangulation, and trilateration) continue to be important for many geophysical studies.

  3. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-11-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant-vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change.

  4. Locus heterogeneity disease genes encode proteins with high interconnectivity in the human protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Keith, Benjamin P; Robertson, David L; Hentges, Kathryn E

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in genes potentially lead to a number of genetic diseases with differing severity. These disease genes have been the focus of research in recent years showing that the disease gene population as a whole is not homogeneous, and can be categorized according to their interactions. Locus heterogeneity describes a single disorder caused by mutations in different genes each acting individually to cause the same disease. Using datasets of experimentally derived human disease genes and protein interactions, we created a protein interaction network to investigate the relationships between the products of genes associated with a disease displaying locus heterogeneity, and use network parameters to suggest properties that distinguish these disease genes from the overall disease gene population. Through the manual curation of known causative genes of 100 diseases displaying locus heterogeneity and 397 single-gene Mendelian disorders, we use network parameters to show that our locus heterogeneity network displays distinct properties from the global disease network and a Mendelian network. Using the global human proteome, through random simulation of the network we show that heterogeneous genes display significant interconnectivity. Further topological analysis of this network revealed clustering of locus heterogeneity genes that cause identical disorders, indicating that these disease genes are involved in similar biological processes. We then use this information to suggest additional genes that may contribute to diseases with locus heterogeneity.

  5. Factors Determining Adolescent Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen F.; And Others

    Previous research has demonstrated an association between locus of control in adolescence and a successful transition to adulthood. Having an external locus of control has been implicated as an important factor in adolescent behaviors such as teenage pregnancy and delinquency, and has been found to be negatively related to school achievement. This…

  6. AN ENZYMATIC LOCUS PARTICIPATING IN CELLULAR DIVISION OF A YEAST

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Walter J.

    1954-01-01

    Growing cells of a filamentous mutant of a yeast, Candida albicans, were found to accumulate and reduce tetrazolium dyes whereas cells of the parent strain, growing as a normally budding yeast, accumulated the dye but did not reduce it. In older cultures, in which rapidly metabolizable carbohydrate has been depleted, the parent strain characteristically produces filaments. These cells, growing in the absence of cellular division, also exhibit tetrazolium reduction. The filamentous mutant synthesizes cell mass at a rate almost equal to that of the parent strain and is not distinguished therefrom in fermentation ability, nutritional requirements for growth, rate of endogenous respiration, or polysaccharide composition. These facts, in conjunction with the striking differences in tetrazolium reduction, lead to the conclusion that the morphological mutant has an impairment to a cellular oxidation mechanism at a flavoprotein locus. This locus is, then, the site at which a reaction essential for cellular division, is coupled via an oxidation-reduction to cellular metabolism. Preliminary evidence is presented providing good indication that uncoupling of cellular division (by genetic block) in the mutant or in the parent (by substrate exhaustion) results from impairment to a dissociable metal chelate mechanism which normally couples a reaction essential to cellular division to flavoprotein oxidation. PMID:13143184

  7. Models of the Dynamic Deformations of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzhievsky, Lev; Voronin, Mihail; Korchagina, Anna

    2013-06-01

    In the process of deformation under the influence of external loading polymeric mediums show the complicated behavior connected with features of their structure. For amorphous polymers distinguish three physical conditions - glasslike, highlyelastic and viscoplastic. To each of the listed conditions there corresponds to mikro - meso- and macrostructural mechanisms of irreversible deformation. In the report the review of results of construction of models for the description of dynamic and shock-wave deformation of the polymers which are based on developed authors representations about mechanisms of irreversible deformation is made. Models include the formulation of the equations of conservation laws, considering effect of a relaxation of shear stresses in the process of deformation. For closing of models the equations of states with nonspherical tensor of deformations and relation for time of a relaxation of shear stresses are constructed. With using of the formulated models a number of problems of dynamic and shock wave deformations has been solved. The results are compared with corresponding experimental date. Development of the used approach are in summary discussed. To taking into account memory and fractal properties of real polymers is supposed of derivatives and integrals of a fractional order to use. Examples of constitutive equations with derivatives of a fractional order are presented. This work is supported by the Integration project of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science 64 and grant RFBR 12-01-00726.

  8. Orthogonality and distinguishability: Criterion for local distinguishability of arbitrary orthogonal states

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2003-12-01

    We consider the relation between the orthogonality and the distinguishability of a set of arbitrary states (including multipartite states). It is shown that if a set of arbitrary states can be distinguished by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), each of the states can be written as a linear combination of product vectors such that all product vectors of one of the states are orthogonal to the other states. With this result we then prove a simple necessary condition for LOCC distinguishability of a class of orthogonal states. These conclusions may be useful in discussing the distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states further, understanding the essence of nonlocality and discussing the distillation of entanglement.

  9. Children distinguish between positive pride and hubris.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole L; Russell, James A

    2015-11-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed different emotion labels to the expressions, and this tendency increased with age. Girls were more likely to distinguish between the expressions than boys were. Children also associated more positive social characteristics with the expression of positive pride and more negative characteristics with the expression of hubris.

  10. Beyond Benford's Law: Distinguishing Noise from Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglei; Fu, Zuntao; Yuan, Naiming

    2015-01-01

    Determinism and randomness are two inherent aspects of all physical processes. Time series from chaotic systems share several features identical with those generated from stochastic processes, which makes them almost undistinguishable. In this paper, a new method based on Benford's law is designed in order to distinguish noise from chaos by only information from the first digit of considered series. By applying this method to discrete data, we confirm that chaotic data indeed can be distinguished from noise data, quantitatively and clearly. PMID:26030809

  11. Children Distinguish between Positive Pride and Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Nicole L.; Russell, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed…

  12. Distinguishing Disability: Parents, Privilege, and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong-Dean, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Students in special education programs can have widely divergent experiences. For some, special education amounts to a dumping ground where schools unload their problem students, while for others, it provides access to services and accommodations that drastically improve chances of succeeding in school and beyond. "Distinguishing Disability"…

  13. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  14. Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished…

  15. Can Values Be Distinguished from Prejudices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoyte, Robert L.; Sikula, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Using case studies, the authors demonstrate the difficulty of distinguishing an act influenced by a person's prejudice from an act influenced by a person's values. Social studies teachers are urged to deal with controversial topics to help students clarify their feelings about issues such as abortion, drug use, religion, and politics. (AV)

  16. Evolution of the Microstructure of Polycrystalline Magnesium at Mega Plastic Deformation in Bridgeman Anvils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, A. M.; Pilyugin, V. P.; Antonova, O. V.

    2016-07-01

    The method of transmission electron microscopy is used to study the evolution of polycrystalline magnesium structure after shear under high pressure at room temperature. In the initial deformation stages (shrinkage), band structures are observed. It is established that after shear at 5°, the predominant deformation mode is twinning in the (I0Ī2) plane. For shear at 90°, electron microscopic cells, grains with enhanced level of internal stress, and small fraction of recrystallized grains and fragments are distinguished. For high deformation degrees (1-5 revolutions), uniformly distributed recrystallized grains and fragments are observed, and basal deformation structure is clearly distinguished by the radiographic method.

  17. Probing Cell Deformability via Acoustically Actuated Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuliang; Nama, Nitesh; Li, Peng; Mao, Zhangming; Huang, Po-Hsun; Zhao, Chenglong; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-02-17

    An acoustically actuated, bubble-based technique is developed to investigate the deformability of cells suspended in microfluidic devices. A microsized bubble is generated by an optothermal effect near the targeted cells, which are suspended in a microfluidic chamber. Subsequently, acoustic actuation is employed to create localized acoustic streaming. In turn, the streaming flow results in hydrodynamic forces that deform the cells in situ. The deformability of the cells is indicative of their mechanical properties. The method in this study measures mechanical biomarkers from multiple cells in a single experiment, and it can be conveniently integrated with other bioanalysis and drug-screening platforms. Using this technique, the mean deformability of tens of HeLa, HEK, and HUVEC cells is measured to distinguish their mechanical properties. HeLa cells are deformed upon treatment with Cytochalasin. The technique also reveals the deformability of each subpopulation in a mixed, heterogeneous cell sample by the use of both fluorescent markers and mechanical biomarkers. The technique in this study, apart from being relevant to cell biology, will also enable biophysical cellular diagnosis. PMID:26715211

  18. Probing Cell Deformability via Acoustically Actuated Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuliang; Nama, Nitesh; Li, Peng; Mao, Zhangming; Huang, Po-Hsun; Zhao, Chenglong; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-02-17

    An acoustically actuated, bubble-based technique is developed to investigate the deformability of cells suspended in microfluidic devices. A microsized bubble is generated by an optothermal effect near the targeted cells, which are suspended in a microfluidic chamber. Subsequently, acoustic actuation is employed to create localized acoustic streaming. In turn, the streaming flow results in hydrodynamic forces that deform the cells in situ. The deformability of the cells is indicative of their mechanical properties. The method in this study measures mechanical biomarkers from multiple cells in a single experiment, and it can be conveniently integrated with other bioanalysis and drug-screening platforms. Using this technique, the mean deformability of tens of HeLa, HEK, and HUVEC cells is measured to distinguish their mechanical properties. HeLa cells are deformed upon treatment with Cytochalasin. The technique also reveals the deformability of each subpopulation in a mixed, heterogeneous cell sample by the use of both fluorescent markers and mechanical biomarkers. The technique in this study, apart from being relevant to cell biology, will also enable biophysical cellular diagnosis.

  19. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  20. Kinetically Distinguishable Populations of Phytochrome 1

    PubMed Central

    Purves, William K.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1968-01-01

    Two or more kinetically distinguishable populations of phytochrome molecules were observed in living tissues of oat, pea, maize, and cauliflower, as well as in extracts of oat. At least 3 different populations occurred in cauliflower florets, while 2 were observed in each of the other species. In extracted oat phytochrome, the relative proportions of the 2 forms remained constant during successive stages of purification. The physiological significance of this multiplicity of forms remains unclear. PMID:16656909

  1. Locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia: Evidence for the existence of a fifth locus

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrazin, J.; Rouleau, G.A.; Andermann, E.

    1994-09-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, four loci have been identified: the SCA-1 locus (on chromosome (chr) 6p), the SCA-2 locus (on chr 12q), the SCA-3/MJD locus (on chr 14q), and more recently an SCA-4 locus was described (chr 16q) in a Utah kindred. We have studied one large French Canadian kindred with four generations of living affected individuals segregating an autosomal dominant form of SCA. Linkage analysis using anonymous DNA markers which flank the four previously described loci significantly excludes the French Canadian kindred from the SCA-1, SCA-2, SCA-3/MJD and SCA-4 loci. Therefore a fifth, still unmapped, SCA locus remains to be identified.

  2. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  3. Real-time PCR assay to distinguish the four Phytophthora ramorum lineages using cellulose binding elicitor lectin (CBEL) locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora ramorum is a pathogenic oomycete responsible for causing sudden oak death in the Western United States and sudden larch death in the United Kingdom. This pathogen has so far caused extensive mortality of oak and tanoak in California and of Japanese larch in the United Kingdom. Until rec...

  4. Deformation and seismicity of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2000-10-10

    14C-dated Holocene coastal uplift, conventional and satellite geodetic measurements, and coseismic and aseismic fault slip reveal the pattern of distributed deformation at Taiwan resulting from convergence between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia; as in other subduction orogenic settings, the locus of strain release and accumulation is strongly influenced by changes in fault geometry across strike. Uplift evidence from the islands of Lutao and Lanhsu is consistent with progressive oblique collision between the Luzon arc and the Chinese continental margin. In the Coastal Range, geodetic and seismic records show that shortening is taken up serially by discontinuous slip on imbricate faults. The geodetic data point to net extension across the Central Range, but deformed Holocene shorelines in the Hengchun Peninsula at its southern extremity suggest that the extension is a superficial effect partly caused by blind reverse faulting. The fastest shortening rates indicated by geodesy are recorded on the Longitudinal Valley fault and across the Chukou fault within the fold-and-thrust belt. In the former, the strain is dissipated mainly as aseismic reverse and strike-slip displacement. In contrast, the fold-and-thrust belt has witnessed five earthquakes with magnitudes of 6.5 or above in the 20th century, including the 1999.9.21 Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude approximately 7.6) on a branch of the Chukou fault. The neotectonic and geodetic data for Taiwan as a whole suggest that the fold-and-thrust belt will continue to host the majority of great earthquakes on the island.

  5. Identification and application of additional restriction fragment length polymorphisms at the human ornithine transcarbamylase locus.

    PubMed

    Fox, J E; Hack, A M; Fenton, W A; Rosenberg, L E

    1986-06-01

    Two additional restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been identified at the human ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) locus. Approximately 11% of women are heterozygous for an RFLP characterized by polymorphic bands at 3.7 and 3.6 kilobasepairs (kbp) observed after DNA digestion with TaqI. Twenty-nine percent of women are heterozygous for an RFLP characterized by polymorphic bands at 18.0 and 5.2 kbp observed after digestion with BamHI. Thus, in combination with the previously reported RFLPs identified using MspI, the X chromosomes in approximately 80% of women at risk for having a son with OTC deficiency are distinguishable by RFLPs at the OTC locus. Furthermore, we show that these RFLPs will be useful in families for prenatal diagnosis of OTC deficiency, carrier detection, and carrier exclusion.

  6. Homozygosity mapping of the Achromatopsia locus in the Pingelapese.

    PubMed

    Winick, J D; Blundell, M L; Galke, B L; Salam, A A; Leal, S M; Karayiorgou, M

    1999-06-01

    Achromatopsia, or total color blindness (also referred to as "rod monochromacy"), is a severe retinal disorder characterized clinically by an inability to distinguish colors, impaired visual acuity in daylight, photophobia, and nystagmus. Inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, achromatopsia is rare in the general population (1:20,000-1:50,000). Among the Pingelapese people of the Eastern Caroline Islands, however, the disorder occurs at an extremely high frequency, as recounted in Oliver Sacks's popular book The Island of the Colorblind: 4%-10% of this island population have the disorder and approximately 30% carry the gene. This extraordinary enrichment of the disease allele most likely resulted from a sharp reduction in population in the late 18th century, in the aftermath of a typhoon and subsequent geographic and cultural isolation. To obtain insights into the genetic basis of achromatopsia, as well as into the genetic history of this region of Micronesia, a genomewide search for linkage was performed in three Pingelapese kindreds with achromatopsia. A two-step search was used with a DNA pooling strategy, followed by genotyping of individual family members. Genetic markers that displayed a shift toward homozygosity in the affected DNA pool were used to genotype individual members of the kindreds, and an achromatopsia locus was identified on 8q21-q22. A maximal multipoint LOD score of 9.5 was observed with marker D8S1707. Homozygosity was seen for three adjacent markers (D8S275, D8S1119, and D8S1707), whereas recombination was observed with the flanking markers D8S1757 and D8S270, defining the outer boundaries of the disease-gene locus that spans a distance of <6.5cM. PMID:10330355

  7. Somatic cell genotoxicity at the glycophorin A locus in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Grant, S.G.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1990-12-28

    We have developed an assay for detecting variant erythrocytes that occur as a result of in vivo allele loss at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus on chromosome 4 in humans. This gene codes for an erythroid- specific cell surface glycoprotein, and with our assay we are able to detect rare variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of one of the two GPA alleles. Two distinctly different variant cell types are detected with this assay. One variant cell type (called N{O}) is hemizygous. Our assay also detects homozygous variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of the GPA(M) allele and express the GPA(N) allele at twice the heterozygous level. The results of this assay are an enumeration of the frequency of N{O} and NN variant cell types for each individual analyzed. These variant cell frequencies provide a measure of the amount of somatic cell genotoxicity that has occurred at the GPA locus. Such genotoxicity could be the result of (1) reactions of toxic chemicals to which the individual has been exposed, or (2) high energy radiation effects on erythroid precursor cells, or (3) errors in DNA replication or repair in these cells of the bone marrow. Thus, the GPA-based variant cell frequency can serve as a biodosimeter that indicates the amount of genotoxic exposure each individual has received. Because two very different kinds of variant cells are enumerated, different kinds of genotoxicity should be distinguishable. Results of the GPA somatic genotoxicity assay may also provide valuable information for cancer-risk estimation on each individual. 16 refs.

  8. Homozygosity mapping of the Achromatopsia locus in the Pingelapese.

    PubMed Central

    Winick, J D; Blundell, M L; Galke, B L; Salam, A A; Leal, S M; Karayiorgou, M

    1999-01-01

    Achromatopsia, or total color blindness (also referred to as "rod monochromacy"), is a severe retinal disorder characterized clinically by an inability to distinguish colors, impaired visual acuity in daylight, photophobia, and nystagmus. Inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, achromatopsia is rare in the general population (1:20,000-1:50,000). Among the Pingelapese people of the Eastern Caroline Islands, however, the disorder occurs at an extremely high frequency, as recounted in Oliver Sacks's popular book The Island of the Colorblind: 4%-10% of this island population have the disorder and approximately 30% carry the gene. This extraordinary enrichment of the disease allele most likely resulted from a sharp reduction in population in the late 18th century, in the aftermath of a typhoon and subsequent geographic and cultural isolation. To obtain insights into the genetic basis of achromatopsia, as well as into the genetic history of this region of Micronesia, a genomewide search for linkage was performed in three Pingelapese kindreds with achromatopsia. A two-step search was used with a DNA pooling strategy, followed by genotyping of individual family members. Genetic markers that displayed a shift toward homozygosity in the affected DNA pool were used to genotype individual members of the kindreds, and an achromatopsia locus was identified on 8q21-q22. A maximal multipoint LOD score of 9.5 was observed with marker D8S1707. Homozygosity was seen for three adjacent markers (D8S275, D8S1119, and D8S1707), whereas recombination was observed with the flanking markers D8S1757 and D8S270, defining the outer boundaries of the disease-gene locus that spans a distance of <6.5cM. PMID:10330355

  9. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  10. Characteristics that distinguish types of epithermal deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayba, D.O.; Foley, N.K.; Heald-Wetlaufer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three distinctive groupings of epithermal deposits were recognized from a literature study of fifteen well-described precious- and base-metal epithermal districts, supplemented by L. J. Buchanan's 1981 compilation of data from 47 less completely documented deposits. The three groups are distinguished primarily by the type of alteration and the sulfur fugacity indicated by the vein mineral assemblage. Additional discriminating criteria include composition of the host rock, timing of ore deposition relative to emplacement of the host, and relative abundances of gold, silver, and base metals.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with the male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus in open-pollinated and inbred populations of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintainer lines are used to seed propagate male-sterile lines for the development of hybrid-onion cultivars. The identification of maintainer lines would be more efficient with molecular markers distinguishing genotypes at the nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus. Ms has been mapped to chr...

  12. The fester locus in Botryllus schlosseri experiences selection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Allorecognition, the ability of an organism to distinguish self from non-self, occurs throughout the entire tree of life. Despite the prevalence and importance of allorecognition systems, the genetic basis of allorecognition has rarely been characterized outside the well-known MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) in vertebrates and SI (Self-Incompatibility) in plants. Where loci have been identified, their evolutionary history is an open question. We have previously identified the genes involved in self/non-self recognition in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, and we can now begin to investigate their evolution. In B. schlosseri, colonies sharing 1 or more alleles of a gene called FuHC (Fusion Histocompatibility) will fuse. Protein products of a locus called fester, located ~300 kb from FuHC, have been shown to play multiple roles in the histocompatibility reaction, as activating and/or inhibitory receptors. We test whether the proteins encoded by this locus are evolving neutrally or are experiencing balancing, directional, or purifying selection. Results Nearly all of the variation in the fester locus resides within populations. The 13 housekeeping genes (12 nuclear genes and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I) have substantially more structure among populations within groups and among groups than fester. All polymorphism statistics (Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F*) are significantly negative for the East Coast A-type alleles, and Fu and Li's F* statistic is significantly negative for the West Coast A-type alleles. These results are likely due to selection rather than demography, given that 10 of the housekeeping loci have no populations with significant values for any of the polymorphism statistics. The majority of codons in the fester proteins have ω values < 1, but 15–27 codons have > 95% posterior probability of ω values > 1. Conclusion Fester proteins are evolving non-neutrally. The polymorphism statistics are consistent with

  13. Techniques to Distinguish Apoptosis from Necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Feoktistova, Maria; Wallberg, Fredrik; Tenev, Tencho; Geserick, Peter; Leverkus, Martin; Meier, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The processes by which cells die are as tightly regulated as those that govern cell growth and proliferation. Recent studies of the molecular pathways that regulate and execute cell death have uncovered a plethora of signaling cascades that lead to distinct modes of cell death, including "apoptosis," "necrosis," "autophagic cell death," and "mitotic catastrophe." Cells can readily switch from one form of death to another; therefore, it is vital to have the ability to monitor the form of death that cells are undergoing. A number of techniques are available that allow the detection of cell death and when combined with either knockdown approaches or inhibitors of specific signaling pathways, such as caspase or RIP kinase pathways, they allow the rapid dissection of divergent cell death pathways. However, techniques that reveal the end point of cell death cannot reconstruct the sequence of events that have led to death; therefore, they need to be complemented with methods that can distinguish all forms of cell death. Apoptotic cells frequently undergo secondary necrosis under in vitro culture conditions; therefore, novel methods relying on high-throughput time-lapse fluorescence video microscopy are necessary to provide temporal resolution to cell death events. Further, visualizing the assembly of multiprotein signaling hubs that can execute apoptosis or necroptosis helps to explore the underlying processes. Here we introduce a suite of techniques that reliably distinguish necrosis from apoptosis and secondary necrosis, and that enable investigation of signaling platforms capable of instructing apoptosis or necroptosis. PMID:27037077

  14. Locus of Control in Alcoholics Undergoing Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Shirley C.

    Alcoholism is a complex behavior pattern. Social learning theory, which is concerned with the analysis of why individuals behave in certain ways and the effects of reinforcement patterns in their behaviors, offers an alternative to traditional treatments of alcoholics. Among alcoholics, drinking is a control issue. Locus of control is viewed as a…

  15. Aspirations, Attributions, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, William; McNall, Sidne J.

    Self-evaluation is thought to play a major role in personality and motivation. Preliminary experience with success or failure, levels of aspiration, attributions for performance, and locus of control may all be interrelated factors in human motivation. After receiving success, failure, or no feedback on a concept formation task, subjects (N=90)…

  16. A suppressor locus for MODY3-diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Carette, Claire; Bagattin, Alessia; Chiral, Magali; Makinistoglu, Munevver Parla; Garbay, Serge; Prévost, Géraldine; Madaras, Cécile; Hérault, Yann; Leibovici, Michel; Pontoglio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 3 (MODY3), linked to mutations in the transcription factor HNF1A, is the most prevalent form of monogenic diabetes mellitus. HNF1alpha-deficiency leads to defective insulin secretion via a molecular mechanism that is still not completely understood. Moreover, in MODY3 patients the severity of insulin secretion can be extremely variable even in the same kindred, indicating that modifier genes may control the onset of the disease. With the use of a mouse model for HNF1alpha-deficiency, we show here that specific genetic backgrounds (C3H and CBA) carry a powerful genetic suppressor of diabetes. A genome scan analysis led to the identification of a major suppressor locus on chromosome 3 (Moda1). Moda1 locus contains 11 genes with non-synonymous SNPs that significantly interacts with other loci on chromosomes 4, 11 and 18. Mechanistically, the absence of HNF1alpha in diabetic-prone (sensitive) strains leads to postnatal defective islets growth that is remarkably restored in resistant strains. Our findings are relevant to human genetics since Moda1 is syntenic with a human locus identified by genome wide association studies of fasting glycemia in patients. Most importantly, our results show that a single genetic locus can completely suppress diabetes in Hnf1a-deficiency. PMID:27667715

  17. Novel optical fiber sensor for deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Haiting; Sun, Suping; Yu, Jianqiang; Liu, Renqiang

    2010-10-01

    A light intensity modulation optical fiber sensor, which can measure deformation directly, has been developed. A light leakage zone is introduced on one side of fiber to increase the sensitivity of fiber under deformation. The machining process of sensor is considered. Hand carving, milling and embossing methods are introduced to produce the light leakage zone respectively, and the comparison between these methods is carried out. To obtain the static curve of sensor, cantilevered beam, simple support beam and cylinders are used respectively to measure little and large deformation. The static characters of sensor, such as sensitivity and measurement range, are analyzed from the static curve. The experimental results show that the sensor can distinguish the direction of deformation (positive bending and negative bending). Positive bending increases the throughput of light, and is distinguishable from negative bending, which decreases the throughput. The output of sensor is linear with curvature when the curvature radius is larger than 60mm. The response of sensor is a cosine function with the direction of deformation and there is a maximum sensitivity direction (perpendicular to the light leakage zone plane and passing through the axis of the fiber) and a minimum sensitivity direction (parallel to light leakage zone plane and pass through the axis of the fiber). The dynamic responds of attenuation vibration and sawtooth input signal are studied. Comparison between the optical fiber sensor, untreated fiber and strain gauge shows that the sensor is 400 times of untreated fiber in sensitivity and is more advantageous in measurement of thin structures. The sensor is easily made by multi-mode plastic optical fiber and the detection equipments are very simple, therefore it is small in size, simple in structure and low in cost, which make the sensor can be widely used in various fields.

  18. Deformable bearing seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, O. S., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A deformable bearing seat is described for seating a bearing assembly in a housing. The seat includes a seating surface in the housing having a first predetermined spheroidal contour when the housing is in an undeformed mode. The seating surface is deformable to a second predetermined spherically contoured surface when the housing is in a deformed mode. The seat is particularly adaptable for application to a rotating blade and mounting ring assembly in a gas turbine engine.

  19. Deformed discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  20. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-04-01

    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium.

  1. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Kazinski, P O

    2008-04-01

    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium.

  2. Recombination suppression at the dominant Rhg1/Rfs2 locus underlying soybean resistance to the cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Ahmed J; Srour, Ali; Saini, Navinder; Hemmati, Naghmeh; El Shemy, Hany A; Lightfoot, David A

    2012-04-01

    Host resistance to "yellow dwarf" or "moonlight" disease cause by any population (Hg type) of Heterodera glycines I., the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), requires a functional allele at rhg1. The host resistance encoded appears to mimic an apoptotic response in the giant cells formed at the nematode feeding site about 24-48 h after nematode feeding commences. Little is known about how the host response to infection is mediated but a linked set of 3 genes has been identified within the rhg1 locus. This study aimed to identify the role of the genes within the locus that includes a receptor-like kinase (RLK), a laccase and an ion antiporter. Used were near isogeneic lines (NILs) that contrasted at their rhg1 alleles, gene-based markers, and a new Hg type 0 and new recombination events. A syntenic gene cluster on Lg B1 was found. The effectiveness of SNP probes from the RLK for distinguishing homolog sequence variants on LgB1 from alleles at the rhg1 locus on LgG was shown. The resistant allele of the rhg1 locus was shown to be dominant in NILs. None of the recombination events were within the cluster of the three candidate genes. Finally, rhg1 was shown to reduce the plant root development. A model for rhg1 as a dominant multi-gene resistance locus based on the developmental control was inferred. PMID:22200919

  3. Distinguishing Feedback Mechanisms in Clock Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Alexander; Lubensky, David

    Biological oscillators are very diverse but can be classified based on dynamical motifs such as type of feedback. The S. Elongatus circadian oscillator is a novel circadian oscillator that can operate at constant protein number by modifying covalent states. It can be reproduced in vitro with only 3 different purified proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. We use computational and analytic techniques to compare models of the S. Elongatus post-translational oscillator that rely on positive feedback with models that rely on negative feedback. We show that introducing a protein that binds competitively with KaiA to the KaiB-KaiC complex can distinguish between positive and negative feedback as the primary driver of the rhythm, which has so far been difficult to address experimentally. NSF Grant DMR-1056456.

  4. Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

    2008-03-01

    Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

  5. Comparative minicolumnar morphometry of three distinguished scientists.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Manuel F; Switala, Andrew E; Trippe, Juan; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2007-11-01

    It has been suggested that the cell minicolumn is the smallest module capable of information processing within the brain. In this case series, photomicrographs of six regions of interests (Brodmann areas 4, 9, 17, 21, 22, and 40) were analyzed by computerized image analysis for minicolumnar morphometry in the brains of three distinguished scientists and six normative controls. Overall, there were significant differences (p < 0.001) between the comparison groups in both minicolumnar width (CW) and mean cell spacing (MCS). Although our scientists did not exhibit deficits in communication or interpersonal skills, the resultant minicolumnar phenotype bears similarity to that described for both autism and Asperger's syndrome. Computer modeling has shown that smaller columns account for discrimination among signals during information processing. A minicolumnar phenotype that provides for discrimination and/or focused attention may help explain the savant abilities observed in some autistic people and the intellectually gifted.

  6. Locus of Control and Psychological Distress among the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, W. Daniel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined relationship between locus of control and self-reported psychopathology in 139 residents of retirement complex. Correlation coefficients computed for locus of control and each of nine symptom dimensions of the Brief Symptom Inventory indicated that locus of control was correlated with self-reported psychopatholgoy for older women but not…

  7. Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Locus of Control and Positive Verbal Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonky, Edward; Reihman, Jacqueline

    This study tests the hypothesis that individual differences in locus of control orientation may mediate elementary school students' responses to positive verbal feedback. A total of 30 kindergarten through fourth grade subjects were assessed for locus of control orientation using the Bialer Children's Locus of Control Questionnaire. To establish a…

  8. Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.

  9. Resurgent deformation quantisation

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, Mauricio; Goursac, Axel de; Straten, Duco van

    2014-03-15

    We construct a version of the complex Heisenberg algebra based on the idea of endless analytic continuation. The algebra would be large enough to capture quantum effects that escape ordinary formal deformation quantisation. -- Highlights: •We construct resurgent deformation quantisation. •We give integral formulæ. •We compute examples which show that hypergeometric functions appear naturally in quantum computations.

  10. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  11. Distinguishing Solar Cycle Effects in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.

    2008-12-01

    As solar radiation decreases with distance from the Sun, other sources of energy, such as ionization from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), assume a greater relative importance than at the terrestrial planets. Charged particle effects could therefore be more relevant to the formation of clouds and haze at the outer planets. The long-term solar modulation of Neptune's albedo is thought to be caused by either ion-induced nucleation of cloud-forming particles, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation effects on the colour of the clouds. On the basis of the 11 year solar cycle, the statistical evidence was slightly in favour of the UV mechanism, however distinguishing unambiguously between the two mechanisms will require more than the solar cycle variation alone. A 1.68 year quasi-periodicity, uniquely present at some times from heliospheric modulation of GCR, has previously been used to discriminate between solar UV and GCR effects in terrestrial data. The cosmic ray proton monitor data from both the Voyager spacecraft show this 1.68 year modulation during the 1980s when the spacecraft were close to the outer planets, indicating the possibility for applying a similar technique as far out as Neptune.

  12. Developmental changes in distinguishing concurrent auditory objects.

    PubMed

    Alain, Claude; Theunissen, Eef L; Chevalier, Hélène; Batty, Magali; Taylor, Margot J

    2003-04-01

    Children have considerable difficulties in identifying speech in noise. In the present study, we examined age-related differences in central auditory functions that are crucial for parsing co-occurring auditory events using behavioral and event-related brain potential measures. Seventeen pre-adolescent children and 17 adults were presented with complex sounds containing multiple harmonics, one of which could be 'mistuned' so that it was no longer an integer multiple of the fundamental. Both children and adults were more likely to report hearing the mistuned harmonic as a separate sound with an increase in mistuning. However, children were less sensitive in detecting mistuning across all levels as revealed by lower d' scores than adults. The perception of two concurrent auditory events was accompanied by a negative wave that peaked at about 160 ms after sound onset. In both age groups, the negative wave, referred to as the 'object-related negativity' (ORN), increased in amplitude with mistuning. The ORN was larger in children than in adults despite a lower d' score. Together, the behavioral and electrophysiological results suggest that concurrent sound segregation is probably adult-like in pre-adolescent children, but that children are inefficient in processing the information following the detection of mistuning. These findings also suggest that processes involved in distinguishing concurrent auditory objects continue to mature during adolescence.

  13. Ultraviolet plumage reflectance distinguishes sibling bird species.

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, Robert

    2004-11-23

    Realistic studies of plumage color need to consider that many birds can see near-UV light, which normal humans cannot perceive. Although previous investigations have revealed that UV-based plumage reflectance is an important component of various intraspecific social signals, the contribution of UV signals to inter-specific divergence and speciation in birds remains largely unexplored. I describe an avian example of an interspecific phenomenon in which related sympatric species that appear similar to humans (sibling species) differ dramatically in the UV. Both UV video images and physical reflectance spectra indicate that the dorsal plumage of the tanager Anisognathus notabilis has a strong UV-limited reflectance band that readily distinguishes this species from its sibling congener Anisognathus flavinuchus. The main human-visible distinction between A. notabilis (olive back) and coexisting A. flavinuchus (black back) also occurs among different geographic populations of A. flavinuchus. Notably, however, olive- and black-backed taxa interbreed (differentiated populations of A. flavinuchus) unless the additional UV distinction is present (A. notabilis vs. A. flavinuchus). Thus, UV-based reflectance can be an essential component of plumage divergence that relates to reproductive isolation, a key attribute of biological species.

  14. Cardiac ventricular chambers are epigenetically distinguishable.

    PubMed

    Mathiyalagan, Prabhu; Chang, Lisa; Du, Xiao-Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-02-01

    The left and right ventricles are muscular chambers of the heart that differ significantly in the extent of pressure work-load. The regional and differential distribution of gene expression patterns is critical not only for heart development, but, also in the establishment of cardiac hypertrophy phenotypes. the cells of the myocardium employ elaborate regulatory mechanisms to establish changes in chromatin structure and function, yet, the role of epigenetic modifications and specific gene expression patterns in cardiac ventricles remains poorly understood. We have examined gene expression changes and studied histone H3 and H4 acetylation as well as dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 on promoters of alpha-Myosin heavy chain gene (alpha-MHC), beta-Myosin heavy chain gene (beta-MHC), Atrial natriuretic peptide gene (ANp), B-type natriuretic peptide gene (BNP) and Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene (SERCA2a). The recruitment of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzyme p300, which is a transcriptional coactivator, was also studied on the hyperacetylated promoters using immunopurification of soluble chromatin in the left and right ventricles of the mouse. We present evidence for the first time that the pattern of gene expression is closely linked with histone modifications and propose the left and right chambers of the heart are epigenetically distinguishable. PMID:20090419

  15. Distinguishing modified gravity from dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Zukin, Phillip

    2008-07-15

    The acceleration of the Universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale independent on superhorizon scales and scale dependent on subhorizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parametrized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large-scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent f(R) theories we introduce a parametrization for the gravitational coupling G and the post-Newtonian parameter {gamma}. These parametrizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

  16. Locus equations derived from compensatory articulation.

    PubMed

    Sussman, H M; Fruchter, D; Cable, A

    1995-05-01

    Locus equations are linear regressions of the onset of F2 transitions on their offsets. These functions vowel-normalize the F2 transitions such that they are able to characterize consonantal place categories. The purpose of this research was to determine if compensatory articulation due to bite blocks would alter the normally linear relationship between F2 transition onset and offset frequencies or alter the differential slopes and y intercepts of locus equations as a function of stop place. Six speakers, three male and three female, each produced /bVt/, /dVt/, and /gVt/ tokens for ten vowel contexts under normal and bite block conditions. Extremely linear and practically identical scatterplots were obtained in the two speaking conditions. No adaptation to the bite blocks was found when comparing locus equations derived from the initial versus the final bite block trial. Results are discussed in relation to the "orderly output constraint," which postulates a perceptual function for linearly related F2 transition end points within consonantal place categories.

  17. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H.

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Subglacial till: the deforming glacier bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Jaap J. M.; Menzies, John; Rose, James

    2003-07-01

    "Till is a sediment and is perhaps more variable than any sediment known by a single name." R.F. Flint 1957 Glacial and Pleistocene Geology Tills are commonly classified according to the perceived process of deposition. However, it is increasingly recognised that this classification, which is mainly based on macroscopic field data, has severe limitations. At the same time the concept of the deforming glacier bed has become more realistic as a framework for discussing tills and their properties, and this (tectonic) concept is irreconcilable with the existing (depositional) till classification scheme. Over the last 20 years large thin sections have been used to study tills, which has provided new insights into the textural and structural properties of tills. These results have revolutionised till sedimentology as they show that, in the main, subglacial tills possess deformational characteristics. Depositional properties are rare. Based on this new insight the process of subglacial till formation is discussed in terms of glacier/ice sheet basal velocity, clay, water and carbonate content and the variability of these properties in space and time. The end result of this discussion is: till, the deforming glacier bed. To distinguish subglacial till from depositional sediments the term 'tectomict' is proposed. Within the single framework of subglacial till as the deforming glacier bed, many textural, structural and geomorphological features of till beds can be more clearly and coherently explained and understood.

  19. Surface Deformation in Imperial Valley, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eneva, M.; Adams, D.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Imperial Valley in southern California is subjected to significant tectonic deformation resulting from the relative movement of the North American and Pacific plates. It is characterized by large earthquakes, frequent swarm activity, and aseismic events. High heat flow makes possible the operation of geothermal fields, some of which cause man-made surface displacements superimposed on the tectonic deformation. We apply radar interferometry (InSAR) to analyze Envisat ASAR data for the period 2003-2010. The SqueeSAR technique is used to obtain deformation time series and annual rates at numerous locations of permanent and distributed scatterers (PS and DS). SqueeSAR works very well in agricultural areas, where conventional differential InSAR (DinSAR) fails. We observe differential movements marking the Superstition Hills, San Andreas, and Imperial faults. The Imperial fault traverses agricultural fields, where DInSAR does not work and thus our SqueeSAR observations are the first for this fault (Fig. 1). We also observe steps in the deformation time series around the Superstition Hills fault from an October 2006 aseismic event and the April 2010 M7.2 earthquake south of the U.S.-Mexico border. Significant annual deformation rates are detected in the current geothermal fields. For example, subsidence of up to -50 mm/year is seen at the Salton Sea field (Fig. 2), and both subsidence and uplift are seen at Heber. We also determine the deformation baseline at prospective geothermal fields, thus making it possible in the future to distinguish between man-made and tectonic causes of surface deformation. Fig. 1. Line-of-sight (LOS) deformation indicates differential displacement on both sides of Imperial Fault. Movements away from the satellite are shown in yellow to red, and towards the satellite in blue. Larger deformation is associated with two geothermal fields, Heber (to the south-west) and East Mesa (to the east). Fig. 2. Subsidence in the Salton Sea geothermal

  20. Molecular dissection of mutations at the heterozygous thymidine kinase locus in mouse lymphoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, M L; Moore, M M; Broder, C B; Burrell, A; Juhn, G; Kasweck, K L; Lin, P F; Wadhams, A; Hozier, J C

    1990-01-01

    The mouse lymphoma L5178Y TK+/- 3.7.2C cell line allows quantitation of induced TK(+/-)----TK-/- mutations at the heterozygous thymidine kinase (Tk) locus. TK-/- mutant colonies show a bimodal size distribution, reflecting a difference in the growth rates of the two size classes that is hypothesized to result from different degrees of genetic damage. The two homologous chromosomes 11 containing the alleles of the Tk gene in L5178Y 3.7.2C TK+/- cells are distinguishable at the cytogenetic level. We find, in addition, that the two alleles are distinguishable at the molecular level because of an Nco I restriction fragment length polymorphism at the 3' end of the gene. In a set of 51 large-colony and 48 small-colony TK-/- mutants induced by ionizing radiation or by chemical mutagens, we find that 78, including all except one of the small-colony mutants, have lost the Tk+ allele and that some of these have two to four copies of the remaining Tk- allele. Nineteen of the large-colony TK-/- mutants that do not show Tk+ allele loss show no other structural changes detectable at the level of Southern blot analysis. One shows a partial deletion. The variety of mutagenic lesions recorded at the heterozygous Tk locus may be representative of events observed in human malignancy and may include a wider range of mutagenic events than can be observed at hemizygous test loci. Images PMID:1967496

  1. Distinguishing dynamical dark matter at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks

    2012-09-01

    Dynamical dark matter (DDM) is a new framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises an ensemble of individual component fields which collectively conspire to act in ways that transcend those normally associated with dark matter. Because of its nontrivial structure, this DDM ensemble—unlike most traditional dark-matter candidates—cannot be characterized in terms of a single mass, decay width, or set of scattering cross sections, but must instead be described by parameters which describe the collective behavior of its constituents. Likewise, the components of such an ensemble need not be stable so long as lifetimes are balanced against cosmological abundances across the ensemble as a whole. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for identifying a DDM ensemble at the LHC and for distinguishing such a dark-matter candidate from the candidates characteristic of traditional dark-matter models. In particular, we focus on DDM scenarios in which the component fields of the ensemble are produced at colliders alongside some number of standard-model particles via the decays of additional heavy fields. The invariant-mass distributions of these standard-model particles turn out to possess several unique features that cannot be replicated in most traditional dark-matter models. We demonstrate that in many situations it is possible to differentiate between a DDM ensemble and a traditional dark-matter candidate on the basis of such distributions. Moreover, many of our results also apply more generally to a variety of other extensions of the standard model which involve multiple stable or metastable neutral particles.

  2. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  3. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  4. Polygonal deformation bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Mollema, Pauline Nella

    2015-12-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions via strain hardening in dm-wide zones. The edges of the polygons are 1-5 m long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain <0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  5. Polygonal deformation bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Mollema, Pauline Nella

    2015-12-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions via strain hardening in dm-wide zones. The edges of the polygons are 1-5 m long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain <0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  6. Regulatory organization of the staphylococcal sae locus.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Rajan P; Novick, Richard P

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the complex internal regulatory circuitry of the staphylococcal sae locus and the impact of modifying this circuitry on the expression of external genes in the sae regulon. The sae locus contains four genes, the saeR and S two-component signalling module (TCS), and saeP and Q, two upstream genes of hitherto unknown function. It is expressed from two promoters, P(A)sae, which transcribes only the TCS, and P(C)sae, which transcribes the entire locus. A bursa aurealis (bursa) transposon insertion in saeP in a derivative of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 has a profound effect on sae function. It modifies the activity of the TCS, changing the expression of many genes in the sae regulon, even though transcription of the TCS (from P(A)sae) is not interrupted. Moreover, these effects are not due to disruption of saeP since an in-frame deletion in saeP has essentially no phenotype. The phenotype of S. aureus strain Newman is remarkably similar to that of the saeP : : bursa and this similarity is explained by an amino acid substitution in the Newman saeS gene that is predicted to modify profoundly the signalling function of the protein. This concurrence suggests that the saeP : : bursa insertion affects the signalling function of saeS, a suggestion that is supported by the ability of an saeQR clone, but not an saeR clone, to complement the effects of the saeP : : bursa insertion.

  7. Locus of control and psychological distress among the aged.

    PubMed

    Hale, W D; Hedgepeth, B E; Taylor, E B

    A relationship between locus of control and adjustment has been found in many studies of young adults, with externals generally reporting higher levels of psychological distress. However, studies of locus of control and adjustment in the aged have produced conflicting results. This investigation examined the relationship between locus of control and self-reported psychopathology in a sample of 139 residents of a retirement complex. Correlation coefficients were computed for locus of control and each of the nine symptom dimensions of the Brief Symptom Inventory. These analyses were carried out separately for males and for females to determine if locus of control orientation was associated with adjustment for both males and females. Results indicate that locus of control is correlated with self-reported psychopathology for older women but not for older men. These results and those of related investigations are discussed within the context of Rotter's social learning theory.

  8. Reverse Kirner's deformity: case report.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yeong J; Tonkin, Michael A

    2009-03-01

    Kirner's deformity is a rare congenital deformity, usually of the little finger, with volar and radial bowing of the distal phalanx. The etiology of this deformity is unclear. We describe a case of a 9-year-old girl with radiographic changes classic for Kirner's deformity but with the curvature and nail changes in the dorsal direction.

  9. Chromosome 1p36 in migraine with aura: association study of the 5HT(1D) locus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Miles D; Noble-Topham, Sandra; Percy, Maire E; Andrade, Danielle M; Ebers, George C

    2012-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) may share some but not all risk factors with other forms of migraine. As common migraine without aura (MO) has been associated with the chromosome 1p36 locus, we tested its involvement in MA by using two-point parametric linkage analysis to analyze 64 multiplex MA families. A logarithm of the odds score of 1.9 was suggestive of chromosome 1p36 linkage to MA. The transmission disequilibrium test analysis was then performed in 79 nuclear families with one MA parent and one MA offspring. We identified the presence of genetic association at chromosome 1p36 with MA (P=0.045, Bonferroni corrected): the locus encoding the 5HT(1D) receptor gene. Although these data suggest that the 1p36 locus may protect against MA, consistent with the role of the 5HT(1D) receptor in migraine treatment with triptan drugs, the study is subject to the limitations associated with studying a small number of affected families. As a result, we contrast evidence suggesting that the chromosome 1p36 locus is strongly MO associated with our finding that 1p36 has a more limited contribution to MA in the families we analyzed. Further work using a genome-wide association study approach in familial typical migraine, consisting of those affected by MO or MA, will serve to further distinguish how and why MA differs from MO.

  10. The cell: locus or object of inquiry?

    PubMed

    Bechtel, William

    2010-09-01

    Research in many fields of biology has been extremely successful in decomposing biological mechanisms to discover their parts and operations. It often remains a significant challenge for scientists to recompose these mechanisms to understand how they function as wholes and interact with the environments around them. This is true of the eukaryotic cell. Although initially identified in nineteenth-century cell theory as the fundamental unit of organisms, researchers soon learned how to decompose it into its organelles and chemical constituents and have been highly successful in understanding how these carry out many operations important to life. The emphasis on decomposition is particularly evident in modern cell biology, which for the most part has viewed the cell as merely a locus of the mechanisms responsible for vital phenomena. The cell, however, is also an integrated system and for some explanatory purposes it is essential to recompose it and understand it as an organized whole. I illustrate both the virtues of decomposition (treating the cell as a locus) and recomposition (treating the cell as an object) with recent work on circadian rhythms. Circadian researchers have both identified critical intracellular operations that maintain endogenous oscillations and have also addressed the integration of cells into multicellular systems in which cells constitute units.

  11. Interallelic complementation at the mouse Mitf locus.

    PubMed Central

    Steingrímsson, Eiríkur; Arnheiter, Heinz; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lamoreux, M Lynn; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A

    2003-01-01

    Mutations at the mouse microphthalmia locus (Mitf) affect the development of different cell types, including melanocytes, retinal pigment epithelial cells of the eye, and osteoclasts. The MITF protein is a member of the MYC supergene family of basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper (bHLHZip) transcription factors and is known to regulate the expression of cell-specific target genes by binding DNA as homodimer or as heterodimer with related proteins. The many mutations isolated at the locus have different effects on the phenotype and can be arranged in an allelic series in which the phenotypes range from near normal to white microphthalmic animals with osteopetrosis. Previous investigations have shown that certain combinations of Mitf alleles complement each other, resulting in a phenotype more normal than that of each homozygote alone. Here we analyze this interallelic complementation in detail and show that it is limited to one particular allele, Mitf(Mi-white) (Mitf(Mi-wh)), a mutation affecting the DNA-binding domain. Both loss- and gain-of-function mutations are complemented, as are other Mitf mutations affecting the DNA-binding domain. Furthermore, this behavior is not restricted to particular cell types: Both eye development and coat color phenotypes are complemented. Our analysis suggests that Mitf(Mi-wh)-associated interallelic complementation is due to the unique biochemical nature of this mutation. PMID:12586714

  12. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  13. Crustal deformation and earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    The manner in which the Earth's surface deforms during the cycle of stress accumulation and release along major faults is investigated. In an investigation of the crustal deformation associated with a thin channel asthenosphere displacements are reduced from those computed for a half space asthenosphere. A previous finding by other workers that displacements are enhanced when flow is confined to a thin channel is based on several invalid approximations. The major predictions of the finite element model are that the near field postseismic displacements and strain rates are less than those for a half space asthenosphere and that the postseismic strain rates at intermediate distances are greater (in magnitude). The finite width of the asthenosphere ceases to have a significant impact on the crustal deformation pattern when its magnitude exceeds about three lithosphere thicknesses.

  14. Plate motion and deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, B.; Prescott, W.; Royden, L.

    1991-02-01

    Our goal is to understand the motions of the plates, the deformation along their boundaries and within their interiors, and the processes that control these tectonic phenomena. In the broadest terms, we must strive to understand the relationships of regional and local deformation to flow in the upper mantle and the rheological, thermal and density structure of the lithosphere. The essential data sets which we require to reach our goal consist of maps of current strain rates at the earth's surface and the distribution of integrated deformation through time as recorded in the geologic record. Our success will depend on the effective synthesis of crustal kinematics with a variety of other geological and geophysical data, within a quantitative theoretical framework describing processes in the earth's interior. Only in this way can we relate the snapshot of current motions and earth structure provided by geodetic and geophysical data with long-term processes operating on the time scales relevant to most geological processes. The wide-spread use of space-based techniques, coupled with traditional geological and geophysical data, promises a revolution in our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of plate motions over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales and in a variety of geologic settings. The space-based techniques that best address problems in plate motion and deformation are precise space-geodetic positioning -- on land and on the seafloor -- and satellite acquisition of detailed altimetric and remote sensing data in oceanic and continental areas. The overall science objectives for the NASA Solid Earth Science plan for the 1990's, are to Understand the motion and deformation of the lithosphere within and across plate boundaries'', and to understand the dynamics of the mantle, the structure and evolution of the lithosphere, and the landforms that result from local and regional deformation. 57 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2010-04-06

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  16. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2009-04-14

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  17. Deformed Quantum Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Akira

    1997-03-01

    To understand possible physical consequences of quantum deformation, we investigate statistical behaviors of a quon gas. The quon is an object which obeys the minimally deformed commutator (or q-mutator): a a† - q a†a=1 with -1≤ q≤ 1. Although q=1 and q=-1 appear to correspond respectively to boson and fermion statistics, it is not easy to create a gas which unifies the boson gas and the fermion gas. We present a model which is able to interpolates between the two limits. The quon gas shows the Bose-Einstein condensation near the Boson limit in two dimensions.

  18. Lobster claw deformity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient.

  19. Lobster claw deformity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

  20. Influence of deposit architecture on intrastratal deformation, slope deposits of the Tres Pasos Formation, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchter, Neal C.; Romans, Brian W.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

    2016-07-01

    increase in ductile deformation through the deformation interval indicates the role of burial depth and compaction. Distinguishing synburial intrastratal deformation (10s of m below seafloor) from tectonic or at-seafloor deformation has important implications for interpretations of burial history, slope stability, and potential triggering mechanisms.

  1. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  2. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated to... under civilian workmen's compensation laws in that hospitalization is usually completed prior to...

  3. Liberating the Publications of a Distinguished Scholar: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Many distinguished scholars published the primary corpus of their work before the advent of online journals, which makes it more challenging to access. Upon being approached by a distinguished Emeritus Professor seeking advice about getting his work posted online, librarians at the University of Minnesota worked to gain copyright permissions to…

  4. John Glenn: Presented with NASA Distinguished Service Medal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    John Glenn tours with his family, meets JFK and is presented with the NASA distinguished Service Medal. From: The John Glenn Story: Summary of astronaut John Glenn's flying career, from naval aviation training to space flight. The Mercury project is featured as John Glenn flies the Friendship 7 spacecraft. President John F. Kennedy presents the NASA Distinguished service Medal to Astronaut John Glenn.

  5. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22... Instrument § 22.205 Distinguishing assistance from procurement. Before using a grant or cooperative agreement... procurement contract, is the appropriate instrument, based on the following: (a) Purpose. (1) The...

  6. Excellence in Teacher Education. 1973 Distinguished Achievement Awards Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    The State University of New York College of Cortland received the 1973 Distinguished Achievement Award for its Project Change, a performance-based early childhood teacher education program. Also cited for distinguished achievement were a) Teachers College of Ball State University, Indiana for an experimental program designed to include…

  7. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  8. Externality and Locus of Control in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbitsky, Joyce Renee; White, Donna Romano

    1981-01-01

    Significant sex differences indicated that boys generally ate more than girls and held more internal locus of control expectancies. However, obese and normal-weighted children were not differentiated by their performance on either food-related measures nor by their locus of control expectancies. (Author/MP)

  9. Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

  10. Locus of Control in Underachieving and Achieving Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study, with 87 underachieving and 77 achieving gifted students in grades 6-9, found that general locus of control measures did not differentiate between the 2 groups, that both scored significantly higher on positive internal than on negative internal locus of control, and that there were no gender or grade effects. (Author/DB)

  11. Locus of Control and Marital Stability: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, John A.; Bahr, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated relationship between locus of control and marital stability of young men. Factors derived from locus of control measures included leadership, personal, and fate scales. Results indicated the only significant difference was on the leadership scale between men remaining married and those who did not. (RC)

  12. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  13. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... result, one of which is a statistically significant dose-related increase in the number of specific locus... a statistically significant dose-related increase in the number of specific locus mutations or a... eukaryotes which are the carriers of the genetic information for the species. (c) Reference......

  14. The Cajal Body and Histone Locus Body

    PubMed Central

    Nizami, Zehra; Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gall, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    The Cajal body (CB) is a nuclear organelle present in all eukaryotes that have been carefully studied. It is identified by the signature protein coilin and by CB-specific RNAs (scaRNAs). CBs contain high concentrations of splicing small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and other RNA processing factors, suggesting that they are sites for assembly and/or posttranscriptional modification of the splicing machinery of the nucleus. The histone locus body (HLB) contains factors required for processing histone pre-mRNAs. As its name implies, the HLB is associated with the genes that code for histones, suggesting that it may function to concentrate processing factors at their site of action. CBs and HLBs are present throughout the interphase of the cell cycle, but disappear during mitosis. The biogenesis of CBs shows the features of a self-organizing structure. PMID:20504965

  15. Identifying a novel locus for psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Budu-Aggrey, Ashley; Bowes, John

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have identified genetic risk loci for PsA, the majority of which also confer risk for psoriasis. The stronger heritability of PsA in comparison with psoriasis suggests that there should be risk loci that are specific for PsA. Identifying such loci could potentially inform therapy development to provide more effective treatments for PsA patients, especially with a considerable proportion being non-responsive to current therapies. Evidence of a PsA-specific locus has been previously found at HLA-B27 within the MHC region. A recent study has provided evidence of non-HLA risk loci that are specific for PsA at IL23R, PTPN22 and on chromosome 5q31. Functional characterization of these loci will provide further understanding of the pathways underlying PsA, and enable us to apply genetic findings for patient benefit. PMID:26255310

  16. MEMS Actuated Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Walton, C; Cohn, M

    2005-11-10

    This ongoing work concerns the creation of a deformable mirror by the integration of MEMS actuators with Nanolaminate foils through metal compression boning. These mirrors will use the advantages of these disparate technologies to achieve dense actuation of a high-quality, continuous mirror surface. They will enable advanced adaptive optics systems in large terrestrial telescopes. While MEMS actuators provide very dense actuation with high precision they can not provide large forces typically necessary to deform conventional mirror surfaces. Nanolaminate foils can be fabricated with very high surface quality while their extraordinary mechanical properties enable very thin, flexible foils to survive the rigors of fabrication. Precise metal compression bonding allows the attachment of the fragile MEMS actuators to the thin nanolaminate foils without creating distortions at the bond sites. This paper will describe work in four major areas: (1) modeling and design, (2) bonding development, (3) nanolaminate foil development, (4) producing a prototype. A first-principles analytical model was created and used to determine the design parameters. A method of bonding was determined that is both strong, and minimizes the localized deformation or print through. Work has also been done to produce nanolaminate foils that are sufficiently thin, flexible and flat to be deformed by the MEMS actuators. Finally a prototype was produced by bonding thin, flexible nanolaminate foils to commercially available MEMS actuators.

  17. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Paleogene Alpine tectonics and Icelandic plume-related magmatism and deformation in Ireland: Evidence from the regional, high resolution Tellus geophysical survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Mark; Walsh, John; van Dam, Chris; Young, Michael; Earls, Garth; Anderson, Hugh; Adrian, Walker

    2010-05-01

    The Cenozoic tectonic history of NW Europe is generally attributed to some combination of three principal controlling factors: North Atlantic opening, Alpine collision and formation of the Icelandic mantle plume. Here we present the results of an interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic imagery from the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland. This dataset distinguishes four distinct dyke swarms, which together with the known extrusive history of the Antrim Lava Group and intrusive history of the central igneous complexes, supports the concept that Paleocene plume activity was pulsed. Differential displacement of the dyke swarms and central igneous complexes by both sinistral and dextral strike-slip faults indicates, for the first time, that N-S Alpine compression, of Paleocene through to Oligocene age, temporally overlapped with plume-related intrusions. Whilst this evidence shows, for the first time, that N-S Alpine compression was periodically overwhelmed by the dynamic stresses and uplift associated with pulsed mantle plume-related deformation, related strike-slip faulting may have controlled the locus of volcanic activity and central igneous complexes, and the location of sedimentary depocentres.

  19. Locus of Control Orientation: Parents, Peers, and Place.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, Eileen M; Lobo Antunes, Maria João

    2015-09-01

    An internal locus of control contributes to positive youth outcomes such as a general well-being and academic success, while also serving as a protective factor against exposure to community violence and reducing negative behaviors like violence. Despite these benefits, very little is known about antecedents of an internal locus of control orientation. Without an understanding of what factors contribute to the development of an internal locus of control, it is not clear how to best encourage its formation. This study uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine whether various mesosystem variables (family management strategies, peer interactions, neighborhood context, and individual-level characteristics) are associated with an internal locus of control orientation among 1,076 youth ages 9-19 living in 78 Chicago neighborhoods. Study participants were Hispanic (46 %), African American (34 %), and White (15 %), and 50 % were female. The findings suggest that, while most levels of the mesosystem influence locus of control orientation, family management strategies are more prominent determinants of an internal locus of control than peers, neighborhood context, or individual characteristics. Parental supervision over the time a youth spends at home and family socioeconomic status are consistent predictors of an internal locus of control, while harsh discipline is associated with an external locus of control. The discussion examines the import of various parenting techniques in shaping an internal locus of control and considers future avenues for research to further unpack how antecedents of locus of control can vary across youth. PMID:25617000

  20. Locus of Control Orientation: Parents, Peers, and Place.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, Eileen M; Lobo Antunes, Maria João

    2015-09-01

    An internal locus of control contributes to positive youth outcomes such as a general well-being and academic success, while also serving as a protective factor against exposure to community violence and reducing negative behaviors like violence. Despite these benefits, very little is known about antecedents of an internal locus of control orientation. Without an understanding of what factors contribute to the development of an internal locus of control, it is not clear how to best encourage its formation. This study uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine whether various mesosystem variables (family management strategies, peer interactions, neighborhood context, and individual-level characteristics) are associated with an internal locus of control orientation among 1,076 youth ages 9-19 living in 78 Chicago neighborhoods. Study participants were Hispanic (46 %), African American (34 %), and White (15 %), and 50 % were female. The findings suggest that, while most levels of the mesosystem influence locus of control orientation, family management strategies are more prominent determinants of an internal locus of control than peers, neighborhood context, or individual characteristics. Parental supervision over the time a youth spends at home and family socioeconomic status are consistent predictors of an internal locus of control, while harsh discipline is associated with an external locus of control. The discussion examines the import of various parenting techniques in shaping an internal locus of control and considers future avenues for research to further unpack how antecedents of locus of control can vary across youth.

  1. Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training and Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training awards are given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education…

  2. q-Deformed and c-Deformed Harmonic Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogami, I. S.; Koizumi, K.; Mir-Kasimov, R. M.

    2003-10-01

    Hamilton functions of classical deformed oscillators (c-deformed oscillators) are derived from Hamiltonians of q-deformed oscillators of the Macfarlane and Dubna types. A new scale parameter, lq, with the dimension of length, is introduced to relate a dimensionless parameter characterizing the deformation with the natural length of the harmonic oscillator. Contraction from q-deformed oscillators to c-deformed oscillators is accomplished by keeping lq finite while taking the limit hbar → 0. The c-deformed Hamilton functions for both types of oscillators are found to be invariant under discrete translations: the step of the translation for the Dubna oscillator is half of that for the Macfarlane oscillator. The c-deformed oscillator of the Macfarlane type has propagating solutions in addition to localized ones. Reinvestigation of the q-deformed oscillator carried out in the light of these findings for the c-deformed systems proves that the q-deformed systems are invariant under the same translation symmetries as the c-deformed systems and have propagating waves of the Bloch type.

  3. Distinguishability of countable quantum states and von Neumann lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The condition for distinguishability of a countably infinite number of pure states by a single measurement is given. Distinguishability is to be understood as the possibility of an unambiguous measurement. For a finite number of states, it is known that the necessary and sufficient condition of distinguishability is that the states are linearly independent. For an infinite number of states, several natural classes of distinguishability can be defined. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a system of pure states to be distinguishable. It turns out that each level of distinguishability naturally corresponds to one of the generalizations of linear independence to families of infinite vectors. As an important example, we apply the general theory to von Neumann’s lattice, a subsystem of coherent states which corresponds to a lattice in the classical phase space. We prove that the condition for distinguishability is that the area of the fundamental region of the lattice is greater than the Planck constant, and also find subtle behavior on the threshold. These facts reveal the measurement theoretical meaning of the Planck constant and give a justification for the interpretation that it is the smallest unit of area in the phase space. The cases of uncountably many states and of mixed states are also discussed.

  4. A locus for cerebral cavernous malformations maps to chromosome 7q in two families

    SciTech Connect

    Marchuk, D.A.; Gallione, C.J.; Morrison, L.A.; Davis, L.E.; Clericuzio, C.L.

    1995-07-20

    Cavernous malformations (angiomas) affecting the central nervous system and retina can be inherited in autosomal dominant pattern (OMIM 116860). These vascular lesions may remain clinically silent or lead to a number of neurological symptoms including seizure, intracranial hemorrhage, focal neurological deficit, and migraine. We have mapped a gene for this disorder in two families, one of Italian-American origin and one of Mexican-American origin, to markers on proximal 7q, with a combined maximum lod score of 3.92 ({theta} of zero) with marker D7S479. Haplotype analysis of these families places the locus between markers D7S502 proximally and D7S515 distally, an interval of approximately 41 cM. The location distinguishes this disorder from an autosomal dominant vascular malformation syndrome where lesions are primarily cutaneous and that maps to 9p21. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Daniel; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Ellison, Brian N.; Aylward, Alan D.; Aruliah, Anasuya; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Saunders, Christopher; Friend, Jonathan; Bird, Rachel; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Parkes, Steve

    2014-05-01

    near future. We describe the current instrument configuration of LOCUS, and give a first preview of the expected science return such a mission would yield. The LOCUS instrument concept calls for four spectral bands, a first band at 4.7 THz to target atomic oxygen (O), a second band at 3.5 THz to target hydroxyl (OH), a third band at 1.1 THz to cover several diatomic species (NO, CO, O3, H2O) and finally a fourth band at 0.8 THz to retrieve pointing information from molecular oxygen (O2). LOCUS would be the first satellite instrument to measure atomic oxygen on a global scale with a precision that will allow the retrieval of the global O distribution. It would also be the first time that annual and diurnal changes in O are measured. This will be a significant step forward in understanding the chemistry and dynamics of the MLT. Current indications (derived from CRISTA measurement) lead us to believe that current models only give a poor representation of upper atmospheric O. The secondary target species can help us to address additional scientific questions related to both Climate (distribution of climate relevant gases, highly geared cooling of the MLT in response to Climate change, increased occurrence of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC), etc) and Space Weather (precipitation of electrically charged particles and impact on NOx chemistry, fluctuations of solar Lyman-alpha flux through shown in the the distribution of photochemically active species, etc).

  6. [Identification of fish species based on ribosomal DNA ITS2 locus].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wan-An

    2010-04-01

    To prevent illegal fishing and sale, the most difficult problem is identification of marketed fish species, especially the parts that are difficult to be differentiated with morphological method (e.g., larval, eggs, scales, meat, products etc. To assist conservation and management of fishery resources, this paper reported a molecular genetic approach based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 locus. The method includes two steps: (1) the order general primers were designed according to the conservative nature of 5.8SrRAN and 28SrRNA genes within an order, and the DNA ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 locus fragment were then amplified and sequenced. (2) The species-specific ladders and the species-specific primers for each species were designed according to the sequencing results. The map of molecular taxonomy was constructed. This approach employs multiplex PCR that is formatted for fish species identification. We tested 210 single-species samples and 40 mix-species samples from different regions of China. The approach distinguished accurately and sensitively samples from each of the five species. This genetic and molecular approach will be useful for fish conservation, assessment, management and exploitation, strengthen in law enforcement of fishery manager, combat rare and endangered fish smuggling, and prevent commercial fraud and biological invasion by harmful nonnative species.

  7. Locus-specific genetic differentiation at Rw among warfarin-resistant rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Michael H; Pelz, Hans-Joachim; Wayne, Robert K

    2003-01-01

    Populations may diverge at fitness-related genes as a result of adaptation to local conditions. The ability to detect this divergence by marker-based genomic scans depends on the relative magnitudes of selection, recombination, and migration. We survey rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations to assess the effect that local selection with anticoagulant rodenticides has had on microsatellite marker variation and differentiation at the warfarin resistance gene (Rw) relative to the effect on the genomic background. Initially, using a small sample of 16 rats, we demonstrate tight linkage of microsatellite D1Rat219 to Rw by association mapping of genotypes expressing an anticoagulant-rodenticide-insensitive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR). Then, using allele frequencies at D1Rat219, we show that predicted and observed resistance levels in 27 populations correspond, suggesting intense and recent selection for resistance. A contrast of F(ST) values between D1Rat219 and the genomic background revealed that rodenticide selection has overwhelmed drift-mediated population structure only at Rw. A case-controlled design distinguished these locus-specific effects of selection at Rw from background levels of differentiation more effectively than a population-controlled approach. Our results support the notion that an analysis of locus-specific population genetic structure may assist the discovery and mapping of novel candidate loci that are the object of selection or may provide supporting evidence for previously identified loci. PMID:12871915

  8. Designing DNA interstrand lock for locus-specific methylation detection in a nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Insoon; Wang, Yong; Reagan, Corbin; Fu, Yumei; Wang, Michael X.; Gu, Li-Qun

    2013-10-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Locus-specific DNA methylation can be used as biomarkers in various diseases including cancer. Many methods have been developed for genome-wide methylation analysis, but molecular diagnotics needs simple tools to determine methylation states at individual CpG sites in a gene fragment. In this report, we utilized the nanopore single-molecule sensor to investigate a base-pair specific metal ion/nucleic acids interaction, and explored its potential application in locus-specific DNA methylation analysis. We identified that divalent Mercury ion (Hg2+) can selectively bind a uracil-thymine mismatch (U-T) in a dsDNA. The Hg2+ binding creates a reversible interstrand lock, called MercuLock, which enhances the hybridization strength by two orders of magnitude. Such MercuLock cannot be formed in a 5-methylcytosine-thymine mismatch (mC-T). By nanopore detection of dsDNA stability, single bases of uracil and 5-methylcytosine can be distinguished. Since uracil is converted from cytosine by bisulfite treatment, cytosine and 5'-methylcytosine can be discriminated. We have demonstrated the methylation analysis of multiple CpGs in a p16 gene CpG island. This single-molecule assay may have potential in detection of epigenetic cancer biomarkers in biofluids, with an ultimate goal for early diagnosis of cancer.

  9. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option. PMID:19857299

  10. Probing deformed quantum commutators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Giani, Tommaso; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-07-01

    Several quantum gravity theories predict a minimal length at the order of magnitude of the Planck length, under which the concepts of space and time lose their physical meaning. In quantum mechanics, the insurgence of such a minimal length can be described by introducing a modified position-momentum commutator, which in turn yields a generalized uncertainty principle, where the uncertainty on position measurements has a lower bound. The value of the minimal length is not predicted by theories and must be estimated experimentally. In this paper, we address the quantum bound to the estimability of the minimal uncertainty length by performing measurements on a harmonic oscillator, which is analytically solvable in the deformed algebra induced by the deformed commutation relations.

  11. Deformed wing virus.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Joachim R; Genersch, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms.

  12. Congenital idiopathic clubfoot deformities.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S P; Stark, S L

    1995-03-01

    Clubfoot is a birth defect that is marked primarily by a deformed talus (ie, ankle) and calcaneous (ie, heel) that give the foot a characteristic "club-like" appearance. In congenital idiopathic clubfoot (ie, talipes equinovarus), the infant's foot points downward (ie, equinus) and turns inward (ie, varus), while the forefoot curls toward the heel (ie, adduction). This congenital disorder has an incidence of 1 in 400 live births, with boys affected twice as often as girls. Unilateral clubfoot is somewhat more common than bilateral clubfoot and may occur as an isolated defect or in association with other disorders (eg, chromosomal aberrations, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, arthrogryposis). Infantile clubfoot deformity is painless and is correctable with early diagnosis and prompt treatment. PMID:7778903

  13. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  14. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  15. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  16. Postlaminectomy cervical deformity.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel; Haid, Regis W; Rodts, Gerald E; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2003-09-15

    Postlaminectomy cervical kyphosis is an important consideration when performing surgery. Identifying factors predisposing to postoperative deformity is essential. The goal is to prevent postlaminectomy cervical kyphosis while exposing the patient to minimal additional morbidity. When postlaminectomy kyphosis does occur, surgical correction is often required and performed via an anterior, posterior, or combined approach. The authors discuss the indications for surgical approaches as well as clinical results. PMID:15347223

  17. Deformation of wrinkled graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheling; Kinloch, Ian A; Young, Robert J; Novoselov, Kostya S; Anagnostopoulos, George; Parthenios, John; Galiotis, Costas; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Lu, Ching-Yu; Britnell, Liam

    2015-04-28

    The deformation of monolayer graphene, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), on a polyester film substrate has been investigated through the use of Raman spectroscopy. It has been found that the microstructure of the CVD graphene consists of a hexagonal array of islands of flat monolayer graphene separated by wrinkled material. During deformation, it was found that the rate of shift of the Raman 2D band wavenumber per unit strain was less than 25% of that of flat flakes of mechanically exfoliated graphene, whereas the rate of band broadening per unit strain was about 75% of that of the exfoliated material. This unusual deformation behavior has been modeled in terms of mechanically isolated graphene islands separated by the graphene wrinkles, with the strain distribution in each graphene island determined using shear lag analysis. The effect of the size and position of the Raman laser beam spot has also been incorporated in the model. The predictions fit well with the behavior observed experimentally for the Raman band shifts and broadening of the wrinkled CVD graphene. The effect of wrinkles upon the efficiency of graphene to reinforce nanocomposites is also discussed. PMID:25765609

  18. Deformation of Wrinkled Graphene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The deformation of monolayer graphene, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), on a polyester film substrate has been investigated through the use of Raman spectroscopy. It has been found that the microstructure of the CVD graphene consists of a hexagonal array of islands of flat monolayer graphene separated by wrinkled material. During deformation, it was found that the rate of shift of the Raman 2D band wavenumber per unit strain was less than 25% of that of flat flakes of mechanically exfoliated graphene, whereas the rate of band broadening per unit strain was about 75% of that of the exfoliated material. This unusual deformation behavior has been modeled in terms of mechanically isolated graphene islands separated by the graphene wrinkles, with the strain distribution in each graphene island determined using shear lag analysis. The effect of the size and position of the Raman laser beam spot has also been incorporated in the model. The predictions fit well with the behavior observed experimentally for the Raman band shifts and broadening of the wrinkled CVD graphene. The effect of wrinkles upon the efficiency of graphene to reinforce nanocomposites is also discussed. PMID:25765609

  19. Deformable micro torque swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Imai, Yohsuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modeled as a capsule with a hyper elastic membrane enclosing Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary beat were modeled as torques distributed above the cell body. Effects of the membrane elasticity, the aspect ratio of cell's reference shape and the density difference between the cell and the surrounding fluid were investigated. The results showed that the cell deformed like heart shape when Capillary number (Ca) was sufficiently large, and the swimming velocity decreased as Ca was increased. The gravity effect on the membrane tension suggested that the upwards and downwards swimming velocities of Paramecium might be reglated by the calcium ion channels distributed locally around the anterior end. Moreover, the gravity induced deformation made a cell directed vertically downwards, which resulted in a positive geotaxis like behavior with physical origin. These results are important to understand physiology of ciliate's biological responses to mechanical stimuli.

  20. Treatment of Madelung's deformity.

    PubMed

    Saffar, P; Badina, A

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of Madelung's deformity is still controversial. We reviewed retrospectively 19 patients with Madelung's deformity (two bilateral, 21 cases) who underwent surgery to the radius and ulna to improve range of motion, decrease pain and improve appearance of the wrist. Nineteen patients underwent 21 distal radial osteotomy procedures using three different techniques: subtraction, addition or dome osteotomy. Ulnar shortening and redirection of the distal ulna was performed in 12 cases; a long oblique osteotomy was used in 10 of these cases. The Sauvé-Kapandji technique was performed in five cases, an ulnar distal epiphysiodesis in two cases and a combination of osteotomy and epiphysiodesis in one case. The aim was to reduce the distal radial slope and to restore the orientation and congruity of the distal radio-ulnar joint and to improve its function. Pain was reduced as a result of the procedure: more than 75% of the cases had no or intermittent pain at the review. Pronation improved from 63° to 68° (P=0.467, not significant) and supination improved from 48° to 72° on average (P=0.034, significant). Grip strength increased from 11 to 18 kgf (P=0.013, significant). Madelung's deformity is not always a benign condition and it responds well to corrective osteotomies. PMID:26525609

  1. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  2. Distinguishability in EIT using a hypothesis-testing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Andy; Gaggero, Pascal; Maimaitijiang, Yasheng

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we propose a novel formulation for the distinguishability of conductivity targets in electrical impedance tomography (EIT). It is formulated in terms of a classic hypothesis test to make it directly applicable to experimental configurations. We test to distinguish conductivity distributions σ2 from σ1, from which EIT measurements are obtained with added white Gaussian noise with covariance Σn. In order to distinguish the distributions, we must reject the null hypothesis , which has a probability based on the z-score: . This result shows that distinguishability is a product of the impedance change amplitude, the measurement strategy and the inverse of the noise amplitude. This approach is used to explore different current stimulation strategies.

  3. Genomic organization of the S-locus region of Brassica.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Hiroshi; Kenmochi, Masayuki; Sugihara, Minoru; Iwano, Megumi; Kawasaki, Shinji; Suzuki, Go; Watanabe, Masao; Isogai, Akira; Takayama, Seiji

    2003-03-01

    To gain some insights into the structure of the S-locus and the mechanisms that have kept its diversity, a 75-kb genomic fragment containing the self-incompatibility (S) locus region was isolated from the S12-haplotype of Brassica rapa and compared with those of other S-haplotypes. The region around the S determinant genes was highly polymorphic and filled with S-haplotype-specific intergenic sequences. The diverse genomic structure must contribute to the suppression of recombination at the S-locus.

  4. Edna B. Foa: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Edna B. Foa, who received this award for "her outstanding and innovative research on the nature, measurement, and treatment of anxiety." Foa's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  5. Deformation of the Dirac equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir; Kruglov, Sergey I.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we will first clarify the physical meaning of having a minimum measurable time. Then we will combine the deformation of the Dirac equation due to the existence of minimum measurable length and time scales with its deformation due to the doubly special relativity. We will also analyze this deformed Dirac equation in curved spacetime, and observe that this deformation of the Dirac equation also leads to a nontrivial modification of general relativity. Finally, we will analyze the stochastic quantization of this deformed Dirac equation on curved spacetime.

  6. How granular materials deform in quasistatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, J.-N.; Combe, G.

    2010-05-01

    Based on numerical simulations of quasistatic deformation of model granular materials, two rheological regimes are distinguished, according to whether macroscopic strains merely reflect microscopic material strains within the grains in their contact regions (type I strains), or result from instabilities and contact network rearrangements at the microscopic level (type II strains). We discuss the occurrence of regimes I and II in simulations of model materials made of disks (2D) or spheres (3D). The transition from regime I to regime II in monotonic tests such as triaxial compression is different from both the elastic limit and from the yield threshold. The distinction between both types of response is shown to be crucial for the sensitivity to contact-level mechanics, the relevant variables and scales to be considered in micromechanical approaches, the energy balance and the possible occurrence of macroscopic instabilities.

  7. Nanoscale Deformable Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Several missions and instruments in the conceptual design phase rely on the technique of interferometry to create detectable fringe patterns. The intimate emplacement of reflective material upon electron device cells based upon chalcogenide material technology permits high-speed, predictable deformation of the reflective surface to a subnanometer or finer resolution with a very high degree of accuracy. In this innovation, a layer of reflective material is deposited upon a wafer containing (perhaps in the millions) chalcogenic memory cells with the reflective material becoming the front surface of a mirror and the chalcogenic material becoming a means of selectively deforming the mirror by the application of heat to the chalcogenic material. By doing so, the mirror surface can deform anywhere from nil to nanometers in spots the size of a modern day memory cell, thereby permitting realtime tuning of mirror focus and reflectivity to mitigate aberrations caused elsewhere in the optical system. Modern foundry methods permit the design and manufacture of individual memory cells having an area of or equal to the Feature (F) size of the design (assume 65 nm). Fabrication rules and restraints generally require the instantiation of one memory cell to another no closer than 1.5 F, or, for this innovation, 90 nm from its neighbor in any direction. Chalcogenide is a semiconducting glass compound consisting of a combination of chalcogen ions, the ratios of which vary according to properties desired. It has been shown that the application of heat to cells of chalcogenic material cause a large alteration in resistance to the range of 4 orders of magnitude. It is this effect upon which chalcogenidebased commercial memories rely. Upon removal of the heat source, the chalcogenide rapidly cools and remains frozen in the excited state. It has also been shown that the chalcogenide expands in volume because of the applied heat, meaning that the coefficient of expansion of chalcogenic

  8. THE LOCUS COERULEUS AND CENTRAL CHEMOSENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Gargaglioni, Luciane H.; Hartzler, Lynn K.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) lies in the dorsal pons and supplies noradrenergic (NA) input to many regions of the brain, including respiratory control areas. The LC may provide tonic input for basal respiratory drive and is involved in central chemosensitivity since focal acidosis of the region stimulates ventilation and ablation reduces CO2-induced increased ventilation. The output of LC is modulated by both serotonergic and glutamatergic inputs. A large percentage of LC neurons are intrinsically activated by hypercapnia. This percentage and the magnitude of their response are highest in young neonates and decrease dramatically after postnatal day P10. The cellular bases for intrinsic chemosensitivity of LC neurons are comprised of multiple factors, primary among them being reduced extracellular and intracellular pH, which inhibit inwardly rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels, and activate L-type Ca2+ channels. Activation of KCa channels in LC neurons may limit their ultimate response to hypercapnia. Finally, the LC mediates central chemosensitivity and contains pH-sensitive neurons in amphibians, suggesting that the LC has a long-standing phylogenetic role in respiratory control. PMID:20435170

  9. Sequence Variation Within the Fragile X Locus

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Debra J.; Kashuk, Carl; Brightwell, Gale; Eichler, Evan E.; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2001-01-01

    The human genome provides a reference sequence, which is a template for resequencing studies that aim to discover and interpret the record of common ancestry that exists in extant genomes. To understand the nature and pattern of variation and linkage disequilibrium comprising this history, we present a study of ∼31 kb spanning an ∼70 kb region of FMR1, sequenced in a sample of 20 humans (worldwide sample) and four great apes (chimp, bonobo, and gorilla). Twenty-five polymorphic sites and two insertion/deletions, distributed in 11 unique haplotypes, were identified among humans. Africans are the only geographic group that do not share any haplotypes with other groups. Parsimony analysis reveals two main clades and suggests that the four major human geographic groups are distributed throughout the phylogenetic tree and within each major clade. An African sample appears to be most closely related to the common ancestor shared with the three other geographic groups. Nucleotide diversity, π, for this sample is 2.63 ± 6.28 × 10−4. The mutation rate, μ, is 6.48 × 10−10 per base pair per year, giving an ancestral population size of ∼6200 and a time to the most recent common ancestor of ∼320,000 ± 72,000 per base pair per year. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) at the FMR1 locus, evaluated by conventional LD analysis and by the length of segment shared between any two chromosomes, is extensive across the region. PMID:11483579

  10. Chromosomal locus for staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, W M; Iandolo, J J

    1978-01-01

    The genetic locus of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) was investigated in the Staphylococcus aureus food-poisoning isolates, strains S6 and 277. Direct neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-sodium chloride-mediated cleared lysates demonstrated that strain S6 contained a single 37S plasmid. Transductional analysis revealed that the 37S plasmid in S6 encoded for cadmium resistance (Cad) but not SEB. Additionally, elimination of cadmium resistance in S6 provided a plasmid-negative derivative that produced SEB at the same level as the parent. Examination of strain 277 showed two plasmids, a 37S species encoding for penicillin resistance (Penr) and a 21S species containing the gene(s) responsible for tetracycline resistance (Tetr). Elimination of the 37S, penr plasmid in 277 had no effect on SEB production, whereas introduction of the 21S tetr plasmid via transformation into strain 8325 (SEB--) did not confer enterotoxigenesis upon the transformants. The data obtained in this investigation suggest that the SEB gene(s) in these food-poisoning isolates of S. aureus is chromosomal. Images PMID:669796

  11. [Influence of out-patient training on locus of control and health-relevant attitudes in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Pötz, Hermann; Kurz, Robert W; Pirker, Hans; Dörrscheidt, Waltraud; Uhlir, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    Therapy of essential hypertension needs a comprehensive and broad assessment that includes somatic as well as psychological aims. We examined the effects of out-patient training for hypertensive patients on somatic parameters as well as locus of control and different relevant attitudes of patients. Psychological results are described in this paper. Out of the 50 patients analysis of somatic data distinguish so-called "responders" with clear improvement that permitted reduction of drugs from another group, called "non-responders", for which no reduction of drugs was possible. Analyses of psychological data show that "responders" develop a higher awareness of their body, a more positive attitude towards health, a freer attitude towards pleasure of life, sexuality, play and creativity. Their will to work and produce becomes less important. Internal locus of control (conviction that one is able to influence illness by oneself) is higher in "responders". Furthermore social external locus of control (conviction that following the suggestions of therapists is helpful) rises. Remnants of these effects were found in a follow up 18 months later.

  12. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-10-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables.

  13. A highly polymorphic STR locus in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Hou, Rur-Jyun; Tsai, Li-Chin; Wei, Chih-Sheng; Liu, Su-Wen; Huang, Li-Hung; Kuo, Yi-Chen; Linacre, Adrian; Lee, James Chun-I

    2003-01-01

    We report on the first short tandem repeat (STR) locus to be isolated from the plant Cannabis sativa. The STR locus, isolated by a hybrid-capture enrichment procedure, was found to contain a simple sequence repeat motif of 6 bp. This 6 bp repeat motif showed no variation in repeat length but with minor variations in repeat unit sequences. The data show the locus to be highly polymorphic with the number of repeat units ranging from 3 to 40 in 108 screened samples. The observed heterozygosity was approximately 87.04%. The forward and reverse primers (CS1F and CS1R) produced no PCR products in cross-reaction study from 20 species of plants, including highly related species such as Humulus japonicus and Nicotiana tabacum. This hexanucleotide repeat DNA locus could be used to identify cannabis samples and predict their genetic relationship as the test is specific to C. sativa and is highly reproducible.

  14. Two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tienari, P.J. Univ. of Helsinki ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. ); Palo, J. ); Peltonen, L. )

    1994-01-15

    One of the major challenges in genetic linkage analyses is the study of complex diseases. The authors demonstrate here the use of two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS), a multifactorial disease with a complex mode of inheritance. In a set of Finnish multiplex families, they have previously found evidence for linkage between MS susceptibility and two independent loci, the myelin basic protein gene (MBP) on chromosome 18 and the HLA complex on chromosome 6. This set of families provides a unique opportunity to perform linkage analysis conditional on two loci contributing to the disease. In the two-trait-locus/two-marker-locus analysis, the presence of another disease locus is parametrized and the analysis more appropriately treats information from the unaffected family member than single-disease-locus analysis. As exemplified here in MS, the two-locus analysis can be a powerful method for investigating susceptibility loci in complex traits, best suited for analysis of specific candidate genes, or for situations in which preliminary evidence for linkage already exists or is suggested. 41 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible. PMID:1620774

  16. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation.

  17. DNA Modification Study of Major Depressive Disorder: Beyond Locus-by-Locus Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Gabriel; Wang, Sun-Chong; Pal, Mrinal; Chen, Zheng Fei; Khare, Tarang; Tochigi, Mamoru; Ng, Catherine; Yang, Yeqing A.; Kwan, Andrew; Kaminsky, Zachary A.; Mill, Jonathan; Gunasinghe, Cerisse; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Gottesman, Irving I.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Wray, Naomi R.; Heath, Andrew C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turecki, Gustavo; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; McGuffin, Peter; Kustra, Rafal; Petronis, Art

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits numerous clinical and molecular features that are consistent with putative epigenetic misregulation. Despite growing interest in epigenetic studies of psychiatric diseases, the methodologies guiding such studies have not been well defined. Methods We performed DNA modification analysis in white blood cells from monozygotic twins discordant for MDD, in brain prefrontal cortex, and germline (sperm) samples from affected individuals and control subjects (total N = 304) using 8.1K CpG island microarrays and fine mapping. In addition to the traditional locus-by-locus comparisons, we explored the potential of new analytical approaches in epigenomic studies. Results In the microarray experiment, we detected a number of nominally significant DNA modification differences in MDD and validated selected targets using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Some MDD epigenetic changes, however, overlapped across brain, blood, and sperm more often than expected by chance. We also demonstrated that stratification for disease severity and age may increase the statistical power of epimutation detection. Finally, a series of new analytical approaches, such as DNA modification networks and machine-learning algorithms using binary and quantitative depression phenotypes, provided additional insights on the epigenetic contributions to MDD. Conclusions Mapping epigenetic differences in MDD (and other psychiatric diseases) is a complex task. However, combining traditional and innovative analytical strategies may lead to identification of disease-specific etiopathogenic epimutations. PMID:25108803

  18. Quantitative trait locus mapping with background control in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luyan; Li, Huihui; Ding, Junqiang; Wu, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we considered five categories of molecular markers in clonal F1 and double cross populations, based on the number of distinguishable alleles and the number of distinguishable genotypes at the marker locus. Using the completed linkage maps, incomplete and missing markers were imputed as fully informative markers in order to simplify the linkage mapping approaches of quantitative trait genes. Under the condition of fully informative markers, we demonstrated that dominance effect between the female and male parents in clonal F1 and double cross populations can cause the interactions between markers. We then developed an inclusive linear model that includes marker variables and marker interactions so as to completely control additive effects of the female and male parents, as well as the dominance effect between the female and male parents. The linear model was finally used for background control in inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) of quantitative trait locus (QTL). The efficiency of ICIM was demonstrated by extensive simulations and by comparisons with simple interval mapping, multiple‐QTL models and composite interval mapping. Finally, ICIM was applied in one actual double cross population to identify QTL on days to silking in maize. PMID:25881980

  19. Quantitative trait locus mapping with background control in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyan; Li, Huihui; Ding, Junqiang; Wu, Jianyu; Wang, Jiankang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we considered five categories of molecular markers in clonal F1 and double cross populations, based on the number of distinguishable alleles and the number of distinguishable genotypes at the marker locus. Using the completed linkage maps, incomplete and missing markers were imputed as fully informative markers in order to simplify the linkage mapping approaches of quantitative trait genes. Under the condition of fully informative markers, we demonstrated that dominance effect between the female and male parents in clonal F1 and double cross populations can cause the interactions between markers. We then developed an inclusive linear model that includes marker variables and marker interactions so as to completely control additive effects of the female and male parents, as well as the dominance effect between the female and male parents. The linear model was finally used for background control in inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) of quantitative trait locus (QTL). The efficiency of ICIM was demonstrated by extensive simulations and by comparisons with simple interval mapping, multiple-QTL models and composite interval mapping. Finally, ICIM was applied in one actual double cross population to identify QTL on days to silking in maize.

  20. Ultrasoft, highly deformable microgels.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Haylee; Brown, Ashley C; Clarke, Kimberly C; Dhada, Kabir S; Douglas, Alison; Hansen, Caroline E; Herman, Emily; Hyatt, John S; Kodlekere, Purva; Meng, Zhiyong; Saxena, Shalini; Spears, Mark W; Welsch, Nicole; Lyon, L Andrew

    2015-03-14

    Microgels are colloidally stable, hydrogel microparticles that have previously been used in a range of (soft) material applications due to their tunable mechanical and chemical properties. Most commonly, thermo and pH-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) microgels can be fabricated by precipitation polymerization in the presence of the co-monomer acrylic acid (AAc). Traditionally pNIPAm microgels are synthesized in the presence of a crosslinking agent, such as N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS), however, microgels can also be synthesized under 'crosslinker free' conditions. The resulting particles have extremely low (<0.5%), core-localized crosslinking resulting from rare chain transfer reactions. AFM nanoindentation of these ultralow crosslinked (ULC) particles indicate that they are soft relative to crosslinked microgels, with a Young's modulus of ∼10 kPa. Furthermore, ULC microgels are highly deformable as indicated by a high degree of spreading on glass surfaces and the ability to translocate through nanopores significantly smaller than the hydrodynamic diameter of the particles. The size and charge of ULCs can be easily modulated by altering reaction conditions, such as temperature, monomer, surfactant and initiator concentrations, and through the addition of co-monomers. Microgels based on the widely utilized, biocompatible polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) can also be synthesized under crosslinker free conditions. Due to their softness and deformability, ULC microgels are a unique base material for a wide variety of biomedical applications including biomaterials for drug delivery and regenerative medicine.

  1. Uncertainty quantification in fractured reservoir by considering geological deformation of reservoir and geomechanical accommodation of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; Jung, A.; Mukerji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological interpretations on structural deformation of a reservoir are uncertain. How the reservoir rocks have accommodated the deformational loading is also uncertain. The effects of these two on reservoir property modeling and uncertainty of reservoir responses is rarely investigated and used in reservoir forecasting. In this research, the effect of different scenarios on geological deformation history and modes of accommodation of rock deformation on reservoir flow response is investigated. To do that, we develop a geostatistical reservoir property modeling workflow which allows us to generate petrophysical properties (porosity & permeability) such that the properties are consistent with geological deformation. In this workflow, we restore the values of petrophysical properties from hard data into a restored condition using predefined transfer functions. We conduct geostatistical simulations to populate petrophysical properties using the restored property values in a restored grid. By using the inverse relation used to restore petrophysical values of hard data, we deform the simulated property values into a deformed grid with corresponding deformed values. Fracture sets are populated by considering both the populated petrophysical properties in a restored grid and the geomechanical condition derived from the deformation-restoration constraints. By using this workflow, we can compare and distinguish the effects of different modes of geological deformation on the uncertainty of reservoir flow responses. The uncertainty from different modes of accommodation is considered in the workflow by having different transfer relations when conducting restoration-deformation of the values of petrophysical properties. The proposed workflow is applied on a 3D synthetic fractured sandstone reservoir to see the impact on flow responses. Reservoir models from different scenario of deformation and the modes of accommodation for each deformation produce different characteristics on

  2. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-26

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  3. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  4. How to observe duality in entanglement of two distinguishable particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczewski, Marcin; Kurzyński, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    The entanglement between two bosons or fermions can be accessed if there exists an auxiliary degree of freedom which can be used to label and effectively distinguish the two particles. For some types of entanglement between two indistinguishable particles one can observe a duality, i.e., if the entanglement is present in a Hilbert space H and an auxiliary Hilbert space H' is used to label the particles, then if we use H as a label, entanglement will be present in H'. For distinguishable particles this effect does not occur because of superselection rules which prevent superpositions of different types of particles. However, it is known that superselection rules can be bypassed if one uses special auxiliary states that are known as reference frames. Here we study properties of reference frames which allow for the observation of a duality in entanglement between two distinguishable particles. Finally, we discuss the consequences of this result from a resource-theoretic point of view.

  5. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  6. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  7. On the distinguishability of downconverted modes with orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Geraldo Alexandre

    2008-09-15

    Assuming two quantum states of spontaneous parametric downconversion carrying orbital angular momentum, one may ask the question what is the minimum probability of error in identifying between two of these biphoton states by an arbitrary physical measurement over the biphoton state generated. While correctly chosen geometries may lead to perfect distinguishability of modes, it is worth noticing that experimental subtleties may lead to a poor mode distinguishability. We discuss the case where a restricted range instead of the needed range of wave vectors is collected by the experimental setup. These considerations may be useful for some applications, e.g., cryptography. PMID:18794950

  8. Distinguishing succulent plants from crop and woody plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Everitt, J. H.; Richardson, A. J.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    We compared laboratory spectrophotometrically measured leaf reflectances of six succulents (peperomia, possum-grape, prickly pear, spiderwort, Texas tuberose, wolfberry) with those of four nonsucculents (cenizo, honey mesquite, cotton, sugarcane) for plant species discrimination. Succulents (average leaf water content of 92.2 percent) could be distinguished from nonsucculents (average leaf water content of 71.2 percent) within the near-infrared water absorption waveband (1.35 to 2.5 microns). This was substantiated by field spectrophotometric reflectances of plant canopies. Sensor bands encompassing either the 1.6- or 2.2-wavelengths may be useful to distinguish succulent from nonsucculent plant species.

  9. Shape Determination for Deformed Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Xiao, Liling; Ko, Kwok; Ghattas, Omar; /Texas U.

    2006-10-04

    A realistic superconducting RF cavity has its shape deformed comparing to its designed shape due to the loose tolerance in the fabrication process and the frequency tuning for its accelerating mode. A PDE-constrained optimization problem is proposed to determine the deformation of the cavity. A reduce space method is used to solve the PDE-constrained optimization problem where design sensitivities were computed using a continuous adjoint approach. A proof-of-concept example is given in which the deformation parameters of a single cavity-cell with two different types of deformation were computed.

  10. Characterization of the bvgR Locus of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Tod J.; Barros, Cassia; Stibitz, Scott

    1998-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, produces a wide array of factors that are associated with its ability to cause disease. The expression and regulation of these virulence factors is dependent upon the bvg locus (originally designated the vir locus), which encodes two proteins: BvgA, a 23-kDa cytoplasmic protein, and BvgS, a 135-kDa transmembrane protein. It is proposed that BvgS responds to environmental signals and interacts with BvgA, a transcriptional regulator which upon modification by BvgS binds to specific promoters and activates transcription. An additional class of genes is repressed by the bvg locus. Expression of this class, the bvg-repressed genes (vrgs [for vir-repressed genes]), is reduced under conditions in which expression of the aforementioned bvg-activated virulence factors is maximal; this repression is dependent upon the presence of an intact bvgAS locus. We have previously identified a locus required for regulation of all of the known bvg-repressed genes in B. pertussis. This locus, designated bvgR, maps to a location immediately downstream of bvgAS. We have undertaken deletion and complementation studies, as well as sequence analysis, in order to identify the bvgR open reading frame and identify the cis-acting sequences required for regulated expression of bvgR. Studies utilizing transcriptional fusions of bvgR to the gene encoding alkaline phosphatase have demonstrated that bvgR is activated at the level of transcription and that this activation is dependent upon an intact bvgAS locus. PMID:9537363

  11. Microfiltration of deformable microgels.

    PubMed

    Nir, Oded; Trieu, Tony; Bannwarth, Sebastian; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-08-21

    Understanding the separation, concentration and purification processes of soft nanoparticles is essential for numerous applications in water filtration, bioprocessing and blood separation. Here we report unique translocation and rejection features of sub-micron sized microgels during frontal filtration using membranes having micron-sized porosity. Simultaneously measuring the increase in hydraulic resistance and electrical impedance change allows us to clearly distinguish two deposition phases: (a) microgel accumulation within the depth of the membrane porosity and (b) subsequent formation of a thin gel layer on the membrane surface. Such distinction is impossible using only classical hydraulic resistance analysis. The methodology only requires the ratio of microgel to solution conductivity as an input parameter. PMID:27443387

  12. Experimental deformation of rocksalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handin, J.; Russell, J. E.; Carter, N. L.

    Using newly designed apparatus for triaxial-compression testing of 10 by 20-cm cores of Avery Island rocksalt at constant strain-rates between 10-4 and 10-6/s, temperatures between 100° and 200°C, and confining pressures of 3.4 and 20 MPa, comparing our data with those of other workers on the same material, and observing natural deformations of rocksalt, we find that (1) constant-strain-rate and quasi-constant stress-rate tests (both often called quasi-static compression tests) yield essentially similar stress-strain relations, and these depend strongly on strain rate and temperature, but not confining pressure; (2) fracture excluded, the deformation mechanisms observed for differential stresses between 0.5 and 20 MPa are intracrystal-line slip (dislocation glide and cross-slip) and polygonization (dislocation glide and climb by ion-vacancy pipe diffusion); (3) the same steady-state strain rate ɛ., and flow stress are reached at the same temperature in both constant-strain-rate and constant-stress (creep) tests, but the strain-time data from transient creep tests do not match the strain-hardening data unless the initial strain, ɛ0 (time-dependent in rocksalt) is accounted for; in creep tests the clock is not started until the desired constant stress is reached; (4) because the stress-strain curve contains the entire history of the deformation, the constant-strain-rate test rather than the creep test may well be preferred as the source of constitutive data; (5) furthermore, if the stress or temperature of the creep test is too low to achieve the steady state in laboratory time, one cannot predict the steady-state flow stress or strain rate from the transient response alone, whereas we can estimate them rather well from constant-strain-rate data even when strain rates are too high or temperatures too low to reach the steady state within a few hours; (6) the so-called "baseline creep law", giving creep strain, ɛ = ea[1-exp(-ξt)]+ɛ. ss t, where ea, ξ, and

  13. IBA in deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.; Warner, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and characteristic properties and predictions of the IBA in deformed nuclei are reviewed, and compared with experiment, in particular for /sup 168/Er. Overall, excellent agreement, with a minimum of free parameters (in effect, two, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), was obtained. A particularly surprising, and unavoidable, prediction is that of strong ..beta.. ..-->.. ..gamma.. transitions, a feature characteristically absent in the geometrical model, but manifest empirically. Some discrepancies were also noted, principally for the K=4 excitation, and the detailed magnitudes of some specific B(E2) values. Considerable attention is paid to analyzing the structure of the IBA states and their relation to geometric models. The bandmixing formalism was studied to interpret both the aforementioned discrepancies and the origin of the ..beta.. ..-->.. ..gamma.. transitions. The IBA states, extremely complex in the usual SU(5) basis, are transformed to the SU(3) basis, as is the interaction Hamiltonian. The IBA wave functions appear with much simplified structure in this way as does the structure of the associated B(E2) values. The nature of the symmetry breaking of SU(3) for actual deformed nuclei is seen to be predominantly ..delta..K=0 mixing. A modified, and more consistent, formalism for the IBA-1 is introduced which is simpler, has fewer free parameters (in effect, one, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), is in at least as good agreement with experiment as the earlier formalism, contains a special case of the 0(6) limit which corresponds to that known empirically, and appears to have a close relationship to the IBA-2. The new formalism facilitates the construction of contour plots of various observables (e.g., energy or B(E2) ratios) as functions of N and chi/sub Q/ which allow the parameter-free discussion of qualitative trajectories or systematics.

  14. Malic dehydrogenase locus of Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Williams, T J; Smith-Sonneborn, J

    1980-04-01

    A search was undertaken for naturally occurring genetic markers for use in clonal aging studies of Paramecium tetraurelia. Clonal age is defined as the number of cell divisions since the last sexual process. Autogamy (self-fertilization) is a sexual process which can occur in aging lines, resulting in homozygosity and initiation of the next generation. Such "illicit" autogamies must be detected and eliminated from the aged clone. With codominant alleles, heterozygous aging lines can be established which will express a phenotype distinguishable from that of either parental type and autogamy can then be monitored by the appearance of either segregant homozygous phenotype. However, very few codominant alleles are available in this species. Electrophoretic mobilities of malic dehydrogenase (MDH) were assayed in 11 stocks of Paramecium tetraurelia by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nine stocks showed a single-banded "stock 51" type, while stock 174 and stock 29 each exhibited unique mobility. Crosses between stock 51 and the deviant stocks revealed distinct three-banded patterns indicative of heterozygosity of the F1 generation. In the autogamous F2 generation, 1:1 segregation of the parental types were recovered. The pattern of inheritance is consistent with codominant alleles and Mendelian inheritance. These naturally occurring biochemical markers are stable with increasing clonal age and are therefore useful genetic markers for studies of cellular aging. PMID:6934772

  15. A Tribute to My Ag Teacher: 2011 AAAE Distinguished Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, R. Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The author is a product of school-based agricultural education. In a way, this distinguished lecture could also be called a tribute to his high school ag teacher, John Stimpert. Mr. Stimpert was a true professional and an excellent teacher. He changed and he changed the program with the changing school and community. The more the author became…

  16. A history of the Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2015-01-01

    The Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry was an organization which sought to encourage research and education to facilitate the conservation of vision through publications and the awarding of medals. It existed from 1927 to 1979, but was most active in the 1930s and 1940s. Its leaders and activities are discussed.

  17. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  18. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  19. Martin E. P. Seligman: 2006 award for distinguished scientific contributions.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Martin E. P. Seligman, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions "for a career spent charging creatively ahead of his field and then pulling his colleagues along." A brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as the award address, Positive Psychotherapy, accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Distinguishing Schemes and Tasks in Children's Development of Multiplicative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzur, Ron; Johnson, Heather L.; McClintock, Evan; Kenney, Rachael H.; Xin, Yan P.; Si, Luo; Woordward, Jerry; Hord, Casey; Jin, Xianyan

    2013-01-01

    We present a synthesis of findings from constructivist teaching experiments regarding six schemes children construct for reasoning multiplicatively and tasks to promote them. We provide a task-generating platform game, depictions of each scheme, and supporting tasks. Tasks must be distinguished from children's thinking, and learning situations…

  1. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  2. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  3. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  4. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  5. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  6. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  7. Michael J. Meaney: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Michael J. Meaney as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Michael J. Meaney has taken the phenomenon of "handling" of newborn rats and opened a new area of investigation that has given new meaning to epigenetics via his work demonstrating transgenerational…

  8. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  9. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  10. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22.205 Section 22.205 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT..., the grants officer shall make a positive judgment that an assistance instrument, rather than...

  11. Recent Detrimental and Distinguished Books about Hispanic People and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1981-01-01

    The article discusses nine detrimental and six distinguished books about Hispanic people and cultures, published since 1979 for young readers. It is suggested that many recent books that depict Hispanic people and cultures repeat the same stereotypes, misconceptions and insensibilities that were prevalent in books published in the 1960s and early…

  12. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  13. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR...

  14. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  15. Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2012-01-01

    All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

  16. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  17. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Susan E. Carey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Susan E. Carey, winner of the 2009 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for groundbreaking studies of the nature of concepts and conceptual change. Her research deepens understanding of the development of concepts, and of the belief systems in which they are embedded, over human childhood, over the history of science, and…

  18. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos withtwo-particle interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Thomas D.

    2006-03-02

    Two-particle interferometry, a second-order interferenceeffect, is explored as another possible tool to distinguish betweenmassive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. A simple theoretical framework isdiscussed in the context of several gedanken experiments. The method canin principle provide both the mass scale and the quantum nature of theneutrino for a certain class of incoherent left-handed sourcecurrents.

  19. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography,…

  20. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  1. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which is recognized in an industry as the subject of a retail sale. Quantities which are materially in... industry is such that a discount from the normal retail price is not regarded in the industry as... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section...

  2. A novel locus for alopecia with mental retardation syndrome (APMR2) maps to chromosome 3q26.2-q26.31.

    PubMed

    Wali, A; John, P; Gul, A; Lee, K; Chishti, M S; Ali, G; Hassan, M J; Leal, S M; Ahmad, W

    2006-09-01

    Congenital alopecia may occur either alone or in association with ectodermal and other abnormalities. On the bases of such associations, several different syndromes featuring congenital alopecia can be distinguished. Alopecia with mental retardation syndrome (APMR) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, clinically characterized by total or partial hair loss and mental retardation. In the present study, a five-generation Pakistani family with multiple affected individuals with APMR was ascertained. Patients in this family exhibited typical features of APMR syndrome. The disease locus was mapped to chromosome 3q26.2-q26.31 by carrying out a genome scan followed by fine mapping. A maximum two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 2.93 at theta=0.0 was obtained at markers D3S3053 and D3S2309. Multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score of 4.57 with several markers, which supports the linkage. The disease locus was flanked by markers D3S1564 and D3S2427, which corresponds to 9.6-cM region according to the Rutgers combined linkage-physical map of the human genome (build 35) and contains 5.6 Mb. The linkage interval of the APMR locus identified here does not overlap with the one described previously; therefore, this locus has been designated as APMR2.

  3. Locus equations are an acoustic expression of articulator synergy

    PubMed Central

    Iskarous, Khalil; Fowler, Carol A.; Whalen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the articulatory basis of locus equations, regression lines relating F2 at the start of a Consonant-Vowel (CV) transition to F2 at the middle of the vowel, with C fixed and V varying. Several studies have shown that consonants of different places of articulation have locus equation slopes that descend from labial to velar to alveolar, and intercept magnitudes that increase in the opposite order. Using formulas from the theory of bivariate regression that express regression slopes and intercepts in terms of standard deviations and averages of the variables, it is shown that the slope directly encodes a well-established measure of coarticulation resistance. It is also shown that intercepts are directly related to the degree to which the tongue body assists the formation of the constriction for the consonant. Moreover, it is shown that the linearity of locus equations and the linear relation between locus equation slopes and intercepts originates in linearity in articulation between the horizontal position of the tongue dorsum in the consonant and to that in the vowel. It is concluded that slopes and intercepts of acoustic locus equations are measures of articulator synergy. PMID:20968373

  4. On the distinguishability of HRF models in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paulo N.; Figueiredo, Patricia; Silvestre, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF) is a critical step in fMRI studies of brain activity, and it is often desirable to estimate HRF parameters with physiological interpretability. A biophysically informed model of the HRF can be described by a non-linear time-invariant dynamic system. However, the identification of this dynamic system may leave much uncertainty on the exact values of the parameters. Moreover, the high noise levels in the data may hinder the model estimation task. In this context, the estimation of the HRF may be seen as a problem of model falsification or invalidation, where we are interested in distinguishing among a set of eligible models of dynamic systems. Here, we propose a systematic tool to determine the distinguishability among a set of physiologically plausible HRF models. The concept of absolutely input-distinguishable systems is introduced and applied to a biophysically informed HRF model, by exploiting the structure of the underlying non-linear dynamic system. A strategy to model uncertainty in the input time-delay and magnitude is developed and its impact on the distinguishability of two physiologically plausible HRF models is assessed, in terms of the maximum noise amplitude above which it is not possible to guarantee the falsification of one model in relation to another. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the choice of the input sequence, or experimental paradigm, that maximizes the distinguishability of the HRF models under investigation. The proposed approach may be used to evaluate the performance of HRF model estimation techniques from fMRI data. PMID:26106322

  5. Experiments Evaluating the Interaction between Deformable Substrates and Prograding Clinoforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatmas, E. S.; Foreman, B.; Abeyta, A.; Paola, C.

    2013-12-01

    Passive margins often contain salt and mobile shale layers that act as deformable substrates underlying coastal sediments. By understanding the interaction between deformable substrates and migrating clinoforms in simplified, experimental settings, we hope to clarify their fundamental behavior in natural deltaic settings. Substrate deformation occurs by a number of processes and can result in rugose ocean floor bathymetry which can locally trap sediment. In our experiments, we focus on how differential sediment loading on two substrates of different rheologies (Newtonian versus Bingham) affects aspects of clinoform deposition. We are particularly interested in the effects of the progradation rate and substrate rheology on the locus of clinoform deposition over time as the substrate and delta interact. Our experimental setup uses a rectangular flume that is 230 cm long, 8 cm wide and 30 cm tall. The materials we used for the mobile shale experiments involved a mixture of kaolinite and water which provide a Bingham rheology, and the sediment was a quartz sand and coal mixture. For a Newtonian rheology we used corn syrup as a deformable substrate, capturing the Newtonian rheology of subsurface salt, and the sediment consisted of a mixture of equal volumes of walnut shells and kaolinite clay. For each experiment we systematically changed sediment feed rate and substrate thickness. Deformation styles differ qualitatively between Bingham (kaolinite/mobile shale) and Newtonian (corn syrup/salt) experiments. In mobile-shale (Bingham) experiments, a bulge forms at the toe of the clinoform and the clinoform eventually overtops this bulge, creating alternating thick and thin stratigraphic accumulations down depositional dip. For the salt (Newtonian) experiments, deformation occurs behind the clinoform foreset in the form of diapirs. Preliminary results show minimal impacts on shoreline progradation rate as the delta loads mobile shale substrates. This suggests that the

  6. [Spectrum research on metamorphic and deformation of tectonically deformed coals].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Shi; Ju, Yi-Wen; Hou, Quan-Lin; Lin, Hong

    2011-08-01

    The structural and compositive evolution of tectonically deformed coals (TDCs) and their influencing factors were investigated and analyzed in detail through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and laser Raman spectra analysis. The TDC samples (0.7% < Ro,max <3.1%) were collected from Huaibei coalfield with different deformation mechanisms and intensity. The FTIR of TDCs shows that the metamorphism and the deformation affect the degradation and polycondensation process of macromolecular structure to different degree. The Raman spectra analysis indicates that secondary structure defects can be produced mainly by structural deformation, also the metamorphism influences the secondary structure defects and aromatic structure. Through comprehensive analysis, it was discussed that the ductile deformation could change to strain energy through the increase and accumulation of dislocation in molecular structure units of TDC, and it could make an obvious influence on degradation and polycondensation. While the brittle deformation could change to frictional heat energy and promote the metamorphism and degradation of TDC structure, but has less effect on polycondensation. Furthermore, degradation is the main reason for affecting the structural evolution of coal in lower metamorphic stage, and polycondensation is the most important controlling factor in higher metamorphic stage. Under metamorphism and deformation, the small molecules which break and fall off from the macromolecular tructure of TDC are preferentially replenished and embedded into the secondary structure defects or the residual aromatic rings were formed into aromatic structure by polycondensation. This process improved the stability of coal structure. It is easier for ductile deformation of coal to induce the secondary structure defects than brittle deformation.

  7. [Spectrum research on metamorphic and deformation of tectonically deformed coals].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Shi; Ju, Yi-Wen; Hou, Quan-Lin; Lin, Hong

    2011-08-01

    The structural and compositive evolution of tectonically deformed coals (TDCs) and their influencing factors were investigated and analyzed in detail through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and laser Raman spectra analysis. The TDC samples (0.7% < Ro,max <3.1%) were collected from Huaibei coalfield with different deformation mechanisms and intensity. The FTIR of TDCs shows that the metamorphism and the deformation affect the degradation and polycondensation process of macromolecular structure to different degree. The Raman spectra analysis indicates that secondary structure defects can be produced mainly by structural deformation, also the metamorphism influences the secondary structure defects and aromatic structure. Through comprehensive analysis, it was discussed that the ductile deformation could change to strain energy through the increase and accumulation of dislocation in molecular structure units of TDC, and it could make an obvious influence on degradation and polycondensation. While the brittle deformation could change to frictional heat energy and promote the metamorphism and degradation of TDC structure, but has less effect on polycondensation. Furthermore, degradation is the main reason for affecting the structural evolution of coal in lower metamorphic stage, and polycondensation is the most important controlling factor in higher metamorphic stage. Under metamorphism and deformation, the small molecules which break and fall off from the macromolecular tructure of TDC are preferentially replenished and embedded into the secondary structure defects or the residual aromatic rings were formed into aromatic structure by polycondensation. This process improved the stability of coal structure. It is easier for ductile deformation of coal to induce the secondary structure defects than brittle deformation. PMID:22007412

  8. Two-locus sampling distributions and their application.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, R R

    2001-01-01

    Methods of estimating two-locus sample probabilities under a neutral model are extended in several ways. Estimation of sample probabilities is described when the ancestral or derived status of each allele is specified. In addition, probabilities for two-locus diploid samples are provided. A method for using these two-locus probabilities to test whether an observed level of linkage disequilibrium is unusually large or small is described. In addition, properties of a maximum-likelihood estimator of the recombination parameter based on independent linked pairs of sites are obtained. A composite-likelihood estimator, for more than two linked sites, is also examined and found to work as well, or better, than other available ad hoc estimators. Linkage disequilibrium in the Xq28 and Xq25 region of humans is analyzed in a sample of Europeans (CEPH). The estimated recombination parameter is about five times smaller than one would expect under an equilibrium neutral model. PMID:11779816

  9. Function and evolution of local repeats in the Firre locus

    PubMed Central

    Hacisuleyman, Ezgi; Shukla, Chinmay J.; Weiner, Catherine L.; Rinn, John L.

    2016-01-01

    More than half the human and mouse genomes are comprised of repetitive sequences, such as transposable elements (TEs), which have been implicated in many biological processes. In contrast, much less is known about other repeats, such as local repeats that occur in multiple instances within a given locus in the genome but not elsewhere. Here, we systematically characterize local repeats in the genomic locus of the Firre long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). We find a conserved function for the RRD repeat as a ribonucleic nuclear retention signal that is sufficient to retain an otherwise cytoplasmic mRNA in the nucleus. We also identified a repeat, termed R0, that can function as a DNA enhancer element within the intronic sequences of Firre. Collectively, our data suggest that local repeats can have diverse functionalities and molecular modalities in the Firre locus and perhaps more globally in other lncRNAs. PMID:27009974

  10. Molecular organization of the cut locus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jack, J W

    1985-10-01

    Mutations of the cut locus (ct) of Drosophila can be divided into four groups based on their phenotypes and complementation patterns. Each group alters the phenotype of a different set of tissues. Two hundred kilobases of ct DNA, located in 7B1-2, have been cloned by chromosomal walking, and the cloned sequences have been used to analyze more than 40 mutants. Based on the location of transposable element mutations and the extent of deficiencies and an inversion, four cut locus regions can be defined. Mutations in each region affect the phenotype of a different set of tissues. The most centromere proximal region contains mutations that are null for cut locus function. Within individual regions, a higher level of organization can be detected. PMID:2996782

  11. Locus coeruleus syndrome as a complication of tectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kronenburg, Annick; Spliet, Wim G; Broekman, Marike; Robe, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 48-year-old woman who underwent a resection of a tectal pilocytic astrocytoma complicated by a sequence of fluctuating consciousness, psychosis with complex hallucinations and lasting sleeping disturbances in which she vividly acts out her dreams. Based on the clinical and anatomical evidence of this case, we propose the term locus coeruleus syndrome to describe this association of iatrogenic symptoms. Along with those of the locus coeruleus, lesions of the dorsal raphe nucleus, ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra pars compacta, the superior colliculus and other peduncular lesions (such as peduncular hallucinosis) are involved in the regulation of sleep-wake/arousal, behaviour, sleeping disorders and rapid eye movement atonia. However, iatrogenic lesion of the locus coeruleus could explain the complications on all levels in our patient. PMID:25903199

  12. Target Recognition Using Neural Networks for Model Deformation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Richard W.; Hibler, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Optical measurements provide a non-invasive method for measuring deformation of wind tunnel models. Model deformation systems use targets mounted or painted on the surface of the model to identify known positions, and photogrammetric methods are used to calculate 3-D positions of the targets on the model from digital 2-D images. Under ideal conditions, the reflective targets are placed against a dark background and provide high-contrast images, aiding in target recognition. However, glints of light reflecting from the model surface, or reduced contrast caused by light source or model smoothness constraints, can compromise accurate target determination using current algorithmic methods. This paper describes a technique using a neural network and image processing technologies which increases the reliability of target recognition systems. Unlike algorithmic methods, the neural network can be trained to identify the characteristic patterns that distinguish targets from other objects of similar size and appearance and can adapt to changes in lighting and environmental conditions.

  13. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait.

  14. Determination of the kappa anti-alpha(1,3) dextran immune response difference by A gene(s) in the VKappa-locus of mice

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Mice lacking the V(alpha(1,3) (h gamma1)-gene do not produce a gamma1 anti-alpha(1,3) dextran response. However, on hyperimmunization some strains mount a kappa-anti-alpha(1,3) dextran response, whereas other remain nonresponder. Responsiveness in dominant. The kappa-anti- alpha(1,3) response difference is linked to the Ly-3 locus on chromosone 6 and is likely the result of a structural Vkappa-gene(s). In conjunction with previous work, three Vkappa-allogroups can now be distinguished. At present, this is the only example of an immune responsiveness difference associated with the Vkappa-locus. PMID:109565

  15. Genetic locus half baked is necessary for morphogenesis of the ectoderm.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Karen N; Warga, Rachel M; Kane, Donald A

    2005-06-01

    The zebrafish epiboly mutants partially block epiboly, the vegetalward movement of the blastoderm around the giant yolk cell. Here, we show that the epiboly mutations are located near the centromere of Linkage Group 7 in a single locus, termed the half baked locus. Nevertheless, except for the similar mutants lawine and avalanche, we find the epiboly traits of each of the alleles to be distinguishable, forming an allelic series. Using in situ analysis, we show that the specification and the formation of the germ layers is unaffected. However, during early gastrulation, convergence movements are slowed in homozygous and zygotic maternal dominant (ZMD) heterozygous mutants, especially in the epiblast layer of the blastoderm. Using triple-mutant analysis with squint and cyclops, we show that ablating involution and hypoblast formation in hab has no effect on the epiboly phenotype on the ventral and lateral sides of the embryo, suggesting that the hypoblast has no role in epiboly. Moreover, the triple mutant enhances the depletion of cells on the dorsal side of the embryo, consistent with the idea that convergence movements are defective. Double-mutant analysis with one-eyed pinhead reveals that hab is necessary in the ectodermal portion of the hatching gland. In ZMD heterozygotes, in addition to the slowing of epiboly, morphogenesis of the neural tube is abnormal, with gaps forming in the midline during segmentation stages; later, ectopic rows of neurons form in the widened spinal cord and hindbrain. Cell transplantation reveals that half baked acts both autonomously and nonautonomously in interactions among cells of the forming neural tube. Together, these results suggest that half baked is necessary within the epiblast for morphogenesis during both epiboly and neurulation and suggest that the mechanisms that drive epiboly possess common elements with those that underlie convergence and extension.

  16. Dynamics of a deformable active particle under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Tarama, Mitsusuke; Menzel, Andreas M; ten Hagen, Borge; Wittkowski, Raphael; Ohta, Takao; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-09-14

    The motion of a deformable active particle in linear shear flow is explored theoretically. Based on symmetry considerations, we propose coupled nonlinear dynamical equations for the particle position, velocity, deformation, and rotation. In our model, both, passive rotations induced by the shear flow as well as active spinning motions, are taken into account. Our equations reduce to known models in the two limits of vanishing shear flow and vanishing particle deformability. For varied shear rate and particle propulsion speed, we solve the equations numerically in two spatial dimensions and obtain a manifold of different dynamical modes including active straight motion, periodic motions, motions on undulated cycloids, winding motions, as well as quasi-periodic and chaotic motions induced at high shear rates. The types of motion are distinguished by different characteristics in the real-space trajectories and in the dynamical behavior of the particle orientation and its deformation. Our predictions can be verified in experiments on self-propelled droplets exposed to a linear shear flow.

  17. Neighborhood Vigilance, Health Locus of Control, and Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Lahoti, Sejal; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Wetter, David W.; Waters, Andrew J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether health locus of control mediated relations of self-reported neighborhood vigilance and biochemically verified, continuous short-term smoking abstinence among 200 smokers enrolled in a cohort study. Methods A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure was used to assess mediation. Results Health locus of control-chance mediated relations between neighborhood vigilance and smoking abstinence in analyses adjusted for sociodemographics and tobacco dependence (p < .05). Greater vigilance was associated with greater attributions that health was affected by chance, which was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking abstinence. Conclusions Results suggest that neighborhood perceptions influence residents’ attributions for health outcomes, which can affect smoking abstinence. PMID:23985180

  18. Deforming the hippocampal map.

    PubMed

    Touretzky, David S; Weisman, Wendy E; Fuhs, Mark C; Skaggs, William E; Fenton, Andre A; Muller, Robert U

    2005-01-01

    To investigate conjoint stimulus control over place cells, Fenton et al. (J Gen Physiol 116:191-209, 2000a) recorded while rats foraged in a cylinder with 45 degrees black and white cue cards on the wall. Card centers were 135 degrees apart. In probe trials, the cards were rotated together or apart by 25 degrees . Firing field centers shifted during these trials, stretching and shrinking the cognitive map. Fenton et al. (2000b) described this deformation with an ad hoc vector field equation. We consider what sorts of neural network mechanisms might be capable of accounting for their observations. In an abstract, maximum likelihood formulation, the rat's location is estimated by a conjoint probability density function of landmark positions. In an attractor neural network model, recurrent connections produce a bump of activity over a two-dimensional array of cells; the bump's position is influenced by landmark features such as distances or bearings. If features are chosen with appropriate care, the attractor network and maximum likelihood models yield similar results, in accord with previous demonstrations that recurrent neural networks can efficiently implement maximum likelihood computations (Pouget et al. Neural Comput 10:373-401, 1998; Deneve et al. Nat Neurosci 4:826-831, 2001). PMID:15390166

  19. Supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Traikia, M. H.; Mebarki, N.

    2012-06-27

    A supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics is studied in the weak deformation approximation of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. The corresponding supersymmetric q-deformed hamiltonians and charges are constructed explicitly.

  20. Involvement of valgus hindfoot deformity in hallux valgus deformity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shutaro; Hirao, Makoto; Tsuboi, Hideki; Akita, Shosuke; Matsushita, Masato; Ohshima, Shiro; Saeki, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Jun

    2014-09-01

    The involvement of valgus hindfoot deformity in hallux valgus deformity was confirmed in a rheumatoid arthritis case with a destructive valgus hindfoot deformity. Correction of severe valgus, calcaneal lateral offset, and pronated foot deformity instantly normalized hallux valgus deformities postoperatively. Thus, careful hindfoot status evaluation is important when assessing forefoot deformity, including hallux valgus, in rheumatoid arthritis cases.

  1. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation. PMID:26240313

  2. Inelastic deformation in crystalline rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, H.; Borja, R. I.

    2011-12-01

    The elasto-plastic behavior of crystalline rocks, such as evaporites, igneous rocks, or metamorphic rocks, is highly dependent on the behavior of their individual crystals. Previous studies indicate that crystal plasticity can be one of the dominant micro mechanisms in the plastic deformation of crystal aggregates. Deformation bands and pore collapse are examples of plastic deformation in crystalline rocks. In these cases twinning within the grains illustrate plastic deformation of crystal lattice. Crystal plasticity is governed by the plastic deformation along potential slip systems of crystals. Linear dependency of the crystal slip systems causes singularity in the system of equations solving for the plastic slip of each slip system. As a result, taking the micro-structure properties into account, while studying the overall behavior of crystalline materials, is quite challenging. To model the plastic deformation of single crystals we use the so called `ultimate algorithm' by Borja and Wren (1993) implemented in a 3D finite element framework to solve boundary value problems. The major advantage of this model is that it avoids the singularity problem by solving for the plastic slip explicitly in sub steps over which the stress strain relationship is linear. Comparing the results of the examples to available models such as Von Mises we show the significance of considering the micro-structure of crystals in modeling the overall elasto-plastic deformation of crystal aggregates.

  3. Distinguishing different fictional worlds during sentence comprehension: ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Xue, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanism of distinguishing reality from fiction has been explored recently. While people only represent one real world, they are likely to have representations for multiple fictional worlds. This study used event-related potentials to investigate how different fictional events were distinguished during sentence comprehension. Participants read fictional events involving real people (e.g., President Bush) or unreal characters (e.g., Lord Voldemort). Inconsistency of reality was created by introducing real people into the events involving unreal characters or introducing unreal characters into the events involving real people. The results indicated that inconsistency in reality in both types of fictional events elicited a late positive effect, and an interaction between event type and consistency effect was found in medial sites. These results suggested that reality information is important for the construction and updating of situation models.

  4. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  5. Charles L. Brewer award for distinguished teaching of psychology.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 7, 2009, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2009 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Archie L. Turner, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Anthony Jackson; Steven E. James; Ronald F. Levant; Gerald Koocher; Sandra Shullman; and Rosie Phillips Bingham, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  6. Charles L. Brewer award for distinguished teaching of psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology is Richard L. Miller. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  7. Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory.

    PubMed

    Kail, R; Hall, L K

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine whether short-term memory and working memory could be distinguished. In two studies, 7- to 13-year-olds (N = 155, N = 132) were administered tasks thought to assess short-term memory as well as tasks thought to assess working memory. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses distinguished short-term memory tasks from working memory tasks. In addition, performance on working memory tasks was related to word decoding skill but performance on short-term memory tasks was not. Finally, performance on both short-term memory and working memory tasks were associated with age-related increases in processing speed. Results are discussed in relation to models of short-term and working memory.

  8. Eliminating spectral distinguishability in ultrafast spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Poh, Hou Shun; Lim, Jiaqing; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Marcikic, Ivan

    2009-10-15

    Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs with a precise timing through down-conversion of femtosecond pulses is often faced with a degraded polarization entanglement quality. In a previous experiment, we have shown that this degradation is induced by spectral distinguishability between the two decay paths, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Here, we present an experimental study of the spectral compensation scheme proposed and first implemented by Kim and Grice [J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2309 (2002)]. By measuring the joint spectral properties of the polarization correlations of the photon pairs, we show that the spectral distinguishability between the down-converted components is eliminated. This scheme results in a polarization visibility of 97.9{+-}0.5% without any spectral filtering.

  9. Plumage Genes and Little Else Distinguish the Genomes of Hybridizing Warblers.

    PubMed

    Toews, David P L; Taylor, Scott A; Vallender, Rachel; Brelsford, Alan; Butcher, Bronwyn G; Messer, Philipp W; Lovette, Irby J

    2016-09-12

    When related taxa hybridize extensively, their genomes may become increasingly homogenized over time. This mixing via hybridization creates conservation challenges when it reduces genetic or phenotypic diversity and when it endangers previously distinct species via genetic swamping [1]. However, hybridization also facilitates admixture mapping of traits that distinguish each species and the associated genes that maintain distinctiveness despite ongoing gene flow [2]. We address these dual aspects of hybridization in the golden-winged/blue-winged warbler complex, two phenotypically divergent warblers that are indistinguishable using traditional molecular markers and that draw substantial conservation attention [3-5]. Whole-genome comparisons show that differentiation is extremely low: only six small genomic regions exhibit strong differences. Four of these divergence peaks occur in proximity to genes known to be involved in feather development or pigmentation: agouti signaling protein (ASIP), follistatin (FST), ecodysplasin (EDA), wingless-related integration site (Wnt), and beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2). Throat coloration-the most striking plumage difference between these warblers-is perfectly associated with the promoter region of agouti, and genotypes at this locus obey simple Mendelian recessive inheritance of the black-throated phenotype characteristic of golden-winged warblers. The more general pattern of genomic similarity between these warblers likely results from a protracted period of hybridization, contradicting the broadly accepted hypothesis that admixture results from solely anthropogenic habitat change in the past two centuries [4]. Considered in concert, these results are relevant to both the genetic architecture of avian feather pigmentation and the evolutionary history and conservation challenges associated with these declining songbirds. PMID:27546575

  10. Advantages and distinguishing features of focus point supersymmetry [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Wilczek, Frank

    2005-12-01

    Diverse experimental constraints now motivate models of supersymmetry breaking in which some superpartners have masses well above the weak scale. Three alternatives are focus point supersymmetry and inverted hierarchy models, which embody a naturalness constraint, and the more recent framework of split supersymmetry, which relaxes that constraint. Many aspects of their phenomenology are very similar. They can be distinguished, however, through detailed study of superoblique parameters, the Higgs potential and other observables.

  11. Distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands with Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A flight line in Starr County, Texas, was used to test the feasibility of distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands using very small scale (1:3,000,000), Skylab satellite imagery. Film optical density readings were made on six different films (four black-and-white, one conventional, and one infrared color) using various film/filter combinations. Differentiating between saline and nonsaline rangelands was possible by using microdensitometry on black-and-white Skylab imagery.

  12. Primary structure -- An important concept to distinguish primary stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Mingwan |; Li Jianguo

    1996-12-01

    A new Chinese design code JB 4732-95, Steel Pressure Vessels -- Design by Analysis, was issued in March 1995. In this paper the authors discuss some concepts and ideas which formed in the introduction and application of the design by analysis approach in China. They are: multi-possibility of stress decomposition, self-limiting stress, classification of constraints, and finally an important concept to distinguish primary stress -- primary structures.

  13. Criteria for two distinguishable fermions to form a boson

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Chuan, Tan Kok; Kurzynski, Pawel; Santos, Marcelo F.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2011-09-15

    We study the necessary conditions for systems composed of two distinguishable fermions to exhibit bosonic behavior. We base our analysis on tools of quantum information theory such as entanglement, local operations and classical communication and the majorization criterion for probability distributions. Introduction of these tools yields new insights into the old and important problem of identifying the conditions for existence of composite bosons. We precisely identify the role entanglement plays in the formation and behavior of such composite particles.

  14. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Goriaux, Coline; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets. PMID:25136352

  15. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Coline, Goriaux; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets. PMID:25136352

  16. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    2001-01-01

    The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

  17. Heterotic Trait Locus (HTL) Mapping Identifies Intra-Locus Interactions That Underlie Reproductive Hybrid Vigor in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis. PMID:22761720

  18. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Learning deformation model for expression-robust 3D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhe; Liu, Shu; Wang, Yi; Lei, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Expression change is the major cause of local plastic deformation of the facial surface. The intra-class differences with large expression change somehow are larger than the inter-class differences as it's difficult to distinguish the same individual with facial expression change. In this paper, an expression-robust 3D face recognition method is proposed by learning expression deformation model. The expression of the individuals on the training set is modeled by principal component analysis, the main components are retained to construct the facial deformation model. For the test 3D face, the shape difference between the test and the neutral face in training set is used for reconstructing the expression change by the constructed deformation model. The reconstruction residual error is used for face recognition. The average recognition rate on GavabDB and self-built database reaches 85.1% and 83%, respectively, which shows strong robustness for expression changes.

  20. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  1. ROCK DEFORMATION. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at II Ciocco from 5/19/02 thru 5/24/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  2. Shear deformation in granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardenhagen, S.G.; Brackbill, J.U.; Sulsky, D.L.

    1998-12-31

    An investigation into the properties of granular materials is undertaken via numerical simulation. These simulations highlight that frictional contact, a defining characteristic of dry granular materials, and interfacial debonding, an expected deformation mode in plastic bonded explosives, must be properly modeled. Frictional contact and debonding algorithms have been implemented into FLIP, a particle in cell code, and are described. Frictionless and frictional contact are simulated, with attention paid to energy and momentum conservation. Debonding is simulated, with attention paid to the interfacial debonding speed. A first step toward calculations of shear deformation in plastic bonded explosives is made. Simulations are performed on the scale of the grains where experimental data is difficult to obtain. Two characteristics of deformation are found, namely the intermittent binding of grains when rotation and translation are insufficient to accommodate deformation, and the role of the binder as a lubricant in force chains.

  3. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  4. Relationships among Impulsiveness, Locus of Control, Sex, and Music Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksza, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study is an investigation of relationships among impulsiveness, locus of control, sex, observed practice behaviors, practice effectiveness, and self-reported practice habits in a sample of 40 college brass players. Practice effectiveness was defined by the amount of change in pretest and posttest performance achievement scores over one…

  5. Dimensions of Locus of Control: Impact of Early Educational Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mark W.

    A study was conducted to: (1) assess the equivalence of the Nowicki Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children, the Stephens-Delys Reinforcement Contingency Interview, and the Gruen-Korte-Stephens test and the construct validity of each; and (2) investigate the impact on IE of the open classroom Follow Through program sponsored by the…

  6. Nucleotide variation at the Gpdh locus in the genus Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wells, R S

    1996-05-01

    The Gpdh locus was sequenced in a broad range of Drosophila species. In contrast to the extreme evolutionary constraint seen at the amino acid level, the synonymous sites evolve at rates comparable to those of other genes. Gpdh nucleotide sequences were used to infer a phylogenetic tree, and the relationships among the species of the obscura group were examined in detail. A survey of nucleotide polymorphism within D. pseudoobscura revealed no amino acid variation in this species. Applying a modified McDonald-Kreitman test, the amino acid divergence between species in the obscura group does not appear to be excessive, implying that drift is adequate to explain the patterns of amino acid change at this locus. In addition, the level of polymorphism at the Gpdh locus in D. pseudoobscura is comparable to that found at other loci, as determined by a Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test. Thus, the pattern of nucleotide variation within and between species at the Gpdh locus is consistent with a neutral model.

  7. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  8. The Locus of the Focus of a Rolling Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Anurag; Marengo, James

    2010-01-01

    The catenary is usually introduced as the shape assumed by a hanging flexible cable. This is a "physical" description of a catenary. In this article we give a "geometrical" description of a catenary. Specifically we show that the catenary is the locus of the focus of a certain parabola as it rolls on the x-axis.

  9. The Influence of Locus of Control on Student Financial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Sonya; Cumbie, Julie A.; Bell, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Data on psychological influences of financial behaviors has not been well addressed in student populations, which is concerning given the high levels of general and financial stress experienced by college students. The findings of this study indicate that college students with an external locus of control exhibit the worst financial behaviors.…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Cancer Locus of Control Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jessica W.; Donatelle, Rebecca J.; Acock, Alan C.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the Cancer Locus of Control scale (M. Watson and others, 1990), administered to 543 women with a history of breast cancer. Results support a three-factor model of the scale and support use of the scale to assess control dimensions. (SLD)

  11. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of data for exposed spermatagonial stem cells thereafter. Repeated mating cycles should be conducted... visible characteristics of certain mouse strains. (2) The germ line is the cells in the gonads of higher... mouse germ cells: (A) The visible specific locus test using either 5 or 7 loci. (B) The...

  12. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of data for exposed spermatagonial stem cells thereafter. Repeated mating cycles should be conducted... visible characteristics of certain mouse strains. (2) The germ line is the cells in the gonads of higher... mouse germ cells: (A) The visible specific locus test using either 5 or 7 loci. (B) The...

  13. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of data for exposed spermatagonial stem cells thereafter. Repeated mating cycles should be conducted... visible characteristics of certain mouse strains. (2) The germ line is the cells in the gonads of higher... mouse germ cells: (A) The visible specific locus test using either 5 or 7 loci. (B) The...

  14. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of data for exposed spermatagonial stem cells thereafter. Repeated mating cycles should be conducted... visible characteristics of certain mouse strains. (2) The germ line is the cells in the gonads of higher... mouse germ cells: (A) The visible specific locus test using either 5 or 7 loci. (B) The...

  15. Attitudes toward Nutrition, Locus of Control and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield, V. Kilian; And Others

    Research has shown that many behaviors previously thought to be purely psychological in origin do, in fact, have a physiological basis. To examine the relationship of smoking behavior to locus of control, and to attitudes toward, knowledge about, and behavior with respect to nutrition, 116 Canadian undergraduate students completed the Nutrition…

  16. Fetal Health Locus of Control Scale: Development and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labs, Sharon M.; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development of the Fetal Health Locus of Control scale, the scale's utility in predicting maternal health-related behavior during pregnancy, normative data, and information on factor structure and internal consistency. Reports that cigarette and caffeine consumption during pregnancy, and women's intentions to participate in prepared…

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Work Locus of Control Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Joseph E.; Jose, Paul E.; Brough, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Original formulations of the Work Locus of Control Scale (WLCS) proposed a unidimensional structure of this measure; however, more recently, evidence for a two-dimensional structure has been reported, with separate subscales for internal and external loci of control. The current study evaluates the one- and two-factor models with confirmatory…

  18. Thought Recognition, Locus of Control, and Adolescent Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Thomas M.; Stack, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the underlying assumptions and principles of a new psychological paradigm, Psychology of Mind/Health Realization (POM/HR). Thought recognition is compared with locus of control (LOC). The relationship of LOC to self-reported happiness and satisfaction is examined from the perspective of POM/HR, using a sample of at-risk adolescents…

  19. The Influence of Labor Market Discrimination on Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Brian E.; Krzystofiak, Frank J.

    1982-01-01

    Drawing on a national probability sample (N=2,857) of young men, used multiple regression analysis to estimate the effect of labor market discrimination on subsequent locus of control. Results indicated that perceptions of employment discrimination influenced the level of externality among Blacks, over and above racial identification. (Author/RC)

  20. Dealing with Malfunction: Locus of Control in Web-Conferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how students deal with malfunctions that occur during the use of web conferencing systems in learning arrangements. In a survey among participants in online courses that make use of a web-conferencing system (N = 129), the relationship between a preference for internal or external locus of control and the perception of…

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of sil Locus in Clinical Streptococcus pyogenes Strains

    PubMed Central

    Plainvert, Céline; Dinis, Márcia; Ravins, Miriam; Hanski, Emanuel; Touak, Gérald; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Fouet, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) causes a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild noninvasive to severe invasive infections. Mutations in regulatory components have been implicated in the switch from colonization to invasive phenotypes. The inactivation of the sil locus, composed of six genes encoding a quorum-sensing complex, gives rise to a highly invasive strain. However, studies conducted on limited collections of GAS strains suggested that sil prevalence is around 15%; furthermore, whereas a correlation between the presence of sil and the genetic background was suggested, no link between the presence of a functional sil locus and the invasive status was assessed. We established a collection of 637 nonredundant strains covering all emm genotypes present in France and of known clinical history; 68%, 22%, and 10% were from invasive infections, noninvasive infections, and asymptomatic carriage, respectively. Among the 637 strains, 206 were sil positive. The prevalence of the sil locus varied according to the emm genotype, being present in >85% of the emm4, emm18, emm32, emm60, emm87, and emm90 strains and absent from all emm1, emm28, and emm89 strains. A random selection based on 2009 French epidemiological data indicated that 16% of GAS strains are sil positive. Moreover, due to mutations leading to truncated proteins, only 9% of GAS strains harbor a predicted functional sil system. No correlation was observed between the presence or absence of a functional sil locus and the strain invasiveness status. PMID:24671796

  2. Locus of Control and Learning Disabilities: A Review and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley-Marling, Curtis C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A literature review reveals that learning disabled children are more likely than normal achievers to attribute successes, but not failures, to external factors. The implications of locus of control for the field of learning disabilities are discussed in terms of its relation to academic achievement, learned helplessness, and remediation programs.…

  3. Inferring relationships between pairs of individuals from locus heterozygosities

    PubMed Central

    Presciuttini, Silvano; Toni, Chiara; Tempestini, Elena; Verdiani, Simonetta; Casarino, Lucia; Spinetti, Isabella; Stefano, Francesco De; Domenici, Ranieri; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E

    2002-01-01

    Background The traditional exact method for inferring relationships between individuals from genetic data is not easily applicable in all situations that may be encountered in several fields of applied genetics. This study describes an approach that gives affordable results and is easily applicable; it is based on the probabilities that two individuals share 0, 1 or both alleles at a locus identical by state. Results We show that these probabilities (zi) depend on locus heterozygosity (H), and are scarcely affected by variation of the distribution of allele frequencies. This allows us to obtain empirical curves relating zi's to H for a series of common relationships, so that the likelihood ratio of a pair of relationships between any two individuals, given their genotypes at a locus, is a function of a single parameter, H. Application to large samples of mother-child and full-sib pairs shows that the statistical power of this method to infer the correct relationship is not much lower than the exact method. Analysis of a large database of STR data proves that locus heterozygosity does not vary significantly among Caucasian populations, apart from special cases, so that the likelihood ratio of the more common relationships between pairs of individuals may be obtained by looking at tabulated zi values. Conclusions A simple method is provided, which may be used by any scientist with the help of a calculator or a spreadsheet to compute the likelihood ratios of common alternative relationships between pairs of individuals. PMID:12441003

  4. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  5. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  6. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  7. Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control in an Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Bonni J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored any relationships that existed between faculty members' locus of control and job satisfaction at a small, private, faith-based university. Two demographic variables were also analyzed in the findings: number of years teaching in higher education and tenure status. The job satisfaction instrument used was the Job in General…

  8. Anatomy of gravitationally deformed slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Shintaro; Hariyama, Takehiro

    2010-05-01

    Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation is the deformation of rocks as well as slope surfaces, but the internal structures have not been well observed and described before. This is mainly due to the difficulty in obtaining undisturbed samples from underground. We analyzed the internal deformational structures of gravitationally deformed slopes by using high quality drilled cores obtained by hybrid drilling technique, which has been recently developed and can recover very fragile materials that could not be taken by the conventional drilling techniques. Investigated slopes were gravitationally deformed out-facing slopes of pelitic schist and shale. The slope surfaces showed deformational features of small steps, depressions, knobs, and linear depressions, but had no major main scarp and landslide body with well-defined outline. This is indicative of slow, deep-seated gravitational deformation. Most of these small deformational features are hidden by vegetations, but they are detected by using airborne laser scanner. Drilled cores showed that the internal deformation is dominated by the slip and tearing off along foliations. Slippage along foliations is conspicuous in pelitic schist: Pelitic schist is sheared, particularly along black layers, which are rich in graphite and pyrite. Graphite is known to be a solid lubricant in material sciences, which seems to be why shearing occurs along the black layers. Rock mass between two slip layers is sheared, rotated, fractured, and pulverized; undulation of bedding or schistosity could be the nucleation points of fracturing. Tearing off along foliations is also the major deformation mode, which forms jagged morphology of rock fragments within shear zones. Rock fragments with jagged surface are commonly observed in "gouge", which is very different from tectonic gouge. This probably reflects the low confining pressures during their formation. Microscopic to mesoscopic openings along fractures are commonly observed with

  9. Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Christopher M.

    2011-05-01

    We wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A2+A1)(1), may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.

  10. [Drug compliance and health locus of control in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Combes, C; Feral, F

    2011-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a frequent disorder since it affects about 1% of the general population. Drug compliance, that is to say patients' adherence to their treatment, remains rather poor concerning this disease with, on an average, one patient out of two not complying with his/her medication. Among the factors influencing drug compliance, we focused on patients' beliefs in terms of health control, a concept known as health locus of control. This is a concept that originated from social psychology and derived from the Rotters' original concept of locus of control: it corresponds to the type of connexion established by an individual between subsequent events in the history of his/her disease and internal (personal abilities) or external factors (chance, powerful others). Nowadays, the tridimensional structure of this concept is commonly admitted as being in three dimensions: internality, chance externality and powerful others externality, the latter group being divided between doctors and others. We have assumed that there is a correlation between the degree of drug compliance and the internal and/or doctors' external health locus of control. For this purpose, we have determined the quality of drug compliance by using the Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and the type of health locus of control by using the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale among 65 schizophrenic patients. We have also considered it was important to evaluate patients' insight by using the Amador's scale (Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder) because many researchers have established a strong correlation between insight and drug compliance in schizophrenia. Associations between the four dimensions of health locus of control ("internal", "chance external", "others external" and "doctors' external") and drug compliance were assessed by estimating Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) and its degree of significance (p). These associations were judged significant at an alpha

  11. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media.

    PubMed

    Smith, L D; Rudman, M; Lester, D R; Metcalfe, G

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations-such as shear banding or wall slip-creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems. PMID:26931594

  12. Receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus

    DOEpatents

    Nasrallah, June B.; Nasrallah, Mikhail E.; Stein, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Described herein is a S receptor kinase gene (SRK), derived from the S locus in Brassica oleracea, having a extracellular domain highly similar to the secreted product of the S-locus glycoprotein gene.

  13. Coordinated forms of noradrenergic plasticity in the locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Raquel O.; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is plastic and represents the world according to the significance of sensory stimuli. However, cortical networks are embodied within complex circuits including neuromodulatory systems such as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, providing information about internal state and behavioral relevance. While norepinephrine is important for cortical plasticity, it is unknown how modulatory neurons themselves respond to changes of sensory input. Here we examine how locus coeruleus neurons are modified by experience, and the consequences of locus coeruleus plasticity on cortical representations and sensory perception. We made whole-cell recordings from rat locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex (AI), pairing sounds with locus coeruleus activation. Although initially unresponsive, locus coeruleus neurons developed and maintained auditory responses afterwards. Locus coeruleus plasticity induced changes in AI responses lasting at least hours and improved auditory perception for days to weeks. Our results demonstrate that locus coeruleus is highly plastic, leading to substantial changes in regulation of brain state by norepinephrine. PMID:26301326

  14. Homozygosity mapping of the Werner syndrome locus (WRN)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakura, J.; Miki, T.; Kamino, K.

    1994-10-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the early onset of several age-related diseases. The locus for this disease was recently mapped to 8p12. We studied 27 WS kindreds of mixed ethnic origins, 26 of which were consanguineous. In 24 of these families, the affected subject was given the diagnosis of {open_quotes}definite{close_quotes} WS and affected subjects in the remaining 3 pedigrees were given the diagnosis of {open_quotes}probable{close_quotes} WS. Affected subjects from each kindred were genotyped for 13 short tandem repeat polymorphic sites. Two-point linkage analysis yielded significant evidence for linkage to D8S137, D8S339, D8S87, PLAT, D8S165, and D8S166. The locus yielding a maximum lod score at the smallest recombination fraction was D8S339, suggesting that this marker is the closest to the WS gene (WRN locus) of those tested. D8S339 gave significant lod scores (Z{sub max}{>=}3.0) for both Japanese and non-Japanese (mostly Caucasian) families, demonstrating that a single locus is responsible for WS in both groups. Multipoint analysis of these markers yielded a maximum lod score of 17.05 at a distance of approximately 0.6 cM from D8S339. The combined evidence from 2-point analysis, multipoint analysis, and analysis of regions of homozygosity in subjects from inbred pedigrees indicates that the WRN locus is between D8S131 and D8S87, in an 8.3-cM interval containing D8S339. 32 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  15. Forecasting volcanic eruptions: the control of elastic-brittle deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Christopher; Robertson, Robert; Wall, Richard; Steele, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    At volcanoes reawakening after long repose, patterns of unrest normally reflect the elastic-brittle deformation of crust above a magma reservoir. Local fault movements, detected as volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, increase in number with surface deformation, at first approximately exponentially and then linearly. The trends describe how crustal behaviour evolves from quasi-elastic deformation under an increasing stress to inelastic deformation under a constant stress. They have been quantified and verified against experiments for deformation in compression [1]. We have extended the analysis to extensional deformation. The results agree well with field data for crust being stretched by a pressurizing magmatic system [2]. They also provide new criteria for enhancing the definitions of alert levels and preferred times to eruption. The VT-deformation sequence is a field proxy for changes in deformation with applied stress. The transition from quasi-elastic to inelastic behaviour is characterised in extension by the ratio of differential failure stress SF to tensile strength σT. Unrest data from at least basaltic to andesitic stratovolcanoes, as well as large calderas, yield preferred values for SF/σT ≤ 4, coinciding with the range for tensile failure expected from established theoretical constraints (from Mohr-Coulomb-Griffiths failure). We thus associate the transition with the approach to tensile rupture at the wall of a pressurized magma reservoir. In particular, values of about 2 are consistent with the rupture of a cylindrical reservoir, such as a closed conduit within a volcanic edifice, whereas values of about 3 suggest an approximately spherical reservoir, such as may exist at deeper levels. The onset of inelastic behaviour reflects the emergence of self-accelerating crack growth under a constant stress. Applied to forecasting eruptions, it provides a new and objective criterion for raising alert levels during an emergency; it yields the classic linear

  16. Identifying Distinguishing Characteristics of Secondary Pyroclastic Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isom, S. L.; Brand, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging mixtures of volcanic particles and gas that travel down the slopes of erupting volcanoes. The combination of high velocities, high bulk densities (due to particles in the current) and high temperatures make PDCs the most dangerous and deadly hazard associated with explosive volcanism. Secondary explosive phenomenon associated with PDCs, such as inland-directed surges (e.g., Montserrat, 2003) and phreatic explosions (e.g., Mt St Helens 1980) can increase the area affected and duration of the hazard. However, little work has been done on distinguishing the deposits of secondary explosive phenomenon from primary phenomenon. Samples have been acquired from the 1980 Mt St Helens phreatic explosion crater deposits and the 2003 eruptive event at Montserrat where a PDC flowed into the ocean, causing an inland-directed surge (Edmonds and Herd, 2005. Geology 33.4:245-248). The samples will be analyzed via depositional characteristics, granulometry, componentry, microscopic analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. We hypothesize that thermal cracking or vesicle distortion (e.g., compression or hindered expansion) may occur in hot pyroclasts that enter a body of water, leading to a difference between the ash textures of primary PDCs, phreatic surges and inland-directed surge deposits. Analyzing granulometry and componentry from parent flows and secondary flows may also reveal distinguishing characteristics that will allow us to constrain differences in segregation mechanisms of particles for each phenomenon. Determining distinguishing depositional characteristics of these secondary phenomena is important for assessing their occurrence during past eruptions and identifying conditions conducive to the formation of secondary explosions. This will result in the ability to make more accurate hazard maps for volcanoes prone to explosive activity.

  17. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes. PMID:27465215

  18. Distinguishing and diagnosing contemporary and conventional features of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The vast number and variety of erosion lesions encountered today require reconsideration of the traditional definition. Dental erosion associated with modern dietary habits can exhibit unique features that symbolize a departure from the decades-old conventional image known as tooth surface loss. The extent and diversity of contemporary erosion lesions often cause conflicting diagnoses. Specific examples of these features are presented in this article. The etiologies, genesis, course of development, and characteristics of these erosion lesions are discussed. Contemporary and conventional erosion lesions are distinguished from similar defects, such as mechanically induced wear, carious lesions, and dental fluorosis, which affect the human dentition.

  19. Defining and distinguishing treatment abandonment in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Howard, Scott C; Lam, Catherine G

    2015-05-01

    Cancer management requires accurate identification of the causes of treatment failure followed by cause-specific interventions. One cause of treatment failure that has received too little attention is abandonment of treatment. Abandonment includes 2 key elements: (1) failing to complete therapy for a disease that could be cured or definitively controlled, and (2) missing all treatment for a sustained time period to an extent that impacts the ability to cure or definitively control the disease. In this Historical Insight paper, we analyze historic and current terminology used to describe treatment abandonment in patients and provide a framework to distinguish it from nonadherence and loss to follow-up.

  20. Possible Observational Criteria for Distinguishing Brown Dwarfs From Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The difference in formation process between binary stars and planetary systems is reflected in their composition, as well as orbital architecture, particularly in their orbital eccentricity as a function of orbital period. It is suggested here that this difference can be used as an observational criterion to distinguish between brown dwarfs and planets. Application of the orbital criterion suggests that, with three possible exceptions, all of the recently discovered substellar companions may be brown dwarfs and not planets. These criterion may be used as a guide for interpretation of the nature of substellar-mass companions to stars in the future.

  1. Ratios of Biogenic Elements for Distinguishing Recent from Fossil Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish possible microfossils from recent biological contaminants is of great importance to Astrobiology. In this paper we discuss the application of the ratios of life critical biogenic elements (C/O; C/N; and C/S) as determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to this problem. Biogenic element ratios will be provided for a wide variety of living cyanobacteria and other microbial extremophiles, preserved herbarium materials, and ancient biota from the Antarctic Ice Cores and Siberian and Alaskan Permafrost for comparison with megafossils and microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites.

  2. Explaining group-level traits requires distinguishing process from product.

    PubMed

    Panchanathan, Karthik; Mathew, Sarah; Perreault, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino is right to argue that we need a richer theory of group-level traits. He is wrong, however, in limiting group-level traits to units of cultural selection, which require explanations based on group selection. Traits are best understood when explanations focus on both process (i.e., selection) and product (i.e., adaptation). This approach can distinguish group-level traits that arise through within-group processes from those that arise through between-group processes. PMID:24970416

  3. Distinguishing octane grades in gasoline using terahertz metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Tian, Z; Chen, Y; Cao, W; Zeng, Z

    2012-06-01

    Distinguishing octane numbers of commercial gasoline is experimentally demonstrated by use of single split-ring resonator metamaterials functioning at terahertz frequencies. The differences in frequency-dependent absorption coefficients and refractive indices of various grades of gasoline lead to a modification in the surrounding dielectric environment and consequently the resonance properties of the planar metamaterials. This consequently enables a distinct frequency shift in the inductive-capacitive electric dipolar resonances. This paper reveals that such metamaterial arrays, as highly sensitive chemical sensors, have promising potential in petroleum industrial applications.

  4. Perioperative Assessment of Myocardial Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Andra E.; Alfirevic, Andrej; Sessler, Daniel I.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Thomas, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of left ventricular performance improves risk assessment and guides anesthetic decisions. However, the most common echocardiographic measure of myocardial function, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), has important limitations. LVEF is limited by subjective interpretation which reduces accuracy and reproducibility, and LVEF assesses global function without characterizing regional myocardial abnormalities. An alternative objective echocardiographic measure of myocardial function is thus needed. Myocardial deformation analysis, which performs quantitative assessment of global and regional myocardial function, may be useful for perioperative care of surgical patients. Myocardial deformation analysis evaluates left ventricular mechanics by quantifying strain and strain rate. Strain describes percent change in myocardial length in the longitudinal (from base to apex) and circumferential (encircling the short-axis of the ventricle) direction and change in thickness in the radial direction. Segmental strain describes regional myocardial function. Strain is a negative number when the ventricle shortens longitudinally or circumferentially and is positive with radial thickening. Reference values for normal longitudinal strain from a recent meta-analysis using transthoracic echocardiography are (mean ± SD) −19.7 ± 0.4%, while radial and circumferential strain are 47.3 ± 1.9 and −23.3 ± 0.7%, respectively. The speed of myocardial deformation is also important and is characterized by strain rate. Longitudinal systolic strain rate in healthy subjects averages −1.10 ± 0.16 sec−1. Assessment of myocardial deformation requires consideration of both strain (change in deformation), which correlates with LVEF, and strain rate (speed of deformation), which correlates with rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt). Myocardial deformation analysis also evaluates ventricular relaxation, twist, and untwist, providing new and noninvasive methods to

  5. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaercher, P. M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, E.; Prakapenka, V.; Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Smith, J.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Wenk, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    The crystal structure of the high pressure SiO2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, yet little is known about its deformation mechanisms. Information about how stishovite deforms under stress is important for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. Particularly, stishovite is elastically anisotropic and thus development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation may contribute to seismic anomalies in the mantle. We converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. Diffraction patterns were collected in situ in radial geometry at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to examine development of CPO during deformation. We find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction and infer deformation mechanisms leading to the observed CPO with visco-plastic self consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity models. Our results show pyramidal and basal slip are most likely active at high pressure and ambient temperature, in agreement with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of rutile (TiO2) and paratellurite (TeO2), which are isostructural to stishovite. Conversely other TEM studies of stishovite done at higher temperature suggest dominant prismatic slip. This indicates that a variety of slip systems may be active in stishovite, depending on conditions. As a result, stishovite's contribution to the seismic signature in the mantle may vary as a function of pressure and temperature and thus depth.

  6. Inelastic deformation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, C. J.; Herakovich, C. T.; Pindera, M-J.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical model capable of predicting the thermomechanical response of continuously reinforced metal matrix composite laminates subjected to multiaxial loading was developed. A micromechanical model is used in conjunction with nonlinear lamination theory to determine inelastic laminae response. Matrix viscoplasticity, residual stresses, and damage to the fiber/matrix interfacial zone are explicitly included in the model. The representative cell of the micromechanical model is considered to be in a state of generalized plane strain, enabling a quasi two-dimensional analysis to be performed. Constant strain finite elements are formulated with elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations. Interfacial debonding is incorporated into the model through interface elements based on the interfacial debonding theory originally presented by Needleman, and modified by Tvergaard. Nonlinear interfacial constitutive equations relate interfacial tractions to displacement discontinuities at the interface. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of an experimental program conducted on silicon carbide/titanium (SiC/Ti) unidirectional, (O4), and angle-ply, (+34)(sub s), tubular specimens. Multiaxial loading included increments of axial tension, compression, torque, and internal pressure. Loadings were chosen in an effort to distinguish inelastic deformation due to damage from matrix plasticity and separate time-dependent effects from time-independent effects. Results show that fiber/matrix debonding is nonuniform throughout the composite and is a major factor in the effective response. Also, significant creep behavior occurs at relatively low applied stress levels at room temperature.

  7. Molecular diagnostic tests for ascertainment of genotype at the rod cone dysplasia 1 (rcd1) locus in Irish setters.

    PubMed

    Ray, K; Baldwin, V J; Acland, G M; Aguirre, G D

    1995-03-01

    Rod-cone dysplasia type 1 (rcd1) is one of several canine photoreceptor degenerations, collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), that afflict different breeds of dogs. The rcd1 phenotype is an early onset autosomal recessive disease caused by a nonsense amber mutation, at codon 807, in the canine gene for the beta-subunit of rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (canine PDEB). The mutation involves a G to A transition at nucleotide position 2420, which presumably would cause premature termination of the canine PDEB protein by 49 amino acid residues. In both a small pedigree study of Irish setters from the United Kingdom and in larger canine pedigree studies in the United States, this gene defect has been found to be the only mutation causing rcd1. Here we report development of a diagnostic test which unequivocally distinguishes the three genotypes at the rcd1 locus: rcd1/rcd1 (homozygous mutant, affected); rcd1/+ (heterozygous, carrier); and +/+ (homozygous normal, wildtype).

  8. Reframing Student Affairs Leadership: An Analysis of Organizational Frames of Reference and Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tull, Ashley; Freeman, Jerrid P.

    2011-01-01

    Examined in this study were the identified frames of reference and locus of control used by 478 student affairs administrators. Administrator responses were examined to identify frames of reference most commonly used and their preference order. Locus of control most commonly used and the relationship between frames of reference and locus of…

  9. Rasch Analysis of the Locus-of-Hope Scale. Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadiana, Leny G.; David, Adonis P.

    2015-01-01

    The Locus-of-Hope Scale (LHS) was developed as a measure of the locus-of-hope dimensions (Bernardo, 2010). The present study adds to the emerging literature on locus-of-hope by assessing the psychometric properties of the LHS using Rasch analysis. The results from the Rasch analyses of the four subscales of LHS provided evidence on the…

  10. Adolescent Values Clarification: A Positive Influence on Perceived Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark R.

    1990-01-01

    Used locus of control assessments to monitor specific aspect of adolescent chemical dependency treatment program. Used song lyric analysis activities to note short-term modifications in experimental group's (N=10) perceived locus of control. No improvements were noted in matched control group's locus of control. Findings suggest that addictions…

  11. On the Locus Formed by the Maximum Heights of Projectile Motion with Air Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Saldana, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis on the locus formed by the set of maxima of the trajectories of a projectile launched in a medium with linear drag. Such a place, the locus of apexes, is written in terms of the Lambert "W" function in polar coordinates, confirming the special role played by this function in the problem. To characterize the locus, a study of…

  12. Antecedents and Correlates of Locus of Control in High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Wendy Segal

    This study dealt with the perceived parental attitudes of affection, physical contact, consistency-trust, security and perceived parental locus of control orientation as possible determinants of locus of control orientation in high school seniors. A second phase was concerned with the relationship of perceived parental locus of control orientation…

  13. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  14. The Pi Graft for Correction of Severe Saddle Nose Deformity.

    PubMed

    Zelken, Jonathan; Chang, Chun-Shin; Hsiao, Yen-Chang

    2016-08-01

    Saddle nose deformity is challenging because there is both aesthetic and functional compromise, and high rates of recurrence have been reported. Autologous costal cartilage is the widely preferred medium for reconstruction, but there may be room for improvement in the configuration of the cartilage struts. The pi graft is stabilized at two points, proximally and distally, distinguishing it from the traditional L-strut. Indications include severe (Types III and IV) saddle nose deformity with collapse of the mid-vault, and recurrence after prior reconstruction. Costal cartilage is harvested and three struts are crafted to make the foundation layer: a dorsal strut, caudal strut, and mid-vault strut. An aesthetic layer is composed of a carefully crafted dorsal graft and tip graft. Three men and 11 women were treated from 2013 to 2015 using this method for severe saddle nose deformity. Aesthetic and functional outcomes were evaluated. Patients were followed up for 12 months (range, 8-14 months). There was no recurrence of deformity or warping of the aesthetic or foundation layers. All patients were guided to anticipate refinement of the tip at 3 months to ease the burden on the skin envelope in stage I, but only five patients (35.7%) opted for it, as the remaining patients were satisfied with their appearance. The pi graft is a composite reconstructive method that is designed to minimize warping and recurrence of the saddle nose deformity. This method was successful in this series, although objective comparisons with traditional methods were not made. PMID:27494591

  15. Simple and accurate methods for quantifying deformation, disruption, and development in biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, John J.; Kume, Maiko; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Taber, Larry A.; Pless, Robert B.; Xia, Younan; Genin, Guy M.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    When mechanical factors underlie growth, development, disease or healing, they often function through local regions of tissue where deformation is highly concentrated. Current optical techniques to estimate deformation can lack precision and accuracy in such regions due to challenges in distinguishing a region of concentrated deformation from an error in displacement tracking. Here, we present a simple and general technique for improving the accuracy and precision of strain estimation and an associated technique for distinguishing a concentrated deformation from a tracking error. The strain estimation technique improves accuracy relative to other state-of-the-art algorithms by directly estimating strain fields without first estimating displacements, resulting in a very simple method and low computational cost. The technique for identifying local elevation of strain enables for the first time the successful identification of the onset and consequences of local strain concentrating features such as cracks and tears in a highly strained tissue. We apply these new techniques to demonstrate a novel hypothesis in prenatal wound healing. More generally, the analytical methods we have developed provide a simple tool for quantifying the appearance and magnitude of localized deformation from a series of digital images across a broad range of disciplines. PMID:25165601

  16. Deformation of second and third quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  17. Identifying triggers for liquefaction-induced soft-sediment deformation in sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Geraint; Moretti, Massimo

    2011-04-01

    Triggers for liquefaction-induced soft-sediment deformation structures in sands include seismic shaking, effects of water waves, rapid sediment accumulation and groundwater movements. Many soft-sediment deformation structures are attributed to a seismic trigger, but the evidence is often variable and inconclusive. Liquefaction and its effects are reviewed in the context of earthquakes, other triggers and experiments. The interpretation of liquefaction-induced soft-sediment deformation structures comprises two key stages: recognising liquefaction as the deformation mechanism, and determining the trigger for liquefaction. The characteristics of sediment that has undergone liquefaction include the pervasive, ductile character of deformation, preservation of stratification, a gradual upward increase in the extent or complexity of deformation, possible water-escape structures in the upper parts of a liquefied horizon, a horizontal upper surface, and a distinctive grain fabric. Approaches to determining the trigger for liquefaction include those based on criteria and those based on the sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental context. Few of the criteria applied to seismic triggers are diagnostic and several are not applicable on the scale of single outcrops. Criteria are poorly developed for non-seismic triggers. A methodology is proposed for analysing soft-sediment deformation structures within their overall sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental context in order to refine and improve criteria for distinguishing the action of 'external' (allogenic) triggers, including earthquakes, from 'internal' (autogenic) triggers.

  18. Microstructure of deformation bands in porous sandstones at Arches National Park, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco A.; Aydin, Atilla; Pollard, David D.

    1994-07-01

    At Arches National Park it is possible to distinguish three kinds of deformation bands on the basis of their distinctive microstructure: (1) deformation bands with little or no cataclasis; (2) deformation bands with cataclasis; and (3) deformation bands with clay smearing. The micromechanics of deformation band development consist of initial dilatancy followed by grain crushing and compaction. This process may be developed to different stages according to the interplay of porosity, confining pressure, clay content and amount of strain. Low porosities and low confining pressures promote the formation of dilatant bands with no cataclasis. High porosities and high confining pressures promote compaction and cataclasis. Two generations of deformation bands were documented. The older generation has little or no cataclasis and formed in relatively undisturbed sandstone probably under conditions of low confining pressure. The younger generation exhibits cataclasis, appears to be localized in proximity to major faults and seems to have developed under conditions of high confining pressure. The temporal sequence of deformation band development can be related to the regional geology of the area; where the first generation probably formed during growth of the salt anticline, and the second generation during its collapse.

  19. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  20. Distinguishing different sedimentary facies in a deltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkait, Barendra; Majumdar, Dipanjan Das

    2014-07-01

    An attempt has been made to differentiate sedimentary facies in a modern deltaic system by means of grain-size characteristics of the Ganga alluvial plain of West Bengal, India. Three main energy environments (marine, mixed and riverine) comprising the delta were considered. Sand samples were collected from rivers (both tidal and non-tidal), coastal dunes, beaches and tidal flats of the deltaic plain. The grain-size distribution patterns were compared with the two model distributions of log-normal and log-skew-Laplace. Different sedimentary facies were identified by discriminant functions. The analytical results indicate that the energy gradient of the different sedimentary facies of the deltaic system is well reflected by the grain-size characteristics of the individual facies. While critically analyzing the role of different textural parameters in discriminating the individual facies associations, it is observed that the mean size, alpha (slope of coarser fractions of Laplace model) and skewness have greater potential to distinguish different sedimentary facies of the deltaic system. The results of discriminant analysis might be applicable to paleo-environmental interpretation of a deltaic system by distinguishing the individual facies associations.

  1. Transient inability to distinguish between faces: electrophysiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Mundel, Trevor; Milton, John G; Dimitrov, Alexander; Wilson, Hugh W; Pelizzari, Charles; Uftring, Stephen; Torres, Ivan; Erickson, Robert K; Spire, Jean-Paul; Towle, Vernon L

    2003-04-01

    It is not known with certainty at which level of face processing by the cortex the distinction between a familiar and an unfamiliar face is made. Subdural electrodes were implanted under the fusiform gyrus of the right temporal lobe in a patient who developed an unusual inability to distinguish differences between faces as part of the epileptic aura ("all faces looked the same"). A cortical region located posterior to the epileptic focus was identified that exhibited a maximum evoked response to the presentation of facial images (N165), but not to objects, scenes, or character strings. Evoked potentials elicited by a variety of visual images indicated that any perturbation away from novel whole-face stimuli produced submaximal responses from this region of the right temporal lobe. Electrical stimulation of this region resulted in an impairment of face discrimination. It was found that presentation of familiar faces (grandmother, treating physician) produced a different response from that observed for novel faces. These observations demonstrate that within 165 msec of face presentation, and before the conscious precept of face familiarity has formed, this cortical region has already begun to distinguish between a familiar and an unfamiliar face.

  2. Study of the Micro-Nonuniformity of the Plastic Deformation of Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chechulin, B. B.

    1957-01-01

    The plastic flow during deformation of real polycrystalline metals has specific characteristics which distinguish the plastic deformation of metals from the deformation of ordinary isotropic bodies. One of these characteristics is the marked micro-nonuniformity of the plastic deformation of metals. P.O. Pashkov demonstrated the presence of a considerable micro-nonuniformity of the plastic deformation of coarse-grained steel wit medium or low carbon content. Analogous results in the case of tension of coarse-grained aluminum were obtained by W. Boas, who paid particular attention to the role of the grain boundaries in plastic flow. The nonuniformit of the plastic deformation in microvolumes was also recorded by T.N. Gudkova and others, on the alloy KhN80T. N.F. Lashko pointed out the nonuniformity of the plastic deformation for a series of pure polycrystalline metals and one-phase alloys. In his later reports, P.O. Pashkov arrives at he conclusion that the nonuniformity of the distribution of the deformation along the individual grains has a significant effect on the strength and plastic characteristics of polycrystalline metals in the process of plastic flow. However, until now there has not existed any systematic investigation of the general rules of the microscopic nonuniformit of plastic deformation even though the real polycrystalline metals are extremely simple with regard to structure. In the present report, an attempt is made to study the micrononuniformity of the flow of polycrystalline metals by the method of statistical analysis of the variation of the frequency diagrams of the nonuniformity of the grains in the process of plastic deformation.

  3. Beyond the one-locus-one-miRNA paradigm: microRNA isoforms enable deeper insights into breast cancer heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Telonis, Aristeidis G.; Loher, Phillipe; Jing, Yi; Londin, Eric; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe our study of miRNA isoforms (isomiRs) in breast cancer (BRCA) and normal breast data sets from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) repository. We report that the full isomiR profiles, from both known and novel human-specific miRNA loci, are particularly rich in information and can distinguish tumor from normal tissue much better than the archetype miRNAs. IsomiR expression is also dependent on the patient's race, exemplified by miR-183-5p, several isomiRs of which are upregulated in triple negative BRCA in white but not black women. Additionally, we find that an isomiR's 5′ endpoint and length, but not the genomic origin, are key determinants of the regulation of its expression. Overexpression of distinct miR-183-5p isomiRs in MDA-MB-231 cells followed by microarray analysis revealed that each isomiR has a distinct impact on the cellular transcriptome. Parallel integrative analysis of mRNA expression from BRCA data sets of the TCGA repository demonstrated that isomiRs can distinguish between the luminal A and luminal B subtypes and explain in more depth the molecular differences between them than the archetype molecules. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that post-transcriptional studies of BRCA will benefit from transcending the one-locus-one-miRNA paradigm and taking into account all isoforms from each miRNA locus as well as the patient's race. PMID:26400174

  4. Dual promoter activation by the human beta-globin locus control region.

    PubMed Central

    Bresnick, E H; Felsenfeld, G

    1994-01-01

    The human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is necessary for high-level and position-independent expression of globin genes in erythroid cells. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed for the cis-activation of individual members of the beta-globin gene family by the LCR located 10-50 kilobases upstream. It is not known, however, whether a given LCR can activate all developmentally appropriate globin family members on its chromosome or whether, within a given chromosome, the LCR must be committed to activating only a single gene. We have devised an experiment to distinguish between these possibilities. This experiment takes advantage of the fact that if two genes in a cluster are transcriptionally active and their promoters, therefore, are in a conformation hypersensitive to nucleases, restriction enzymes that cleave the promoters will excise the intervening chromatin fragment. The Apa I sites on human fetal G gamma- and A gamma-globin gene promoters are accessible to cleavage in nuclei from the human erythroleukemia cell line K562, which expresses these genes, but not in HeLa cells. We find that Apa I digestion leads to excision in high yield of the fragment spanning these promoters, showing that a LCR element is capable of sharing its activating function among members of a gene cluster on a single chromosome. Images PMID:8108408

  5. Rejuvenation effects during plastic deformation of Zircon: geochronological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs

    2013-04-01

    Zircon is one of the most stable accessory minerals known on the Earth; it was believed that zircon isotopic ages mostly record primary igneous crystallization events. It is true until the mineral is not affected by plastic deformation or other disturbing events during its life after crystallization. Zircon may deform by the recovery/subgrain rotation recrystallisation that indicates formation and migration of dislocations under crustal conditions. Deformation occurs at depth due to stresses associated with collision of the phases, and forms such microstructures as low-angle boundaries (Reddy et al., 2007). Low-angle boundaries act as fluid migration paths and elements diffusion paths. Facilitating Pb, Ti, U, Th and trace elements mobility in the crystalline zircon, these structures can change chemical, REE and isotopic composition of certain grain's parts (Reddy and Timms, 2010) and lead to isotopic resetting in the mineral domains. Since the isotopic age of the domains of single crystal can vary, it should be possible to recognize and interpret this variation and distinguish the timing of different high-temperature deformation events. Zircon can preserve low-angle boundaries and associated age disturbance under lower-crust temperatures for billions of years (Moser et al., 2009). Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) allows us to make microstructural-crystallographic analyses in order to measure the crystallographic orientations in crystalline material. EBSD mapping is supposed to be able to constrain potential diffusion pathways in minerals. It can indicate areas of damaged crystalline structure, helps to examine substructures of minerals used in radiometric dating and to assess the potential for resetting of ages by deformation events (Reddy et al., 2007). In this research we are trying to answer a list of questions, related to isotopic resetting due to deformation: What is the behavior of zircons which were plastically deformed during metamorphic-deformation

  6. Recursively minimally-deformed oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katriel, J.; Quesne, C.

    1996-04-01

    A recursive deformation of the boson commutation relation is introduced. Each step consists of a minimal deformation of a commutator [a,a°]=fk(... ;n̂) into [a,a°]qk+1=fk(... ;n̂), where ... stands for the set of deformation parameters that fk depends on, followed by a transformation into the commutator [a,a°]=fk+1(...,qk+1;n̂) to which the deformed commutator is equivalent within the Fock space. Starting from the harmonic oscillator commutation relation [a,a°]=1 we obtain the Arik-Coon and Macfarlane-Biedenharn oscillators at the first and second steps, respectively, followed by a sequence of multiparameter generalizations. Several other types of deformed commutation relations related to the treatment of integrable models and to parastatistics are also obtained. The ``generic'' form consists of a linear combination of exponentials of the number operator, and the various recursive families can be classified according to the number of free linear parameters involved, that depends on the form of the initial commutator.

  7. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations—such as shear banding or wall slip—creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems.

  8. Transverse deformations of extreme horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Carmen; Lucietti, James

    2016-04-01

    We consider the inverse problem of determining all extreme black hole solutions to the Einstein equations with a prescribed near-horizon geometry. We investigate this problem by considering infinitesimal deformations of the near-horizon geometry along transverse null geodesics. We show that, up to a gauge transformation, the linearised Einstein equations reduce to an elliptic PDE for the extrinsic curvature of a cross-section of the horizon. We deduce that for a given near-horizon geometry there exists a finite dimensional moduli space of infinitesimal transverse deformations. We then establish a uniqueness theorem for transverse deformations of the extreme Kerr horizon. In particular, we prove that the only smooth axisymmetric transverse deformation of the near-horizon geometry of extreme Kerr, such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped surfaces, corresponds to that of the extreme Kerr black hole. Furthermore, we determine all smooth and biaxisymmetric transverse deformations of the near-horizon geometry of the five-dimensional extreme Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. We find a three parameter family of solutions such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped, which is more general than the known black hole solutions. We discuss the possibility that they correspond to new five-dimensional vacuum black holes.

  9. Quantifying torso deformity in scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajemba, Peter O.; Kumar, Anish; Durdle, Nelson G.; Raso, V. James

    2006-03-01

    Scoliosis affects the alignment of the spine and the shape of the torso. Most scoliosis patients and their families are more concerned about the effect of scoliosis on the torso than its effect on the spine. There is a need to develop robust techniques for quantifying torso deformity based on full torso scans. In this paper, deformation indices obtained from orthogonal maps of full torso scans are used to quantify torso deformity in scoliosis. 'Orthogonal maps' are obtained by applying orthogonal transforms to 3D surface maps. (An 'orthogonal transform' maps a cylindrical coordinate system to a Cartesian coordinate system.) The technique was tested on 361 deformed computer models of the human torso and on 22 scans of volunteers (8 normal and 14 scoliosis). Deformation indices from the orthogonal maps correctly classified up to 95% of the volunteers with a specificity of 1.00 and a sensitivity of 0.91. In addition to classifying scoliosis, the system gives a visual representation of the entire torso in one view and is viable for use in a clinical environment for managing scoliosis.

  10. Externality and locus of control in obese children.

    PubMed

    Isbitsky, J R; White, D R

    1981-03-01

    Fifty-nine obese and normal-weight children, aged 8-12 years were compared on two dimensions of "externality," previously examined in obese adults. Significant sex difference indicated that boys generally ate more than girls and held more internal locus of control expectancies. However, obese and normal-weight children were not differentiated by their performance on either a food-related or three nonfood-related measures of external-cue responsiveness, nor by their locus of control expectancies. Furthermore, the various measures were neither strongly nor consistently intercorrelated, providing little support for the notion of a single underlying dimension of "externality." The contribution of physiological, sensory, cognitive-motivational, and sociocultural parameters to the regulation of eating behavior was discussed.

  11. Negative Complementation at the Notch Locus of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Geoffrey G.

    1975-01-01

    Four Abruptex alleles (AxE1, AxE2, Ax9B2, and Ax16172) have been mapped within the Notch locus. Based on their visible phenotypes and their interactions with one another and with N mutations, the Ax alleles can be divided into two groups. Heterozygous combinations of members of the same group are intermediate in phenotype compared to the respective homozygotes, whereas heterozygotes of Ax alleles from different groups exhibit negative heterosis, being much less viable and more extremely mutant than either homozygote. It is suggested that the Notch locus is a multi-functional regulator ("integrator") gene, whose product possesses both "repressor" and "activator" functions for the processes it regulates. PMID:812768

  12. Locus of control: a work-related variable?

    PubMed

    Knoop, R

    1989-02-01

    Inconsistencies in findings between age and perceived locus of control of reinforcement were examined in light of social learning theory. Absence of work was hypothesized to reduce opportunities for reinforcement and thus expectancies. No differences were found in internal-external (I-E) locus of control among nine age groups (20 to 65 years) for subjects (882 school teachers) during the span of their work lives. It seems that I-E depends on the frequency and intensity of expectancies for behavior reinforcement sequences that work affords. Before and after work life there is not only less to control, but many of the nonwork reinforcers are not contingent on one's own behavior. Relinquishing internal control and a shift of focus toward reflection on experience and meaning of ife may well be a desirable and natural process for older people.

  13. Refined localization of the Prieto-syndrome locus

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, F.; Prieto, F.; Gal, A.

    1996-07-12

    PRS designates the locus for a syndromal form of X-linked mental retardation (Prieto syndrome) characterized by minor facial anomalies, ear malformation, abnormal growth of teeth, clinodactyly, sacral dimple, patellar luxation, malformation of lower limbs, abnormalities of the fundus of the eye, and subcortical cerebral atrophy. Linkage analysis localized the disease locus between DXS84 (Xp21.1) and DXS255. Here we present additional linkage data that provide further support and refinement of this localization. Individual III-18 gave birth to a male, currently aged 2 7/12 years, who clearly shows delayed psychomotor development. He began to walk at 23 months and his speech is delayed. In addition, he shows the characteristic facial anomalies, {open_quotes}dysplastic{close_quotes} ears, sacral dimple, and clinodactyly, as do all other affected males in this family. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Locus-specific gene repositioning in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leshner, Marc; Devine, Michelle; Roloff, Gregory W.; True, Lawrence D.; Misteli, Tom; Meaburn, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Genes occupy preferred spatial positions within interphase cell nuclei. However, positioning patterns are not an innate feature of a locus, and genes can alter their localization in response to physiological and pathological changes. Here we screen the radial positioning patterns of 40 genes in normal, hyperplasic, and malignant human prostate tissues. We find that the overall spatial organization of the genome in prostate tissue is largely conserved among individuals. We identify three genes whose nuclear positions are robustly altered in neoplastic prostate tissues. FLI1 and MMP9 position differently in prostate cancer than in normal tissue and prostate hyperplasia, whereas MMP2 is repositioned in both prostate cancer and hyperplasia. Our data point to locus-specific reorganization of the genome during prostate disease. PMID:26564800

  15. The locus of microRNA-10b

    PubMed Central

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary microRNA research has led to significant advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs participate in different events of a cancer cell’s life, through their ability to target hundreds of putative transcripts involved in almost every cellular function, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. The relevance of these small molecules is even more evident in light of the emerging linkage between their expression and both prognosis and clinical outcome of many types of human cancers. This identifies microRNAs as potential therapeutic modifiers of cancer phenotypes. From this perspective, we overview here the miR-10b locus and its involvement in cancer, focusing on its role in the establishment (miR-10b*) and spreading (miR-10b) of breast cancer. We conclude that targeting the locus of microRNA 10b holds great potential for cancer treatment. PMID:23839045

  16. Health locus of control and participation in physical activity.

    PubMed

    Carlson, B R; Petti, K

    1989-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the physical activity participation patterns of college students when defined by their Health Locus of Control orientation. One thousand thirty-three college-aged students completed the Wellness Activity Profile, a questionnaire that yielded data on Health Locus of Control and self-reported frequency of participation in physical activities. Discriminant analyses indicated that the combination of physical activities associated with internally and externally oriented students were different for both males and females. Participation in high caloric expenditure activities was more frequent among internal subjects (Male: bicycling, volleyball, other individual sports, and snorkel/scuba diving; Female: basketball, weight training, tennis, fast walking/jogging/running, and judo/karate), while low caloric expenditure activities were associated with an external orientation (Male: baseball/softball, sailing, fishing, golf, and other recreational sports; Female: track and field jumping and fishing).

  17. Two-locus inbreeding measures for recurrent selection.

    PubMed

    Choy, S C; Weir, B S

    1977-03-01

    For a population undergoing recurrent selection, a method is presented for determining the average inbreeding coefficients at the end of each breeding cycle. The coefficients are derived in terms of probability measures that genes are identical by descent. For the one-locus case, two digametic measures are defined and employed in the derivation of a recurrence formula for the inbreeding coefficient. Two further classes of measures, trigametic and quadrigametic, are required for transition from one cycle to the previous one to allow the calculation of the inbreeding function for the two-locus case. Numerical values of the average probability of double identity by descent for populations with various imposed assumptions are listed to illustrate the effects of linkage and population size on the accrual of inbreeding and hence of homozygosity.

  18. Shock metamorphism of deformed quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.

  19. Finite Deformation of Magnetoelastic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Barham, Matthew Ian

    2011-05-31

    A nonlinear two-dimensional theory is developed for thin magnetoelastic lms capable of large deformations. This is derived directly from three-dimensional theory. Signi cant simpli cations emerge in the descent from three dimensions to two, permitting the self eld generated by the body to be computed a posteriori. The model is specialized to isotropic elastomers with two material models. First weak magnetization is investigated leading to a free energy where magnetization and deformation are un-coupled. The second closely couples the magnetization and deformation. Numerical solutions are obtained to equilibrium boundary-value problems in which the membrane is subjected to lateral pressure and an applied magnetic eld. An instability is inferred and investigated for the weak magnetization material model.

  20. Chaetal deformities in aquatic oligochaeta

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkhurst, R.O.; Wetzel, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gross deformities in the chaetae of specimens of the tubificid Potamothrix hammoniensis were described by Milbrink from Lake Vaenern, Sweden. This lake is one of the most mercury-polluted major lakes of the world. Statistical tests showed a highly significant correlation between the incidence of deformities and the mercury concentration in the sediments. Changes in the pulp and paper mill process led to marked reduction in specimens with deformities. Similarly modified specimens of various species have been observed at a number of sites contaminated with heavy metals or oil residues in North America. Experimental work on chaetal form has demonstrated changes due to conductivity which have also been observed in saline inland waters. These experiments suggest that chaetae may be shed and replaced by worms every few days. EDX observation of chaetae indicated that metals may accumulate in them, and so provide a potential depuration mechanism. Independent physiological studies suggest that worms may be capable of regulating their metal levels.

  1. Microstructure of deformed graywacke sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, L.A.

    1980-03-05

    Microsctures in low-permeability graywacke sandstones were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM specimens were prepared by ion-bombardment of thick polished samples. The undeformed rock contains grains in a matrix composed primarily of authigenic chlorite and kaolinite. Chlorite platelets are randomly arranged in face-to-edge relation to one another. Kaolinite occurs as pseudohexagonal crystals stacked face-to-face in pore filling books. Uniaxial-stress experiments covered a range of confining pressures from .1 to 600 MPa. Below 50 MPa confining pressure, intergranular fracturing occurs within the fault zone and near the sample's cylindrical surface. Between 100 and 300 MPa confining pressure, fault zones contain highly fractured grains, gauge and slickensides on grain surfaces. At 600 MPa, the sample contains a diffuse shear zone of highly fractured grains and no well-defined fault. In all samples, the distribution of microcracks is heterogeneous. Different clay minerals exhibit different modes of deformation. Chlorite structure responds to applied stress by compaction, reducing both pore size and volume. Chlorite platelets are plastically deformed in even the least strained samples. Kaolinite does not deform plastically in any of the samples examined. Deformation of kaolinite is restricted to toppling of the book structure. Dilatant crack growth was studied in two samples unloaded prior to failure. Uniaxially-strained samples deform primarily along grain boundaries, producing intergranular cracks and realignment of chlorite platelets. Intragranular crack density is linearly related to axial-strain, although grains are less fractured than in uniaxially-stressed samples tested at equivalent mean pressures. Cracks are rarely longer than a grain diameter. Nuclear-explosively deformed samples were recovered after the Rio Blanco gas stimulation experiment. (JGB)

  2. Identification of a functional capsule locus in Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Rukke, H V; Hegna, I K; Petersen, F C

    2012-04-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a hallmark for virulence in humans. In its close relative Streptococcus mitis, a common human commensal, analysis of the sequenced genomes of six strains revealed the presence of a putative capsule locus in four of them. We constructed an isogenic S. mitis mutant from the type strain that lacked the 19 open reading frames in the capsule locus (Δcps mutant), using a deletion strategy similar to previous capsule functional studies in S. pneumoniae. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed a capsule-like structure in the S. mitis type strain that was absent or reduced in the Δcps mutant. Since S. mitis are predominant oral colonizers of tooth surfaces, we addressed the relevance of the capsule locus for the S. mitis overall surface properties, autoaggregation and biofilm formation. The capsule deletion resulted in a mutant with approximately two-fold increase in hydrophobicity. Binding to the Stains-all cationic dye was reduced by 40%, suggesting a reduction in the overall negative surface charge of the mutant. The mutant exhibited also increased autoaggregation in coaggregation buffer, and up to six-fold increase in biofilm levels. The results suggested that the capsule locus is associated with production of a capsule-like structure in S. mitis and indicated that the S. mitis capsule-like structure may confer surface attributes similar to those associated with the capsule in S. pneumoniae.

  3. Analysis of the ABCA4 genomic locus in Stargardt disease.

    PubMed

    Zernant, Jana; Xie, Yajing Angela; Ayuso, Carmen; Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Lopez-Martinez, Miguel-Angel; Simonelli, Francesca; Testa, Francesco; Gorin, Michael B; Strom, Samuel P; Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Boone, Philip M; Yuan, Bo; Ayyagari, Radha; Nagy, Peter L; Tsang, Stephen H; Gouras, Peter; Collison, Frederick T; Lupski, James R; Fishman, Gerald A; Allikmets, Rando

    2014-12-20

    Autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1, MIM 248200) is caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene. Complete sequencing of ABCA4 in STGD patients identifies compound heterozygous or homozygous disease-associated alleles in 65-70% of patients and only one mutation in 15-20% of patients. This study was designed to find the missing disease-causing ABCA4 variation by a combination of next-generation sequencing (NGS), array-Comparative Genome Hybridization (aCGH) screening, familial segregation and in silico analyses. The entire 140 kb ABCA4 genomic locus was sequenced in 114 STGD patients with one known ABCA4 exonic mutation revealing, on average, 200 intronic variants per sample. Filtering of these data resulted in 141 candidates for new mutations. Two variants were detected in four samples, two in three samples, and 20 variants in two samples, the remaining 117 new variants were detected only once. Multimodal analysis suggested 12 new likely pathogenic intronic ABCA4 variants, some of which were specific to (isolated) ethnic groups. No copy number variation (large deletions and insertions) was detected in any patient suggesting that it is a very rare event in the ABCA4 locus. Many variants were excluded since they were not conserved in non-human primates, were frequent in African populations and, therefore, represented ancestral, and not disease-associated, variants. The sequence variability in the ABCA4 locus is extensive and the non-coding sequences do not harbor frequent mutations in STGD patients of European-American descent. Defining disease-associated alleles in the ABCA4 locus requires exceptionally well characterized large cohorts and extensive analyses by a combination of various approaches. PMID:25082829

  4. Characterization of a Multipeptide Lantibiotic Locus in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Maricic, Natalie; Anderson, Erica S.; Opipari, AnneMarie E.; Yu, Emily A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial communities are established through a combination of cooperative and antagonistic interactions between the inhabitants. Competitive interactions often involve the production of antimicrobial substances, including bacteriocins, which are small antimicrobial peptides that target other community members. Despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of bacteriocin-encoding loci, inhibitory activity has been attributed to only a small fraction of gene clusters. In this study, we characterized a novel locus (the pld locus) in the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae that drives the production of a bacteriocin called pneumolancidin, which has broad antimicrobial activity. The locus encodes an unusual tandem array of four inhibitory peptides, three of which are absolutely required for antibacterial activity. The three peptide sequences are similar but appear to play distinct roles in regulation and inhibition. A modification enzyme typically found in loci encoding a class of highly modified bacteriocins called lantibiotics was required for inhibitory activity. The production of pneumolancidin is controlled by a two-component regulatory system that is activated by the accumulation of modified peptides. The locus is located on a mobile element that has been found in many pneumococcal lineages, although not all elements carry the pld genes. Intriguingly, a minimal region containing only the genes required for pneumolancidin immunity was found in several Streptococcus mitis strains. The pneumolancidin-producing strain can inhibit nearly all pneumococci tested to date and provided a competitive advantage in vivo. These peptides not only represent a unique strategy for bacterial competition but also are an important resource to guide the development of new antimicrobials. PMID:26814178

  5. Deformed microbial mat structures in a semiarid temperate coastal setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadrado, Diana G.; Pan, Jerónimo; Gómez, Eduardo A.; Maisano, Lucía

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on sedimentary structures formed by microbial consortia, in a particular coastal setting, an ancient tidal channel, separated from the ocean by a sandy spit and connected by a blind tidal channel at the opposite end. Most studies in modern and ancient environments consider water movement as the triggering mechanism acting in the formation and deformation of sedimentary structures. As such, the paper documents the presence of several microbial structures such as shrinkage cracks, flip-over mats, microbial chips, and multidirectional ripples which are related to tidal processes, while bulges and gas domes structures are formed after occasional inundation events. However, the more conspicuous structures covering a great area at the study site are folds and roll-ups, the product of deformation of microbially induced structures by the action of sporadic spring-tidal currents due to strong winds. Therefore, the objective of this research is to document modern sedimentary structures in a coastal area and to provide a mechanistic explanation for their formation, based on the interplaying effects of the moisture variation and high shear stress. Also, several microbial sedimentary structures are distinguished throughout vertical sediment cores, such as microbial chips, detached mat, sponge fabrics, tears, and concentric structures, which are identified in a sedimentary profile. Through the recognition and interpretation of modern sedimentary deformation structures, this study contributes empirical tools for the reconstruction of analogous paleoenvironments in fossil studies.

  6. Mathematically guided approaches to distinguish models of periodic patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Tom W.; Megason, Sean G.

    2015-01-01

    How periodic patterns are generated is an open question. A number of mechanisms have been proposed – most famously, Turing's reaction-diffusion model. However, many theoretical and experimental studies focus on the Turing mechanism while ignoring other possible mechanisms. Here, we use a general model of periodic patterning to show that different types of mechanism (molecular, cellular, mechanical) can generate qualitatively similar final patterns. Observation of final patterns is therefore not sufficient to favour one mechanism over others. However, we propose that a mathematical approach can help to guide the design of experiments that can distinguish between different mechanisms, and illustrate the potential value of this approach with specific biological examples. PMID:25605777

  7. Closed time like curves enable perfect state distinguishability

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, James William; Wilde, Mark M; Brun, Todd A

    2008-01-01

    The causal self-consistency condition for closed timelike curves can give rise to nonlinear interactions on chronology-respecting qubits. We demonstrate that particular unitary interactions between closed timelike curve qubits and chronology-respecting qubits allow perfect distinguishability of nonorthogonal states, and provide a constructive proof for an arbitrary number of nonorthogonal states. This has a number of highly significant consequences. For example, an adversary with access to closed timelike curves can break the B92, BB84, and SARG04 quantum key distribution protocols, or any prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution scheme. Our result also implies that a party with access to closed timelike curves can violate the Holevo bound by accessing more than log(N) bits of information from an N-dimensional quantum state. In principle, he can transmit an arbitrarily large amount of classical information with a quantum system of fixed size. We discuss the implications of this for quantum cloning.

  8. Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Mark; Perring, Anne E.; McCabe, Kevin; Kok, Greg; Granger, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-07-01

    Rapid bioaerosol characterization has immediate applications in the military, environmental and public health sectors. Recent technological advances have facilitated single-particle detection of fluorescent aerosol in near real time; this leverages controlled ultraviolet exposures with single or multiple wavelengths, followed by the characterization of associated fluorescence. This type of ultraviolet induced fluorescence has been used to detect airborne microorganisms and their fragments in laboratory studies, and it has been extended to field studies that implicate bioaerosol to compose a substantial fraction of supermicron atmospheric particles. To enhance the information yield that new-generation fluorescence instruments can provide, we report the compilation of a referential aerobiological catalogue including more than 50 pure cultures of common airborne bacteria, fungi and pollens, recovered at water activity equilibrium in a mesoscale chamber (1 m3). This catalogue juxtaposes intrinsic optical properties and select bandwidths of fluorescence emissions, which manifest to clearly distinguish between major classes of airborne microbes and pollens.

  9. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  10. Distinguishing between Lévy walks and strong alternative models.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, A M

    2012-05-01

    Lévy walks are a widely used but contentious model of animal movement patterns. They are contentious because they have been wrongly ascribed to some animal species through use of incorrect statistical methods and because they have not been adequately compared against strong alternative models, such as composite correlated random walks. This lack of comparison has been partly because the strong alternative models do not have simple likelihood functions. Here I show that power-spectra and the distribution of the first significant digits (the leading non-zero digits) of the step lengths can distinguish between Lévy walks and composite correlated random walks. Using these diagnostic tools, I bolster previous claims that honey bees use a movement strategy that can be approximated by Lévy walks when searching for their hive or for a food source.

  11. How to distinguish a molecule from an 'elementary' particle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L. Y.; Shi, M.; Tang, G. Y.; Zheng, H. Q.

    2014-07-01

    We discuss how to use Morgan's pole counting rule to distinguish a molecular state from an 'elementary' particle. As two examples we focus on X(3872) and f0(980) particles. A molecule may be generated from a meson loop bubble chain, and an 'elementary' particle is related to an explicit interaction field in the effective lagrangian and propagates with a Breit-Wigner propagator. For X(3872) it is found that the data favor the 'elementary' particle explanation. For f0(980) the study becomes much more difficult, since highly nonperturbative dynamics is involved. A unitarization model analysis suggests that f0(980)'s property is quite exotic. Unlike other light scalars, it does not behave like a {\\bar q}q state, and could be interpreted as a molecule.

  12. How to distinguish a molecule from an `elementary' particle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L. Y.; Shi, M.; Tang, G. Y.; Zheng, H. Q.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss how to use Morgan's pole counting rule to distinguish a molecular state from an `elementary' particle. As two examples we focus on X(3872) and f0(980) particles. A molecule may be generated from a meson loop bubble chain, and an `elementary' particle is related to an explicit interaction field in the effective lagrangian and propagates with a Breit-Wigner propagator. For X(3872) it is found that the data favor the `elementary' particle explanation. For f0(3872) the study becomes much more difficult, since highly non-perturbative dynamics is involved. A unitarization model analysis suggests that f0(980)'s property is quite exotic. Unlike other light scalars, it does not behave like a overline q q state, and could be interpreted as a molecule.

  13. The usefulness of distinguishing types of aggression by function.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, J Martín

    2010-01-01

    Far from being a universally defined notion, aggression is a changing and multifaceted phenomenon encompassing various concepts. There is no consensus as to how different types of aggression should be classified: multiple ways of doing so using a variety of criteria exist in the scientific literature. Some scientists categorise aggressive acts according to how they are expressed, while others prefer to look at motive, function, purpose and objective. Despite the claim of some authors that distinguishing between different types of aggressive acts is not always productive, categorising these according to different purposes and objectives can be very useful, both for developing theory and because such an approach serves forensic practice as well as preventive and therapeutic interventions, as these focus on the propensities and personality of the individual. Furthermore, given that the main functional classifications analysed show a common tendency to dichotomise, it would seem appropriate for their terminology and some of their measurement instruments to be standardised.

  14. Distinguishing fiction from non-fiction with complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larue, David M.; Carr, Lincoln D.; Jones, Linnea K.; Stevanak, Joe T.

    2014-03-01

    Complex Network Measures are applied to networks constructed from texts in English to demonstrate an initial viability in textual analysis. Texts from novels and short stories obtained from Project Gutenberg and news stories obtained from NPR are selected. Unique word stems in a text are used as nodes in an associated unweighted undirected network, with edges connecting words occurring within a certain number of words somewhere in the text. Various combinations of complex network measures are computed for each text's network. Fisher's Linear Discriminant analysis is used to build a parameter optimizing the ability to separate the texts according to their genre. Success rates in the 70% range for correctly distinguishing fiction from non-fiction were obtained using edges defined as within four words, using 400 word samples from 400 texts from each of the two genres with some combinations of measures such as the power-law exponents of degree distributions and clustering coefficients.

  15. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R; Gilarranz, Luis J; Sugihara, George

    2015-01-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains. PMID:26435402

  16. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R.; Gilarranz, Luis J.; Sugihara, George

    2015-10-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains.

  17. A conceptual and psychometric framework for distinguishing categories and dimensions.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or dimension-like. Being dimension-like requires (a) within-category heterogeneity and (b) between-category quantitative differences. Being category-like requires (a) within-category homogeneity and (b) between-category qualitative differences. The relation between this classification and abrupt versus smooth differences is discussed. Hybrid structures are possible. Being category-like is itself a matter of degree; the authors offer a formalized framework to determine this degree. Empirical applications to personality disorders, attitudes toward capital punishment, and stages of cognitive development illustrate the approach.

  18. Distinguishing dialect and development from disorder: case studies.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Ciolli, Lois

    2004-02-01

    Seven case studies are presented to illustrate how the tasks in the proposed test battery provide the tools to distinguish language differences due to development or dialect from true signs of delay or disorder. The case studies exemplify different combinations of language strengths and weakness found among participants of extensive field research in the age range from 4 to 9 years. Special attention is paid to certain aspects of language development, such as time clauses or double wh-questions, in which dialect features play no role. All levels of performance, from the highest to the lowest, are found in children who are speakers of Mainstream American English (MAE) and the same is true for those whose language patterns indicate a strong variation from MAE.

  19. Controllable objective with deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, V V; Safronov, A G

    2004-03-31

    A new optical device - an objective with deformable mirrors and parameters controlled in the dynamic regime is proposed. The computer simulation of the objective is performed. The dependences of some parameters of the objective on the control voltage are determined. The simulation showed that the ranges of control of the rear focal segment and the focal distance for the objective with the focal distance 602 mm were 1057 and 340 mm, respectively, which is substantially greater than in the control of an equivalent deformable mirror. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Analytical volcano deformation source models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Primary volcanic landforms are created by the ascent and eruption of magma. The ascending magma displaces and interacts with surrounding rock and fluids as it creates new pathways, flows through cracks or conduits, vesiculates, and accumulates in underground reservoirs. The formation of new pathways and pressure changes within existing conduits and reservoirs stress and deform the surrounding rock. Eruption products load the crust. The pattern and rate of surface deformation around volcanoes reflect the tectonic and volcanic processes transmitted to the surface through the mechanical properties of the crust.

  1. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  2. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  3. Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus.

    PubMed

    Star, Bastiaan; Tørresen, Ole K; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Pampoulie, Christophe; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55 Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes that segregate closely according to a XX-XY system. Genotypes in this region can be used genetically determine sex, whereas those in the other regions are inconsistently sex-linked. The identified region on LG11 and its surrounding genes have no clear sequence homology with genes or regulatory elements associated with sex-determination or differentiation in other species. The functionality of this sex-locus therefore remains unknown. The WGS strategy used here proved adequate for detecting the small regions associated with sex in this species. Our results highlight the evolutionary flexibility in genomic architecture underlying teleost sex-determination and allow practical applications to genetically sex Atlantic cod. PMID:27499266

  4. Population genetics of the HRAS1 minisatellite locus

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, B.; Risch, N. ); Krontiris, T. New England Medical Center Hospital, Boston, MA )

    1993-12-01

    Several years ago it was reported that rare HRAS1 VNTR alleles occurred more frequently in US Caucasian cancer patients than in unaffected controls. Such an association, in theory, could be caused by undetected population heterogeneity. Also, in a study clearly relevant to this issue, it was recently reported that significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium exist at this locus in a sample of US Caucasians. These considerations motivate population genetic analysis of the HRAS1 locus. From published studies of the HRAS1 VNTR locus, which classified alleles into types, the authors found only small differences in the allele frequency distributions of samples from various European nations, although there were larger differences among ethnic groups (African American, Caucasian, and Oriental). In an analysis of variation of rare-allele frequencies among samples from four European nations, most of the variance was attributable to molecular methodology, and very little of the variance was accounted for by nationality. In addition, the authors showed that mixture of European subpopulations should result in only minor deviations from expected genotype proportions in a Caucasian database and demonstrated that there was no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HRAS1 data. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Targeted disruption of the porcine immunoglobulin kappa light chain locus.

    PubMed

    Ramsoondar, J; Mendicino, M; Phelps, C; Vaught, T; Ball, S; Monahan, J; Chen, S; Dandro, A; Boone, J; Jobst, P; Vance, A; Wertz, N; Polejaeva, I; Butler, J; Dai, Y; Ayares, D; Wells, K

    2011-06-01

    Inactivation of the endogenous pig immunoglobulin (Ig) loci, and replacement with their human counterparts, would produce animals that could alleviate both the supply and specificity issues of therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). Platform genetics are being developed in pigs that have all endogenous Ig loci inactivated and replaced by human counterparts, in order to address this unmet clinical need. This report describes the deletion of the porcine kappa (κ) light chain constant (Cκ) region in pig primary fetal fibroblasts (PPFFs) using gene targeting technology, and the generation of live animals from these cells via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning. There are only two other targeted loci previously published in swine, and this is the first report of a targeted disruption of an Ig light chain locus in a livestock species. Pigs with one targeted Cκ allele (heterozygous knockout or ±) were bred together to generate Cκ homozygous knockout (-/-) animals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) from Cκ -/- pigs were devoid of κ-containing Igs. Furthermore, there was an increase in lambda (λ) light chain expression when compared to that of wild-type littermates (Cκ +/+). Targeted inactivation of the Ig heavy chain locus has also been achieved and work is underway to inactivate the pig lambda light chain locus.

  6. Purpose in life, depression, and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W M

    1980-07-01

    Parallel to Frankl's theory of the search for meaning, which posits the separateness but intertwining of the psychological and existential realms, the Purpose In Life Test (PIL) has been found to have a low to moderate relationship with most conceptually related psychological measures. Extending separate correlational studies of the PIL with depression and locus of control, the current study inspected the relationship of individual PIL items to groups formed according to Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Rotter Internal-External Locus Of Control scores. One-hundred thirty-four Ss were split into four groups: Depressed external, depressed internals, nondepressed externals, and nondepressed internals. Although ungrouped correlational analysis of PIL items revealed only seven significant relationships with depression and two with locus of control, multiple discriminate analysis was successful in correctly classifying depressed externals about three-fourths of the time, and the overall "hit rate" for the four groups was above 60%. In addition to further validating the interaction of purpose in life with related psychological and social expectancy variables, results indicated a compounding effect between depression and external perception of reinforcement control with PIL scores in general, and two items (#4, 12) in particular, which appear to reflect the experience of current congruent involvement between the individual and his world.

  7. Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus

    PubMed Central

    Star, Bastiaan; Tørresen, Ole K.; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Pampoulie, Christophe; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55 Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes that segregate closely according to a XX-XY system. Genotypes in this region can be used genetically determine sex, whereas those in the other regions are inconsistently sex-linked. The identified region on LG11 and its surrounding genes have no clear sequence homology with genes or regulatory elements associated with sex-determination or differentiation in other species. The functionality of this sex-locus therefore remains unknown. The WGS strategy used here proved adequate for detecting the small regions associated with sex in this species. Our results highlight the evolutionary flexibility in genomic architecture underlying teleost sex-determination and allow practical applications to genetically sex Atlantic cod. PMID:27499266

  8. Genetic analysis of the claret locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, W.; Nelson, C.R.; Szauter, P. )

    1989-11-01

    The claret (ca) locus of Drosophila melanogaster comprises two separately mutable domains, one responsible for eye color and one responsible for proper disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis and early cleavage divisions. Previously isolated alleles are of three types: (1) alleles of the claret (ca) type that affect eye color only, (2) alleles of the claret-nondisjunctional (ca{sup nd}) type that affect eye color and chromosome behavior, and (3) a meiotic mutation, non-claret disjunctional (ncd), that affects chromosome behavior only. In order to investigate the genetic structure of the claret locus, the authors have isolated 19 radiation-induced alleles of claret on the basis of the eye color phenotype. Two of these 19 new alleles are of the ca{sup nd} type, while 17 are of the ca type, demonstrating that the two domains do not often act as a single target for mutagenesis. This suggests that the two separately mutable functions are likely to be encoded by separate or overlapping genes rather than by a single gene. One of the new alleles of the ca{sup nd} type is a chromosome rearrangement with a breakpoint at the position of the claret locus. If this breakpoint is the cause of the mutant phenotype and there are no other mutations associated with the rearrangement, the two functions must be encoded by overlapping genes.

  9. A method for distinguishing between propagons, diffusions, and locons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun

    2016-07-01

    The majority of intuition on phonon transport has been derived from studies of homogenous crystalline solids, where the atomic composition and structure are periodic. For this specific class of materials, the solutions to the equations of motions for the atoms (in the harmonic limit) result in plane wave modulated velocity fields for the normal modes of vibration. However, it has been known for several decades that whenever a system lacks periodicity, either compositional or structural, the normal modes of vibration can still be determined (in the harmonic limit), but the solutions take on different characteristics and many modes may not be plane wave modulated. Previous work has classified the types of vibrations into three primary categories, namely, propagons, diffusions, and locons. One can use the participation ratio to distinguish locons, from propagons and diffusons, which measures the extent to which a mode is localized. However, distinguishing between propagons and diffusons has remained a challenge, since both are spatially delocalized. Here, we present a new method that quantifies the extent to which a mode's character corresponds to a propagating mode, e.g., exhibits plane wave modulation. This then allows for clear and quantitative distinctions between propagons and diffusons. By resolving this issue quantitatively, one can now automate the classification of modes for any arbitrary material or structure, subject to a single constraint that the atoms must vibrate stably around their respective equilibrium sites. Several example test cases are studied including crystalline silicon and germanium, crystalline silicon with different defect concentrations, as well as amorphous silicon, germanium, and silica.

  10. Novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for distinguishing rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), Roanoke bass (Ambloplites cavifrons), and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Eschenroeder, Jackman C; Roberts, James H

    2016-10-01

    The rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) is a popular sport-fish native to the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins of North America. The species has been widely introduced outside its native range, including into Atlantic-slope streams of Virginia where it may hybridize with an imperiled, similar-looking congener, the Roanoke bass (Ambloplites cavifrons). In this study, we identified and evaluated novel molecular markers to facilitate identification of these species and study the extent of hybridization. Using molecular libraries developed from A. rupestris, we identified a suite of candidate nuclear microsatellite loci, synthesized primer sets, and tested these markers for amplification and polymorphism in populations of both species. We then calculated standard diversity statistics within and differentiation statistics between species, the latter providing an indication of marker power for distinguishing the species and their hybrids. Additionally, we evaluated our efficiency for identifying hybrids by classifying simulated genotypes of known ancestry. Eleven loci were polymorphic (2-22 alleles per locus) and reliably amplified in both species. Multilocus genetic differentiation between A. cavifrons and A. rupestris was quite high (F ST  = 0.66; D LR  = 19.3), indicating the high statistical power of this marker set for species and hybrid identification. Analyses of simulated data suggested these markers reliably distinguish between hybrids and non-hybrids, as well as between F1 hybrids and backcrossed individuals. This panel of 11 loci should prove useful for understanding patterns of hybridization between A. rupestris and A. cavifrons. As the first microsatellite markers developed for Ambloplites, these markers also should prove broadly useful for population genetic studies of this genus. PMID:27485592

  11. Enhanced detection of polymorphic DNA by multiple arbitrary amplicon profiling of endonuclease-digested DNA: identification of markers tightly linked to the supernodulation locus in soybean.

    PubMed

    Caetano-Anollés, G; Bassam, B J; Gresshoff, P M

    1993-10-01

    Multiple endonuclease digestion of template DNA or amplification products can increase significantly the detection of polymorphic DNA in fingerprints generated by multiple arbitrary amplicon profiling (MAAP). This coupling of endonuclease cleavage and amplification of arbitrary stretches of DNA, directed by short oligonucleotide primers, readily allowed distinction of closely related fungal and bacterial isolates and plant cultivars. MAAP analysis of cleaved template DNA enabled the identification of molecular markers linked to a developmental locus of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill). Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced supernodulating, near-isogenic lines altered in the nts locus, which controls nodule formation, could be distinguished from each other and from the parent cultivar by amplification of template pre-digested with 2-3 restriction enzymes. A total of 42 DNA polymorphisms were detected using only 19 octamer primers. In the absence of digestion, 25 primers failed to differentiate these soybean genotypes. Several polymorphic products co-segregated tightly with the nts locus in F2 families from crosses between the allelic mutants nts382 and nts1007 and the ancestral G. soja Sieb. & Succ. PI468.397. Our results suggest that EMS is capable of inducing extensive DNA alterations, probably around discrete mutational hot-spots. EMS-induced DNA polymorphisms may constitute sequence-tagged markers diagnostic of specific genomic regions.

  12. Space-based monitoring of ground deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobakht Ersi, Fereydoun; Safari, Abdolreza; Gamse, Sonja

    2016-07-01

    Ground deformation monitoring is valuable to understanding of the behaviour of natural phenomena. Space-Based measurement systems such as Global Positioning System are useful tools for continuous monitoring of ground deformation. Ground deformation analysis based on space geodetic techniques have provided a new, more accurate, and reliable source of information for geodetic positioning which is used to detect deformations of the Ground surface. This type of studies using displacement fields derived from repeated measurments of space-based geodetic networks indicates how crucial role the space geodetic methods play in geodynamics. The main scope of this contribution is to monitor of ground deformation by obtained measurements from GPS sites. We present ground deformation analysis in three steps: a global congruency test on daily coordinates of permanent GPS stations to specify in which epochs deformations occur, the localization of the deformed GPS sites and the determination of deformations.

  13. High-resolution mapping of the x-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Zonana, J.; Jones, M.; Litt, M.; Kramer, P.; Browne, D.; Becker, H.W. ); Brockdorff, N.; Rastan, S. ); Davies, K.P.; Clarke, A. )

    1992-11-01

    The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus has been previously localized to the subchromosomal region Xq11-q21.1. The authors have extended previous linkage studies and analyzed linkage between the EDA locus and 10 marker loci, including five new loci, in 41 families. Four of the marker loci showed no recombination with the EDA locus, and six other loci were also linked to the EDA locus with recombination fractions of .009-.075. Multipoint analysis gave support to the placement of the PGK1P1 locus proximal to the EDA locus and the DXS453 and PGK1 loci distal to EDA. Further ordering of the loci could be inferred from a human-rodent somatic cell hybrid derived from an affected female with EDA and an X;9 translocation and from studies of an affected male with EDA and a submicroscopic deletion. Three of the proximal marker loci, which showed no recombination with the EDA locus, when used in combination, were informative in 92% of females. The closely linked flanking polymorphic loci DXS339 and DXS453 had heterozygosites of 72% and 76%, respectively, and when used jointly, they were doubly informative in 52% of females. The human DXS732 locus was defined by a conserved mouse probe pcos169E/4 (DXCrc169 locus) that consegregates with the mouse tabby (Ta) locus, a potential homologue to the EDA locus. The absence of recombination between EDA and the DXSA732 locus lends support to the hypothesis that the DXCrc169 locus in the mouse and the DXS732 locus in humans may contain candidate sequences for the Ta and EDA genes, respectively. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Waxy Phenotype Evolution in the Allotetraploid Cereal Broomcorn Millet: Mutations at the GBSSI Locus in Their Functional and Phylogenetic Context

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Harriet V.; Moots, Hannah M.; Graybosch, Robert A.; Jones, Huw; Parker, Mary; Romanova, Olga; Jones, Martin K.; Howe, Christopher J.; Trafford, Kay

    2013-01-01

    is a system in the process of becoming diploidized for the GBSSI locus responsible for grain amylose. Mutant alleles show some exchange between genetic groups, which was favored by selection for the waxy phenotype in particular regions. Partially waxy phenotypes were probably selected against—this unexpected finding shows that better understanding is needed of the human biology of this phenomenon that distinguishes cereal use in eastern and western cultures. PMID:22936718

  15. Coseismic topography deformation at Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xinyue; Lavier, Luc; Tan, Eh

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zones produce the largest earthquakes. However, our understanding of earthquakes' spatial-temporal occurrence and tectonic deformation at convergent margin is limited. Traditional view for subduction earthquake cycle contain three stages: Interseismic - superposition of steady elastic strain accumulation and occasional short-duration aseismic strain release, Coseismic - rapid opposite-direction release of accumulated elastic strain, and Postseismic - superposition of afterslips and viscoelastic flow in mantle wedge and lower crust. However, the way strain accumulated interseismically which is related to the generation of long-term deformation and uplift in the forearc region is still a matter of debate. Moreover, when integrated over time, coseismic uplift poorly matches the longer-term vertical deformation. To better understand these relationships, we investigate numerically how coseismic slip and long-term deformation (vertical uplift) accumulate and interact at subduction zones by using a robust, adaptive, multi-dimensional, finite element method solver, Dynearthsol3D, on a 2D continuum viscoelastoplastic model. We set the conditions in this model to a realistic convergent margin setting that resembles Sumatra region. By introducing bathymetric features, this research also explore mechanisms that could explain how strain accumulation in space and time is modified by the presence of large asperities at the subduction interface.

  16. Coseismic Topography Deformation at Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Lavier, L. L.; Tan, E.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction zones produce the largest earthquakes. However, our understanding of earthquakes' spatial-temporal occurrence and tectonic deformation at convergent margin is limited. Traditional view for subduction earthquake cycle contain three stages: Interseismic - superposition of steady elastic strain accumulation and occasional short-duration aseismic strain release, Coseismic - rapid opposite-direction release of accumulated elastic strain, and Postseismic - superposition of afterslips and viscoelastic flow in mantle wedge and lower crust. However, the way strain accumulated interseismically which is related to the generation of long-term deformation and uplift in the forearc region is still a matter of debate. Moreover, when integrated over time, coseismic uplift poorly matches the longer-term vertical deformation. To better understand these relationships, we investigate numerically how coseismic slip and long-term deformation (vertical uplift) accumulate and interact at subduction zones by using a robust, adaptive, multi-dimensional, finite element method solver, Dynearthsol3D, on a 2D continuum viscoelastoplastic model. We set the conditions in this model to a realistic convergent margin setting that resembles Sumatra region. By introducing bathymetric features, this research also explore mechanisms that could explain how strain accumulation in space and time is modified by the presence of large asperities at the subduction interface.

  17. Electrostatics of deformable lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Vorobyov, Igor; Bekker, Borislava; Allen, Toby W

    2010-06-16

    It was recently demonstrated that significant local deformations of biological membranes take place due to the fields of charged peptides and ions, challenging the standard model of membrane electrostatics. The ability of ions to retain their immediate hydration environment, combined with the lack of sensitivity of permeability to ion type or even ion pairs, led us to question the extent to which hydration energetics and electrostatics control membrane ion permeation. Using the arginine analog methyl-guanidinium as a test case, we find that although hydrocarbon electronic polarizability causes dramatic changes in ion solvation free energy, as well as a significant change (approximately 0.4 V) in the membrane dipole potential, little change in membrane permeation energetics occurs. We attribute this to compensation of solvation terms from polar and polarizable nonpolar components within the membrane, and explain why the dipole potential is not fully sensed in terms of the locally deformed bilayer interface. Our descriptions provide a deeper understanding of the translocation process and allow predictions for poly-ions, ion pairs, charged lipids, and lipid flip-flop. We also report simulations of large hydrophobic-ion-like membrane defects and the ionophore valinomycin, which exhibit little membrane deformation, as well as hydrophilic defects and the ion channel gramicidin A, to provide parallels to membranes deformed by unassisted ion permeation.

  18. Generalized coherent states under deformed quantum mechanics with maximum momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

    2013-10-01

    Following the Gazeau-Klauder approach, we construct generalized coherent states (GCS) as the quantum simulator to examine the deformed quantum mechanics, which exhibits an intrinsic maximum momentum. We study deformed harmonic oscillators and compute their probability distribution and entropy of states exactly. Also, a particle in an infinite potential box is studied perturbatively. In particular, unlike usual quantum mechanics, the present deformed case increases the entropy of the Planck scale quantum optical system. Furthermore, for simplicity, we obtain the modified uncertainty principle (MUP) with the perturbative treatment up to leading order. MUP turns out to increase generally. However, for certain values of γ (a parameter of GCS), it is possible that the MUP will vanish and hence will exhibit the classical characteristic. This is interpreted as the manifestation of the intrinsic high-momentum cutoff at lower momentum in a perturbative treatment. Although the GCS saturates the minimal uncertainty in a simultaneous measurement of physical position and momentum operators, thus constituting the squeezed states, complete coherency is impossible in quantum gravitational physics. The Mandel Q number is calculated, and it is shown that the statistics can be Poissonian and super-/sub-Poissonian depending on γ. The equation of motion is studied, and both Ehrenfest’s theorem and the correspondence principle are recovered. Fractional revival times are obtained through the autocorrelation, and they indicate that the superposition of a classical-like subwave packet is natural in GCS. We also contrast our results with the string-motivated (Snyder) type of deformed quantum mechanics, which incorporates a minimum position uncertainty rather than a maximum momentum. With the advances of quantum optics technology, it might be possible to realize some of these distinguishing quantum-gravitational features within the domain of future experiments.

  19. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics.

  20. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaercher, Pamela M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, Eloisa; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    Although the crystal structure of the high-pressure SiO2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, little is known about the development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation in stishovite. Insight into CPO and associated deformation mechanics of stishovite would provide important information for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. To study CPO development, we converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. We collected diffraction patterns in radial geometry to examine in situ development of crystallographic preferred orientation and find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction. Viscoplastic self-consistent modeling suggests the most likely slip systems at high pressure and ambient temperature are pyramidal and basal slip.

  1. Ishtar deformed belts: Evidence for deformation from below?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, V. L.; Phillips, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The mountain belts of Ishtar Terra are unique on Venus. Models for their formation include mantle upwelling, mantle downwelling, and horizontal convergence. The present forms of these models are too simple to predict surface strain, topography, or gravity. More detailed models will require specific constraints as imposed by geologic relations. In order to develop specific constraints for geodynamic models, we examine the geology of Ishtar Terra as viewed in Magellan SAR imagery in an attempt to interpret regional surface strain patterns. In this paper, we present geologic and structural relations that leads us to postulate that Ishtar deformed belts result from shear forces within the mantle acting on the lithosphere, and not by horizontal forces from colliding plates. We propose that the surface strains result from differential strain and displacement of domains within the upper mantle, and that further analysis of Ishtar deformation may allow us to identify individual domains within the mantle, and to constrain displacement trajectories between domains.

  2. Can we distinguish early dark energy from a cosmological constant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Difu; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-07-01

    Early dark energy (EDE) models are a class of quintessence dark energy with a dynamically evolving scalar field which display a small but non-negligible amount of dark energy at the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Compared with a cosmological constant, the presence of dark energy at early times changes the cosmic expansion history and consequently the shape of the linear theory power spectrum and potentially other observables. We constrain the cosmological parameters in the EDE cosmology using recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations. The best-fitting models favour no EDE; here we consider extreme examples which are in mild tension with current observations in order to explore the observational consequences of a maximally allowed amount of EDE. We study the non-linear evolution of cosmic structure in EDE cosmologies using large-volume N-body simulations. Many large-scale structure statistics are found to be very similar between the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and EDE models. We find that EDE cosmologies predict fewer massive haloes in comparison to ΛCDM, particularly at high redshifts. The most promising way to distinguish EDE from ΛCDM is to measure the power spectrum on large scales, where differences of up to 15 per cent are expected.

  3. Distinguishing genetics and eugenics on the basis of fairness.

    PubMed

    Ledley, F D

    1994-09-01

    There is concern that human applications of modern genetic technologies may lead inexorably to eugenic abuse. To prevent such abuse, it is essential to have clear, formal principles as well as algorithms for distinguishing genetics from eugenics. This work identifies essential distinctions between eugenics and genetics in the implied nature of the social contract and the importance ascribed to individual welfare relative to society. Rawls's construction of 'justice as fairness' is used as a model for how a formal systems of ethics can be used to proscribe eugenic practices. Rawls's synthesis can be applied to this problem if it is assumed that in the original condition all individuals are ignorant of their genetic constitution and unwilling to consent to social structures which may constrain their own potential. The principles of fairness applied to genetics requires that genetic interventions be directed at extending individual liberties and be applied to the greatest benefit of individuals with the least advantages. These principles are incompatible with negative eugenics which would further penalize those with genetic disadvantage. These principles limit positive eugenics to those practices which are designed to provide absolute benefit to those individuals with least advantage, are acceptable to its subjects, and further a system of basic equal liberties. This analysis also illustrates how simple deviations from first principles in Rawls's formulation could countenance eugenic applications of genetic technologies. PMID:7996561

  4. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. PMID:26168348

  5. Distinguishing the Photothermal and Photoinjection Effects in Vanadium Dioxide Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Gao, Hanwei

    2015-10-14

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) has drawn significant attention for its unique metal-to-insulator transition near the room temperature. The high electrical resistivity below the transition temperature (∼68 °C) is a result of the strong electron correlation with the assistance of lattice (Peierls) distortion. Theoretical calculations indicated that the strong interelectron interactions might induce intriguing optoelectronic phenomena, such as the multiple exciton generation (MEG), a process desirable for efficient optoelectronics and photovoltaics. However, the resistivity of VO2 is quite temperature sensitive, and therefore, the light-induced conductivity in VO2 has often been attributed to the photothermal effects. In this work, we distinguished the photothermal and photoinjection effects in VO2 nanowires by varying the chopping frequency of the optical illumination. We found that, in our VO2 nanowires, the relatively slow photothermal processes can be well suppressed when the chopping frequency is >2 kHz, whereas the fast photoinjection component (direct photoexcitation of charge carriers) remains constant at all chopping frequencies. By separating the photothermal and photoinjection processes, our work set the basis for further studies of carrier dynamics under optical excitations in strongly correlated materials.

  6. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  7. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research.

  8. Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.

    2004-06-29

    A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.

  9. 2015 Distinguished career award: Reflections on a career in science.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Edward M

    2016-08-01

    I was very pleased to receive the 2015 Distinguished Career Award from SSIB. This brief manuscript contains reminisces that might stir up pleasant memories in the older members of SSIB and also some general thoughts that I hope will be of value to the younger investigators who are closer to the beginning of their scientific careers. Although the organization has chosen to honor me with this special award, my own career was shaped by a great many people who have influenced my scientific career and I want to acknowledge them. They include Neal Miller, my doctoral mentor at Yale; Joe Holmes and Alan Epstein, my postdoctoral mentors; George Wolf and Reed Hainsworth, graduate student colleagues; John Brobeck, Paul Rozin, and Phil Teitelbaum, Michael Zigmond, Joe Verbalis, Jim Smith, and Alan Sved, faculty colleagues; Derek Denton, Paul McHugh, and James Fitzsimons, scientific role models; John Bruno, Steve Fluharty, and Linda Rinaman, post-doctoral trainees at Pitt; and Lori Flanagan, Kath Curtis, Michael Bushey, Mike Bykowski, Reza Manesh, Carrie Smith, Jennifer Vaughan, and Myriam Stricker, student trainees at Pitt. I thank them all and also my colleagues in SSIB not only for the honor of this award but for providing an abundant supply of insights and discoveries that have stimulated me throughout my adult life, in addition to being an attentive community in supporting my own work. PMID:26434784

  10. Distinguishing two Population Processes with Identical Equilibrium Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakeman, E.; Hopcraft, K. I.; Matthews, J. O.

    2003-04-01

    We analyze the relationship between the evolution of simple population processes and the rate of emigration of individuals. An external monitoring scheme is defined by counting the number leaving the population in fixed time intervals. This is the analogue of photon counting in quantum optics. It is a reasonable measurement in many situations of interest and also has the merit of being analytically tractable. The formalism we develop is used to investigate the statistical and correlation properties of two stochastic population models that give rise to identical first order probability densities. The first is the birth-death- immigration process for which many well-known results can be found in the literature. The second is based on a population sustained by multiple immigration. This model is a generalization of the pair process investigated previously [1]. It can be used to generate populations with a range of equilibrium densities including those with power law tails to be described in a companion paper. Here we show that, in the case of a geometric distribution of multiples, the equilibrium density is negative binomial and higher order joint statistical properties must be used to distinguish the model from the conventional birth-death-immigration process. Formulae characterizing the integrated counting statistics of the two models are derived and it is shown how they may be exploited to achieve this objective.

  11. Distinguishing between microscale gaseous bubbles and liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Beng Hau; An, Hongjie; Chan, Chon U.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been strong research interest in decorating surfaces with tiny bubbles and drops due to their potential applications in reducing slippage in micro and nanofluidic devices. Both nanobubbles and nanodrops are typically nucleated by exchanging fluids over a suitable substrate. However, the nucleation experiments present many challenges, such as reproducibility and the possibility of contamination. The use of one-use plastic syringes and needle cannulas in nucleation experiments can introduce polymeric contamination. A contaminated experiment may nucleate bubbles, drops or both. Moreover, it is surprisingly difficult to distinguish between bubbles and drops under the usual atomic force microscopy or optical techniques. Here we present an experimental study comparing bubbles and oil (PDMS) drops on an atomically smooth surface (HOPG). Instead of nucleating the objects via solvent exchange, we directly introduced bubbles via electrolysis, and oil drops by injecting a dilute solution. Contrary to previous reports, we find that under careful AFM characterisation, liquid drops and gaseous bubbles respond differently to a change in imaging force, and moreover present different characteristic force curves.

  12. Fimbriae have distinguishable roles in Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Iribarnegaray, Victoria; Caetano, Ana Laura; Schlapp, Geraldine; Härtel, Steffen; Zunino, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the most common etiological agents of complicated urinary tract infections, especially those associated with catheterization. This is related to the ability of P. mirabilis to form biofilms on different surfaces. This pathogen encodes 17 putative fimbrial operons, the highest number found in any sequenced bacterial species so far. The present study analyzed the role of four P. mirabilis fimbriae (MR/P, UCA, ATF and PMF) in biofilm formation using isogenic mutants. Experimental approaches included migration over catheter, swimming and swarming motility, the semiquantitative assay based on adhesion and crystal violet staining, and biofilm development by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Different assays were performed using LB or artificial urine. Results indicated that the different fimbriae contribute to the formation of a stable and functional biofilm. Fimbriae revealed particular associated roles. First, all the mutants showed a significantly reduced ability to migrate across urinary catheter sections but neither swimming nor swarming motility were affected. However, some mutants formed smaller biofilms compared with the wild type (MRP and ATF) while others formed significantly larger biofilms (UCA and PMF) showing different bioarchitecture features. It can be concluded that P. mirabilis fimbriae have distinguishable roles in the generation of biofilms, particularly in association with catheters. PMID:27091004

  13. Distinguishing genetics and eugenics on the basis of fairness.

    PubMed Central

    Ledley, F D

    1994-01-01

    There is concern that human applications of modern genetic technologies may lead inexorably to eugenic abuse. To prevent such abuse, it is essential to have clear, formal principles as well as algorithms for distinguishing genetics from eugenics. This work identifies essential distinctions between eugenics and genetics in the implied nature of the social contract and the importance ascribed to individual welfare relative to society. Rawls's construction of 'justice as fairness' is used as a model for how a formal systems of ethics can be used to proscribe eugenic practices. Rawls's synthesis can be applied to this problem if it is assumed that in the original condition all individuals are ignorant of their genetic constitution and unwilling to consent to social structures which may constrain their own potential. The principles of fairness applied to genetics requires that genetic interventions be directed at extending individual liberties and be applied to the greatest benefit of individuals with the least advantages. These principles are incompatible with negative eugenics which would further penalize those with genetic disadvantage. These principles limit positive eugenics to those practices which are designed to provide absolute benefit to those individuals with least advantage, are acceptable to its subjects, and further a system of basic equal liberties. This analysis also illustrates how simple deviations from first principles in Rawls's formulation could countenance eugenic applications of genetic technologies. PMID:7996561

  14. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  15. On Making a Distinguished Vertex Minimum Degree by Vertex Deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Nadja; Bredereck, Robert; Niedermeier, Rolf; Uhlmann, Johannes

    For directed and undirected graphs, we study the problem to make a distinguished vertex the unique minimum-(in)degree vertex through deletion of a minimum number of vertices. The corresponding NP-hard optimization problems are motivated by applications concerning control in elections and social network analysis. Continuing previous work for the directed case, we show that the problem is W[2]-hard when parameterized by the graph's feedback arc set number, whereas it becomes fixed-parameter tractable when combining the parameters "feedback vertex set number" and "number of vertices to delete". For the so far unstudied undirected case, we show that the problem is NP-hard and W[1]-hard when parameterized by the "number of vertices to delete". On the positive side, we show fixed-parameter tractability for several parameterizations measuring tree-likeness, including a vertex-linear problem kernel with respect to the parameter "feedback edge set number". On the contrary, we show a non-existence result concerning polynomial-size problem kernels for the combined parameter "vertex cover number and number of vertices to delete", implying corresponding nonexistence results when replacing vertex cover number by treewidth or feedback vertex set number.

  16. The role of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S B; Pistilli, M; Livingston, K G; Gold, D R; Volpe, N J; Shindler, K S; Liu, G T; Tamhankar, M A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity and specificity of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients. Methods The records of all adult patients referred to the neuro-ophthalmology service who underwent orbital ultrasonography for the evaluation of suspected papilledema were reviewed. The details of history, ophthalmologic examination, and results of ancillary testing including orbital ultrasonography, MRI, and lumbar puncture were recorded. Results of orbital ultrasonography were correlated with the final diagnosis of papilledema or pseudopapilledema on the basis of the clinical impression of the neuro-ophthalmologist. Ultrasound was considered positive when the optic nerve sheath diameter was ≥3.3 mm along with a positive 30° test. Results The sensitivity of orbital ultrasonography for detection of papilledema was 90% (CI: 80.2–99.3%) and the specificity in detecting pseudopapilledema was 79% (CI: 67.7–90.7%). Conclusions Orbital ultrasonography is a rapid and noninvasive test that is highly sensitive, but less specific in differentiating papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients, and can be useful in guiding further management of patients in whom the diagnosis is initially uncertain. PMID:25190532

  17. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. PMID:26177950

  18. Distinguishing k-defects from their canonical twins

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Melinda; Lewandowski, Matt; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

    2010-11-15

    We study k-defects--topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion--and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of Dirac-Born-Infeld instanton solutions in the 4-dimensional effective theory. We then describe a class of k-defect solutions, which we dub ''doppelgaengers,'' that precisely match the field profile and energy density of their canonical scalar field theory counterparts. We give a complete characterization of Lagrangians which admit doppelgaenger domain walls. By numerically computing the fluctuation eigenmodes about domain wall solutions, we find different spectra for doppelgaengers and canonical walls, allowing us to distinguish between k-defects and the canonical walls they mimic. We search for doppelgaengers for cosmic strings by numerically constructing solutions of Dirac-Born-Infeld and canonical scalar field theories. Despite investigating several examples, we are unable to find doppelgaenger cosmic strings, hence the existence of doppelgaengers for defects with codimension >1 remains an open question.

  19. Adaptive inference for distinguishing credible from incredible patterns in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holling, Crawford S.; Allen, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Strong inference is a powerful and rapid tool that can be used to identify and explain patterns in molecular biology, cell biology, and physiology. It is effective where causes are single and separable and where discrimination between pairwise alternative hypotheses can be determined experimentally by a simple yes or no answer. But causes in ecological systems are multiple and overlapping and are not entirely separable. Frequently, competing hypotheses cannot be distinguished by a single unambiguous test, but only by a suite of tests of different kinds, that produce a body of evidence to support one line of argument and not others. We call this process "adaptive inference". Instead of pitting each member of a pair of hypotheses against each other, adaptive inference relies on the exuberant invention of multiple, competing hypotheses, after which carefully structured comparative data are used to explore the logical consequences of each. Herein we present an example that demonstrates the attributes of adaptive inference that have developed out of a 30-year study of the resilience of ecosystems.

  20. Distinguishing Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior From Stereotypy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Chok, James T; Koesler, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective. PMID:24177034

  1. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID.

  2. Clusterization and quadrupole deformation in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cseh, J.; Algora, A.; Antonenko, N. V.; Jolos, R. V.; Scheid, W.; Darai, J.; Hess, P. O.

    2006-04-26

    We study the interrelation of the clusterization and quadrupole deformation of atomic nuclei, by applying cluster models. Both the energetic stability and the exclusion principle is investigated. Special attention is paid to the relative orientations of deformed clusters.

  3. Application of Quaternions for Mesh Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2002-01-01

    A new three-dimensional mesh deformation algorithm, based on quaternion algebra, is introduced. A brief overview of quaternion algebra is provided, along with some preliminary results for two-dimensional structured and unstructured viscous mesh deformation.

  4. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  5. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  6. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  7. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  8. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  9. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  10. Extent and character of early tertiary penetrative deformation, Sonora, Northwest Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    Reconnaissance field work has led to the recognition of extensive Early Tertiary gneiss and schist which are distinguished by weakly developed to highly conspicous northeast to east-trending stretching lineation commonly accompanied by low-dipping foliation. This structural fabric has been imposed on Precambrian to Paleogene rocks. Regionally, minimum ages of deformation are based upon interpreted U-Pb isotopic ages from suites of cogenetic zircon from the Paleogene orthogneiss. Locally, the interpreted ages indicate that ductile deformation continued as late as Oligocene (Anderson and others, 1980; Silver and Anderson, 1984). The consistency of the deformational style is such that, although considerable variation in intensity exists, the fabric can be recognized and correlated in rocks away from the Paleogene orthogneiss.

  11. Features of the Earth surface deformations in Kamchatka peninsula and their relation with geoacoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, I. A.; Marapulets, Yu. V.; Shevtsov, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of deformation process in the near surface sedimentary rocks, which has been carried out in a seismically active region of Kamchatka peninsular since 2007. The peculiarity of the experiments on registration of geodeformations is the application of a laser strainmeter-interferometer constructed according to the Michelson interferometer scheme. Besides rock deformations, geoacoustic emission in the frequency range from several hertz to the first tens of kilohertz is under the investigation. Piezoceramic hydrophones installed in artificial water reservoirs are applied. It is shown that periods of primary rock compression and tension with the duration up to several months are distinguished in the geodeformation process at the observation site. During the direction change in the deformations, when geodeformation process rate grows, the increase of geoacoustic radiation is observed.

  12. Mapping of crown gall resistance locus Rcg1 in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kuczmog, Anett; Galambos, Anikó; Horváth, Szabina; Mátai, Anikó; Kozma, Pál; Szegedi, Ernő; Putnoky, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Agrobacteria are efficient plant pathogens. They are able to transform plant cells genetically resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to many virulent Agrobacterium strains but certain wild Vitis species, including Vitis amurensis have resistant genotypes. Studies of the molecular background of such natural resistance are of special importance, not only for practical benefits in agricultural practice but also for understanding the role of plant genes in the transformation process. Earlier, crown gall resistance from V. amurensis was introgressed into V. vinifera through interspecific breeding and it was shown to be inherited as a single and dominant Mendelian trait. To develop this research further, towards understanding underlying molecular mechanisms, a mapping population was established, and resistance-coupled molecular DNA markers were identified by three different approaches. First, RAPD makers linked to the resistance locus (Rcg1) were identified, and on the basis of their DNA sequences, we developed resistance-coupled SCAR markers. However, localization of these markers in the grapevine genome sequence failed due to their similarity to many repetitive regions. Next, using SSR markers of the grapevine reference linkage map, location of the resistance locus was established on linkage group 15 (LG15). Finally, this position was supported further by developing new chromosome-specific markers and by the construction of the genetic map of the region including nine loci in 29.1 cM. Our results show that the closest marker is located 3.3 cM from the Rcg1 locus that may correspond to 576 kb. PMID:22801874

  13. Bundle-Forming Pilus Locus of Aeromonas veronii bv. Sobria

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Nahal; Yang, Qin; Barnett, Timothy C.; Tabei, S. Mohammed B.; Kirov, Sylvia M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the colonization mechanisms of Aeromonas spp. Previous work has suggested that the type IV bundle-forming pilus (Bfp) is an aeromonad intestinal colonization factor. This study provides the first genetic characterization of this structure. To define the role of Bfp in Aeromonas veronii bv. Sobria adherence, a 22-kb locus encoding the bundle-forming pilus was isolated; this contained 17 pilus-related genes similar to the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) of Vibrio cholerae. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) demonstrated that the locus had two major transcriptional units, mshI to mshF and mshB to mshQ. Transcriptional fusion experiments demonstrated the presence of two strong promoters upstream of mshI and mshB. The locus encoded four putative prepilin proteins, one of which (MshA) corresponded to the N-terminal sequence of the previously isolated major pilin protein. All the pilin genes were inactivated, mutation of each minor or major pilin gene greatly reduced the bacterium's ability to adhere and form biofilms, and complementation of each mutant in trans rescued this phenotype. Mutation of the major pilin MshA and MshB, a minor pilin, resulted in their loss. The position of the mshH gene is conserved within a number of bacteria, and we have shown it is not transcriptionally linked to the other msh genes; moreover, its mutation did not have a dramatic effect on either adhesion or biofilm formation. We conclude that the bundle-forming pilus is required for A. veronii bv. Sobria adherence and biofilm formation; furthermore, both the major and minor pilin proteins are essential for this process. PMID:22311923

  14. Developmental expression of the white locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fjose, A.; Polito, L. C.; Weber, U.; Gehring, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated several cDNA clones of the white locus which are derived from embryonic and pupal transcripts of Drosophila melanogaster. The cDNA sequences map within ˜7.5 kb (coordinates −3.0 to +4.6) of the genomic DNA and correspond mainly to sequences within the distal region of the gene (coordinates −0.2 to −3.0). A major RNA species of 2.6 kb was detected on Northerns of poly(A)+ RNA isolated from all developmental stages. The total accumulation of this transcript peaks in the mature third instar larva to a level of 0.003% which is about ten times higher than that observed in embryos. The spatial distribution of white locus transcripts was determined by in situ hybridization to tissue sections. In embryos, hybridization signals are restricted to the cells of the developing Malpighian tubules and the signal strength corresponds with ˜50 transcripts per cell. Before the termination of the third instar stage, hybridization signals are also detected at a comparable level in the eye antennal disks. At the same stage, a third site of labeling is observed over a small cluster of cells which seems to be associated with the larval photoreceptor organs. Thus, white locus expression is largely restricted to tissues which are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of eye pigments and these different cell types act in a temporally autonomous manner with respect to the induction of the white gene during development. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16453550

  15. Intragenic recombination at the human phosphoglucomutase 1 locus: Predictions fulfilled

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Norio ); Neel, J.V. )

    1993-11-15

    In 1982, the authors advanced a phylogeny that attributed eight alleles of the phosphoglucomutase 1 locus (PGM1) to three independent mutations in a primal allele, followed by four intragenic recombination events involving these mutants. The recent description of a cDNA probe for this locus now renders it possible to test the validity of this phylogeny. cDNAs of PGM1 reverse-transcribed from mRNAs obtained from Japanese individuals possessing eight different electrophoretically defined alleles (PGM1*1+, PGM1*1-, PGM1*2+, PGM1*2-, PGM1*3+, PGM1*3-, PGM1*7+, PGM1*7-) were amplified by PCR and the sequences were determined. Only three different base substitutions were identified when PGM1*1+ was taken as the reference allele, as follows: an A to T transversion at residue 265, a C to T transition at residue 723, and a T to C transition at residue 1320. The second of these substitutions creates a BglII restriction enzyme site and the third creates a Nla III site. At the amino acid level, these substitutions alter amino acid 67 from Lys to Met, amino acid 220 from Arg to Cys, and amino acid 419 from Tyr to His, respectively. These mutations resulted in the electrophoretic properties defining PGM1*7+, the PGM1*2+, and PGM1*1- alleles, respectively. Subsequent intragenic recombinational events resulted in the remaining four alleles. For two of these latter alleles (PGM1*7- and PGM1*3-), more than one type of intragenic crossover can produce the allele. These findings verify the predicted phylogeny and provide a case study in the evolution of complexity at a genetic locus.

  16. Mapping of crown gall resistance locus Rcg1 in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kuczmog, Anett; Galambos, Anikó; Horváth, Szabina; Mátai, Anikó; Kozma, Pál; Szegedi, Ernő; Putnoky, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Agrobacteria are efficient plant pathogens. They are able to transform plant cells genetically resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to many virulent Agrobacterium strains but certain wild Vitis species, including Vitis amurensis have resistant genotypes. Studies of the molecular background of such natural resistance are of special importance, not only for practical benefits in agricultural practice but also for understanding the role of plant genes in the transformation process. Earlier, crown gall resistance from V. amurensis was introgressed into V. vinifera through interspecific breeding and it was shown to be inherited as a single and dominant Mendelian trait. To develop this research further, towards understanding underlying molecular mechanisms, a mapping population was established, and resistance-coupled molecular DNA markers were identified by three different approaches. First, RAPD makers linked to the resistance locus (Rcg1) were identified, and on the basis of their DNA sequences, we developed resistance-coupled SCAR markers. However, localization of these markers in the grapevine genome sequence failed due to their similarity to many repetitive regions. Next, using SSR markers of the grapevine reference linkage map, location of the resistance locus was established on linkage group 15 (LG15). Finally, this position was supported further by developing new chromosome-specific markers and by the construction of the genetic map of the region including nine loci in 29.1 cM. Our results show that the closest marker is located 3.3 cM from the Rcg1 locus that may correspond to 576 kb.

  17. Genetic Locus for Streptolysin S Production by Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Nizet, Victor; Beall, Bernard; Bast, Darrin J.; Datta, Vivekananda; Kilburn, Laurie; Low, Donald E.; De Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Streptolysin S (SLS) is the cytolytic factor that creates the zone of beta-hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies grown on blood agar. We recently reported the discovery of a potential genetic determinant involved in SLS production, sagA, encoding a small peptide of 53 amino acids (S. D. Betschel, S. M. Borgia, N. L. Barg, D. E. Low, and J. C. De Azavedo, Infect. Immun. 66:1671–1679, 1998). Using transposon mutagenesis, chromosomal walking steps, and data from the GAS genome sequencing project (www.genome.ou.edu/strep.html), we have now identified a contiguous nine-gene locus (sagA to sagI) involved in SLS production. The sag locus is conserved among GAS strains regardless of M protein type. Targeted plasmid integrational mutagenesis of each gene in the sag operon resulted in an SLS-negative phenotype. Targeted integrations (i) upstream of the sagA promoter and (ii) downstream of a terminator sequence after sagI did not affect SLS production, establishing the functional boundaries of the operon. A rho-independent terminator sequence between sagA and sagB appears to regulate the amount of sagA transcript produced versus transcript for the entire operon. Reintroduction of the nine-gene sag locus on a plasmid vector restored SLS activity to the nonhemolytic sagA knockout mutant. Finally, heterologous expression of the intact sag operon conferred the SLS beta-hemolytic phenotype to the nonhemolytic Lactococcus lactis. We conclude that gene products of the GAS sag operon are both necessary and sufficient for SLS production. Sequence homologies of sag operon gene products suggest that SLS is related to the bacteriocin family of microbial toxins. PMID:10858242

  18. Pinocchio nasal deformity secondary to lymphangioma circumscriptum.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Afşin; Yildiz, Kaya; Kankaya, Yüksel; Oruç, Melike; Sungur, Nezih; Koçer, Uğur; Ozer, Elif

    2007-11-01

    Pinocchio or Cyrano nasal tip deformity is a rare situation that develops secondary to the soft tissue tumors underneath. In literature, there is only one case reported with Pinocchio nasal deformity secondary to cavernous lymphangioma. In this study, we present a Pinocchio or Cyrano nasal deformity with skin involvement secondary to lymphangioma circumscriptum.

  19. Platinum coat color locus in the deer mouse.

    PubMed

    Dodson, K M; Dawson, W D; Van Ooteghem, S O; Cushing, B S; Haigh, G R

    1987-01-01

    Platinum coat color in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, is an autosomal recessive trait marking a locus, pt, distinct from silver (si), albino (c), blonde (bl), brown (b), and agouti (a). Platinum deer mice are conspicuously pale, with light ears and tail stripe. The pewter trait is allelic with and phenotypically identical to platinum, and represents an independent recurrence of this mutant. The rate of recoveries of coat color mutations from wild deer mice is consistent with available data for recurring mutation rates balanced by strong selection against the recessive phenotype.

  20. Platinum coat color locus in the deer mouse.

    PubMed

    Dodson, K M; Dawson, W D; Van Ooteghem, S O; Cushing, B S; Haigh, G R

    1987-01-01

    Platinum coat color in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, is an autosomal recessive trait marking a locus, pt, distinct from silver (si), albino (c), blonde (bl), brown (b), and agouti (a). Platinum deer mice are conspicuously pale, with light ears and tail stripe. The pewter trait is allelic with and phenotypically identical to platinum, and represents an independent recurrence of this mutant. The rate of recoveries of coat color mutations from wild deer mice is consistent with available data for recurring mutation rates balanced by strong selection against the recessive phenotype. PMID:3611714

  1. Molecular Mapping of the ROSY Locus in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Coté, Babette; Bender, Welcome; Curtis, Daniel; Chovnick, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    The DNA from the chromosomal region of the Drosophila rosy locus has been examined in 83 rosy mutant strains. Several spontaneous and radiation-induced alleles were associated with insertions and deletions, respectively. The lesions are clustered in a 4-kb region. Some of the alleles identified on the DNA map have been located on the genetic map by fine-structure recombination experiments. The genetic and molecular maps are collinear, and the alignment identifies the DNA location of the rosy control region. A rosy RNA of 4.5 kb has been identified; its 5' end lies in or near the control region. PMID:2420682

  2. Deformation of noncommutative quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian-Jian; Chowdhury, S. Hasibul Hassan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the Lie group GNC α , β , γ , of which the kinematical symmetry group GNC of noncommutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) is a special case due to fixed nonzero α, β, and γ, is three-parameter deformation quantized using the method suggested by Ballesteros and Musso [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46, 195203 (2013)]. A certain family of QUE algebras, corresponding to GNC α , β , γ with two of the deformation parameters approaching zero, is found to be in agreement with the existing results of the literature on quantum Heisenberg group. Finally, we dualize the underlying QUE algebra to obtain an expression for the underlying star-product between smooth functions on GNC α , β , γ .

  3. Performance through Deformation and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.

  4. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  5. Thermal deformation of helical gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Fei, Ye-tai; Liu, Shan-lin

    2010-08-01

    The analytical equation for the thermal field of a helical gear under normal working condition in a stable thermal field is established using mathematical physics, and the thermal deformation of the gear can be computed using this equation. The variations of gear geometric parameters, such as radial dimension, tooth depth, spiral angle, pressure angle, flank clearance and etc., are investigated with respect to the temperature change. According to the analytical and computational results obtained using the equation, the thermal deformation of the gear is strongly dependent on the choice of parameters, which is also confirmed using simulation software (COMSOL Multiphysic software). This is significant for the improvement of the rotation precision and working efficiency of screw gears.

  6. Large Scale Nanolaminate Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Miles, R; Chang, K

    2005-11-30

    This work concerns the development of a technology that uses Nanolaminate foils to form light-weight, deformable mirrors that are scalable over a wide range of mirror sizes. While MEMS-based deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators have considerably reduced the cost and increased the capabilities of adaptive optic systems, there has not been a way to utilize the advantages of lithography and batch-fabrication to produce large-scale deformable mirrors. This technology is made scalable by using fabrication techniques and lithography that are not limited to the sizes of conventional MEMS devices. Like many MEMS devices, these mirrors use parallel plate electrostatic actuators. This technology replicates that functionality by suspending a horizontal piece of nanolaminate foil over an electrode by electroplated nickel posts. This actuator is attached, with another post, to another nanolaminate foil that acts as the mirror surface. Most MEMS devices are produced with integrated circuit lithography techniques that are capable of very small line widths, but are not scalable to large sizes. This technology is very tolerant of lithography errors and can use coarser, printed circuit board lithography techniques that can be scaled to very large sizes. These mirrors use small, lithographically defined actuators and thin nanolaminate foils allowing them to produce deformations over a large area while minimizing weight. This paper will describe a staged program to develop this technology. First-principles models were developed to determine design parameters. Three stages of fabrication will be described starting with a 3 x 3 device using conventional metal foils and epoxy to a 10-across all-metal device with nanolaminate mirror surfaces.

  7. Plastic Deformations in Complex Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Durniak, C.; Samsonov, D.

    2011-04-29

    Complex plasmas are macroscopic model systems of real solids and liquids, used to study underdamped dynamics and wave phenomena. Plastic deformations of complex plasma crystals under slow uniaxial compression have been studied experimentally and numerically. It is shown that the lattice becomes locally sheared and that this strain is relaxed by shear slips resulting in global uniform compression and heat generation. Shear slips generate pairs of dislocations which move in opposite directions at subsonic speeds.

  8. Distinguishing grade I meningioma from higher grade meningiomas without biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Varlotto, John; Flickinger, John; Pavelic, Martin T.; Specht, Charles S.; Sheehan, Jonas M.; Timek, Dana T.; Glantz, Michael J.; Sogge, Steven; Dimaio, Christopher; Moser, Richard; Yunus, Shakeeb; Fitzgerald, Thomas J.; Upadhyay, Urvashi; Rava, Paul; Tangel, Matthew; Yao, Aaron; Kanekar, Sangam

    2015-01-01

    Background Many meningiomas are identified by imaging and followed, with an assumption that they are WHO Grade I tumors. The purpose of our investigation is to find clinical or imaging predictors of WHO Grade II/III tumors to distinguish them from Grade I meningiomas. Methods Patients with a pathologic diagnosis of meningioma from 2002–2009 were included if they had pre-operative MRI studies and pathology for review. A Neuro-Pathologist reviewed and classified all tumors by WHO 2007. All Brain MRI imaging was reviewed by a Neuro-radiologist. Pathology and Radiology reviews were blinded from each other and clinical course. Recursive partitioning was used to create predictive models for identifying meningioma grades. Results Factors significantly correlating with a diagnosis of WHO Grade II-III tumors in univariate analysis: prior CVA (p = 0.005), CABG (p = 0.010), paresis (p = 0.008), vascularity index = 4/4: (p = 0.009), convexity vs other (p = 0.014), metabolic syndrome (p = 0.025), non-skull base (p = 0.041) and non-postmenopausal female (p = 0.045). Recursive partitioning analysis identified four categories: 1. prior CVA, 2. vascular index (vi) = 4 (no CVA), 3. premenopausal or male, vi < 4, no CVA. 4. Postmenopausal, vi < 4, no CVA with corresponding rates of 73, 54, 35 and 10% of being Grade II-III meningiomas. Conclusions Meningioma patients with prior CVA and those grade 4/4 vascularity are the most likely to have WHO Grade II-III tumors while post-menopausal women without these features are the most likely to have Grade I meningiomas. Further study of the associations of clinical and imaging factors with grade and clinical behavior are needed to better predict behavior of these tumors without biopsy. PMID:26472106

  9. Mesiodistal odontometrics as a distinguishing trait: A comparative preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Narasimha, Vanajakshi China

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination is a vital step in reconstructing an individual profile from unidentified skeletal remnants. Variations in tooth size are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Tooth size variations have been reported among different populations. Aim: To identify the sex by determining the mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of maxillary canines. Objectives: (1) To compare the MD diameter of all maxillary canines — (a) in the entire urban and tribal population, (b) in urban male and urban female populations, (c) in tribal male and tribal female populations, and (d) in the entire male and female populations and (2) To estimate the percentage of sexual dimorphism individually in urban and tribal populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from urban and tribal populations in equal gender ratio were selected in Khammam district, Telangana, for the purpose of this study. After obtaining informed consent, maxillary study models of the selected subjects were made. MD diameters of left and right maxillary canines were measured on casts using vernier calipers. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: (1) The total tribal population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the total urban population, (2) Urban males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than urban females, (3) Tribal males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than tribal females, (4) The entire male population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the entire female population, and (5) The percentage of dimorphism between males and females in individual groups was found to be significant. Conclusion: The study showed maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used as a distinguishing trait for sex determination along with other procedures. PMID:27555727

  10. Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research

    PubMed Central

    King, Daniel L.; Gainsbury, Sally M.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Hing, Nerilee; Abarbanel, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? Methods In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising. Results We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers. Discussion and conclusions We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature (e.g., “gambling-like game”) may be too vague or cumbersome to adequately organise our understanding of new gaming/gambling hybrid activities. PMID:26690615

  11. Distinguishing bias from sensitivity effects in multialternative detection tasks

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A.; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the neural bases of cognitive phenomena increasingly employ multialternative detection tasks that seek to measure the ability to detect a target stimulus or changes in some target feature (e.g., orientation or direction of motion) that could occur at one of many locations. In such tasks, it is essential to distinguish the behavioral and neural correlates of enhanced perceptual sensitivity from those of increased bias for a particular location or choice (choice bias). However, making such a distinction is not possible with established approaches. We present a new signal detection model that decouples the behavioral effects of choice bias from those of perceptual sensitivity in multialternative (change) detection tasks. By formulating the perceptual decision in a multidimensional decision space, our model quantifies the respective contributions of bias and sensitivity to multialternative behavioral choices. With a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we demonstrate an optimal, one-to-one mapping between model parameters and choice probabilities even for tasks involving arbitrarily large numbers of alternatives. We validated the model with published data from two ternary choice experiments: a target-detection experiment and a length-discrimination experiment. The results of this validation provided novel insights into perceptual processes (sensory noise and competitive interactions) that can accurately and parsimoniously account for observers' behavior in each task. The model will find important application in identifying and interpreting the effects of behavioral manipulations (e.g., cueing attention) or neural perturbations (e.g., stimulation or inactivation) in a variety of multialternative tasks of perception, attention, and decision-making. PMID:25146574

  12. Distinguishing genuine from spurious causes: a coherence hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lien, Y; Cheng, P W

    2000-03-01

    Two opposing views have been proposed to explain how people distinguish genuine causes from spurious ones: the power view and the covariational view. This paper notes two phenomena that challenge both views. First, even when 1) there is no innate specific causal knowledge about a regularity (so that the power view does not apply) and 2) covariation cannot be computed while controlling for alternative causes (so that the covariation view should not apply), people are still able to systematically judge whether a regularity is causal. Second, when an alternative cause explains the effect, a spurious cause is judged to be spurious with greater confidence than otherwise (in both cases, no causal mechanism underlies the spurious cause). To fill the gap left by the traditional views, this paper proposes a new integration of these views. According to the coherence hypothesis, although a genuine cause and a spurious one may both covary with an effect in a way that does not imply causality at some level of abstraction, the categories to which these candidate causes belong covary with the effect differently at a more abstract level: one covariation implies causality; the other does not. Given this superordinate knowledge, the causal judgments of a reasoner who seeks to explain as much as possible with as few causal rules as possible will exhibit the properties that challenge the traditional views. Two experiments tested and supported the coherence hypothesis. Both experiments involved candidate causes that covary with an effect without implying causality at some level, manipulating whether covariation that implies causality has been acquired at a more abstract level. The experiments differed on whether an alternative cause explains the effect. PMID:10716875

  13. Distinguishing bias from sensitivity effects in multialternative detection tasks.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-08-21

    Studies investigating the neural bases of cognitive phenomena increasingly employ multialternative detection tasks that seek to measure the ability to detect a target stimulus or changes in some target feature (e.g., orientation or direction of motion) that could occur at one of many locations. In such tasks, it is essential to distinguish the behavioral and neural correlates of enhanced perceptual sensitivity from those of increased bias for a particular location or choice (choice bias). However, making such a distinction is not possible with established approaches. We present a new signal detection model that decouples the behavioral effects of choice bias from those of perceptual sensitivity in multialternative (change) detection tasks. By formulating the perceptual decision in a multidimensional decision space, our model quantifies the respective contributions of bias and sensitivity to multialternative behavioral choices. With a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we demonstrate an optimal, one-to-one mapping between model parameters and choice probabilities even for tasks involving arbitrarily large numbers of alternatives. We validated the model with published data from two ternary choice experiments: a target-detection experiment and a length-discrimination experiment. The results of this validation provided novel insights into perceptual processes (sensory noise and competitive interactions) that can accurately and parsimoniously account for observers' behavior in each task. The model will find important application in identifying and interpreting the effects of behavioral manipulations (e.g., cueing attention) or neural perturbations (e.g., stimulation or inactivation) in a variety of multialternative tasks of perception, attention, and decision-making.

  14. Distinguishing materials in inspected objects by digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, V.; Lysetska, O.; Opolonin, A.; Danilenko, V.; Galkin, S.; Voronkin, E.; Kostyukevich, S. A.

    2005-08-01

    We used detector arrays of types "scintillator-photodiode" (S-PD) and scintillator-photoreceiving device (PRD). In non-destructive testing systems using S-PD arrays it is possible to use scintillators of different atomic number and density, which allows functioning in the energy range from 20 keV to 10 MeV, i.e., steel equivalent thickness I from 100μm to 300mm. For different objects and different purposes, different types of detector arrays and methods of control can be recommended. Results of experimental studies of detector arrays S-PD and S-PRD used for X-ray digital radiography have shown that there exist further possibilities to increase spatial resolution of this system for up to 2-3 line pairs per mm. It was investigated experimental results with used two array detectors for low-energy and high - energy detections (HED and LED). It is show in principle to distinguish not only organic from inorganic materials, but so as safety organic from explosive. Our aim was to show (theoretically and experimentally) that is could be possible to substantially increase the accuracy of separation of substances in the inspected object by their atomic number, as well as to increase the sensitivity of the method as a whole by using a multi-energy approach and detectors that have substantially different sensibility in the low-and high-energy range of the X-ray emitter spectrum. It was show the possibility to distinct materials with effective atomic number difference about 10-15%. It can be used in inspection systems, including anti-terrorist activities, in technical diagnostics, medicine.

  15. Distinguishing Morphotypes of Foraminifera Orbulina Universa Using Shell Morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. J.; Thunell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent genetic studies have revealed that many morphologically defined planktonic foraminiferal species contain multiple distinct cryptic or pseudocryptic genetic variants. In some cases, such as with the genetic variants of Globigerinoides ruber, past taxonomic "lumping" may be easily revised within the framework of the morphospecies concept. However, some planktonic foraminiferal cryptic species are not easily differentiated from one another based on identifiable morphological differences, as is the case with Orbulina universa cryptic species (Morard et al., 2009). Based on recent findings, it is believed that several of these O. universa cryptic species differ in their habitat preferences (Darling et al., 1999,2000; de Vargas et al., 1999, 2001), and the lumping of these cryptic species could possibly account for a significant amount of the noise observed in various paleoclimate records derived from this species (Kucera and Darling, 2002). The current study uses foraminiferal morphometrics (area density, Marshall et al., 2013, thickness and weight-diameter realtionships) to identify distinct groupings of individual Orbulina universa specimens collected from sediment trap samples in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. The study reveals three distinct groups of individuals, varying in their test thicknesses and pore space distribution, which likely correspond to the previously identified cryptic species of O. universa. We find significant differences in the isotopic compositions of these groupings - suggesting that the identified morphotypes differ in their habitat preferences. These morphotypes also exhibit different relationships with the measured hydrographic parameters and their relative distribution can be linked to changes in upwelling and non-upwelling hydrographic regimes. We agree with the results of previous studies that suggest different cryptic species should not be treated as ecophenotypic variants and need to be distinguished from one another

  16. Shape memory composite deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Bettini, P.; Di Landro, L.; Sala, G.

    2009-03-01

    This paper deals with some of the critical aspects regarding Shape Memory Composite (SMC) design: firstly some technological aspects concerning embedding technique and their efficiency secondarily the lack of useful numerical tools for this peculiar design. It has been taken into account as a possible application a deformable panel which is devoted to act as a substrate for a deformable mirror. The activity has been mainly focused to the study of embedding technologies, activation and authority. In detail it will be presented the "how to" manufacturing of some smart panels with embedded NiTiNol wires in order to show the technology developed for SMC structures. The first part of the work compares non conventional pull-out tests on wires embedded in composites laminates (real condition of application), with standard pull-out in pure epoxy resin blocks. Considering the numerical approach some different modeling techniques to be implemented in commercial codes (ABAQUS) have been investigated. The Turner's thermo-mechanical model has been adopted for the modeling of the benchmark: A spherical panel devoted to work as an active substrate for a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) deformable mirror has been considered as a significant technological demonstrator and possible future application (f=240mm, r.o.c.=1996mm).

  17. On loops in the hyperbolic locus of the complex Hénon map and their monodromies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Zin

    2016-11-01

    We prove John Hubbard's conjecture on the topological complexity of the hyperbolic horseshoe locus of the complex Hénon map. In fact, we show that there exist several non-trivial loops in the locus which generate infinitely many mutually different monodromies. Furthermore, we prove that the dynamics of the real Hénon map is completely determined by the monodromy of the complex Hénon map, providing the parameter of the map is contained in the hyperbolic horseshoe locus.

  18. A locus-wide approach to assessing variation in the avian MHC: the B-locus of the wild turkey

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, L D; Faile, G M; Hendrickson, J A; Mock, K E; Reed, K M

    2011-01-01

    Studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity in non-model vertebrates typically focus on structure and sequence variation in the antigen-presenting loci: the highly variable and polymorphic class I and class IIB genes. Although these studies provide estimates of the number of genes and alleles/locus, they often overlook variation in functionally related and co-inherited genes important in the immune response. This study utilizes the sequence of the MHC B-locus derived from a commercial turkey to investigate MHC variation in wild birds. Sequences were obtained for nine interspersed MHC amplicons (non-class I/II) from each of 40 birds representing 3 subspecies of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Analysis of aligned sequences identified 238 single-nucleotide variants approximately one-third of which had minor allele frequencies >0.2 in the sampled birds. PHASE analysis identified 70 prospective MHC haplotypes in the wild turkeys, whereas a combined analysis with commercial birds identified almost 100 haplotypes in the species. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the class IIB loci was used to test the efficacy of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotyping to capture locus-wide variation. Diversity in SNP haplotypes and haplotype sharing among individuals was directly reflected in the DGGE patterns. Utilization of a reference haplotype to sequence interspersed regions of the MHC has significant advantages over other methods of surveying diversity while identifying high-frequency SNPs for genotyping. SNP haplotyping provides a means to identify both divergent haplotypes and homozygous individuals for assessment of immunological variation in wild and domestic populations. PMID:21179065

  19. A locus-wide approach to assessing variation in the avian MHC: the B-locus of the wild turkey.

    PubMed

    Chaves, L D; Faile, G M; Hendrickson, J A; Mock, K E; Reed, K M

    2011-07-01

    Studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity in non-model vertebrates typically focus on structure and sequence variation in the antigen-presenting loci: the highly variable and polymorphic class I and class IIB genes. Although these studies provide estimates of the number of genes and alleles/locus, they often overlook variation in functionally related and co-inherited genes important in the immune response. This study utilizes the sequence of the MHC B-locus derived from a commercial turkey to investigate MHC variation in wild birds. Sequences were obtained for nine interspersed MHC amplicons (non-class I/II) from each of 40 birds representing 3 subspecies of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Analysis of aligned sequences identified 238 single-nucleotide variants approximately one-third of which had minor allele frequencies >0.2 in the sampled birds. PHASE analysis identified 70 prospective MHC haplotypes in the wild turkeys, whereas a combined analysis with commercial birds identified almost 100 haplotypes in the species. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the class IIB loci was used to test the efficacy of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotyping to capture locus-wide variation. Diversity in SNP haplotypes and haplotype sharing among individuals was directly reflected in the DGGE patterns. Utilization of a reference haplotype to sequence interspersed regions of the MHC has significant advantages over other methods of surveying diversity while identifying high-frequency SNPs for genotyping. SNP haplotyping provides a means to identify both divergent haplotypes and homozygous individuals for assessment of immunological variation in wild and domestic populations.

  20. Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-09-01

    We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

  1. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure.

    PubMed

    Kazinski, P O

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables such as deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transformations and gauge fields is given. An application of the formalism to a description of systems with distributed parameters in a local thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  2. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables such as deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transformations and gauge fields is given. An application of the formalism to a description of systems with distributed parameters in a local thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  3. Deformable microswimmer in a swirl: capturing and scattering dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tarama, Mitsusuke; Menzel, Andreas M; Löwen, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Inspired by the classical Kepler and Rutherford problem, we investigate an analogous setup in the context of active microswimmers: the behavior of a deformable microswimmer in a swirl flow. First, we identify new steady bound states in the swirl flow and analyze their stability. Second, we study the dynamics of a self-propelled swimmer heading towards the vortex center, and we observe the subsequent capturing and scattering dynamics. We distinguish between two major types of swimmers, those that tend to elongate perpendicularly to the propulsion direction and those that pursue a parallel elongation. While the first ones can get caught by the swirl, the second ones were always observed to be scattered, which proposes a promising escape strategy. This offers a route to design artificial microswimmers that show the desired behavior in complicated flow fields. It should be straightforward to verify our results in a corresponding quasi-two-dimensional experiment using self-propelled droplets on water surfaces.

  4. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Meyer, Oanh L.; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L.; Willis, Sherry L.; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. PMID:26237116

  5. A new EcoRI polymorphism at the D21S13 locus.

    PubMed

    Pulst, S M; Korenberg, J R; Greenwald, J; Carbone, M

    1990-05-01

    The D21S13 locus has shown linkage to a gene for familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) on chromosome 21 (St. George-Hyslop et al. 1987). The limited informativeness of probes for this locus have hindered precise mapping of the FAD locus and analysis of nonallelic heterogeneity in FAD (Schellenberg et al. 1988; St. George-Hyslop et al. 1987). We describe a new EcoRI polymorphism at the D21S13 locus that may be useful for the further study of FAD families.

  6. The discovery of the microphthalmia locus and its gene, Mitf

    PubMed Central

    Arnheiter, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Summary The history of the discovery of the microphthalmia locus and its gene, now called Mitf, is a testament to the triumph of serendipity. Although the first microphthalmia mutation was discovered among the descendants of a mouse that was irradiated for the purpose of mutagenesis, the mutation most likely was not radiation-induced but occurred spontaneously in one of the parents of a later breeding. Although Mitf might eventually have been identified by other molecular genetic techniques, it was first cloned from a chance transgene insertion at the microphthalmia locus. And although Mitf was found to encode a member of a well-known transcription factor family, its analysis might still be in its infancy had Mitf not turned out to be of crucial importance for the physiology and pathology of many distinct organs, including eye, ear, immune system, bone, and skin, and in particular for melanoma. In fact, near seven decades of Mitf research have led to many insights about development, function, degeneration, and malignancies of a number of specific cell types, and it is hoped that these insights will one day lead to therapies benefitting those afflicted with diseases originating in these cell types. PMID:20807369

  7. Genetic homogeneity at the Friedreich Ataxia locus on chromosome 9

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Susan; Shaw, Jacqui; Wallis, Julie; Rowland, Alison; Chow, Larry; Farrall, Martin; Keats, Bronya; Richter, Andrea; Roy, Madeleine; Melancon, Serge; Deufel, Thomas; Berciano, José; Williamson, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Classical Friedreich ataxia, a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder involving both the central and peripheral nervous systems, has been subclassified according to the observed clinical heterogeneity. The variations in the age at onset and in the spectrum and severity of symptoms have previously been interpreted as evidence of genetic heterogeneity. We have studied the linkage between the disorder and closely linked DNA markers in families of distinct ethnic origins, including the “typical” French–Canadians and the Acadian population of Louisiana. The disease in these two populations, both of continental French origin, has a very similar initial clinical picture. However, a marked difference in the rate of progression of the obligatory symptoms after 10 years of apparent disease is observed. A total of 553 individuals from 80 families with 202 affected members have been typed with the chromosome 9 marker MCT112, which we have previously shown to be closely linked to the disease locus. Evidence for linkage was observed in all families with the generation of a combined total lod score of 25.09 at a recombination fraction of θ = .00, providing strong evidence for genetic homogeneity at this locus for the classical form of this disease. PMID:2929596

  8. A familial venous malformation locus is on chromosome 9p

    SciTech Connect

    Boon, L.M.; Mulliken, J.B.; Vikkula, M.

    1994-09-01

    Venous malformation is the most common vascular malformation affecting 0.2% of the population. Depending upon size and location, these slow-flow lesions may cause pain, anatomic distortion and threaten life. Most venous malformations occur sporadically and present as solitary lesions. For this reason, determining their pathogenic bases has proven elusive. However, venous malformations also occur in several rare syndromes, some of which demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. As a first step towards identifying the pathogenic bases for these lesions, we have mapped a locus for an autosomal dominant disorder in a three generation family that manifests as multiple cutaneous and mucosal venous malformations. This locus lies within a 24.5 cM interval on chromosome 9p, defined by the markers D9S157 and D9S163. A maximum LOD score of 4.11 at {theta} = 0.05 is obtained with several markers within the interval. The interferon gene cluster, which has previously been implicated in angiogenesis, and the multiple tumor suppressor gene, responsible for several types of malignant tumors, also lie within this interval and are potential candidates.

  9. The Locus analytical framework for indoor localization and tracking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segou, Olga E.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining location information can be of paramount importance in the context of pervasive and context-aware computing applications. Many systems have been proposed to date, e.g. GPS that has been proven to offer satisfying results in outdoor areas. The increased effect of large and small scale fading in indoor environments, however, makes localization a challenge. This is particularly reflected in the multitude of different systems that have been proposed in the context of indoor localization (e.g. RADAR, Cricket etc). The performance of such systems is often validated on vastly different test beds and conditions, making performance comparisons difficult and often irrelevant. The Locus analytical framework incorporates algorithms from multiple disciplines such as channel modeling, non-uniform random number generation, computational geometry, localization, tracking and probabilistic modeling etc. in order to provide: (a) fast and accurate signal propagation simulation, (b) fast experimentation with localization and tracking algorithms and (c) an in-depth analysis methodology for estimating the performance limits of any Received Signal Strength localization system. Simulation results for the well-known Fingerprinting and Trilateration algorithms are herein presented and validated with experimental data collected in real conditions using IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee modules. The analysis shows that the Locus framework accurately predicts the underlying distribution of the localization error and produces further estimates of the system's performance limitations (in a best-case/worst-case scenario basis).

  10. The discovery of the microphthalmia locus and its gene, Mitf.

    PubMed

    Arnheiter, Heinz

    2010-12-01

    The history of the discovery of the microphthalmia locus and its gene, now called Mitf, is a testament to the triumph of serendipity. Although the first microphthalmia mutation was discovered among the descendants of a mouse that was irradiated for the purpose of mutagenesis, the mutation most likely was not radiation induced but occurred spontaneously in one of the parents of a later breeding. Although Mitf might eventually have been identified by other molecular genetic techniques, it was first cloned from a chance transgene insertion at the microphthalmia locus. And although Mitf was found to encode a member of a well-known transcription factor family, its analysis might still be in its infancy had Mitf not turned out to be of crucial importance for the physiology and pathology of many distinct organs, including eye, ear, immune system, bone, and skin, and in particular for melanoma. In fact, near seven decades of Mitf research have led to many insights about development, function, degeneration, and malignancies of a number of specific cell types, and it is hoped that these insights will one day lead to therapies benefitting those afflicted with diseases originating in these cell types.

  11. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development.

  12. Interchromosomal gene conversion at an endogenous human cell locus.

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, P J; Neuwirth, E A; Grosovsky, A J

    2001-01-01

    To examine the relationship between gene conversion and reciprocal exchange at an endogenous chromosomal locus, we developed a reversion assay in a thymidine kinase deficient mutant, TX545, derived from the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. Selectable revertants of TX545 can be generated through interchromosomal gene conversion at the site of inactivating mutations on each tk allele or by reciprocal exchange that alters the linkage relationships of inactivating polymorphisms within the tk locus. Analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at intragenic polymorphisms and flanking microsatellite markers was used to initially evaluate allelotypes in TK(+) revertants for patterns associated with either gene conversion or crossing over. The linkage pattern in a subset of convertants was then unambiguously established, even in the event of prereplicative recombinational exchanges, by haplotype analysis of flanking microsatellite loci in tk(-/-) LOH mutants collected from the tk(+/-) parental convertant. Some (7/38; 18%) revertants were attributable to easily discriminated nonrecombinational mechanisms, including suppressor mutations within the tk coding sequence. However, all revertants classified as a recombinational event (28/38; 74%) were attributed to localized gene conversion, representing a highly significant preference (P < 0.0001) over gene conversion with associated reciprocal exchange, which was never observed. PMID:11404339

  13. Focus, locus, and sensus: the three dimensions of virtual experience.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, E L; Waterworth, J A

    2001-04-01

    A model of virtual/physical experience is presented, which provides a three dimensional conceptual space for virtual and augmented reality (VR and AR) comprising the dimensions of focus, locus, and sensus. Focus is most closely related to what is generally termed presence in the VR literature. When in a virtual environment, presence is typically shared between the VR and the physical world. "Breaks in presence" are actually shifts of presence away from the VR and toward the external environment. But we can also have "breaks in presence" when attention moves toward absence--when an observer is not attending to stimuli present in the virtual environment, nor to stimuli present in the surrounding physical environment--when the observer is present in neither the virtual nor the physical world. We thus have two dimensions of presence: focus of attention (between presence and absence) and the locus of attention (the virtual vs. the physical world). A third dimension is the sensus of attention--the level of arousal determining whether the observer is highly conscious or relatively unconscious while interacting with the environment. After expanding on each of these three dimensions of experience in relation to VR, we present a couple of educational examples as illustrations, and also relate our model to a suggested spectrum of evaluation methods for virtual environments.

  14. Variation at the TERT locus and predisposition for cancer.

    PubMed

    Baird, Duncan M

    2010-05-18

    Telomerase and the control of telomere length are intimately linked to the process of tumourigenesis in humans. Here I review the evidence that variation at the 5p15.33 locus, which contains the TERT gene (encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase), might play a role in the determination of cancer risk. Mutations in the coding regions of TERT can affect telomerase activity and telomere length, and create severe clinical phenotypes, including bone marrow failure syndromes and a substantive increase in cancer frequency. Variants within the TERT gene have been associated with increased risk of haematological malignancies, including myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia as well as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Furthermore, there is good evidence from a number of independent genome-wide association studies to implicate variants at the 5p15.33 locus in cancer risk at several different sites: lung cancer, basal cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer show strong associations, while bladder, prostate and cervical cancer and glioma also show risk alleles in this region. Thus, multiple independent lines of evidence have implicated variation in the TERT gene as a risk factor for cancer. The mechanistic basis of these risk variants is yet to be established; however, the basic biology suggests that telomere length control is a tantalising candidate mechanism underlying cancer risk.

  15. Drosophila histone locus bodies form by hierarchical recruitment of components.

    PubMed

    White, Anne E; Burch, Brandon D; Yang, Xiao-Cui; Gasdaska, Pamela Y; Dominski, Zbigniew; Marzluff, William F; Duronio, Robert J

    2011-05-16

    Nuclear bodies are protein- and RNA-containing structures that participate in a wide range of processes critical to genome function. Molecular self-organization is thought to drive nuclear body formation, but whether this occurs stochastically or via an ordered, hierarchical process is not fully understood. We addressed this question using RNAi and proteomic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify and characterize novel components of the histone locus body (HLB), a nuclear body involved in the expression of replication-dependent histone genes. We identified the transcription elongation factor suppressor of Ty 6 (Spt6) and a homologue of mammalian nuclear protein of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated locus that is encoded by the homeotic gene multisex combs (mxc) as novel HLB components. By combining genetic manipulation in both cell culture and embryos with cytological observations of Mxc, Spt6, and the known HLB components, FLICE-associated huge protein, Mute, U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, and MPM-2 phosphoepitope, we demonstrated sequential recruitment and hierarchical dependency for localization of factors to HLBs during development, suggesting that ordered assembly can play a role in nuclear body formation. PMID:21576393

  16. Drosophila histone locus bodies form by hierarchical recruitment of components

    PubMed Central

    White, Anne E.; Burch, Brandon D.; Yang, Xiao-cui; Gasdaska, Pamela Y.; Dominski, Zbigniew; Marzluff, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear bodies are protein- and RNA-containing structures that participate in a wide range of processes critical to genome function. Molecular self-organization is thought to drive nuclear body formation, but whether this occurs stochastically or via an ordered, hierarchical process is not fully understood. We addressed this question using RNAi and proteomic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify and characterize novel components of the histone locus body (HLB), a nuclear body involved in the expression of replication-dependent histone genes. We identified the transcription elongation factor suppressor of Ty 6 (Spt6) and a homologue of mammalian nuclear protein of the ataxia telangiectasia–mutated locus that is encoded by the homeotic gene multisex combs (mxc) as novel HLB components. By combining genetic manipulation in both cell culture and embryos with cytological observations of Mxc, Spt6, and the known HLB components, FLICE-associated huge protein, Mute, U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, and MPM-2 phosphoepitope, we demonstrated sequential recruitment and hierarchical dependency for localization of factors to HLBs during development, suggesting that ordered assembly can play a role in nuclear body formation. PMID:21576393

  17. Sequence variation and haplotype structure at the human HFE locus.

    PubMed Central

    Toomajian, Christopher; Kreitman, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The HFE locus encodes an HLA class-I-type protein important in iron regulation and segregates replacement mutations that give rise to the most common form of genetic hemochromatosis. The high frequency of one disease-associated mutation, C282Y, and the nature of this disease have led some to suggest a selective advantage for this mutation. To investigate the context in which this mutation arose and gain a better understanding of HFE genetic variation, we surveyed nucleotide variability in 11.2 kb encompassing the HFE locus and experimentally determined haplotypes. We fully resequenced 60 chromosomes of African, Asian, or European ancestry as well as one chimpanzee, revealing 41 variable sites and a nucleotide diversity of 0.08%. This indicates that linkage to the HLA region has not substantially increased the level of HFE variation. Although several haplotypes are shared between populations, one haplotype predominates in Asia but is nearly absent elsewhere, causing higher than average genetic differentiation among the three major populations. Our samples show evidence of intragenic recombination, so the scarcity of recombination events within the C282Y allele class is consistent with selection increasing the frequency of a young allele. Otherwise, the pattern of variability in this region does not clearly indicate the action of positive selection at this or linked loci. PMID:12196404

  18. Microstructures Resulting from Uniaxial Deformation of Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, A. K.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Researchers rely on the magnetic record preserved in magnetite when investigating magnetic field reversals, reconstructing past tectonic plate locations, and studying changes in the strength of the earth's magnetic field. Despite the extensive use of magnetite in scientific studies, the effects of dislocations on magnetite's remanence and magnetic stability are poorly understood, yet are crucial to understanding how magnetite records and maintains past magnetic field directions and intensities. To begin to address this need, we have studied the dislocation and defect structures in magnetite that form after controlled deformation. We have also measured major hysteresis loops to investigate the changes in remanence and coercivity that result from each of these deformation events. A single magnetite octahedron was cut into roughly equal bar-shaped pieces, and each was deformed uniaxially along a <121> direction at one atmosphere using a variety of temperature and pressure conditions, each selected to fall within the dislocation glide regime. Slices were cut from each deformed bar after deformation and investigated using a transmission electron microscope to characterize the types of deformation structures resulting from each of the temperature-pressure combinations. A variety of deformation structures were observed, especially dislocations and deformation bands. Dislocations were more common in samples deformed below 875°C. Hysteresis loops were measured for each sample with a field direction perpendicular to the deformation axis. Surprisingly, there is no significant difference in the bulk coercivity of a deformed and undeformed piece of magnetite.

  19. Occurrence of oral deformities in larval anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.L.; Altig, R.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    We quantified deformities in the marginal papillae, tooth rows, and jaw sheaths of tadpoles from 13 population samples representing three families and 11 sites in the southeastern United States. Oral deformities were observed in all samples and in 13.5-98% of the specimens per sample. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytrid) infections were detected in three samples. There was high variability among samples in the pattern and number of discovered deformities. Pairwise associations between oral structures containing deformities were nonrandom for several populations, especially those with B. dendrobatidis infections or high total numbers of deformities. Comparisons of deformities among samples using multivariate analyses revealed that tadpole samples grouped together by family. Analyses of ordination indicated that three variables, the number of deformities, the number of significant associations among deformity types within populations, and whether populations were infected with B. dendrobatidis, were significantly correlated with the pattern of deformities. Our data indicate that the incidence of oral deformities can be high in natural populations and that phylogeny and B. dendrobatidis infection exert a strong influence on the occurrence and type of oral deformities in tadpoles. ?? by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herperologists.

  20. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  1. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Crowding is unlike ordinary masking: distinguishing feature integration from detection.

    PubMed

    Pelli, Denis G; Palomares, Melanie; Majaj, Najib J

    2004-12-30

    A letter in the peripheral visual field is much harder to identify in the presence of nearby letters. This is "crowding." Both crowding and ordinary masking are special cases of "masking," which, in general, refers to any effect of a "mask" pattern on the discriminability of a signal. Here we characterize crowding, and propose a diagnostic test to distinguish it from ordinary masking. In ordinary masking, the signal disappears. In crowding, it remains visible, but is ambiguous, jumbled with its neighbors. Masks are usually effective only if they overlap the signal, but the crowding effect extends over a large region. The width of that region is proportional to signal eccentricity from the fovea and independent of signal size, mask size, mask contrast, signal and mask font, and number of masks. At 4 deg eccentricity, the threshold contrast for identification of a 0.32 deg signal letter is elevated (up to six-fold) by mask letters anywhere in a 2.3 deg region, 7 times wider than the signal. In ordinary masking, threshold contrast rises as a power function of mask contrast, with a shallow log-log slope of 0.5 to 1, whereas, in crowding, threshold is a sigmoidal function of mask contrast, with a steep log-log slope of 2 at close spacing. Most remarkably, although the threshold elevation decreases exponentially with spacing, the threshold and saturation contrasts of crowding are independent of spacing. Finally, ordinary masking is similar for detection and identification, but crowding occurs only for identification, not detection. More precisely, crowding occurs only in tasks that cannot be done based on a single detection by coarsely coded feature detectors. These results (and observers' introspections) suggest that ordinary masking blocks feature detection, so the signal disappears, while crowding (like "illusory conjunction") is excessive feature integration - detected features are integrated over an inappropriately large area because there are no smaller integration

  3. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  4. Distinguishing resuspension and advection signals in a hypertidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, David; Souza, Alex; Jago, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial material is supplied to an estuary system by the river, while marine material is supplied by the sea. Whether the estuary acts as a trap or a bypass zone for SPM (suspended particulate matter) depends upon the properties and dynamics of both the estuary, including the tidal and residual behaviour of the currents, and the SPM, including particle sizes and settling velocities and concentration gradients, which together control the dynamics, such as the trapping efficiency, of the estuary. Whether an SPM signal is regarded as being one of resuspension or advection depends upon the area of interest, and therefore distinguishing between resuspension and advection can be complex. Material that is resuspended within the area of study is regarded as resuspension, while that which is resuspended outside, but passes through, the area of interest, is regarded as advection. The results of a measurement campaign undertaken in a hypertidal UK estuary during the pre-spring bloom February-March and post-spring bloom May-June are presented utilising a combination of acoustic and optical instruments, moorings, and CTD stations. A characteristic asymmetric "twin peak" signal is present during both time periods, implying the presence of both resuspension and advection. This is confirmed through the use of harmonic analysis. A seasonal variation in the relative importance of the resuspension and advection components is seen between the two observation periods, with the small (<122µm) and large (>122µm) particles displaying different behaviours and providing a strong indication of the presence of flocculation. Approximate point flux calculations showed a reduction in the horizontal gradient of concentration, and subsequently the flood dominance of sediment transport, between May-June and February-March. This has been attributed to changes in biological activity and atmospheric forcing between the two observational periods. Ebb-dominant concentrations brought about by the

  5. Tissue cytokine patterns distinguish variants of rheumatoid synovitis.

    PubMed Central

    Klimiuk, P. A.; Goronzy, J. J.; Björ nsson, J.; Beckenbaugh, R. D.; Weyand, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with primary manifestations in the synovial membrane. Tissue infiltrates are composed of T cells, B cells, and macrophages, but histopathological appearances vary widely and are rarely pathognomonic. Mechanisms underlying the phenotypic heterogeneity of rheumatoid synovitis are not known. To explore whether a correlation exists between the microscopic patterns of rheumatoid synovitis and in situ production of cytokines, tissue samples from 21 consecutive patients with clinically active RA were examined. Based upon the organization of the lymphocyte infiltrate, the synovial biopsies were categorized into three distinct subsets. Ten samples were characterized by diffuse lymphoid infiltrates without further microarrangement. In seven samples, lymphoid follicles with germinal center formation were detected, and in four specimens, granuloma formation was identified. In all specimens, cytokine transcription of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 was semiquantified with polymerase chain reaction and liquid phase hybridization. Each of the morphologically defined variants of synovitis displayed a unique cytokine profile. Low-level transcription of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha was typical of diffuse synovitis. In follicular synovitis, IFN-gamma was the dominant cytokine, IL-4 was virtually undetectable, and IL-10 was abundant. Granulomatous synovitis demonstrated high transcription of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha and could be clearly distinguished from the other phenotypes. To investigate whether differences in the synovial lesions were related to host factors, patients were compared for clinical parameters. Diffuse synovitis was seen in most of the patients with seronegative RA, the mildest form of the disease. In contrast, extra-articular spreading of RA with nodule formation was typically

  6. Crustal deformation and volcanism at active plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, Halldor

    geometry and secular rates across the plate boundary segments, reveals a deep magma chamber under Hekla and gives a geodetic estimate of the current location of the North-America Eurasian plate boundary in south Iceland. Different geometries were tested for Hekla's magma chamber: spherical, horizontally elongated ellipsoidal, and pipe-like magma chambers. The data could not reliably distinguish the actual geometry; however, all three models indicate magma accumulation near the Moho (˜20-25 km) under Hekla. The February -- March 2000 eruption of Hekla gave another opportunity to image the magmatic system. In Chapter 5, I used co-eruptive GPS and InSAR displacements, borehole strain, and tilt measurements to jointly invert for co-eruptive deformation associated with the 2000 eruption and found a depth of approximately 20 km for the magma chamber, in accordance with my previous results. Telica is a highly seismically active volcano in Nicaragua. The seismicity is mostly of shallow (<2 km deep) origin, and shows a high variability in terms of the number of seismic events per time unit. The highest rates exceed one earthquake per minute averaged over 24 hours, but overall trends in seismic activity, as observed since 1993, do not have an obvious correlation with eruptive activity. This variability causes difficulties for hazard monitoring of Telica. Telica erupted in a small (VEI 2) explosive eruption in 2011. Eruptions of this style and size seem to occur on decadal time scales at Telica. In Chapter 3, I used an extensive multidisciplinary data set consisting of seismic and GPS data, multivariate ash analysis, SO2 measurements, fumarole temperatures, and visual observations, to show that the eruption was essentially an amagmatic eruption of hydrothermally altered materials from the conduit, and that short-term sealing of hydrothermal pathways led to temporary pressure build-up, resulting in the explosions. No significant crustal deformation was detected before or during the

  7. Secondary Evolution of a Self-Incompatibility Locus in the Brassicaceae Genus Leavenworthia

    PubMed Central

    Chantha, Sier-Ching; Herman, Adam C.; Platts, Adrian E.; Vekemans, Xavier; Schoen, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is the flowering plant reproductive system in which self pollen tube growth is inhibited, thereby preventing self-fertilization. SI has evolved independently in several different flowering plant lineages. In all Brassicaceae species in which the molecular basis of SI has been investigated in detail, the product of the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) gene functions as receptor in the initial step of the self pollen-rejection pathway, while that of the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR) gene functions as ligand. Here we examine the hypothesis that the S locus in the Brassicaceae genus Leavenworthia is paralogous with the S locus previously characterized in other members of the family. We also test the hypothesis that self-compatibility in this group is based on disruption of the pollen ligand-producing gene. Sequence analysis of the S-locus genes in Leavenworthia, phylogeny of S alleles, gene expression patterns, and comparative genomics analyses provide support for both hypotheses. Of special interest are two genes located in a non-S locus genomic region of Arabidopsis lyrata that exhibit domain structures, sequences, and phylogenetic histories similar to those of the S-locus genes in Leavenworthia, and that also share synteny with these genes. These A. lyrata genes resemble those comprising the A. lyrata S locus, but they do not function in self-recognition. Moreover, they appear to belong to a lineage that diverged from the ancestral Brassicaceae S-locus genes before allelic diversification at the S locus. We hypothesize that there has been neo-functionalization of these S-locus-like genes in the Leavenworthia lineage, resulting in evolution of a separate ligand-receptor system of SI. Our results also provide support for theoretical models that predict that the least constrained pathway to the evolution of self-compatibility is one involving loss of pollen gene function. PMID:23690750

  8. Plains tectonism on Venus: The deformation belts of Lavinia Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Jankowski, David G.; Simons, Mark; Solomon, Sean C.; Hager, Bradford H.; Mcgill, George E.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. A number of geologic units can be distinguished, including volcanic plains units with a range of ages. Transecting these plains over much of the Lavinia region are two types of generally orthogonal features that we interpret to be compressional wrinkle ridges and extensional grooves. The dominant tectonic features of Lavinia are broad elevated belts of intense deformation that transect the plains with complex geometry. They are many tens to a few hundred kilometers wide, as much as 1000 km long, and elevated hundreds of meters above the surrounding plains. Two classes of deformation belts are seen in the Lavinia region. 'Ridge belts' are composed of parallel ridges, each a few hundred meters in elevation, that we interpret to be folds. Typical fold spacings are 5-10 km. 'Fracture belts' are dominated instead by intense faulting, with faults in some instances paired to form narrow grabens. There is also some evidence for modest amounts of horizontal shear distributed across both ridge and fracture belts. Crosscutting relationships among the belts show there to be a range in belt ages. In western Lavinia, in particular, many ridge and fracture belts appear to bear a relationship to the much smaller wrinkle ridges and grooves on the surrounding plains: ridge morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains wrinkle ridges, and fracture morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains grooves. We use simple models to explore the formation of ridge and fracture belts. We show that convective motions in the mantle can couple to the crust to cause horizontal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to induce the formation of deformation belts like those observed in Lavinia. We also use the small-scale wavelengths of deformation observed within individual ridge belts to

  9. Deformational characteristics of thermoplastic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indukuri, Kishore K.

    This thesis focuses primarily on the structure-property relationships of poly (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) triblock copolymer TPEs. First evidence for strain-induced crystallization occurring in certain SEBS block copolymers has been established using unique techniques like deformation calorimetry, combined in-situ small angle X-ray and wide angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD/WAXD). Also the ramifications of such strain-induced crystallization on the mechanical properties like cyclic hysteresis, stress relaxation/creep retention of these SEBS systems have been studied. In addition, the structural changes in the morphology of these systems on deformation have been investigated using combined SAXD/WAXD setup. Small angle X-ray diffraction probed the changes at the nano-scale of polystyrene (PS) cylinders, while wide angle X-ray diffraction probed the changes at molecular length scales of the amorphous/crystalline domains of the elastomeric mid-block in these systems. New structural features at both these length scales have been observed and incorporated into the overall deformation mechanisms of the material. Continuous processing techniques like extrusion have been used to obtain ultra long-range order and orientation in these SEBS systems. Thus well ordered crystal like hexagonal packing of cylinders, where in each element in this hexagonal lattice can be individually addressed without any grain boundaries can be realized using these robust techniques. The effect of long-range order/orientation on the mechanical properties has been studied. In addition, these well ordered systems serve as model systems for evaluating deformation mechanisms of these SEBS systems, where the relative contributions of each of the phases can be estimated. EPDM/i-PP thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) have micron size scale phase separated morphologies of EPDM rubber dispersed in a semicrystalline i-PP matrix as a result of the dynamic vulcanization process. Confocal microscopy studies

  10. Tectonic deformation in southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

  11. Deformable Mirrors Correct Optical Distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    By combining the high sensitivity of space telescopes with revolutionary imaging technologies consisting primarily of adaptive optics, the Terrestrial Planet Finder is slated to have imaging power 100 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope. To this end, Boston Micromachines Corporation, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for space-based adaptive optical technology. The work resulted in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) called the Kilo-DM. The company now offers a full line of MEMS DMs, which are being used in observatories across the world, in laser communication, and microscopy.

  12. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  13. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  14. Equivariant deformations of horospherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Michael Benjamin

    The classical Goursat transform for minimal surfaces is interpreted as conformal transformation of the Gauss map, allowing us to "bend" these surfaces for certain geometric purposes. A simple analogue of this deformation is defined for CMC1 surfaces which makes the Goursat transform equivariant with respect to the Lawson correspondence, thereby increasing the number of explicitly computable examples of minimal/CMC1 cousin pairs. We then indicate how the Goursat transformation law and integrability conditions for the "spin curve" of a horospherical surface are analogous to the Lorentz transformation law and equations of motion for the wavefunction of a massless fermion.

  15. Distinguishing "new" from "old" carbon in post mining soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Soils developing on heaped overburden after open pit coal mining near Sokolov, Czech Republic, provide an exceptional opportunity to study sites of different ages (0-70 years) developing on similar substrate under relatively well-known conditions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an useful indicator of soil quality and represents an important global carbon pool. Post-mining soils would be a perfect model for long-term study of carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, quantifying SOC in Sokolov post-mining soils is quite complicated, since conventional quantification methods cannot distinguish between SOC derived from plant residues and fossil organic carbon derived from coal and kerogen present in the overburden. Moreover, also inorganic carbon may sometimes bias SOC quantification. Up to now, the only way to directly estimate recently derived SOC in these soils is radiocarbon dating (Rumpel et al. 1999; Karu et al. 2009). However, this method is costly and thus cannot be used routinely. The aim of our study is to find an accessible method to quantify recently derived SOC. We would highly appreciate ideas of other soil scientists, organic geochemists and sedimentologists on how to solve this challenge. Methods and hypotheses A set of 14 soil samples were analysed by radiocarbon (14C-AMS) analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, Rock-Eval and XRD. For calibration of NIRS, also 125 artificial mixtures were produced by mixing different amounts of claystone, coal and partially decomposed litter. NIRS (1000-2500 nm) as well as younger mid-infrared spectroscopy has been widely applied to soils (Janik et al. 2007; Vasques et al. 2009; Michel et al. 2009). When combined with multivariate chemometric techniques, it can be used to predict concentration of different compounds. No study has yet focused on NIRS application to soils where fossil carbon is found in two chemically different forms - whereas coal is rather aromatic, kerogen in our

  16. Creep deformation at crack tips in elastic-viscoplastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, H.

    1981-02-01

    THE EVALUATION of crack growth tests under creep conditions must be based on the stress analysis of a cracked body taking into account elastic, plastic and creep deformation. In addition to the well-known analysis of a cracked body creeping in secondary (steady-state) creep, the stress field at the tip of a stationary crack is calculated for primary (strain-hardening) or tertiary (strain-softening) creep of the whole specimen. For the special hardening creep-law considered, a path-independent integral C∗h, can be defined which correlates the near-tip field to the applied load. It is also shown how, after sudden load application, creep strains develop in the initially elastic or, for a higher load level, plastic body. Characteristic times are derived to distinguish between short times when the creep-zones, in which creep strains are concentrated, are still small, and long times when the whole specimen creeps extensively in primary and finally in secondary and tertiary creep. Comparing the creep-zone sizes with the specimen dimensions or comparing the characteristic times with the test duration, one can decide which deformation mechanism prevails in the bulk of the specimen and which load parameter enters into the near-tip stress field and determines crack growth behavior. The governing load parameter is the stress intensity factor K 1 if the bulk of the specimen is predominantly elastic and it is the J-integral in a fully-plastic situation when large creep strains are still confined to a small zone. The C∗h-integral applies if the bulk of the specimen deforms in primary or tertiary creep, and C∗ is the relevant load parameter for predominantly secondary creep of the whole specimen.

  17. The Effect of Locus of Control on Message Acceptance and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Catherine A.; Singh, Surendra

    Locus of control is a personality trait that influences human behavior in many situations. Internal-external control reactions to a persuasive message and the recall of the message were examined in two studies. In the first study, 35 undergraduate students' locus of control was measured using Duttweiler's Internal Control Measure. On the basis of…

  18. Age-Dependent and Age-Independent Measures of Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Hofmann, Richard

    Using a longitudinal data set obtained from 169 pre-adolescent children between the ages of 8 and 13 years, this study statistically divided locus of control into two independent components. The first component was noted as "age-dependent" (AD) and was determined by predicted values generated by regressing children's ages onto their locus of…

  19. Social Self-Efficacy, Academic Locus of Control, and Internet Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of internet addiction, social self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Participants were 311 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Academic Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Social Self-efficacy Scale. The…

  20. Differences in Self-Concept and Locus of Control among Women Who Seek Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda V.; Robinson, Sharon E.

    1986-01-01

    Three groups of women who varied in abortion status were formed to investigate the self-concept and locus of control of a total of 90 women. No significant differences in self-concept were found among the three groups, nor was there a relationship between locus of control and repeated abortion. (Author/ABB)

  1. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  2. Locus ceruleus neurons in people with autism contain no histochemically-detectable mercury.

    PubMed

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau. No mercury was found in any neurons of the locus ceruleus of 6 individuals with autism (5 male, 1 female, age range 16-48 years). Mercury was present in locus ceruleus neurons in 7 of 11 (64%) age-matched control individuals who did not have autism, which is significantly more than in individuals with autism. No increase in numbers of locus ceruleus neurons containing hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in people with autism. In conclusion, most people with autism have not been exposed early in life to quantities of mercury large enough to be found later in adult locus ceruleus neurons. Human locus ceruleus neurons are sensitive indicators of mercury exposure, and mercury appears to remain in these neurons indefinitely, so these findings do not support the hypothesis that mercury neurotoxicity plays a role in autism.

  3. Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Multidimensional Perfectionism as the Predictors of Subjective Well Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep; Tagay, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final…

  4. Locus of Control and the ACT as Predictors of Success for Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Darwin; Napier, Lee

    The influence of locus of control (LC) and American College Testing (ACT) scores in predicting grade point average (GPA) was investigated with college freshmen at a predominantly and historically black campus in Mississippi. A total of 322 freshmen were administered the Rotter Locus of Control Inventory during the first month of school. The ACT…

  5. Metacognition: As a Predictor of One's Academic Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Serhat; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of metacognition on one's academic locus of control. The study's sample group consists of 451 university students enrolled in various programs at Sakarya University, Turkey. In this study, the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and the Academic Locus of Control Scale were used. The…

  6. Validity of a Measure of Children's Health Locus of Control: A Second-Order Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; And Others

    The study reported in this paper investigated the structure of the health locus of control beliefs of elementary school children using second-order factor analysis and the measurement characteristics of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scales. Changes of wording were made in 10 of the MHLC Scales items in order to improve the…

  7. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  8. Criterion-Related Validity of the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale with Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Gary D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…

  9. Locus of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming: Evidence from Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Disagreement exists regarding the functional locus of semantic interference of distractor words in picture naming. This effect is a cornerstone of modern psycholinguistic models of word production, which assume that it arises in lexical response-selection. However, recent evidence from studies of dual-task performance suggests a locus in…

  10. Mapping of panda plumage color locus on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Mitsuru; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kayang, Boniface Baboreka; Mizutani, Makoto; Takahashi, Hideaki; Ito, Shin'ichi

    2006-01-01

    Background Panda (s) is an autosomal recessive mutation, which displays overall white plumage color with spots of wild-type plumage in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). In a previous study, the s locus was included in the same linkage group as serum albumin (Alb) and vitamin-D binding protein (GC) which are mapped on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 4 (GGA4). In this study, we mapped the s locus on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail by linkage analysis. Results Segregation data on the s locus were obtained from three-generation families (n = 106). Two microsatellite markers derived from the Japanese quail chromosome 4 (CJA04) and three microsatellite markers derived from GGA4 were genotyped in the three-generation families. We mapped the s locus between GUJ0026 and ABR0544 on CJA04. By comparative mapping with chicken, this locus was mapped between 10.0 Mb and 14.5 Mb region on GGA4. In this region, the endothelin receptor B subtype 2 gene (EDNRB2), an avian-specific paralog of the mammalian endothelin receptor B gene (EDNRB), is located. Because EDNRB is responsible for aganglionic megacolon and spot coat color in mouse, rat and equine, EDNRB2 is suggested to be a candidate gene for the s locus. Conclusion The s locus and the five microsatellite markers were mapped on CJA04 of the Japanese quail. EDNRB2 was suggested to be a candidate gene for the s locus. PMID:16405738

  11. A locus necessary for the transport and catabolism of erythritol in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Barney A; Pickering, Brad S; Poysti, Nathan J; Collins, Heather; Yudistira, Harry; Oresnik, Ivan J

    2010-10-01

    In this work we have genetically defined an erythritol utilization locus in Sinorhizobium meliloti. A cosmid containing the locus was isolated by complementation of a transposon mutant and was subsequently mutagenized using Tn5 : : B20. The locus was found to consist of five transcriptional units, each of which was necessary for the utilization of erythritol. Genetic complementation experiments using genes putatively annotated as erythritol catabolic genes clearly showed that, of the 17 genes at this locus, six genes are not necessary for the utilization of erythritol as a sole carbon source. The remaining genes encode EryA, EryB, EryC and TpiB as well as an uncharacterized ABC-type transporter. Transport experiments using labelled erythritol showed that components of the ABC transporter are necessary for the uptake of erythritol. The locus also contains two regulators: EryD, a SorC class regulator, and SMc01615, a DeoR class regulator. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments showed that each of these regulators negatively regulates its own transcription. In addition, induction of the erythritol locus was dependent upon EryD and a product of erythritol catabolism. Further characterization of polar mutations revealed that in addition to erythritol, the locus contains determinants for adonitol and l-arabitol utilization. The context of the mutations suggests that the locus is important for both the transport and catabolism of adonitol and l-arabitol.

  12. Development of Locus of Control: A Review and Model for Further Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Anthony B.

    This paper applies a developmental perspective to locus of control studies. Contingency awareness established during infancy and early childhood is viewed as the basis for the development of locus of control expectancies. Expectancies of contingent reinforcement involve a cognitive component and can be viewed in Piagetian terms as the development…

  13. Predictors of Parental Locus of Control in Mothers of Pre- and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Rachel D.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    Parental locus of control refers to parents' perceived power and efficacy in child-rearing situations. This study explored parental locus of control and its correlates in 160 mothers of children ages 8 to 14 cross-sectionally and 1 year later. Maternal depression, maternal expressed emotion, and child internalizing and externalizing behavior were…

  14. Rational-Emotive Education, Self-Concept, and Locus of Control among Learning-Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of a rational-emotive education (REE) program on learning-disabled adolescents' (N=60) self-concept and locus of control. Results suggest that the REE intervention strategy is an effective approach to helping learning-disabled adolescents enhance some aspects of self-concept and develop a more internal locus of control…

  15. Health Locus of Control and Preventive Behaviour among Students of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spahn, Claudia; Burger, Thorsten; Hildebrandt, Horst; Seidenglanz, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated health locus of control, preventive behaviour and previous playing-related health problems of music students; 326 students of music (58% female, mean age 22 years) filled in the Locus of Control Inventory for Illness and Health (Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) and the Epidemiological Questionnaire for Musicians (Spahn,…

  16. Locus of Control as It Relates to the Teaching Style of Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ture, Abidemi

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the relationship between elementary teachers' locus of control and teaching style. This research observed elementary teachers in their classrooms coupled with data gathered from information sheets, surveys, and interviews to determine if a relationship exists between the locus of control of the elementary teachers and…

  17. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  18. An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

  19. Internal-External Locus of Control in Middle and Later Life: The Search for Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielby, Denise D.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    This study validates the developmental nature of internal-external locus of control in middle and old age. Longitudinal stability of locus of control in the face of particular changes in social milieu common during the transition from middle to late life was contrasted with that of verbal intelligence, a known stable characteristic, and that of…

  20. Locus of Control and Value Orientations of Undergraduate and Graduate Students in a Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Fredric; And Others

    The relationship between locus of control and value orientation was studied in adult teacher education majors. The Rotter Internal External Locus of Control Scale and Rokeach Value Survey were administered to 413 undergraduate and graduate students ranging in age from 18 years to over 50. Demographic data were also collected. The results showed…

  1. Description and nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis capsule locus.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Odile B; Claus, Heike; Jiang, Ying; Bennett, Julia S; Bratcher, Holly B; Jolley, Keith A; Corton, Craig; Care, Rory; Poolman, Jan T; Zollinger, Wendell D; Frasch, Carl E; Stephens, David S; Feavers, Ian; Frosch, Matthias; Parkhill, Julian; Vogel, Ulrich; Quail, Michael A; Bentley, Stephen D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2013-04-01

    Pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis isolates contain a polysaccharide capsule that is the main virulence determinant for this bacterium. Thirteen capsular polysaccharides have been described, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has enabled determination of the structure of capsular polysaccharides responsible for serogroup specificity. Molecular mechanisms involved in N. meningitidis capsule biosynthesis have also been identified, and genes involved in this process and in cell surface translocation are clustered at a single chromosomal locus termed cps. The use of multiple names for some of the genes involved in capsule synthesis, combined with the need for rapid diagnosis of serogroups commonly associated with invasive meningococcal disease, prompted a requirement for a consistent approach to the nomenclature of capsule genes. In this report, a comprehensive description of all N. meningitidis serogroups is provided, along with a proposed nomenclature, which was presented at the 2012 XVIIIth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference.

  2. Discriminating among single locus models using small pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Beaty, T H

    1980-01-01

    Simulated small pedigrees (2 parents, 4 offspring) were used to illustrate the applications and limitations of a "model choice" approach designed to detect genetic heterogeneity in familial diseases. While it is possible to identify groups of pedigrees which have different genetic causes for quanitative phenotypic trait(s), theoretical limitations on discriminating between 4 single locus models exist for certain pedigree structures. These limitations originate from the overlapping phenotypic predictions of the various genetic models. Such limitations must be carefully considered in the design of genetic studies. Studies aimed at detecting genetic heterogeneity in familial diseases should limit the different genetic models being considered and tailor the sampling strategy to avoid collecting pedigrees which are non-informative for certain comparisons. PMID:7424975

  3. A comprehensive analysis of the chorion locus in silkmoth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nohata, Junko; Guo, Huizhen; Li, Shenglong; Liu, Jianqiu; Guo, Youbing; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Liu, Chun; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shiping; Labropoulou, Vassiliki; Swevers, Luc; Tsitoura, Panagiota; Iatrou, Kostas; Gopinathan, Karumathil P.; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of intense study, essential features of the silkmoth chorion (eggshell) are still not fully understood. To determine the precise structure of the chorion locus, we performed extensive EST analysis, constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig, and obtained a continuous genomic sequence of 871,711 base pairs. We annotated 127 chorion genes in two segments interrupted by a 164 kb region with 5 non-chorion genes, orthologs of which were on chorion bearing scaffolds in 4 ditrysian families. Detailed transcriptome analysis revealed expression throughout choriogenesis of most chorion genes originally categorized as “middle”, and evidence for diverse regulatory mechanisms including cis-elements, alternative splicing and promoter utilization, and antisense RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed multigene family associations and faster evolution of early chorion genes and transcriptionally active pseudogenes. Proteomics analysis identified 99 chorion proteins in the eggshell and micropyle localization of 1 early and 6 Hc chorion proteins. PMID:26553298

  4. Search for a schizophrenia susceptibility locus of human chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Hoff, M.; Holik, J.

    1994-06-15

    We used 10 highly informative DNA polymorphic markers and genetic linkage analysis to examine whether a gene locus predisposing to schizophrenia is located on chromosome 22, in 105 families with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. The LOD score method, including analysis for heterogeneity, provided no conclusive evidence of linkage under a dominant, recessive, or penetrance free model of inheritance. Affected sib-pair analysis was inconclusive. Affected Pedigree Member (APM) analysis gave only suggestive evidence for linkage. Multipoint APM analysis, using 4 adjacent loci including D22S281 and IL2RB, a region of interest from the APM analysis, gave non-significant results for the three different weighting functions. 18 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  5. Genetic mapping of a locus predisposing to human colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Peltomaeki, P.; Aaltonen, L.A.; Pylkkaenen, L.; Chappelle, A. de la ); Sistonen, P. Finnish Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Helsinki ); Mecklin, J.P. ); Haervinen, H. ); Green, J.S. ); Jass, J.R. ); Weber, J.L. ); Leach, F.S.; Petersen, G.M.; Hamilton, S.R.; Vogelstein, B. Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD )

    1993-05-07

    Genetic linkage analysis was used to determine whether a specific chromosomal locus could be implicated in families with a history of early onset cancer but with no other unique features. Close linkage of disease to anonymous microsatellite markers on chromosome 2 was demonstrated in two large kindreds. The pairwise lod scores for linkage to marker D2S123 in these kindreds were 6.39 and 1.45 at zero recombination, and multipoint linkage with flanking markers resulted in lod scores of 6.47 and 6.01. These results prove the existence of a genetically determined predisposition to colorectal cancer that has important ramifications for understanding and preventing this disease. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. A comprehensive analysis of the chorion locus in silkmoth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nohata, Junko; Guo, Huizhen; Li, Shenglong; Liu, Jianqiu; Guo, Youbing; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Liu, Chun; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shiping; Labropoulou, Vassiliki; Swevers, Luc; Tsitoura, Panagiota; Iatrou, Kostas; Gopinathan, Karumathil P; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of intense study, essential features of the silkmoth chorion (eggshell) are still not fully understood. To determine the precise structure of the chorion locus, we performed extensive EST analysis, constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig, and obtained a continuous genomic sequence of 871,711 base pairs. We annotated 127 chorion genes in two segments interrupted by a 164 kb region with 5 non-chorion genes, orthologs of which were on chorion bearing scaffolds in 4 ditrysian families. Detailed transcriptome analysis revealed expression throughout choriogenesis of most chorion genes originally categorized as "middle", and evidence for diverse regulatory mechanisms including cis-elements, alternative splicing and promoter utilization, and antisense RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed multigene family associations and faster evolution of early chorion genes and transcriptionally active pseudogenes. Proteomics analysis identified 99 chorion proteins in the eggshell and micropyle localization of 1 early and 6 Hc chorion proteins. PMID:26553298

  7. Quantitative trait locus for reading disability on chromosome 6

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, L.R. |; Smith, S.D.; Kimberling, W.J.; Fulker, D.W.; DeFries, J.C.; Pennington, B.F.

    1994-10-14

    Interval mapping of data from two independent samples of sib pairs, at least one member of whom was reading disabled, revealed evidence for a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 6. Results obtained from analyses of reading performance from 114 sib pairs genotyped for DNA markers localized the QTL to 6p21.3. Analyses of corresponding data from an independent sample of 50 dizygotic twin pairs provided evidence for linkage to the same region. In combination, the replicate samples yielded a x{sup 2} value of 16.73 (P = 0.0002). Examination of twin and kindred siblings with more extreme deficits in reading performance yielded even stronger evidence for a QTL (x{sup 2} = 27.35, P < 0.00001). The position of the QTL was narrowly defined with a 100:1 confidence interval to a 2-centimorgan region within the human leukocyte antigen complex. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Locus Coeruleus in time with the making of memories.

    PubMed

    Sara, Susan J

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decades studies of the neurobiology of memory were largely restricted to consideration of cellular and molecular events taking place immediately or shortly after training, the so-called consolidation period. More recent views have recognized that the memory process includes sensory processing, orienting of attention, retrieval, encoding, and subsequent consolidation. Advances in biotechnology are providing new tools to gain insights at every level of the memory process. New data from experiments employing high definition fMRI are confirming the role of the Locus Coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic system in reorienting of attention and in cognitive flexibility. Electrophysiological studies show new task-related activation of these neurons and learning-related off line activation and suggest a temporal relationship between LC spiking and cortical oscillations in the theta and gamma frequencies. PMID:26241632

  9. The Effects of Locus Coeruleus and Norepinephrine in Methamphetamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Michela; Giorgi, Filippo S; Bartalucci, Alessia; Busceti, Carla L; Fornai, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has been extensively investigated in a variety of behavioural states. In fact this norepinephrine (NE)-containing nucleus modulates many physiological and pathological conditions including the sleep-waking cycle, movement disorders, mood alterations, convulsive seizures, and the effects of drugs such as psychostimulants and opioids. This review focuses on the modulation exerted by central NE pathways on the behavioural and neurotoxic effects produced by the psychostimulant methamphetamine, essentially the modulation of the activity of mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons. In fact, although NE in itself mediates some behavioural effects induced by methamphetamine, NE modulation of DA release is pivotal for methamphetamine-induced behavioural states and neurotoxicity. These interactions are discussed on the basis of the state of the art of the functional neuroanatomy of central NE- and DA systems. Emphasis is given to those brain sites possessing a remarkable overlapping of both neurotransmitters. PMID:23814540

  10. Thermocapillary motion of deformable drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Shi, Qingping; Borhan, Ali

    1994-01-01

    The thermocapillary motion of initially spherical drops/bubbles driven by a constant temperature gradient in an unbounded liquid medium is simulated numerically. Effects of convection of momentum and energy, as well as shape deformations, are addressed. The method used is based on interface tracking on a base cartesian grid, and uses a smeared color or indicator function for the determination of the surface topology. Quad-tree adaptive refinement of the cartesian grid is implemented to enhance the fidelity of the surface tracking. It is shown that convection of energy results in a slowing of the drop, as the isotherms get wrapped around the front of the drop. Shape deformation resulting from inertial effects affect the migration velocity. The physical results obtained are in agreement with the existing literature. Furthermore, remarks are made on the sensitivity of the calculated solutions to the smearing of the fluid properties. Analysis and simulations show that the migration velocity depends very strongly on the smearing of the interfacial force whereas it is rather insensitive to the smearing of other properties, hence the adaptive grid.

  11. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  12. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  13. Quantitative trait locus mapping of soybean maturity gene E5

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayaka, Auchithya; Rodriguez, Tito O.; Di, Shaokang; Yan, Fan; Githiri, Stephen M.; Rodas, Felipe Rojas; Abe, Jun; Takahashi, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Time to flowering and maturity in soybean is controlled by loci E1 to E5, and E7 to E9. These loci were assigned to molecular linkage groups (MLGs) except for E5. This study was conducted to map the E5 locus using F2 populations expected to segregate for E5. F2 populations were subjected to quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for days to flowering (DF) and maturity (DM). In Harosoy-E5 × Clark-e2 population, QTLs for DF and DM were found at a similar position with E2. In Harosoy × Clark-e2E5 population, QTLs for DF and DM were found in MLG D1a and B1, respectively. In Harosoy-E5Dt2 × Clark-e2 population, a QTL for DF was found in MLG B1. Thus, results from these populations were not fully consistent, and no candidate QTL for E5 was found. In Harosoy × PI 80837 population, from which E5 was originally identified, QTLs corresponding to E1 and E3 were found, but none for E5 existed. Harosoy and PI 80837 had the e2-ns allele whereas Harosoy-E5 had the E2-dl allele. The E2-dl allele of Harosoy-E5 may have been generated by outcrossing and may be responsible for the lateness of Harosoy-E5. We conclude that a unique E5 gene may not exist. PMID:27436951

  14. Surfeit locus gene homologs are widely distributed in invertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Armes, N; Fried, M

    1996-10-01

    The mouse Surfeit locus contains six sequence-unrelated genes (Surf-1 to -6) arranged in the tightest gene cluster so far described for mammals. The organization and juxtaposition of five of the Surfeit genes (Surf-1 to -5) are conserved between mammals and birds, and this may reflect a functional or regulatory requirement for the gene clustering. We have undertaken an evolutionary study to determine whether the Surfeit genes are conserved and clustered in invertebrate genomes. Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of the mouse Surf-4 gene, which encodes an integral membrane protein associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, have been isolated. The amino acid sequences of the Drosophila and C. elegans homologs are highly conserved in comparison with the mouse Surf-4 protein. In particular, a dilysine motif implicated in endoplasmic reticulum localization of the mouse protein is conserved in the invertebrate homologs. We show that the Drosophila Surf-4 gene, which is transcribed from a TATA-less promoter, is not closely associated with other Drosophila Surfeit gene homologs but rather is located upstream from sequences encoding a homolog of a yeast seryl-tRNA synthetase protein. There are at least two closely linked Surf-3/rpL7a genes or highly polymorphic alleles of a single Surf-3/rpL7a gene in the C. elegans genome. The chromosomal locations of the C. elegans Surf-1, Surf-3/rpL7a, and Surf-4 genes have been determined. In D. melanogaster the Surf-3/rpL7a, Surf-4, and Surf-5 gene homologs and in C. elegans the Surf-1, Surf-3/rpL7a, Surf-4, and Surf-5 gene homologs are located on completely different chromosomes, suggesting that any requirement for the tight clustering of the genes in the Surfeit locus is restricted to vertebrate lineages.

  15. The potato R locus codes for dihydroflavonol 4-reductase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongfei; Cheng, Shuping; De Jong, Darlene; Griffiths, Helen; Halitschke, Rayko; De Jong, Walter

    2009-09-01

    The potato R locus is required for the production of red pelargonidin-based anthocyanin pigments in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Red color also requires tissue-specific regulatory genes, such as D (for expression in tuber skin) and F (expression in flowers). A related locus, P, is required for production of blue/purple anthocyanins; P is epistatic to R. We have previously reported that the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene (dfr) co-segregates with R. To test directly whether R corresponds to dfr, we placed the allele of dfr associated with red color under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and introduced it into the potato cultivar Prince Hairy (genotype dddd rrrr P-), which has white tubers and pale blue flowers. Transgenic Prince Hairy tubers remained white, but flower color changed to purple. Three independent transgenic lines, as well as a vector-transformed line, were then crossed with the red-skinned variety Chieftain (genotype D-R-pppp), to establish populations that segregated for D, R, P, and the dfr transgene or empty vector. Markers were used to genotype progeny at D and R. Progeny carrying the empty vector in the genetic background D-rrrr produced white or purple tubers, while progeny with the same genotype and the dfr transgene produced red or purple tubers. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses of anthocyanins present in Chieftain and in a red-skinned progeny clone with the dfr transgene in a D-rrrr background revealed no qualitative differences. Thus, dfr can fully complement R, both in terms of tuber color and anthocyanin composition.

  16. PAHdb 2003: what a locus-specific knowledgebase can do.

    PubMed

    Scriver, Charles R; Hurtubise, Mélanie; Konecki, David; Phommarinh, Manyphong; Prevost, Lynne; Erlandsen, Heidi; Stevens, Ray; Waters, Paula J; Ryan, Shannon; McDonald, David; Sarkissian, Christineh

    2003-04-01

    PAHdb, a legacy of and resource in genetics, is a relational locus-specific database (http://www.pahdb.mcgill.ca). It records and annotates both pathogenic alleles (n = 439, putative disease-causing) and benign alleles (n = 41, putative untranslated polymorphisms) at the human phenylalanine hydroxylase locus (symbol PAH). Human alleles named by nucleotide number (systematic names) and their trivial names receive unique identifier numbers. The annotated gDNA sequence for PAH is typical for mammalian genes. An annotated gDNA sequence is numbered so that cDNA and gDNA sites are interconvertable. A site map for PAHdb leads to a large array of secondary data (attributes): source of the allele (submitter, publication, or population); polymorphic haplotype background; and effect of the allele as predicted by molecular modeling on the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme (EC 1.14.16.1) or by in vitro expression analysis. The majority (63%) of the putative pathogenic PAH alleles are point mutations causing missense in translation of which few have a primary effect on PAH enzyme kinetics. Most apparently have a secondary effect on its function through misfolding, aggregation, and intracellular degradation of the protein. Some point mutations create new splice sites. A subset of primary PAH mutations that are tetrahydrobiopterin-responsive is highlighted on a Curators' Page. A clinical module describes the corresponding human clinical disorders (hyperphenylalaninemia [HPA] and phenylketonuria [PKU]), their inheritance, and their treatment. PAHdb contains data on the mouse gene (Pah) and on four orthologous mutant mouse models and their use (for example, in research on oral treatment of PKU with the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia lyase [EC 4.3.1.5]).

  17. Spatial variations in fluvial incision across the eastern margin of Tibet reveal locus of thickening in the deep crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Eric; Zhang, Huiping; Chen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    The manifestation of coupling among climate, erosion and tectonics along steep topographic margins of orogenic plateaus is strongly dependent on the processes driving crustal thickening. Along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, a long-standing an vigorous debate persists over whether mountain building occurred largely along upper-crustal faults or was the consequence of distributed thickening in the lower crust. Here we revisit this debate and show how surface deformation recorded by geomorphology over millennial timescales (104-105 yr) can yield insight into the role the deep crust along plateau margins. In contrast to the intensively studied Longmen Shan, the topographic margin of the Tibetan Plateau north of the Sichuan Basin follows the north-south Min Shan and cuts orthogonally across the structural grain of the Mesozoic West Qinling orogen. The lack of a direct association of topography with upper crustal faults affords an opportunity to evaluate the patterns of differential rock uplift from geomorphology. First, we employ an empirical calibration of river profile steepness (channel gradient normalized for drainage basin area) and erosion rate from cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in modern sediment. Application to the channels draining the plateau margin reveals a locus of high (300-500 m/Myr) erosion rate coincident with the Min Shan. Second, we present new results of surveying and dating of fluvial terraces developed along the Bailong Jiang, one of the major rivers draining across the plateau margin. A preliminary chronology of terrace tread deposits based on radiocarbon and OSL samples reveals systematic spatial gradients in fluvial incision, with highest incision rates (1000-2000 m/Myr) localized along the axis of the Min Shan and decreasing toward both the foreland and the plateau. This locus of incision has apparently been sustained through multiple generations of terrace formation and abandonment since ca. 80ka and thus is interpreted to reflect

  18. Development of self-compatible B. rapa by RNAi-mediated S locus gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Jeong; Jung, Hyo-Jin; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Hur, Yoonkang; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2012-01-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) system is genetically controlled by a single polymorphic locus known as the S-locus in the Brassicaceae. Pollen rejection occurs when the stigma and pollen share the same S-haplotype. Recognition of S-haplotype specificity has recently been shown to involve at least two S-locus genes, S-receptor kinase (SRK) and S-locus protein 11 or S locus Cysteine-rich (SP11/SCR) protein. Here, we examined the function of S(60), one SP11/SCR allele of B. rapa cv. Osome, using a RNAi-mediated gene silencing approach. The transgenic RNAi lines were highly self-compatible, and this trait was stable in subsequent generations, even after crossing with other commercial lines. These findings also suggested that the resultant self-compatibility could be transferred to commercial cultivars with the desired performances in B. rapa.

  19. A 27-locus STR assay to meet all United States and European law enforcement agency standards.

    PubMed

    Schumm, James W; Gutierrez-Mateo, Cristina; Tan, Eugene; Selden, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Different national and international agencies have selected specific STR sets for forensic database use. To enhance database comparison across national and international borders, a 27-locus multiplex system was developed comprising all 15 STR loci of the European standard set, the current 13 STR loci of the CODIS core, the proposed 22 STR loci of the expanded CODIS core, 4 additional commonly used STR loci, and the amelogenin locus. Development required iterative primer design to resolve primer-related artifacts, amplicon sizing, and locus-to-locus balance issues. The 19.5-min assay incorporated newly developed six-dye chemistry analyzed using a novel microfluidic electrophoresis instrument capable of simultaneous detection and discrimination of 8 or more fluorescent dyes. The 27-locus multiplex offers the potential for a new international STR standard permitting laboratories in any jurisdiction to use a single reaction to determine profiles for loci they typically generate plus an expanded common STR profiling set of global interest.

  20. Development of Self-Compatible B. rapa by RNAi-Mediated S Locus Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee-Jeong; Jung, Hyo-Jin; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Hur, Yoonkang; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2012-01-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) system is genetically controlled by a single polymorphic locus known as the S-locus in the Brassicaceae. Pollen rejection occurs when the stigma and pollen share the same S-haplotype. Recognition of S-haplotype specificity has recently been shown to involve at least two S-locus genes, S-receptor kinase (SRK) and S-locus protein 11 or S locus Cysteine-rich (SP11/SCR) protein. Here, we examined the function of S60, one SP11/SCR allele of B. rapa cv. Osome, using a RNAi-mediated gene silencing approach. The transgenic RNAi lines were highly self-compatible, and this trait was stable in subsequent generations, even after crossing with other commercial lines. These findings also suggested that the resultant self-compatibility could be transferred to commercial cultivars with the desired performances in B. rapa. PMID:23145180