Science.gov

Sample records for degro practice guidelines

  1. [Guidelines for clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Vleugels, A M

    1997-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements that are intended to support medical decision making in well-defined clinical situations. Essentially, their object is to reduce the variability in medical practice, to improve quality, and to make appropriated control of the financial resources possible. Internationally, ever more organisations, associations, and institutions are concerned with the development of guidelines in many different areas of care. Making implicit knowledge explicit is one of the associated advantages of guidelines: they have a potential utility in training, in process evaluation, and in the reevaluation of outcome studies. In liability issues, their existence has a double effect: they can be used to justify medical behaviour, and they constitute a generally accepted reference point. A derivative problem is the legal liability of the compilers of the guidelines. The principle of the guideline approach can be challenged academically: science cannot give a definition of optimal care with absolute certainty. What is called objectivity often rests on methodologically disputable analyses; also the opinion of opinion leaders is not always a guarantee for scientific soundness. Moreover, patients are not all identical: biological variability, situational factors, patient expectations, and other elements play a role in this differentiation. Clinicians are often hesitant with respect to clinical guidelines: they are afraid of cookbook medicine and curtailment of their professional autonomy. Patients fear reduction of individualization of care and the use of guidelines as a rationing instrument. The effects of the introduction of clinical practice guidelines on medical practice, on the results and on the cost of care vary but are generally considered to be favourable. The choice of appropriate strategies in development, dissemination, and implementation turns out to be of critical importance. The article ends with concrete

  2. Development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Steven D; Areán, Patricia A; Craske, Michelle G; Crawford, Kermit A; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Magnavita, Jeffrey J; Ollendick, Thomas H; Sexton, Thomas L; Spring, Bonnie; Bufka, Lynn F; Galper, Daniel I; Kurtzman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to improve mental, behavioral, and physical health by promoting clinical practices that are based on the best available evidence. The American Psychological Association (APA) is committed to generating patient-focused CPGs that are scientifically sound, clinically useful, and informative for psychologists, other health professionals, training programs, policy makers, and the public. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 standards for generating CPGs represent current best practices in the field. These standards involve multidisciplinary guideline development panels charged with generating recommendations based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the evidence. The IOM standards will guide the APA as it generates CPGs that can be used to inform the general public and the practice community regarding the benefits and harms of various treatment options. CPG recommendations are advisory rather than compulsory. When used appropriately, high-quality guidelines can facilitate shared decision making and identify gaps in knowledge.

  3. Are clinical practice guidelines impartial?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls demands from citizens who decide upon principles of justice and the rules derived from such principles that they abstract from all particularities that constitute their identity as unique individuals. This demand is unrealistic in policy settings where actual policy-makers convene to provide guidance, establish rules regarding public good, and enact legislation. In practice, I argue, policy-makers, legislators, and others involved in developing social rules that pertain to distributive justice formulate such rules as reasonably partial spectators. To illustrate, I show how clinical practice guidelines are established and mediated by a reasonably partial expert panel whose partial action is publicly justifiable, yet whose claims to impartiality are not.

  4. Clinical practice guidelines in hypertension: a review.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Sosa-Rosado, José Manuel; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis Arturo

    2015-10-23

    The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in hypertension. This is the first in a series of review articles, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Of all clinical practice guidelines, three were selected and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument was used to assess each guide. The guidelines obtained the lowest score in the domain of applicability (mean 43.8%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 81.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the applicability domain (European guideline) and the highest of all scores was found in two domains: scope and purpose, and clarity of presentation (Canadian guideline). Assessing the quality of the clinical practice guidelines analyzed, the Canadian is one with the best scores obtained by applying the AGREE II instrument, and it is advised to be used without modifications.

  5. 42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement Measurement and Improvement Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. (a) Basic rule: The State must ensure, through...

  6. Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines: depression.

    PubMed

    Chua, H C; Chan, L L; Chee, K S; Chen, Y H; Chin, S A; Chua, P L W; Fones, S L C; Fung, D; Khoo, C L; Kwek, S K D; Lim, E C L; Ling, J; Poh, P; Sim, K; Tan, B L; Tan, C H; Tan, L L; Tan, Y H C; Tay, W K; Yeo, C; Su, H C A

    2012-02-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) have updated the clinical practice guidelines on Depression to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for depression. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on Depression, for the information of readers of the Singapore Medical Journal. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/home/Publications/guidelines/cpg/2012/depression.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.

  7. Adherence to asthma guidelines in general practices.

    PubMed

    Roghmann, M C; Sexton, M

    1999-06-01

    Adherence to asthma practice guidelines is low. Improved compliance could potentially improve care of patients with asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients managed in a general practice with an associated asthma clinic are more likely to use asthma medications according to clinical practice guidelines than patients managed in the general surgery of the practice. A cross-sectional study of adult asthmatics, aged 18-55 years, was conducted in six British general practices. Prescription data on all asthma medication was collected for a 6-month period. Information on asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, and how patients used their inhaled beta2-agonist was collected through questionnaire. The prescription data for asthma medication and patient use of inhaled beta2-agonist were compared to the British Thoracic Society's (BTS) Guidelines for Management of Asthma in Adults to determine if the patient's asthma medication regimen was appropriate. There was no significant association found between appropriate asthma medication and asthma clinic attendance or other patient characteristics. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low. Fifty-eight percent of the asthma patients used asthma medication regimens that were not consistent with the BTS guidelines published 1 year earlier. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low regardless of patient characteristics, including asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, or individual practice. These findings underscore the need to document the utility of clinical practice guidelines which may improve physician compliance.

  8. When Choosing Wisely meets clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Strech, Daniel; Follmann, Markus; Klemperer, David; Lelgemann, Monika; Ollenschläger, Günter; Raspe, Heiner; Nothacker, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation launched the Choosing Wisely campaign in 2012 and until today convinced more than 50 US specialist societies to develop lists of interventions that may not improve people's health but are potentially harmful. We suggest combining these new efforts with the already existing efforts in clinical practice guideline development. Existing clinical practice guidelines facilitate a more participatory and evidence-based approach to the development of top 5 lists. In return, adding top 5 lists (for overuse and underuse) to existing clinical practice guidelines nicely addresses a neglected dimension to clinical practice guideline development, namely explicit information on which Do or Don't do recommendations are frequently disregarded in practice. PMID:25499114

  9. When Choosing Wisely meets clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Strech, Daniel; Follmann, Markus; Klemperer, David; Lelgemann, Monika; Ollenschläger, Günter; Raspe, Heiner; Nothacker, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation launched the Choosing Wisely campaign in 2012 and until today convinced more than 50 US specialist societies to develop lists of interventions that may not improve people's health but are potentially harmful. We suggest combining these new efforts with the already existing efforts in clinical practice guideline development. Existing clinical practice guidelines facilitate a more participatory and evidence-based approach to the development of top 5 lists. In return, adding top 5 lists (for overuse and underuse) to existing clinical practice guidelines nicely addresses a neglected dimension to clinical practice guideline development, namely explicit information on which Do or Don't do recommendations are frequently disregarded in practice.

  10. [From clinical practice guidelines towards quality assurance].

    PubMed

    Kopp, I B

    2011-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines have been introduced to assist decision making at the bedside of individual patients. Guidelines are also increasingly regarded as being an indispensable part of professional quality systems. Guidelines are important tools to improve knowledge-management, processes and outcomes in healthcare. They aim to assist professional and patient decisions especially in those areas of healthcare where considerable variation or potential for improvement exist and they can provide a foundation for assessing and evaluating the quality and effectiveness of healthcare in terms of measuring processes and outcomes. Quality indicators or performance measures based on guideline recommendations are necessary to evaluate the usefulness of guidelines and the appropriateness of healthcare delivery. Guideline recommendations are the tools for healthcare professionals to develop strategies for quality improvement in case deviations from desired processes or outcomes are identified by the measurement of quality indicators.

  11. From guidelines to practice: How reporting templates promote the use of radiology practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Charles E.; Heilbrun, Marta E.; Applegate, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    Radiology practice guidelines have been developed to help radiologists achieve quality and safety in their clinical practice. One means to promote the use of practice guidelines in radiology is through wider use of reporting templates, also known as “structured reporting.” This article presents specific examples in which radiology reporting templates can promote adherence to guidelines, gather data for quality improvement efforts, and facilitate compliance with performance incentive programs. PMID:23332496

  12. Procedures for Using Clinical Practice Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Patricia; Griffer, Mona; Lund, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides information about clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to facilitate their application to the practice of speech-language pathology. CPGs are sets of recommendations based on evidence, including expert clinical opinion, that have been developed by a panel of reviewers. In this article, CPGs are defined and their…

  13. Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

  14. Guidelines for the Practice of Parenting Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Parenting coordination is a nonadversarial dispute resolution process that is court ordered or agreed on by divorced and separated parents who have an ongoing pattern of high conflict and/or litigation about their children. These guidelines are designed to address the developing area of practice known as parenting coordination. In response to the…

  15. Practical guidelines for workload assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tattersall, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    The practical problems that might be encountered in carrying out workload evaluations in work settings have been outlined. Different approaches have been distinguished that may determine the type of research design used and provide assistance in the difficult choice between workload assessment techniques. One approach to workload assessment is to examine the short-term consequences of combining various tasks. Theoretical models of attention allocation will underpin specific studies of interference and the consequences of task demand and task conflict for performance. A further approach with a different temporal orientation may lead us to a better understanding of the relationships between work demands and strain through the analysis of individual differences in cognitive control processes. The application of these processes may depend on individual differences in long term styles and short term strategies, but may be used to prevent decrements in work performance under difficult conditions. However, control may attract costs as well as benefits in terms of changes in effective state and physiological activity. Thus, strain associated with work demands may only be measurable in the form of tradeoffs between performance and other domains of individual activity. The methodological implications are to identify patterns of adjustment to workload variations using repeated measures and longitudinal sampling of performance as well as subjective and physiological measures. Possible enhancements to workplace design must take into account these human factors considerations of workload in order to avoid potential decrements in individual performance and associated organizational problems.

  16. [Systemic therapy of breast cancer: practice guideline].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsolt; Boér, Katalin; Dank, Magdolna; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Kocsis, Judit; Kövér, Erika; Pajkos, Gábor; Pikó, Béla; Rubovszky, Gábor; Eckhardt, Sándor

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the practice guideline of systemic treatment of breast cancer and recommendations of the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Conference. It reflects the recent international guidelines (ESMO, NCCN, ABC2, St Gallen's) irrespectively of the current financial opportunities. Here we follow the early - locally advanced - locally relapsed - metastatic breast cancer line for didactic considerations and we discuss the different subgroups of breast cancer based on hormone receptor and HER2 receptor status. Diagnosis and treatment options of rare clinical entities are summarised at the end of the paper. PMID:27579723

  17. How Useful are Laboratory Practice Guidelines?

    PubMed

    Misra, S; Moberg-Aakre, K; Langlois, M; Watine, J; Twomey, P J; Oosterhuis, W P; Barth, J H

    2015-08-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) relating to laboratory diagnostic testing are increasingly produced with the aim of standardizing practice and improving patient care based on the best available evidence. However, the production of a CPG is merely the first step in the process of getting evidence into practice, to be undertaken by laboratories and other stakeholders. This process should evaluate the information provided in the guidelines on laboratory tests, devise a strategy for implementing the CPG or the laboratory aspects of the CPG and finally, once implemented, assess the impact of the CPG on clinical practice, patient outcomes and costs of care. The purpose of CPG evaluation by the laboratory is to determine whether sufficient information is provided on the particular test recommended. CPGs may not always be written with the involvement of a laboratory specialist and this underlies the paucity of relevant information in some national guidelines. When laboratory specialists are involved, CPGs can provide practical information which supports local laboratories as well as clinicians in the implementation and appropriate use of recommendations. Implementation of CPGs is an often neglected area that needs attention and thought. There are many barriers to successful implementation, which may vary at local level. These need to be identified early if CPGs are to be successfully adhered to. The effectiveness of CPGs also needs to be audited using process and health outcome indicators. Clinical audit is an effective tool for assessing adherence to recommendations and for measuring the impact and success of the CPG. PMID:27683494

  18. How Useful are Laboratory Practice Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S.; Moberg-Aakre, K.; Langlois, M.; Watine, J.; Twomey, P.J.; Oosterhuis, W.P.; Barth, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) relating to laboratory diagnostic testing are increasingly produced with the aim of standardizing practice and improving patient care based on the best available evidence. However, the production of a CPG is merely the first step in the process of getting evidence into practice, to be undertaken by laboratories and other stakeholders. This process should evaluate the information provided in the guidelines on laboratory tests, devise a strategy for implementing the CPG or the laboratory aspects of the CPG and finally, once implemented, assess the impact of the CPG on clinical practice, patient outcomes and costs of care. The purpose of CPG evaluation by the laboratory is to determine whether sufficient information is provided on the particular test recommended. CPGs may not always be written with the involvement of a laboratory specialist and this underlies the paucity of relevant information in some national guidelines. When laboratory specialists are involved, CPGs can provide practical information which supports local laboratories as well as clinicians in the implementation and appropriate use of recommendations. Implementation of CPGs is an often neglected area that needs attention and thought. There are many barriers to successful implementation, which may vary at local level. These need to be identified early if CPGs are to be successfully adhered to. The effectiveness of CPGs also needs to be audited using process and health outcome indicators. Clinical audit is an effective tool for assessing adherence to recommendations and for measuring the impact and success of the CPG.

  19. Nurses' intention to apply clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Ella; Tabak, Nili

    2012-12-01

    Using Ajzen and Madden's Theory of Planned Behavior, this study investigates factors which influence nurses' intention to apply clinical practice guidelines in their daily ward work. A convenience sample of 91 nurses in internal medicine wards in three Israeli hospitals answered four questionnaires. Data were processed by Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate regression. The main findings were that burnout was negatively correlated with the intention to work according to guidelines and that professionalism (in the sense of a tendency to follow taught procedure rather than personal judgment) was positively correlated with it. Furthermore, nurses who perceive their behavioral control and subjective norms to be positive will be the most determined to work according to guidelines, provided they personally command the necessary resources to do so. PMID:23447906

  20. Developing clinical practice guidelines: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this third paper we discuss the issues of: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the two emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and how guideline developers should approach dealing with the issue of patients who will be the subject of guidelines having co-morbid conditions. PMID:22762242

  1. [Clinical practice guideline. Drug prescription in elderly].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Valdivia-Ibarra, Francisco Javier; Hernández-Manzano, Mario; Medina-Beltrán, Gustavo Rodrigo; Cordero-Guillén, Miguel Angel; Baca-Zúñiga, José; Cruz-Avelar, Agles; Aguilar-Salas, Ismael; Avalos-Mejía, Annia Marisol

    2013-01-01

    The process of prescribing a medication is complex and includes: deciding whether it is indicated, choosing the best option, determining the dose and the appropriate management scheme to the physiological condition of the patient, and monitoring effectiveness and toxicity. We have to inform patients about the expected side effects and indications for requesting a consultation. Specific clinical questions were designed based on the acronym PICOST. The search was made in the specific websites of clinical practice guidelines, was limited to the population of older adults, in English or Spanish. We used 10 related clinical practice guidelines, eight systematic reviews and five meta-analyses. Finally, we made a search of original articles or clinical reviews for specific topics. The development and validation of clinical practice guidelines for "rational drug prescriptions in the elderly" is intended to promote an improvement in the quality of prescription through the prevention and detection of inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and, as a result of this, a decrease in the adverse events by drugs, deterioration of health of patients and expenditure of resources.

  2. Critical Evaluation of Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Reames, Bradley N.; Krell, Robert W.; Ponto, Sarah N.; Wong, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Significant concerns exist regarding the content and reliability of oncology clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report “Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust” established standards for developing trustworthy CPGs. By using these standards as a benchmark, we sought to evaluate recent oncology guidelines. Methods CPGs and consensus statements addressing the screening, evaluation, or management of the four leading causes of cancer-related mortality in the United States (lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers) published between January 2005 and December 2010 were identified. A standardized scoring system based on the eight IOM standards was used to critically evaluate the methodology, content, and disclosure policies of CPGs. All CPGs were given two scores; points were awarded for eight standards and 20 subcriteria. Results No CPG fully met all the IOM standards. The average overall scores were 2.75 of 8 possible standards and 8.24 of 20 possible subcriteria. Less than half the CPGs were based on a systematic review. Only half the CPG panels addressed conflicts of interest. Most did not comply with standards for inclusion of patient and public involvement in the development or review process, nor did they specify their process for updating. CPGs were most consistent with IOM standards for transparency, articulation of recommendations, and use of external review. Conclusion The vast majority of oncology CPGs fail to meet the IOM standards for trustworthy guidelines. On the basis of these results, there is still much to be done to make guidelines as methodologically sound and evidence-based as possible. PMID:23752105

  3. [Asthma clinical practice guidelines: advantages and pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Plaza, Vicente; Bellido-Casado, Jesús; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Rodrigo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The Clinical Practice Guidelines on asthma have contributed towards unifying concepts and reaching a consensus on performances between different professional groups. However, they have failed in the overall improvement in the management of asthma, the final objective that they are meant to achieve. Today, almost 20 years after they appeared, the majority of asthmatic patients are still inadequately controlled, partly due to lack of follow up by doctors and the rest of health care staff who have to look after them. This lack of follow up of these recommendations is probably associated with a lack of well structured planning in their circulation and implementation. Also, although the recommendations of these guidelines agree in what is essential, they differ in other aspects, which in turn could be determining factors in clinical practice. The purpose of this article has been to establish the main differences in the recommendations that the principal clinical practice guidelines on the disease propose on the diagnosis, classification and treatment of asthma. To do this we have compared, The British Guideline on the Management of Asthma 2007, The Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention/Global Initiative for Asthma 2006 (GINA), the National Prevention program for Education on Asthma (Programa Nacional de Prevención para la Educación del Asma) (NAEPP), the Spanish Guide for the Management of Asthma (Guía Española para el Manejo del Asma 2003) (GEMA) and the ALAT y SEPAR guides, Latin-America and Spain. Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Asthma Exacerbation (América Latina y España. Recomendaciones para la Prevención y el Tratamiento de la Exacerbación Asmática 2008) (ALERTA).

  4. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip

    2012-04-01

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.

  5. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Shekelle, Paul; Schünemann, Holger J; Woolf, Steven

    2012-07-04

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  6. Clinical practice guideline: tinnitus executive summary.

    PubMed

    Tunkel, David E; Bauer, Carol A; Sun, Gordon H; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Cunningham, Eugene R; Archer, Sanford M; Blakley, Brian W; Carter, John M; Granieri, Evelyn C; Henry, James A; Hollingsworth, Deena; Khan, Fawad A; Mitchell, Scott; Monfared, Ashkan; Newman, Craig W; Omole, Folashade S; Phillips, C Douglas; Robinson, Shannon K; Taw, Malcolm B; Tyler, Richard S; Waguespack, Richard; Whamond, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Tinnitus. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 13 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with tinnitus, including selection and timing of diagnostic testing and specialty referral to identify potential underlying treatable pathology. It will then focus on the evaluation and treatment of patients with persistent primary tinnitus, with recommendations to guide the evaluation and measurement of the impact of tinnitus and to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for tinnitus sufferers. PMID:25274374

  7. Current clinical practice guidelines in atrial fibrillation: a review.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Godoy-Palomino, Armando; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis

    2016-01-14

    The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in atrial fibrillation. This is the second in a series of articles of review, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Among all clinical practice guidelines, we selected the American, Canadian and NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidelines. We used the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) II instrument for the assessment. In general, the guidelines obtained the lowest score in the applicability domain (mean 36.1%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 93.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the editorial independence domain (Canadian guideline) and the highest of all scores in the applicability domain (NICE guideline). Regarding global quality, the NICE guideline obtained the AGREE II instrument best scores, followed by the American guideline, both recommended for use without modifications.

  8. Current clinical practice guidelines in atrial fibrillation: a review.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Godoy-Palomino, Armando; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in atrial fibrillation. This is the second in a series of articles of review, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Among all clinical practice guidelines, we selected the American, Canadian and NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidelines. We used the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) II instrument for the assessment. In general, the guidelines obtained the lowest score in the applicability domain (mean 36.1%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 93.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the editorial independence domain (Canadian guideline) and the highest of all scores in the applicability domain (NICE guideline). Regarding global quality, the NICE guideline obtained the AGREE II instrument best scores, followed by the American guideline, both recommended for use without modifications. PMID:26939036

  9. A review of clinical practice guidelines for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are important evidence-based resources to guide complex clinical decision making. However, it is challenging for health professionals to keep abreast available guidelines and to know how and where to access relevant guidelines. This review examines currently available guidelines for lung cancer published in the English language. Important key features are listed for each identified guideline. The methodology, approaches to dissemination and implementation, and associated resources are summarised. General challenges in the area of guideline development are highlighted. The potential to collaborate more widely across lung cancer guideline developers by sharing literature searches and assessments is discussed. PMID:24163752

  10. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.

  11. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24190889

  12. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Whose Practice Are We Guiding?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Morgan; Bowe, Sarah N; Laury, Adrienne M

    2016-09-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has just released an update to the clinical practice guideline (CPG) on otitis media with effusion. This common condition is frequently managed by primary care providers; however, their awareness and utilization of the AAO-HNSF CPGs are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey to assess familiarity with otologic diagnoses, evaluation skills, and guidelines. Only 38.5% of respondents use pneumatic otoscopy, and roughly 50% utilize a CPG for management of otitis media or for referral for tympanostomy tube insertion. Providers predominantly use the acute otitis media guideline from the American Academy of Pediatrics. In this single-institution study, providers are largely unaware of the AAO-HNSF CPGs and could benefit from additional training, including workshops taught by otolaryngologists within individual health care systems or development of a national otolaryngology medical student curriculum. A more immediate option includes referencing our CPGs on specialty societies' websites or newsletters. PMID:27329423

  13. Are guidelines ethical? Some considerations for general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2002-01-01

    Guidelines have been promoted in various roles in general practice, e.g. to improve quality of care, to assist patient decision making, and to improve resource allocation. This paper examines these claims using ethical analysis. Guidelines may help general practitioners to act for thegood of their patients and avoid harm; but, on their own, guidelines cannot ensure quality of care or the protection of patients' interests. Patient choice may be limited rather than enhanced by following guideline recommendations. Guidelines contribute to rationing of resources but do not use explicit citeria for this. The ethical implications for guideline use are complex and far-reaching PMID:12171228

  14. Integrating Practice Guidelines into Professional Training: Implications for Diversity Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miville, Marie L.; Duan, Changming; Nutt, Roberta L.; Waehler, Charles A.; Suzuki, Lisa; Pistole, M. Carole; Arredondo, Patricia; Duffy, Michael; Mejia, Brenda X.; Corpus, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The authors present the findings of a special task group (STG) organized to explore effective training strategies for the practice guidelines focused on diverse populations. They provide a brief literature review and summarize survey data from academic training directors regarding current use of practice guidelines. The authors then describe the…

  15. Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Goh, S Y; Ang, S B; Bee, Y M; Chen, Y T; Gardner, D S; Ho, E T; Adaikan, K; Lee, Y C; Lee, C H; Lim, F S; Lim, H B; Lim, S C; Seow, J; Soh, A W; Sum, C F; Tai, E S; Thai, A C; Wong, T Y; Yap, F

    2014-06-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) have updated the clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for diabetes mellitus. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.

  16. Innovations in American Society of Clinical Oncology Practice Guideline Development.

    PubMed

    Somerfield, Mark R; Bohlke, Kari; Browman, George P; Denduluri, Neelima; Einhaus, Kaitlin; Hayes, Daniel F; Khorana, Alok A; Miller, Robert S; Mohile, Supriya G; Oliver, Thomas K; Ortiz, Eduardo; Lyman, Gary H

    2016-09-10

    Since the beginning of its guidelines program in 1993, ASCO has continually sought ways to produce a greater number of guidelines while maintaining its commitment to using the rigorous development methods that minimize the biases that threaten the validity of practice recommendations. ASCO is implementing a range of guideline development and implementation innovations. In this article, we describe innovations that are designed to (1) integrate consideration of multiple chronic conditions into practice guidelines; (2) keep more of its guidelines current by applying evolving signals or (more) rapid, for-cause updating approaches; (3) increase the number of high-quality guidelines available to its membership through endorsement and adaptation of other groups' products; (4) improve coverage of its members' guideline needs through a new topic nomination process; and (5) enhance dissemination and promote implementation of ASCO guidelines in the oncology practice community through a network of volunteer ambassadors. We close with a summary of ASCO's plans to facilitate the integration of data from its rapid learning system, CancerLinQ, into ASCO guidelines and to develop tactics through which guideline recommendations can be embedded in clinicians' workflow in digital form. We highlight the challenges inherent in reconciling the need to provide clinicians with more interactive, point-of-care guidance with ASCO's abiding commitment to methodologic rigor in guideline development.

  17. Clinical practice guideline: management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Joshua A.; Hsu, Jonathan; Bawazeer, Mohammad; Marshall, John; Friedrich, Jan O.; Nathens, Avery; Coburn, Natalie; May, Gary R.; Pearsall, Emily; McLeod, Robin S.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis reported worldwide. Despite improvements in access to care, imaging and interventional techniques, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, recent studies auditing the clinical management of the condition have shown important areas of noncompliance with evidence-based recommendations. This underscores the importance of creating understandable and implementable recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of the present guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis as well as the management of complications of acute pancreatitis and of gall stone–induced pancreatitis. Une hausse de l’incidence de pancréatite aiguë a été constatée à l’échelle mondiale. Malgré l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins et aux techniques d’imagerie et d’intervention, la pancréatite aiguë est toujours associée à une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Bien qu’il existe des guides de pratique clinique pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, des études récentes sur la vérification de la prise en charge clinique de cette affection révèlent des lacunes importantes dans la conformité aux recommandations fondées sur des données probantes. Ces résultats mettent en relief l’importance de formuler des recommandations compréhensibles et applicables pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë. La présente ligne directrice vise à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, qu’elle soit bénigne ou grave, ainsi que de ses complications et de celles de la pancréatite causée par un calcul biliaire. PMID:27007094

  18. Standard treatment guidelines in primary healthcare practice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S; Udayshankar, P M; Rama, R

    2014-01-01

    In India, healthcare delivery is implemented at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Of these, primary health care is the essential health care and is the first point of care for the public across the country. The primary health care system caters to nearly 70% of the population by treating about 90% of the common and locally prevailing problems. One of the integral elements of primary health care is provision of essential medicines, which should be available at all times in adequate amounts in appropriate dosage forms and at an affordable cost. It has an important bearing on the medical, economical and social outcomes of the healthcare delivery system. This situation mandates the need for rational use of medicines by standardizing the treatment of commonly occurring illness at the primary health care level. Standard Treatment Guidelines (STGs) have been in vogue in India only since recent times and is gaining popularity among practitioners. STGs have many advantages for the patients, healthcare providers, drug manufacturers and marketing agencies, and above all, the policy makers and the legislative system of the country. The drawback in STGs lies in the difficulties in implementation on a large scale. With due efforts to prioritize the health needs, comprehensive coverage of national health programs involving all the stakeholders including professional organizations, undergraduate medical curriculum planners and medical practitioners, STGs can be implemented effectively and thereby we can ensure a quality health care at the primary care level at an affordable cost as part of the now redefined Universal Health Coverage. This article is intended as a guide to understand the concept of STGs, prepared with the aim of capacity building for medical professionals in rationally treating patients in their day-to-day clinical practice.

  19. [Good practice guidelines for health information].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based health information is distinguished by the provision of an unbiased and trustworthy description of the current state of medical knowledge. It enables people to learn more about health and disease, and to make health-related decisions - on their own or together with others - reflecting their attitudes and lifestyle. To adequately serve this purpose, health information must be evidence-based. A working group from the German Network for Evidence-based Medicine (Deutsches Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin) has developed a first draft of good practice guidelines for health information (Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation) with the aim of providing support for authors and publishers of evidence-based health information. The group included researchers, patient representatives, journalists and developers of health information. The criteria for evidence-based health information were developed and agreed upon within this author group, and then made available for public comment. All submitted comments were documented and assessed regarding the need to revise or amend the draft. Changes were subsequently implemented following approval by the author group. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation calls for a transparent methodological approach in the development of health information. To achieve this, evidence-based information must be based on (a) a systematic literature search, (b) a justified selection of evidence, (c) unbiased reporting of relevant results, (d) appropriate factual and linguistic communication of uncertainties, (e) either avoidance of any direct recommendations or a strict division between the reporting of results and the derivation of recommendations, (f) the consideration of current evidence on the communication of figures, risks and probabilities, and (g) transparent information about the authors and publishers of the health information, including their funding sources. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation lists a total of 16 aspects to be addressed

  20. Physician attitudes toward computerized practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Alberti, E; Holt, T J

    1996-01-01

    Computerized information systems are gaining ground in quality improvement, and will become even more important as health plans implement, evaluate, and maintain clinical guidelines. PacifiCare of California explored physicians' attitudes toward applying computerized technologies to direct clinical guidelines. The results indicate not only physician acceptance factors, but illustrate the issues, such as information for medical decision making, that health plans must consider in developing computerized case management systems to manage the care of the chronically ill. PMID:10157264

  1. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Endoscope Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy is effective and safe for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disease. However, issues regarding endoscope-transmitted infections are emerging. Many countries have established and continuously revise guidelines for endoscope reprocessing in order to prevent infections. While there are common processes used in endoscope reprocessing, differences exist among these guidelines. It is important that the reprocessing of gastrointestinal endoscopes be carried out in accordance with the recommendations for each step of the process. PMID:26473117

  2. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…

  3. [Implementation of Study Results in Guidelines and Adherence to Guidelines in Clinical Practice].

    PubMed

    Waldfahrer, F

    2016-04-01

    Guidelines were introduced in hospital and practice-based otorhinolaryngology in the 1990s, and have been undergoing further development ever since. There are currently 20 guidelines on file at the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. The Society has cooperated in a further 34 guidelines. The quality of the guidelines has been continually improved by concrete specifications put forward by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany [Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften e.V.]. Since increasing digitalisation has made access to scientific publications quicker and more simple, relevant study results can be incorporated in guidelines more easily today than in the analogue world. S2e and S3 guidelines must be based on a formal literature search with subsequent evaluation of the evidence. The consensus procedure for S2k guidelines is also regulated. However, the implementation of guidelines in routine medical practice must still be considered inadequate, and there is still a considerable need for improvement in adherence to these guidelines. PMID:27128403

  4. Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

  5. Sandia software guidelines. Volume 3. Standards, practices, and conventions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies software standards, conventions, and practices. These guidelines are the result of a collective effort within Sandia National Laboratories to define recommended deliverables and to document standards, practices, and conventions which will help ensure quality software. 66 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Development of practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A. M. A.; Allam, Mohd. F.; Habil, E. S.; Metwally, A. M.; Ibrahiem, N. A.; Radwan, M.; El-Gaafary, M. M.; Afifi, A.; Gadallah, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Although hemodialysis is the main modaility of treatment of end-stage renal disease, no practice guidelines are available in Egypt. Applying international guidelines for hemodialysis would not be suitable or feasible, because of different health system and lack of resources. The aim of this project was the development of evidence- and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt. The Egyptian guidelines were adopted from the standards developed by The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta (Canada), The National Kidney Foundation (USA), The Clinical Standards Board for Scotland (Scotland), and The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (Canada). In addition, the guidelines published in Oxford Handbook of Dialysis were reviewed. Thereafter, a panel of Egyptian experts in the field of nephrology and hemodialysis was selected and invited to participate in this project. The Delphi technique was applied to build up the consensus among the experts on the formulated guidelines. The final version of the Egyptian Hemodialysis Practice Guidelines included five main sections; personnel, patient care practices, infection prevention and control, facility, and documentation/records. A consensus on practice guidelines for hemodialysis has been successfully produced and is supported by levels of evidence. The 12 Egyptian experts who participated in the Delphi technique and the reviewers assured the completeness and acceptability of the developed practice guidelines. Also, including experts from the university hospitals together with the Directorates of Cairo and Giza Health Affairs of the Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH) avoided conflicts between clinical recommendations and feasible application in the MOH hemodialysis facilities. PMID:21206681

  7. Reconciling Multiple Hypertension Guidelines to Promote Effective Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Marissa; White, C Michael

    2014-06-20

    The new Joint National Committee 8 (JNC-8) blood pressure guidelines were recently published, and there are some major changes from JNC-7. There are also differences between JNC-8 and hypertension guidelines created by major organizations in North America and around the world published from 2013 to the present. In the face of conflicting evidence, it is difficult for practicing clinicians to reconcile these differences and to incorporate new guidance into their practice. This commentary will identify similarities and differences between guidelines, provide some literature context in the areas of differing recommendations, and then provide advice to enhance patient care. PMID:24951309

  8. Defining ‘elderly’ in clinical practice guidelines for pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shamsher; Bajorek., Beata

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify how ‘elderly’ patients are defined and considered within Australian clinical guidelines for the use of pharmacotherapy. Method: Guidelines pertaining to the use of pharmacotherapy, focusing on conditions described in National Health Priority Areas, were identified using databases (Medline, Google Scholar) and organisation websites (Department of Health and Ageing, National Heart Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council). Guidelines were reviewed and qualitatively analysed to identify any references or definitions of ‘elderly’ persons. Results: Among the 20 guidelines reviewed, 3 defined ‘elderly’ by chronological age (i.e., years since birth) while the remaining 17 guidelines did not define ‘elderly’ in any way. All 20 guidelines used the term ‘elderly’, whilst some guidelines provided age (chronological)-based dosage recommendations suggesting an ageist or generalist approach in their representation of ‘elderly’, for which rationale was seldom provided. Thematic analysis of the statements revealed five key themes regarding how ‘elderly’ was considered within the guidelines, broadly describing ‘elderly’ persons as being frail and with altered pharmacology. Some guidelines also highlighted the limited evidence base to direct clinical decision-making. A continuum of perceptions of ageing also emerged out of the identified themes. Conclusion: Clinical practice guidelines currently do not adequately define ‘elderly’ persons and provide limited guidance on how to apply treatment recommendations to older persons. The representation of ‘elderly’ in guidelines needs to be less based on chronological age or generic definitions focusing more on establishing a direct link between an individual patient’s characteristics and the pharmacology of their prescribed medication. Clinical guidelines that do not offer any practical descriptions of the features of ageing that are specifically related to the

  9. Clinical guidelines and the management of hypertension: a between-practice and guideline comparison.

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, T; Peters, T J

    1997-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that individual general practitioners (GPs) diagnose and treat at different levels of blood pressure and according to different risk factor profiles. This study sought to examine the variation in the achievement of control of hypertension in a sample of 20 treated hypertensive patients in 18 UK general practices. There was a marked between-practice variation in the percentage of patients with controlled hypertension. Practices appear to apply different hypertension guidelines to patients consistently, with significant correlations across practices in seven out of ten possible guideline combinations. There remains marked variation in the management of hypertension between different general practices in the UK. Factors other than recommendations in guidelines appear to be responsible for this variation. PMID:9519521

  10. Practice implications of the Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Anne B

    2013-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common and complex cardiac arrhythmias. Using currently available evidence, leading medical societies have established recommendations for the optimal management of atrial fibrillation. These guidelines have recently been updated by 4 consensus groups: the European Society of Cardiology, the American College of Chest Physicians, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, and a task force of 3 societies from the United States: the American College of Cardiology Foundation, the American Heart Association, and the Heart Rhythm Society. The present review focused on the similarities and differences among these recently updated guidelines. Key revisions included updated information on newer treatments for rhythm control, treatment options to reduce atrial fibrillation complications, and updated anticoagulant management for thromboprophylaxis.

  11. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. PMID:27207355

  12. Determination and Documentation of the Need for Practice Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In August 2001, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives approved as APA policy the "Criteria for Practice Guideline Development and Evaluation" (APA, 2002b), developed by the Board of Professional Affairs Committee on Professional Practice and Standards (COPPS). The present document was developed in response to a…

  13. Developing clinical practice guidelines for spinal cord medicine. Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Biddle, A K; Fraher, E P

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the process used by the Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine to develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for managing and treating individuals with spinal cord injury and provides important information on lessons learned and the potential problems to avoid. Issues to consider during the guideline development process include topic selection and explication, methods for selecting the panel chair and panel members, the writing of recommendations and supporting scientific rationales, peer-reviewing guidelines, and the process for disseminating, implementing, and evaluating guidelines. The applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of available evidence and guideline recommendation grading systems and issues arising from the lack of scientific evidence supporting particular recommendations are also discussed.

  14. A practical approach to implementing new CDC GBS guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shawna M; Bridges, Margie A; Knudsen, Alexis L; Vezeau, Toni M

    2013-01-01

    Group beta streptococcus (GBS) is a well-documented pathogen causing serious maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The CDC guidelines for managing clients who test positive for GBS in pregnancy were revised and published in 2010. However, CDC and extant literature provide limited guidance on implementation strategies for these new recommendations. Although several algorithms are included in the CDC (2010) document, none combine the maternal risk factors for practical and consistent implementation from pregnancy to newborn. In response to confusion upon initial education of these guidelines, we developed an algorithm for maternal intrapartum management. In addition, we clarified the CDC (2010) newborn algorithm in response to provider request. Without altering the recommendations, both algorithms provide clarification of the CDC (2010) guidelines. The nursing process provides an organizational structure for the discussion of our efforts to translate the complex guidelines into practice. This article could provide other facilities with tools for dealing with specific aspects of the complex clinical management of perinatal GBS.

  15. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  16. Relevance of guideline-based ICD indications to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Al-Jefairi, Nora; Burri, Haran

    2014-01-01

    The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has established itself as life-saving therapy in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Remarkable technological advances have made ICDs easier and safer to implant, with improved therapeutic and diagnostic functions and reduced morbidity. Guidelines on ICD indications have been proposed by American and European scientific societies since a number of years, based upon trials and expert opinion. In the context of variable economic and political constraints, it is questionable whether these guidelines may be applied to all settings. This review discusses the guideline-based indications, critically examines their applicability to clinical practice, and discusses alternatives to ICD therapy.

  17. Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a publisher's perspective.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Wager, Elizabeth; Bowman, Alyson; Fiack, Suzan; Scott-Lichter, Diane; Robinson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    These Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics describe Blackwell Publishing's position on the major ethical principles of academic publishing and review factors that may foster ethical behavior or create problems. The aims are to encourage discussion, to initiate changes where they are needed, and to provide practical guidance, in the form of Best Practice statements, to inform these changes. Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors adapt and adopt the suggestions outlined to best fit the needs of their own particular publishing environment.

  18. Backfire: AHCPR practice guideline for acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    de Jong, R H

    1995-11-01

    The AHCPR "Guideline for Acute Low Back Problems in Adults" is a must-read for every South Carolina physician treating low back pain. The 25-page pamphlet excels as a practical guide for swiftly triaging acute low back problems into the 90 percent majority who recover within a month, from the few "red flag" and "red herring" serious back problems requiring urgent attention. But the Guideline panel overstepped its policymaking mandate by venturing into the quicksand of treatment by committee edict, rather than by on-the-spot caretakers. The rumbling backfire is that U. S. Government document, intended as practice guideline for routine acute back care, will come to haunt us as a practice standard for all back care. One-size-fits-all proposals for the majority short-change the few with more demanding healthcare resource requirements. Be sure to read the pamphlet; your patients, insurers, providers, administrators, journalists and attorneys will! PMID:8544439

  19. Guidelines to Support Professional Copyright Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Copyright is extremely complex, and it is difficult to convey its complexities in a clear and concise form. Through decades of experience, archivists developed informal best practices for dealing with copyright in the analog world; however the application of copyright in the digital environment is evolving in response to rapidly changing…

  20. Sibling Family Practices: Guidelines for Healthy Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Toni Cavanagh; Huang, Bevan Emma; Simpson, Pippa M.

    2009-01-01

    A questionnaire was given to 500 mental health and child welfare professionals asking for maximum acceptable ages for siblings to engage jointly in certain family practices related to hygiene, affection, and privacy. A large proportion of respondents felt it was never acceptable for siblings to take showers together (40%), kiss on the mouth (37%),…

  1. South African hypertension practice guideline 2014

    PubMed Central

    Seedat, YK; Rayner, BL; Veriava, Yosuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Outcomes Extensive data from many randomised, controlled trials have shown the benefit of treating hypertension (HTN). The target blood pressure (BP) for antihypertensive management is systolic < 140 mmHg and diastolic < 90 mmHg, with minimal or no drug side effects. Lower targets are no longer recommended. The reduction of BP in the elderly should be achieved gradually over one month. Co-existent cardiovascular (CV) risk factors should also be controlled. Benefits Reduction in risk of stroke, cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Recommendations Correct BP measurement procedure is described. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors and recommendations for antihypertensive therapy are stipulated. Lifestyle modification and patient education are cornerstones of management. The major indications, precautions and contra-indications are listed for each antihypertensive drug recommended. Drug therapy for the patient with uncomplicated HTN is either mono- or combination therapy with a low-dose diuretic, calcium channel blocker (CCB) and an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Combination therapy should be considered ab initio if the BP is ≥ 160/100 mmHg. In black patients, either a diuretic and/or a CCB is recommended initially because the response rate is better compared to an ACEI. In resistant hypertension, add an alpha-blocker, spironolactone, vasodilator or β-blocker. Validity The guideline was developed by the Southern African Hypertension Society 2014©. PMID:25629715

  2. Adaptation of Cost Analysis Studies in Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Zervou, Fainareti N; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Pliakos, Elina Eleftheria; Grigoras, Christos A; Ziakas, Panayiotis D; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-12-01

    Clinical guidelines play a central role in day-to-day practice. We assessed the degree of incorporation of cost analyses to guidelines and identified modifiable characteristics that could affect the level of incorporation.We selected the 100 most cited guidelines listed on the National Guideline Clearinghouse (http://www.guideline.gov) and determined the number of guidelines that used cost analyses in their reasoning and the overall percentage of incorporation of relevant cost analyses available in PubMed. Differences between medical specialties were also studied. Then, we performed a case-control study using incorporated and not incorporated cost analyses after 1:1 matching by study subject and compared them by the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement requirements and other criteria.We found that 57% of guidelines do not use any cost justification. Guidelines incorporate a weighted average of 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3-7.9) among 3396 available cost analyses, with cardiology and infectious diseases guidelines incorporating 10.8% (95% CI 5.3-18.1) and 9.9% (95% CI 3.9- 18.2), respectively, and hematology/oncology and urology guidelines incorporating 4.5% (95% CI 1.6-8.6) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4-3.5), respectively. Based on the CHEERS requirements, the mean number of items reported by the 148 incorporated cost analyses was 18.6 (SD = 3.7), a small but significant difference over controls (17.8 items; P = 0.02). Included analyses were also more likely to directly relate cost reductions to healthcare outcomes (92.6% vs 81.1%, P = 0.004) and declare the funding source (72.3% vs 53.4%, P < 0.001), while similar number of cases and controls reported a noncommercial funding source (71% vs 72.7%; P = 0.8).Guidelines remain an underused mechanism for the cost-effective allocation of available resources and a minority of practice guidelines incorporates cost analyses utilizing only 6% of the available

  3. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis II. Surgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, a total of 84,332 patients had undergone extracapsular tonsillectomies (TE) and 11,493 a tonsillotomy (TT) procedure in Germany. While the latter is increasingly performed, the number of the former is continually decreasing. However, a constant number of approximately 12,000 surgical procedures in terms of abscess-tonsillectomies or incision and drainage are annually performed in Germany to treat patients with a peritonsillar abscess. The purpose of this part of the clinical guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through the surgical treatment options to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical treatment options encompass intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsil surgery and are related to three distinct entities: recurrent episodes of (1) acute tonsillitis, (2) peritonsillar abscess and (3) infectious mononucleosis. Conservative management of these entities is subject of part I of this guideline. (1) The quality of evidence for TE to resolve recurrent episodes of tonsillitis is moderate for children and low for adults. Conclusions concerning the efficacy of TE on the number of sore throat episodes per year are limited to 12 postoperative months in children and 5-6 months in adults. The impact of TE on the number of sore throat episodes per year in children is modest. Due to the heterogeneity of data, no firm conclusions on the effectiveness of TE in adults can be drawn. There is still an urgent need for further research to reliably estimate the value of TE compared to non-surgical therapy of tonsillitis/tonsillo-pharyngitis. The impact of TE on quality of life is considered as being positive, but further research is mandatory to establish appropriate inventories and standardized evaluation procedures, especially in children. In contrast to TE, TT or comparable procedures are characterized by a substantially lower postoperative

  4. JSUM ultrasound elastography practice guidelines: liver.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Iijima, Hiroko; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Yada, Norihisa; Fujimoto, Kenji; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Hirooka, Masashi; Sumino, Yasukiyo; Kumada, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    In diffuse liver disease, it is extremely important to make an accurate diagnosis of liver fibrosis prior to determining indications for therapy or predicting treatment outcome and malignant potential. Although liver biopsy has long been the gold standard in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, it is still an invasive method. In addition, the sampling error is an intrinsic problem of liver biopsy. Non-invasive serological methods for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis can be affected by factors unrelated to the liver. Recently, after the introduction of FibroScan, it became possible to measure liver fibrosis directly and non-invasively by elastography, which has attracted attention as a non-invasive imaging diagnostic tool for liver fibrosis. In addition, real-time tissue elastography is currently being used to conduct clinical trials at many institutions. Moreover, virtual touch quantification enables the observation of liver stiffness at any location by simply observing B-mode images. Furthermore, the recently developed ShearWave elastography visualizes liver stiffness on a color map. Elastography is thought to be useful for all types of diffuse liver diseases. Because of its association with portal hypertension and liver carcinogenesis, elastography is expected to function as a novel prognostic tool for liver disease. Although various elastographic devices have been developed by multiple companies, each device has its own measurement principle, method, and outcome, creating confusion in clinical settings. Therefore, it is extremely important to understand the characteristics of each device in advance. The objective of this guideline, which describes the characteristics of each device based on the latest knowledge, is for all users to be able to make the correct diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis by ultrasound elastography.

  5. Guidelines for the nonpharmacologic management of migraine in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Pryse-Phillips, W E; Dodick, D W; Edmeads, J G; Gawel, M J; Nelson, R F; Purdy, R A; Robinson, G; Stirling, D; Worthington, I

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide physicians and allied health care professionals with guidelines for the nonpharmacologic management of migraine in clinical practice. OPTIONS: The full range and quality of nonpharmacologic therapies available for the management of migraine. OUTCOMES: Improvement in the nonpharmacologic management of migraine. EVIDENCE AND VALUES: The creation of the guidelines followed a needs assessment by members of the Canadian Headache Society and included a statement of objectives; development of guidelines by multidisciplinary working groups using information from literature reviews and other resources; comparison of alternative clinical pathways and description of how published data were analysed; definition of the level of evidence for data in each case; evaluation and revision of the guidelines at a consensus conference held in Ottawa on Oct. 27-29, 1995; redrafting and insertion of tables showing key variables and data from various studies and tables of data with recommendations; and reassessment by all conference participants. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Augmentation of the use of nonpharmacologic therapies for the acute and prophylactic management of migraine is likely to lead to substantial benefits in both human and economic terms. RECOMMENDATIONS: Both the avoidance of migraine trigger factors and the use of nonpharmacologic therapies have a part to play in overall migraine management. VALIDATION: The guidelines are based on consensus of Canadian experts in neurology, emergency medicine, psychiatry, psychology and family medicine, and consumers. Previous guidelines did not exist. Field testing of the guidelines is in progress. PMID:9679487

  6. Introducing guidelines for good evaluation practice in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Brender, Jytte; Ammenwerth, Elske; Talmon, Jan; de Keizer, Nicolette; Rigby, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Good evaluation practice guidelines have been developed through a consensus making process by a core team and the health informatics community. A set of 60 issues has been identified that is relevant for planning, implementation and execution of an evaluation study in the health informatics domain. These issues cover all phases of an evaluation study: Study exploration, first study design, operationalization of methods, detailed study design, execution and finalization of an evaluation study. Issues of risk management and project control are also addressed in the guidelines. Through application of these guidelines the general validity and generalization of evaluation studies are likely to be increased, since these guidelines aim at avoiding a number of omissions, pitfalls and risks. PMID:19745455

  7. [Clinical practice guidelines and knowledge management in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter

    2013-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are key tools for the translation of scientific evidence into everyday patient care. Therefore guidelines can act as cornerstones of evidence based knowledge management in healthcare, if they are trustworthy, and its recommendations are not biased by authors' conflict of interests. Good medical guidelines should be disseminated by means of virtual (digital/electronic) health libraries - together with implementation tools in context, such as guideline based algorithms, check lists, patient information, a.s.f. The article presents evidence based medical knowledge management using the German experiences as an example. It discusses future steps establishing evidence based health care by means of combining patient data, evidence from medical science and patient care routine, together with feedback systems for healthcare providers.

  8. Comparison of Thermal Safety Practice Guidelines for Diagnostic Ultrasound Exposures.

    PubMed

    Harris, Gerald R; Church, Charles C; Dalecki, Diane; Ziskin, Marvin C; Bagley, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the historical evolution of various practice guidelines designed to minimize the possibility of thermal injury during a diagnostic ultrasound examination, including those published by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, British Medical Ultrasound Society and Health Canada. The guidelines for prenatal/neonatal examinations are in general agreement, but significant differences were found for postnatal exposures. We propose sets of thermal index versus exposure time for these examination categories below which there is reasonable assurance that an examination can be conducted without risk of producing an adverse thermal effect under any scanning conditions. If it is necessary to exceed these guidelines, the occurrence of an adverse thermal event is still unlikely in most situations because of mitigating factors such as transducer movement and perfusion, but the general principle of "as low as reasonably achievable" should be followed. Some limitations of the biological effects studies underpinning the guidelines also are discussed briefly.

  9. Clinical practice guideline (update): Adult Sinusitis Executive Summary.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Brook, Itzhak; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Kramper, Maggie; Orlandi, Richard R; Palmer, James N; Patel, Zara M; Peters, Anju; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2015-04-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has published a supplement to this issue featuring the updated "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis" as a supplement to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 developed recommendations address diagnostic accuracy for adult rhinosinusitis, the appropriate use of ancillary tests to confirm diagnosis and guide management (including radiography, nasal endoscopy, computed tomography, and testing for allergy and immune function), and the judicious use of systemic and topical therapy. Emphasis was also placed on identifying multiple chronic conditions that would modify management of rhinosinusitis, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, immunocompromised state, and ciliary dyskinesia. An updated guideline is needed as a result of new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group. PMID:25833927

  10. [Clinical practice guidelines and knowledge management in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter

    2013-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are key tools for the translation of scientific evidence into everyday patient care. Therefore guidelines can act as cornerstones of evidence based knowledge management in healthcare, if they are trustworthy, and its recommendations are not biased by authors' conflict of interests. Good medical guidelines should be disseminated by means of virtual (digital/electronic) health libraries - together with implementation tools in context, such as guideline based algorithms, check lists, patient information, a.s.f. The article presents evidence based medical knowledge management using the German experiences as an example. It discusses future steps establishing evidence based health care by means of combining patient data, evidence from medical science and patient care routine, together with feedback systems for healthcare providers. PMID:24326702

  11. Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion Executive Summary (Update).

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shin, Jennifer J; Schwartz, Seth R; Coggins, Robyn; Gagnon, Lisa; Hackell, Jesse M; Hoelting, David; Hunter, Lisa L; Kummer, Ann W; Payne, Spencer C; Poe, Dennis S; Veling, Maria; Vila, Peter M; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has published a supplement to this issue of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery featuring the updated "Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion." To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 18 recommendations developed emphasize diagnostic accuracy, identification of children who are most susceptible to developmental sequelae from otitis media with effusion, and education of clinicians and patients regarding the favorable natural history of most otitis media with effusion and the lack of efficacy for medical therapy (eg, steroids, antihistamines, decongestants). An updated guideline is needed due to new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group. PMID:26833645

  12. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  13. Practice Guidelines regarding Psychologists' Involvement in Pharmacological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The guidelines presented in this document are intended to provide a resource to psychologists interested in the issue of what represents optimal practice in relation to pharmacotherapy. They are not intended to apply to those psychologists who choose not to become directly or indirectly involved in medication management regardless of their level…

  14. Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients" provide psychologists with (a) a frame of reference for the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of assessment, intervention, identity, relationships, diversity, education, training, and…

  15. Automating Identification of Multiple Chronic Conditions in Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Tiffany I.; Jalal, Hawre; Zulman, Donna M.; Dumontier, Michel; Owens, Douglas K.; Musen, Mark A.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to provide evidence-based guidance to clinicians on a single disease, and are frequently considered inadequate when caring for patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC), or two or more chronic conditions. It is unclear to what degree disease-specific CPGs provide guidance about MCC. In this study, we develop a method for extracting knowledge from single-disease chronic condition CPGs to determine how frequently they mention commonly co-occurring chronic diseases. We focus on 15 highly prevalent chronic conditions. We use publicly available resources, including a repository of guideline summaries from the National Guideline Clearinghouse to build a text corpus, a data dictionary of ICD-9 codes from the Medicare Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse (CCW) to construct an initial list of disease terms, and disease synonyms from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology to enhance the list of disease terms. First, for each disease guideline, we determined the frequency of comorbid condition mentions (a disease-comorbidity pair) by exactly matching disease synonyms in the text corpus. Then, we developed an annotated reference standard using a sample subset of guidelines. We used this reference standard to evaluate our approach. Then, we compared the co-prevalence of common pairs of chronic conditions from Medicare CCW data to the frequency of disease-comorbidity pairs in CPGs. Our results show that some disease-comorbidity pairs occur more frequently in CPGs than others. Sixty-one (29.0%) of 210 possible disease-comorbidity pairs occurred zero times; for example, no guideline on chronic kidney disease mentioned depression, while heart failure guidelines mentioned ischemic heart disease the most frequently. Our method adequately identifies comorbid chronic conditions in CPG recommendations with precision 0.82, recall 0.75, and F-measure 0.78. Our work identifies knowledge currently embedded in the free text of

  16. Automating Identification of Multiple Chronic Conditions in Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Leung, Tiffany I; Jalal, Hawre; Zulman, Donna M; Dumontier, Michel; Owens, Douglas K; Musen, Mark A; Goldstein, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to provide evidence-based guidance to clinicians on a single disease, and are frequently considered inadequate when caring for patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC), or two or more chronic conditions. It is unclear to what degree disease-specific CPGs provide guidance about MCC. In this study, we develop a method for extracting knowledge from single-disease chronic condition CPGs to determine how frequently they mention commonly co-occurring chronic diseases. We focus on 15 highly prevalent chronic conditions. We use publicly available resources, including a repository of guideline summaries from the National Guideline Clearinghouse to build a text corpus, a data dictionary of ICD-9 codes from the Medicare Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse (CCW) to construct an initial list of disease terms, and disease synonyms from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology to enhance the list of disease terms. First, for each disease guideline, we determined the frequency of comorbid condition mentions (a disease-comorbidity pair) by exactly matching disease synonyms in the text corpus. Then, we developed an annotated reference standard using a sample subset of guidelines. We used this reference standard to evaluate our approach. Then, we compared the co-prevalence of common pairs of chronic conditions from Medicare CCW data to the frequency of disease-comorbidity pairs in CPGs. Our results show that some disease-comorbidity pairs occur more frequently in CPGs than others. Sixty-one (29.0%) of 210 possible disease-comorbidity pairs occurred zero times; for example, no guideline on chronic kidney disease mentioned depression, while heart failure guidelines mentioned ischemic heart disease the most frequently. Our method adequately identifies comorbid chronic conditions in CPG recommendations with precision 0.82, recall 0.75, and F-measure 0.78. Our work identifies knowledge currently embedded in the free text of

  17. [Agreements and disagreements among the main clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Calderón Montero, A

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus has an enormous health and social impact and its incidence is rising exponentially in the industrialized world as a result of unhealthy lifestyles. In the last few years, research in this field has increased, leading to the development of new drugs and new indications. Consequently, numerous updates of clinical practice guidelines for diabetes have been published in the last 12 months, which provide health professionals with an up-to-date view of therapeutic possibilities. The present article reviews the guidelines with the greatest scientific impact and discusses areas of agreement and disagreement among these documents.

  18. Medical technology assessment and practice guidelines: their day in court.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G F; Hall, M A; Steinberg, E P

    1993-01-01

    There is the expectation that outcomes research and the promulgation of medical practice guidelines will be able to identify and hopefully reduce the amount of unnecessary or inappropriate medical care through a variety of methods, including utilization review. However, past efforts by public and private insurers to deny claims on the basis of formal technology assessments or practice guidelines have frequently been overturned by the courts for multifarious reasons. This paper examines the court's reluctance to accept a variety of technology assessment methods in coverage policy decisions. The paper reviews the options that have been proposed to restrict judicial involvement in the formulation of coverage policy and then proposes a new option that employs a more precise taxonomy of medical practice assessment. PMID:8238696

  19. Rethinking the Role of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel L

    2015-12-25

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered.

  20. Rethinking the Role of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered. PMID:26889060

  1. [General Strategies for Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Torres-Arreola, Laura Laura

    2015-01-01

    The need to use clinical practice guidelines (CPG) arises from the health conditions and problems that public health institutions in the country face. CPG are informative documents that help improve the quality of care processes and patient safety; having among its objectives, to reduce the variability of medical practice. The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social designed a strategic plan for the dissemination, implementation, monitoring and control of CPG to establish an applicable model in the medical units in the three levels of care at the Instituto. This paper summarizes some of the strategies of the plan that were made with the knowledge and experience of clinicians and managers, with which they intend to promote the adoption of the key recommendations of the guidelines, to promote a sense of belonging for health personnel, and to encourage changes in organizational culture.

  2. Developing clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy: A report from the ILAE Epilepsy Guidelines Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Perucca, Emilio; French, Jacqueline; Dunkley, Colin; de Marinis, Alejandro; Kirkpatrick, Martin; Jetté, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contain evidence-based recommendations to guide clinical care, policy development, and quality of care improvement. A recent systematic review of epilepsy guidelines identified considerable variability in the quality of available guidelines. Although excellent frameworks for CPG development exist, processes are not followed uniformly internationally, and resources to develop CPGs may be limited in certain settings. An International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) working group was charged with proposing methodology to guide the development of future epilepsy-specific CPGs. A comprehensive literature search (1985-2014) identified articles related to CPG development and handbooks. Guideline handbooks were included if they were publicly available, and if their methodology had been used to develop CPGs. The working group's expertise also informed the creation of methodologies and processes to develop future CPGs for the ILAE. Five handbooks from North America (American Academy of Neurology), Europe (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network & National Institute for Health and Care Excellence), Australia (National Health and Medical Research Council), World Health Organization (WHO), and additional references were identified to produce evidence-based, consensus-driven methodology for development of epilepsy-specific CPGs. Key components of CPG development include the following: identifying the topic and defining the scope; establishing a working group; identifying and evaluating the evidence; formulating recommendations and determining strength of recommendations; obtaining peer reviews; dissemination, implementation, and auditing; and updating and retiring the CPG. A practical handbook and toolkit was developed. The resulting CPG development toolkit should facilitate the development of high-quality ILAE CPGs to improve the care of persons with epilepsy.

  3. A model for practice guideline adaptation and implementation: empowerment of the physician.

    PubMed

    Wise, C G; Billi, J E

    1995-09-01

    The Medical Center model of practice guideline adaptation and implementation uses local clinical leaders to evaluate nationally endorsed guidelines, adapt those guidelines for use in the local setting, work with support staff to develop and apply methods for guideline implementation, and assist the evaluation of clinical practice and outcomes data. The model described here combines the guideline dissemination techniques of clinical leadership, implementation, and data support and feedback. This model overcomes the failures of previous models by incorporating local physician involvement during every step of practice guideline selection, adaptation, implementation, and evaluation, and by supporting the physician leaders with quality data, resources to support guideline implementation, and outcomes assessment and feedback.

  4. Korean clinical practice guidelines: otitis media in children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Su-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu Young; Park, Su Eun; Chun, Young Myung; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Park, Shi-Nae; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Korean Otologic Society

    2012-08-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) are common infections in children, and their diagnosis and treatment have significant impacts on the health of children and the costs of providing national medical care. In 2009, the Korean Otologic Society organized a committee composed of experts in the field of otolaryngology, pediatrics, and family medicine to develop Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for otitis media in children with the goal of meeting regional medical and social needs in Korea. For this purpose, the committee adapted existing guidelines. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2004 to 2009 using medical search engines including data from Korea. A draft was written after a national questionnaire survey and several public audits, and it was editorially supervised by senior advisors before publication of the final report. These evidence-based guidelines for the management of otitis media in children provide recommendations to primary practitioners for the diagnosis and treatment of children younger than 15 yr old with uncomplicated AOM and OME. The guidelines include recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment options, prevention and parent education, medical records, referral, and complementary/alternative medicine for treating pediatric otitis media.

  5. Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines: Otitis Media in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Su-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu Young; Park, Su Eun; Chun, Young Myung; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Park, Shi-Nae; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Young-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) are common infections in children, and their diagnosis and treatment have significant impacts on the health of children and the costs of providing national medical care. In 2009, the Korean Otologic Society organized a committee composed of experts in the field of otolaryngology, pediatrics, and family medicine to develop Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for otitis media in children with the goal of meeting regional medical and social needs in Korea. For this purpose, the committee adapted existing guidelines. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2004 to 2009 using medical search engines including data from Korea. A draft was written after a national questionnaire survey and several public audits, and it was editorially supervised by senior advisors before publication of the final report. These evidence-based guidelines for the management of otitis media in children provide recommendations to primary practitioners for the diagnosis and treatment of children younger than 15 yr old with uncomplicated AOM and OME. The guidelines include recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment options, prevention and parent education, medical records, referral, and complementary/alternative medicine for treating pediatric otitis media. PMID:22876048

  6. Pressure Ulcers in Adults: Prediction and Prevention. Clinical Practice Guideline Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This package includes a clinical practice guideline, quick reference guide for clinicians, and patient's guide to predicting and preventing pressure ulcers in adults. The clinical practice guideline includes the following: overview of the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers; clinical practice guideline (introduction, risk assessment tools…

  7. Guidelines for the practice and performance of manipulation under anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are currently no widely accepted guidelines on standards for the practice of chiropractic or manual therapy manipulation under anesthesia, and the evidence base for this practice is composed primarily of lower-level evidence. The purpose of this project was to develop evidence-informed and consensus-based guidelines on spinal manipulation under anesthesia to address the gaps in the literature with respect to patient selection and treatment protocols. Methods An expert consensus process was conducted from August-October 2013 using the Delphi method. Panelists were first provided with background literature, consisting of three review articles on manipulation under anesthesia. The Delphi rounds were conducted using the widely-used and well-established RAND-UCLA consensus process methodology to rate seed statements for their appropriateness. Consensus was determined to be reached if 80% of the 15 panelists rated a statement as appropriate. Consensus was reached on all 43 statements in two Delphi rounds. Results The Delphi process was conducted from August-October 2013. Consensus was reached on recommendations related to all aspects of manipulation under anesthesia, including patient selection; diagnosis and establishing medical necessity; treatment and follow-up procedures; evaluation of response to treatment; safety practices; appropriate compensation considerations; and facilities, anesthesia and nursing standards. Conclusions A high level of agreement was achieved in developing evidence-informed recommendations about the practice of chiropractic/manual therapy manipulation under anesthesia. PMID:24490957

  8. Analysing clinical practice guidelines. A method of documentary analysis.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J V; Cowley, S

    1997-05-01

    This paper will describe a method of documentary analysis used in a study examining the validity of clinical guidelines issued to health visitors to assist them in identifying families requiring increased health visitor support. This forms the preliminary work for a wider study examining how health visitors decide to increase support to vulnerable families. Although a number of published research texts discuss the value of records and documents as important data sources for health service researchers, there is relatively little information available about the processes of documentary analysis. This paper offers one method for analysing clinical practice guidelines, it describes the development of a critique and analysis tool and explores the strengths and weaknesses of this particular analysis instrument.

  9. Translating guidelines into practice: a systematic review of theoretic concepts, practical experience and research evidence in the adoption of clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D A; Taylor-Vaisey, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To recommend effective strategies for implementing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). DATA SOURCES: The Research and Development Resource Base in Continuing Medical Education, maintained by the University of Toronto, was searched, as was MEDLINE from January 1990 to June 1996, inclusive, with the use of the MeSH heading "practice guidelines" and relevant text words. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of CPG implementation strategies and reviews of such studies were selected. Randomized controlled trials and trials that objectively measured physicians' performance or health care outcomes were emphasized. DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were reviewed to determine the effect of various factors on the adoption of guidelines. DATA SYNTHESIS: The articles showed that CPG dissemination or implementation processes have mixed results. Variables that affect the adoption of guidelines include qualities of the guidelines, characteristics of the health care professional, characteristics of the practice setting, incentives, regulation and patient factors. Specific strategies fell into 2 categories: primary strategies involving mailing or publication of the actual guidelines and secondary interventional strategies to reinforce the guidelines. The interventions were shown to be weak (didactic, traditional continuing medical education and mailings), moderately effective (audit and feedback, especially concurrent, targeted to specific providers and delivered by peers or opinion leaders) and relatively strong (reminder systems, academic detailing and multiple interventions). CONCLUSIONS: The evidence shows serious deficiencies in the adoption of CPGs in practice. Future implementation strategies must overcome this failure through an understanding of the forces and variables influencing practice and through the use of methods that are practice- and community-based rather than didactic. PMID:9275952

  10. How to Write a Scientific Paper: Practical Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Tahir S.; Newman, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Precise, accurate and clear writing is essential for communicating in health sciences, as publication is an important component in the university criteria for academic promotion and in obtaining funding to support research. In spite of this, the development of writing skills is a subject infrequently included in the curricula of faculties of medicine and allied health sciences. Therefore clinical investigators require tools to fill this gap. The present paper presents a brief historical background to medical publication and practical guidelines for writing scientific papers for acceptance in good journals. PMID:27683473

  11. How to Write a Scientific Paper: Practical Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Tahir S.; Newman, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Precise, accurate and clear writing is essential for communicating in health sciences, as publication is an important component in the university criteria for academic promotion and in obtaining funding to support research. In spite of this, the development of writing skills is a subject infrequently included in the curricula of faculties of medicine and allied health sciences. Therefore clinical investigators require tools to fill this gap. The present paper presents a brief historical background to medical publication and practical guidelines for writing scientific papers for acceptance in good journals.

  12. Application of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pain, Agitation, and Delirium.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Anna; Balas, Michele C

    2016-06-01

    Critically ill patients experience several severe, distressing, and often life-altering symptoms during their intensive care unit stay. A clinical practice guideline released by the American College of Critical Care Medicine provides a template for improving the care and outcomes of the critically ill through evidence-based pain, agitation, and delirium assessment, prevention, and management. Key strategies include the use of valid and reliable assessment tools, setting a desired sedation level target, a focus on light sedation, choosing appropriate sedative medications, the use of nonpharmacologic symptom management strategies, and engaging and empowering patients and their family to play an active role in their intensive care unit care.

  13. Treatment of Cushing's Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, Lynnette K.; Biller, Beverly M. K.; Findling, James W.; Murad, M. Hassan; Newell-Price, John; Savage, Martin O.; Tabarin, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to formulate clinical practice guidelines for treating Cushing's syndrome. Participants: Participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The European Society for Endocrinology co-sponsored the guideline. Evidence: The Task Force used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The Task Force commissioned three systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. Consensus Process: The Task Force achieved consensus through one group meeting, several conference calls, and numerous e-mail communications. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society and the European Society of Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Conclusions: Treatment of Cushing's syndrome is essential to reduce mortality and associated comorbidities. Effective treatment includes the normalization of cortisol levels or action. It also includes the normalization of comorbidities via directly treating the cause of Cushing's syndrome and by adjunctive treatments (eg, antihypertensives). Surgical resection of the causal lesion(s) is generally the first-line approach. The choice of second-line treatments, including medication, bilateral adrenalectomy, and radiation therapy (for corticotrope tumors), must be individualized to each patient. PMID:26222757

  14. Practical guidelines for development of web-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Chee, Wonshik; Lee, Yaelim; Chee, Eunice; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-10-01

    Despite a recent high funding priority on technological aspects of research and a high potential impact of Web-based interventions on health, few guidelines for the development of Web-based interventions are currently available. In this article, we propose practical guidelines for development of Web-based interventions based on an empirical study and an integrative literature review. The empirical study aimed at development of a Web-based physical activity promotion program that was specifically tailored to Korean American midlife women. The literature review included a total of 202 articles that were retrieved through multiple databases. On the basis of the findings of the study and the literature review, we propose directions for development of Web-based interventions in the following steps: (1) meaningfulness and effectiveness, (2) target population, (3) theoretical basis/program theory, (4) focus and objectives, (5) components, (6) technological aspects, and (7) logistics for users. The guidelines could help promote further development of Web-based interventions at this early stage of Web-based interventions in nursing.

  15. [Implementation of clinical practice guidelines: how can we close the evidence-practice gap?].

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Nothacker, M; Kopp, I

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines are intended as instruments of knowledge transfer to support decision-making by physicians, other health professionals and patients in clinical practice and thereby contribute to quality improvements in healthcare. To date they are an indispensable tool for healthcare. Their benefit for patients can only be seen in application, i.e. the implementation of guideline recommendations. For successful implementation, implementability and practicability play a crucial role and these characteristics can be influenced and should be promoted by the guideline development group. In addition, a force field analysis to identify barriers against and facilitators for the implementation of specific guideline recommendations from the perspective of physicians and patients is recommended to guide the development of an individual implementation strategy and the selection of appropriate interventions. However, implementation cannot be achieved by the guideline development group alone and a universal implementation strategy does not exist. Therefore, a process using theory, analysis, experience and shared responsibility of stakeholders in healthcare is recommended, with the aim to achieve sustainable behavioral change and improve the quality of care by guideline-oriented behavior.

  16. Practice guidelines for music interventions with hospitalized pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Stouffer, Janice W; Shirk, Beverly J; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2007-12-01

    Music therapy is an effective complementary approach that can achieve specific therapeutic outcomes in the clinical management of pediatric patients. Growing research on music interventions has generated scientific knowledge about how this modality benefits patients and has formed the basis for effective protocols that can be used in practice. Although it can be challenging to translate research-based protocols into routine clinical care at the bedside, it is essential that music therapy interventions be aligned with evidence-based information and that accepted standards be established by the music therapy discipline to achieve the greatest benefit. The importance of partnerships between nurses and music therapists is emphasized to enhance the success of music-based treatments. This discussion synthesizes research findings that can be used to design pediatric practice guidelines in the application of music therapy.

  17. Swiss clinical practice guidelines on field cancerization of the skin.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Günther; Anliker, Mark; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning; Brand, Christoph; Braun, Ralph; Gaide, Olivier; Hafner, Jürg; Hunger, Robert; Itin, Peter; Kaeuper, Gina; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Mainetti, Carlo; Streit, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) affects millions of people worldwide, and its prevalence continues to increase. AK lesions are caused by chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure, and the presence of two or more AK lesions along with photodamage should raise the consideration of a diagnosis of field cancerization. Effective treatment of individual lesions as well as field cancerization is essential for good long-term outcomes. The Swiss Registry of Actinic Keratosis Treatment (REAKT) Working Group has developed clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of field cancerization in patients who present with AK. These guidelines are intended to serve as a resource for physicians as to the most appropriate treatment and management of AK and field cancerization based on current evidence and the combined practical experience of the authors. Treatment of AK and field cancerization should be driven by consideration of relevant patient, disease, and treatment factors, and appropriate treatment decisions will differ from patient to patient. Prevention measures and screening recommendations are discussed, and special considerations related to management of immunocompromised patients are provided. PMID:25539459

  18. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Practice Management and for Preventive Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. The guidelines were developed by the Sections on Community and Preventive Dentistry and Practice Administration. (MLW)

  19. NHMRC guidelines for clinical practice for ASD and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Gary

    2008-03-01

    Dear Editor, Recently I described the case of a scuba instructor suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD), a type of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), following the death of one of her students. The treatment described was a combination of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) exposure based exercises. As it happens, in August the Australian Centre for Post Traumatic Mental Health published Australian clinical practice guidelines for ASD and PTSD. These have been endorsed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The treatment described in the diver injury case is consistent with these guidelines. The NHMRC guidelines suggest that immediately following a traumatic episode (e.g., diver death or serious injury) the most helpful response is to offer psychological first aid. This includes providing information on traumatic stress reactions, encouraging self care and using available social support. It is recommended that the medical practitioner monitor the patient, watching for improvement, plateau or deterioration, and be ready to offer assistance or appropriate referral if needed. The guidelines recommend the use of trauma-focused psychological therapy as the first-line intervention for ASD and PTSD. EMDR, with in vivo exposure included, and CBT are considered the most effective treatments. If medication is required, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants are considered the best choice. For the benefit and convenience of patients and practitioners, the NHMRC guidelines and a comprehensive set of information guides on ASD and PTSD are available online as pdf file downloads at http://www.acpmh.unimelb.edu.au. An update in Medical Journal of Australia provides traumatic stress information for medical practitioners including screening questions that can be used to identify patients suffering with ASD and PTSD. This article is available online at: http

  20. RELAP5-3D Developer Guidelines and Programming Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2014-03-01

    Our ultimate goal is to create and maintain RELAP5-3D as the best software tool available to analyze nuclear power plants. This begins with writing excellent programming and requires thorough testing. This document covers development of RELAP5-3D software, the behavior of the RELAP5-3D program that must be maintained, and code testing. RELAP5-3D must perform in a manner consistent with previous code versions with backward compatibility for the sake of the users. Thus file operations, code termination, input and output must remain consistent in form and content while adding appropriate new files, input and output as new features are developed. As computer hardware, operating systems, and other software change, RELAP5-3D must adapt and maintain performance. The code must be thoroughly tested to ensure that it continues to perform robustly on the supported platforms. The coding must be written in a consistent manner that makes the program easy to read to reduce the time and cost of development, maintenance and error resolution. The programming guidelines presented her are intended to institutionalize a consistent way of writing FORTRAN code for the RELAP5-3D computer program that will minimize errors and rework. A common format and organization of program units creates a unifying look and feel to the code. This in turn increases readability and reduces time required for maintenance, development and debugging. It also aids new programmers in reading and understanding the program. Therefore, when undertaking development of the RELAP5-3D computer program, the programmer must write computer code that follows these guidelines. This set of programming guidelines creates a framework of good programming practices, such as initialization, structured programming, and vector-friendly coding. It sets out formatting rules for lines of code, such as indentation, capitalization, spacing, etc. It creates limits on program units, such as subprograms, functions, and modules. It

  1. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukudo, Shin; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Akiho, Hirotada; Inamori, Masahiko; Endo, Yuka; Okumura, Toshikatsu; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Kamiya, Takeshi; Sato, Ken; Chiba, Toshimi; Furuta, Kenji; Yamato, Shigeru; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Azuma, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Mine, Tetsuya; Miura, Soichiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    New strategies for the care of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are developing and several novel treatments have been globally produced. New methods of care should be customized geographically because each country has a specific medical system, life style, eating habit, gut microbiota, genes and so on. Several clinical guidelines for IBS have been proposed and the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) subsequently developed evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for IBS. Sixty-two clinical questions (CQs) comprising 1 definition, 6 epidemiology, 6 pathophysiology, 10 diagnosis, 30 treatment, 4 prognosis, and 5 complications were proposed and statements were made to answer to CQs. A diagnosis algorithm and a three-step treatment was provided for patients with chronic abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort and/or abnormal bowel movement. If more than one alarm symptom/sign, risk factor and/or routine examination is positive, colonoscopy is indicated. If all of them, or the subsequent colonoscopy, are/is negative, Rome III or compatible criteria is applied. After IBS diagnosis, step 1 therapy consisting of diet therapy, behavioral modification and gut-targeted pharmacotherapy is indicated for four weeks. Non-responders to step 1 therapy proceed to the second step that includes psychopharmacological agents and simple psychotherapy for four weeks. In the third step, for patients non-responsive to step 2 therapy, a combination of gut-targeted pharmacotherapy, psychopharmacological treatments and/or specific psychotherapy is/are indicated. Clinical guidelines and consensus for IBS treatment in Japan are well suited for Japanese IBS patients; as such, they may provide useful insight for IBS treatment in other countries around the world. PMID:25500976

  2. [Interpretation of Guidelines on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices for European Union].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the limitations of pre-authorization clinical trials, the safety information obtained from them is relatively limited. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out pharmacovigilance activities on drugs post-marketing. In order to promote the specific implementation of the new pharmacovigilance regulations, the European medicines agency (EMA) developed the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP), as the new criteria for pharmacovigilance in the European Union (EU). Compared with the previously published, Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2007), the GVP proposed more comprehensive and systematic provisions of pharmacovigilance systems, quality control systems, judgements, pharmacovigilance inspections and audits. In addition, it set more specific and comprehensive requirements on risk management systems, the management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products, periodic safety update reports, post-authorization safety studies, signal management, and so on. Interpreting the basic principles, working mechanisms, key technologies and methods of the GVP provides a useful reference for us to carry out pharmacovigilance (especially regarding safety monitoring of parenterally administered Chinese medicine). PMID:24471312

  3. Advances in osteoporosis therapy. 2003 update of practical guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aliya

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review evidence for current therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis and to establish practical guidelines for management of osteoporosis by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1990 to January 2003. Articles retrieved were graded by level of evidence (I to III). Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy were based on evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. MAIN MESSAGE: Osteoporosis is treatable. Early diagnosis and intervention is recommended. After excluding secondary causes of osteoporosis, physicians should advise patients to take appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Those with osteopenia at risk of fractures and those with established osteoporosis need additional therapy. CONCLUSION: Approved pharmacologic therapies include alendronate, risedronate, raloxifene, calcitonin, cyclical etidronate, and hormone replacement therapy. Family physicians can help with early diagnosis and intervention and should discuss lifestyle modification with patients. PMID:12729240

  4. Best practice in forensic entomology--standards and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Amendt, Jens; Campobasso, Carlo P; Gaudry, Emmanuel; Reiter, Christian; LeBlanc, Hélène N; Hall, Martin J R

    2007-03-01

    Forensic entomology, the use of insects and other arthropods in forensic investigations, is becoming increasingly more important in such investigations. To ensure its optimal use by a diverse group of professionals including pathologists, entomologists and police officers, a common frame of guidelines and standards is essential. Therefore, the European Association for Forensic Entomology has developed a protocol document for best practice in forensic entomology, which includes an overview of equipment used for collection of entomological evidence and a detailed description of the methods applied. Together with the definitions of key terms and a short introduction to the most important methods for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval, the present paper aims to encourage a high level of competency in the field of forensic entomology.

  5. Application of The APA Practice Guidelines on Suicide to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Douglas G; Brewer, Margaret L

    2006-06-01

    This article presents charts from The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors, part of the Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders Compendium, and a summary of the assessment information in a format that can be used in routine clinical practice. Four steps in the assessment process are presented: the use of a thorough psychiatric examination to obtain information about the patient's current presentation, history, diagnosis, and to recognize suicide risk factors therein; the necessity of asking very specific questions about suicidal ideation, intent, plans, and attempts; the process of making an estimation of the patient's level of suicide risk is explained; and the use of modifiable risk and protective factors as the basis for treatment planning is demonstrated. Case reports are used to clarify use of each step in this process. PMID:16816784

  6. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Lyme guidelines: a cautionary tale about the development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lorraine; Stricker, Raphael B

    2010-06-09

    Flawed clinical practice guidelines may compromise patient care. Commercial conflicts of interest on panels that write treatment guidelines are particularly problematic, because panelists may have conflicting agendas that influence guideline recommendations. Historically, there has been no legal remedy for conflicts of interest on guidelines panels. However, in May 2008, the Attorney General of Connecticut concluded a ground-breaking antitrust investigation into the development of Lyme disease treatment guidelines by one of the largest medical societies in the United States, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Although the investigation found significant flaws in the IDSA guidelines development process, the subsequent review of the guidelines mandated by the settlement was compromised by a lack of impartiality at various stages of the IDSA review process. This article will examine the interplay between the recent calls for guidelines reform, the ethical canons of medicine, and due process considerations under antitrust laws as they apply to the formulation of the IDSA Lyme disease treatment guidelines. The article will also discuss pitfalls in the implementation of the IDSA antitrust settlement that should be avoided in the future.

  7. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Lyme guidelines: a cautionary tale about the development of clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Flawed clinical practice guidelines may compromise patient care. Commercial conflicts of interest on panels that write treatment guidelines are particularly problematic, because panelists may have conflicting agendas that influence guideline recommendations. Historically, there has been no legal remedy for conflicts of interest on guidelines panels. However, in May 2008, the Attorney General of Connecticut concluded a ground-breaking antitrust investigation into the development of Lyme disease treatment guidelines by one of the largest medical societies in the United States, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Although the investigation found significant flaws in the IDSA guidelines development process, the subsequent review of the guidelines mandated by the settlement was compromised by a lack of impartiality at various stages of the IDSA review process. This article will examine the interplay between the recent calls for guidelines reform, the ethical canons of medicine, and due process considerations under antitrust laws as they apply to the formulation of the IDSA Lyme disease treatment guidelines. The article will also discuss pitfalls in the implementation of the IDSA antitrust settlement that should be avoided in the future. PMID:20529367

  8. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis 2015.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hiroshi; Saito, Hidetsugu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Uto, Hirofumi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Sakaida, Isao; Shibuya, Akitaka; Seike, Masataka; Nagoshi, Sumiko; Segawa, Makoto; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Kato, Akinobu; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Michitaka, Kojiro; Murawaki, Toshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-07-01

    The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis in 2015. Eighty-three clinical questions were selected, and a literature search was performed for the clinical questions with use of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases for the period between 1983 and June 2012. Manual searching of the latest important literature was added until August 2015. The guidelines were developed with use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This digest version in English introduces selected clinical questions and statements related to the management of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Branched-chain amino acids relieve hypoalbuminemia and hepatic encephalopathy and improve quality of life. Nucleoside analogues and peginterferon plus ribavirin combination therapy improve the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus related liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C related compensated liver cirrhosis, respectively, although the latter therapy may be replaced by direct-acting antivirals. For liver cirrhosis caused by primary biliary cirrhosis and active autoimmune hepatitis, urosodeoxycholic acid and steroid are recommended, respectively. The most adequate modalities for the management of variceal bleeding are the endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices and the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration following endoscopic obturation with cyanoacrylate for gastric varices. Beta-blockers are useful for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan is a useful add-on therapy in careful diuretic therapy for ascites. Albumin infusion is useful for the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory disturbance and renal failure. In addition to disaccharides, the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin is useful for the management of encephalopathy. Anticoagulation therapy is proposed for

  9. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis 2015.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hiroshi; Saito, Hidetsugu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Uto, Hirofumi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Sakaida, Isao; Shibuya, Akitaka; Seike, Masataka; Nagoshi, Sumiko; Segawa, Makoto; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Kato, Akinobu; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Michitaka, Kojiro; Murawaki, Toshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-07-01

    The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis in 2015. Eighty-three clinical questions were selected, and a literature search was performed for the clinical questions with use of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases for the period between 1983 and June 2012. Manual searching of the latest important literature was added until August 2015. The guidelines were developed with use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This digest version in English introduces selected clinical questions and statements related to the management of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Branched-chain amino acids relieve hypoalbuminemia and hepatic encephalopathy and improve quality of life. Nucleoside analogues and peginterferon plus ribavirin combination therapy improve the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus related liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C related compensated liver cirrhosis, respectively, although the latter therapy may be replaced by direct-acting antivirals. For liver cirrhosis caused by primary biliary cirrhosis and active autoimmune hepatitis, urosodeoxycholic acid and steroid are recommended, respectively. The most adequate modalities for the management of variceal bleeding are the endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices and the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration following endoscopic obturation with cyanoacrylate for gastric varices. Beta-blockers are useful for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan is a useful add-on therapy in careful diuretic therapy for ascites. Albumin infusion is useful for the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory disturbance and renal failure. In addition to disaccharides, the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin is useful for the management of encephalopathy. Anticoagulation therapy is proposed for

  10. Application of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in current clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Chai Hong; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    In oncologic practice, treatment guidelines provide appropriate treatment strategies based on evidence. Currently, many guidelines are used, including those of the European Association for the Study of the Liver and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EASL-EORTC), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE), and Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and National Cancer Centre (KLCSG-NCC). Although radiotherapy is commonly used in clinical practice, some guidelines do not accept it as a standard treatment modality. In this review, we will investigate the clinical practice guidelines currently used, and discuss the application of radiotherapy. PMID:27730805

  11. 78 FR 38735 - Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices AGENCY... and Best Practices''. The opportunity to provide comments on this document is open to...

  12. 77 FR 64834 - Computational Fluid Dynamics Best Practice Guidelines for Dry Cask Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... COMMISSION Computational Fluid Dynamics Best Practice Guidelines for Dry Cask Applications AGENCY: Nuclear... Dynamics Best Practice Guidelines for Dry Cask Applications.'' The draft NUREG-2152 report provides best... can be controlled and quantified by the user are then discussed in detail, and best...

  13. Clinical Practice Guidelines and Consensus Statements in Oncology – An Assessment of Their Methodological Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Carmel; Graham, Ian D.; Makarski, Julie; Chassé, Michaël; Fergusson, Dean; Hutton, Brian; Clemons, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine’s standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. Findings Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice guidelines. One journal

  14. Medical Physics Practice Guideline 4.a: Development, implementation, use and maintenance of safety checklists.

    PubMed

    Fong de Los Santos, Luis E; Evans, Suzanne; Ford, Eric C; Gaiser, James E; Hayden, Sandra E; Huffman, Kristina E; Johnson, Jennifer L; Mechalakos, James G; Stern, Robin L; Terezakis, Stephanie; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Pronovost, Peter J; Fairobent, Lynne A

    2015-05-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a nonprofit professional society whose primary purposes are to advance the science, education and professional practice of medical physics. The AAPM has more than 8,000 members and is the principal organization of medical physicists in the United States.The AAPM will periodically define new practice guidelines for medical physics practice to help advance the science of medical physics and to improve the quality of service to patients throughout the United States. Existing medical physics practice guidelines will be reviewed for the purpose of revision or renewal, as appropriate, on their fifth anniversary or sooner.Each medical physics practice guideline represents a policy statement by the AAPM, has undergone a thorough consensus process in which it has been subjected to extensive review, and requires the approval of the Professional Council. The medical physics practice guidelines recognize that the safe and effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology requires specific training, skills, and techniques, as described in each document. Reproduction or modification of the published practice guidelines and technical standards by those entities not providing these services is not authorized.The following terms are used in the AAPM practice guidelines:Must and Must Not: Used to indicate that adherence to the recommendation is considered necessary to conform to this practice guideline.Should and Should Not: Used to indicate a prudent practice to which exceptions may occasionally be made in appropriate circumstances.

  15. AAPM Medical Physics Practice Guideline 3.a: Levels of supervision for medical physicists in clinical training.

    PubMed

    Seibert, J Anthony; Clements, Jessica B; Halvorsen, Per H; Herman, Michael G; Martin, Melissa C; Palta, Jatinder; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Pizzutiello, Robert J; Schueler, Beth A; Shepard, S Jeff; Fairobrent, Lynne A

    2015-05-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a nonprofit professional society whose primary purposes are to advance the science, education and professional practice of medical physics. The AAPM has more than 8,000 members and is the principal organization of medical physicists in the United States.The AAPM will periodically define new practice guidelines for medical physics practice to help advance the science of medical physics and to improve the quality of service to patients throughout the United States. Existing medical physics practice guidelines will be reviewed for the purpose of revision or renewal, as appropriate, on their fifth anniversary or sooner.Each medical physics practice guideline represents a policy statement by the AAPM, has undergone a thorough consensus process in which it has been subjected to extensive review, and requires the approval of the Professional Council. The medical physics practice guidelines recognize that the safe and effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology requires specific training, skills, and techniques, as described in each document. Reproduction or modification of the published practice guidelines and technical standards by those entities not providing these services is not authorized.The following terms are used in the AAPM practice guidelines:Must and Must Not: Used to indicate that adherence to the recommendation is considered necessary to conform to this practice guideline.Should and Should Not: Used to indicate a prudent practice to which exceptions may occasionally be made in appropriate circumstances.

  16. Guide to clinical practice guidelines: the current state of play

    PubMed Central

    Kredo, Tamara; Bernhardsson, Susanne; Machingaidze, Shingai; Young, Taryn; Louw, Quinette; Ochodo, Eleanor; Grimmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extensive research has been undertaken over the last 30 years on the methods underpinning clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), including their development, updating, reporting, tailoring for specific purposes, implementation and evaluation. This has resulted in an increasing number of terms, tools and acronyms. Over time, CPGs have shifted from opinion-based to evidence-informed, including increasingly sophisticated methodologies and implementation strategies, and thus keeping abreast of evolution in this field of research can be challenging. Methods This article collates findings from an extensive document search, to provide a guide describing standards, methods and systems reported in the current CPG methodology and implementation literature. This guide is targeted at those working in health care quality and safety and responsible for either commissioning, researching or delivering health care. It is presented in a way that can be updated as the field expands. Conclusion CPG development and implementation have attracted the most international interest and activity, whilst CPG updating, adopting (with or without contextualization), adapting and impact evaluation are less well addressed. PMID:26796486

  17. The application of epic3 guidelines: the complexity of practice.

    PubMed

    Cole, Mark

    Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) is a major patient safety concern and is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased healthcare costs. Prevention and control requires a multi-modal approach, but the individual's accountability and rigorous application of standard infection prevention and control behaviours is at its core. The third instalment of the epic3 guidance ( Loveday et al, 2014a ) provided the evidence and advanced the importance of hand-hygiene behaviour, the use of non-sterile gloves and environmental cleanliness. This discussion considers some of the recommendations made in these areas of practice and some of the underlying complexities. Producing guidelines based on the best available evidence and transforming them into policies can be a useful adjunct to communicating the necessary standards. However, policies often erase the complexity of implementation. To strive for the best possible standard is an understandable and laudable objective, but organisations need to be mindful of the difficulties and obstacles that stand in their way, particularly in an era where the philosophy of 'zero tolerance' is gaining popularity. PMID:26419710

  18. [Acute otitis media: do not change the Dutch practice guideline].

    PubMed

    Damoiseaux, Roger A M J

    2012-01-01

    Two recent clinical trials have again shown that antibiotics are effective in the management of young children with acute otitis media (AOM). Should this change our reserved attitude towards the use of antibiotics? According to the rules for evidence-based medicine, we cannot ignore the vast body of evidence already existing unless new trials are methodologically better and their results differ from previous trials. This does not seem to be the case. The patient characteristics of these trials are similar to those of a previously published individual patient data meta-analysis. The primary outcome 'symptom scores' reported by Hoberman et al. is also comparable, but Tähtinen et al. may have overestimated the effect of antibiotics. Their primary outcome 'time to treatment failure' does not take later improvement or recovery into account. In both trials, the greatest benefit is related to otoscopic recovery of AOM, which is clinically not the most relevant outcome. For now, there is no reason to adapt the current AOM practice guideline of the Dutch College of General Practitioners.

  19. Clinical Practice Guideline of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Jae; Moon, Jae Young; Shin, Ein-Soon; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jung, Hoon; Park, So Young; Kim, Ho Cheol; Sim, Yun Su; Rhee, Chin Kook; Lim, Jaemin; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Won-Yeon; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kwak, Sang Hyun; Kang, Eun Kyeong; Chung, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment. We also suggest high positive end-expiratory pressure (2B), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a rescue therapy (2C), and neuromuscular blockage for 48 hours after starting mechanical ventilation (2B). The application of recruitment maneuver may reduce mortality (2B), however, the use of systemic steroids cannot reduce mortality (2B). In mechanically ventilated patients, we recommend light sedation (1B) and low tidal volume even without ARDS (1B) and suggest lung protective ventilation strategy during the operation to lower the incidence of lung complications including ARDS (2B). Early tracheostomy in mechanically ventilated patients can be performed only in limited patients (2A). In conclusion, of 12 recommendations, nine were in the management of ARDS, and three for mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:27790273

  20. Fluid balance in team sports. Guidelines for optimal practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Hawley, J A

    1997-07-01

    Team sports require players to perform multiple work bouts at near maximal effort, punctuated with intervals of low intensity exercise or rest for the duration of a game. Such activity patterns are associated with a significant loss of body water which has a negative impact on physical and mental performance, as well as temperature regulation. There are a number of ways in which sweat losses incurred during team sports differ from those measured during prolonged, continuous exercise. Firstly, the work rate in team sports is intermittent, largely unpredictable and random in nature. Second, analyses of various team sports reveal that such games are characterised by a high degree of inter and intra-individual variability in work rates between players from the same sport. Finally, team players are less able to anticipate sweat losses than athletes competing in events which involve prolonged, continuous, moderate intensity exercise. Yet, compared with most endurance events, many team sports offer frequent opportunities to ingest adequate volumes of fluid and thus prevent exercise-induced hypohydration. The present review details the findings of modern studies which have determined body water losses and fluid intake practices of athletes from a variety of team sports. Special considerations which influence sweat loss and fluid intake that are unique to team sports are discussed, and guidelines for sound hydration strategies during training and competition are provided.

  1. Agreement among ASES members on the AAOS Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Paxton, E Scott; Matzon, Jonas L; Narzikul, Alexa C; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Abboud, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) has recently developed several clinical practice guidelines (CPG) involving upper extremity conditions. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the practice patterns of members of the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) with regard to the CPGs. An e-mail survey was sent to the 340 members of the ASES. The survey contained 40 questions involving the subject matter of the 2 existing AAOS CPGs pertaining specifically to the shoulder: Optimizing the Management of Rotator Cuff Problems and the Treatment of Glenohumeral Joint Arthritis. Overall, 98 responses were obtained, for a response rate of 29%. Only 19 of 47 CPGs were not "inconclusive" and a recommendation was actually made. A majority (more than 50%) of surgeons agreed with 17 (90%) of 19 of these AAOS recommendations. A strong majority (more than 80%) adhered to 13 (68%) of 19 recommendations. There were 4 consensus recommendations, and more than 50% agreed with all of them. Of the 5 moderate recommendations, more than 50% agreed with 4 of them. There were 10 weak recommendations, and more than 50% of surgeons agreed with 9 of them. There was more than 80% agreement on 18 of 28 inconclusive recommendations. Although the AAOS CPGs are not meant to be fixed protocols, they are intended to unify treatment and/or diagnosis of common problems based on the best evidence available. Despite the majority of the AAOS CPG recommendations for rotator cuff problems and glenohumeral arthritis being inconclusive, most surgeons agree with most of the CPG recommendations.

  2. Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yee Tang Sonny; Chee, Cynthia Bin Eng; Hsu, Li Yang; Jagadesan, Raghuram; Kaw, Gregory Jon Leng; Kong, Po Marn; Lew, Yii Jen; Lim, Choon Seng; Lim, Ting Ting Jayne; Lu, Kuo Fan Mark; Ooi, Peng Lim; Sng, Li-Hwei; Thoon, Koh Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) has developed the clinical practice guidelines on Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for tuberculosis. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis, for the information of SMJ readers. The chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:26996216

  3. Academy of Medicine-Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Daniel SS; Lim, Choon Guan; Wong, John Chee Meng; Ng, Koon Hock; Cheok, Christopher Cheng Soon; Kiing, Jennifer Sie Hee; Chong, Shang Chee; Lou, June; Daniel, Mary Lourdes; Ong, Desmond; Low, Charity; Aljunied, Sharifah Mariam; Choi, Pui Meng; Mehrotra, Kala; Kee, Carolyn; Leung, Ivy; Yen, Lee Chen; Wong, Geraldine; Lee, Poh Yin; Chin, Bella; Ng, Hwee Chien

    2014-01-01

    The Academy of Medicine (AMS) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) have developed the clinical practice guidelines on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for ADHD. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on ADHD, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:25189301

  4. Ethnic specific recommendations in clinical practice guidelines: a first exploratory comparison between guidelines from the USA, Canada, the UK, and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Manna, D; Bruijnzeels, M; Mokkink, H; Berg, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether clinical practice guidelines in different countries take ethnic differences between patients into consideration and to assess the scientific foundation of such ethnic specific recommendations. Design: Analysis of the primary care sections of clinical practice guidelines. Setting: Primary care practice guidelines for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma developed in the USA, Canada, the UK, and the Netherlands. Main outcome measures: Enumeration of the ethnic specific information and recommendations in the guidelines, and the scientific basis and strength of this evidence. Results: Different guidelines do address ethnic differences between patients, but to a varying extent. The USA guidelines contained the most ethnic specific statements and the Dutch guidelines the least. Most ethnic specific statements were backed by scientific evidence, usually arising from descriptive studies or narrative reviews. Conclusion: The attention given to ethnic differences between patients in clinical guidelines varies between countries. Guideline developers should be aware of the potential problems of ignoring differences in ethnicity. PMID:14532367

  5. The 2014 Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines Companion: A Practical Approach to the Use of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Macle, Laurent; Cairns, John A; Andrade, Jason G; Mitchell, L Brent; Nattel, Stanley; Verma, Atul

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines Program has generated a comprehensive series of documents regarding the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) between 2010 and 2014. The guidelines provide evidence-based consensus management recommendations in a broad range of areas. These guidelines have proven useful in informing clinical practice, but often lack detail in specifications related to practical application, particularly for areas in which the evidence base is limited or conflicting. Based on feedback from the community, the CCS Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines Committee has identified a number of areas that require clarification to address commonly asked practical questions related to guidelines application. In the present article a number of such questions are presented and suggestions about how they can be answered are suggested. Among the issues considered are: (1) What duration of AF is clinically significant? (2) How are the risk factors in the CCS Algorithm for selecting anticoagulation therapy derived and defined? (3) How is valvular heart disease defined and how do different forms of valve disease affect the choice of anticoagulant therapy for AF patients? (4) How should we quantify renal dysfunction and how does it affect therapeutic choices? The response to these questions and the underlying logic are provided, along with an indication of future research needed where no specific approach can presently be recommended based on the literature.

  6. Medical Physics Practice Guidelines - the AAPM's minimum practice recommendations for medical physicists.

    PubMed

    Mills, Michael D; Chan, Maria F; Prisciandaro, Joann I; Shepard, Jeff; Halvorsen, Per H

    2013-11-04

    The AAPM has long advocated a consistent level of medical physics practice, and has published many recommendations and position statements toward that goal, such as Science Council Task Group reports related to calibration and quality assurance, Education Council and Professional Council Task Group reports related to education, training, and peer review, and Board-approved Position Statements related to the Scope of Practice, physicist qualifications, and other aspects of medical physics practice. Despite these concerted and enduring efforts, the profession does not have clear and concise statements of the acceptable practice guidelines for routine clinical medical physics. As accreditation of clinical practices becomes more common, Medical Physics Practice Guidelines (MPPGs) will be crucial to ensuring a consistent benchmark for accreditation programs. To this end, the AAPM has recently endorsed the development of MPPGs, which may be generated in collaboration with other professional societies. The MPPGs are intended to be freely available to the general public. Accrediting organizations, regulatory agencies, and legislators will be encouraged to reference these MPPGs when defining their respective requirements. MPPGs are intended to provide the medical community with a clear description of the minimum level of medical physics support that the AAPM would consider prudent in clinical practice settings. Support includes, but is not limited to, staffing, equipment, machine access, and training. These MPPGs are not designed to replace extensive Task Group reports or review articles, but rather to describe the recommended minimum level of medical physics support for specific clinical services. This article has described the purpose, scope, and process for the development of MPPGs.

  7. Health care delivery for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta: a practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J.R.; Lau, H.; Surgeoner, B.V.; Chua, N.; Dobrovolsky, W.; Dort, J.C.; Kalaydjian, E.; Nesbitt, M.; Scrimger, R.A.; Seikaly, H.; Skarsgard, D.; Webster, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment of head-and-neck cancer is complex and requires the involvement of various health care professionals with a wide range of expertise. We describe the process of developing a practice guideline with recommendations about the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta. Methods Outcomes of interest included composition of the health care team, qualification requirements for team members, cancer centre and team member volumes, infrastructure needs, and wait times. A search for existing practice guidelines and a systematic review of the literature addressing the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients were conducted. The search included the Standards and Guidelines Evidence (sage) directory of cancer guidelines and PubMed. Results One practice guideline was identified for adaptation. Three additional practice guidelines provided supplementary evidence to inform guideline recommendations. Members of the Alberta Provincial Head and Neck Tumour Team (consisting of various health professionals from across the province) provided expert feedback on the adapted recommendations through an online and in-person review process. Selected experts in head-and-neck cancer from outside the province participated in an external online review. SUMMARY The recommendations outlined in this practice guideline are based on existing guidelines that have been modified to fit the Alberta context. Although specific to Alberta, the recommendations lend credence to similar published guidelines and could be considered for use by groups lacking the resources of appointed guideline panels. The recommendations are meant to be a guide rather than a fixed protocol. The implementation of this practice guideline will depend on many factors, including but not limited to availability of trained personnel, adequate funding of infrastructure, and collaboration with other associations of

  8. Facilitating comfort for hospitalized patients using non-pharmacological measures: preliminary development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anne M; Davies, Anne; Griffiths, Gareth

    2009-06-01

    Nurses often use non-pharmacological measures to facilitate comfort for patients within the hospital setting. However, guidelines for use of these measures are commonly inadequate or absent. This paper presents 12 clinical practice guidelines that were developed from the findings of a literature review into non-pharmacological measures that are thought to facilitate patient comfort. The non-pharmacological measures addressed in these guidelines are: Aromotherapy, Distraction, Guided Imagery, Laughter, Massage, Music, Reiki, Heat or Cold, Meditation, Reflexology, Reposition and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation. These are preliminary guidelines for the use of non-pharmacological measures and further research and development of such guidelines is recommended.

  9. Social work with suicidal clients: challenges of implementing practice guidelines and standards of care.

    PubMed

    Callahan, J

    1996-11-01

    Practice guidelines and standards of care are detailed models of intervention processes that describe goals, objectives, processes procedures, and interactions. Disciplines other than social work have developed practice guidelines, and it is appropriate for social work to also define standards or guidelines. This article describes an attempt by hospital social work staff to enact social work standards of care for suicidal clients. The difficulties and challenge of developing standards and guidelines are discussed and reasons for the lack of success of the attempt are highlighted.

  10. Clinical practice guidelines: what are they and how should they be disseminated?

    PubMed

    Graham, Brent

    2014-08-01

    Clinical practice guidelines summarize the available evidence for patient management in a format that is easy for clinicians to use. These guidelines usually use methodologically rigorous principles for retrieving and evaluating the literature and for establishing consensus among work group members, but implementation by clinicians is often incomplete. The reasons why guidelines fail to gain widespread acceptance vary with the topic and clinician group. Successful dissemination of practice guidelines requires an understanding of the barriers to implementation and the use of multiple strategies to address these. This article examines the factors affecting implementation and the approaches to overcoming these obstacles.

  11. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. The new guidelines are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329711

  12. Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: Stroke rehabilitation practice guidelines, update 2015.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Debbie; Lindsay, M Patrice; McIntyre, Amanda; Kirton, Adam; Rumney, Peter G; Bagg, Stephen; Bayley, Mark; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Dukelow, Sean; Garnhum, Maridee; Glasser, Ev; Halabi, Mary-Lou; Kang, Ester; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Martino, Rosemary; Rochette, Annie; Rowe, Sarah; Salbach, Nancy; Semenko, Brenda; Stack, Bridget; Swinton, Luchie; Weber, Valentine; Mayer, Matthew; Verrilli, Sue; DeVeber, Gabrielle; Andersen, John; Barlow, Karen; Cassidy, Caitlin; Dilenge, Marie-Emmanuelle; Fehlings, Darcy; Hung, Ryan; Iruthayarajah, Jerome; Lenz, Laura; Majnemer, Annette; Purtzki, Jacqueline; Rafay, Mubeen; Sonnenberg, Lyn K; Townley, Ashleigh; Janzen, Shannon; Foley, Norine; Teasell, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Stroke rehabilitation is a progressive, dynamic, goal-orientated process aimed at enabling a person with impairment to reach their optimal physical, cognitive, emotional, communicative, social and/or functional activity level. After a stroke, patients often continue to require rehabilitation for persistent deficits related to spasticity, upper and lower extremity dysfunction, shoulder and central pain, mobility/gait, dysphagia, vision, and communication. Each year in Canada 62,000 people experience a stroke. Among stroke survivors, over 6500 individuals access in-patient stroke rehabilitation and stay a median of 30 days (inter-quartile range 19 to 45 days). The 2015 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: Stroke Rehabilitation Practice Guidelines is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based recommendations for all members of multidisciplinary teams working in a range of settings, who provide care to patients following stroke. These recommendations have been developed to address both the organization of stroke rehabilitation within a system of care (i.e., Initial Rehabilitation Assessment; Stroke Rehabilitation Units; Stroke Rehabilitation Teams; Delivery; Outpatient and Community-Based Rehabilitation), and specific interventions and management in stroke recovery and direct clinical care (i.e., Upper Extremity Dysfunction; Lower Extremity Dysfunction; Dysphagia and Malnutrition; Visual-Perceptual Deficits; Central Pain; Communication; Life Roles). In addition, stroke happens at any age, and therefore a new section has been added to the 2015 update to highlight components of stroke rehabilitation for children who have experienced a stroke, either prenatally, as a newborn, or during childhood. All recommendations have been assigned a level of evidence which reflects the strength and quality of current research evidence available to support the recommendation. The updated Rehabilitation Clinical Practice Guidelines feature several

  13. Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: Stroke rehabilitation practice guidelines, update 2015.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Debbie; Lindsay, M Patrice; McIntyre, Amanda; Kirton, Adam; Rumney, Peter G; Bagg, Stephen; Bayley, Mark; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Dukelow, Sean; Garnhum, Maridee; Glasser, Ev; Halabi, Mary-Lou; Kang, Ester; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Martino, Rosemary; Rochette, Annie; Rowe, Sarah; Salbach, Nancy; Semenko, Brenda; Stack, Bridget; Swinton, Luchie; Weber, Valentine; Mayer, Matthew; Verrilli, Sue; DeVeber, Gabrielle; Andersen, John; Barlow, Karen; Cassidy, Caitlin; Dilenge, Marie-Emmanuelle; Fehlings, Darcy; Hung, Ryan; Iruthayarajah, Jerome; Lenz, Laura; Majnemer, Annette; Purtzki, Jacqueline; Rafay, Mubeen; Sonnenberg, Lyn K; Townley, Ashleigh; Janzen, Shannon; Foley, Norine; Teasell, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Stroke rehabilitation is a progressive, dynamic, goal-orientated process aimed at enabling a person with impairment to reach their optimal physical, cognitive, emotional, communicative, social and/or functional activity level. After a stroke, patients often continue to require rehabilitation for persistent deficits related to spasticity, upper and lower extremity dysfunction, shoulder and central pain, mobility/gait, dysphagia, vision, and communication. Each year in Canada 62,000 people experience a stroke. Among stroke survivors, over 6500 individuals access in-patient stroke rehabilitation and stay a median of 30 days (inter-quartile range 19 to 45 days). The 2015 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: Stroke Rehabilitation Practice Guidelines is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based recommendations for all members of multidisciplinary teams working in a range of settings, who provide care to patients following stroke. These recommendations have been developed to address both the organization of stroke rehabilitation within a system of care (i.e., Initial Rehabilitation Assessment; Stroke Rehabilitation Units; Stroke Rehabilitation Teams; Delivery; Outpatient and Community-Based Rehabilitation), and specific interventions and management in stroke recovery and direct clinical care (i.e., Upper Extremity Dysfunction; Lower Extremity Dysfunction; Dysphagia and Malnutrition; Visual-Perceptual Deficits; Central Pain; Communication; Life Roles). In addition, stroke happens at any age, and therefore a new section has been added to the 2015 update to highlight components of stroke rehabilitation for children who have experienced a stroke, either prenatally, as a newborn, or during childhood. All recommendations have been assigned a level of evidence which reflects the strength and quality of current research evidence available to support the recommendation. The updated Rehabilitation Clinical Practice Guidelines feature several

  14. OpenEHR-based representation of guideline compliance data through the example of stroke clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Anani, Nadim; Chen, Rong; Prazeres Moreira, Tiago; Koch, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    In light of the lack of integration between electronic health records and decision support, this research explores how semantic electronic health record technology, particularly openEHR, can be used to represent clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). We used the tool Visual Understanding Environment (VUE) to build a graphical representation of the European ischaemic stroke clinical management guidelines. We used openEHR archetypes to conceptually support this process and also to represent clinical concepts in stroke treatment compliance criteria. Our results show that, as an intermediate step in authoring computer-interpretable guidelines, an openEHR-based representation of CPGs and their compliance criteria supports the process of identifying the relevant knowledge and data elements in the care process to be modelled. It further eases the separation of the CPGs into data and logic components and is useful as a communication means for guideline verification by clinicians. Additionally, we retrieved existing and authored new openEHR archetypes for the acute stroke clinical management process. We conclude that openEHR-based guideline and compliance data representations may be a promising first step in building future decision support applications that are well connected to the electronic health record, can be useful in locating discrepancies between different sets of guidelines within the same care context and provide a helpful tool for driving the archetype authoring and review process. PMID:22874238

  15. Some Practical Guidelines for Teaching Dramatic Analysis to Beginning Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelias, Ronald J.; Ralph, Stephen D.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines common abuses that occur when students first use dramatic analysis in oral interpretation. Offers guidelines to help make students' efforts more productive; uses William Carlos Williams's poem "The Red Wheelbarrow" as an example. (PD)

  16. [Explanation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yue; Wu, Zhongchao; Zhou, Wenna; Si, Xiaohua; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Jincao; Chen, Zhongjie; Li, Rongjun; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Xiao, Liwei

    2016-05-01

    The development and compilation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma are introduced from three aspects, named the guideline methodology, the guideline structure and the guideline content. Based on the acupuncture-moxibustion practice and clinical research, the evidence-based medicine method is adopted. During the development and compilation of the guideline, the characteristics and advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion are specially considered in the treatment of this disease; the latest optimum evidences at home and abroad, experts' experience and patients' value are closely integrated with each other. Additionally, the worldwide accepted assessments of evidence quality and the recommendation (GRADE system) are combined with the clinical evidences of the ancient and modern famous acupuncture-moxibustion experts, and the clinical research evidences are with the experts' consensus to the large extent. The purpose of the guideline is to provide the maximal guidance to the clinical physicians.

  17. [Explanation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yue; Wu, Zhongchao; Zhou, Wenna; Si, Xiaohua; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Jincao; Chen, Zhongjie; Li, Rongjun; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Xiao, Liwei

    2016-05-01

    The development and compilation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma are introduced from three aspects, named the guideline methodology, the guideline structure and the guideline content. Based on the acupuncture-moxibustion practice and clinical research, the evidence-based medicine method is adopted. During the development and compilation of the guideline, the characteristics and advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion are specially considered in the treatment of this disease; the latest optimum evidences at home and abroad, experts' experience and patients' value are closely integrated with each other. Additionally, the worldwide accepted assessments of evidence quality and the recommendation (GRADE system) are combined with the clinical evidences of the ancient and modern famous acupuncture-moxibustion experts, and the clinical research evidences are with the experts' consensus to the large extent. The purpose of the guideline is to provide the maximal guidance to the clinical physicians. PMID:27509620

  18. Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines: Management of Rhinosinusitis and Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Siow, J K; Alshaikh, N A; Balakrishnan, A; Chan, K O; Chao, S S; Goh, L G; Hwang, S Y; Lee, C Y; Leong, J L; Lim, L; Menon, A; Sethi, D S; Tan, H; Wang, D Y

    2010-03-01

    The Ministry of Health publishes national clinical practice guidelines to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based guidance on managing important medical conditions. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines on Management of Rhinosinusitis and Allergic Rhinitis, for the information of readers of the Singapore Medical Journal. Chapters, page and figure numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website (http://www.moh.gov.sg/mohcorp/publications.aspx?id=24046). The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.

  19. Clinical practice guidelines in complementary and alternative medicine. An analysis of opportunities and obstacles. Practice and Policy Guidelines Panel, National Institutes of Health Office of Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    An estimated 1 of 3 Americans uses some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as acupuncture, homeopathy, or herbal medicine. In 1995, the National Institutes of Health Office of Alternative Medicine convened an expert panel to examine the role of clinical practice guidelines in CAM. The panel concluded that CAM practices currently are unsuitable for the development of evidence-based practice guidelines, in part because of the lack of relevant outcomes data from well-designed clinical trials. Moreover, the notions of standardization and appropriateness, inherent in guideline development, face challenging methodologic problems when applied to CAM, which considers many different treatment practices appropriate and encourages highly individualized care. Due to different belief systems and divergent theories about the nature of health and illness, CAM disciplines have fundamental differences in how they define target conditions, causes of disease, interventions, and outcome measures of effectiveness. These differences are even more striking when compared with those used by Western medicine. The panel made a series of recommendations on strategies to strengthen the evidence base for future guideline development in CAM and to meet better the current information needs of clinicians, patients, and guideline developers who seek information about CAM treatments.

  20. Physicians' perception of the "Guidelines for Obstetrical Practice in Japan" and the reasons for different compliances.

    PubMed

    Ojiro, Yuko; Kubota, Toshiro; Takase, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Obstetrical Practice in Japan" are the first consensus-based guidelines in the field of obstetrics and were published in 2008 owing to an obstetric medical care crisis in Japan. The Guidelines describe appropriate methods for obstetric care and were based on consensus among obstetricians in Japan. Originally, the Guidelines were not intended to be a rulebook to limit physician discretion; however, from a medical care litigation standpoint, medical practices that conform to the Guidelines are following the "medical standard". The present study aimed to investigate obstetricians' perceptions of the Guidelines, to assess the degree of compliance, and to consider the implication of physician discretion in medical litigation. A questionnaire exploring the perception of the Guidelines was completed by 341 obstetricians was conducted from February 2009 until May 2009; questionnaires were evaluated using simple aggregation, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis. Although more than 80% of physicians responded that content of the Guidelines was appropriate, only 34.7% complied with recommendation level A. Our findings suggest that the rate of compliance to the Guidelines should be improved, reasons for noncompliance should be clarified, and Guidelines that are easier for patients to understand should be drafted.

  1. Guidelines versus Practices in Cross-Lingual Assessment: A Disconcerting Disconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Joseph A.; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The International Test Commission's "Guidelines for Translating and Adapting Tests" (2010) provide important guidance on developing and evaluating tests for use across languages. These guidelines are widely applauded, but the degree to which they are followed in practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to perform a…

  2. Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare: Parent Support and Youth Empowerment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Kaplan, Sandra J.; Kemp, Susan P.; Hartman, Robert L.; Trupin, Casey; Soto, Wilfredo; Pecora, Peter J.; LaBarrie, Theresa L.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper, the second in a series of two guideline papers emerging from the 2007 Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference, provides an overview of the key issues related to parent support and youth empowerment in child welfare and presents consensus guidelines in these important areas. The paper also discusses some…

  3. [Problems and strategies in developing Chinese medicine evidence-based clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhan, Si-yan; Liu, Bao-yan

    2011-11-01

    Some problems are confronted in the development of Chinese medicine (CM) evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in the aspects of individualized treatment, quality of research, reporting bias, safety assessment, and so on. After comprehensive retrieving of current methods for developing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in the field of complementary and alternative medicine, and an optimal combining with widely accepted standardized methods in evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for allopathic medicine, we put forward strategies for these aforesaid problems. In terms of individualized treatment, practical randomized control trials could be considered for inclusion. In terms of quality of research, the method to formulate guideline recommendations was proposed in case of insufficient evidence. In terms of reporting bias, commonly used databases in complementary and alternative medicine were listed. In terms of safety evaluation, GRADE system was suggested to adopt.

  4. Principles and Guidelines for Equitable Mathematics Teaching Practices and Materials for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschkovich, Judit

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the author describes principles for equitable mathematics teaching practices for English Language Learners (ELLs) and outlines guidelines for materials to support such practices. Although research cannot provide a recipe for equitable teaching practices for ELLs, teachers, educators, and administrators can use this set of…

  5. [Management of type 2 diabetes: from guidelines to clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Rupa; Vora, Jiten

    2010-09-01

    The current era is seeing an unprecedented rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes, related to increasing adiposity levels. In addition, the complex nature of the disease with a much younger patient group than before makes prescribing a challenging task for physicians today. The advent of incretin based agents makes therapeutics exciting but warrants judicious use given the higher prescription costs and limited safety data. At the same time, mounting evidence not only supports a "treat early" approach but also cautions against achieving tight glycaemic control too quickly in certain patient groups particularly those of long disease duration and evidence of cardiovascular disease. In this conundrum, guidelines help to bring the best clinical evidence closer to practise. In this chapter, we discuss the latest clinical guidelines for management of type 2 diabetes based on recommendations from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (UK). At the same time we highlight the limitations of guidelines as they are unable to provide options for all "real life" scenarios. Though guidelines are instrumental in bringing evidence closer to practise, it is ultimately up to the clinician to rationalise therapy as per the needs of the individual patient. At the same time, it is also crucial to achieve meaningful outcomes in patients' lives especially in the current "pay for performance" culture in health care with the aim of providing world class care to each and every patient with diabetes. PMID:21420532

  6. Best Practice No 177: Best practice guideline: writing a business case for service development in pathology.

    PubMed

    Galloway, M J

    2004-04-01

    This guideline reviews the introduction and development of business planning in the National Health Service. A guideline for writing a business case for service development that would form part of a pathology business plan has been developed. This guideline outlines six steps that are required in the preparation of a business case. The format of the guideline has been developed largely from other national guidelines that have been published for the development of capital projects. In view of the publication of these guidelines, the scope of this guideline excludes business cases for information, management, and technology projects and large capital projects.

  7. Scientific authorship. Part 2. History, recurring issues, practices, and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2005-01-01

    One challenge for most scientists is avoiding and resolving issues that center around authorship and the publishing of scientific manuscripts. While trying to place the research in proper context, impart new knowledge, follow proper guidelines, and publish in the most appropriate journal, the scientist often must deal with multi-collaborator issues like authorship allocation, trust and dependence, and resolution of publication conflicts. Most guidelines regarding publications, commentaries, and editorials have evolved from the ranks of editors in an effort to diminish the issues that faced them as editors. For example, the Ingelfinger rule attempts to prevent duplicate publications of the same study. This paper provides a historical overview of commonly encountered scientific authorship issues, a comparison of opinions on these issues, and the influence of various organizations and guidelines in regards to these issues. For example, a number of organizations provide guidelines for author allocation; however, a comparison shows that these guidelines differ on who should be an author, rules for ordering authors, and the level of responsibility for coauthors. Needs that emerge from this review are (a) a need for more controlled studies on authorship issues, (b) an increased awareness and a buy-in to consensus views by non-editor groups, e.g., managers, authors, reviewers, and scientific societies, and (c) a need for editors to express a greater understanding of authors' dilemmas and to exhibit greater flexibility. Also needed are occasions (e.g., an international congress) when editors and others (managers, authors, etc.) can directly exchange views, develop consensus approaches and solutions, and seek agreement on how to resolve authorship issues. Open dialogue is healthy, and it is essential for scientific integrity to be protected so that younger scientists can confidently follow the lead of their predecessors.

  8. A UML approach to process modelling of clinical practice guidelines for enactment.

    PubMed

    Knape, T; Hederman, L; Wade, V P; Gargan, M; Harris, C; Rahman, Y

    2003-01-01

    Although clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been suggested as a means of encapsulating best practice in evidence-based medical treatment, their usage in clinical environments has been disappointing. Criticisms of guideline representations have been that they are predominantly narrative and are difficult to incorporate into clinical information systems. This paper analyses the use of UML process modelling techniques for guideline representation and proposes the automated generation of executable guidelines using XMI. This hybrid UML-XMI approach provides flexible authoring of guideline decision and control structures whilst integrating appropriate data flow. It also uses an open XMI standard interface to allow the use of authoring tools and process control systems from multiple vendors. The paper first surveys CPG modelling formalisms followed by a brief introduction to process modelling in UMI. Furthermore, the modelling of CPGs in UML is presented leading to a case study of encoding a diabetes mellitus CPG using UML.

  9. [Unambiguous practice guidelines on urinary tract infections in primary and secondary care].

    PubMed

    van Asselt, Kristel M; Prins, Jan M; van der Weele, Gerda M; Knottnerus, Bart J; van Pinxteren, Bart; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) practice guideline 'Urinary tract infections' intended for primary health care and the Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (SWAB) practice guideline 'Antimicrobial therapy in complicated urinary tract infections' intended for specialists in secondary care, were reviewed together. - In the NHG guideline the differentiation between 'complicated' and 'uncomplicated' urinary tract infections has been replaced by categorisation into age, sex, risk group and the presence of fever, or invasion of tissues.- If urinary tract infection has been diagnosed, a dip slide test can be used to determine resistance.- The guidelines recommend the most narrow-spectrum antibiotic to reduce further increase in antimicrobial resistance.- A chapter about women with recurrent urinary tract infections has been added to the SWAB guideline. Amongst other things, the chapter provides information on the prescription of prophylactic lactobacillus in secondary care. PMID:24004930

  10. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of lightning injuries: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Engeln, Anna; Johnson, Eric L; McIntosh, Scott E; Zafren, Ken; Islas, Arthur A; McStay, Christopher; Smith, William R; Cushing, Tracy

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with treatment recommendations organized by organ system. Recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2012;23(3):260-269. PMID:25498265

  11. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of lightning injuries: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Engeln, Anna; Johnson, Eric L; McIntosh, Scott E; Zafren, Ken; Islas, Arthur A; McStay, Christopher; Smith, William R; Cushing, Tracy

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with treatment recommendations organized by organ system. Recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2012;23(3):260-269.

  12. Clinical practice guidelines for mild traumatic brain injury and persistent symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Shawn; Bayley, Mark; McCullagh, Scott; Velikonja, Diana; Berrigan, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To outline new guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS) in order to provide information and direction to physicians managing patients’ recovery from MTBI. Quality of evidence A search for existing clinical practice guidelines addressing MTBI and a systematic review of the literature evaluating treatment of PPCS were conducted. Because little guidance on the management of PPCS was found within the traumatic brain injury field, a second search was completed for clinical practice guidelines and systematic reviews that addressed management of these common symptoms in the general population. Health care professionals representing a range of disciplines from across Canada and abroad were brought together at an expert consensus conference to review the existing guidelines and evidence and to attempt to develop a comprehensive guideline for the management of MTBI and PPCS. Main message A modified Delphi process was used to create 71 recommendations that address the diagnosis and management of MTBI and PPCS. In addition, numerous resources and tools were included in the guideline to aid in the implementation of the recommendations. Conclusion A clinical practice guideline was developed to aid health care professionals in implementing evidence-based, best-practice care for the challenging population of individuals who experience PPCS following MTBI. PMID:22518895

  13. Gaps between Global Guidelines and Local Practices in CKD-MBD.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2014-12-01

    The term 'chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder' (CKD-MBD) is a new term that, in contrast to the old term 'renal osteodystrophy', implies a systemic syndrome associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This new terminology is in line with previous studies that show elevated serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In order to improve outcomes in patients with CKD-MBD, many countries have developed clinical practice guidelines. Globally, the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines are the most commonly used. However, whether these global guidelines can be successfully implemented on a local level needs to be studied. Differences in medical care and social factors between countries may limit the generalizability of global guidelines. Reports from the Korean registry and the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) suggest that many dialysis patients are not within the target ranges recommended by the KDOQI and KDIGO guidelines for serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH, suggesting gaps between global guidelines and local practices. Clinical studies with Korean CKD-MBD patients are necessary to compare Korean practices and outcomes to those suggested by global guidelines and to determine the target serum mineral levels associated with the best local outcomes. PMID:25606042

  14. Which drugs are contraindicated during breastfeeding? Practice guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, M. E.; Lee, A.; Ito, S.

    2000-01-01

    QUESTION: Many breastfeeding mothers are concerned about taking medications that might affect their babies. Are there any guidelines on which drugs are safe? ANSWER: Only a few drugs pose a clinically significant risk to breastfed babies. In general, antineoplastics, drugs of abuse, some anticonvulsants, ergot alkaloids, and radiopharmaceuticals should not be taken, and levels of amiodarone, cyclosporine, and lithium should be monitored. Images p1757-a PMID:11013791

  15. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute and chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This document provides healthcare practitioners with information regarding the management of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) to enable them to better meet the needs of this patient population. These guidelines describe controversies in the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) and include recommendations that take into account changes in the bacteriologic landscape. Recent guidelines in ABRS have been released by American and European groups as recently as 2007, but these are either limited in their coverage of the subject of CRS, do not follow an evidence-based strategy, or omit relevant stakeholders in guidelines development, and do not address the particulars of the Canadian healthcare environment. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of CRS, along with the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies, have improved outcomes for patients with CRS. CRS now affects large numbers of patients globally and primary care practitioners are confronted by this disease on a daily basis. Although initially considered a chronic bacterial infection, CRS is now recognized as having multiple distinct components (eg, infection, inflammation), which have led to changes in therapeutic approaches (eg, increased use of corticosteroids). The role of bacteria in the persistence of chronic infections, and the roles of surgical and medical management are evolving. Although evidence is limited, guidance for managing patients with CRS would help practitioners less experienced in this area offer rational care. It is no longer reasonable to manage CRS as a prolonged version of ARS, but rather, specific therapeutic strategies adapted to pathogenesis must be developed and diffused. Guidelines must take into account all available evidence and incorporate these in an unbiased fashion into management recommendations based on the quality of evidence, therapeutic benefit, and risks incurred. This document is focused on readability rather than

  16. Practice what you preach? An exploratory multilevel study on rheumatoid arthritis guideline adherence by rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Lesuis, N; den Broeder, A A; Hulscher, M E J L; van Vollenhoven, R F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess variation in and determinants of rheumatologist guideline adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in daily practice. Methods In this retrospective observational study, guideline adherence in the first year of treatment was assessed for 7 predefined parameters on diagnostics, treatment and follow-up in all adult patients with RA with a first outpatient clinic visit at the study centre, from September 2009 to March 2011. Variation in guideline adherence was assessed on parameter and rheumatologist level. Determinants for guideline adherence were assessed in patients (demographic characteristics, rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (aCCP) positivity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erosive disease, comorbidity and the number of available disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment options) and rheumatologists (demographic and practice characteristics, guideline knowledge and agreement, outcome expectancy, cognitive bias, thinking style, numeracy and personality). Results A total of 994 visits in 137 patients with RA were reviewed. Variation in guideline adherence among parameters was present (adherence between 21% and 72%), with referral to the physician assistant as lowest scoring and referral to a specialised nurse as highest scoring parameter. Variation in guideline adherence among rheumatologists was also present (adherence between 22% and 100%). Patient sex, the number of DMARD options, presence of erosions, comorbidity, RF/aCCP positivity, type of patient and the rheumatologists' scientific education status were associated with adherence to 1 or more guideline parameters. Conclusions Guideline adherence varied considerably among the guideline parameters and rheumatologists, showing that there is room for improvement. Guideline adherence in our sample was related to several patient and rheumatologist determinants. PMID:27252892

  17. Sunscreen compliance with regional clinical practice guidelines and product labeling standards in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sporer, Matthias E; Mathy, Joanna E; Kenealy, John; Mathy, Jon A

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION For general practitioners, practice nurses and community pharmacists in New Zealand, a core duty is to educate patients about sun protection. We aimed to evaluate compliance of locally available sunscreens with regional clinical practice guidelines and sunscreen labelling standards, to assist clinicians in advising consumers on sunscreen selection. METHODS We audited all sunscreens available at two Auckland stores for three New Zealand sunscreen retailers. We then assessed compliance with accepted regional clinical practice guidelines for sun protection from the New Zealand Guidelines Group. We further assessed compliance with regional Australia/New Zealand consumer standards for sunscreen labelling. RESULTS All sunscreens satisfied clinical guidelines for broad-spectrum protection, and 99% of sunscreens met or exceeded clinical guidelines for minimal Sun Protection Factor. Compliance with regional standardized labelling guidelines is voluntary in New Zealand and 27% of audited sunscreens were not fully compliant with SPF labelling standards. DISCUSSION Sunscreens were generally compliant with clinical guidelines for minimal sun protection. However there was substantial noncompliance with regional recommendations for standardized sunscreen labelling. Primary health care clinicians should be aware that this labelling noncompliance may mislead patients into thinking some sunscreens offer more sun protection than they do. Mandatory compliance with the latest regional labelling standards would simplify sunscreen selection by New Zealand consumers. KEYWORDS Sunscreen; Sun Protection Factor; SPF; Skin Neoplasms; Melanoma; Skin Cancer Prevention. PMID:27477372

  18. [Acute pancreatitis. Evidence-based practice guidelines, prepared by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    PubMed

    Hritz, István; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Szücs, Ákos; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Hegyi, Péter

    2015-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with significant morbidity and mortality that requires up-to-date and evidence based treatment guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare evidence based guideline for the medical and surgical management of acute pancreatitis based on the available international guidelines and evidence. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and, if it was necessary, complemented and/or modified the international guidelines. All together 42 relevant clinical questions were defined in 11 topics (Diagnosis and etiology, Prognosis, Imaging, Fluid therapy, Intensive care management, Prevention of infectious complications, Nutrition, Biliary interventions, Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography pancreatitis, Indication, timing and strategy for intervention in necrotizing pancreatitis, Timing of cholecystectomy [or endoscopic sphincterotomy]). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate® grading system. The draft of the guideline was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. 25 clinical questions with almost total (more than 95%) and 17 clinical questions with strong (more than 70%) agreement were accepted. The present guideline is the first evidence based acute pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide important help for tuition, everyday practice and for establishment of proper finance of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become as basic reference in Hungary.

  19. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for invasive candidiasis in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bow, Eric J; Evans, Gerald; Fuller, Jeff; Laverdière, Michel; Rotstein, Coleman; Rennie, Robert; Shafran, Stephen D; Sheppard, Don; Carle, Sylvie; Phillips, Peter; Vinh, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    Candidemia and invasive candidiasis (C/IC) are life-threatening opportunistic infections that add excess morbidity, mortality and cost to the management of patients with a range of potentially curable underlying conditions. The Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada developed evidence-based guidelines for the approach to the diagnosis and management of these infections in the ever-increasing population of at-risk adult patients in the health care system. Over the past few years, a new and broader understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of C/IC has emerged and has been coupled with the availability of new antifungal agents and defined strategies for targeting groups at risk including, but not limited to, acute leukemia patients, hematopoietic stem cell transplants and solid organ transplants, and critical care unit patients. Accordingly, these guidelines have focused on patients at risk for C/IC, and on approaches of prevention, early therapy for suspected but unproven infection, and targeted therapy for probable and proven infection. PMID:22132006

  20. [Clinical practice guideline 'Complex regional pain syndrome type I'].

    PubMed

    Perez, R S G M; Zollinger, P E; Dijkstra, P U; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I L; Zuurmond, W W A; Rosenbrand, C J G M; Geertzen, J H B

    2007-07-28

    The development and treatment ofthe complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) are a subject of much discussion. Using the method for the development ofevidence-based guidelines, a multidisciplinary guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome has been drawn up. The diagnosis of CRPS-I is based on the clinical observation of signs and symptoms. For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised up to step z. In case of pain ofa neuropathic nature, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For the treatment ofinflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. In order to enhance peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used for a cold extremity ifvasodilatory medication produces insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, the use of vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operation time and limited use of bloodlessness are advised for the secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Use of regional anaesthetic techniques can also be considered in this connection.

  1. Dental treatment of the pregnant patient: literature review and guidelines for the practicing clinician.

    PubMed

    Shessel, Bradley A; Portnof, Jason E; Kaltman, Steven I; Nitsch, Romy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to assist the practicing clinician by categorizing and packaging useful clinical information into a format that will assist with the treatment of pregnant patients. Our goal is to offer the scientific foundations that lead to current practice guidelines, specifically those that are of particular relevance to today's dental professional.

  2. Risk and Strategic Decision-Making in Developing Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) represents an important approach to educating and treating individuals diagnosed with disabilities or disorders. Understanding research findings is the cornerstone of EBP. The methodology of systematic reviews, which involves carefully analyzing research findings, can result a practice guideline that recommends…

  3. Incorporation of Pharmacogenomics into Routine Clinical Practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline Development Process

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Kelly E.; Klein, Teri E.; Hoffman, James M.; Müller, Daniel J.; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Gong, Li; McDonagh, Ellen M.; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Thorn, Caroline F.; Schwab, Matthias; Agúndez, José A.G.; Freimuth, Robert R.; Huser, Vojtech; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Iwuchukwu, Otito F.; Crews, Kristine R.; Scott, Stuart A.; Wadelius, Mia; Swen, Jesse J.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Stein, C. Michael; Roden, Dan; Relling, Mary V.; Williams, Marc S.; Johnson, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine’s Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines. PMID:24479687

  4. Incorporation of pharmacogenomics into routine clinical practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline development process.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Kelly E; Klein, Teri E; Hoffman, James M; Muller, Daniel J; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Gong, Li; McDonagh, Ellen M; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Thorn, Caroline F; Schwab, Matthias; Agundez, Jose A G; Freimuth, Robert R; Huser, Vojtech; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Iwuchukwu, Otito F; Crews, Kristine R; Scott, Stuart A; Wadelius, Mia; Swen, Jesse J; Tyndale, Rachel F; Stein, C Michael; Roden, Dan; Relling, Mary V; Williams, Marc S; Johnson, Samuel G

    2014-02-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine's Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines.

  5. Study on the methodology of developing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines of Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng-guang; Luo, Hui; Xu, Shan; Yang, Yan; Wang, Shou-chuan

    2015-11-01

    At present, evidence-based clinical practice guideline (EBCPG) is the main mode of developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in the world, but in China, most of CPGs of Chinese medicine (CM) are still guidelines based on expert consensus. The objective of this study is to construct initially the methodology of developing EBCPGs of CM and to promote the development of standardization of CM. Based on the development of "Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Pediatric Diseases in CM", the methodology of developing EBCPG of CM was explored by analyzing the pertinent literature and considering the characteristics of CM. In this study, the key problem was to put forward the suggestion and strategies. However, due to the methodology study of developing EBCPG of CM is still in the initial stage, there are still some problems which need further study.

  6. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for spine immobilization in the austere environment: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert H; Williams, Jason; Bennett, Brad L; Stiller, Gregory; Islas, Arthur A; McCord, Seth

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to produce best practice guidelines for spine immobilization in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for management of the injured or potentially injured spine in an austere (dangerous or compromised) environment. Recommendations are made regarding several parameters related to spinal immobilization. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each parameter according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. A treatment algorithm based on the guidelines is presented. This is an updated version of original WMS Practice Guidelines for Spine Immobilization in the Austere Environment published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2013;24(3):241-252.

  7. A Model of Ambiguity and Vagueness in Clinical Practice Guideline Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Codish, Shlomi; Shiffman, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    Ambiguity and vagueness in clinical practice guidelines reduce the likelihood of clinician adherence. They lead to inconsistent interpretation and, in turn, to inappropriate practice variation and medical errors. Resolving ambiguity and vagueness is an essential step in the computerized implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Successful resolution of ambiguity and vagueness requires an understanding of their characteristics, yet ambiguity and vagueness have not been differentiated, classified and described in medical context. In this paper, we propose a tri-axial model to describe ambiguity and vagueness in clinical practice guidelines: differentiation of true ambiguity from vagueness, classification of ambiguity and vagueness, intentionality and components involved. Our goals in introducing this model are: (a) to provide guidance to guideline authors to enable them to reduce inadvertent use of ambiguous or vague language, (b) to improve transparency when vague language is used deliberately and (c) to create a framework for the development of tools to apply the model during authoring and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. PMID:16779019

  8. [Critical issues in clinical practice guidelines for geriatric care].

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Ermellina

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia(BPSD) are one of the most disturbing issues in the management of patients, both for caregivers and health care personnel. Aim of this paper is to critically appraise the available guidelines on the non pharmacological management of BPSD. Some effective interventions such as person centred care, communication skills e dementia care mapping are not mentioned while interventions of dubious efficacy (aromatherapy, per therapy, light therapy or music therapy) are proposed. The variability in the expression of behavioral disorders and the different causes suggest an accurate tailoring of the interventions, based on the assessment of the patient, the organization and the environment. Further studies are necessary to improve the implementation of the non drug strategies for the management of BPSDs. PMID:25532924

  9. Practicalizing piaget at the asep guidelines conference 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawns, Rod

    1990-01-01

    ‘To understand is to invent’ (Piaget, 1968). This paper examines the attempt of Les Dale, the Assistant Director of the Australian Science Education Project, to apply Piagetian theory to describing a theory of instruction for the Project. The historiographical method consists in examining and comparing instances of curriculum invention in science education in Australia starting with contemporary and retrospective accounts of the key figures (Fawns 1988a). This paper is a case record (Stenhouse, 1978) which synthesises public and personal material in the files collected by the author. It has been subjected to review by Dale and others including those to whom it was presented at A.S.E.R.A. It accompanies an earlier paper (Fawns, 1989) which assessed the social context of the Debate at the Guidelines Conference 20 years on.

  10. [Critical issues in clinical practice guidelines for geriatric care].

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Ermellina

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia(BPSD) are one of the most disturbing issues in the management of patients, both for caregivers and health care personnel. Aim of this paper is to critically appraise the available guidelines on the non pharmacological management of BPSD. Some effective interventions such as person centred care, communication skills e dementia care mapping are not mentioned while interventions of dubious efficacy (aromatherapy, per therapy, light therapy or music therapy) are proposed. The variability in the expression of behavioral disorders and the different causes suggest an accurate tailoring of the interventions, based on the assessment of the patient, the organization and the environment. Further studies are necessary to improve the implementation of the non drug strategies for the management of BPSDs.

  11. The use of dreams in psychotherapy: practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Werman, D S

    1978-04-01

    Although there is a large literature pertaining to the use of the dream in psychoanalysis, there is no systematic approach to working with dreams in psychotherapy. This communication seeks to present some guidelines for the use of the dream in psychotherapy. Reference is made to the significant difference in the "dimensions" of psychoanalysis as compared to psychotherapy. A distinction is drawn between the use of the dream in supportive psychotherapy as contrasted with insight-oriented psychotherapy. In the former, the dream--if used at all--serves supportive functions; in the latter, the goals are to develop better awareness by the patient of himself. Understanding of the dream is reached by inserting it into the context of the patient's psychological life; however, what is actually communicated to the patient will be keyed to the psychologic surface that the patient presents.

  12. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the treatment of acute pain in remote environments: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie W; Scaife, Courtney L; Weber, David C; Windsor, Jeremy S; Wheeler, Albert R; Smith, William R; Wedmore, Ian; McIntosh, Scott E; Lieberman, James R

    2014-12-01

    The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the management of pain in austere environments. Recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence as defined by criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Acute Pain in Remote Environments published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(1):41-49.

  13. Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Engeln, Anna; Johnson, Eric; McIntosh, Scott E; Zafren, Ken; Islas, Arthur A; McStay, Christopher; Smith, William 'Will' R; Cushing, Tracy

    2012-09-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning strikes and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with treatment recommendations organized by organ system. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians.

  14. Japanese Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guidelines 2010 for antiemesis in oncology: executive summary.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hideki; Saeki, Toshiaki; Aiba, Keisuke; Tamura, Kazuo; Aogi, Kenjiro; Eguchi, Kenji; Okita, Kenji; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Ryuhei; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Hirofumi; Boku, Narikazu; Wada, Makoto; Akechi, Tatsuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Okawa, Yutaka; Onozawa, Yusuke; Sasaki, Hidenori; Shima, Yasuo; Shimoyama, Naohito; Takeda, Masayuki; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Akifumi; Ikeda, Tadashi; Hirata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to disseminate the standard of antiemetic therapy for Japanese clinical oncologists. On the basis of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument, which reflects evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, a working group of the Japanese Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) reviewed clinical practice guidelines for antiemesis and performed a systematic review of evidence-based domestic practice guidelines for antiemetic therapy in Japan. In addition, because health-insurance systems in Japan are different from those in other countries, a consensus was reached regarding standard treatments for chemotherapy that induce nausea and vomiting. Current evidence was collected by use of MEDLINE, from materials from meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and from European Society of Medical Oncology/Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer guidelines for antiemesis. Initially, 21 clinical questions (CQ) were selected on the basis of CQs from other guidelines. Patients treated with highly emetic agents should receive a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. For patients with moderate emetic risk, 5HT3 receptor antagonists and dexamethasone were recommended, whereas for those receiving chemotherapy with low emetic risk dexamethasone only is recommended. Patients receiving high-emetic-risk radiation therapy should also receive a 5HT3 receptor antagonist. In this paper the 2010 JSCO clinical practice guidelines for antiemesis are presented in English; they reveal high concordance of Japanese medical circumstances with other antiemetic guidelines that are similarly based on evidence.

  15. [Development and Quality Evaluation of Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines of Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue-rong; Chen, Ke-ji

    2016-01-01

    More attentions have been paid to the development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (ECPGs) of Chinese medicine (CM). International guideline evaluation instruments such as Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE I) has been gradually applied in ECPGs quality evaluation of CM. Nowadays, there are some certain methodological defects in partial ECPGs of Chinese medicine, with relatively low applicability and slowly update. It is suggested to establish technical specifications of CM-ECPGs in accordance with the characteristics of CM and international general specification, strengthen the quality evaluation of CM-ECPGs, attach great importance to the regularly update as well as popularization and application of CM-ECPGs.

  16. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for basic wound management in the austere environment: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert H; Wedmore, Ian; Johnson, Eric L; Islas, Arthur A; Anglim, Anne; Zafren, Ken; Bitter, Cindy; Mazzorana, Vicki

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to produce best-practice guidelines for wound management in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for the management of wounds sustained in an austere (dangerous or compromised) environment. Recommendations are made about several parameters related to wound management. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each parameter according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original guidelines published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(3):295-310.

  17. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for spine immobilization in the austere environment.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert; Williams, Jason; Bennett, Brad; Stiller, Gregory; Islas, Arthur; McCord, Seth

    2013-09-01

    In an effort to produce best-practice guidelines for spine immobilization in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for management of the injured or potentially injured spine in an austere (dangerous or compromised) environment. Recommendations are made regarding several factors related to spinal immobilization. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each factor according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. A treatment algorithm based on the guidelines is presented.

  18. [Managing of the patient with dyspepsia. Clinical Practice Guideline. Update 2012].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P; Calvet Calvo, Xavier; Ferrándiz Santos, Juan; Mascort Roca, Juan José; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Marzo Castillejo, Mercè

    2012-12-01

    The "Preparation of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Digestive Diseases, from Primary Care to Specialist Care" Program, is a joint project by the Spanish Gastroenterology Association (AEG), the Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine (SEMFyC), and the IberoAmerican Cochrane Center (CCI). We present the update of the Guidelines on the Management of Dyspepsia, which was published in 2003. The essential criteria provided in the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation for Europe) Instrument were taken into account in the preparation of this document. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system was used to classify the scientific evidence and strengthen the recommendations.

  19. The updating of clinical practice guidelines: insights from an international survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have become increasingly popular, and the methodology to develop guidelines has evolved enormously. However, little attention has been given to the updating process, in contrast to the appraisal of the available literature. We conducted an international survey to identify current practices in CPG updating and explored the need to standardize and improve the methods. Methods We developed a questionnaire (28 items) based on a review of the existing literature about guideline updating and expert comments. We carried out the survey between March and July 2009, and it was sent by email to 106 institutions: 69 members of the Guidelines International Network who declared that they developed CPGs; 30 institutions included in the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse database that published more than 20 CPGs; and 7 institutions selected by an expert committee. Results Forty-four institutions answered the questionnaire (42% response rate). In the final analysis, 39 completed questionnaires were included. Thirty-six institutions (92%) reported that they update their guidelines. Thirty-one institutions (86%) have a formal procedure for updating their guidelines, and 19 (53%) have a formal procedure for deciding when a guideline becomes out of date. Institutions describe the process as moderately rigorous (36%) or acknowledge that it could certainly be more rigorous (36%). Twenty-two institutions (61%) alert guideline users on their website when a guideline is older than three to five years or when there is a risk of being outdated. Twenty-five institutions (64%) support the concept of "living guidelines," which are continuously monitored and updated. Eighteen institutions (46%) have plans to design a protocol to improve their guideline-updating process, and 21 (54%) are willing to share resources with other organizations. Conclusions Our study is the first to describe the process of updating CPGs among prominent guideline

  20. Clinical practice guideline development manual: A quality-driven approach for translating evidence into action

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Richard M.; Shiffman, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Guidelines translate best evidence into best practice. A well-crafted guideline promotes quality by reducing healthcare variations, improving diagnostic accuracy, promoting effective therapy, and discouraging ineffective – or potentially harmful – interventions. Despite a plethora of published guidelines, methodology is often poorly defined and varies greatly within and among organizations. Purpose This manual describes the principles and practices used successfully by the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery to produce quality-driven, evidence-based guidelines using efficient and transparent methodology for action-ready recommendations with multi-disciplinary applicability. The development process, which allows moving from conception to completion in twelve months, emphasizes a logical sequence of key action statements supported by amplifying text, evidence profiles, and recommendation grades that link action to evidence. Conclusions As clinical practice guidelines become more prominent as a key metric of quality healthcare, organizations must develop efficient production strategies that balance rigor and pragmatism. Equally important, clinicians must become savvy in understanding what guidelines are – and are not – and how they are best utilized to improve care. The information in this manual should help clinicians and organizations achieve these goals. PMID:19464525

  1. Evolution of clinical practice guidelines: evidence supporting expanded use of medicines.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Robert W; Dean, Bonnie B

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the primary factor underlying increased spending on pharmaceuticals has been the rising utilization of medications, rather than increases in unit drug price. This study examined the evolution of clinical practice guidelines to assess possible reasons for the rising drug volume. Clinical practice guidelines from 1970 to the present were reviewed for the six most prevalent treatable medical conditions/risk factors listed as priority areas by the Institute of Medicine. We searched the National Guidelines Clearinghouse, PubMed and Medline databases, and Web sites of relevant national organizations for US clinical practice guidelines published through January 2005. Information pertaining to the therapeutic regimen (eg, the frequency and duration of recommended treatment, when treatment should be initiated, the patient population for whom the guideline was intended) was abstracted and entered into evidence tables. Changes in guidelines were distributed across three themes that recommended evidence-based increases in medication use, including: (1) changes in the size of the treatable population; (2) changes in the number and type of recommended pharmaceutical therapeutic options, including movement from monotherapy to combination therapy, treatment of comorbidities, and use of newer types of medicines; and (3) changes in the therapeutic regimen, including a shift from episodic care to preventive and chronic care. Many of these changes point to an important, but not often noticed, addition of secondary prevention of disease effects to the objectives of medical care. These trends are likely to continue with important economic, clinical, and policy ramifications.

  2. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis I. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more

  3. Practical Guidelines for Evaluating Sampling Designs in Survey Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin

    The popularity of sample surveys in evaluation and research makes it necessary for consumers to tell a good survey from a poor one. Several sources were identified that gave advice on how to evaluate a sample design used in a survey study. The sources are either too limited or too extensive to be useful practically. The purpose of this paper is to…

  4. Practical School Security: Basic Guidelines for Safe and Secure Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    This book is written primarily for elementary and secondary school administrators and teachers, but college faculty involved in providing teacher or administrator education would also benefit from the practical approach to issues of school security. Chapters 1 through 3 establish a framework for dealing with the myths and realities of school…

  5. Learning outside the Classroom: Theory and Guidelines for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon; Higgins, Pete; Nicol, Robbie

    2011-01-01

    "Learning Outside the Classroom" outlines theory and practice that will enable and encourage teachers to systematically and progressively incorporate meaningful outdoor learning opportunities into their daily teaching activities in a wide variety of environments and with diverse populations of pupils. This is the first textbook based around the…

  6. Veterans in the College Classroom: Guidelines for Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Omar S.; Springer, Stephen B.; Nelson, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain central topics in institutions' efforts to address student veteran needs. From the authors' experiences with student veterans, they present the five principles of effective instructional practice identified by the National Research Council (NRC) within the context of…

  7. Examining Psychosocial Identity Development Theories: A Guideline for Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Erikson's psychosocial identity development theory, identifies prominent theorists who extended his work, examines the limitations of the theory and explains how this theory can be applied to student affairs practices. Furthermore, two different studies that clarify the relationship between psychosocial factors…

  8. Prenatal Depression: Best Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.; Gintner, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide counselors with an overview of best practices for the treatment of women who experience prenatal depression (PND). The authors first discuss issues in the screening and diagnosis of PND. Next, the 2 most common treatments, antidepressants and psychotherapy, are reviewed and discussed in relation to current…

  9. Electronic Communities of Practice: Guidelines from a Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kendall; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Norman, Cameron D.; Li, Linda C.; Olatunbosun, Tunde; Cressman, Celine; Nguyen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The timely incorporation of health research into the routine practice of individual health practitioners and interprofessional teams is a widely recognized and ongoing challenge. Health professional engagement and learning is an important cog in the wheel of knowledge translation; passive dissemination of evidence through journals and clinical…

  10. [Clinical practice guideline. Traumatic urethral stenosis in males].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Brambila, Eduardo Alonso; Moreno-Alcázar, Othón Martino; Neri-Páez, Edgar; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis Carlos; Hernández-Ordóñez, Octavio Francisco; Morales-Morales, Arturo; Basavilvazo-Rodríguez, M Antonia; Torres-Arreola, Laura del Pilar; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of urethral stenosis in Mexico had not been documented. At the Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, during the year 2010, 629 patients with urethral stenosis were attended as outpatient consultation: 85 % with previous urethral stenosis and 15 % with urethral treatment complication. Urethral stenosis is a chronic illness, with multiple etiological origins and the handling is controversial. It has a great negative impact for the patients and the recurrence reaches 85 %. The treatment consisted of an invasive approach (urethral dilations, endoscopy procedure) and open surgery (urethroplasty). The World Health Organization and World Alliance take the world challenge about the urinary tract infections associated with the attention of patients, focused on urethral stenosis. The objective of the following clinical guide is to offer to the health professional a clinical tool for making decisions in the handling of the hardship or masculine urethral stenosis, based on the best available evidence, carrying out in systematized form with bibliographical research using validated terms of the MeSH: urethral structures, in the databases Trip database, PubMed, Guideline Clearinghouse, Cochrane Library and Ovid.

  11. [Clinical practice guideline. Traumatic urethral stenosis in males].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Brambila, Eduardo Alonso; Moreno-Alcázar, Othón Martino; Neri-Páez, Edgar; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis Carlos; Hernández-Ordóñez, Octavio Francisco; Morales-Morales, Arturo; Basavilvazo-Rodríguez, M Antonia; Torres-Arreola, Laura del Pilar; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of urethral stenosis in Mexico had not been documented. At the Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, during the year 2010, 629 patients with urethral stenosis were attended as outpatient consultation: 85 % with previous urethral stenosis and 15 % with urethral treatment complication. Urethral stenosis is a chronic illness, with multiple etiological origins and the handling is controversial. It has a great negative impact for the patients and the recurrence reaches 85 %. The treatment consisted of an invasive approach (urethral dilations, endoscopy procedure) and open surgery (urethroplasty). The World Health Organization and World Alliance take the world challenge about the urinary tract infections associated with the attention of patients, focused on urethral stenosis. The objective of the following clinical guide is to offer to the health professional a clinical tool for making decisions in the handling of the hardship or masculine urethral stenosis, based on the best available evidence, carrying out in systematized form with bibliographical research using validated terms of the MeSH: urethral structures, in the databases Trip database, PubMed, Guideline Clearinghouse, Cochrane Library and Ovid. PMID:24021082

  12. Efficient methods and practical guidelines for simulating isotope effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Markland, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    The shift in chemical equilibria due to isotope substitution is frequently exploited to obtain insight into a wide variety of chemical and physical processes. It is a purely quantum mechanical effect, which can be computed exactly using simulations based on the path integral formalism. Here we discuss how these techniques can be made dramatically more efficient, and how they ultimately outperform quasi-harmonic approximations to treat quantum liquids not only in terms of accuracy, but also in terms of computational cost. To achieve this goal we introduce path integral quantum mechanics estimators based on free energy perturbation, which enable the evaluation of isotope effects using only a single path integral molecular dynamics trajectory of the naturally abundant isotope. We use as an example the calculation of the free energy change associated with H/D and 16O/18O substitutions in liquid water, and of the fractionation of those isotopes between the liquid and the vapor phase. In doing so, we demonstrate and discuss quantitatively the relative benefits of each approach, thereby providing a set of guidelines that should facilitate the choice of the most appropriate method in different, commonly encountered scenarios. The efficiency of the estimators we introduce and the analysis that we perform should in particular facilitate accurate ab initio calculation of isotope effects in condensed phase systems.

  13. Efficient methods and practical guidelines for simulating isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Ceriotti, Michele; Markland, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    The shift in chemical equilibria due to isotope substitution is frequently exploited to obtain insight into a wide variety of chemical and physical processes. It is a purely quantum mechanical effect, which can be computed exactly using simulations based on the path integral formalism. Here we discuss how these techniques can be made dramatically more efficient, and how they ultimately outperform quasi-harmonic approximations to treat quantum liquids not only in terms of accuracy, but also in terms of computational cost. To achieve this goal we introduce path integral quantum mechanics estimators based on free energy perturbation, which enable the evaluation of isotope effects using only a single path integral molecular dynamics trajectory of the naturally abundant isotope. We use as an example the calculation of the free energy change associated with H/D and (16)O/(18)O substitutions in liquid water, and of the fractionation of those isotopes between the liquid and the vapor phase. In doing so, we demonstrate and discuss quantitatively the relative benefits of each approach, thereby providing a set of guidelines that should facilitate the choice of the most appropriate method in different, commonly encountered scenarios. The efficiency of the estimators we introduce and the analysis that we perform should in particular facilitate accurate ab initio calculation of isotope effects in condensed phase systems. PMID:23298033

  14. A commentary on the 2015 Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines in glutamine supplementation to parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Leguina-Ruzzi, Alberto

    2016-01-08

    Glutamine is one of the conditionally essential free amino acids with multiple biological functions. Its supplementation to parenteral nutrition has been widely used for the management of complications in intensive care. However, controversial clinical reports have generated reluctance in the use of this pharmaco-nutrient. In this commentary, we address the impact of four studies that influenced the recommendations on glutamine supplementation by the Canadian Clinical Practice Guide 2015. Because of the importance of this guideline in clinical practice, we strongly believe that a more rigorous and critical evaluation is required to support recommendations in future guidelines.

  15. Prophylactic Antibiotic Guidelines in Modern Interventional Radiology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunice; Tam, Matthew D.B.S.; Kikano, Raghid N.; Karuppasamy, Karunakaravel

    2010-01-01

    Modern interventional radiology practice is continuously evolving. Developments include increases in the number of central venous catheter placements and tumor treatments (uterine fibroid therapy, radio- and chemoembolization of liver tumor, percutaneous radiofrequency and cryoablation), and new procedures such as abdominal aortic aneurysm stent-graft repair, vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, and varicose vein therapies. There have also been recent advancements in standard biliary and urinary drainage procedures, percutaneous gastrointestinal feeding tube placement, and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Prophylactic antibiotics have become the standard of care in many departments, with little clinical data to support its wide acceptance. The rise in antibiotic-resistant strains of organisms in all hospitals worldwide have forced every department to question the use of prophylactic antibiotics. The authors review the evidence behind use of prophylactic antibiotics in standard interventional radiology procedures, as well as in newer procedures that have only recently been incorporated into interventional radiology practice. PMID:22550374

  16. [Reflections on 20 years of clinical practice guideline programmes in Germany: what is their impact?].

    PubMed

    Nothacker, Monika; Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Ina B

    2014-01-01

    Following a recommendation of the National Advisory Council for the Concerted Action in Health Care, the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF) have promoted, supported and coordinated the development of clinical practice guidelines in Germany since 1995. The allocation of the responsibility for guideline development in the scientific societies corresponded to the principle of subsidiarity, in contrast to other countries counting on government-organised guideline programmes. To fulfil internationally consented criteria of high-quality guidelines, a quality improvement system was established relying on frequent assessments of the current state. Today, high-quality clinical practice guidelines developed by the scientific societies organised under the umbrella of the AWMF are an indispensable tool for various initiatives to improve healthcare in the German healthcare system. The next challenging goal is to establish a theory-driven framework allowing for a systematic implementation and evaluation of guidelines in Germany on the basis of existing approaches. However, success in this endeavour will require further research and funding.

  17. Approach to fever assessment in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowska, M.K.; Walker-Dilks, C.; Atzema, C.; Morris, A.; Gupta, R.; Halligan, R.; Kouroukis, T.; McCann, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background This guideline was prepared by the Fever Assessment Guideline Development Group, a group organized by the Program in Evidence-Based Care at the request of the Cancer Care Ontario Systemic Treatment Program. The mandate was to develop a standardized approach (in terms of definitions, information, and education) for the assessment of fever in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods The guideline development methods included a search for existing guidelines, literature searches in medline and embase for systematic reviews and primary studies, internal review by content and methodology experts, and external review by targeted experts and intended users. Results The search identified eight guidelines that had partial relevance to the topic of the present guideline and thirty-eight primary studies. The studies were mostly noncomparative prospective or retrospective studies. Few studies directly addressed the topic of fever except as one among many symptoms or adverse effects associated with chemotherapy. The recommendations concerning fever definition are supported mainly by other existing guidelines. No evidence was found that directly pertained to the assessment of fever before a diagnosis of febrile neutropenia was made. However, some studies evaluated approaches to symptom management that included fever among the symptoms. Few studies directly addressed information needs and resources for managing fever in cancer patients. Conclusions Fever in patients with cancer who are receiving systemic therapy is a common and potentially serious symptom that requires prompt assessment, but currently, evidence to inform best practices concerning when, where, and by whom that assessment is done is very limited. PMID:27536179

  18. What is the Asian Consensus Statement on NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN-ACS)?

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-04-01

    Cancer treatment guidelines are compiled on the basis of established evidence. Such evidence is obtained from epidemiological, pathological and pharmacological study and, most importantly of all, the information gained from clinical trials. However, very little of the kind of evidence that is required for the compilation of treatment guidelines is actually obtained from Asian countries. When one considers the ethnic differences and disparities in medical care, coupled with the tremendous cultural diversity that characterize the Asian region, it would be difficult to conclude that there is currently sufficient evidence that could form the basis for the formulation of guidelines that would be relevant and applicable to all Asian countries. An urgent issue that needs to be addressed in order to achieve a breakthrough in this difficult situation is to build up a body of evidence at an advanced level that is specific to the Asian region and Asian ethnicities. For the interim, however, it is also necessary to efficiently incorporate evidence that has been obtained in Western countries. Furthermore, an effective method of utilizing guidelines that have already been compiled in Western countries is considered to be not by simply translating them into local languages, but rather to engage in a process of adaptation, whereby the guidelines are adjusted or modified to match the circumstances of a particular country or region. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines-Asian Consensus Statement (NCCN-ACS) documents have been compiled with this intention in mind, utilizing the NCCN guidelines that are widely used internationally.

  19. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Companion: Bridging Guidelines to Your Practice.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Jonathan G; Chan, Michael; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Harkness, Karen; Heckman, George A; Kouz, Simon; Leblanc, Marie-Hélène; Moe, Gordon W; O'Meara, Eileen; Abrams, Howard; Ducharme, Anique; Grzeslo, Adam; Hamilton, Peter G; Koshman, Sheri L; Lepage, Serge; McDonald, Michael; McKelvie, Robert; Rajda, Miroslaw; Swiggum, Elizabeth; Virani, Sean; Zieroth, Shelley

    2016-03-01

    The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure (HF) Guidelines Program has generated annual HF updates, including formal recommendations and supporting Practical Tips since 2006. Many clinicians indicate they routinely use the Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF Guidelines in their daily practice. However, many questions surrounding the actual implementation of the Guidelines into their daily practice remain. A consensus-based approach was used, including feedback from the Primary and Secondary HF Panels. This companion is intended to answer several key questions brought forth by HF practitioners such as appropriate timelines for initial assessments and subsequent reassessments of patients, the order in which medications should be added, how newer medications should be included in treatment algorithms, and when left ventricular function should be reassessed. A new treatment algorithm for HF with reduced ejection fraction is included. Several other practical issues are addressed such as an approach to management of hyperkalemia/hypokalemia, treatment of gout, when medications can be stopped, and whether a target blood pressure or heart rate is suggested. Finally, elements and teaching of self-care are described. This tool will hopefully function to allow better integration of the HF Guidelines into clinical practice.

  20. Health Promotion Board–Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yung Seng; Biddle, Stuart; Chan, Mei Fen; Cheng, Anton; Cheong, Magdalin; Chong, Yap Seng; Foo, Ling Li; Lee, Chung Horn; Lim, Su Chi; Ong, Wee Sian; Pang, Jonathan; Pasupathy, Shanker; Sloan, Robert; Seow, Mollie; Soon, Grace; Tan, Benedict; Tan, Thiam Chye; Teo, Soo Lay; Tham, Kwang Wei; van Dam, Rob M; Wang, John

    2016-01-01

    The Health Promotion Board (HPB) has developed the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) on Obesity to provide health professionals in Singapore with recommendations for evidence-based interventions for obesity. This article summarises the introduction, epidemiology and executive summary of the key recommendations from the HPB-MOH CPG on Obesity for the information of SMJ readers. The chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Health Promotion Board website: http://www.hpb.gov.sg/cpg-obesity. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:27353244

  1. Reconciling pairs of concurrently used clinical practice guidelines using Constraint Logic Programming.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Martin; Michalowski, Wojtek; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Farion, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodological approach to reconciling adverse and contradictory activities (called points of contention) occurring when a patient is managed according to two or more concurrently used clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The need to address these inconsistencies occurs when a patient with more than one disease, each of which is a comorbid condition, has to be managed according to different treatment regimens. We propose an automatic procedure that constructs a mathematical guideline model using the Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) methodology, uses this model to identify and mitigate encountered points of contention, and revises the considered CPGs accordingly. The proposed procedure is used as an alerting mechanism and coupled with a guideline execution engine warns the physician about potential problems with the concurrent application of two or more guidelines. We illustrate the operation of our procedure in a clinical scenario describing simultaneous use of CPGs for duodenal ulcer and transient ischemic attack. PMID:22195153

  2. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Luks, Andrew M; McIntosh, Scott E; Grissom, Colin K; Auerbach, Paul S; Rodway, George W; Schoene, Robert B; Zafren, Ken; Hackett, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema. These guidelines present the main prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for each disorder and provide recommendations about their role in disease management. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested approaches to prevention and management of each disorder that incorporate these recommendations. This is an updated version of the original WMS Consensus Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Altitude Illness published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2010;21(2):146-155.

  3. Ethics and best practice guidelines for training experiences in global health.

    PubMed

    Crump, John A; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2010-12-01

    Academic global health programs are growing rapidly in scale and number. Students of many disciplines increasingly desire global health content in their curricula. Global health curricula often include field experiences that involve crossing international and socio-cultural borders. Although global health training experiences offer potential benefits to trainees and to sending institutions, these experiences are sometimes problematic and raise ethical challenges. The Working Group on Ethics Guidelines for Global Health Training (WEIGHT) developed a set of guidelines for institutions, trainees, and sponsors of field-based global health training on ethics and best practices in this setting. Because only limited data have been collected within the context of existing global health training, the guidelines were informed by the published literature and the experience of WEIGHT members. The Working Group on Ethics Guidelines for Global Health Training encourages efforts to develop and implement a means of assessing the potential benefits and harms of global health training programs. PMID:21118918

  4. Reconciling pairs of concurrently used clinical practice guidelines using Constraint Logic Programming.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Martin; Michalowski, Wojtek; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Farion, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodological approach to reconciling adverse and contradictory activities (called points of contention) occurring when a patient is managed according to two or more concurrently used clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The need to address these inconsistencies occurs when a patient with more than one disease, each of which is a comorbid condition, has to be managed according to different treatment regimens. We propose an automatic procedure that constructs a mathematical guideline model using the Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) methodology, uses this model to identify and mitigate encountered points of contention, and revises the considered CPGs accordingly. The proposed procedure is used as an alerting mechanism and coupled with a guideline execution engine warns the physician about potential problems with the concurrent application of two or more guidelines. We illustrate the operation of our procedure in a clinical scenario describing simultaneous use of CPGs for duodenal ulcer and transient ischemic attack.

  5. A critique of current practice: ten foundational guidelines for autoethnographers.

    PubMed

    Tolich, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Any research is potentially compromised when researchers address ethical issues retrospectively rather than by anticipating these issues. In this regard, creative analytical practices (CAP) autoethnography has endemic problems. In Part 1 of this article, I detail a case study of an autoethnography in which journal reviewers insisted that an author gain retrospective informed consent from the 23 persons documented in an autoethnography. Yet the journal reviewers' insistence failed to go one step further-acknowledging that a conflict of interest develops when gaining consent retrospectively. In Part 2, I contrast three leading autoethnographers' justifications for not gaining informed consent with the Position Statement on Qualitative Research developed by successive Congresses of Qualitative Inquiry. In Part 3, I identify resources available for autoethnographers, including ethical issues present when researchers use autoethnography to heal themselves, violating the internal confidentiality of relational others. In Part 4, I question if autoethnography is research and, like journalism, exempt from formal ethics review. Throughout the article, 10 foundational ethical considerations for autoethnographers are developed, taking autoethnographers beyond procedural ethics and providing tools for their ethics in practice. PMID:20660368

  6. A critique of current practice: ten foundational guidelines for autoethnographers.

    PubMed

    Tolich, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Any research is potentially compromised when researchers address ethical issues retrospectively rather than by anticipating these issues. In this regard, creative analytical practices (CAP) autoethnography has endemic problems. In Part 1 of this article, I detail a case study of an autoethnography in which journal reviewers insisted that an author gain retrospective informed consent from the 23 persons documented in an autoethnography. Yet the journal reviewers' insistence failed to go one step further-acknowledging that a conflict of interest develops when gaining consent retrospectively. In Part 2, I contrast three leading autoethnographers' justifications for not gaining informed consent with the Position Statement on Qualitative Research developed by successive Congresses of Qualitative Inquiry. In Part 3, I identify resources available for autoethnographers, including ethical issues present when researchers use autoethnography to heal themselves, violating the internal confidentiality of relational others. In Part 4, I question if autoethnography is research and, like journalism, exempt from formal ethics review. Throughout the article, 10 foundational ethical considerations for autoethnographers are developed, taking autoethnographers beyond procedural ethics and providing tools for their ethics in practice.

  7. KDOQI US commentary on the 2013 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Lipid Management in CKD.

    PubMed

    Sarnak, Mark J; Bloom, Roy; Muntner, Paul; Rahman, Mahboob; Saland, Jeffrey M; Wilson, Peter W F; Fried, Linda

    2015-03-01

    The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) guideline for management of dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) was published in 2003. Since then, considerable evidence, including randomized controlled trials of statin therapy in adults with CKD, has helped better define medical treatments for dyslipidemia. In light of the new evidence, KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) formed a work group for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with CKD. This work group developed a new guideline that contains substantial changes from the prior KDOQI guideline. KDIGO recommends treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with CKD primarily based on risk for coronary heart disease, which is driven in large part by age. The KDIGO guideline does not recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as a guide for identifying individuals with CKD to be treated or as treatment targets. Initiation of statin treatment is no longer recommended in dialysis patients. To assist US practitioners in interpreting and applying the KDIGO guideline, NKF-KDOQI convened a work group to write a commentary on this guideline. For the most part, our work group agreed with the recommendations of the KDIGO guideline, although we describe several areas in which we believe the guideline statements are either too strong or need to be more nuanced, areas of uncertainty and inconsistency, as well as additional research recommendations. The target audience for the KDIGO guideline includes nephrologists, primary care practitioners, and non-nephrology specialists such as cardiologists and endocrinologists. As such, we also put the current recommendations into the context of other clinical practice recommendations for cholesterol treatment.

  8. [Practice guideline 'Urinary incontinence in women' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners].

    PubMed

    Damen-van Beek, Z; Wiersma, Tj

    2016-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) practice guideline 'Urinary incontinence in women' provides guidelines for diagnosis and management of stress, urgency and mixed urinary incontinence in adult women.- General practitioners (GPs) should be alert to signals for urinary incontinence in women and offer active diagnosis and treatment if necessary.- Shared decision making is central in the guideline; the GP and the patient should discuss therapeutic options and decide on treatment policy in mutual consultation.- Women with stress urinary incontinence can choose between pelvic floor exercises or a pessary as initial treatment. Placing a midurethral sling (MUS) will be discussed if initial treatment is insufficiently effective or in the case of serious symptoms.- When bladder training is ineffective in urgency incontinence, the GP will discuss the pros and cons of adding an anticholinergic agent.- Exercise therapy can take place in the GPs practice or under supervision of a pelvic physical therapist. PMID:27484432

  9. Automated linkage of free-text descriptions of patients with a practice guideline.

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, L. A.; Tovar, M.

    1993-01-01

    The process of applying a practice guideline to a patient requires a great deal of clinical data. AAPT (Appropriateness-Assessment Processing from Text) is an experimental computer program that can assess the appropriateness of coronary-artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) in patients with coronary-artery disease (CAD) and chronic stable angina from the admission summaries of those patients. The AAPT architecture combines natural-language processing (NLP) and probabilistic inference. The NLP module identifies single clinical concepts of interest in the free-text document. The probabilistic inference module, a Bayesian belief network, estimates values for variables not specifically mentioned. AAPT produces a patient's summary of CAD that is similar to a manually generated clinical summary. Work is ongoing to improve AAPT and evaluate it as a tool to assist in the dissemination of guidelines and as a tool to encourage adherence to practice guidelines. PMID:8130477

  10. Representation of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Conventional and Augmented Decision Tables

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Richard N.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To develop a knowledge representation model for clinical practice guidelines that is linguistically adequate, comprehensible, reusable, and maintainable. Design: Decision tables provide the basic framework for the proposed knowledge representation model. Guideline logic is represented as rules in conventional decision tables. These tables are augmented by layers where collateral information is recorded in slots beneath the logic. Results: Decision tables organize rules into cohesive rule sets wherein complex logic is clarified. Decision table rule sets may be verified to assure completeness and consistency. Optimization and display of rule sets as sequential decision trees may enhance the comprehensibility of the logic. The modularity of the rule formats may facilitate maintenance. The augmentation layers provide links to descriptive language, information sources, decision variable characteristics, costs and expected values of policies, and evidence sources and quality. Conclusion: Augmented decision tables can serve as a unifying knowledge representation for developers and implementers of clinical practice guidelines. PMID:9292844

  11. [Methodology for the development and update of practice guidelines: current state].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Torres-Arreola, Laura Pilar; Dávila-Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The current scenario of health services in Mexico reveals as a priority the implementation of strategies that allow us to better respond to the needs and expectations of individuals and society as a whole, through the provision of efficient and effective alternatives for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this context, clinical practice guidelines constitute an element of management in the health care system, whose objective is to establish a national bechmark for encouraging clinical and management decision making, based on recommendations from the best available evidence, in order to contribute to the quality and effectiveness of health care. The purpose of this document is to show the methodology used for the development and updating of clinical practice guidelines that the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social has developed in line with the sectorial model in order to serve the user of these guidelines.

  12. Feeding Students in School: Providing Guidelines and Information on Safe Feeding Practices for Special Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sandra; And Others

    This manual provides guidelines for safe feeding practices for students with disabilities in Oregon schools. Stressed is the importance of distinguishing between feeding for the maintenance of health and feeding for the acquisition of skills. Individual sections cover: definitions of feeding programs; the school district responsibility; risks;…

  13. Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare: Screening, Assessment, and Treatment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Landsverk, John; Levitt, Jessica Mass; Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurley, Maia M.; Bellonci, Christopher; Gries, Leonard T.; Pecora, Peter J.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    The Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference focused on developing guidelines in five key areas (screening and assessment, psychosocial interventions, psychopharmacologic treatment, parent engagement, and youth empowerment) related to children's mental health. This paper provides an overview of issues related to the…

  14. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N=150 was…

  15. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N =150 was…

  16. A Critical Analysis of the INQAAHE Guidelines of Good Practice for Higher Education Quality Assurance Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmur, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    The International Network of Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education's Guidelines of Good Practice by higher education quality assurance agencies need substantial revision before they can be considered adequate by stakeholders in any national higher education system. Various revisions are proposed in this article. But the International…

  17. Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Provides psychologists with the rationale and needs for addressing multiculturalism and diversity in education, training, research, practice, and organizational change, along with basic information and relevant terminology to support these guidelines. Provides references for additional information and discusses paradigms that broaden the purview…

  18. Teacher Performance Pay: Synthesis of Plans, Research, and Guidelines for Practice. Policy Brief RB-46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneman III, Herbert G.; Milanowski, Anthony; Kimball, Steven

    2007-01-01

    This Policy Brief focuses on the nature and effectiveness of these plans. Generic descriptions of three types of plans are provided, followed by a synthesis of research results on their effectiveness. A set of guidelines for effective practice is then provided to help states and districts embarking on these forms of performance pay. The authors…

  19. Implementing practice guidelines for anxiety disorders in secondary mental health care: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen the large-scale development of clinical practice guidelines for mental disorders in several countries. In the Netherlands, more than ten multidisciplinary guidelines for mental health care have been developed since 2003. The first dealt with the treatment of anxiety disorders. An important question was whether it is feasible to implement these guidelines because implementing practice guidelines is often difficult. Although several implementation interventions have proven effective, there seems to be no ready-made strategy that works in all circumstances. Case description The Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for anxiety disorders were implemented in a community mental health care centre, located in the east of the Netherlands. The centre provides secondary outpatient care. The unit within the centre that specializes in the treatment of anxiety disorders has 16 team members with diverse professional backgrounds. Important steps in the process of implementing the guidelines were analysing the care provided before start of the implementation to determine the goals for improvement, and analysing the context and target group for implementation. Based on these analyses, a tailor-made multifaceted implementation strategy was developed that combined the reorganization of the care process, the development of instruction materials, the organization of educational meetings and the use of continuous quality circles to improve adherence to guidelines. Discussion and evaluation Significant improvements in adherence rates were made in the aspect of care that was targeted for change. An increase was found in the number of patients being provided with recommended forms of psychotherapeutic treatment, ranging from 43% to 54% (p < 0.01). The delivery of adequate pharmacological treatment was not explicitly targeted for change remained constant. Conclusion The case study presented here shows that the implementation of practice guidelines for

  20. Considerations on the Improved Integration of Medical Guidelines into Routine Clinical Practice – a Review and Concept Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, M. W.; Schlieter, H.; Richter, P.; Wesselmann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Medical guidelines have become established as the standard for the comprehensive synopsis of all available information (scientific trials, expert opinion) on diagnosis and treatment recommendations. The transfer of guidelines to clinical practice and subsequent monitoring has however proven difficult. In particular the potential interaction between guideline developers and guideline users has not been fully utilised. This review article analyses the status quo and existing methodological and technical information solutions supporting the guideline life cycle. It is shown that there are numerous innovative developments that in isolation do not provide comprehensive support. The vision of the “Living Guidelines 2.0” is therefore presented. This outlines the merging of guideline development and implementation on the basis of clinical pathways and guideline-based quality control, and building on this, the generation of information for guideline development and research. PMID:27134291

  1. Practical Guidelines: Lung Transplantation in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirche, T. O.; Knoop, C.; Hebestreit, H.; Shimmin, D.; Solé, A.; Elborn, J. S.; Ellemunter, H.; Aurora, P.; Hogardt, M.; Wagner, T. O. F.; ECORN-CF Study Group

    2014-01-01

    There are no European recommendations on issues specifically related to lung transplantation (LTX) in cystic fibrosis (CF). The main goal of this paper is to provide CF care team members with clinically relevant CF-specific information on all aspects of LTX, highlighting areas of consensus and controversy throughout Europe. Bilateral lung transplantation has been shown to be an important therapeutic option for end-stage CF pulmonary disease. Transplant function and patient survival after transplantation are better than in most other indications for this procedure. Attention though has to be paid to pretransplant morbidity, time for referral, evaluation, indication, and contraindication in children and in adults. This review makes extensive use of specific evidence in the field of lung transplantation in CF patients and addresses all issues of practical importance. The requirements of pre-, peri-, and postoperative management are discussed in detail including bridging to transplant and postoperative complications, immune suppression, chronic allograft dysfunction, infection, and malignancies being the most important. Among the contributors to this guiding information are 19 members of the ECORN-CF project and other experts. The document is endorsed by the European Cystic Fibrosis Society and sponsored by the Christiane Herzog Foundation. PMID:24800072

  2. Laboratory Medicine Best Practice Guideline: Vitamins A, E and the Carotenoids in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Ronda F; Woollard, Gerald A; Hoad, Kirsten E; Walmsley, Trevor A; Johnson, Lambro A; Briscoe, Scott; Koetsier, Sabrina; Harrower, Tamantha; Gill, Janice P

    2014-01-01

    Despite apparent method similarities between laboratories there appear to be confounding factors inhibiting uniform reporting and standardisation of vitamin assays. The Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB) Vitamins Working Party, in conjunction with The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs, has formulated a guideline to improve performance, reproducibility and accuracy of fat-soluble vitamin results. The aim of the guideline is to identify critical pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical components of the analysis of vitamins A, E and carotenoids in blood to promote best practice and harmonisation. This best practice guideline has been developed with reference to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) “Laboratory Medicine Best Practices: Developing an Evidence-Based Review and Evaluation Process”. The CDC document cites an evaluation framework for generating best practice recommendations that are specific to laboratory medicine. These 50 recommendations proposed herein, were generated from a comprehensive literature search and the extensive combined experience of the AACB Vitamins Working Party members. They were formulated based on comparison between an impact assessment rating and strength of evidence and were classified as either: (1) strongly recommend, (2) recommend, (3) no recommendation for or against, or (4) recommend against. These best practice recommendations represent the consensus views, in association with peer reviewed evidence of the AACB Vitamins Working Party, towards best practice for the collection, analysis and interpretation of vitamins A, E and carotenoids in blood. PMID:25210208

  3. Laboratory medicine best practice guideline: vitamins a, e and the carotenoids in blood.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Ronda F; Woollard, Gerald A; Hoad, Kirsten E; Walmsley, Trevor A; Johnson, Lambro A; Briscoe, Scott; Koetsier, Sabrina; Harrower, Tamantha; Gill, Janice P

    2014-05-01

    Despite apparent method similarities between laboratories there appear to be confounding factors inhibiting uniform reporting and standardisation of vitamin assays. The Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB) Vitamins Working Party, in conjunction with The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs, has formulated a guideline to improve performance, reproducibility and accuracy of fat-soluble vitamin results. The aim of the guideline is to identify critical pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical components of the analysis of vitamins A, E and carotenoids in blood to promote best practice and harmonisation. This best practice guideline has been developed with reference to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) "Laboratory Medicine Best Practices: Developing an Evidence-Based Review and Evaluation Process". The CDC document cites an evaluation framework for generating best practice recommendations that are specific to laboratory medicine. These 50 recommendations proposed herein, were generated from a comprehensive literature search and the extensive combined experience of the AACB Vitamins Working Party members. They were formulated based on comparison between an impact assessment rating and strength of evidence and were classified as either: (1) strongly recommend, (2) recommend, (3) no recommendation for or against, or (4) recommend against. These best practice recommendations represent the consensus views, in association with peer reviewed evidence of the AACB Vitamins Working Party, towards best practice for the collection, analysis and interpretation of vitamins A, E and carotenoids in blood. PMID:25210208

  4. A pan-Canadian practice guideline and algorithm: screening, assessment, and supportive care of adults with cancer-related fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Howell, D.; Keller–Olaman, S.; Oliver, T.K.; Hack, T.F.; Broadfield, L.; Biggs, K.; Chung, J.; Gravelle, D.; Green, E.; Hamel, M.; Harth, T.; Johnston, P.; McLeod, D.; Swinton, N.; Syme, A.; Olson, K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present systematic review was to develop a practice guideline to inform health care providers about screening, assessment, and effective management of cancer-related fatigue (crf) in adults. Methods The internationally endorsed adapte methodology was used to develop a practice guideline for pan-Canadian use. A systematic search of the literature identified a broad range of evidence: clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, and other guidance documents on the screening, assessment, and management of crf. The search included medline, embase, cinahl, the Cochrane Library, and other guideline and data sources to December 2009. Results Two clinical practice guidelines were identified for adaptation. Seven guidance documents and four systematic reviews also provided supplementary evidence to inform guideline recommendations. Health professionals across Canada provided expert feedback on the adapted recommendations in the practice guideline and algorithm through a participatory external review process. Conclusions Practice guidelines can facilitate the adoption of evidence-based assessment and interventions for adult cancer patients experiencing fatigue. Development of an algorithm to guide decision-making in practice may also foster the uptake of a guideline into routine care. PMID:23737693

  5. Report on activities and attitudes of organizations active in the clinical practice guidelines field.

    PubMed

    Carter, A O; Battista, R N; Hodge, M J; Lewis, S; Basinski, A; Davis, D

    1995-10-01

    The organizing committee of a workshop on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) surveyed invited organizations on their attitudes and activities related to five topics to be covered during the workshop sessions: organizational roles, priority setting, guidelines implementation, guidelines evaluation and development of a network of those active in the CPG field. Organizational roles: The national specialty societies were felt to have the largest role to play; the smallest roles were assigned to consumers, who were seen to have a role mainly in priority setting, and to industry and government, both of which were seen to have primarily a funding role. Many barriers to collaboration were identified, the solutions to all of which appeared to be better communication, establishment of common principles and clear role definitions. Priority setting: There was considerable agreement on the criteria that should be used to set priorities for CPG activities: the burden of disease on population health, the state of scientific knowledge, the cost of treatment and the economic burden of disease on society were seen as important factors, whereas the costs of guidelines development and practitioner interest in guidelines development were seen as less important. Organizations were unable to give much information on how they set priorities. Guidelines implementation: Most of the organizations surveyed did not actively try to ensure the implementation of guidelines, although a considerable minority devoted resources to implementation. The 38% of organizations that implemented guidelines actively listed a wide variety of activities, including training, use of local opinion leaders, information technology, local consensus processes and counter detailing. Guidelines evaluation: Formal evaluation of guidelines was undertaken by fewer than 13% of the responding organizations. All the evaluations incorporated assessments before and after guideline implementation, and some used primary patient

  6. Academic nursing education guidelines: tool for bridging the gap between theory, research and practice.

    PubMed

    Jerlock, Margaretha; Falk, Kristin; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop educational guidelines to be used as a tool for the integration of theory, research and practice to ensure that nursing knowledge and practical skills form the basis of academic nursing education. An additional aim was to describe the nursing competence expected of the students at four academic levels: introductory, intermediate and advanced levels I and II. Clinical nursing education plays a crucial role in assisting nursing students to integrate the theory and practice of nursing at the baccalaureate level, as well as in further specialization and in-depth nursing studies at the advanced level. A research group consisting of lecturers from the Institute of Nursing, Göteborg University, Sweden, was given the objective to formulate educational guidelines for clinical practice within nursing education. The study took the form of a literature search. In addition, the Delphi method, aimed at reaching a consensus of opinion among colleagues, was used. Based on the literature review and the collegial discussions, four core concepts emerged: professional stance, reflective processes, problem-solving processes, and practical skills, from which the educational guidelines were developed. Guidelines were formulated both in general and abstract form. They were not connected to a specific care context, specific patient group or specific nursing problems. The most important objective of academic education is that the student develops abilities and techniques necessary for life-long learning. Students will, in their professional life as nurses, continuously meet situations where they are challenged to take appropriate decisions and actions. This demands training in problem-solving, reflection, decision-making and the ability to use both deductive and inductive learning strategies. The guidelines describe what is expected of the students in terms of nursing competence and personal qualifications to ensure that they will be ready to

  7. AAPM Medical Physics Practice Guideline 5.a.: Commissioning and QA of Treatment Planning Dose Calculations - Megavoltage Photon and Electron Beams.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Jennifer B; Das, Indra J; Feygelman, Vladimir; Fraass, Benedick A; Kry, Stephen F; Marshall, Ingrid R; Mihailidis, Dimitris N; Ouhib, Zoubir; Ritter, Timothy; Snyder, Michael G; Fairobent, Lynne

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a nonprofit professional society whose primary purposes are to advance the science, education and professional practice of medical physics. The AAPM has more than 8,000 members and is the principal organization of medical physicists in the United States. The AAPM will periodically define new practice guidelines for medical physics practice to help advance the science of medical physics and to improve the quality of service to patients throughout the United States. Existing medical physics practice guidelines will be reviewed for the purpose of revision or renewal, as appropriate, on their fifth anniversary or sooner. Each medical physics practice guideline represents a policy statement by the AAPM, has undergone a thorough consensus process in which it has been subjected to extensive review, and requires the approval of the Professional Council. The medical physics practice guidelines recognize that the safe and effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology requires specific training, skills, and techniques, as described in each document. Reproduction or modification of the published practice guidelines and technical standards by those entities not providing these services is not authorized. The following terms are used in the AAPM practice guidelines:• Must and Must Not: Used to indicate that adherence to the recommendation is considered necessary to conform to this practice guideline.• Should and Should Not: Used to indicate a prudent practice to which exceptions may occasionally be made in appropriate circumstances.

  8. Guideline to good practices for types of maintenance activities at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the Guideline to Good Practices for Types of Maintenance at DOE Nuclear Facilities is to provide contractor maintenance organizations with information that may be used for the development and implementation of a properly balanced corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance program at DOE nuclear facilities. This document is intended to be an example guideline for the implementation of DOE Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter II, Element 4. DOE contractors should not feel obligated to adopt all parts of this guide. Rather, they should use the information contained herein as a guide for developing maintenance programs that are applicable to their facility.

  9. Reconciling the clinical practice guidelines on Bell's palsy from the AAO-HNSF and the AAN.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth R; Jones, Stephanie L; Getchius, Thomas S D; Gronseth, Gary S

    2014-05-01

    Bell's palsy, named after the Scottish anatomist, Sir Charles Bell, is the most common acute mononeuropathy, or disorder affecting a single nerve, and is the most common diagnosis associated with facial nerve weakness/paralysis. In the past 2 years, both the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) have published clinical practice guidelines aimed to improve the quality of care and outcomes for patients diagnosed with Bell's palsy. This commentary aims to address the similarities and differences in the scope and final recommendations made by each guideline development group.

  10. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for basic wound management in the austere environment.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert H; Wedmore, Ian; Johnson, Eric; Islas, Arthur; Anglim, Anne; Zafren, Ken; Bitter, Cindy; Mazzorana, Vicki

    2014-09-01

    In an effort to produce best-practice guidelines for wound management in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for the management of wounds sustained in an austere (dangerous or compromised) environment. Recommendations are made about several parameters related to wound management. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each parameter according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians.

  11. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Grant S; Eifling, Kurt P; Ellis, Mark A; Gaudio, Flavio G; Otten, Edward M; Grissom, Colin K

    2013-12-01

    The Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the recognition, prevention, and treatment of heat-related illness. We present a review of the classifications, pathophysiology, and evidence-based guidelines for planning and preventive measures as well as best-practice recommendations for both field- and hospital-based therapeutic management of heat-related illness. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality.

  12. Practice guidelines for ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation for hepatic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ping; Yu, Jie; Lu, Ming-De; Dong, Bao-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Hu, Bing; Xie, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Wen; He, Wen; Jia, Jian-Wen; Lu, Guo-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Primary liver cancer and liver metastases are among the most frequent malignancies worldwide, with an increasing number of new cases and deaths every year. Traditional surgery is only suitable for a limited proportion of patients and imaging-guided percutaneous thermal ablation has achieved optimistic results for management of hepatic malignancy. This synopsis outlines the first clinical practice guidelines for ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation therapy for hepatic malignancy, which was created by a joint task force of the Society of Chinese Interventional Ultrasound. The guidelines aim at standardizing the microwave ablation procedure and therapeutic efficacy assessment, as well as proposing the criteria for the treatment candidates. PMID:24023485

  13. Reconciling the clinical practice guidelines on Bell's palsy from the AAO-HNSF and the AAN.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth R; Jones, Stephanie L; Getchius, Thomas S D; Gronseth, Gary S

    2014-05-27

    Bell palsy, named after the Scottish anatomist Sir Charles Bell, is the most common acute mononeuropathy, or disorder affecting a single nerve, and is the most common diagnosis associated with facial nerve weakness/paralysis. In the past 2 years, both the American Academy of Neurology and the Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation have published clinical practice guidelines aimed at improving the quality of care and outcomes for patients diagnosed with Bell palsy. This commentary aims to address the similarities and differences in the scope and final recommendations made by each guideline development group. PMID:24793182

  14. EMQN best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH)

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Graça; Brissot, Pierre; Swinkels, Dorine W; Zoller, Heinz; Kamarainen, Outi; Patton, Simon; Alonso, Isabel; Morris, Michael; Keeney, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic testing for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is recognized as a reference test to confirm the diagnosis of suspected HH or to predict its risk. The vast majority (typically >90%) of patients with clinically characterized HH are homozygous for the p.C282Y variant in the HFE gene, referred to as HFE-related HH. Since 1996, HFE genotyping was implemented in diagnostic algorithms for suspected HH, allowing its early diagnosis and prevention. However, the penetrance of disease in p.C282Y homozygotes is incomplete. Hence, homozygosity for p.C282Y is not sufficient to diagnose HH. Neither is p.C282Y homozygosity required for diagnosis as other rare forms of HH exist, generally referred to as non-HFE-related HH. These pose significant challenges when defining criteria for referral, testing protocols, interpretation of test results and reporting practices. We present best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic diagnosis of HH where recommendations are classified, as far as possible, according to the level and strength of evidence. For clarification, the guidelines' recommendations are preceded by a detailed description of the methodology and results obtained with a series of actions taken in order to achieve a wide expert consensus, namely: (i) a survey on the current practices followed by laboratories offering molecular diagnosis of HH; (ii) a systematic literature search focused on some identified controversial topics; (iii) an expert Best Practice Workshop convened to achieve consensus on the practical recommendations included in the guidelines. PMID:26153218

  15. Sustainability of professionals’ adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ament, Stephanie M C; de Groot, Jeanny J A; Maessen, José M C; Dirksen, Carmen D; van der Weijden, Trudy; Kleijnen, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate (1) the state of the art in sustainability research and (2) the outcomes of professionals’ adherence to guideline recommendations in medical practice. Design Systematic review. Data sources Searches were conducted until August 2015 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Guidelines International Network (GIN) library. A snowball strategy, in which reference sections of other reviews and of included papers were searched, was used to identify additional papers. Eligibility criteria Studies needed to be focused on sustainability and on professionals’ adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care. Studies had to include at least 2 measurements: 1 before (PRE) or immediately after implementation (EARLY POST) and 1 measurement longer than 1 year after active implementation (LATE POST). Results The search retrieved 4219 items, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving 18 sustainability evaluations. The mean timeframe between the end of active implementation and the sustainability evaluation was 2.6 years (minimum 1.5–maximum 7.0). The studies were heterogeneous with respect to their methodology. Sustainability was considered to be successful if performance in terms of professionals’ adherence was fully maintained in the late postimplementation phase. Long-term sustainability of professionals’ adherence was reported in 7 out of 18 evaluations, adherence was not sustained in 6 evaluations, 4 evaluations showed mixed sustainability results and in 1 evaluation it was unclear whether the professional adherence was sustained. Conclusions (2) Professionals’ adherence to a clinical practice guideline in medical care decreased after more than 1 year after implementation in about half of the cases. (1) Owing to the limited number of studies, the absence of a uniform definition, the high risk of bias, and the mixed results of studies, no firm conclusion about the

  16. Wiki-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adult Onset Sarcoma: A New Paradigm in Sarcoma Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, S. J.; Thomas, D.; Desai, J.; Vuletich, C.; von Dincklage, J.; Olver, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Australia introduced Wiki-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adult Onset Sarcoma. These guidelines utilized a customized MediaWiki software application for guideline development and are the first evidence-based guidelines for clinical management of sarcoma. This paper presents our experience with developing and implementing web-based interactive guidelines and reviews some of the challenges and lessons from adopting an evidence-based (rather than consensus-based) approach to clinical sarcoma guidelines. Digital guidelines can be easily updated with new evidence, continuously reviewed and widely disseminated. They provide an accessible method of enabling clinicians and consumers to access evidence-based clinical practice recommendations and, as evidenced by over 2000 views in the first four months after release, with 49% of those visits being from countries outside of Australia. The lessons learned have relevance to other rare cancers in addition to the international sarcoma community. PMID:25784832

  17. Academy of Medicine-Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Assessment and Management of Infertility at Primary Healthcare Level

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Seong Feei; Agarwal, Rachna; Chan, Jerry; Chia, Sing Joo; Cho, Li Wei; Lim, Lean Huat; Lau, Matthew Sie Kuei; Loh, Sheila Kia Ee; Hendricks, Marianne Sybille; Nair, Suresh; Quah, Joanne Hui Min; Tan, Heng Hao; Wong, PC; Yeong, Cheng Toh; Yu, Su Ling

    2014-01-01

    The Academy of Medicine (AMS) and Ministry of Health (MOH) have developed the clinical practice guidelines on Assessment and Management of Infertility at Primary Healthcare Level to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for infertility. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the AMS-MOH clinical practice guidelines on Assessment and Management of Infertility at Primary Healthcare Level, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_ medical/2013/cpgmed_infertility.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:24570313

  18. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines on anaemia management in chronic kidney disease: a European Renal Best Practice position statement.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Francesco; Bárány, Peter; Covic, Adrian; De Francisco, Angel; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Goldsmith, David; Hörl, Walter; London, Gerard; Vanholder, Raymond; Van Biesen, Wim

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group has produced comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for the management of anaemia in CKD patients. These guidelines addressed all of the important points related to anaemia management in CKD patients, including therapy with erythropoieis stimulating agents (ESA), iron therapy, ESA resistance and blood transfusion use. Because most guidelines were 'soft' rather than 'strong', and because global guidelines need to be adapted and implemented into the regional context where they are used, on behalf of the European Renal Best Practice Advisory Board some of its members, and other external experts in this field, who were not participants in the KDIGO guidelines group, were invited to participate in this anaemia working group to examine and comment on the KDIGO documents in this position paper. In this article, the group concentrated only on those guidelines which we considered worth amending or adapting. All guidelines not specifically mentioned are fully endorsed.

  19. Academy of Medicine-Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: assessment and management of infertility at primary healthcare level.

    PubMed

    Loh, Seong Feei; Agarwal, Rachna; Chan, Jerry K; Chia, Sing Joo; Cho, Li Wei; Lim, Lean Huat; Lau, Matthew Sie Kuei; Loh, Sheila Kia Ee; Hendricks, Marianne Sybille; Nair, Suresh; Quah, Joanne Hui Min; Tan, Heng Hao; Wong, P C; Yeong, Cheng Toh; Yu, Su Ling

    2014-02-01

    The Academy of Medicine (AMS) and Ministry of Health (MOH) have developed the clinical practice guidelines on Assessment and Management of Infertility at Primary Healthcare Level to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for infertility. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the AMS-MOH clinical practice guidelines on Assessment and Management of Infertility at Primary Healthcare Level, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical/2013/cpgmed_infertility.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.

  20. Thou shalt versus thou shalt not: a meta-synthesis of GPs' attitudes to clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire; Pope, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Background GPs' adherence to clinical practice guidelines is variable. Barriers to guideline implementation have been identified but qualitative studies have not been synthesised to explore what underpins these attitudes. Aim To explore and synthesise qualitative research on GPs' attitudes to and experiences with clinical practice guidelines. Design of study Systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. Method PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Social Science Citation Index, and Science Citation Index were used as data sources, and independent data extraction was carried out. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Initial thematic analysis was conducted, followed by interpretative synthesis. Results Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Five were excluded following quality appraisal. Twelve papers were synthesised which reported research in the UK, US, Canada, and the Netherlands, and covered different clinical guideline topics. Six themes were identified: questioning the guidelines, GPs' experience, preserving the doctor–patient relationship, professional responsibility, practical issues, and guideline format. Comparative analysis and synthesis revealed that GPs' reasons for not following guidelines differed according to whether the guideline in question was prescriptive, in that it encouraged a certain type of behaviour or treatment, or proscriptive, in that it discouraged certain treatments or behaviours. Conclusion Previous analyses of guidelines have focused on professional attitudes and organisational barriers to adherence. This synthesis suggests that the purpose of the guideline, whether its aims are prescriptive or proscriptive, may influence if and how guidelines are received and implemented. PMID:18252073

  1. Management of hepatitis B: our practice and how it relates to the guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yapali, Suna; Talaat, Nizar; Lok, Anna S

    2014-01-01

    Seven drugs have been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Antiviral treatment has been shown to be effective in suppressing hepatitis B virus replication, decreasing inflammation and fibrosis in the liver, and preventing progression of liver disease. However, current medications do not eradicate hepatitis B virus; therefore, a key question is which patients need to start treatment and which patients can be monitored. Professional societies have developed guidelines to assist physicians in recognition, diagnosis, and optimal management of patients with chronic hepatitis B. These guidelines suggest preferred approaches, and physicians are expected to exercise clinical judgment to determine the most appropriate management based on the circumstances of the individual patient. This article reviews recommendations in hepatitis B guidelines and the basis for those recommendations, and we discuss what we do in our practice to illustrate factors that may influence decisions regarding hepatitis B management. PMID:23660419

  2. An interdisciplinary guideline development process: the Clinic on Low-back pain in Interdisciplinary Practice (CLIP) low-back pain guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Michel; Poitras, Stéphane; Dionne, Clermont; Tousignant, Michel; Truchon, Manon; Arsenault, Bertrand; Allard, Pierre; Coté, Manon; Neveu, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Background Evaluation of low-back pain guidelines using Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria has shown weaknesses, particularly in stakeholder involvement and applicability of recommendations. The objectives of this project were to: 1) develop a primary care interdisciplinary clinical practice guideline aimed at preventing prolonged disability from low-back pain, using a community of practice approach, and 2) assess the participants' impressions with the process, and evaluate the relationship between participant characteristics and their participation. Methods Ten stakeholder representatives recruited 136 clinicians to participate in this community of practice. Clinicians were drawn from the following professions: physiotherapists (46%), occupational therapists (37%), and family physicians (17%). Using previously published guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, a first draft of the guidelines was presented to the community of practice. Four communication tools were provided for discussion and exchanges with experts: a web-based discussion forum, an anonymous comment form, meetings, and a symposium. Participants were prompted for comments on interpretation, clarity, and applicability of the recommendations. Clinical management recommendations were revised following these exchanges. At the end of the project, a questionnaire was sent to the participants to assess satisfaction towards the guidelines and the development process. Results Twelve clinical management recommendations on management of low-back pain and persistent disability were initially developed. These were discussed through 188 comments posted on the discussion forum and 103 commentary forms submitted. All recommendations were modified following input of the participants. A clinical algorithm summarizing the guidelines was also developed. A response rate of 75% was obtained for the satisfaction questionnaire. The majority of respondents appreciated the development

  3. Developing clinical practice guidelines: types of evidence and outcomes; values and economics, synthesis, grading, and presentation and deriving recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve healthcare. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearinghouses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this second paper, we discuss issues of identifying and synthesizing evidence: deciding what type of evidence and outcomes to include in guidelines; integrating values into a guideline; incorporating economic considerations; synthesis, grading, and presentation of evidence; and moving from evidence to recommendations. PMID:22762158

  4. Clinical practice guidelines for chronic non-malignant pain syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Sanders, S H; Rucker, K S; Anderson, K O; Harden, R N; Jackson, K W; Vicente, P J; Gallagher, R M

    1995-01-01

    The current paper provides specific guidelines for treating chronic non-malignant pain syndrome patients. The guidelines were developed from an extensive review of existing literature on practice guidelines, the research literature, and common clinical practice across major pain treatment facilities in the USA. They are intended for application to all chronic pain syndrome patients (other than cancer pain) regardless of specific site or etiology of pain. They advocate goal directed treatment to reduce medication misuse and invasive medical procedures, maximize and maintain physical activity, return to productive activity, increase the patient's ability to manage pain, reduce subjective pain intensity, reduce or eliminate the use of healthcare services for primary pain complaint, provide useful information for case settlement, and minimize treatment cost without sacrificing quality. The guidelines recommend interdisciplinary integrated evaluation and treatment on a time limit basis with a focus on conservative medical, psychological behavioral, physical, and vocational interventions based upon the patient's needs. There is emphasis on increasing the patient's level of function and ability to manage pain and related problems. Outpatient care is strongly recommended, with specific upper limits regarding treatment intensity and the use of trigger point injections and nerve blocks delineated. The guidelines also recommend that the long term use of opioid or sedative-hypnotic medications, surgery, implantable spinal devices, or brain stimulation techniques be avoided with chronic pain syndrome patients. These guidelines are intended to serve as a starting point to effectively extend and complement those released by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research for other types of pain problems such as cancer and acute low back pain. PMID:24572192

  5. Impact of practice guidelines on support surface selection, incidence of pressure ulcers, and fiscal dollars.

    PubMed

    Dukich, J; O'Connor, D

    2001-03-01

    Predicated on a need to control overall hospital costs and to integrate a Level 1 trauma center (Campus A) with a family practice based tertiary care hospital system (Campus B), expenditures associated with rental support surfaces were evaluated. Consistency and appropriateness of support surface selection is necessary to promote positive clinical outcomes, patient comfort, and a healthier bottom line, despite increasing costs. Clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic support surfaces were developed to decrease support surface expenditures and maintain prevalence rates below national averages. Utilizing the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research algorithm for managing tissue loads, along with other guidelines, criteria for prevention, comfort, and treatment were developed to assist nurses and physicians in support surface selections. A prevalence study was conducted before these criteria were implemented and repeated 1 year later. Expenditures for all rental support surfaces were assessed quarterly. Campus A, with a history of higher financial expenditures, was monitored weekly to assess whether support surfaces selections met guideline recommendations. Nursing staff reviewed hospital protocol regarding guidelines before implementation, and a self-administered review test was required during the first year post-implementation. One year later, a modest decrease in annual expenditures for rental support surfaces was noted. Campus A had a decrease in nosocomial pressure ulcers, while Campus B had an increased prevalence rate. Staff selection of support surfaces, within guideline recommendations, improved to 75% on medical/surgical units, and 98.8% in ICUs on Campus A. Although implementing support surface selection guidelines did not result in a significant reduction in cost, it created a framework for monitoring future related decisions. PMID:11889749

  6. How equity is addressed in clinical practice guidelines: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chunhu; Tian, Jinhui; Wang, Quan; Petkovic, Jennifer; Ren, Dan; Yang, Kehu; Yang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Considering equity into guidelines presents methodological challenges. This study aims to qualitatively synthesise the methods for incorporating equity in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Setting Content analysis of methodological publications. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Methodological publications were included if they provided checklists/frameworks on when, how and to what extent equity should be incorporated in CPGs. Data sources We electronically searched MEDLINE, retrieved references, and browsed guideline development organisation websites from inception to January 2013. After study selection by two authors, general characteristics and checklists items/framework components from included studies were extracted. Based on the questions or items from checklists/frameworks (unit of analysis), content analysis was conducted to identify themes and questions/items were grouped into these themes. Primary outcomes The primary outcomes were methodological themes and processes on how to address equity issues in guideline development. Results 8 studies with 10 publications were included from 3405 citations. In total, a list of 87 questions/items was generated from 17 checklists/frameworks. After content analysis, questions were grouped into eight themes (‘scoping questions’, ‘searching relevant evidence’, ‘appraising evidence and recommendations’, ‘formulating recommendations’, ‘monitoring implementation’, ‘providing a flow chart to include equity in CPGs’, and ‘others: reporting of guidelines and comments from stakeholders’ for CPG developers and ‘assessing the quality of CPGs’ for CPG users). Four included studies covered more than five of these themes. We also summarised the process of guideline development based on the themes mentioned above. Conclusions For disadvantaged population-specific CPGs, eight important methodological issues identified in this review should be considered when including equity in

  7. Management of common gastrointestinal disorders: quality criteria based on patients' views and practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Roger; Hunt, Claire; Stevens, Richard; Dalrymple, Jamie; Driscoll, Richard; Sleet, Sarah; Smith, Jonathan Blanchard

    2009-01-01

    Background Although gastrointestinal disorders are common in general practice, clinical guidelines are not always implemented, and few patient-generated quality criteria are available to guide management. Aim To develop quality criteria for the management of four common gastrointestinal disorders: coeliac disease, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Design of study Qualitative study including thematic analysis of transcripts from patient focus groups and content analysis of published clinical practice guidelines. Emergent themes were synthesised by a consensus panel, into quality criteria for each condition. Setting Community-based practice in England, UK. Methods Fourteen focus groups were conducted (four for coeliac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease, and two for GORD) involving a total of 93 patients (64 females, 29 males; mean age 55.4 years). Quality criteria were based on patients' views and expectations, synthesised with an analysis of clinical practice guidelines. Results A chronic disease management model was developed for each condition. Key themes included improving the timeliness and accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate use of investigations, better provision of information for patients, including access to patient organisations, better communication with, and access to, secondary care providers, and structured follow-up and regular review, particularly for coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusion This study provides a model for the development of quality markers for chronic disease management in gastroenterology, which is likely to be applicable to other chronic conditions. PMID:19520018

  8. Quality Assessment of Clinical Practice Guidelines Developed by Professional Societies in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yaşar, Ilknur; Kahveci, Rabia; Baydar Artantaş, Aylin; Ayhan Başer, Duygu; Gökşin Cihan, Fatma; Şencan, Irfan; Koç, Esra Meltem; Özkara, Adem

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate healthcare for specific clinical circumstances. There is a limited number of studies on guidelines in Turkey. The quality of Ministry of Health guidelines have formerly been assessed whereas there is no information on the other guidelines developed in the country. Aim This study aims to assess the quality of CPGs that are developed by professional societies that work for the health sector in Turkey, and compare the findings with international guidelines. Methodology Professional societies that work for the health sector were determined by using the data obtained from the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined for selecting the CPGs. Guidelines containing recommendations about disease management to the doctors, accessible online, developed within the past 5 years, citing references for recommendations, about the diseases over 1% prevalence according to the “Statistical Yearbook of Turkey 2012” were included in the study. The quality of CPGs were assessed with the AGREE II instrument, which is an internationally recognized tool for this purpose. Four independent reviewers, who did not participate in the development of the selected guidelines and were trained in CPG appraisal, used the AGREE instrument for assessment of the selected guidelines. Findings 47 professional societies were defined which provided access to CPGs in their websites; 3 of them were only open to members so these could not be reached. 8 CPGs from 7 societies were selected from a total of 401 CPGs from 44 societies. The mean scores of the domains of the guidelines which were assessed by the AGREE II tool were; Scope and purpose: 64%, stakeholder involvement: 37.9%, rigour of development: 35.3%, clarity and presentation: 77.9%, applicability: 49.0% and editorial independence: 46.0%. Conclusion This is the first

  9. Durability of Class I American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Clinical Practice Guideline Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Mark D.; Goldstein, Jennifer N.; Cirullo, Michael A.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Little is known regarding the durability of clinical practice guideline recommendations over time. OBJECTIVE To characterize variations in the durability of class I (“procedure/treatment should be performed/administered”) American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline recommendations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Textual analysis by 4 independent reviewers of 11 guidelines published between 1998 and 2007 and revised between 2006 and 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We abstracted all class I recommendations from the first of the 2 most recent versions of each guideline and identified corresponding recommendations in the subsequent version. We classified recommendations replaced by less determinate or contrary recommendations as having been downgraded or reversed; we classified recommendations for which no corresponding item could be identified as having been omitted. We tested for differences in the durability of recommendations according to guideline topic and underlying level of evidence using bivariable hypothesis tests and conditional logistic regression. RESULTS Of 619 index recommendations, 495 (80.0%; 95%CI, 76.6%–83.1%) were retained in the subsequent guideline version, 57 (9.2%; 95%CI, 7.0%–11.8%) were downgraded or reversed, and 67 (10.8%; 95%CI, 8.4%–13.3%) were omitted. The percentage of recommendations retained varied across guidelines from 15.4%(95%CI, 1.9%–45.4%) to 94.1%(95%CI, 80.3%–99.3%; P < .001). Among recommendations with available information on level of evidence, 90.5%(95%CI, 83.2%–95.3%) of recommendations supported by multiple randomized studies were retained, vs 81.0% (95%CI, 74.8%–86.3%) of recommendations supported by 1 randomized trial or observational data and 73.7%(95% CI, 65.8%–80.5%) of recommendations supported by opinion (P = .001). After accounting for guideline-level factors, the probability of being downgraded, reversed, or omitted was greater for

  10. Report on the RCDS-CDHSRU workshop on developing clinical guidelines/standards of practice.

    PubMed

    Leake, J L; Main, P A; Woodward, G L

    1996-07-01

    Investigators from the Community Dental Health Services Research Unit (CDHSRU) held a workshop to test a model for developing clinical guidelines/standards of practice, which are required under the Regulated Health Professions Legislation. Forty-two individuals from Ontario and Canada, including dentists, representatives of the public, and professionals, participated in the three-day workshop, held under the auspices of the quality assurance committee of the Royal College of Dental Surgeons of Ontario (RCDS). Through direct experience, workshop participants sought to learn each of the steps, as defined by the literature, involved in clinical guideline development. Ultimately, they hoped to recommend steps for RCDS to follow in developing standards of practice. To ensure that a realistic and valid model emerged from the workshop, a real topic, namely the management of smooth surface enamel lesions in permanent teeth, was used to develop and test clinical guidelines. Prior to the workshop, participants were sent literature on one of five aspects of the topic, as well as papers describing the methodology of critically appraising the literature, and partially-completed templates outlining the basic steps to be followed. During the first evening and first morning of the workshop, participants listened to presentations on the development of clinical guidelines, the prevalence of smooth surface lesions, the role of economics in guideline development, and the necessary considerations in writing clinical guidelines. Under the leadership of trained facilitators, they then worked in small groups to write evidence-based recommendations and report them to the other workshop participants for feedback. Using this feedback, they returned to their groups to revise their recommendations and work on the workshop's overall recommendations to the RCDS. The day concluded in the evening, when the workshop facilitators and coordinators met to edit the groups' recommendations into a

  11. Review of Select Practice Parameters, Evidence-Based Treatment Algorithms, and International Guidelines for Hereditary Angioedema.

    PubMed

    Jose, Jaison; Zacharias, Jamie; Craig, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare bradykinin-mediated disease that is characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal edema, which can be life threatening. HAE affects all ethnic groups equally and does not differentiate between age, sex, or race. However, the availability of therapies varies amongst countries resulting in a lack of uniformity of care. Not only is there a disparity of medication availability, but since HAE is a rare disease, it is frequently overlooked and the diagnosis is missed. Even with diagnosis, treatment and management is often less than optimal. For these reasons, it is essential to have practice parameters and guidelines. In this chapter, we focus on recent guidelines. These guidelines deal with recognition, diagnosis, medical care, patient management, and assessment, all which are essential to provide optimal care to people with a rare and orphan disease. The intent of the guidelines, and thus this chapter, is to reduce morbidity and mortality, and restore a normal quality of life for the patient with HAE. We will review the guidelines from various regions of the world as well as international group recommendations. In addition, specific patient populations such as the pregnant, elderly, and juvenile require modified treatment regimens, and for this reason, we have included these data as well. The intent of this chapter is to aid the practitioner in holistic care of the patient with HAE in order to ultimately provide the best standard of care possible.

  12. Not of One Mind: Mental Models of Clinical Practice Guidelines in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Moore, Frank I

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to present differences in mental models of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) among 15 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities throughout the United States. Data Sources Two hundred and forty-four employees from 15 different VHA facilities across four service networks around the country were invited to participate. Participants were selected from different levels throughout each service setting from primary care personnel to facility leadership. Study Design This qualitative study used purposive sampling, a semistructured interview process for data collection, and grounded theory techniques for analysis. Data Collection A semistructured interview was used to collect information on participants' mental models of CPGs, as well as implementation strategies and barriers in their facility. Findings Analysis of these interviews using grounded theory techniques indicated that there was wide variability in employees' mental models of CPGs. Findings also indicated that high-performing facilities exhibited both (a) a clear, focused shared mental model of guidelines and (b) a tendency to use performance feedback as a learning opportunity, thus suggesting that a shared mental model is a necessary but not sufficient step toward successful guideline implementation. Conclusions We conclude that a clear shared mental model of guidelines, in combination with a learning orientation toward feedback are important components for successful guideline implementation and improved quality of care. PMID:15960693

  13. The significance of clinical practice guidelines on adult varicocele detection and management

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Anand; Owen, Ryan C; Elkelany, Osama O; Kim, Edward D

    2016-01-01

    Varicoceles are the most common correctable etiology of male factor infertility. However, the detection and management of varicoceles have not been standardized. This has led to decades of debate regarding the effect of varicocele on male infertility and subsequently whether repair leads to an improved fertility status. The current body of evidence investigating the role of varicocele and varicocelectomy is weak and conflicting. The stance taken by the AUA and ASRM suggests that there is insufficient outcomes data to support evidenced-based guidelines, citing evidence used to provide current recommendations are generally of a low quality level. On the other hand, the EAU Guidelines give a level 1a of evidence for management of varicoceles that are clinically palpable, associated with subnormal semen analyses and having otherwise unexplained fertility. Besides aiding with clinical varicocele detection and management, clinical practice opinion statements and guidelines aim to direct and strengthen the infrastructure of future studies. We review the current status of opinion statements and guidelines in varicocele and management detection with focus on their application in practice. PMID:26806081

  14. Practice guidelines for the molecular analysis of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are clinically distinct neurodevelopmental genetic disorders that map to 15q11-q13. The primary phenotypes are attributable to loss of expression of imprinted genes within this region which can arise by means of a number of mechanisms. The most sensitive single approach to diagnosing both PWS and AS is to study methylation patterns within 15q11-q13; however many techniques exist for this purpose. Given the diversity of techniques available, there is a need for consensus testing and reporting guidelines. Methods Testing and reporting guidelines have been drawn up and agreed in accordance with the procedures of the UK Clinical Molecular Genetics Society and the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network. Results A practical set of molecular genetic testing and reporting guidelines has been developed for these two disorders. In addition, advice is given on appropriate reporting policies, including advice on test sensitivity and recurrence risks. In considering test sensitivity, the possibility of differential diagnoses is discussed. Conclusion An agreed set of practice guidelines has been developed for the diagnostic molecular genetic testing of PWS and AS. PMID:20459762

  15. An Evaluation of Web-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Managing Problems Associated with Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Michael W; Rooke, Sally E; Langton, Julia M; Gates, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, and multiple treatment options and avenues exist for managing its use. There has been an increase in the development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to improve standards of care in this area, many of which are disseminated online. However, little is known about the quality and accessibility of these online CPGs. Objective The purpose of study 1 was to determine the extent to which cannabis-related CPGs disseminated online adhere to established methodological standards. The purpose of study 2 was to determine if treatment providers are familiar with these guidelines and to assess their perceived quality of these guidelines. Methods Study 1 involved a systematic search using the Google Scholar search engine and the National Drugs Sector Information Service (NDSIS) website of the Alcohol and Other Drugs Council of Australia (ADCA) to identify CPGs disseminated online. To be included in the current study, CPGs needed to be free of charge and provide guidance on psychological interventions for reducing cannabis use. Four trained reviewers independently assessed the quality of the 7 identified guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool. Study 2 assessed 166 Australian cannabis-use treatment providers’ (mean age = 45.47 years, SD 12.14) familiarity with and opinions of these 7 guidelines using an online survey. Treatment providers were recruited using online advertisements that directed volunteers to a link to complete the survey, which was posted online for 6 months (January to June 2012). Primary study outcomes included quality scores and rates of guideline familiarity, guideline use, and discovery methods. Results Based on the AGREE II, the quality of CPGs varied considerably. Across different reporting domains, adherence to methodological standards ranged from 0% to 92%. Quality was lowest in the domains of rigor of development (50%), applicability (46

  16. [Clinical practice guidelines for assessment and treatment of transsexualism. SEEN Identity and Sexual Differentiation Group (GIDSEEN)].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Esteva De Antonio, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Transsexual patients can only be diagnosed and treated at functional gender identity Units with provision of high quality care, development of clinical practice guidelines, and interdisciplinary working groups. The therapeutic process has three mainstays: initial psychological diagnostic evaluation and psychotherapy, endocrinological evaluation and hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery. Cross-sex hormone therapy is essential for the anatomical and psychological transition process in duly selected patients. Hormones help optimize real-life sex identity, improve quality of life, and limit psychiatric co-morbidities often associated to lack of treatment. Development of this clinical practice guideline addresses the need for implementing a coordinated action protocol for comprehensive health care for transgender people in the National Health System.

  17. Development of Quality Management Systems for Clinical Practice Guidelines in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kim, Dong Ik; Chang, Sung-Goo; Shin, Ein-Soon; Oh, Moo-Kyung

    2015-11-01

    This study introduces the Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) appraisal system by the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS). Quality management policies for CPGs vary among different countries, which have their own cultures and health care systems. However, supporting developers in guideline development and appraisals using standardized tools are common practices. KAMS, an organization representing the various medical societies of Korea, has been striving to establish a quality management system for CPGs, and has established a CPGs quality management system that reflects the characteristics of the Korean healthcare environment and the needs of its users. KAMS created a foundation for the development of CPGs, set up an independent appraisal organization, enacted regulations related to the appraisals, and trained appraisers. These efforts could enhance the ability of each individual medical society to develop CPGs, to increase the quality of the CPGs, and to ultimately improve the quality of the information available to decision-makers.

  18. Towards symbiosis in knowledge representation and natural language processing for structuring clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua; Payne, Philip R O; Velez, Mark; Johnson, Stephen B; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The successful adoption by clinicians of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contained in clinical information systems requires efficient translation of free-text guidelines into computable formats. Natural language processing (NLP) has the potential to improve the efficiency of such translation. However, it is laborious to develop NLP to structure free-text CPGs using existing formal knowledge representations (KR). In response to this challenge, this vision paper discusses the value and feasibility of supporting symbiosis in text-based knowledge acquisition (KA) and KR. We compare two ontologies: (1) an ontology manually created by domain experts for CPG eligibility criteria and (2) an upper-level ontology derived from a semantic pattern-based approach for automatic KA from CPG eligibility criteria text. Then we discuss the strengths and limitations of interweaving KA and NLP for KR purposes and important considerations for achieving the symbiosis of KR and NLP for structuring CPGs to achieve evidence-based clinical practice.

  19. European Renal Best Practice Guideline on kidney donor and recipient evaluation and perioperative care.

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, Daniel; Cochat, Pierre; Claas, Frans H J; Heemann, Uwe; Pascual, Julio; Dudley, C; Harden, Paul; Hourmant, Marivonne; Maggiore, Umberto; Salvadori, Maurizio; Spasovski, Goce; Squifflet, Jean-Paul; Steiger, Jürg; Torres, Armando; Viklicky, Ondrej; Zeier, Martin; Vanholder, Raymond; Van Biesen, Wim; Nagler, Evi

    2015-11-01

    The European Best Practice Guideline group (EBPG) issued guidelines on the evaluation and selection of kidney donor and kidney transplant candidates, as well as post-transplant recipient care, in the year 2000 and 2002. The new European Renal Best Practice board decided in 2009 that these guidelines needed updating. In order to avoid duplication of efforts with kidney disease improving global outcomes, which published in 2009 clinical practice guidelines on the post-transplant care of kidney transplant recipients, we did not address these issues in the present guidelines.The guideline was developed following a rigorous methodological approach: (i) identification of clinical questions, (ii) prioritization of questions, (iii) systematic literature review and critical appraisal of available evidence and (iv) formulation of recommendations and grading according to Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). The strength of each recommendation is rated 1 or 2, with 1 being a 'We recommend' statement, and 2 being a 'We suggest' statement. In addition, each statement is assigned an overall grade for the quality of evidence: A (high), B (moderate), C (low) or D (very low). The guideline makes recommendations for the evaluation of the kidney transplant candidate as well as the potential deceased and living donor, the immunological work-up of kidney donors and recipients and perioperative recipient care.All together, the work group issued 112 statements. There were 51 (45%) recommendations graded '1', 18 (16%) were graded '2' and 43 (38%) statements were not graded. There were 0 (0%) recommendations graded '1A', 15 (13%) were '1B', 19 (17%) '1C' and 17 (15%) '1D'. None (0%) were graded '2A', 1 (0.9%) was '2B', 8 (7%) were '2C' and 9 (8%) '2D'. Limitations of the evidence, especially the lack of definitive clinical outcome trials, are discussed and suggestions are provided for future research.We present here the complete recommendations about the

  20. [Rational antibiotic therapy in the dental office: Practical guidelines for decision-making].

    PubMed

    Zadik, Y

    2016-04-01

    Although most dental and periodontal diseases are caused by bacteria, the usual therapy is mechanical/surgical rather than antimicrobial medications. However, sometimes antibiotic administration may be necessary in addition to or as an alternative to the surgical/mechanical treatment. Many studies have shown that the misuse of antibiotics by dentists may be mostly attributed to unnecessity or inefficient regimen, and could contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The article presents practical guidelines to the administration of antibiotics in the dental office.

  1. Current practices and guidelines for clinical next-generation sequencing oncology testing

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been rapidly integrated into molecular pathology, dramatically increasing the breadth genomic of information available to oncologists and their patients. This review will explore the ways in which this new technology is currently applied to bolster care for patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies, focusing on practices and guidelines for assessing the technical validity and clinical utility of DNA variants identified during clinical NGS oncology testing. PMID:27144058

  2. Improving clinical practice guidelines for the 21st century. Attitudinal barriers and not technology are the main challenges.

    PubMed

    Browman, G P

    2000-01-01

    Through the use of three scenarios, this paper presents the challenges for clinical practice guidelines in the 21st century. Such challenges relate to technological developments to improve the efficiency and pace of the development process, to ensure that clinical practice guidelines are kept up to date, and to facilitate implementation of guidelines in the clinical setting. To improve and ensure the validity of the content of clinical practice guidelines, we need to address the important problem of publication bias, for which researchers, granting agencies, industry, and journal editors share responsibility. This means insisting on registration of trials at their inception, and incentives backed up by rules for funding and peer review publication that would promote behaviors to avoid publication bias. The more difficult challenges for clinical practice guidelines relate to what are referred to as attitudinal factors. To achieve optimal efficiencies in development and maintenance of clinical practice guidelines, we need to promote cooperation among various information resource providers internationally and to stress partnership over leadership. Finally, there need to be reconciliation of the different stakeholder perspectives of the value and purpose of clinical practice guidelines so that they are used appropriately as aids to decision making and are not abused as tools for controlling clinical practice.

  3. Achieving healthy body weight in teenagers: evidence-based practice guidelines for community nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Brenna; Glanville, N Theresa

    2010-01-01

    An evidence-based review of research on obesity prevention and treatment in youth was conducted to identify successful elements of community nutrition interventions. Guidelines for dietetic practice appropriate to this age group were synthesized. Following a systematic review of English-language research papers published from 1996 to 2009, 63 interventions met inclusion criteria and were graded according to methodological quality, quantity, consistency, and reproducibility. They also were analyzed for common themes and used to develop guideline statements and a practice algorithm. A national panel of experts in community nutrition, public health, adolescent health, academia, and endocrinology assessed the guidelines and the practice algorithm for validity, acceptability, and applicability. Successful prevention strategies are comprehensive, address social and environmental influences, include nutrition education and physical activity, and use schools as a health promotion delivery venue. Computer- or technology-based and peer-modelling strategies are promising, developmentally appropriate approaches. Effective obesity treatment strategies utilize diet plans and behaviour modification techniques, and involve families in intensive, multidisciplinary interventions. Given the distinct needs of this age group, healthy body weight must be promoted through a comprehensive school-based approach. In summary, obesity prevention and treatment interventions should be comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and developmentally appropriate.

  4. A Review of Multidisciplinary Clinical Practice Guidelines in Suicide Prevention: Toward an Emerging Standard in Suicide Risk Assessment and Management, Training and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Melanie A.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current paper aims to: (1) examine clinical practice guidelines in suicide prevention across fields, organizations, and clinical specialties and (2) inform emerging standards in clinical practice, research, and training. Methods The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify clinical practice guidelines and resource documents in suicide prevention and risk management. The authors used PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Search, and keywords included: clinical practice guideline, practice guideline, practice parameters, suicide, suicidality, suicidal behaviors, assessment, and management. To assess for commonalities, the authors reviewed guidelines and resource documents across 13 key content categories and assessed whether each document suggested validated assessment measures. Results The search generated 101 source documents, which included N=10 clinical practice guidelines and N=12 additional resource documents (e.g., non-formalized guidelines, tool-kits). All guidelines (100 %) provided detailed recommendations for the use of evidence-based risk factors and protective factors, 80 % provided brief (but not detailed) recommendations for the assessment of suicidal intent, and 70 % recommended risk management strategies. By comparison, only 30 % discussed standardization of risk-level categorizations and other content areas considered central to best practices in suicide prevention (e.g., restricting access to means, ethical considerations, confidentiality/legal issues, training, and postvention practices). Resource documents were largely consistent with these findings. Conclusions Current guidelines address similar aspects of suicide risk assessment and management, but significant discrepancies exist. A lack of consensus was evident in recommendations across core competencies, which may be improved by increased standardization in practice and training. Additional resources appear useful for supplemental use. PMID:25142247

  5. How to translate therapeutic recommendations in clinical practice guidelines into rules for critiquing physician prescriptions? Methods and application to five guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines give recommendations about what to do in various medical situations, including therapeutical recommendations for drug prescription. An effective way to computerize these recommendations is to design critiquing decision support systems, i.e. systems that criticize the physician's prescription when it does not conform to the guidelines. These systems are commonly based on a list of "if conditions then criticism" rules. However, writing these rules from the guidelines is not a trivial task. The objective of this article is to propose methods that (1) simplify the implementation of guidelines' therapeutical recommendations in critiquing systems by automatically translating structured therapeutical recommendations into a list of "if conditions then criticize" rules, and (2) can generate an appropriate textual label to explain to the physician why his/her prescription is not recommended. Methods We worked on the therapeutic recommendations in five clinical practice guidelines concerning chronic diseases related to the management of cardiovascular risk. We evaluated the system using a test base of more than 2000 cases. Results Algorithms for automatically translating therapeutical recommendations into "if conditions then criticize" rules are presented. Eight generic recommendations are also proposed; they are guideline-independent, and can be used as default behaviour for handling various situations that are usually implicit in the guidelines, such as decreasing the dose of a poorly tolerated drug. Finally, we provide models and methods for generating a human-readable textual critique. The system was successfully evaluated on the test base. Conclusion We show that it is possible to criticize physicians' prescriptions starting from a structured clinical guideline, and to provide clear explanations. We are now planning a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the impact of the system on practices. PMID:20509903

  6. Guidelines for practical use of MAL-PDT in non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Christensen, E; Warloe, T; Kroon, S; Funk, J; Helsing, P; Soler, A M; Stang, H J; Vatne, O; Mørk, C

    2010-05-01

    Methyl aminolaevulinate photodynamic therapy is increasingly practiced in the treatment of actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and basal cell carcinomas. This method is particularly suitable for treating multiple lesions, field cancerization and lesions in areas where a good cosmetic outcome is of importance. Good treatment routines will contribute to a favourable result. The Norwegian photodynamic therapy (PDT) group consists of medical specialists with long and extensive PDT experience. With support in the literature, this group presents guidelines for the practical use of topical PDT in non-melanoma skin cancer.

  7. Research and analytics in combat trauma care: converting data and experience to practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jeremy G; Brosch, Laura R; Beekley, Alec C; Warfield, Kelly L; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2012-08-01

    Throughout history, wars have resulted in medical advancements, especially in trauma. Once clinical challenges are identified, they require documentation and analysis before changes to care are introduced. The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq led to the collection of clinically relevant data from the entire medical system into a formal trauma registry. Improvements in data collection and human research oversight have allowed more effective and efficient techniques to capture and analyze trauma data, which has enabled rapid development and dissemination of clinical practice guidelines in the midst of war. These data-driven experiences are influencing trauma practice patterns in the civilian community.

  8. Contraceptive Method Initiation: Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Selected Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wan-Ju; Edelman, Alison

    2015-12-01

    The US Selected Practice Recommendations is a companion document to the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use that focuses on how providers can use contraceptive methods most effectively as well as problem-solve common issues that may arise. These guidelines serve to help clinicians provide contraception safely as well as to decrease barriers that prevent or delay a woman from obtaining a desired method. This article summarizes the Selected Practice Recommendations on timing of contraceptive initiation, examinations, and tests needed prior to starting a method and any necessary follow-up.

  9. Uncovering nurse educators' beliefs and values about grading academic papers: guidelines for best practices.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn-Magee, Kathy; Clauson, Marion

    2013-09-01

    Fair and consistent assessment, specifically grading, is crucial to teaching and learning scholarship and is a professional responsibility of nurse educators. Yet, many would agree that assessment is one of the most challenging aspects of their role. Despite differing beliefs, values, and meanings attributed to grading and grades, teachers' grading practices should be guided by principles and supported by policies. Inconsistent grading practices among educators, students' unrealistic expectations of grades, and a trend toward grade inflation may be contributing to both educators' and students' concerns. A teaching scholarship project that led to a research study explored nurse educators' beliefs, values, and practices related to the grading of written academic work. The purpose of this article is to share the findings and the resulting grading guidelines that were developed to support nurse educators' endeavors to enact equitable grading practices.

  10. Uncovering nurse educators' beliefs and values about grading academic papers: guidelines for best practices.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn-Magee, Kathy; Clauson, Marion

    2013-09-01

    Fair and consistent assessment, specifically grading, is crucial to teaching and learning scholarship and is a professional responsibility of nurse educators. Yet, many would agree that assessment is one of the most challenging aspects of their role. Despite differing beliefs, values, and meanings attributed to grading and grades, teachers' grading practices should be guided by principles and supported by policies. Inconsistent grading practices among educators, students' unrealistic expectations of grades, and a trend toward grade inflation may be contributing to both educators' and students' concerns. A teaching scholarship project that led to a research study explored nurse educators' beliefs, values, and practices related to the grading of written academic work. The purpose of this article is to share the findings and the resulting grading guidelines that were developed to support nurse educators' endeavors to enact equitable grading practices. PMID:23952770

  11. Financial Relationships between Organizations That Produce Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Biomedical Industry: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Campsall, Paul; Colizza, Kate; Straus, Sharon; Stelfox, Henry T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Financial relationships between organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines and biomedical companies are vulnerable to conflicts of interest. We sought to determine whether organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines have financial relationships with biomedical companies and whether there are associations between organizations’ conflict of interest policies and recommendations and disclosures provided in guidelines. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey and review of websites of 95 national/international medical organizations that produced 290 clinical practice guidelines published on the National Guideline Clearinghouse website from January 1 to December 31, 2012. Survey responses were available for 68% (65/95) of organizations (167/290 guidelines, 58%), and websites were reviewed for 100% (95/95) of organizations (290/290 guidelines, 100%). In all, 63% (60/95) of organizations producing clinical practice guidelines reported receiving funds from a biomedical company; 80% (76/95) of organizations reported having a policy for managing conflicts of interest. Disclosure statements (disclosing presence or absence of financial relationships with biomedical companies) were available in 65% (188/290) of clinical practice guidelines for direct funding sources to produce the guideline, 51% (147/290) for financial relationships of the guideline committee members, and 1% (4/290) for financial relationships of the organizations producing the guidelines. Among all guidelines, 6% (18/290) disclosed direct funding by biomedical companies, 40% (117/290) disclosed financial relationships between committee members and biomedical companies (38% of guideline committee members, 773/2,043), and 1% (4/290) disclosed financial relationships between the organizations producing the guidelines and biomedical companies. In the survey responses, 60 organizations reported the procedures that they included in their conflict of interest

  12. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines Compared with Other Guidelines and Remaining Issues.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Joong-Won; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed "washout" in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  13. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines Compared with Other Guidelines and Remaining Issues

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Joong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed "washout" in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis. PMID:26798212

  14. KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Palevsky, Paul M; Liu, Kathleen D; Brophy, Patrick D; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Parikh, Chirag R; Thakar, Charuhas V; Tolwani, Ashita J; Waikar, Sushrut S; Weisbord, Steven D

    2013-05-01

    In response to the recently released 2012 KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury (AKI), the National Kidney Foundation organized a group of US experts in adult and pediatric AKI and critical care nephrology to review the recommendations and comment on their relevancy in the context of current US clinical practice and concerns. The first portion of the KDIGO guideline attempts to harmonize earlier consensus definitions and staging criteria for AKI. While the expert panel thought that the KDIGO definition and staging criteria are appropriate for defining the epidemiology of AKI and in the design of clinical trials, the panel concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support their widespread application to clinical care in the United States. The panel generally concurred with the remainder of the KDIGO guidelines that are focused on the prevention and pharmacologic and dialytic management of AKI, although noting the dearth of clinical trial evidence to provide strong evidence-based recommendations and the continued absence of effective therapies beyond hemodynamic optimization and avoidance of nephrotoxins for the prevention and treatment of AKI.

  15. Gastrointestinal bleeding and anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs: systematic search for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Gutermann, Irit Kaye; Niggemeier, Verena; Zimmerli, Lukas U; Holzer, Barbara M; Battegay, Edouard; Scharl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a frequently encountered and very serious problem in emergency room patients who are currently being treated with anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications. There is, however, a lack of clinical practice guidelines about how to respond to these situations. The goal of this study was to find published articles that contain specific information about how to safely adjust anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy when GI bleeding occurs.The investigators initiated a global search on the PubMed and Google websites for published information about GI bleeding in the presence of anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. After eliminating duplicate entries, the medical articles that remained were screened to narrow the sets of articles to those that met specific criteria. Articles that most closely matched study criteria were analyzed in detail and compared to determine how many actual guidelines exist and are useful.We could provide only minimal information about appropriate therapeutic strategies because no articles provided sufficient specific advice about how to respond to situations involving acute GI bleeding and concurrent use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. Only 4 articles provided enough detail to be of any use in an emergency situation.Clinical practice guidelines and also clinical trials for GI hemorrhaging should be expanded to state in which situations the use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs should be suspended and the medications should later be resumed, and they should state the level of risk for any particular action.

  16. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for treatment of exercise-associated hyponatremia: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brad L; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hoffman, Martin D; Rogers, Ian R; Rosner, Mitchell H

    2014-12-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is defined by a serum or plasma sodium concentration below the normal reference range of 135 mmol/L that occurs during or up to 24 hours after prolonged physical activity. It is reported to occur in individual physical activities or during organized endurance events conducted in austere environments in which medical care is limited and often not available, and patient evacuation to definitive care is often greatly delayed. Rapid recognition and appropriate treatment are essential in the severe form to ensure a positive outcome. Failure in this regard is a recognized cause of event-related fatality. In an effort to produce best practice guidelines for EAH in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel. The panel was charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for management of EAH. Recommendations are made regarding the situations when sodium concentration can be assessed in the field and when these values are not known. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each parameter according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2013;24(3):228-240.

  17. Guidelines for the practical stability studies of anticancer drugs: a European consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Bardin, C; Astier, A; Vulto, A; Sewell, G; Vigneron, J; Trittler, R; Daouphars, M; Paul, M; Trojniak, M; Pinguet, F

    2011-07-01

    Stability studies performed by the pharmaceutical industry are only designed to fulfill licensing requirements. Thus, post-dilution or -reconstitution stability data are frequently limited to 24h only for bacteriological reasons regardless of the true chemical stability which could, in many cases, be longer. In practice, the pharmacy-based centralized preparation may require infusions to be made several days in advance to provide, for example, the filling of ambulatory devices for continuous infusions or batch preparations for dose banding. Furthermore, a non-justified limited stability for expensive products is obviously very costly. Thus, there is a compelling need for additional stability data covering practical uses of anticancer drugs. A European conference consensus was held in France, May 2010, under the auspices of the French Society of Oncology Pharmacy (SFPO) to propose adapted rules on stability in practical situations and guidelines to perform corresponding stability studies. For each anticancer drug, considering their therapeutic index, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) variability, specific clinical use and risks related to degradation products, the classical limit of 10% of degradation can be inappropriate. Therefore, acceptance limits must be clinically relevant and should be defined for each drug individually. Design of stability studies has to reflect the different needs of the clinical practice (preparation for the week-ends, outpatient transportations, implantable devices, dose banding…). It is essential to use validated stability-indicating methods, separating degradation products being formed in the practical use of the drug. Sequential temperature designs should be encouraged to replicate problems seen in daily practice such as rupture of the cold-chain or temperature-cycling between refrigerated storage and ambient in-use conditions. Stressed conditions are recommended to evaluate not only the role of classical variables (p

  18. Guidelines for the practical stability studies of anticancer drugs: a European consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Bardin, C; Astier, A; Vulto, A; Sewell, G; Vigneron, J; Trittler, R; Daouphars, M; Paul, M; Trojniak, M; Pinguet, F

    2011-07-01

    Stability studies performed by the pharmaceutical industry are only designed to fulfill licensing requirements. Thus, post-dilution or -reconstitution stability data are frequently limited to 24h only for bacteriological reasons regardless of the true chemical stability which could, in many cases, be longer. In practice, the pharmacy-based centralized preparation may require infusions to be made several days in advance to provide, for example, the filling of ambulatory devices for continuous infusions or batch preparations for dose banding. Furthermore, a non-justified limited stability for expensive products is obviously very costly. Thus, there is a compelling need for additional stability data covering practical uses of anticancer drugs. A European conference consensus was held in France, May 2010, under the auspices of the French Society of Oncology Pharmacy (SFPO) to propose adapted rules on stability in practical situations and guidelines to perform corresponding stability studies. For each anticancer drug, considering their therapeutic index, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) variability, specific clinical use and risks related to degradation products, the classical limit of 10% of degradation can be inappropriate. Therefore, acceptance limits must be clinically relevant and should be defined for each drug individually. Design of stability studies has to reflect the different needs of the clinical practice (preparation for the week-ends, outpatient transportations, implantable devices, dose banding…). It is essential to use validated stability-indicating methods, separating degradation products being formed in the practical use of the drug. Sequential temperature designs should be encouraged to replicate problems seen in daily practice such as rupture of the cold-chain or temperature-cycling between refrigerated storage and ambient in-use conditions. Stressed conditions are recommended to evaluate not only the role of classical variables (p

  19. Review of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Practice guidelines for management of heart failure in children.

    PubMed

    Colan, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    In 2004, practice guidelines for the management of heart failure in children by Rosenthal and colleagues were published in conjunction with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. These guidelines have not been updated or reviewed since that time. In general, there has been considerable controversy as to the utility and purpose of clinical practice guidelines, but there is general recognition that the relentless progress of medicine leads to the progressive irrelevance of clinical practice guidelines that do not undergo periodic review and updating. Paediatrics and paediatric cardiology, in particular, have had comparatively minimal participation in the clinical practice guidelines realm. As a result, most clinical practice guidelines either specifically exclude paediatrics from consideration, as has been the case for the guidelines related to cardiac failure in adults, or else involve clinical practice guidelines committees that include one or two paediatric cardiologists and produce guidelines that cannot reasonably be considered a consensus paediatric opinion. These circumstances raise a legitimate question as to whether the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation paediatric heart failure guidelines should be re-reviewed. The time, effort, and expense involved in producing clinical practice guidelines should be considered before recommending an update to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Paediatric Heart Failure guidelines. There are specific areas of rapid change in the evaluation and management of heart failure in children that are undoubtedly worthy of updating. These domains include areas such as use of serum and imaging biomarkers, wearable and implantable monitoring devices, and acute heart failure management and mechanical circulatory support. At the time the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines were published, echocardiographic tissue Doppler, 3 dimensional

  20. Anaesthetic management of obese parturients: what is the evidence supporting practice guidelines?

    PubMed

    Va, Eley; Aaj, van Zundert; J, Lipman; Lk, Callaway

    2016-09-01

    Increasing rates of obesity in western populations present management difficulties for clinicians caring for obese pregnant women. Various governing bodies have published clinical guidelines for the care of obese parturients. These guidelines refer to two components of anaesthetic care: anaesthetic consultation in the antenatal period for women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2 and the provision of early epidural analgesia in labour. These recommendations are based on the increased incidence of obstetric complications and the predicted risks and difficulties in providing anaesthetic care. The concept behind early epidural analgesia is logical-site the epidural early, use it for surgical anaesthesia and avoid general anaesthesia if surgery is required. Experts support this recommendation, but there is weak supporting evidence. It is known that the management of labour epidurals in obese women is complicated and that women with extreme obesity require higher rates of general anaesthesia. Anecdotally, anaesthetists view and apply the early epidural recommendation inconsistently and the acceptability of early epidural analgesia to pregnant women is variable. In this topic review, we critically appraise these two practice recommendations. The elements required for effective implementation in multidisciplinary maternity care are considered. We identify gaps in the current literature and suggest areas for future research. While prospective cohort studies addressing epidural extension ('top-up') in obese parturients would help inform practice, audit of local practice may better answer the question "is early epidural analgesia beneficial to obese women in my practice?". PMID:27608337

  1. [Clinical practice guidelines: Benign breast tumor--Aims, methods and organization].

    PubMed

    Lavoué, V; Fritel, X; Chopier, J; Roedlich, M-N; Chamming's, F; Mathelin, C; Bendifallah, S; Boisserie-Lacroix, M; Canlorbe, G; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Coutant, C; Guilhen, N; Fauvet, R; Laas, E; Legendre, G; Thomassin Naggara, I; Ngô, C; Ouldamer, L; Seror, J; Touboul, C; Daraï, E

    2015-12-01

    Conversely to breast cancer, few data and guidelines are available to explore and manage benign breast disorders. Therefore, the Collège national des gynécologues et obstétriciens français (CNGOF - French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians) decided to establish clinical practice guidelines for benign breast tumour (BBT). CNGOF appointed a committee with responsibility for selecting experts, compiling questions and summarizing the recommendations. The summary of valid scientific data for each question analyzed by the experts included a level of evidence, based on the quality of the data available and defined accordingly rating scheme developed by the Haute Autorité de santé (French National Authority for Health).

  2. [Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline 'Peripheral facial paralysis': a summary].

    PubMed

    Klomp, M A Rien; Verdaasdonk, Aard L; Striekwold, Manuela P; Teunissen, H Eric; Opstelten, Wim; Goudswaard, A N Lex

    2010-01-01

    The practice guideline 'Peripheral facial paralysis' of the Dutch College of General Practitioners provides the general practitioner with guidelines for diagnosis and management of patients with a peripheral facial paralysis. In about two-thirds of cases of peripheral facial paralysis no cause can be found. The diagnosis of this so-called idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis is based on the patient's history and physical examination; additional investigations are not indicated. The natural course is usually good: without treatment 65-85% of patients will regain normal function of the facial muscles. Treatment with corticosteroids is recommended for all patients with an idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis, irrespective of the degree of the paralysis. This increases the chance of complete recovery by approximately 10%. Antiviral treatment is not recommended.

  3. Antiarrhythmic drug therapy for atrial fibrillation: are the guidelines guiding clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Reiffel, James A; Naccarelli, Gerald V

    2006-03-01

    The AFFIRM study showed no clear survival advantage for a rhythm versus rate control strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, rhythm control with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) is appropriate in a large number of patients with AF. The American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology AF management guidelines include a safety-based algorithm for selection of AAD therapy. Class 1C agents are recommended as first-line therapy in patients without or with minimal structural heart disease. However, market research and clinical study data indicate a growing use of class III agents (mainly amiodarone) despite long-term safety and tolerability concerns, suggesting that clinical practice does not adhere to current guidelines.

  4. [Management of acute pain therapy: guidelines, recommendations and current practice in german hospitals].

    PubMed

    Erlenwein, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Organisational requirements and the education and training of stuff provide the basis for an adequate supply of quality in acute pain and should be the focus of efforts. Although organizational recommendations of the German guideline on "treatment of acute perioperative and post-traumatic pain" have been increasingly established in practice within the last few years, in many German hospitals there is still lagging far behind in the implementation of general supply conditions, such as regular pain measurement or the introduction of appropriate standardized treatment protocols for all areas of the hospital.As specialized care structures acute pain services have been implemented in 80% of the German hospitals, but only 45% of them meet quality criteria. Due to the heterogeneous realization of acute pain management in different hospitals, it comes apparent, that general guideline recommendations and binding definitions are required to achieve adequate supply conditions. PMID:26863643

  5. Update of OECD DART guidelines with endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints: Practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Beekhuijzen, Manon; van Otterdijk, Francois; Wieland, Willemien; van Tuyl, Miranda; Rijcken, Robert Pels; Peter, Birgit; Emmen, Harry

    2016-09-01

    In 1998, the OECD initiated a high-priority project aimed at revising existing test guidelines and developing new test guidelines for screening of potential endocrine disruptors. In 2011, OECD 443 was adopted, and in 2015 OECD 421 and OECD 422 were updated with endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints. A feasibility study for the enhancement of OECD 414 with endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints is currently ongoing. The addition of these endpoints is considered crucial for gaining more information on endocrine disruptor potency of tested chemicals, however it should be noted that these additions have a major impact on the study designs and give rise to several practical challenges. The aim of this review is to discuss important aspects of these challenging study designs and to share our knowledge on their implementation in our laboratory. Together, this review can be used as guidance for other laboratories, study monitors and registration officers. PMID:27063183

  6. Quality Assessment of Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma or Metastatic Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingqiang; Luo, Qianqian; Li, Youping; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Shaolin; Wei, Shiyou; Li, Xianglian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the quality of the currently available clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for hepatocellular carcinoma, and provide a reference for clinicians in selecting the best available clinical protocols. Methods The databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, and relevant CPGs websites were systematically searched through March 2014. CPGs quality was appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument, and data analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software. Results A total of 20 evidence-based and 20 expert consensus-based guidelines were included. The mean percentage of the domain scores were: scope and purpose 83% (95% confidence interval (CI), 81% to 86%), clarity of presentation 79% (95% CI, 73% to 86%), stakeholder involvement 39% (95% CI, 30% to 49%), editorial independence 58% (95% CI, 52% to 64%), rigor of development 39% (95% CI, 31% to 46%), and applicability 16% (95% CI, 10% to 23%). Evidence-based guidelines were superior to those established by consensus for the domains of rigor of development (p<0.001), clarity of presentation (p = 0.01) and applicability (p = 0.021). Conclusions The overall methodological quality of CPGs for hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver cancer is moderate, with poor applicability and potential conflict of interest issues. The evidence-based guidelines has become mainstream for high quality CPGs development; however, there is still need to further increase the transparency and quality of evidence rating, as well as the recommendation process, and to address potential conflict of interest. PMID:25105961

  7. Social work practice with Pagans, Witches, and Wiccans: guidelines for practice with children and youths.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Meg

    2008-10-01

    This article introduces social workers to the beliefs and practices associated with Paganism, Witchcraft, and Wicca and describes how social workers can help to create a welcoming environment for children and youths belonging to these religious minority groups. Drawing on social science research, social work literature, and a case example, the author presents suggestions for working with Pagan children and youths in various practice settings, including child welfare agencies, schools, and family-oriented programs. PMID:18853669

  8. Strategies for monitoring and updating clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Scientific knowledge is in constant change. The flow of new information requires a frequent re-evaluation of the available research results. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not exempted from this phenomenon and need to be kept updated to maintain the validity of their recommendations. The objective of our review is to systematically identify, describe and assess strategies for monitoring and updating CPGs. Study design and setting We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating one or more methods of updating (with or without monitoring) CPGs or recommendations. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and The Cochrane Methodology Register (The Cochrane Library) from 1966 to June 2012. Additionally, we hand-searched reference lists of the included studies and the Guidelines International Network book of abstracts. If necessary, we contacted study authors to obtain additional information. Results We included a total of eight studies. Four evaluated if CPGs were out of date, three updated CPGs, and one continuously monitored and updated CPGs. The most detailed reported phase of the process was the identification of new evidence. As opposed to studies updating guidelines, studies evaluating if CPGs were out of date applied restricted searches. Only one study compared a restricted versus an exhaustive search suggesting that a restricted search is sufficient to assess recommendations’ Validity. One study analyzed the survival time of CPGs and suggested that these should be reassessed every three years. Conclusions There is limited evidence about the optimal strategies for monitoring and updating clinical practice guidelines. A restricted search is likely to be sufficient to monitor new evidence and assess the need to update, however, more information is needed about the timing and type of search. Only the exhaustive search strategy has been assessed for the update of CPGs. The development and evaluation of more efficient strategies is needed to improve

  9. Quality of the Development of Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anjni; Vieira, Mateus Mazorra Coelho; Abraham, John; Reid, Nick; Tran, Tu; Tomecsek, Kevin; Vissoci, João Ricardo N; Eucker, Stephanie; Gerardo, Charles J; Staton, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death worldwide and is increasing exponentially particularly in low and middle income countries (LMIC). To inform the development of a standard Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the acute management of TBI that can be implemented specifically for limited resource settings, we conducted a systematic review to identify and assess the quality of all currently available CPGs on acute TBI using the AGREE II instrument. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, from April 2013 to December 2015 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Duke University Medical Center Library Guidelines for peer-reviewed published Clinical Practice Guidelines on the acute management of TBI (less than 24 hours), for any level of traumatic brain injury in both high and low income settings. A comprehensive reference and citation analysis was performed. CPGs found were assessed using the AGREE II instrument by five independent reviewers and scores were aggregated and reported in percentage of total possible score. An initial 2742 articles were evaluated with an additional 98 articles from the citation and reference analysis, yielding 273 full texts examined. A total of 24 final CPGs were included, of which 23 were from high income countries (HIC) and 1 from LMIC. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the best score on overall assessment was 100.0 for the CPG from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NIHCE, 2007), followed by the New Zealand Guidelines Group (NZ, 2006) and the National Clinical Guideline (SIGN, 2009) both with a score of 96.7. The CPG from a LMIC had lower scores than CPGs from higher income settings. Our study identified and evaluated 24 CPGs with the highest scores in clarity and presentation, scope and purpose, and rigor of development. Most of these CPGs were developed in HICs, with limited applicability or utility for resource limited settings. Stakeholder involvement, Applicability, and

  10. Quality of the Development of Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anjni; Vieira, Mateus Mazorra Coelho; Abraham, John; Reid, Nick; Tran, Tu; Tomecsek, Kevin; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Eucker, Stephanie; Gerardo, Charles J.; Staton, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death worldwide and is increasing exponentially particularly in low and middle income countries (LMIC). To inform the development of a standard Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the acute management of TBI that can be implemented specifically for limited resource settings, we conducted a systematic review to identify and assess the quality of all currently available CPGs on acute TBI using the AGREE II instrument. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, from April 2013 to December 2015 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Duke University Medical Center Library Guidelines for peer-reviewed published Clinical Practice Guidelines on the acute management of TBI (less than 24 hours), for any level of traumatic brain injury in both high and low income settings. A comprehensive reference and citation analysis was performed. CPGs found were assessed using the AGREE II instrument by five independent reviewers and scores were aggregated and reported in percentage of total possible score. An initial 2742 articles were evaluated with an additional 98 articles from the citation and reference analysis, yielding 273 full texts examined. A total of 24 final CPGs were included, of which 23 were from high income countries (HIC) and 1 from LMIC. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the best score on overall assessment was 100.0 for the CPG from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NIHCE, 2007), followed by the New Zealand Guidelines Group (NZ, 2006) and the National Clinical Guideline (SIGN, 2009) both with a score of 96.7. The CPG from a LMIC had lower scores than CPGs from higher income settings. Our study identified and evaluated 24 CPGs with the highest scores in clarity and presentation, scope and purpose, and rigor of development. Most of these CPGs were developed in HICs, with limited applicability or utility for resource limited settings. Stakeholder involvement, Applicability, and

  11. [How to implement a guideline from theory to practice: the example of the venous thromboembolism prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Edison F; Rocha, Ana T C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to discuss the existing barriers for the dissemination of medical guidelines, and to present strategies that facilitate the adaptation of the recommendations into clinical practice. The literature shows that it usually takes several years until new scientific evidence is adopted in current practice, even when there is obvious impact in patients' morbidity and mortality. There are some examples where more than thirty years have elapsed since the first case reports about the use of a effective therapy were published until its utilization became routine. That is the case of fibrinolysis for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Some of the main barriers for the implementation of new recommendations are: the lack of knowledge of a new guideline, personal resistance to changes, uncertainty about the efficacy of the proposed recommendation, fear of potential side-effects, difficulties in remembering the recommendations, inexistence of institutional policies reinforcing the recommendation and even economical restrains. In order to overcome these barriers a strategy that involves a program with multiple tools is always the best. That must include the implementation of easy-to-use algorithms, continuous medical education materials and lectures, electronic or paper alerts, tools to facilitate evaluation and prescription, and periodic audits to show results to the practitioners involved in the process. It is also fundamental that the medical societies involved with the specific medical issue support the program for its scientific and ethical soundness. The creation of multidisciplinary committees in each institution and the inclusion of opinion leaders that have pro-active and lasting attitudes are the key-points for the program's success. In this manuscript we use as an example the implementation of a guideline for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, but the concepts described here can be easily applied to any other guideline

  12. Development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs): comparing approaches

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Tari; Misso, Marie; Harris, Claire; Green, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Background While the potential of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to support implementation of evidence has been demonstrated, it is not currently being achieved. CPGs are both poorly developed and ineffectively implemented. To improve clinical practice and health outcomes, both well-developed CPGs and effective methods of CPG implementation are needed. We sought to establish whether there is agreement on the fundamental characteristics of an evidence-based CPG development process and to explore whether the level of guidance provided in CPG development handbooks is sufficient for people using these handbooks to be able to apply it. Methods CPG development handbooks were identified through a broad search of published and grey literature. Documents published in English produced by national or international organisations purporting to support development of evidence-based CPGs were included. A list of 14 key elements of a CPG development process was developed. Two authors read each handbook. For each handbook a judgement was made as to how it addressed each element; assigned as: 'mentioned and clear guidance provided', 'mentioned but limited practical detail provided ', or 'not mentioned'. Results Six CPG development handbooks were included. These were produced by the Council of Europe, the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK, the New Zealand Guidelines Group, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network, and the World Health Organization (WHO). There was strong concordance between the handbooks on the key elements of an evidence-based CPG development process. All six of the handbooks require and provide guidance on establishment of a multidisciplinary guideline development group, involvement of consumers, identification of clinical questions or problems, systematic searches for and appraisal of research evidence, a process for drafting recommendations, consultation with

  13. Endotracheal suctioning practices of nurses and respiratory therapists: How well do they align with clinical practice guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, Rosanne; Wilkinson, Jenny M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common procedure within intensive care units (ICUs) is the suctioning of respiratory secretions in patients who have been intubated or who have undergone tracheostomy. Previous studies have shown a wide variation in suctioning practices, and although current evidence does not support the routine practice of normal saline instillation (NSI), anecdotally, this is believed to be a common practice. OBJECTIVE: To examine the suctioning practices of registered nurses (RNs) and registered respiratory therapists (RRTs) in six hospital ICUs in Ontario, with special attention devoted to the use of NSI. METHODS: A 24-question, self-administered survey was distributed to 180 participants (90 RNs and 90 RRTs) working in the ICU of six hospitals in Ontario. The survey addressed individual suctioning practices within the ICU. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 96%. There were many similarities between the RRT and RN groups, with both reporting high use of NSI. Both groups observed side effects following NSI with suctioning including decreased oxygen saturation, patient agitation and increased volume of secretions. A significant number of participants from both the RN and RRT groups were unaware of the existence of suctioning and/or NSI protocols in the ICU. Some respondents reported that they routinely suctioned mechanically ventilated patients rather than as required. CONCLUSION: RNs and RRTs continue to practice NSI despite evidence-based practice guidelines suggesting that this therapy may be detrimental to patients. Increased awareness of best practices with respect to endotracheal tube suction generally, and NSI specifically, should be the focus of professional education in both groups of ICU staff. PMID:26283870

  14. [Practical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Facundo; Nigro, Carlos; Cambursano, Hugo; Borsini, Eduardo; Silio, Julio; Avila, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most relevant chronic respiratory pathologies due to its high prevalence and impact in morbidity and mortality. In 2001, the Asociación Argentina de Medicina Respiratoria (AAMR) published the first Argentinean Consensus on Sleep-Related breathing Disorders. Since then, wide new scientific evidence has emerged, increasing significantly the knowledge about this pathology. According to this, the Sleep-Related breathing Disorders and Oxygen Therapy Section of the AAMR, decided to update its Consensus, developing this Practical Guidelines on Management of patients with OSAS. A working group was created with members belonging to the section, experts in OSAS. They extensively reviewed the literature and wrote these guidelines, orientated to practical resolution of clinical problems and giving answers to questions emerged from dealing with patients who suffer from this syndrome. The document defines OSAS and describes the diagnosis and severity criteria, as well as the risk factors, ways of presentation and epidemiology. Clinical consequences, mainly on cognition, cardiovascular system and metabolism are pointed out. Different diagnostic methods, with their indications and technical aspects for validation and interpretation are detailed. Finally, we describe therapeutic alternatives, as well as practical aspects of their implementation. The authors' aim was to generate an accessible tool for teaching and spreading the knowledge on these disorders, which have a great impact in public health.

  15. Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: Mood, Cognition and Fatigue Following Stroke practice guidelines, update 2015.

    PubMed

    Eskes, Gail A; Lanctôt, Krista L; Herrmann, Nathan; Lindsay, Patrice; Bayley, Mark; Bouvier, Laurie; Dawson, Deirdre; Egi, Sandra; Gilchrist, Elizabeth; Green, Theresa; Gubitz, Gord; Hill, Michael D; Hopper, Tammy; Khan, Aisha; King, Andrea; Kirton, Adam; Moorhouse, Paige; Smith, Eric E; Green, Janet; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine; Swartz, Richard H

    2015-10-01

    Every year, approximately 62 000 people with stroke and transient ischemic attack are treated in Canadian hospitals, and the evidence suggests one-third or more will experience vascular-cognitive impairment, and/or intractable fatigue, either alone or in combination. The 2015 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: Mood, Cognition and Fatigue Module guideline is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based recommendations for clinicians in a range of settings, who provide care to patients following stroke. The three consequences of stroke that are the focus of the this guideline (poststroke depression, vascular cognitive impairment, and fatigue) have high incidence rates and significant impact on the lives of people who have had a stroke, impede recovery, and result in worse long-term outcomes. Significant practice variations and gaps in the research evidence have been reported for initial screening and in-depth assessment of stroke patients for these conditions. Also of concern, an increased number of family members and informal caregivers may also experience depressive symptoms in the poststroke recovery phase which further impact patient recovery. These factors emphasize the need for a system of care that ensures screening occurs as a standard and consistent component of clinical practice across settings as stroke patients transition from acute care to active rehabilitation and reintegration into their community. Additionally, building system capacity to ensure access to appropriate specialists for treatment and ongoing management of stroke survivors with these conditions is another great challenge.

  16. Physiotherapy for cystic fibrosis in Australia and New Zealand: A clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Button, Brenda M; Wilson, Christine; Dentice, Ruth; Cox, Narelle S; Middleton, Anna; Tannenbaum, Esta; Bishop, Jennifer; Cobb, Robyn; Burton, Kate; Wood, Michelle; Moran, Fiona; Black, Ryan; Bowen, Summar; Day, Rosemary; Depiazzi, Julie; Doiron, Katherine; Doumit, Michael; Dwyer, Tiffany; Elliot, Alison; Fuller, Louise; Hall, Kathleen; Hutchins, Matthew; Kerr, Melinda; Lee, Annemarie L; Mans, Christina; O'Connor, Lauren; Steward, Ranjana; Potter, Angela; Rasekaba, Tshepo; Scoones, Rebecca; Tarrant, Ben; Ward, Nathan; West, Samantha; White, Dianne; Wilson, Lisa; Wood, Jamie; Holland, Anne E

    2016-05-01

    Physiotherapy management is a key element of care for people with cystic fibrosis (CF) throughout the lifespan. Although considerable evidence exists to support physiotherapy management of CF, there is documented variation in practice. The aim of this guideline is to optimize the physiotherapy management of people with CF in Australia and New Zealand. A systematic review of the literature in key areas of physiotherapy practice for CF was undertaken. Recommendations were formulated based on National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) guidelines and considered the quality, quantity and level of the evidence; the consistency of the body of evidence; the likely clinical impact; and applicability to physiotherapy practice in Australia and New Zealand. A total of 30 recommendations were made for airway clearance therapy, inhalation therapy, exercise assessment and training, musculoskeletal management, management of urinary incontinence, managing the newly diagnosed patient with CF, delivery of non-invasive ventilation, and physiotherapy management before and after lung transplantation. These recommendations can be used to underpin the provision of evidence-based physiotherapy care to people with CF in Australia and New Zealand. PMID:27086904

  17. Physiotherapy for cystic fibrosis in Australia and New Zealand: A clinical practice guideline*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Christine; Dentice, Ruth; Cox, Narelle S.; Middleton, Anna; Tannenbaum, Esta; Bishop, Jennifer; Cobb, Robyn; Burton, Kate; Wood, Michelle; Moran, Fiona; Black, Ryan; Bowen, Summar; Day, Rosemary; Depiazzi, Julie; Doiron, Katherine; Doumit, Michael; Dwyer, Tiffany; Elliot, Alison; Fuller, Louise; Hall, Kathleen; Hutchins, Matthew; Kerr, Melinda; Lee, Annemarie L.; Mans, Christina; O'Connor, Lauren; Steward, Ranjana; Potter, Angela; Rasekaba, Tshepo; Scoones, Rebecca; Tarrant, Ben; Ward, Nathan; West, Samantha; White, Dianne; Wilson, Lisa; Wood, Jamie; Holland, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiotherapy management is a key element of care for people with cystic fibrosis (CF) throughout the lifespan. Although considerable evidence exists to support physiotherapy management of CF, there is documented variation in practice. The aim of this guideline is to optimize the physiotherapy management of people with CF in Australia and New Zealand. A systematic review of the literature in key areas of physiotherapy practice for CF was undertaken. Recommendations were formulated based on National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) guidelines and considered the quality, quantity and level of the evidence; the consistency of the body of evidence; the likely clinical impact; and applicability to physiotherapy practice in Australia and New Zealand. A total of 30 recommendations were made for airway clearance therapy, inhalation therapy, exercise assessment and training, musculoskeletal management, management of urinary incontinence, managing the newly diagnosed patient with CF, delivery of non‐invasive ventilation, and physiotherapy management before and after lung transplantation. These recommendations can be used to underpin the provision of evidence‐based physiotherapy care to people with CF in Australia and New Zealand. PMID:27086904

  18. A study of adherence to the AAO-HNS "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis".

    PubMed

    Darrat, Ilaaf; Yaremchuk, Kathleen; Payne, Spencer; Nelson, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine if physicians in otolaryngology practice adhered to the clinical practice guideline for adult sinusitis that had been issued by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) 3 years earlier. We analyzed data obtained from the charts of 90 adults who had presented to an otolaryngology outpatient department with a diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS), or acute viral rhinosinusitis (AVRS); there were 76 cases of CRS, 11 cases of ABRS, and 3 cases of AVRS. Our goal was to ascertain how closely the treating physician had adhered to the AAO-HNS recommendations with respect to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these diseases. The study group was made up of 10 otolaryngologists. We evaluated 7 clinical practice metrics for CRS, 7 metrics for ABRS, and 3 for AVRS. We found that individual physician adherence rates for cases of CRS ranged from 0 to 100%; average scores for the 7 metrics ranged from 4 to 88%. For cases of ABRS, adherence scores ranged from 0 to 100%; average scores for the 7 metrics ranged from 0 to 41%. For AVRS, the rate of adherence for all 3 metrics was 0%. This study revealed wide variations in adherence to the AAO-HNS guideline, but overall adherence was generally poor. Adherence appeared to be worse for the acute types of rhinosinusitis than for chronic rhinosinusitis. In view of these findings, a worksheet was developed that clinicians could use to improve compliance with the guidelines.

  19. Social Work Practice with Pagans, Witches, and Wiccans: Guidelines for Practice with Children and Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Meg

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces social workers to the beliefs and practices associated with Paganism, Witchcraft, and Wicca and describes how social workers can help to create a welcoming environment for children and youths belonging to these religious minority groups. Drawing on social science research, social work literature, and a case example, the…

  20. Internet Practices of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors and Analysis of Guidelines for Ethical Internet Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Ilana S.; Crimando, William

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has become an integral part of the practice of rehabilitation counseling. To identify potential ethical issues regarding the use of the Internet by counselors, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, we surveyed a national sample of rehabilitation counselors regarding their use of technology in their work and home settings. Results…

  1. [The strategic impact of clinical practice guidelines in nursing on the managerial function of supervision].

    PubMed

    Romero, José Antonio Vinagre; Heredero, Carmen De Pablos

    2013-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines in nursing (CPG-N) are tools that allow the necessary knowledge that frequently remains specialist-internalised to be made explicit. These tools are a complement to risk adjustment systems (RAS), reinforcing their effectiveness and permitting a rationalisation of healthcare costs. This theoretical study defends the importance of building and using CPG-Ns as instruments to support the figure of the nursing supervisor in order to optimise the implementation of R&D and hospital quality strategies, enabling clinical excellence in nursing processes and cost-efficient reallocation of economic resources through their linear integration with SARs.

  2. AAPL Practice Guideline for the forensic psychiatric evaluation of competence to stand trial.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas; Noffsinger, Stephen G; Ash, Peter; Frierson, Richard L; Gerbasi, Joan; Hackett, Maureen; Lewis, Catherine F; Pinals, Debra A; Scott, Charles L; Sieg, Karl G; Wall, Barry W; Zonana, Howard V

    2007-01-01

    Competence to stand trial is a legal construct used to identify those criminal defendants who have the requisite mental capacity to understand the nature and objective of the proceedings against them and to participate rationally in preparing their defense. This Practice Guideline has described how psychiatrists should evaluate individuals concerning their competence to stand trial. The Guideline describes acceptable forensic psychiatric practice for such evaluations. Where possible, it specifies standards of practice and principles of ethics and also emphasizes the importance of analyzing an individual defendant's case in the context of statutes and case law applicable in the jurisdiction where the evaluation takes place. The recommendations in the Guideline both reflect and are limited by evolving case law, statutory requirements, legal publications, and the current state of psychiatric knowledge. The authors have taken note of nationally applicable case law, federal constitutional standards, statutory language, and federal and state interpretations of the rights or statutes, recognizing that jurisdictions may differ in their specific interpretation or application of statutes or general constitutional standards. The review of cases concerning specific psychiatric diagnoses illustrates general U.S. trends, and psychiatrists must remain cognizant of their jurisdictions' interpretations of statutes or constitutional requirements. By surveying a variety of practices and approaches to data gathering and case analysis, the authors believe that this Guideline will stimulate additional collegial discussion about what is necessary and sufficient for adequate evaluations of adjudicative competence. The notion that psychiatrists should apply expertise to competence assessments stems from the principal that, before allowing a defendant to face criminal prosecution and possible punishment, courts need reasonable assurance--based, if necessary, on a careful, individualized

  3. Treatment of urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord injury: guidelines, evidence, and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Pannek, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate current clinical practice in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in SCI centers where German is spoken and to compare it with current guidelines and evidence-based standards evaluated by a literature review. Methods A standardized questionnaire was mailed to 16 SCI rehabilitation centers. The results were compared with a literature review Results Of the 16 centers, 13 responded. Indications for UTI treatment, medications, and treatment duration differed substantially among the individual centers and from the existing guidelines. Antibiotic treatment is regarded as the method of choice. Compared with the existing literature, patients in two center were undertreated, whereas they were overtreated in seven centers. Conclusion Even in specialized centers, treatment of UTI in patients with SCI is based more on personal experience of the treating physicians than on published evidence. This may at least partly be due to the paucity of evidence-based data. The observed tendency toward overtreatment with antibiotics carries substantial future risks, as this strategy may well lead to the induction of multiresistant bacterial strains. Therefore, developing guidelines would be an important step toward a unification of the different treatment strategies, thus reducing unnecessary antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, evidence-based studies evaluating the success of antibiotic treatment as well as the usefulness of alternative strategies are urgently needed. PMID:21528621

  4. Audit and feedback and clinical practice guideline adherence: Making feedback actionable

    PubMed Central

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A

    2006-01-01

    Background As a strategy for improving clinical practice guideline (CPG) adherence, audit and feedback (A&F) has been found to be variably effective, yet A&F research has not investigated the impact of feedback characteristics on its effectiveness. This paper explores how high performing facilities (HPF) and low performing facilities (LPF) differ in the way they use clinical audit data for feedback purposes. Method Descriptive, qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high and low adherence to six CPGs, as measured by external chart review audits. One-hundred and two employees involved with outpatient CPG implementation across the six facilities participated in one-hour semi-structured interviews where they discussed strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementing CPGs. Interviews were analyzed using techniques from the grounded theory method. Results High performers provided timely, individualized, non-punitive feedback to providers, whereas low performers were more variable in their timeliness and non-punitiveness and relied on more standardized, facility-level reports. The concept of actionable feedback emerged as the core category from the data, around which timeliness, individualization, non-punitiveness, and customizability can be hierarchically ordered. Conclusion Facilities with a successful record of guideline adherence tend to deliver more timely, individualized and non-punitive feedback to providers about their adherence than facilities with a poor record of guideline adherence. Consistent with findings from organizational research, feedback intervention characteristics may influence the feedback's effectiveness at changing desired behaviors. PMID:16722539

  5. Clinical practice guidelines for treatment of acne vulgaris: a critical appraisal using the AGREE II instrument.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, Gloria; Acosta, Jorge-Luis; Tamayo, Maria-Eulalia; Bonfill, Xavier; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    A significant number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) about the treatment of acne vulgaris in adolescents and adults have been published worldwide. However, little is known about the quality of CPGs in this field. The aim of this study was to appraise the methodological quality of published acne vulgaris CPGs. We performed a systematic review of published CPGs on acne vulgaris therapy from July 2002 to July 2012. Three reviewers independently assessed each CPG using the AGREE II instrument. A standardized score was calculated for each of the six domains. Our search strategy identified 103 citations but just six met our inclusion criteria. Agreement among reviewers was very good: 0.981. The domains that scored better were: "scope and purpose" and "clarity and presentation". Those that scored worse were "stakeholder involvement", "rigor of development", and "applicability". The European and the Malaysian CPGs were the only recommended with no further modifications. In addition, the Mexican, Colombian and the United States guidelines were recommended with provisos, with lower scores regarding stakeholder involvement, rigor of development and applicability. Only two guidelines clearly reported outcome measures for evaluating efficacy or included quality of life outcomes. CPGs varied regarding the consideration of light/laser therapy or consideration of complementary/alternative medicines. None of them included cost considerations of drugs such as systemic isotretinoin. In conclusion, published acne vulgaris CPGs for acne therapy vary in quality with a clear need to improve their methodological rigor. This could be achieved with the adherence to current CPGs development standards.

  6. Critical Appraisal of the Quality of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhi-Kang; Liu, Ying; Cui, Xiang-Li; Liu, Li-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Inappropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is common in many hospitals. High-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) produce better patient outcomes and promote cost-effective clinical care. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of CPGs for SUP. Methods A search was conducted for SUP CPGs using PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM), guideline websites and Google (until March 1, 2015). The quality of CPGs was independently assessed by two assessors using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument, and the specific recommendations in the CPGs were summarized and evaluated. Results A total of 7 CPGs for SUP were included. The highest median scores were in the clarity of presentation domain (89%), and the lowest median scores were in the editorial independence domain (0%). The rigor of development, stakeholder involvement, and applicability domains all scored below 40%. The specific recommendations for SUP varied, and the recommendations were inconsistent with the supporting evidence. Conclusions The overall quality of CPGs for SUP was relatively low, and no specific SUP CPG can be recommended. Not only should the AGREE II instrument be used to determine the quality of CPGs, but also the recommendations should be appraised based on supporting evidence, which would contribute to the development of high-quality CPGs. PMID:27152836

  7. 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Galgiani, John N; Ampel, Neil M; Blair, Janis E; Catanzaro, Antonino; Geertsma, Francesca; Hoover, Susan E; Johnson, Royce H; Kusne, Shimon; Lisse, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Joel D; Meyerson, Shari L; Raksin, Patricia B; Siever, John; Stevens, David A; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Theodore, Nicholas

    2016-09-15

    It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. Infectious Diseases Society of America considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.Coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is a systemic infection endemic to parts of the southwestern United States and elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere. Residence in and recent travel to these areas are critical elements for the accurate recognition of patients who develop this infection. In this practice guideline, we have organized our recommendations to address actionable questions concerning the entire spectrum of clinical syndromes. These can range from initial pulmonary infection, which eventually resolves whether or not antifungal therapy is administered, to a variety of pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications. Additional recommendations address management of coccidioidomycosis occurring for special at-risk populations. Finally, preemptive management strategies are outlined in certain at-risk populations and after unintentional laboratory exposure. PMID:27470238

  8. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety and related disorders are among the most common mental disorders, with lifetime prevalence reportedly as high as 31%. Unfortunately, anxiety disorders are under-diagnosed and under-treated. Methods These guidelines were developed by Canadian experts in anxiety and related disorders through a consensus process. Data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment (psychological and pharmacological) were obtained through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and manual searches (1980–2012). Treatment strategies were rated on strength of evidence, and a clinical recommendation for each intervention was made, based on global impression of efficacy, effectiveness, and side effects, using a modified version of the periodic health examination guidelines. Results These guidelines are presented in 10 sections, including an introduction, principles of diagnosis and management, six sections (Sections 3 through 8) on the specific anxiety-related disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder), and two additional sections on special populations (children/adolescents, pregnant/lactating women, and the elderly) and clinical issues in patients with comorbid conditions. Conclusions Anxiety and related disorders are very common in clinical practice, and frequently comorbid with other psychiatric and medical conditions. Optimal management requires a good understanding of the efficacy and side effect profiles of pharmacological and psychological treatments. PMID:25081580

  9. Do knowledge brokers facilitate implementation of the stroke guideline in clinical practice?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The implementation of clinical practice guidelines in rehabilitation practice is often troublesome and incomplete. An intervention to enhance the implementation of guidelines is the knowledge transfer program built around the activities of a knowledge broker (KB). This study investigates the use of KBs to implement guideline recommendations for intensive therapy and physical activity for patients post-stroke in 22 stroke units in hospitals and rehabilitation centers in The Netherlands. Methods/Design This study includes a quantitative evaluation with a non controlled pre-post intervention design and a mixed methods process evaluation. From each stroke unit, enterprising nurses and therapists will be recruited and trained as KB. The KB will work for one year on the implementation of the guideline recommendations in their team. To evaluate the effectiveness of the KB, a questionnaire will be administered to patients, health professionals and KBs at baseline (T0) and after one year (T1). Furthermore, semi structured interviews with 5 KBs will be performed at T1. The primary outcome of this implementation project will be the support health professionals give patients to exercise and be physically active, as reported by patients and health professionals themselves. The support immediately after the intervention is compared with the support at the start of the intervention. Additionally we will explore the influence of socio-demographic characteristics of health professionals and determinants identified in the Theory of Planned Behavior (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) on the change of supportive behavior of health professionals. Finally, KBs will complete a questionnaire on their own psychological and social demographic characteristics and on organizational conditions needed for health-care improvement such as time, workforce, sponsoring and support from management. Discussion With this study we will gain insight in when

  10. Relating UMLS semantic types and task-based ontology to computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Ciccarese, Paolo; Quaglini, Silvana; Stefanelli, Mario; Caffi, Ezio; Boiocchi, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Medical knowledge in clinical practice guideline (GL) texts is the source of task-based computer-interpretable clinical guideline models (CIGMs). We have used Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic types (STs) to understand the percentage of GL text which belongs to a particular ST. We also use UMLS semantic network together with the CIGM-specific ontology to derive a semantic meaning behind the GL text. In order to achieve this objective, we took nine GL texts from the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and marked up the text dealing with a particular ST. The STs we took into consideration were restricted taking into account the requirements of a task-based CIGM. We used DARPA Agent Markup Language and Ontology Inference Layer (DAML + OIL) to create the UMLS and CIGM specific semantic network. For the latter, as a bench test, we used the 1999 WHO-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. We took into consideration the UMLS STs closest to the clinical tasks. The percentage of the GL text dealing with the ST "Health Care Activity" and subtypes "Laboratory Procedure", "Diagnostic Procedure" and "Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure" were measured. The parts of text belonging to other STs or comments were separated. A mapping of terms belonging to other STs was done to the STs under "HCA" for representation in DAML + OIL. As a result, we found that the three STs under "HCA" were the predominant STs present in the GL text. In cases where the terms of related STs existed, they were mapped into one of the three STs. The DAML + OIL representation was able to describe the hierarchy in task-based CIGMs. To conclude, we understood that the three STs could be used to represent the semantic network of the task-bases CIGMs. We identified some mapping operators which could be used for the mapping of other STs into these.

  11. Clinical trials and the new good clinical practice guideline in Japan. An economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Kodama, Y

    2000-08-01

    Japanese clinical trials have been drastically changing in response to the implementation of the International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP) guideline in 1997. The most important aim of the new guideline is to standardise the quality of clinical trials in the US, European Union and Japan, but it inevitably imposes substantial costs on investigators, sponsors and even patients in Japan. The study environment in Japan differs from that in the US in several ways: (i) historical lack of a formal requirement for informed consent; (ii) patients' attitudes to clinical trials in terms of expectation of positive outcomes; (iii) the implications of universal health insurance for trial participation; (iv) the historical absence of on-site monitoring by the sponsor, with the attendant effects on study quality; and (v) the lack of adequate financial and personnel support for the conduct of trials. Implementation of the new GCP guideline will improve the ethical and scientific quality of trials conducted in Japan. It may also lead to an improved relationship between medical professionals and patients if the requirement for explicit informed consent in clinical trials leads to the provision of a similar level of patient information in routine care and changes the traditional paternalistic attitude of physicians to patients. The initial response of the Japanese 'market' for clinical trials to the implementation of the ICH-GCP guideline has been clinical trial price increases and a decrease in the number of study contracts. These changes can be explained by applying a simple demand-supply scheme. Whether clinical trials undertaken in Japan become more or less attractive to the industry in the long term will depend on other factors such as international regulations on the acceptability of foreign clinical trials and the reform of domestic healthcare policies. PMID:11067647

  12. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and atrial fibrillation guidelines in practice: barriers to and strategies for optimal implementation

    PubMed Central

    Camm, A. John; Pinto, Fausto J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Andreotti, Felicita; Hobbs, F.D. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor for stroke, increasing the risk five-fold. Strokes in patients with AF are more likely than other embolic strokes to be fatal or cause severe disability and are associated with higher healthcare costs, but they are also preventable. Current guidelines recommend that all patients with AF who are at risk of stroke should receive anticoagulation. However, despite this guidance, registry data indicate that anticoagulation is still widely underused. With a focus on the 2012 update of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of AF, the Action for Stroke Prevention alliance writing group have identified key reasons for the suboptimal implementation of the guidelines at a global, regional, and local level, with an emphasis on access restrictions to guideline-recommended therapies. Following identification of these barriers, the group has developed an expert consensus on strategies to augment the implementation of current guidelines, including practical, educational, and access-related measures. The potential impact of healthcare quality measures for stroke prevention on guideline implementation is also explored. By providing practical guidance on how to improve implementation of the ESC guidelines, or region-specific modifications of these guidelines, the aim is to reduce the potentially devastating impact that stroke can have on patients, their families and their carers. PMID:26116685

  13. Application of Agree II Instrument for Appraisal of Postpartum Hemorrhage Clinical Practice Guidelines in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Novo, Ahmed; Subotic-popovic, Andreja; Strbac, Savka; Kandic, Alma; Horga, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Federal Minister of Health and Minister of Health and Social Welfare of the Republika Srpska as a Governmental health authorities in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and the Republika Srpska nominated/appointed health professionals as their representatives to a multidisciplinary Guidelines Adaptation Group (GAG). This group started with its work in September 2015. The main purpose of the guidelines development exercise is to develop guidelines with worldwide recognized methodology for clinical guidelines development and adaptation. At the end of this consultancy, GAG would have develop a clinical practice guideline on Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) through the adaptation method, starting from published international clinical guidelines and adapting it according to the country specific requirements. Methodology: During the process of identifying the best guideline for adaptation, the GAG had to pass several steps. One of the crucial steps was to identify the questions related to clinical practice and health policy for which answers are needed to be addressed by the guideline. These questions included relevant issues regarding the topic area such as diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, service delivery, and training. After that, six guidelines have been researched by the six members of the GAG to see if they answered the identified questions. Evaluating the methodological quality of the selected clinical guidelines was a second essential step before deciding which ones could best fit the needs and interests. AGREE II instrument has been chosen as methods for evaluating clinical guideline quality and appropriateness. Four appraisers conducted the assessment of each of the selected guidelines for PPH. All appraisers passed the training for the AGREE II instrument before conducting appraisals, as recommended by the AGREE collaboration. Each of the four guidelines was rated independently with the AGREE II tool by each appraiser. Results: The highest

  14. [Summary of the practice guideline 'The intrauterine device' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners].

    PubMed

    Boukes, Froukje S; Kertzman, Maud G M; Smeenk, Rob C J; Goudswaard, A N Lex

    2009-01-01

    The practice guideline 'The intrauterine device' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners, first published in 2000, has been revised. Copper and hormonal IUDs have more or less the same level of reliability with respect to preventing pregnancy. During the use of a copper IUD, menstruation tends to be longer with a greater loss of blood; in 70% of women who use a hormonal IUD oligomenorrhea or even amenorrhoea develops. Women with a history of venous thromboembolism can use a hormonal IUD safely. In the first weeks after IUD insertion, there is an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Therefore prior to insertion, the general practitioner should enquire about the risk of a SOA being present and, if necessary, perform SOA tests. In the Netherlands, IUD insertion can usually be performed at a general practice.

  15. Evidence-based preventive practice guidelines. Qualitative study of useful resources on the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Feightner, J. W.; Marshall, J. N.; Sangster, L. M.; Wathen, C. N.; Quintana, Y.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore family physicians' perspectives on how best to provide evidence-based preventive clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to physicians on the Internet. DESIGN: Focus groups. SETTING: A large, urban centre and a rural community hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-four of more than 150 family physicians who subscribed to an e-mail discussion group. METHOD: Qualitative survey of four focus groups, analysis of transcripts and researchers' notes. MAIN FINDINGS: Four themes characterized participants' preferences for disseminating preventive CPGs on the Internet: content expectations; quick, easy access to information; trustworthiness of information; and implications for clinical practice. CONCLUSION: Physicians want quick, easy access to trustworthy information. A website for preventive CPGs with these characteristics would be a useful resource. PMID:11561334

  16. Learning from mistakes in clinical practice guidelines: the case of perioperative beta-blockade

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Mark D.; Bosk, Charles L.; Fleisher, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    For more than two decades, the role of beta-blockers in preventing cardiac complications after major surgery has been the subject of contentious scientific and policy debate. Based on two small but highly publicized randomized trials published in 1996 and 1999, prominent U.S. organizations embraced preoperative beta-blocker initiation as a “best practice” and an opportunity for widespread safety improvement. Yet only a few years later, expert recommendations regarding preoperative beta-blockers were revised and downgraded when subsequent research failed confirm promising early findings and called attention to potential harms associated with beta-blocker overuse. In this paper, we trace the history of preoperative beta-blocker recommendations as a case study in lessons to be learned from reversals of guideline recommendations based initially on evidence drawn from randomized, controlled trials. Ultimately, we find that the policy significance that stakeholders ascribed to early beta-blocker studies combined with the prestige that experts assigned to the randomized controlled trial as a form of evidence to short-circuit discourse on the risks of preoperative beta-blocker initiation and led it to be elevated prematurely as a best practice. As such, the story of preoperative beta-blockers illustrates threats to objectivity in guidelines that can emerge from policy imperatives that lend primacy to the rapid translation of research into practice and from perspectives that unduly emphasize the strengths of randomized trials. PMID:25136141

  17. Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: secondary prevention of stroke guidelines, update 2014.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Shelagh B; Wein, Theodore H; Lindsay, M Patrice; Buck, Brian; Cote, Robert; Ellis, Paul; Foley, Norine; Hill, Michael D; Jaspers, Sharon; Jin, Albert Y; Kwiatkowski, Brenda; MacPhail, Carolyn; McNamara-Morse, Dana; McMurtry, Michael S; Mysak, Tania; Pipe, Andrew; Silver, Karen; Smith, Eric E; Gubitz, Gord

    2015-04-01

    Every year, approximately 62,000 people with stroke and transient ischemic attack are treated in Canadian hospitals. The 2014 update of the Canadian Secondary Prevention of Stroke guideline is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based recommendations for clinicians in a range of settings, who provide care to patients following stroke. Notable changes in this 5th edition include an emphasis on treating the highest risk patients who present within 48 h of symptom onset with transient or persistent motor or speech symptoms, who need to be transported to the closest emergency department with capacity for advanced stroke care; a recommendation for brain and vascular imaging (of the intra- and extracranial vessels) to be completed urgently using computed tomography/computed tomography angiography; prolonged cardiac monitoring for patients with suspective cardioembolic stroke but without evidence for atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram or holter monitoring; and de-emphasizing the need for routine echocardiogram. The Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations include a range of supporting materials such as implementation resources to facilitate the adoption of evidence to practice, and related performance measures to enable monitoring of uptake and effectiveness of the recommendations using a standardized approach. The guidelines further emphasize the need for a systems approach to stroke care, involving an interprofessional team, with access to specialists regardless of patient location, and the need to overcome geographical barriers to ensure equity in access within a universal health-care system. PMID:25535808

  18. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Sumio; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Ikejima, Kenichi; Uto, Hirofumi; Ono, Masafumi; Sumida, Yoshio; Seike, Masataka; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Takehara, Tetsuo; Tokushige, Katsutoshi; Nakajima, Atsushi; Yoneda, Masashi; Saibara, Toshiji; Shiota, Goshi; Sakaida, Isao; Nakamuta, Makoto; Mizuta, Toshihiko; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries worldwide, and has become a serious public health issue not only in Western countries but also in many Asian countries including Japan. Within the wide spectrum of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of disease, which often develops into liver cirrhosis and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. In turn, a large proportion of NAFLD/NASH is the liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome, suggesting that NAFLD/NASH plays a key role in the pathogenesis of systemic atherosclerotic diseases. Currently, a definite diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy, though various noninvasive measures are under development. The mainstays of prevention and treatment of NAFLD/NASH include dietary restriction and exercise; however, pharmacological approaches are often necessary. Currently, vitamin E and thiazolidinedione derivatives are the most evidence-based therapeutic options, although the clinical evidence for long-term efficacy and safety is limited. This practice guideline for NAFLD/NASH, established by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology in cooperation with The Japan Society of Hepatology, covers lines of clinical evidence reported internationally in the period starting from 1983 to January 2012, and each clinical question was evaluated using the GRADE system. Based on the primary release of the full version in Japanese, this English summary provides the core essentials of this clinical practice guideline comprising the definition, diagnosis, and current therapeutic recommendations for NAFLD/NASH in Japan.

  19. Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: secondary prevention of stroke guidelines, update 2014.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Shelagh B; Wein, Theodore H; Lindsay, M Patrice; Buck, Brian; Cote, Robert; Ellis, Paul; Foley, Norine; Hill, Michael D; Jaspers, Sharon; Jin, Albert Y; Kwiatkowski, Brenda; MacPhail, Carolyn; McNamara-Morse, Dana; McMurtry, Michael S; Mysak, Tania; Pipe, Andrew; Silver, Karen; Smith, Eric E; Gubitz, Gord

    2015-04-01

    Every year, approximately 62,000 people with stroke and transient ischemic attack are treated in Canadian hospitals. The 2014 update of the Canadian Secondary Prevention of Stroke guideline is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based recommendations for clinicians in a range of settings, who provide care to patients following stroke. Notable changes in this 5th edition include an emphasis on treating the highest risk patients who present within 48 h of symptom onset with transient or persistent motor or speech symptoms, who need to be transported to the closest emergency department with capacity for advanced stroke care; a recommendation for brain and vascular imaging (of the intra- and extracranial vessels) to be completed urgently using computed tomography/computed tomography angiography; prolonged cardiac monitoring for patients with suspective cardioembolic stroke but without evidence for atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram or holter monitoring; and de-emphasizing the need for routine echocardiogram. The Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations include a range of supporting materials such as implementation resources to facilitate the adoption of evidence to practice, and related performance measures to enable monitoring of uptake and effectiveness of the recommendations using a standardized approach. The guidelines further emphasize the need for a systems approach to stroke care, involving an interprofessional team, with access to specialists regardless of patient location, and the need to overcome geographical barriers to ensure equity in access within a universal health-care system.

  20. Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Interventional Pain Management in Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Sushma; Gupta, Maynak

    2015-01-01

    Intractable cancer pain not amenable to standard oral or parenteral analgesics is a horrifying truth in 10–15% of patients. Interventional pain management techniques are an indispensable arsenal in pain physician's armamentarium for severe, intractable pain and can be broadly classified into neuroablative and neuromodulation techniques. An array of neurolytic techniques (chemical, thermal, or surgical) can be employed for ablation of individual nerve fibers, plexuses, or intrathecalneurolysis in patients with resistant pain and short life-expectancy. Neuraxial administration of drugs and spinal cord stimulation to modulate or alter the pain perception constitutes the most frequently employed neuromodulation techniques. Lately, there is a rising call for early introduction of interventional techniques in carefully selected patients simultaneously or even before starting strong opioids. After decades of empirical use, it is the need of the hour to head towards professionalism and standardization in order to secure credibility of specialization and those practicing it. Even though the interventional management has found a definite place in cancer pain, there is a dearth of evidence-based practice guidelines for interventional therapies in cancer pain. This may be because of paucity of good quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating their safety and efficacy in cancer pain. Laying standardized guidelines based on existing and emerging evidence will act as a foundation step towards strengthening, credentialing, and dissemination of the specialty of interventional cancer pain management. This will also ensure an improved decision-making and quality of life (QoL) of the suffering patients. PMID:26009665

  1. Practical guidelines for applying statistical process control to blood component production.

    PubMed

    Beckman, N; Nightingale, M J; Pamphilon, D

    2009-12-01

    Legislation, guidelines and recommendations for blood components related to statistical process control (SPC) and the selection of a quality monitoring (QM) sampling regimen are subject to misinterpretation and lack practical guidance on implementation. The aim of this article is: to review and interpret applicable European legislation and guidelines and to develop an SPC strategy that meets these requirements; and to provide practical guidance on the selection and application of appropriate techniques and the interpretation of resultant blood component QM data. A methodology is presented which utilizes: an algorithm to select an appropriate quality-monitoring strategy for the blood component parameter under consideration; a range of straightforward, validated SPC techniques for variable data and an assessment of process capability (Cpk) and blood component parameter 'criticality' to determine the sampling regimen. The methodology was applied to routine National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) blood component data for 2005-2006. Cpk values ranged from 0.22 to >3 and their predicted non-conformance rates were close to those observed (23 to <0.001%). Required sample size ranged from 0.01 to 10%. Chosen techniques identified significant deviation from 'as validated' performance within an appropriate time-scale. Thus the methodology was straightforward to apply and prompted the choice of a clinically and operationally appropriate sampling regimen and analysis for each blood component parameter. This evidence-based, targeted use of SPC for blood component monitoring provides an essential focus on processes with a low capability in achieving their specifications. PMID:19761545

  2. Chiropractic clinical practice guideline: evidence-based treatment of adult neck pain not due to whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Peacock, Elizabeth; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Bryans, Roland; Danis, Normand; Furlan, Andrea; Marcoux, Henri; Potter, Brock; Ruegg, Rick; Gross Stein, Janice; White, Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the chiropractic cervical treatment of adults with acute or chronic neck pain not due to whiplash. This is a considerable health concern considered to be a priority by stakeholders, and about which the scientific information was poorly organized. OPTIONS Cervical treatments: manipulation, mobilization, ischemic pressure, clinic- and home-based exercise, traction, education, low-power laser, massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, pillows, pulsed electromagnetic therapy, and ultrasound. OUTCOMES The primary outcomes considered were improved (reduced and less intrusive) pain and improved (increased and easier) ranges of motion (ROM) of the adult cervical spine. EVIDENCE An “extraction” team recorded evidence from articles found by literature search teams using 4 separate literature searches, and rated it using a Table adapted from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. The searches were 1) Treatment; August, 2003, using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ICL, The Cochrane Library (includes CENTRAL), and EBSCO, identified 182 articles. 2) Risk management (adverse events); October, 2004, identified 230 articles and 2 texts. 3) Risk management (dissection); September, 2003, identified 79 articles. 4) Treatment update; a repeat of the treatment search for articles published between September, 2003 and November, 2004 inclusive identified 121 articles. VALUES To enable the search of the literature, the authors (Guidelines Development Committee [GDC]) regarded chiropractic treatment as including elements of “conservative” care in the search strategies, but not in the consideration of the range of chiropractic practice. Also, knowledge based only on clinical experience was considered less valid and reliable than good-caliber evidence, but where the caliber of the relevant evidence was low or it was non-existent, unpublished clinical experience was considered to be equivalent to

  3. Practice guidelines for the management of low back pain. Consensus Group of Practice Parameters to Manage Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Guevara-López, Uría; Covarrubias-Gómez, Alfredo; Elías-Dib, Jorge; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Reyna, Tatiana Sofía

    2011-01-01

    It has been documented that pain in its diverse modalities is the most common cause of medical attention. In Mexico, an increase in its frequency has promoted its consideration in several health programs. On the other hand, inadequate pain management will cause severe physical, psychoaffective, and socioeconomic repercussions for patients, families, and public health services. Despite this panorama, there has not been an agreement to establish better diagnostic and therapeutic methods for the management of chronic pain. A consensus group was reunited and was integrated by medical experts from private and public institutions and from various states of the Mexican Republic. To assure the development of these practice guidelines, these experts had experience in the assessment and treatment of conditions causing pain. With the guidelines used by other consensus groups, meetings were held to analyze and discuss published literary evidence for the management of low back pain. The recommendations were classified according to their methodological strength. As a result of this meeting, consensus recommendations were based on evidence and operational conclusions of such proactive educational plans, institutional policies and diagnostic recommendations for pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment in order for Mexican physicians to provide a better therapeutic approach to low back pain.

  4. Knowledge of asthma guidelines: results of a UK General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG) web-based 'Test your Knowledge' quiz.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Hilary; Holmes, Steve; Levy, Mark L; McArthur, Ruth; Small, Iain

    2010-06-01

    A web-based questionnaire, comprising 11 multiple choice questions, tested the knowledge of visitors to the General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG) online summary of the British Asthma guideline. On average, the 413 respondents answered less than half the questions correctly. GP scores were significantly lower than practice nurses. Improving clinicians' knowledge of asthma is a prerequisite for improving management.

  5. Patient and public attitudes to and awareness of clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review with thematic and narrative syntheses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines are typically written for healthcare providers but there is increasing interest in producing versions for the public, patients and carers. The main objective of this review is to identify and synthesise evidence of the public’s attitudes towards clinical practice guidelines and evidence-based recommendations written for providers or the public, together with their awareness of guidelines. Methods We included quantitative and qualitative studies of any design reporting on public, patient (and their carers) attitudes and awareness of guidelines written for providers or patients/public. We searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, ERIC, ASSIA and the Cochrane Library from 2000 to 2012. We also searched relevant websites, reviewed citations and contacted experts in the field. At least two authors independently screened, abstracted data and assessed the quality of studies. We conducted a thematic analysis of first and second order themes and performed a separate narrative synthesis of patient and public awareness of guidelines. Results We reviewed 5415 records and included 26 studies (10 qualitative studies, 13 cross sectional and 3 randomised controlled trials) involving 24 887 individuals. Studies were mostly good to fair quality. The thematic analysis resulted in four overarching themes: Applicability of guidelines; Purpose of guidelines for patient; Purpose of guidelines for health care system and physician; and Properties of guidelines. Overall, participants had mixed attitudes towards guidelines; some participants found them empowering but many saw them as a way of rationing care. Patients were also concerned that the information may not apply to their own health care situations. Awareness of guidelines ranged from 0-79%, with greater awareness in participants surveyed on national guideline websites. Conclusion There are many factors, not only formatting, that may affect the uptake and use of guideline

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Stefan R.; Allolio, Bruno; Arlt, Wiebke; Barthel, Andreas; Don-Wauchope, Andrew; Hammer, Gary D.; Husebye, Eystein S.; Merke, Deborah P.; Murad, M. Hassan; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Torpy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This clinical practice guideline addresses the diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency. Participants: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, eight additional clinicians experienced with the disease, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The co-sponsoring associations (European Society of Endocrinology and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry) had participating members. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration in connection with this review. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to determine the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Consensus Process: The evidence used to formulate recommendations was derived from two commissioned systematic reviews as well as other published systematic reviews and studies identified by the Task Force. The guideline was reviewed and approved sequentially by the Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and the Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. Conclusions: We recommend diagnostic tests for the exclusion of primary adrenal insufficiency in all patients with indicative clinical symptoms or signs. In particular, we suggest a low diagnostic (and therapeutic) threshold in acutely ill patients, as well as in patients with predisposing factors. This is also recommended for pregnant women with unexplained persistent nausea, fatigue, and hypotension. We recommend a short corticotropin test (250 μg) as the “gold standard” diagnostic tool to establish the diagnosis. If a short corticotropin test is not possible in the first instance, we recommend an initial screening procedure comprising the measurement of morning plasma ACTH

  7. Practical guidelines for best practice on Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy: Analysis of aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaño, Sofía; Regadío, Mercedes; Binnemans, Koen; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Despite the fact that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is becoming more and more popular as a quantification technique in analytical chemistry due to its simplicity and robustness, there are still some key aspects related to the sample preparation that need to be improved. In this work, the effect of different parameters is investigated: measurement time, carrier position, sample volume and sample drying time. The measurement time and the sample volume on the carriers mainly affect the recovery rate and relative standard deviation of the quantified metal from aqueous solutions. The most important parameters that play a fundamental role in the calibration of a TXRF machine such as choice of the standard element and concentration ratio between the analyte and the standard are discussed. Practical and easy guidelines for the correct preparation of aqueous samples are presented. These can be used by both less and more experienced TXRF users, interested in measuring metal ion concentrations in aqueous samples.

  8. Enhanced implementation of low back pain guidelines in general practice: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines may improve treatment quality, but the uptake of guideline recommendations is often incomplete and slow. Recently new low back pain guidelines are being launched in Denmark. The guidelines are considered to reduce personal and public costs. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a complex, multifaceted implementation strategy of the low back pain guidelines will reduce secondary care referral and improve patient outcomes compared to the usual simple implementation strategy. Methods/design In a two-armed cluster randomised trial, 100 general practices (clusters) and 2,700 patients aged 18 to 65 years from the North Denmark region will be included. Practices are randomly allocated 1:1 to a simple or a complex implementation strategy. Intervention practices will receive a complex implementation strategy, including guideline facilitator visits, stratification tools, and quality reports on low back pain treatment. Primary outcome is referral to secondary care. Secondary outcomes are pain, physical function, health-related quality of life, patient satisfaction with care and treatment outcome, employment status, and sick leave. Primary and secondary outcomes pertain to the patient level. Assessments of outcomes are blinded and follow the intention-to-treat principle. Additionally, a process assessment will evaluate the degree to which the intervention elements will be delivered as planned, as well as measure changes in beliefs and behaviours among general practitioners and patients. Discussion This study provides knowledge concerning the process and effect of an intervention to implement low back pain guidelines in general practice, and will provide insight on essential elements to include in future implementation strategies in general practice. Trial registration Registered as NCT01699256 on ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:24139140

  9. Treating Tobacco Dependence in Light of the 2008 US Department of Health and Human Services Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Hays, J. Taylor; Ebbert, Jon O.; Sood, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of morbidity, mortality, and excess health care costs in the United States. From 2000 through 2004, cigarette smoking caused an estimated annual average of 443,595 deaths and cost $193 billion per year in smoking-attributable productivity losses and smoking-related health care expenditures. Preventing smoking and providing effective treatment to help smokers quit will remain a public health priority for the foreseeable future. In support of this goal, the US Department of Health and Human Services recently published the clinical practice guideline entitled Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. The new guideline updates the previous guidelines published in 1996 and 2000 and presents many new research findings to provide a broader evidence base for effective intervention. This article briefly reviews the major updates and recommendations from the new guideline and highlights its practical clinical applications. PMID:19648390

  10. Practical recommendations for the process of proposing, planning and writing a neurological management guideline by EAN task forces.

    PubMed

    Leone, M A; Keindl, M; Schapira, A H; Deuschl, G; Federico, A

    2015-12-01

    The European Academy of Neurology (EAN), founded in 2014 after the merging of the two previously active European Neurological Societies, considers the production of neurological guidelines a major obligation, as this is a major tool to improve clinical practice in neurology. This paper updates practical suggestions to develop guidelines about the treatment and diagnosis of neurological diseases within the framework of the EAN. Its aim is to make uniform, traceable and explicit the path from the decision to write an EAN guideline to its publication. We explain the protocol structure, handling of conflicts of interest, format, timeline and process of revision and acceptance. It provides the view of the Scientific Committee and the Board of the EAN. We hope to make easier a larger involvement of the EAN scientific community in producing guidelines.

  11. Clinical Practice Guideline: Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and functional constipation in the adult.

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Ciriza, Constanza; Mínguez, Miguel; Rey, Enrique; Mascort, Juan José; Peña, Enrique; Cañones, Pedro; Júdez, Javier

    2016-06-01

    In this Clinical Practice Guideline we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of adult patients with constipation and abdominal complaints at the confluence of the irritable bowel syndrome spectrum and functional constipation. Both conditions are included among the functional bowel disorders, and have a significant personal, healthcare, and social impact, affecting the quality of life of the patients who suffer from them. The first one is the irritable bowel syndrome subtype, where constipation represents the predominant complaint, in association with recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and abdominal distension. Constipation is characterized by difficulties with or low frequency of bowel movements, often accompanied by straining during defecation or a feeling of incomplete evacuation. Most cases have no underlying medical cause, and are therefore considered as a functional bowel disorder. There are many clinical and pathophysiological similarities between both disorders, and both respond similarly to commonly used drugs, their primary difference being the presence or absence of pain, albeit not in an "all or nothing" manner. Severity depends not only upon bowel symptom intensity but also upon other biopsychosocial factors (association of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms, grade of involvement, and perception and behavior variants). Functional bowel disorders are diagnosed using the Rome criteria. This Clinical Practice Guideline has been made consistent with the Rome IV criteria, which were published late in May 2016, and discuss alarm criteria, diagnostic tests, and referral criteria between Primary Care and gastroenterology settings. Furthermore, all the available treatment options (exercise, fluid ingestion, diet with soluble fiber-rich foods, fiber supplementation, other dietary components, osmotic or stimulating laxatives, probiotics, antibiotics, spasmolytics, peppermint essence, prucalopride, linaclotide, lubiprostone, biofeedback

  12. Clinical Practice Guideline: Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and functional constipation in the adult.

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Ciriza, Constanza; Mínguez, Miguel; Rey, Enrique; Mascort, Juan José; Peña, Enrique; Cañones, Pedro; Júdez, Javier

    2016-06-01

    In this Clinical Practice Guideline we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of adult patients with constipation and abdominal complaints at the confluence of the irritable bowel syndrome spectrum and functional constipation. Both conditions are included among the functional bowel disorders, and have a significant personal, healthcare, and social impact, affecting the quality of life of the patients who suffer from them. The first one is the irritable bowel syndrome subtype, where constipation represents the predominant complaint, in association with recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and abdominal distension. Constipation is characterized by difficulties with or low frequency of bowel movements, often accompanied by straining during defecation or a feeling of incomplete evacuation. Most cases have no underlying medical cause, and are therefore considered as a functional bowel disorder. There are many clinical and pathophysiological similarities between both disorders, and both respond similarly to commonly used drugs, their primary difference being the presence or absence of pain, albeit not in an "all or nothing" manner. Severity depends not only upon bowel symptom intensity but also upon other biopsychosocial factors (association of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms, grade of involvement, and perception and behavior variants). Functional bowel disorders are diagnosed using the Rome criteria. This Clinical Practice Guideline has been made consistent with the Rome IV criteria, which were published late in May 2016, and discuss alarm criteria, diagnostic tests, and referral criteria between Primary Care and gastroenterology settings. Furthermore, all the available treatment options (exercise, fluid ingestion, diet with soluble fiber-rich foods, fiber supplementation, other dietary components, osmotic or stimulating laxatives, probiotics, antibiotics, spasmolytics, peppermint essence, prucalopride, linaclotide, lubiprostone, biofeedback

  13. [French Society of Vascular Medicine good medical practice guidelines on safety and environment in vascular medicine: Treatment of varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Giordana, P; Miserey, G

    2014-12-01

    These guidelines proposed by the French Society of Vascular Medicine define the optimal environment for vascular medicine practice: outpatient clinic; equipment, layout and maintenance of the care center; infection risk prevention (hand hygiene, individual protective measures, exposure to blood, ultrasound apparatus, etc.); common interventions and techniques (liquid and foam sclerotherapy, endovenous thermal treatments). These guidelines do not include phlebectomy and use of ultrasound contrast agents.

  14. 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: what has changed in daily clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Liakos, Charalampos I; Grassos, Charalampos A; Babalis, Dimitrios K

    2015-03-01

    This is a review article aiming to make focus on the changes made in the European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension with some criticism for each element discussed in the text. Given that in the real world clinical practice physicians would hardly spend the time needed for studying the 77 pages manuscript of the recently released 2013 ESH/ESC hypertension guidelines, the present review summarizes all the significant updates (along with their clinical implications) compared to the 2007 ESH/ESC hypertension guidelines and the 2009 reappraisal document.

  15. Neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for resectable gastric cancer? A practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Earle, Craig C.; Maroun, Jean; Zuraw, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Objective To make recommendations on the use of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy in addition to surgery in patients with resectable gastric cancer (T1–4, N1–2, M0). Options Neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatments compared with “curative” surgery alone. Outcomes Overall survival, disease-free survival, and adverse effects. Evidence The MEDLINE, CANCERLIT and Cochrane Library databases and relevant conference proceedings were searched to identify randomized trials. Values Evidence was selected and reviewed by one member of the Cancer Care Ontario Practice Guidelines Initiative (CCOPGI) Gastrointestinal Cancer Disease Site Group and methodologists. A systematic review of the published literature was combined with a consensus process around the interpretation of the evidence in the context of conventional practice, to develop an evidence-based practice guideline. This report has been reviewed and approved by the Gastrointestinal Cancer Disease Site Group, comprising medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, surgeons, a pathologist and 2 community representatives. Benefits, harms and costs When compared with surgery alone, at 3 years adjuvant chemoradiotherapy has been shown to increase overall survival by 9% (50% v. 41%, p = 0.005) and to improve relapse-free survival from 31% to 48% (p = 0.001). At 5 years, it has been shown to increase overall survival by 11.6% (40% v. 28.4%) and to improve relapse-free survival from 25% to 38% (p < 0.001). Treatment has been associated with toxic deaths in 1% of patients. The most frequent adverse effects (> grade 3 [Southwest Oncology Group toxicity scale] are hematologic (54%), gastrointestinal (33%), influenza-like (9%), infectious (6%) and neurologic (4%). The radiation fields used can possibly damage the left kidney, resulting in hypertension and other renal problems. Furthermore, this therapy could increase the demand on radiation resources. Physicians and patients should understand the tradeoffs between survival benefit

  16. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for peptic ulcer disease 2015.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kiichi; Yoshino, Junji; Akamatsu, Taiji; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Kato, Mototsugu; Kamada, Tomoari; Takagi, Atsushi; Chiba, Toshimi; Nomura, Sachiyo; Mizokami, Yuji; Murakami, Kazunari; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Hiraishi, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao; Uemura, Naomi; Goto, Hidemi; Joh, Takashi; Miwa, Hiroto; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-03-01

    The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for peptic ulcer disease in 2014 and has created an English version. The revised guidelines consist of seven items: bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcers, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy, non-eradication therapy, drug-induced ulcer, non-H. pylori, non-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ulcer, surgical treatment, and conservative therapy for perforation and stenosis. Ninety clinical questions (CQs) were developed, and a literature search was performed for the CQs using the Medline, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases between 1983 and June 2012. The guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Therapy is initially provided for ulcer complications. Perforation or stenosis is treated with surgery or conservatively. Ulcer bleeding is first treated by endoscopic hemostasis. If it fails, surgery or interventional radiology is chosen. Second, medical therapy is provided. In cases of NSAID-related ulcers, use of NSAIDs is stopped, and anti-ulcer therapy is provided. If NSAID use must continue, the ulcer is treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or prostaglandin analog. In cases with no NSAID use, H. pylori-positive patients receive eradication and anti-ulcer therapy. If first-line eradication therapy fails, second-line therapy is given. In cases of non-H. pylori, non-NSAID ulcers or H. pylori-positive patients with no indication for eradication therapy, non-eradication therapy is provided. The first choice is PPI therapy, and the second choice is histamine 2-receptor antagonist therapy. After initial therapy, maintenance therapy is provided to prevent ulcer relapse.

  17. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for gastroesophageal reflux disease 2015.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Habu, Yasuki; Oshima, Tadayuki; Manabe, Noriaki; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Nagahara, Akihito; Kawamura, Osamu; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Ozawa, Soji; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Ohara, Shuichi; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Adachi, Kyoichi; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Miwa, Hiroto; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hoshihara, Yoshio; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Haruma, Ken; Hongo, Michio; Sugano, Kentaro; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-08-01

    As an increase in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been reported in Japan, and public interest in GERD has been increasing, the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology published the Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for GERD (1st edition) in 2009. Six years have passed since its publication, and there have been a large number of reports in Japan concerning the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and Barrett's esophagus during this period. By incorporating the contents of these reports, the guidelines were completely revised, and a new edition was published in October 2015. The revised edition consists of eight items: epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, internal treatment, surgical treatment, esophagitis after surgery of the upper gastrointestinal tract, extraesophageal symptoms, and Barrett's esophagus. This paper summarizes these guidelines, particularly the parts related to the treatment for GERD. In the present revision, aggressive proton pump inhibitor (PPI) maintenance therapy is recommended for severe erosive GERD, and on-demand therapy or continuous maintenance therapy is recommended for mild erosive GERD or PPI-responsive non-erosive GERD. Moreover, PPI-resistant GERD (insufficient symptomatic improvement and/or esophageal mucosal break persisting despite the administration of PPI at a standard dose for 8 weeks) is defined, and a standard-dose PPI twice a day, change in PPI, change in the PPI timing of dosing, addition of a prokinetic drug, addition of rikkunshito (traditional Japanese herbal medicine), and addition of histamine H2-receptor antagonist are recommended for its treatment. If no improvement is observed even after these treatments, pathophysiological evaluation with esophageal impedance-pH monitoring or esophageal manometry at an expert facility for diseases of the esophagus is recommended.

  18. Analysis Treatment Guideline versus Clinical Practice Protocol in Patients Hospitalized due to Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Alessandra da Graça; Makdisse, Marcia; Katz, Marcelo; Santana, Thamires Campos; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Galvão, Tatiana de Fatima Gonçalves; Bacal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of guidelines for treatment of heart failure (HF), only a few studies have assessed how hospitals adhere to the recommended therapies. Objectives Compare the rates of adherence to the prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) at hospital discharge, which is considered a quality indicator by the Joint Commission International, and to the prescription of beta-blockers at hospital discharge, which is recommended by national and international guidelines, in a hospital with a case management program to supervise the implementation of a clinical practice protocol (HCP) and another hospital that follows treatment guidelines (HCG). Methods Prospective observational study that evaluated patients consecutively admitted to both hospitals due to decompensated HF between August 1st, 2006, and December 31st, 2008. We used as comparing parameters the prescription rates of beta-blockers and ACEI/ARB at hospital discharge and in-hospital mortality. Results We analyzed 1,052 patients (30% female, mean age 70.6 ± 14.1 years), 381 (36%) of whom were seen at HCG and 781 (64%) at HCP. The prescription rates of beta-blockers at discharge at HCG and HCP were both 69% (p = 0.458), whereas those of ACEI/ARB were 83% and 86%, respectively (p = 0.162). In-hospital mortality rates were 16.5% at HCP and 27.8% at HCG (p < 0.001). Conclusion There was no difference in prescription rates of beta-blocker and ACEI/ARB at hospital discharge between the institutions, but HCP had lower in-hospital mortality. This difference in mortality may be attributed to different clinical characteristics of the patients in both hospitals. PMID:26815461

  19. Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Survey of Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lytvyn, Lyubov; Mertz, Dominik; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Alaklobi, Faisal; Selva, Anna; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Johnston, Bradley C

    2016-08-01

    BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea. OBJECTIVE To analyze the methodological quality, content, and supporting evidence among clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on CDI prevention. DESIGN AND SETTING We searched medical databases and gray literature for CPGs on CDI prevention published January 2004-January 2015. Three reviewers independently screened articles and rated CPG quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument, composed of 23 items, rated 1-7, within 6 domains. We reported each domain score as a percentage of its maximum possible score and standardized range. We summarized recommendations, extracted their supporting articles, and rated individually the level of evidence using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. RESULTS Of 2,578 articles screened, 5 guidelines met inclusion criteria. Median AGREE II scores and interquartile ranges were: clarity of presentation, 75.9% (75.9%-79.6%); scope and purpose, 74.1% (68.5%-85.2%); editorial independence, 63.9% (47.2%-66.7%); applicability, 43.1% (19.4%-55.6%); stakeholder involvement, 40.7% (38.9%-44.4%); and rigor of development, 18.1% (17.4%-35.4%). CPGs addressed several common strategies for CDI prevention, including antibiotic stewardship, hypochlorite solutions, probiotic prophylaxis, and bundle strategies. Recommendations were often not consistent with evidence, and most were based on low-level studies. CONCLUSION CPGs did not adhere well to AGREE II reporting standards. Furthermore, there was limited transparency in moving from evidence to recommendations. CDI prevention CPGs need to better adhere to AGREE-II and be transparent in moving from evidence to recommendations, and recommendations need to be consistent with available evidence. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:901-908. PMID:27267201

  20. Evaluation of a practice guideline for the management of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants: A quality improvement initiative

    PubMed Central

    Read, Brooke; Lee, David SC; Fraser, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of mechanical ventilation to treat respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants has been associated with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. As part of a quality improvement initiative to reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants, a new practice guideline for the management of respiratory distress syndrome was developed and adopted into practice in a neonatal intensive care unit in February 2012. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of implementing the new guideline in regard to the use of mechanical ventilation and surfactant, and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dypslasia. METHODS: An historical cohort of very preterm infants (gestational age 260 to 326 weeks) born one year before guideline implementation was compared with a similar cohort of infants born one year following guideline implementation. Data were collected retrospectively from the local neonatal intensive care unit database. RESULTS: A total of 272 preterm infants were included in the study: 129 in the preguideline cohort and 143 in the postguideline cohort. Following the implementation of the guideline, the proportion of infants treated with ongoing mechanical ventilation was reduced from 49% to 26% (P<0.001) and there was a trend toward a reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (27% versus 18%; P=0.07). There was no difference in the proportion of infants treated with surfactant (54% versus 50%). CONCLUSION: The implementation of the practice guideline helped to minimize the use of ongoing mechanical ventilation in preterm infants. PMID:26941562

  1. AAPL practice guideline for forensic psychiatric evaluation of defendants raising the insanity defense. American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

    PubMed

    Giorgi-Guarnieri, Deborah; Janofsky, Jeffrey; Keram, Emily; Lawsky, Sarah; Merideth, Philip; Mossman, Douglas; Schwart-Watts, Donna; Scott, Charles; Thompson, John; Zonana, Howard

    2002-01-01

    The insanity defense is a legal construct that excuses certain mentally ill defendants from legal responsibility for criminal behavior. This practice guideline has delineated the forensic psychiatric evaluation of defendants raising the insanity defense. The document describes acceptable forensic psychiatric practices. Where possible, standards of practice and ethical guidelines have been specified. And where appropriate, the practice guideline has emphasized the importance of analyzing the individual case, the jurisdictional case law and the state (or federal) statute. This practice guideline is limited by the evolving case law, statutory language and legal literature. The authors have emphasized the statutory language of current legal standards, as well as the state or federal courts' interpretation of those standards because the same statutory language has been interpreted differently in different jurisdictions. Similarly, this practice guideline has reviewed the state and federal trends that determine which diagnoses meet the criteria for mental disease or defect. These trends yield to jurisdictional court interpretations. Finally, the authors hope this practice guideline has begun the dialogue about formulating a forensic psychiatric opinion by surveying the various approaches used to analyze case data. The forensic psychiatrist's opinion in each case requires an understanding of the current jurisdictional legal standard and its application, as well as a thorough analysis of the individual case. The psychiatrist's analysis and opinion should be clearly stated in the forensic psychiatric report. It should be noted that the role of a psychiatric expert witness in the criminal justice system is predicated on the law's interest in individualizing the criteria of mitigation and exculpation. Forensic psychiatric analyses and formulations of opinions are, therefore, subject to change as the legal guidance changes.

  2. National Priority Setting of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development for Chronic Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kim, Dong Ik; Oh, Moo-Kyung

    2015-12-01

    By November 2013, a total of 125 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed in Korea. However, despite the high burden of diseases and the clinical importance of CPGs, most chronic diseases do not have available CPGs. Merely 83 CPGs are related to chronic diseases, and only 40 guidelines had been developed in the last 5 yr. Considering the rate of the production of new evidence in medicine and the worsening burden from chronic diseases, the need for developing CPGs for more chronic diseases is becoming increasingly pressing. Since 2011, the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been jointly developing CPGs for chronic diseases. However, priorities have to be set and resources need to be allocated within the constraint of a limited funding. This study identifies the chronic diseases that should be prioritized for the development of CPGs in Korea. Through an objective assessment by using the analytic hierarchy process and a subjective assessment with a survey of expert opinion, high priorities were placed on ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, osteoarthritis, neck pain, chronic kidney disease, and cirrhosis of the liver.

  3. [Ethics and clinical practice guidelines: newborn hearing screening and early deaf childcare].

    PubMed

    André-Vert, J; Laurence, M

    2014-08-01

    A national program for newborn hearing screening is gradually spreading throughout France, coming at a specific historical time: French sign language was recognized as a French language only in 2005, after almost a century of this language being banned in French educational institutions. Therefore, social views on deafness vary considerably depending on hearing status--deaf or hearing--and on the language used: spoken language, sign language, or bilingual. To help professionals take these different perspectives into account, the ethical questions raised during the French Authority for Health clinical practice guidelines development on deaf child care were retrospectively analyzed based on the Childress and Beauchamp principles: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This analysis showed that the steps followed during the guideline development were very similar to those devised by J.M. Gomas's model for ethical decision making and were respectful of R. Ogien's minimal ethics principles: equal consideration for everyone, neutrality toward conceptions of what is good for oneself, and interventions limited to cases of obvious harm caused to others. PMID:25001434

  4. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Assim A.; Al-Dhwayan, Madhawi M.; Alharbi, Abdulhameed A.; Khudhair, Basema K. Al; Nozha, Omar M. Al; Al-Qahtani, Nawal M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.; Bardisi, Wedad M.; Sallam, Reem M.; Riva, John J.; Brożek, Jan L.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Moore, Ainsley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the management of overweight and obese adults in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assembled an expert Saudi panel to produce this clinical practice guideline in 2015. In collaboration with the methodological working group from McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, which describes both the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence Results: After identifying 11 questions, corresponding recommendations were agreed upon as guidance for the management of overweight and obese adults. These included strong recommendations in support of lifestyle interventions rather than usual care alone, individualized counseling interventions rather than generic educational pamphlets, physical activity rather than no physical activity, and physical activity in addition to diet rather than diet alone. Metformin and orlistat were suggested as conditional recommendations for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Bariatric surgery was recommended, conditionally, for the management of obese adults (body mass index of ≥40 or ≥35 kg/m2 with comorbidities). Conclusions: The current guideline includes recommendation for the non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and surgical management of overweight and obese adults. In addition, the panel recommends conducting research priorities regarding lifestyle interventions and economic analysis of drug therapy within the Saudi context, as well as long term benefits and harms of bariatric surgery. PMID:27652370

  5. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for treatment of exercise-associated hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brad L; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hoffman, Martin D; Rogers, Ian R; Rosner, Mitchell H

    2013-09-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) typically occurs during or up to 24 hours after prolonged physical activity, and is defined by a serum or plasma sodium concentration below the normal reference range of 135 mEq/L. It is also reported to occur in individual physical activities or during organized endurance events conducted in austere environments in which medical care is limited or often not available, and patient evacuation to definitive care is often greatly delayed. Rapid recognition and appropriate treatment are essential in the severe form to ensure a positive outcome. Failure in this regard is a recognized cause of event-related fatality. In an effort to produce best practice guidelines for EAH in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel. The panel was charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for management of EAH. Recommendations are made regarding the situations when sodium concentration can be assessed in the field and when these values are not known. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each parameter according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians.

  6. ChIP-seq guidelines and practices of the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia

    PubMed Central

    Landt, Stephen G.; Marinov, Georgi K.; Kundaje, Anshul; Kheradpour, Pouya; Pauli, Florencia; Batzoglou, Serafim; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Bickel, Peter; Brown, James B.; Cayting, Philip; Chen, Yiwen; DeSalvo, Gilberto; Epstein, Charles; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I.; Euskirchen, Ghia; Gerstein, Mark; Gertz, Jason; Hartemink, Alexander J.; Hoffman, Michael M.; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Jung, Youngsook L.; Karmakar, Subhradip; Kellis, Manolis; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Li, Qunhua; Liu, Tao; Liu, X. Shirley; Ma, Lijia; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Myers, Richard M.; Park, Peter J.; Pazin, Michael J.; Perry, Marc D.; Raha, Debasish; Reddy, Timothy E.; Rozowsky, Joel; Shoresh, Noam; Sidow, Arend; Slattery, Matthew; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Tolstorukov, Michael Y.; White, Kevin P.; Xi, Simon; Farnham, Peggy J.; Lieb, Jason D.; Wold, Barbara J.; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) has become a valuable and widely used approach for mapping the genomic location of transcription-factor binding and histone modifications in living cells. Despite its widespread use, there are considerable differences in how these experiments are conducted, how the results are scored and evaluated for quality, and how the data and metadata are archived for public use. These practices affect the quality and utility of any global ChIP experiment. Through our experience in performing ChIP-seq experiments, the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia have developed a set of working standards and guidelines for ChIP experiments that are updated routinely. The current guidelines address antibody validation, experimental replication, sequencing depth, data and metadata reporting, and data quality assessment. We discuss how ChIP quality, assessed in these ways, affects different uses of ChIP-seq data. All data sets used in the analysis have been deposited for public viewing and downloading at the ENCODE (http://encodeproject.org/ENCODE/) and modENCODE (http://www.modencode.org/) portals. PMID:22955991

  7. The influence of providing a clinical practice guideline on dental students' decision making.

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, Wil J M; Mettes, Dirk G; Plasschaert, Alphons J M; Mulder, Jan; Verdonschot, Emiel H

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the provision of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) on dental students' decisions to remove asymptomatic, impacted lower third molars. All dental students, who in 2001 were in the 3rd, 4th or 5th (final) year of their study at the Nijmegen College of Dental Sciences, were invited to participate. A pre-test-post-test control group design was used. Given 36 patient cases, all dental students were asked to assess the need for removal of asymptomatic, impacted lower third molars. All pre-test respondents were randomly allocated to the control or intervention group. After the provision of a CPG to the intervention group, both groups were asked to assess the same cases again. Frequencies of decisions to remove the third molars were calculated. Chi-square tests and anova were used to test the influence of study year and gender on the drop-out rate and on the effect of the provision of a CPG on students' treatment decisions. The decrease in indications to remove third molars by the intervention group was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the control group, no significant decrease was observed. It was concluded that the provision of a CPG significantly influences dental students' decision making about treatment in a third-molar decision task. Students who used the CPG showed more guideline-conformed decision making. PMID:14717683

  8. Customized Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Adult Cataract in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhaleh; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Daftarian, Narsis; Safi, Sare; Nejat, Farhad; Shirvani, Armin; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Shahraz, Saeid; Ziaei, Hossein; Moein, Hamidreza; Motlagh, Behzad Fallahi; Feizi, Sepehr; Foroutan, Alireza; Hashemi, Hassan; Hashemian, Seyed Javad; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Jafarinasab, Mohammad Reza; Karimian, Farid; Mohammad-Rabei, Hossein; Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Nassiri, Nader; Panahi-Bazaz, Mahmoodreza; Rohani, Mohammad Reza; Sedaghat, Mohammad Reza; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To customize clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for cataract management in the Iranian population. Methods: First, four CPGs (American Academy of Ophthalmology 2006 and 2011, Royal College of Ophthalmologists 2010, and Canadian Ophthalmological Society 2008) were selected from a number of available CPGs in the literature for cataract management. All recommendations of these guidelines, together with their references, were studied. Each recommendation was summarized in 4 tables. The first table showed the recommendation itself in clinical question components format along with its level of evidence. The second table contained structured abstracts of supporting articles related to the clinical question with their levels of evidence. The third table included the customized recommendation of the internal group respecting its clinical advantage, cost, and complications. In the fourth table, the internal group their recommendations from 1 to 9 based on the customizing capability of the recommendation (applicability, acceptability, external validity). Finally, customized recommendations were sent one month prior to a consensus session to faculty members of all universities across the country asking for their comments on recommendations. Results: The agreed recommendations were accepted as conclusive while those with no agreement were discussed at the consensus session. Finally, all customized recommendations were codified as 80 recommendations along with their sources and levels of evidence for the Iranian population. Conclusion: Customization of CPGs for management of adult cataract for the Iranian population seems to be useful for standardization of referral, diagnosis and treatment of patients. PMID:27051491

  9. Development of clinical practice guidelines for patients with comorbidity and multiple diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu-Wittel, M; Alonso-Coello, P; Rico-Blázquez, M; Rotaeche Del Campo, R; Sánchez Gómez, S; Casariego Vales, E

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with comorbidity and polypathology represents a challenge for all healthcare systems. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have limitations when applied to this population. The aim of this study is to propose the terminology and methodology for optimally approach comorbidity and polypathology in the CPGs. Based on a literature review, we suggest a number of proposals for the approach in different phases of CPG preparation, with special attention to the inclusion of clusters of comorbidity in the initial questions the implementation of indirect evidence, the burden of disease management for patients and their environment, when establishing recommendations, as well as the strategies of dissemination and implementation. These proposals should be developed in greater depth with the implication of more agents in order to have valid and useful tools for this population.

  10. [Development of clinical practice guidelines for patients with comorbidity and multiple diseases].

    PubMed

    Bernabeu-Wittel, M; Alonso-Coello, P; Rico-Blázquez, M; Rotaeche del Campo, R; Sánchez Gómez, S; Casariego Vales, E

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with comorbidity and polypathology represents a challenge for all healthcare systems. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have limitations when applied to this population. The aim of this study is to propose the terminology and methodology for optimally approach comorbidity and polypathology in the CPGs. Based on a literature review, we suggest a number of proposals for the approach in different phases of CPG preparation, with special attention to the inclusion of clusters of comorbidity in the initial questions the implementation of indirect evidence, the burden of disease management for patients and their environment, when establishing recommendations, as well as the strategies of dissemination and implementation. These proposals should be developed in greater depth with the implication of more agents in order to have valid and useful tools for this population.

  11. Pediatric neuroimaging in early childhood and infancy: challenges and practical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Raschle, Nora; Zuk, Jennifer; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Sliva, Danielle D.; Franceschi, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Benasich, April A.; Gaab, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used increasingly to investigate typical and atypical brain development. However, in contrast to studies in school-aged children and adults, MRI research in young pediatric age groups is less common. Practical and technical challenges occur when imaging infants and children, which presents clinicians and research teams with a unique set of problems. These include procedural difficulties (e.g., participant anxiety or movement restrictions), technical obstacles (e.g., availability of child-appropriate equipment or pediatric MR head coils), and the challenge of choosing the most appropriate analysis methods for pediatric imaging data. Here, we summarize and review pediatric imaging and analysis tools and present neuroimaging protocols for young nonsedated children and infants, including guidelines and procedures that have been successfully implemented in research protocols across several research sites. PMID:22524338

  12. Practical guidelines for reporting results in single- and multi-component analytical calibration: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2015-04-01

    Practical guidelines for reporting analytical calibration results are provided. General topics, such as the number of reported significant figures and the optimization of analytical procedures, affect all calibration scenarios. In the specific case of single-component or univariate calibration, relevant issues discussed in the present Tutorial include: (1) how linearity can be assessed, (2) how to correctly estimate the limits of detection and quantitation, (2) when and how standard addition should be employed, (3) how to apply recovery studies for evaluating accuracy and precision, and (4) how average prediction errors can be compared for different analytical methodologies. For multi-component calibration procedures based on multivariate data, pertinent subjects here included are the choice of algorithms, the estimation of analytical figures of merit (detection capabilities, sensitivity, selectivity), the use of non-linear models, the consideration of the model regression coefficients for variable selection, and the application of certain mathematical pre-processing procedures such as smoothing.

  13. [FEDERAL CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS].

    PubMed

    Artemoval, L V; Baskova, N V; Burmistrova, T B; Buryakinal, E A; Buhtiyarov, I V; Bushmanov, A Yu; Vasilyeva, O S; Vlasov, V G; Gorblyansky, Y Y; Zhabina, S A; Zaharinskaya, O N; Ismerov, N F; Kovalevsky, E V; Kuznetsova, G V; Kuzmina, L P; Kunyaeva, T A; Logvinenko, I I; Lutsenko, L A; Mazitova, N N; Obukhova, T Yu; Odintseva, O V; Orlova, G P; Panacheva, L A; Piktushanskaya, I N; Plyukhin, A E; Poteryaeva, E L; Pravilo, S M; Razumov, V V; Roslaya, N A; Roslyi, O F; Rushkevich, O P; Semenihin, V A; Serebryakov, P V; Smirnova, E L; Sorkina, N S; Tsidil'kovskaya, E S; Chasovskikh, E V; Shpagina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of development of this clinical practice guidelines was to provide evidence-based protocols that help the practitioner and the patient make the right decision for the health assessment, treatment and prevention of pneumoconiosis. Pneumoconiosis is the interstitial lung disease of occupational origin caused by prolonged inhalation of inorganic dust, characterized by chronic diffuse aseptic inflammation in lung tissue with the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Currently, thereare no treatment that provide a cure pulmonary fibrosis and changes in the dynamics of decline in lung function. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and some clinical symptoms of pneumoconiosis, as well as the prevention of complications. To enhance the effect of pharmacotherapy is recommended to use non-drug therapies that enhance the functionality of the respiratory system.

  14. Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Michal; Matz, Sandra C; Gosling, Samuel D; Popov, Vesselin; Stillwell, David

    2015-09-01

    Facebook is rapidly gaining recognition as a powerful research tool for the social sciences. It constitutes a large and diverse pool of participants, who can be selectively recruited for both online and offline studies. Additionally, it facilitates data collection by storing detailed records of its users' demographic profiles, social interactions, and behaviors. With participants' consent, these data can be recorded retrospectively in a convenient, accurate, and inexpensive way. Based on our experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining multiple Facebook-based psychological studies that attracted over 10 million participants, we demonstrate how to recruit participants using Facebook, incentivize them effectively, and maximize their engagement. We also outline the most important opportunities and challenges associated with using Facebook for research, provide several practical guidelines on how to successfully implement studies on Facebook, and finally, discuss ethical considerations. PMID:26348336

  15. [Dyslipidemias and statins: from guidelines to clinical practice. An updated review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Lucchi, Tiziano; Vergani, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of death and disability not only in countries with a high degree of socio-economic development but also in low-middle income countries. The study of atherosclerosis and the strategies to control ASCVD are in progress. All strategies emphasize the need for lowering LDL cholesterol through appropriate lifestyle and use of lipid-lowering drugs, mainly statins. The mode of approach is variable. Statin therapy is recommended in secondary prevention, whereas use in primary prevention is still a matter of debate. The guidelines provided by international panels serve as a reference in clinical practice but, as stated by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), do not replace the physician's clinical judgment.

  16. Web-based PDA downloads for clinical practice guidelines and decision support tools.

    PubMed

    Beattie, James W

    2003-01-01

    The extraordinary volume of health-related information made available on the Internet comes at a high cost for effectively storing and accessing clinical information resources. Additionally, the ability to use critical patient care information is limited to the availability of computer access. Physicians and other health care professionals have readily adopted personal digital assistants (PDAs), also known as handheld computers, because the devices provide succinct critical patient care information at the point of need. Clinical practice guidelines available through the Internet for use with PDAs present health professionals, who have little time, with powerful information already formatted for point-of-care devices. This paper will review several strategies for finding and accessing point-of-care clinical information. PMID:14711049

  17. Practical guidelines for managing adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Butcher, Nancy J.; Costain, Gregory; Andrade, Danielle M.; Boot, Erik; Chow, Eva W.C.; Chung, Brian; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Faghfoury, Hanna; Fishman, Leona; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; George, Susan; Lang, Anthony E.; Repetto, Gabriela; Shugar, Andrea; Silversides, Candice; Swillen, Ann; van Amelsvoort, Therese; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans, estimated to affect up to 1 in 2,000 live births. Major features of this multisystem condition include congenital anomalies, developmental delay, and an array of early- and later-onset medical and psychiatric disorders. Advances in pediatric care ensure a growing population of adults with 22q11.2DS. Informed by an international panel of multidisciplinary experts and a comprehensive review of the existing literature concerning adults, we present the first set of guidelines focused on managing the neuropsychiatric, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, psychosocial, genetic counseling, and other issues that are the focus of attention in adults with 22q11.2DS. We propose practical strategies for the recognition, evaluation, surveillance, and management of the associated morbidities. PMID:25569435

  18. Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Michal; Matz, Sandra C; Gosling, Samuel D; Popov, Vesselin; Stillwell, David

    2015-09-01

    Facebook is rapidly gaining recognition as a powerful research tool for the social sciences. It constitutes a large and diverse pool of participants, who can be selectively recruited for both online and offline studies. Additionally, it facilitates data collection by storing detailed records of its users' demographic profiles, social interactions, and behaviors. With participants' consent, these data can be recorded retrospectively in a convenient, accurate, and inexpensive way. Based on our experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining multiple Facebook-based psychological studies that attracted over 10 million participants, we demonstrate how to recruit participants using Facebook, incentivize them effectively, and maximize their engagement. We also outline the most important opportunities and challenges associated with using Facebook for research, provide several practical guidelines on how to successfully implement studies on Facebook, and finally, discuss ethical considerations.

  19. [The Dutch College of General Practitioners practice guideline on 'Sexual problems'].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jip; Leusink, Peter; Wiersma, Tjerk

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch College of General Practitioners practice guideline on 'Sexual problems' describes the diagnostics and management of common sexual problems. An adequate sexual anamnesis is essential in order to obtain a good picture of the patient's symptoms and of any underlying causes. Additional physical or other medical examination is of limited value. The provision of information and advice are central to the treatment of sexual problems. Attention should be paid to the different aspects of sexual functioning: physical, psychological, relational and sociocultural, and to gender differences. In many cases, management is determined by the causal factor, for instance comorbidity, sexual trauma or relational problems. In other cases, a more specific problem is diagnosed, and management is based on this. PMID:27122071

  20. [European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice: CEIPC 2008 Spanish adaptation].

    PubMed

    Lobos, José M; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel A; Brotons, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Luís; Armario, Pedro; Maiques, Antonio; Mauricio, Dídac; Sans, Susana; Villar, Fernando; Lizcano, Angel; Gil-Núñez, Antonio; Alvaro, Fernando de; Conthe, Pedro; Luengo, Emilio; Río, Alfonso Del; Cortés-Rico, Olga; Santiago, Ana de; Vargas, Miguel A; Martínez, Mercedes; Lizarbe, Vicenta

    2008-01-01

    We present the Spanish adaptation from the CEIPC of the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice 2008. This guide recommends the SCORE model for risk evaluation. The aim is to prevent premature mortality and morbidity due to CVD by means of dealing with its related risk factors in clinical practice. The guide focuses on primary prevention and emphasizes the role of the nurses and primary care medical doctors in promoting a healthy life style, based on increasing physical activity, change dietary habits, and non smoking. The therapeutic goal is to achieve a Blood Pressure <140/90 mmHg, but among patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or definite CVD, the objective is <130/80 mmHg. Serum cholesterol should be <200 mg/dl and cLDL <130 mg/dl, although among patients with CVD or diabetes, the objective is <100 mg/dl (80 mg/dl if feasible in very high-risk patients). Patients with type 2 diabetes and those with metabolic syndrome must lose weight and increase their physical activity, and drugs must be administered whenever applicable, with the objective guided by BMI -body mass index- and waist circumference. In diabetic type 2 patients, the objective is glycated haemoglobin <7%. Allowing people to know the guides and developing implementation programs, identifying barriers and seeking solutions for them, are priorities for the CEIPC in order to put the recommendations into practice.

  1. [European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. CEIPC 2008 Spanish adaptation].

    PubMed

    Lobos, J M; Royo-Bordonada, M A; Brotons, C; Alvarez-Sala, L; Armario, P; Maiques, A; Mauricio, D; Sans, S; Villar, F; Lizcano, A; Gil-Núñez, A; de Alvaro, F; Conthe, P; Luengo, E; Del Río, A; Cortés, O; de Santiago, A; Varga, M A; Martínez, M; Lizarbe, V

    2009-06-01

    The present CEIPC Spanish adaptation of the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice 2008. This guide recommends the SCORE model for risk evaluation. The aim is to prevent premature mortality and morbidity due to CVD by means of dealing with its related risk factors in clinical practice. The guide focuses on primary prevention and emphasizes the role of the nurses and primary care doctors in promoting a healthy life style, based on increasing physical activity, changing dietary habits, and not smoking. The therapeutic goal is to achieve a Blood Pressure < 140/90 mmHg, but in patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or definite CVD, the objective is < 130/80 mmHg. Serum cholesterol should be < 200 mg/dl and cLDL < 130 mg/dl, although in patients with CVD or diabetes, the objective is < 100 mg/dl (80 mg/dl if feasible in very high-risk patients). Patients with type 2 diabetes and those with metabolic syndrome must lose weight and increase their physical activity, and drugs must be administered whenever applicable, with the objective guided by body mass index and waist circumference. In diabetic type 2 patients, the objective is glycated haemoglobin < 7%. Allowing people to know the guides and developing implementation programs, identifying barriers and seeking solutions for them, are priorities for the CEIPC in order to put the recommendations into practice.

  2. [European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. CEIPC 2008 Spanish Adaptation].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José M A; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Angel; Brotons, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Luís; Armario, Pedro; Maiques, Antonio; Mauricio, Dídac; Sans, Susana; Villar, Fernando; Lizcano, Angel; Gil-Núñez, Antonio; de Alvaro, Fernando; Conthe, Pedro; Luengo, Emilio; Del Río, Alfonso; Cortés, Olga; de Santiago, Ana; Vargas, Miguel A; Martínez, Mercedes; Lizarbe, Vicenta

    2009-08-01

    The present CEIPC Spanish adaptation of the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice 2008. This guide recommends the SCORE model for risk evaluation. The aim is to prevent premature mortality and morbidity due to CVD by means of dealing with its related risk factors in clinical practice. The guide focuses on primary prevention and emphasizes the role of the nurses and primary care doctors in promoting a healthy life style, based on increasing physical activity, changing dietary habits, and not smoking. The therapeutic goal is to achieve a Blood Pressure<140/90mmHg, but in patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or definite CVD, the objective is<130/80mmHg. Serum cholesterol should be<200mg/dl and cLDL<130mg/dl, although in patients with CVD or diabetes, the objective is<100mg/dl (80mg/dl if feasible in very high-risk patients). Patients with type 2 diabetes and those with metabolic syndrome must lose weight and increase their physical activity, and drugs must be administered whenever applicable, with the objective guided by body mass index and waist circumference. In diabetic type 2 patients, the objective is glycated haemoglobin<7%. Allowing people to know the guides and developing implementation programs, identifying barriers and seeking solutions for them, are priorities for the CEIPC in order to put the recommendations into practice.

  3. [European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Spanish adaptation of the CEIPC 2008].

    PubMed

    Lobos, J M; Royo-Bordonada, M A; Brotons, C; Alvarez-Sala, L; Armario, P; Maiques, A; Mauricio, D; Sans, S; Villar, F; Lizcano, A; Gil-Núñez, A; de Alvaro, F; Conthe, P; Luengo, E; del Río, A; Rico, O; de Santiago, A; Vargas, M A; Martíonez, M; Lizarbe, V

    2009-09-01

    We present the Spanish adaptation made by the CEIPC of the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (CVD) in Clinical Practice 2008. This guide recommends the SCORE model for risk evaluation. The aim is to prevent premature mortality and morbidity due to CVD through the management of its related risk factors in clinical practice. The guide focuses on primary prevention and emphasizes the role of the nurses and primary care medical doctors in promoting a healthy life style, based on increasing physical activity, change dietary habits, and non smoking. The therapeutic goal is to achieve a Blood Pressure < 140/90 mmHg, but among patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or definite CVD, the objective is <130/80 mmHg. Serum cholesterol should be < 200 mg/dl and cLDL<130 mg/dl, although among patients with CVD or diabetes, the objective is <100 mg/dl (80 mg/dl if feasible in very high-risk patients). Patients with type 2 diabetes and those with metabolic syndrome must lose weight and increase their physical activity, and drugs must be administered whenever applicable, to reach body mass index (BMI) guided and waist circumference objectives. In diabetic type 2 patients, the objective is glycated haemoglobin <7%. Allowing people to know the guides and developing implementation programs, identifying barriers and seeking solutions for them, are priorities for the CEIPC in order to transfer the recommendations established into the daily clinical practice.

  4. A Systematic Review of Recent Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Diagnosis, Assessment and Management of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ansary, Lubna A.; Tricco, Andrea C.; Adi, Yaser; Bawazeer, Ghada; Perrier, Laure; Al-Ghonaim, Mohammed; AlYousefi, Nada; Tashkandi, Mariam; Straus, Sharon E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), optimal hypertension control is not achieved in many parts of the world; one of the challenges is the volume of guidelines on this topic and their variable quality. To systematically review the quality, methodology, and consistency of recommendations of recently-developed national CPGs on the diagnosis, assessment and the management of hypertension. Methodology/Principal Findings MEDLINE, EMBASE, guidelines' websites and Google were searched for CPGs written in English on the general management of hypertension in any clinical setting published between January 2006 and September 2011. Four raters independently appraised each CPG using the AGREE-II instrument and 2 reviewers independently extracted the data. Conflicts were resolved by discussion or the involvement of an additional reviewer. Eleven CPGs were identified. The overall quality ranged from 2.5 to 6 out of 7 on the AGREE-II tool. The highest scores were for “clarity of presentation” (44.4% −88.9%) and the lowest were for “rigour of development” (8.3%–30% for 9 CGPs). None of them clearly reported being newly developed or adapted. Only one reported having a patient representative in its development team. Systematic reviews were not consistently used and only 2 up-to-date Cochrane reviews were cited. Two CPGs graded some recommendations and related that to levels (but not quality) of evidence. The CPGs' recommendations on assessment and non-pharmacological management were fairly consistent. Guidelines varied in the selection of first-line treatment, adjustment of therapy and drug combinations. Important specific aspects of care (e.g. resistant hypertension) were ignored by 6/11 CPGs. The CPGs varied in methodological quality, suggesting that their implementation might not result in less variation of care or in better health-related outcomes. Conclusions/Significance More efforts are needed to promote the realistic approach

  5. Review of occupational medicine practice guidelines for interventional pain management and potential implications.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Derby, Richard; Helm, Standiford; Trescot, Andrea M; Staats, Peter S; Prager, Joshua P; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2008-01-01

    In the modern day environment, workers' compensation costs continue to be a challenge, with a need to balance costs, benefits, and quality of medical care. The cost of workers' compensation care affects all stakeholders including workers, employers, providers, regulators, legislators, and insurers. Consequently, a continued commitment to quality, accessibility to care, and cost containment will help ensure that workers are afforded accessible, high quality, and cost-effective care. In 2004, workers' compensation programs in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and federal programs in the United States combined received an income of $87.4 billion while paying out only $56 billion in medical and cash benefits with $31.4 billion or 37% in administrative expenses and profit. Occupational diseases represented only 8% of the workers' compensation claims and 29% of the cost. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) has published several guidelines; though widely adopted by WCPs, these guidelines evaluate the practice of medicine of multiple specialties without adequate expertise and expert input from the concerned specialties, including interventional pain management. An assessment of the ACOEM guidelines utilizing Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria, the criteria developed by the American Medical Association (AMA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and other significantly accepted criteria, consistently showed very low scores (< 30%) in most aspects of the these guidelines. The ACOEM recommendations do not appear to have been based on a careful review of the literature, overall quality of evidence, standard of care, or expert consensus. Based on the evaluation utilizing appropriate and current evidence-based medicine (EBM) principles, the evidence ratings for diagnostic techniques of lumbar discography; cervical, thoracic, and lumbar facet joint nerve blocks and sacroiliac joint nerve blocks; therapeutic

  6. Chiropractic clinical practice guideline: evidence-based treatment of adult neck pain not due to whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Peacock, Elizabeth; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Bryans, Roland; Danis, Normand; Furlan, Andrea; Marcoux, Henri; Potter, Brock; Ruegg, Rick; Gross Stein, Janice; White, Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the chiropractic cervical treatment of adults with acute or chronic neck pain not due to whiplash. This is a considerable health concern considered to be a priority by stakeholders, and about which the scientific information was poorly organized. OPTIONS Cervical treatments: manipulation, mobilization, ischemic pressure, clinic- and home-based exercise, traction, education, low-power laser, massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, pillows, pulsed electromagnetic therapy, and ultrasound. OUTCOMES The primary outcomes considered were improved (reduced and less intrusive) pain and improved (increased and easier) ranges of motion (ROM) of the adult cervical spine. EVIDENCE An “extraction” team recorded evidence from articles found by literature search teams using 4 separate literature searches, and rated it using a Table adapted from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. The searches were 1) Treatment; August, 2003, using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ICL, The Cochrane Library (includes CENTRAL), and EBSCO, identified 182 articles. 2) Risk management (adverse events); October, 2004, identified 230 articles and 2 texts. 3) Risk management (dissection); September, 2003, identified 79 articles. 4) Treatment update; a repeat of the treatment search for articles published between September, 2003 and November, 2004 inclusive identified 121 articles. VALUES To enable the search of the literature, the authors (Guidelines Development Committee [GDC]) regarded chiropractic treatment as including elements of “conservative” care in the search strategies, but not in the consideration of the range of chiropractic practice. Also, knowledge based only on clinical experience was considered less valid and reliable than good-caliber evidence, but where the caliber of the relevant evidence was low or it was non-existent, unpublished clinical experience was considered to be equivalent to

  7. A protocol for developing a clinical practice guideline for therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Kang; Chen, Ken; Chen, Yao-Long; Zhai, Suo-di

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a guideline for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of vancomycin. We adopted the new guideline definition from the Institute of Medicine (IOM), adhered closely to the six domains of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II), and made recommendations based on systematic reviews. We established a Guideline Steering Group and a Guideline Development Group, formulated 12 questions in the form of Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) and completed a literature search. As far as we know, we will develop the first evidenced-based guideline for vancomycin TDM under the framework of the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). PMID:27376822

  8. Congruence of the current practices in Hymenoptera venom allergic patients in Poland with EAACI guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Diwakar, Lavanya; Brzyski, Piotr; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Lis, Grzegorz; Pietrzyk, Jacek J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Venom immunotherapy (VIT) practice is the definitive treatment for patients with potentially fatal allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings. The aim is assesing compliance of VIT practice in Poland with the current European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) guidance. Material and methods A multicentre study was carried out using a structured questionnaire which was sent by post to all VIT practitioners in Poland. Some questionnaire items were altered, in comparison to original version by adding additional answer options or alowing multiple answer option. The response rate was 100%. The obtained results were compared with the published EAACI guidelines. Results Twenty-six Polish centres took part in the survey. SSIgE and skin prick tests (SPT) are together used as the first line of investigation, whereas confirmatory intradermal tests (IDT) are applied in half of centres. Only a few centres measure baseline serum tryptase levels. The ultra-rush protocol is preferred. Antihistamine pre-medication is routinely practiced. A target dose equal to 100 µg is used in most centres. A 6-week interval between booster doses is the most frequent. Five years is considered as an optimal VIT duration. Before the VIT completion, SSIgE is evaluated in fifty percent of centres, whereas sting challenge is considered by half of responders. Conclusions There are some differences between current practice in Poland and the EAACI recommendations, indicating areas requiring better compliance. Comparision between Poland and the United Kingdom revealed that health service organization and health care funding may play a major role in the provision of allergy services. This may affect the extent to which international guidance may be applied in individual countries. It is worth considering conducting the same survey in other European countries. PMID:22291828

  9. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. This is an updated version of the original Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(4):425-445.

  10. Standardized Clinical Assessment And Management Plans (SCAMPs) Provide A Better Alternative To Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Michael; Jenkins, Kathy; Lock, James; Rathod, Rahul; Newburger, Jane; Bates, David W.; Safran, Dana G.; Friedman, Kevin; Greenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Variability in medical practice in the United States leads to higher costs without achieving better patient outcomes. Clinical practice guidelines, which are intended to reduce variation and improve care, have several drawbacks that limit the extent of buy-in by clinicians. In contrast, standardized clinical assessment and management plans (SCAMPs) offer a clinician-designed approach to promoting care standardization that accommodates patients’ individual differences, respects providers’ clinical acumen, and keeps pace with the rapid growth of medical knowledge. Since early 2009 more than 12,000 patients have been enrolled in forty-nine SCAMPs in nine states and Washington, D.C. In one example, a SCAMP was credited with increasing clinicians’ rate of compliance with a recommended specialist referral for children from 19.6 percent to 75 percent. In another example, SCAMPs were associated with an 11–51 percent decrease in total medical expenses for six conditions when compared with a historical cohort. Innovative tools such as SCAMPs should be carefully examined by policy makers searching for methods to promote the delivery of high-quality, cost-effective care. PMID:23650325

  11. Intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular diseases: present status and practical therapeutic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, M C

    1999-11-01

    This review summarizes the current status of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in the treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular disorders and the possible mechanisms of action of the drug based on work in vivo, in vitro, and in animal models. Supply of idiotypic antibodies, suppression of antibody production, or acceleration of catabolism of immunoglobulin G (IgG) are relevant in explaining the efficacy of IVIg in myasthenia gravis (MG), Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), and antibody-mediated neuropathies. Suppression of pathogenic cytokines has putative relevance in inflammatory myopathies and demyelinating neuropathies. Inhibition of complement binding and prevention of membranolytic attack complex (MAC) formation are relevant in dermatomyositis (DM), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and MG. Modulation of Fc receptors or T-cell function is relevant in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), GBS, and inflammatory myopathies. The clinical efficacy of IVIg, based on controlled clinical trials conducted in patients with GBS, CIDP, multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), DM, MG, LEMS, paraproteinemic IgM anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) demyelinating polyneuropathies, and inclusion body myositis is summarized and practical issues related to each disorder are addressed. The present role of IVIg therapy in other disorders based on small controlled or uncontrolled trials is also summarized. Finally, safety issues, risk factors, adverse reactions, spurious results or serological tests, and practical guidelines associated with the administration of IVIg in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders are presented.

  12. Potential workload in applying clinical practice guidelines for patients with chronic conditions and multimorbidity: a systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buffel du Vaure, Céline; Ravaud, Philippe; Baron, Gabriel; Barnes, Caroline; Gilberg, Serge; Boutron, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the potential workload for patients with multimorbidity when applying existing clinical practice guidelines. Design Systematic analysis of clinical practice guidelines for chronic conditions and simulation modelling approach. Data sources National Guideline Clearinghouse index of US clinical practice guidelines. Study selection We identified the most recent guidelines for adults with 1 of 6 prevalent chronic conditions in primary care (ie hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), osteoarthritis and depression). Data extraction From the guidelines, we extracted all recommended health-related activities (HRAs) such as drug management, self-monitoring, visits to the doctor, laboratory tests and changes of lifestyle for a patient aged 45–64 years with moderate severity of conditions. Simulation modelling approach For each HRA identified, we performed a literature review to determine the potential workload in terms of time spent on this HRA. Then, we used a simulation modelling approach to estimate the potential workload needed to comply with these recommended HRAs for patients with several of these chronic conditions. Results Depending on the concomitant chronic condition, patients with 3 chronic conditions complying with all the guidelines would have to take a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 medications per day, visit a health caregiver a minimum of 1.2 to a maximum of 5.9 times per month and spend a mean (SD) of 49.6 (27.3) to 71.0 (34.5) h/month in HRAs. The potential workload increased greatly with increasing number of concomitant conditions, rising to 18 medications per day, 6.6 visits per month and 80.7 (35.8) h/month in HRAs for patients with 6 chronic conditions. PMID:27006342

  13. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Grant S; Eifling, Kurt P; Ellis, Mark A; Gaudio, Flavio G; Otten, Edward M; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    The Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the recognition, prevention, and treatment of heat illness. We present a review of the classifications, pathophysiology, and evidence-based guidelines for planning and preventive measures as well as best practice recommendations for both field and hospital-based therapeutic management of heat illness. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence, and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Heat-Related Illness published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2013;24(4):351-361.

  14. A systematic review of clinical practice guidelines and best practice statements for the diagnosis and management of varicocele in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Matheus; Esteves, Sandro C

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify and qualitatively analyze the methods as well as recommendations of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) and Best Practice Statements (BPS) concerning varicocele in the pediatric and adolescent population. An electronic search was performed with the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Scielo databases, as well as guidelines’ Web sites until September 2015. Four guidelines were included in the qualitative synthesis. In general, the recommendations provided by the CPG/BPS were consistent despite the existence of some gaps across the studies. The guidelines issued by the American Urological Association (AUA) and American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) did not provide evidence-based levels for the recommendations given. Most of the recommendations given by the European Association of Urology (EAU) and European Society of Pediatric Urology (ESPU) were derived from nonrandomized clinical trials, retrospective studies, and expert opinion. Among all CPG/BPS, only one was specifically designed for the pediatric population. The studied guidelines did not undertake independent cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit analysis. The main objectives of these guidelines were to translate the best evidence into practice and provide a framework of standardized care while maintaining clinical autonomy and physician judgment. However, the limitations identified in the CPG/BPS for the diagnosis and management of varicocele in children and adolescents indicate ample opportunities for research and future incorporation of higher quality standards in patient care. PMID:26680032

  15. Conflicts of interest and clinical recommendations: comparison of two concurrent clinical practice guidelines for primary immune thrombocytopenia developed by different methods.

    PubMed

    George, James N; Vesely, Sara K; Woolf, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    The growing influence of practice guidelines has increased concern for potential sources of bias. Two recent guidelines for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) provided a unique opportunity for a systematic comparison of different methods of practice guideline development. One guideline (International Consensus Report [ICR]) was supported by pharmaceutical companies that produce products for ITP. The ICR panel members were selected for expertise in ITP; 16 (73%) reported associations with pharmaceutical companies. The other guideline was sponsored by the American Society of Hematology (ASH); panel members were selected for lack of conflicts and for expertise in guideline development as well as for ITP. Discrepancies were conspicuous when the guidelines addressed treatment. In contrast to the ASH guideline, the ICR gave stronger recommendations for agents manufactured by companies from which the ICR or its panel members received support. These data provide direct evidence that differences in financial support and methods of evidence evaluation can influence recommendations.

  16. Barriers of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development and Implementation in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran-Seyed, Zahra; Nedjat, Sima; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge products such as clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are vitally required for evidence-based medicine (EBM). Although the EBM, to some extent, has been attended during recent years, no result has achieved thus far. The current qualitative study is to identify the barriers to establishing development system and implementation of CPGs in Iran. Methods: Twelve semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of health policy and decision makers, the experts of development and or adaptation of CPGs, and the experts of EBM education and development. In addition, 11 policy-makers, decision-makers, and managers of the health system participated in a focus group discussion. The analysis of the study data was undertaken by thematic framework approach. Result: Six themes emerged in order of their frequency include practice environment, evidence-based health care system, individual professional, politician and political context, innovation (CPG) and patients. Most of the indications in the treatment environment focused on such sub-themes as regulations and rules, economical factors, organizational context, and social context. While the barriers related to the conditions of treatment environment, service provider and the features of innovation and patients had been identified before in other studies, very little attention has been paid to the evidence-based health care system and politician and political context Conclusion: The lack of an evidence-based healthcare system and a political macro support are mentioned as the key barriers in Iran as a developing country. The establishment of a system of development and implementation of CPGs as the evidence-based practice tools will not be possible, unless the barriers are removed. PMID:23626892

  17. Developing methodology for the creation of clinical practice guidelines for rare diseases: A report from RARE-Bestpractices

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Menaka; Iorio, Alfonso; Meerpohl, Joerg; Taruscio, Domenica; Laricchiuta, Paola; Mincarone, Pierpaolo; Morciano, Cristina; Leo, Carlo Giacomo; Sabina, Saverio; Akl, Elie; Treweek, Shaun; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Schunemann, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Rare diseases are a global public health priority; they can cause significant morbidity and mortality, can gravely affect quality of life, and can confer a social and economic burden on families and communities. These conditions are, by their nature, encountered very infrequently by clinicians. Thus, clinical practice guidelines are potentially very helpful in supporting clinical decisions, health policy and resource allocation. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system is a structured and transparent approach to developing and presenting summaries of evidence, grading its quality, and then transparently interpreting the available evidence to make recommendations in health care. GRADE has been adopted widely. However, its use in creating guidelines for rare diseases – which are often plagued by a paucity of high quality evidence – has not yet been explored. RARE-Bestpractices is a project to create and populate a platform for sharing best practices for management of rare diseases. A major aim of this project is to ensure that European Union countries have the capacity to produce high quality clinical practice guidelines for rare diseases. On February 12, 2013 at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, in Rome, Italy, the RARE-Bestpractices group held the first of a series of 2 workshops to discuss methodology for creating clinical practice guidelines, and explore issues specific to rare diseases. This paper summarizes key results of the first workshop, and explores how the current GRADE approach might (or might not) work for rare diseases. Avenues for future research are also identified.

  18. [The practice guideline 'Pregnancy and puerperium' (first revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners; a response from the perspective of general practice medicine].

    PubMed

    Giesen, P H; Slagter-Roukema, T M

    2004-01-10

    The first revision of the Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline about pregnancy and puerperium does not significantly differ from the first edition. The guideline is extensive, is well-worth reading and supports daily practice. There is a greater emphasis on the importance of cooperation and differentiation in primary care (midwifes and general practitioners). During the last decade many general practitioners stopped doing home deliveries and have therefore lost their experience in obstetric care and pathology. The guideline describes the general practitioner's tasks as a preconception counsellor, a professional expert on illnesses during pregnancy and after the delivery, and as the doctor of the newborn baby. It will hopefully stimulate a revived interest of and involvement in pregnancy and post-partum care among general practitioners. PMID:14753124

  19. Clinical practice guidelines for recall and maintenance of patients with tooth-borne and implant-borne dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Bidra, Avinash S; Daubert, Diane M; Garcia, Lily T; Kosinski, Timothy F; Nenn, Conrad A; Olsen, John A; Platt, Jeffrey A; Wingrove, Susan S; Chandler, Nancy Deal; Curtis, Donald A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide guidelines for patient recall regimen, professional maintenance regimen, and at-home maintenance regimen for patients with tooth-borne and implant-borne removable and fixed restorations. The American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) convened a scientific panel of experts appointed by the ACP, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, and American Dental Hygienists Association, who critically evaluated and debated recently published findings from 2 systematic reviews on this topic. The major outcomes and consequences considered during formulation of the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) were risk for failure of tooth- and implant-borne restorations. The panel conducted a roundtable discussion of the proposed guidelines, which were debated in detail. Feedback was used to supplement and refine the proposed guidelines, and consensus was attained. A set of CPGs was developed for tooth-borne restorations and implant-borne restorations. Each CPG comprised (1) patient recall, (2) professional maintenance, and (3) at-home maintenance. For tooth-borne restorations, the professional maintenance and at-home maintenance CPGs were subdivided for removable and fixed restorations. For implant-borne restorations, the professional maintenance CPGs were subdivided for removable and fixed restorations and further divided into biological maintenance and mechanical maintenance for each type of restoration. The at-home maintenance CPGs were subdivided for removable and fixed restorations. The clinical practice guidelines presented in this document were initially developed using the 2 systematic reviews. Additional guidelines were developed using expert opinion and consensus, which included discussion of the best clinical practices, clinical feasibility, and risk-benefit ratio to the patient. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first CPGs addressing patient recall regimen, professional maintenance regimen, and at

  20. Snyder v. American Association of Blood Banks: a re-examination of liability for medical practice guideline promulgators.

    PubMed

    Noble, A; Brennan, T A; Hyams, A L

    1998-02-01

    Medical practice guidelines are playing an increasingly important role in both the medical and the legal context. As tools for the health practitioner, it is thought that medical practice guidelines may contribute to an increase in the quality of patient care and cost-effectiveness. In the legal setting, guidelines may improve the functioning of the medical malpractice system by creating more rational, predictable standards of care. The development and promulgation of medical practice guidelines, while increasing, are still evolving. A number of concerns, especially in the areas of physician autonomy, physician control, and ethics, as well as efficacy, need to be resolved. The use of such guidelines as the legal standard of care in malpractice cases evokes similar concerns, along with fears that the use of guidelines at trial may either lower the standard of care, or, conversely, raise the standard of care to levels that are difficult to meet. Adding to this controversy is the recent case of Snyder v. American Association of Blood Banks (1996), in which the New Jersey Supreme Court upheld a jury finding that the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) was liable to a plaintiff who contracted AIDS from an HIV-tainted transfusion, for negligent failure to adopt guidelines requiring blood testing for surrogate markers. This opinion is significant as the first to find a duty of care running from a medical guideline promulgator to a third person, the injured patient. The opinion is examined in depth and within the context of other relevant case law. The impact the opinion will have is difficult to gauge. The somewhat unique facts of the case, as well as the court's unusually stinging critique of the defendant, AABB, and its motivations informing its response to the concerns about blood contamination, may limit its value as precedent. However, precedent does exist in analogous non-medical cases for promulgator liability. The pros and cons of promulgator liability are

  1. Developing a set of guidelines for your research field: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Klionsky, Daniel J

    2016-03-01

    Since 2008, the autophagy community has periodically published a set of guidelines, currently titled "Guidelines for the Use and Interpretation of Assays for Monitoring Autophagy." The newest version of the guidelines was published in 2016. There are many reasons for establishing a set of guidelines in a given research field. This Perspective explores some of these reasons, including standardizing nomenclature for better communication, improving reproducibility, and making it easier for newcomers to enter the field. It also includes the approach I have used to generate and update the guidelines that are now widely used in the autophagy field. The suggestions are not meant to be formulaic, and the method is certainly not perfect. Instead, this should be viewed as a starting set of, well, guidelines. PMID:26915690

  2. Developing a set of guidelines for your research field: a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Klionsky, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2008, the autophagy community has periodically published a set of guidelines, currently titled “Guidelines for the Use and Interpretation of Assays for Monitoring Autophagy.” The newest version of the guidelines was published in 2016. There are many reasons for establishing a set of guidelines in a given research field. This Perspective explores some of these reasons, including standardizing nomenclature for better communication, improving reproducibility, and making it easier for newcomers to enter the field. It also includes the approach I have used to generate and update the guidelines that are now widely used in the autophagy field. The suggestions are not meant to be formulaic, and the method is certainly not perfect. Instead, this should be viewed as a starting set of, well, guidelines. PMID:26915690

  3. Developing a set of guidelines for your research field: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Klionsky, Daniel J

    2016-03-01

    Since 2008, the autophagy community has periodically published a set of guidelines, currently titled "Guidelines for the Use and Interpretation of Assays for Monitoring Autophagy." The newest version of the guidelines was published in 2016. There are many reasons for establishing a set of guidelines in a given research field. This Perspective explores some of these reasons, including standardizing nomenclature for better communication, improving reproducibility, and making it easier for newcomers to enter the field. It also includes the approach I have used to generate and update the guidelines that are now widely used in the autophagy field. The suggestions are not meant to be formulaic, and the method is certainly not perfect. Instead, this should be viewed as a starting set of, well, guidelines.

  4. Clinical practice guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rotstein, Coleman; Evans, Gerald; Born, Abraham; Grossman, Ronald; Light, R Bruce; Magder, Sheldon; McTaggart, Barrie; Weiss, Karl; Zhanel, George G

    2008-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, with mortality rates approaching 62%. HAP and VAP are the second most common cause of nosocomial infection overall, but are the most common cause documented in the intensive care unit setting. In addition, HAP and VAP produce the highest mortality associated with nosocomial infection. As a result, evidence-based guidelines were prepared detailing the epidemiology, microbial etiology, risk factors and clinical manifestations of HAP and VAP. Furthermore, an approach based on the available data, expert opinion and current practice for the provision of care within the Canadian health care system was used to determine risk stratification schemas to enable appropriate diagnosis, antimicrobial management and nonantimicrobial management of HAP and VAP. Finally, prevention and risk-reduction strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring these infections were collated. Future initiatives to enhance more rapid diagnosis and to effect better treatment for resistant pathogens are necessary to reduce morbidity and improve survival. PMID:19145262

  5. Clinical practice guidelines for prophylaxis of venous thomboembolism in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Frere, Corinne; Farge, Dominique

    2016-09-27

    Symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs 4-7 times more frequently in cancer patients as compared to non-cancer patients. A significant number of risk factors, which can be subcategorised as patient-, cancer- or treatment-related, have been shown to influence the risk of VTE during malignancy and further incorporated in risk-assessment models. Safe and efficient thromboprophylaxis regimens allow substantial decreased in VTE rates, since VTE is most often a largely preventable disease, but thromboprophylaxis remains underused in cancer compared to non-cancer patients. If thromboprophylaxis is warranted in cancer patients undergoing surgery or hospitalised for acute medical illness or with a lower mobility in the absence of contraindications to anticoagulants, its benefit remains controversial in outpatients and may be limited to locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic or lung cancer treated with chemotherapy. The International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer-CME free mobile app (ios and android), based on the International Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG), facilitates their implementation and dissemination of knowledge worldwide so as to improve VTE treatment and prophylaxis in cancer patients. PMID:27608595

  6. ALAT-2014 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Clinical Practice Guidelines: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, María; López Varela, María Victorina; Acuña, Agustín; Schiavi, Eduardo; Rey, María Alejandra; Jardim, José; Casas, Alejandro; Tokumoto, Antonio; Torres Duque, Carlos A; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; García, Gabriel; Stirbulov, Roberto; Camelier, Aquiles; Bergna, Miguel; Cohen, Mark; Guzmán, Santiago; Sánchez, Efraín

    2015-08-01

    ALAT-2014 COPD Clinical Practice Guidelines used clinical questions in PICO format to compile evidence related to risk factors, COPD screening, disease prognosis, treatment and exacerbations. Evidence reveals the existence of risk factors for COPD other than tobacco, as well as gender differences in disease presentation. It shows the benefit of screening in an at-risk population, and the predictive value use of multidimensional prognostic indexes. In stable COPD, similar benefits in dyspnea, pulmonary function and quality of life are achieved with LAMA or LABA long-acting bronchodilators, whereas LAMA is more effective in preventing exacerbations. Dual bronchodilator therapy has more benefits than monotherapy. LAMA and combination LABA/IC are similarly effective, but there is an increased risk of pneumonia with LABA/IC. Data on the efficacy and safety of triple therapy are scarce. Evidence supports influenza vaccination in all patients and anti-pneumococcal vaccination in patients <65years of age and/or with severe airflow limitation. Antibiotic prophylaxis may decrease exacerbation frequency in patients at risk. The use of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are justified in exacerbations requiring hospitalization and in some patients managed in an outpatient setting.

  7. Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: Managing transitions of care following Stroke, Guidelines Update 2016.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jill I; O'Connell, Colleen; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine; Booth, Rhonda; Boyle, Rosemary; Cheung, Donna; Cooper, Nancy; Corriveau, Helene; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Dulude, Annie; Flaherty, Patti; Glasser, Ev; Gubitz, Gord; Hebert, Debbie; Holzmann, Jacquie; Hurteau, Patrick; Lamy, Elise; LeClaire, Suzanne; McMillan, Taylor; Murray, Judy; Scarfone, David; Smith, Eric E; Shum, Vivian; Taylor, Kim; Taylor, Trudy; Yanchula, Catherine; Teasell, Robert; Lindsay, Patrice

    2016-10-01

    Every year, approximately 62,000 people with stroke and transient ischemic attack are treated in Canadian hospitals. For patients, families and caregivers, this can be a difficult time of adjustment. The 2016 update of the Canadian Managing Transitions of Care following Stroke guideline is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations appropriate for use by clinicians who provide care to patients following stroke across a broad range of settings. The focus of these recommendations is on support, education and skills training for patients, families and caregivers; effective discharge planning; interprofessional communication; adaptation in resuming activities of daily living; and transition to long-term care for patients who are unable to return to or remain at home. Unlike other modules contained in the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (such as acute inpatient care), many of these recommendations are based on consensus opinion, or evidence level C, highlighting the absence of conventional evidence (i.e. randomized controlled trials) in this area of stroke care. The quality of care transitions between stages and settings may have a direct impact on patient and family outcomes such as coping, readmissions and functional recovery. While many qualitative and non-controlled studies were reviewed, this gap in evidence combined with the fact that mortality from stoke is decreasing and more people are living with the effects of stroke, underscores the need to channel a portion of available research funds to recovery and adaptation following the acute phase of stroke.

  8. [The clinical guidelines of practice project at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    del Pilar Torres-Arreola, Laura; Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Sandoval-Castellanos, Fernando J

    2010-01-01

    The advance in the knowledge and technology is growing quickly and greater quantity, so it is difficult for the health professional to access to whole information that is generated every day on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies more effective, so the clinic practice guidelines (CPG) is a resource to support the updating of the health professional and support them in making clinical decisions. The CPG is also a better support to the manager of health services in making decisions regarding the strategies that have performed for the patient and less risk to the individual and collective health. They also support the response capacity of the medical units and hospitals and guide the planning of services to the optimization of the resources. This paper summarizes the methodology of a national project for the development of GPC coordinated by the Mexican Social Security Institute with the collaboration of more than 1200 health professionals of the institution in a great effort institutional update and make information accessible to the entire health sector, which also defines the steps to upgrade and maintain the updating of knowledge and technology expressed in them.

  9. Model-guided fieldwork: practical guidelines for multidisciplinary research on wildlife ecological and epidemiological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Restif, Olivier; Hayman, David T S; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Plowright, Raina K; George, Dylan B; Luis, Angela D; Cunningham, Andrew A; Bowen, Richard A; Fooks, Anthony R; O'Shea, Thomas J; Wood, James L N; Webb, Colleen T

    2012-10-01

    Infectious disease ecology has recently raised its public profile beyond the scientific community due to the major threats that wildlife infections pose to biological conservation, animal welfare, human health and food security. As we start unravelling the full extent of emerging infectious diseases, there is an urgent need to facilitate multidisciplinary research in this area. Even though research in ecology has always had a strong theoretical component, cultural and technical hurdles often hamper direct collaboration between theoreticians and empiricists. Building upon our collective experience of multidisciplinary research and teaching in this area, we propose practical guidelines to help with effective integration among mathematical modelling, fieldwork and laboratory work. Modelling tools can be used at all steps of a field-based research programme, from the formulation of working hypotheses to field study design and data analysis. We illustrate our model-guided fieldwork framework with two case studies we have been conducting on wildlife infectious diseases: plague transmission in prairie dogs and lyssavirus dynamics in American and African bats. These demonstrate that mechanistic models, if properly integrated in research programmes, can provide a framework for holistic approaches to complex biological systems. PMID:22809422

  10. [Clinical practice guidelines for systemic lupus erythematosus: Recommendations for general clinical management].

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Martín, María M; Rúa-Figueroa Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Ruíz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Pego-Reigosa, José María; Sabio Sánchez, José Mario; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex rheumatic multisystemic disease of autoimmune origin with significant potential morbidity and mortality. It is one of the most common autoimmune diseases with an estimated prevalence of 20-150 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The clinical spectrum of SLE is wide and variable both in clinical manifestations and severity. This prompted the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality to promote and fund the development of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the clinical care of SLE patients within the Programme of CPG in the National Health System which coordinates GuiaSalud. This CPG is is intended as the reference tool in the Spanish National Health System in order to support the comprehensive clinical management of people with SLE by all health professionals involved, regardless of specialty and level of care, helping to standardize and improve the quality of clinical decisions in our context in order to improve the health outcomes of the people affected. The purpose of this document is to present and discuss the rationale of the recommendations on the general management of SLE, specifically, clinical follow-up, general therapeutic approach, healthy lifestyles, photoprotection, and training programmes for patients. These recommendations are based on the best available scientific evidence, on discussion and the consensus of expert groups. PMID:26975887

  11. [Clinical practice guideline on the management of patients with dyspepsia. Update 2012].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P; Calvet, Xavier; Ferrándiz, Juan; Mascort, Juan; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Marzo, Mercè

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) on the Management of Patients with Dyspepsia is to generate recommendations on the optimal approach to dyspepsia in the primary care and specialized outpatient setting. The main objective of this CPG is to help to optimize the diagnostic process, identifying patients with a low risk of a serious organic disease (mainly tumoral), who could be safely managed without the need for invasive diagnostic tests and/or referral to a specialist. The importance of this aim lies in the need to accurately diagnose patients with esophagogastric cancer and correctly treat peptic ulcer while, at the same time, reduce negative endoscopies in order to appropriately use the available healthcare resources. This CPG reviews the initial strategies that can be used in patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia and evaluates the possible decision to begin empirical therapy or to investigate the existence of a lesion that could explain the symptoms. This CPG also discusses functional dyspepsia, which encompasses all patients with dyspepsia with no demonstrable cause on endoscopy. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection are also made. To classify the scientific evidence and strengthen the recommendations, the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group) system has been used (http://www.gradeworkinggroup.org/).

  12. Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: Managing transitions of care following Stroke, Guidelines Update 2016.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jill I; O'Connell, Colleen; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine; Booth, Rhonda; Boyle, Rosemary; Cheung, Donna; Cooper, Nancy; Corriveau, Helene; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Dulude, Annie; Flaherty, Patti; Glasser, Ev; Gubitz, Gord; Hebert, Debbie; Holzmann, Jacquie; Hurteau, Patrick; Lamy, Elise; LeClaire, Suzanne; McMillan, Taylor; Murray, Judy; Scarfone, David; Smith, Eric E; Shum, Vivian; Taylor, Kim; Taylor, Trudy; Yanchula, Catherine; Teasell, Robert; Lindsay, Patrice

    2016-10-01

    Every year, approximately 62,000 people with stroke and transient ischemic attack are treated in Canadian hospitals. For patients, families and caregivers, this can be a difficult time of adjustment. The 2016 update of the Canadian Managing Transitions of Care following Stroke guideline is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations appropriate for use by clinicians who provide care to patients following stroke across a broad range of settings. The focus of these recommendations is on support, education and skills training for patients, families and caregivers; effective discharge planning; interprofessional communication; adaptation in resuming activities of daily living; and transition to long-term care for patients who are unable to return to or remain at home. Unlike other modules contained in the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (such as acute inpatient care), many of these recommendations are based on consensus opinion, or evidence level C, highlighting the absence of conventional evidence (i.e. randomized controlled trials) in this area of stroke care. The quality of care transitions between stages and settings may have a direct impact on patient and family outcomes such as coping, readmissions and functional recovery. While many qualitative and non-controlled studies were reviewed, this gap in evidence combined with the fact that mortality from stoke is decreasing and more people are living with the effects of stroke, underscores the need to channel a portion of available research funds to recovery and adaptation following the acute phase of stroke. PMID:27443991

  13. Guidelines and best practices for electrophysiological data collection, analysis and reporting in autism

    PubMed Central

    Webb, S. J.; Bernier, R.; Henderson, H. A.; Johnson, M. H.; Jones, E. J. H.; Lerner, M. D.; McPartland, J. C.; Nelson, C. A.; Rojas, D. C.; Townsend, J.; Westerfield, M.

    2014-01-01

    The EEG reflects the activation of large populations of neurons that act in synchrony and propagate to the scalp surface. This activity reflects both the brain’s background electrical activity and when the brain is being challenged by a task. Despite strong theoretical and methodological arguments for the use of EEG in understanding the neural correlates of autism, the practice of collecting, processing and evaluating EEG data is complex. Scientists should take into consideration both the nature of development in autism given the life-long, pervasive course of the disorder and the disability of altered or atypical social, communicative, and motor behaviors, all of which require accommodations to traditional EEG environments and paradigms. This paper presents guidelines for the recording, analyzing, and interpreting of EEG data with participants with autism. The goal is to articulate a set of scientific standards as well as methodological considerations that will increase the general field’s understanding of EEG methods, provide support for collaborative projects, and contribute to the evaluation of results and conclusions. PMID:23975145

  14. [Clinical practice guidelines for systemic lupus erythematosus: Recommendations for general clinical management].

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Martín, María M; Rúa-Figueroa Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Ruíz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Pego-Reigosa, José María; Sabio Sánchez, José Mario; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex rheumatic multisystemic disease of autoimmune origin with significant potential morbidity and mortality. It is one of the most common autoimmune diseases with an estimated prevalence of 20-150 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The clinical spectrum of SLE is wide and variable both in clinical manifestations and severity. This prompted the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality to promote and fund the development of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the clinical care of SLE patients within the Programme of CPG in the National Health System which coordinates GuiaSalud. This CPG is is intended as the reference tool in the Spanish National Health System in order to support the comprehensive clinical management of people with SLE by all health professionals involved, regardless of specialty and level of care, helping to standardize and improve the quality of clinical decisions in our context in order to improve the health outcomes of the people affected. The purpose of this document is to present and discuss the rationale of the recommendations on the general management of SLE, specifically, clinical follow-up, general therapeutic approach, healthy lifestyles, photoprotection, and training programmes for patients. These recommendations are based on the best available scientific evidence, on discussion and the consensus of expert groups.

  15. Medical care of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: current guidelines and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cyganek, Katarzyna; Klupa, Tomasz; Szopa, Magdalena; Katra, Barbara; Małecki, Maciej T

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of all types of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Diabetes is a common metabolic complication of pregnancy. For many years, pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes was associated with a particularly poor prognosis, and while this has changed dramatically over the last 2 decades, a lot has yet to be done. The continuous relationship between the maternal glucose level and the prevalence of pregnancy complications is well‑documented. The list of outcomes includes congenital malformations, stillbirths, neonatal mortality, macrosomia, hypoglycemia, and many others. Several new therapeutic and monitoring tools have become available over the recent years, for example, short- and long‑acting insulin analogs, personal pumps, and continuous glucose monitoring systems. Interestingly, pregnancy planning and preconception education proved to be particularly effective in improving glycemic control in type 1 diabetic women and achieving therapeutic goals recommended by clinical guidelines. This resulted in the reduction of some maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcomes reported from various populations, but despite this remarkable progress the prevalence of the most common complication, neonatal macrosomia, is still substantially higher than in the newborns of mothers without diabetes. The likely causes of this phenomenon are short episodes of hyperglycemia, particularly postprandial ones, liberal diet, maternal obesity, and substantial weight gain during pregnancy - these potential reasons should be addressed in clinical practice. In the future, new therapeutic devices, such as close‑loop insulin pumps, may help further improve the prognosis in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23344642

  16. ALAT-2014 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Clinical Practice Guidelines: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, María; López Varela, María Victorina; Acuña, Agustín; Schiavi, Eduardo; Rey, María Alejandra; Jardim, José; Casas, Alejandro; Tokumoto, Antonio; Torres Duque, Carlos A; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; García, Gabriel; Stirbulov, Roberto; Camelier, Aquiles; Bergna, Miguel; Cohen, Mark; Guzmán, Santiago; Sánchez, Efraín

    2015-08-01

    ALAT-2014 COPD Clinical Practice Guidelines used clinical questions in PICO format to compile evidence related to risk factors, COPD screening, disease prognosis, treatment and exacerbations. Evidence reveals the existence of risk factors for COPD other than tobacco, as well as gender differences in disease presentation. It shows the benefit of screening in an at-risk population, and the predictive value use of multidimensional prognostic indexes. In stable COPD, similar benefits in dyspnea, pulmonary function and quality of life are achieved with LAMA or LABA long-acting bronchodilators, whereas LAMA is more effective in preventing exacerbations. Dual bronchodilator therapy has more benefits than monotherapy. LAMA and combination LABA/IC are similarly effective, but there is an increased risk of pneumonia with LABA/IC. Data on the efficacy and safety of triple therapy are scarce. Evidence supports influenza vaccination in all patients and anti-pneumococcal vaccination in patients <65years of age and/or with severe airflow limitation. Antibiotic prophylaxis may decrease exacerbation frequency in patients at risk. The use of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are justified in exacerbations requiring hospitalization and in some patients managed in an outpatient setting. PMID:25596991

  17. [Changes in midwifery practice. 26. Postwar legislative guideline concerning family planning].

    PubMed

    Obayashi, M

    1987-09-01

    Yoshio Furuya, who authored the 1951 legislative guidelines for family planning in Japan, designated 3 villages to model family planning upon his return from the United States in 1950. The instructors were public health nurses, midwives and regular nurses who had been trained and certified by the National Public Health Institute. They showed film strips and slides, and distributed contraceptives and medication. Population Research Group also embarked on the New Life Style Movement among Japanese industries in 1951. The new life style was said to have 3 pillars: family planning, career planning, and family morals. The idea of family planning was welcomed at the beginning by industries because it would mean less dependents of employees to provide financial aid for. The movement lasted only several years. In 1955, the International Family Planning Federation and the Japan Family Planning Federation co-sponsored the Fifth International Family Planning Conference in Tokyo. 572 participants including Margaret Sanger delivered 91 papers on techniques and practices of family planning. Soon after the conference, the Family Planning Study Committee was organized, and they met once a month to discuss socio-cultural implications of family planning, theory and practice of contraception, maternal and child health. Many of the committee members were idealistic/feminist public health officials but there were no women among them. A post-war family planning movement approved by the Japanese government resulted in the dramatic reduction in the birth rate from 34.3% in 1947 to 17.2% in 1957. Midwives played an important role in enforcing the policy but they were excluded from policy making.

  18. Mitigation of adverse interactions in pairs of clinical practice guidelines using constraint logic programming.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Michalowski, Martin; Farion, Ken; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-04-01

    We propose a new method to mitigate (identify and address) adverse interactions (drug-drug or drug-disease) that occur when a patient with comorbid diseases is managed according to two concurrently applied clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). A lack of methods to facilitate the concurrent application of CPGs severely limits their use in clinical practice and the development of such methods is one of the grand challenges for clinical decision support. The proposed method responds to this challenge. We introduce and formally define logical models of CPGs and other related concepts, and develop the mitigation algorithm that operates on these concepts. In the algorithm we combine domain knowledge encoded as interaction and revision operators using the constraint logic programming (CLP) paradigm. The operators characterize adverse interactions and describe revisions to logical models required to address these interactions, while CLP allows us to efficiently solve the logical models - a solution represents a feasible therapy that may be safely applied to a patient. The mitigation algorithm accepts two CPGs and available (likely incomplete) patient information. It reports whether mitigation has been successful or not, and on success it gives a feasible therapy and points at identified interactions (if any) together with the revisions that address them. Thus, we consider the mitigation algorithm as an alerting tool to support a physician in the concurrent application of CPGs that can be implemented as a component of a clinical decision support system. We illustrate our method in the context of two clinical scenarios involving a patient with duodenal ulcer who experiences an episode of transient ischemic attack.

  19. IMPLEmenting a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain evidence-based manageMENT in general practice (IMPLEMENT): Cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Joanne E; French, Simon D; O'Connor, Denise A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Mortimer, Duncan; Michie, Susan; Francis, Jill; Spike, Neil; Schattner, Peter; Kent, Peter M; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Green, Sally E

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence generated from reliable research is not frequently implemented into clinical practice. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are a potential vehicle to achieve this. A recent systematic review of implementation strategies of guideline dissemination concluded that there was a lack of evidence regarding effective strategies to promote the uptake of guidelines. Recommendations from this review, and other studies, have suggested the use of interventions that are theoretically based because these may be more effective than those that are not. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the management of acute low back pain was recently developed in Australia. This provides an opportunity to develop and test a theory-based implementation intervention for a condition which is common, has a high burden, and for which there is an evidence-practice gap in the primary care setting. Aim This study aims to test the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention for implementing a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain in general practice in Victoria, Australia. Specifically, our primary objectives are to establish if the intervention is effective in reducing the percentage of patients who are referred for a plain x-ray, and improving mean level of disability for patients three months post-consultation. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the details of a cluster randomised controlled trial. Ninety-two general practices (clusters), which include at least one consenting general practitioner, will be randomised to an intervention or control arm using restricted randomisation. Patients aged 18 years or older who visit a participating practitioner for acute non-specific low back pain of less than three months duration will be eligible for inclusion. An average of twenty-five patients per general practice will be recruited, providing a total of 2,300 patient participants. General practitioners in the control arm will receive access

  20. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for suspected choledocholithiasis: From guidelines to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Joana; Rosa, Bruno; Cotter, José

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the practical applicability of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines in suspected cases of choledocholithiasis. METHODS: This was a retrospective single center study, covering a 4-year period, from January 2010 to December 2013. All patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected choledocholithiasis were included. Based on the presence or absence of predictors of choledocholithiasis (clinical ascending cholangitis, common bile duct (CBD) stones on ultrasonography (US), total bilirubin > 4 mg/dL, dilated CBD on US, total bilirubin 1.8-4 mg/dL, abnormal liver function test, age > 55 years and gallstone pancreatitis), patients were stratified in low, intermediate or high risk for choledocholithiasis. For each predictor and risk group we used the χ2 to evaluate the statistical associations with the presence of choledocolithiasis at ERCP. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21.0. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 268 ERCPs were performed for suspected choledocholithiasis. Except for gallstone pancreatitis (P = 0.063), all other predictors of choledocholitiasis (clinical ascending cholangitis, P = 0.001; CBD stones on US, P ≤ 0.001; total bilirubin > 4 mg/dL, P = 0.035; total bilirubin 1.8-4 mg/dL, P = 0.001; dilated CBD on US, P ≤ 0.001; abnormal liver function test, P = 0.012; age > 55 years, P = 0.002) showed a statistically significant association with the presence of choledocholithiasis at ERCP. Approximately four fifths of patients in the high risk group (79.8%, 154/193 patients) had confirmed choledocholithiasis on ERCP, vs 34.2% (25/73 patients) and 0 (0/2 patients) in the intermediate and low risk groups, respectively. The definition of “high risk group” had a sensitivity of 86%, positive predictive value 79.8% and specificity 56.2% for the presence of choledocholithiasis at ERCP. CONCLUSION: The

  1. Comparison of consumer derived evidence with an omaha system evidence-based practice guideline for community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Pruinelli, Lisiane; Fu, Helen; Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L

    2014-01-01

    Consumer involvement in healthcare is critical to support continuity of care for consumers to manage their health while transitioning from one care setting to another. Validation of evidence-based practice (EBP) guideline by consumers is essential to achieving consumer health goals over time that is consistent with their needs and preferences. The purpose of this study was to compare an Omaha System EBP guideline for community dwelling older adults with consumer-derived evidence of their ongoing needs, resources, and strategies after home care discharge. All identified problems were relevant for all patients except for Neglect and Substance use. Ten additional problems were identified from the interviews, five of which affected at least 10% of the participants. Consumer derived evidence both validated and expanded EBP guidelines; thus further emphasizing the importance of consumer involvement in the delivery of home healthcare.

  2. Recommendations for using TNFα antagonists and French Clinical Practice Guidelines endorsed by the French National Authority for Health.

    PubMed

    Goëb, Vincent; Ardizzone, Marc; Arnaud, Laurent; Avouac, Jérôme; Baillet, Athan; Belot, Alexandre; Bouvard, Béatrice; Coquerelle, Pascal; Dadoun, Sabrina; Diguet, Alain; Launay, David; Lebouc, Danielle; Loulergue, Pierre; Mahy, Sophie; Mestat, Pascal; Mouterde, Gaël; Terrier, Benjamin; Varoquier, Coralie; Verdet, Mathieu; Puéchal, Xavier; Sibilia, Jean

    2013-12-01

    The use of TNFα antagonists must follow specific guidelines to ensure optimal effectiveness and safety. The French Society for Rheumatology (SFR) and Task Force on Inflammatory Joint Diseases (CRI), in partnership with several French learned societies, asked the French National Authority for Health (HAS) to develop and endorse good practice guidelines for the prescription and monitoring of TNFα antagonist therapy by physicians belonging to various specialties. These guidelines were developed, then, validated by two multidisciplinary panels of experts based on an exhaustive review of the recent literature and in compliance with the methodological rules set forth by the HAS. They pertain to the initial prescription of TNFα antagonists and to a variety of clinical situations that can arise during the follow-up of patients receiving TNFα antagonists (infections, malignancies, pregnancy, vaccination, paradoxical adverse events, surgery, use in older patients, and vasculitides).

  3. From Paper to Practice: Barriers to Adopting Nutrition Guidelines in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Shauna M.; Farmer, Anna; Quintanilha, Maira; Berry, Tanya R.; Mager, Diana R.; Willows, Noreen D.; McCargar, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the barriers associated with the adoption of the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth in schools according to characteristics of the innovation (guidelines) and the organization (schools). Design: Cross-sectional telephone survey. Setting and Participants: Schools in Alberta, Canada. Principals from 357…

  4. Drug Testing Guidelines and Practices for Juvenile Probation and Parole Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Probation and Parole Association, Lexington, KY.

    This document, intended as a resource manual, provides guidelines on drug testing. These topics are covered: (1) National Institute on Drug Abuse guidelines applicability; (2) introduction to legal issues, drug testing in juvenile probation and parole, and juvenile law; (3) mission of a juvenile parole agency; (4) purpose of testing; (5) drug…

  5. Compliance with AAPM Practice Guideline 1.a: CT Protocol Management and Review - from the perspective of a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Bour, Robert K; Pozniak, Myron; Ranallo, Frank N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe our experience with the AAPM Medical Physics Practice Guideline 1.a: "CT Protocol Management and Review Practice Guideline". Specifically, we will share how our institution's quality management system addresses the suggestions within the AAPM practice report. We feel this paper is needed as it was beyond the scope of the AAPM practice guideline to provide specific details on fulfilling individual guidelines. Our hope is that other institutions will be able to emulate some of our practices and that this article would encourage other types of centers (e.g., community hospitals) to share their methodology for approaching CT protocol optimization and quality control. Our institution had a functioning CT protocol optimization process, albeit informal, since we began using CT. Recently, we made our protocol development and validation process compliant with a number of the ISO 9001:2008 clauses and this required us to formalize the roles of the members of our CT protocol optimization team. We rely heavily on PACS-based IT solutions for acquiring radiologist feedback on the performance of our CT protocols and the performance of our CT scanners in terms of dose (scanner output) and the function of the automatic tube current modulation. Specific details on our quality management system covering both quality control and ongoing optimization have been provided. The roles of each CT protocol team member have been defined, and the critical role that IT solutions provides for the management of files and the monitoring of CT protocols has been reviewed. In addition, the invaluable role management provides by being a champion for the project has been explained; lack of a project champion will mitigate the efforts of a CT protocol optimization team. Meeting the guidelines set forth in the AAPM practice guideline was not inherently difficult, but did, in our case, require the cooperation of radiologists, technologists, physicists, IT

  6. Rules and guidelines in clinical practice: a qualitative study in operating theatres of doctors' and nurses' views

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, R; Waring, J; Harrison, S; Walshe, K; Boaden, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: The current orthodoxy within patient safety research and policy is characterised by a faith in rules based systems which limit the capacity for individual discretion, and hence fallibility. However, guidelines have been seen as stifling innovation and eroding trust. Our objectives were to explore the attitudes towards guidelines of doctors and nurses working together in surgical teams and to examine the extent to which trusting relationships are maintained in a context governed by explicit rules. Methods: Fourteen consultant grade surgeons of mixed specialty, 12 consultant anaesthetists, and 15 nurses were selected to reflect a range of roles. Participant observation was combined with semi-structured interviews. Results: Doctors' views about the contribution of guidelines to safety and to clinical practice differed from those of nurses. Doctors rejected written rules, instead adhering to the unwritten rules of what constitutes acceptable behaviour for members of the medical profession. In contrast, nurses viewed guideline adherence as synonymous with professionalism and criticised doctors for failing to comply with guidelines. Conclusions: While the creation of a "safety culture" requires a shared set of beliefs, attitudes and norms in relation to what is seen as safe clinical practice, differences of opinion on these issues exist which cannot be easily reconciled since they reflect deeply ingrained beliefs about what constitutes professional conduct. While advocates of standardisation (such as nurses) view doctors as rule breakers, doctors may not necessarily regard guidelines as legitimate or identify with the rules written for them by members of other social groups. Future safety research and policy should attempt to understand the unwritten rules which govern clinical behaviour and examine the ways in which such rules are produced, maintained, and accepted as legitimate. PMID:16076795

  7. Compliance with Evidence-Based Guidelines in Acute Pancreatitis: an Audit of Practices in University of Toronto Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Hsu, J; Bawazeer, M; Marshall, J; Friedrich, J O; Nathens, A; Coburn, N; Huang, H; McLeod, R S

    2016-02-01

    Despite existing evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, clinical compliance with recommendations is poor. We conducted a retrospective review of 248 patients admitted between 2010 and 2012 with acute pancreatitis at eight University of Toronto affiliated hospitals. We included all patients admitted to ICU (52) and 25 ward patients from each site (196). Management was compared with the most current evidence used in the Best Practice in General Surgery Management of Acute Pancreatitis Guideline. Fifty-six patients (22.6 %) had only serum lipase tested for biochemical diagnosis. Admission ultrasound was performed in 174 (70.2 %) patients, with 69 (27.8 %) undergoing ultrasound and CT. Of non-ICU patients, 158 (80.6 %) were maintained nil per os, and only 18 (34.6 %) ICU patients received enteral nutrition, commencing an average 7.5 days post-admission. Fifty (25.5 %) non-ICU patients and 25 (48.1 %) ICU patients received prophylactic antibiotics. Only 24 patients (22.6 %) with gallstone pancreatitis underwent index admission cholecystectomy. ERCP with sphincterotomy was under-utilized among patients with biliary obstruction (16 [31 %]) and candidates for prophylactic sphincterotomy (18 [22 %]). Discrepancies exist between the most current evidence and clinical practice within the University of Toronto hospitals. A guideline, knowledge translation strategy, and assessment of barriers to clinical uptake are required to change current clinical practice.

  8. The impact of postpartum haemorrhage management guidelines implemented in clinical practice: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nadisauskiene, Ruta J; Kliucinskas, Mindaugas; Dobozinskas, Paulius; Kacerauskiene, Justina

    2014-07-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is an urgent obstetric condition requiring an immediate response and a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this study was to review PPH management guidelines implemented in clinical practice, to evaluate their impact regarding prevention, diagnosis and treatment, and to analyze how the numbers of PPH cases changed in the post-intervention period. A systematic search in the PubMed database was performed. The references of all included articles were examined. Studies evaluating the management of PPH and the impact on the numbers of cases of this pathology after the implementation of new or updated guidelines were involved in the analysis. Two reviewers independently examined the titles and abstracts of all identified citations, selected potentially eligible studies, and evaluated their full-text versions. Methodological quality was assessed using a checklist based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement. We analyzed seven articles that evaluated the impact of new or updated guidelines for PPH management implemented in clinical practice. In four trials, the numbers of PPH cases declined after the intervention. Guidelines for PPH management can have a positive impact on the reduction of the number of PPH cases.

  9. Unstructured cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention in rural South Australia: does it meet best practice guidelines?

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Tracey; Kucia, Angela; Greenhill, Jennene

    2008-06-01

    Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programs that address risk factors, psychological problems, and physical activity are essential in optimizing health and reducing the risk of further cardiac events. Behavioural and lifestyle modification support offered through these programs is predicated on initial identification of risk. Many rural populations in Australia do not have access to structured cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs, and the level of support available to them in the form of unstructured CR is unclear. A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients presenting to hospital with myocardial infarction in rural South Australia over a 12 month period was undertaken to identify documented evidence of assessment of and intervention for lifestyle and behavioural risk factors in-hospital and at follow up in general practice (GP) clinics. Of 77 eligible participants, permission was received to access the medical records of 55 patients in the hospital setting, and 34 of these 55 patients in GP clinic follow up. Documented evidence of assessment of modifiable risk factors was inadequate for the majority of participants, with the exception of smoking status, hypertension and diabetes. This suggests that the majority of these participants did not receive lifestyle and behavioural interventions in line with current National Heart Foundation Recommendations for Cardiac Rehabilitation. Barriers to comprehensive CR and secondary prevention services in Australia must be addressed, particularly in high risk rural and remote populations. Future research must focus on the ongoing monitoring and evaluation of rural health care services to analyse existing levels of CR and secondary prevention to ensure current guidelines are being implemented, to support the further development and resourcing of CR services and to evaluate the subsequent impact on patient outcomes.

  10. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hypersensitivity Reactions to Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Rosado Ingelmo, A; Doña Diaz, I; Cabañas Moreno, R; Moya Quesada, M C; García-Avilés, C; García Nuñez, I; Martínez Tadeo, J I; Mielgo Ballesteros, R; Ortega-Rodríguez, N; Padial Vilchez, M A; Sánchez-Morillas, L; Vila Albelda, C; Moreno Rodilla, E; Torres Jaén, M J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of these guidelines is to ensure efficient and effective clinical practice. The panel of experts who produced this consensus document developed a research protocol based on a review of the literature. The prevalence of allergic reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is estimated to be 1:170 000, that is, 0.05%-0.1% of patients undergoing radiologic studies with ICM (more than 75 million examinations per year worldwide). Hypersensitivity reactions can appear within the first hour after administration (immediate reactions) or from more than 1 hour to several days after administration (nonimmediate or delayed reactions). The risk factors for immediate reactions include poorly controlled bronchial asthma, concomitant medication (eg, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ß-blockers, and proton-pump inhibitors), rapid administration of the ICM, mastocytosis, autoimmune diseases, and viral infections. The most common symptoms of immediate reactions are erythema and urticaria with or without angioedema, which appear in more than 70% of patients. Maculopapular rash is the most common skin feature of nonimmediate reactions (30%-90%). Skin and in vitro tests should be performed for diagnosis of both immediate and nonimmediate reactions. The ICM to be administered will therefore be chosen depending on the results of these tests, the ICM that induced the reaction (when known), the severity of the reaction, the availability of alternative ICM, and the information available on potential ICM cross-reactivity. Another type of contrast media, gadolinium derivatives, is used used for magnetic resonance imaging. Although rare, IgE-mediated reactions to gadolinium derivatives have been reported. PMID:27326981

  11. Fertility Preservation in Women with Turner Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review and Practical Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Kutluk; Bedoschi, Giuliano; Berkowitz, Karen; Bronson, Richard; Kashani, Banafsheh; McGovern, Peter; Pal, Lubna; Quinn, Gwendolyn; Rubin, Karen

    2016-10-01

    In this article we review the existing fertility preservation options for women diagnosed with Turner syndrome and provide practical guidelines for the practitioner. Turner syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in women, occurring in approximately 1 in 2500 live births. Women with Turner syndrome are at extremely high risk for primary ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Although approximately 70%-80% have no spontaneous pubertal development and 90% experience primary amenorrhea, the remainder might possess a small residual of ovarian follicles at birth or early childhood. The present challenge is to identify these women as early in life as is possible, to allow them to benefit from a variety of existing fertility preservation options. To maximize the benefits of fertility preservation, all women with Turner syndrome should be evaluated by an expert as soon as possible in childhood because the vast majority will have their ovarian reserve depleted before adulthood. Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos is a proven fertility preservation approach, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is a promising technique with a growing number of live births, but remains investigational. Oocyte cryopreservation has been performed in children with Turner syndrome as young as 13 years of age and ovarian tissue cryopreservation in affected prepubertal children. However, current efficacy of these approaches is unknown in this cohort. For those who have already lost their ovarian reserve, oocyte or embryo donation and adoption are strategies that allow fulfillment of the desire for parenting. For those with Turner syndrome-related cardiac contraindications to pregnancy, use of gestational surrogacy allows the possibility of biological parenting using their own oocytes. Alternatively, gestational surrogacy can serve to carry pregnancy resulting from the use of donor oocytes or embryos, if needed.

  12. A Manual for Prioritizing the Topics of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Mounesan, Leila; Sayarifard, Azadeh; Haghjou, Leila; Ghadirian, Laleh; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of a manual or well-defined criterion for prioritizing the topics of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) will help validate and organize this process evermore. This study was conducted to design an applicable manual that would prioritize the CPG topics for family physicians. Methods: This study was a multi-stage method using a qualitative approach that was conducted for the manual developing. The manual development process took place in four steps, as follows: Literature review, interviews with ten experts, preparing a list of criteria and determining its appropriateness by applying the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness method, and development of the final draft of the manual and pilot study. Results: Interview transcripts went under content analysis and were classified into eight main groups, 12 subgroups, and 85 themes. A comprehensive list consisting of fifty preliminary criteria were extracted. After summarizing and classifying the criteria, 12 appropriate criteria were evaluated using the RAND appropriateness method. Eventually, based on the literature review and our own results of the interview analysis, a manual consisting of five main sections and one clause on ethics was developed. Later, a pilot study was conducted on ten family physician topics, and prioritized by nine experts. Conclusions: The manual can be eyed as a tool ensuring the quality of the process of prioritizing CPG topics for family physicians, as it takes into account the issues involved in priority-setting. Selecting informed stakeholders for rating the criteria and ranking the topics was an issue that was greatly emphasized by the experts. Eventually, the application of this manual can be the first step toward systematizing the process of prioritizing CPG topics in the country. PMID:27141283

  13. A Mobile App for Hypertension Management Based on Clinical Practice Guidelines: Development and Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a chronic and lifestyle-related disease that requires continuous preventive care. Although there are many evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for hypertension management, applying them to daily management can be difficult for patients with hypertension. A mobile app, based on CPGs, could help patients with hypertension manage their disease. Objective To develop a mobile app for hypertension management based on CPGs and evaluate its effectiveness in patients with hypertension with respect to perceived usefulness, user satisfaction, and medication adherence. Methods The hypertension management app (HMA) was developed according to the Web-Roadmap methodology, which includes planning, analysis, design, implementation, and evaluation phases. The HMA was provided to individuals (N=38) with hypertension. Medication adherence was measured before and after using the HMA for 4 weeks. The perceived usefulness and user satisfaction were surveyed in the patients who completed the medication adherence survey. Results Of the 38 study participants, 29 (76%) participated in medical adherence assessment. Medication adherence, as measured by the Modified Morisky Scale, was significantly improved in these patients after they had used the HMA (P=.001). The perceived usefulness score was 3.7 out of 5. The user satisfaction scores, with respect to using the HMA for blood pressure recording, medication recording, data sending, alerting, recommending, and educating about medication were 4.3, 3.8, 3.1, 3.2, 3.4, and 3.8 out of 5, respectively, in the 19 patients. Conclusions This study showed that a mobile app for hypertension management based on CPGs is effective at improving medication adherence. PMID:26839283

  14. Anal cancer: ESMO-ESSO-ESTRO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Glynne-Jones, R; Nilsson, P J; Aschele, C; Goh, V; Peiffert, D; Cervantes, A; Arnold, D

    2014-10-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare cancer but its incidence is increasing throughout the world, and is particularly high in the human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) population. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory (involving radiation therapists, medical oncologists, surgeons, radiologists and pathologists). SCCA usually spreads in a loco-regional manner within and outside the anal canal. Lymph node involvement at diagnosis is observed in 30%-40% of cases while systemic spread is uncommon with distant extrapelvic metastases recorded in 5%-8% at onset, and rates of metastatic progression after primary treatment between 10 and 20%. SCCA is strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV, types 16-18) infection. The primary aim of treatment is to achieve cure with loco-regional control and preservation of anal function, with the best possible quality of life. Treatment dramatically differs from adenocarcinomas of the lower rectum. Combinations of 5FU-based chemoradiation and other cytotoxic agents (mitomycin C) have been established as the standard of care, leading to complete tumour regression in 80%-90% of patients with locoregional failures in the region of 15%. There is an accepted role for surgical salvage. Assessment and treatment should be carried out in specialised centres treating a high number of patients as early as possible in the clinical diagnosis. To date, the limited evidence from only 6 randomised trials [1,2,3,4,5,6,7], the rarity of the cancer, and the different behaviour/natural history depending on the predominant site of origin, (the anal margin, anal canal or above the dentate line) provide scanty direction for any individual oncologist. Here we aim to provide guidelines which can assist medical, radiation and surgical oncologists in the practical management of this unusual cancer. PMID:25239441

  15. Anal cancer: ESMO-ESSO-ESTRO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Glynne-Jones, Robert; Nilsson, Per J; Aschele, Carlo; Goh, Vicky; Peiffert, Didier; Cervantes, Andrés; Arnold, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare cancer but its incidence is increasing throughout the world, and is particularly high in the human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) population. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory (involving radiation therapists, medical oncologists, surgeons, radiologists and pathologists). SCCA usually spreads in a loco-regional manner within and outside the anal canal. Lymph node involvement at diagnosis is observed in 30-40% of cases while systemic spread is uncommon with distant extrapelvic metastases recorded in 5-8% at onset, and rates of metastatic progression after primary treatment between 10% and 20%. SCCA is strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV, types 16-18) infection. The primary aim of treatment is to achieve cure with loco-regional control and preservation of anal function, with the best possible quality of life. Treatment dramatically differs from adenocarcinomas of the lower rectum. Combinations of 5FU-based chemoradiation and other cytotoxic agents (mitomycin C) have been established as the standard of care, leading to complete tumour regression in 80-90% of patients with locoregional failures in the region of 15%. There is an accepted role for surgical salvage. Assessment and treatment should be carried out in specialised centres treating a high number of patients as early as possible in the clinical diagnosis. To date, the limited evidence from only 6 randomised trials [1,2,3,4,5,6,7], the rarity of the cancer, and the different behaviour/natural history depending on the predominant site of origin, (the anal margin, anal canal or above the dentate line) provide scanty direction for any individual oncologist. Here we aim to provide guidelines which can assist medical, radiation and surgical oncologists in the practical management of this unusual cancer. PMID:24947004

  16. Fertility Preservation in Women with Turner Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review and Practical Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Kutluk; Bedoschi, Giuliano; Berkowitz, Karen; Bronson, Richard; Kashani, Banafsheh; McGovern, Peter; Pal, Lubna; Quinn, Gwendolyn; Rubin, Karen

    2016-10-01

    In this article we review the existing fertility preservation options for women diagnosed with Turner syndrome and provide practical guidelines for the practitioner. Turner syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in women, occurring in approximately 1 in 2500 live births. Women with Turner syndrome are at extremely high risk for primary ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Although approximately 70%-80% have no spontaneous pubertal development and 90% experience primary amenorrhea, the remainder might possess a small residual of ovarian follicles at birth or early childhood. The present challenge is to identify these women as early in life as is possible, to allow them to benefit from a variety of existing fertility preservation options. To maximize the benefits of fertility preservation, all women with Turner syndrome should be evaluated by an expert as soon as possible in childhood because the vast majority will have their ovarian reserve depleted before adulthood. Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos is a proven fertility preservation approach, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is a promising technique with a growing number of live births, but remains investigational. Oocyte cryopreservation has been performed in children with Turner syndrome as young as 13 years of age and ovarian tissue cryopreservation in affected prepubertal children. However, current efficacy of these approaches is unknown in this cohort. For those who have already lost their ovarian reserve, oocyte or embryo donation and adoption are strategies that allow fulfillment of the desire for parenting. For those with Turner syndrome-related cardiac contraindications to pregnancy, use of gestational surrogacy allows the possibility of biological parenting using their own oocytes. Alternatively, gestational surrogacy can serve to carry pregnancy resulting from the use of donor oocytes or embryos, if needed. PMID:26485320

  17. ACR-ASTRO practice guideline for the performance of therapy with unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources.

    PubMed

    Henkin, Robert E; Del Rowe, John D; Grigsby, Perry W; Hartford, Alan C; Jadvar, Hossein; Macklis, Roger M; Parker, J Anthony; Wong, Jeffrey Y C; Rosenthal, Seth A

    2011-08-01

    This guideline is intended to guide appropriately trained and licensed physicians performing therapy with unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Adherence to this guideline should help to maximize the efficacious use of these procedures, maintain safe conditions, and ensure compliance with applicable regulations. The topics dealt with in this guideline include indications for the use of iodine-131, both for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. In addition, indications for other less common procedures include those for the use of phosphorous-32 in its liquid and colloidal forms, strontium-89, samarium-153, and the use of Y-90 antibodies.

  18. [How to write, how to implement and how to evaluate a practice guideline in order to improve quality of care?].

    PubMed

    Moret, L; Lefort, C; Terrien, N

    2012-11-01

    Initiatives of clinical practices improvement have been gradually developing in France for 20 years. Nevertheless, effective implementation of change is still difficult for numerous reasons. The use of clinical practices guidelines is one of the different ways of improvement. It is however necessary to adapt these national guidelines to the specificities of the hospital and the team, to ensure implementation and appropriation by the professionals. These recommendations are thus translated into applicable and concrete standard operating procedures. These documents have to be built by and for the concerned professionals. They are also communication and training tools, precise, directive, uniform in terms of presentation and attractive visually. Once drafted, they have to be distributed widely to the professionals to facilitate implementation. The simple distribution of the recommendations is insufficient to modify the clinical practices and require association of several methods of promotion for an optimal appropriation. How then to make sure of their effective use? Practices evaluation is one of the steps of continuous professional development, including continuous training and analysis of clinical practices by using methods promoted by the "Haute Autorité de santé". One of them is the clinical audit; use of method assessing non-pertinent treatment is interesting too. Analysis of the non-conformities and gaps between theory and practice allows identifying various possible causes (professional, institutional, organizational or personal) in order to implement corrective action plans, in a logic of continuous improvement. PMID:23039956

  19. Developing search strategies for clinical practice guidelines in SUMSearch and Google Scholar and assessing their retrieval performance

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Andrea; Follmann, Markus; Skipka, Guido; Kirchner, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Background Information overload, increasing time constraints, and inappropriate search strategies complicate the detection of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The aim of this study was to provide clinicians with recommendations for search strategies to efficiently identify relevant CPGs in SUMSearch and Google Scholar. Methods We compared the retrieval efficiency (retrieval performance) of search strategies to identify CPGs in SUMSearch and Google Scholar. For this purpose, a two-term GLAD (GuideLine And Disease) strategy was developed, combining a defined CPG term with a specific disease term (MeSH term). We used three different CPG terms and nine MeSH terms for nine selected diseases to identify the most efficient GLAD strategy for each search engine. The retrievals for the nine diseases were pooled. To compare GLAD strategies, we used a manual review of all retrievals as a reference standard. The CPGs detected had to fulfil predefined criteria, e.g., the inclusion of therapeutic recommendations. Retrieval performance was evaluated by calculating so-called diagnostic parameters (sensitivity, specificity, and "Number Needed to Read" [NNR]) for search strategies. Results The search yielded a total of 2830 retrievals; 987 (34.9%) in Google Scholar and 1843 (65.1%) in SUMSearch. Altogether, we found 119 unique and relevant guidelines for nine diseases (reference standard). Overall, the GLAD strategies showed a better retrieval performance in SUMSearch than in Google Scholar. The performance pattern between search engines was similar: search strategies including the term "guideline" yielded the highest sensitivity (SUMSearch: 81.5%; Google Scholar: 31.9%), and search strategies including the term "practice guideline" yielded the highest specificity (SUMSearch: 89.5%; Google Scholar: 95.7%), and the lowest NNR (SUMSearch: 7.0; Google Scholar: 9.3). Conclusion SUMSearch is a useful tool to swiftly gain an overview of available CPGs. Its retrieval performance is

  20. Nephrology nurses' perspectives on difficult ethical issues and practice guideline for shared decision making.

    PubMed

    Rabetoy, Christy Price; Bair, Bradley C

    2007-01-01

    Nephrologists and nephrology nurses have struggled with the technological, financial, and ethical concerns surrounding the life sustaining treatment of hemodialysis for as long as this treatment as been available. One of the overriding issues for the nephrology community has been appropriate utilization of this technology and the appropriate restraint for prescribing dialysis. Since the inception of dialysis, there has been discussion of guidelines for deciding who should receive and who should not receive this therapy. In 2000, a clinical guideline was developed to assist in directing the care of patients. The knowledge and acceptance of this guideline by nephrologists has been researched in the past. However, there is no data of knowledge and acceptance of the guideline by nephrology clinical nurses or nephrology nurse practitioners. A survey was conducted to begin to ascertain this information in order to better understand the perspectives of nephrology nurses.

  1. 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:25918260

  2. Cardiological Society of India practice guidelines for angiography in patients with renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, S; Seth, A; Sethi, K K; Tyagi, S; Gupta, R; Tiwari, S C; Mehrotra, S; Seth, Ashok; Guha, Santanu; Deb, P K; Dasbiswas, Arup; Mohanan, P P; Venugopal, K; Sinha, Nakul; Pinto, Brian; Banerjee, Amal; Sengottuvelu, G; Mehran, Roxana; Mc Collough, Peter

    2012-12-01

    PREAMBLE: The potential risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) has made utilization of coronary angiography in the work-up for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in CKD quite low.(1) This is in contrast to increasing prevalence and severity of CAD as the serum creatinine rises.(2) In fact most CKD patients will succumb to CAD and not to ESRD.(3) Thus the judicious use of CAG/PCI in this setting is of prime importance but underused. The CSI began to develop guidelines for Indian context as most guidelines are those developed by ACC/AHA or ESC. The aim was to assist the physicians in selecting the best management strategy for an individual patient under his care based on an expert committee who would review the current data and write the guidelines with relevance to the Indian context. The guidelines were developed initially in June 2010 as an initiative of Delhi CSI. Three interventional cardiologist (SB, AS, KKS), one nephrologist (SCT) and two clinical cardiologists (ST, RG) along with Dr. Roxana Mehran (New York) and Dr. Peter McCullough (Missouri), U.S.A.; were involved in a three-way teleconference to discuss/debate the data. This was presented by SB, and over the next two hours each data subset was debated/agreed/deleted and this resulted in the "Guidelines for CAG in Renal Dysfunction Patients". These were then written and re- circulated to all for final comments. Further, these guidelines were updated and additional Task Force Members nominated by Central CSI were involved in the formation of the final CSI Guidelines. Both (Roxana Mehran and Peter McCullough) reviewed these updated Guidelines in October 2012 and after incorporating the views of all the Task Force members-the final format is as it is presented in this final document. PMID:23186627

  3. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for treatment of eye injuries and illnesses in the wilderness.

    PubMed

    Drake, Brandy; Paterson, Ryan; Tabin, Geoffrey; Butler, Frank K; Cushing, Tracy

    2012-12-01

    A panel convened to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for the recognition and treatment of eye injuries and illnesses that may occur in the wilderness. These guidelines are meant to serve as a tool to help wilderness providers accurately identify and subsequently treat or evacuate for a variety of ophthalmologic complaints. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of their supporting evidence and the balance between risks and benefits according to criteria developed by the American College of Chest Physicians.

  4. Announcement: Clinical Practice Guidelines Published for Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society, CDC, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have jointly sponsored the development of guidelines for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which were published by IDSA in Clinical Infectious Diseases on August 11, 2016 (1) and are available through IDSA (http://www.idsociety.org/Index.aspx) and CDC (http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/guidelines/treatment.htm). PMID:27537009

  5. The effect of the perioperative blood transfusion and blood conservation in cardiac surgery Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists upon clinical practices.

    PubMed

    Likosky, Donald S; FitzGerald, Daniel C; Groom, Robert C; Jones, Dwayne K; Baker, Robert A; Shann, Kenneth G; Mazer, C David; Spiess, Bruce D; Body, Simon C

    2010-06-01

    The 2007 Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Clinical Practice Guideline for Perioperative Blood Transfusion and Blood Conservation in Cardiac Surgery was recently promulgated and has received much attention. Using a survey of cardiac anesthesiologists and perfusionists' clinical practice, we assessed the current practices of perfusion, anesthesia, and surgery, as recommended by the Guidelines and also determined the role the Guidelines had in changing these practices. Nontrainee members of the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, the American Academy of Cardiovascular Perfusion, the Canadian Society of Clinical Perfusion, and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology were surveyed using a standardized survey instrument that examined clinical practices and responses to the Guidelines. One thousand four hundred and two surveys from 1,061 institutions principally in the United States (677 institutions) and Canada (34 institutions) were returned, with a 32% response rate. There was wide distribution of the Guidelines with 78% of anesthesiologists and 67% of perfusionists reporting having read all, part, or a summary of the Guidelines. However, only 20% of respondents reported that an institutional discussion had taken place as a result of the Guidelines, and only 14% of respondents reported that an institutional monitoring group had been formed. There was wide variability in current preoperative testing, perfusion, surgical, and pharmacological practices reported by respondents. Twenty-six percent of respondents reported one or more practice changes in response to the Guidelines.The changes made were reported to be highly (9%) or somewhat effective (31%) in reducing overall transfusion rates. Only four of 38 Guideline recommendations were reported by more than 5% of respondents to have been changed in response to the Guidelines. Wide variation in clinical practices of cardiac surgery was reported. Little

  6. Dry needling: a literature review with implications for clinical practice guidelines1

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, James; Butts, Raymond; Mourad, Firas; Young, Ian; Flannagan, Sean; Perreault, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    sparrow pecking’; however, to date, no high-quality, long-term trials supporting in-and-out needling techniques at exclusively muscular TrPs exist, and the practice should therefore be questioned. The insertion of dry needles into asymptomatic body areas proximal and/or distal to the primary source of pain is supported by the myofascial pain syndrome literature. Physical therapists should not ignore the findings of the Western or biomedical ‘acupuncture’ literature that have used the very same ‘dry needles’ to treat patients with a variety of neuromusculoskeletal conditions in numerous, large scale randomized controlled trials. Although the optimal frequency, duration, and intensity of dry needling has yet to be determined for many neuromusculoskeletal conditions, the vast majority of dry needling randomized controlled trials have manually stimulated the needles and left them in situ for between 10 and 30 minute durations. Position statements and clinical practice guidelines for dry needling should be based on the best available literature, not a single paradigm or school of thought; therefore, physical therapy associations and state boards of physical therapy should consider broadening the definition of dry needling to encompass the stimulation of neural, muscular, and connective tissues, not just ‘TrPs’. PMID:25143704

  7. ESHRE PGD consortium best practice guidelines for organization of a PGD centre for PGD/preimplantation genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Harton, G; Braude, P; Lashwood, A; Schmutzler, A; Traeger-Synodinos, J; Wilton, L; Harper, J C

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) PGD Consortium published a set of Guidelines for Best Practice PGD to give information, support and guidance to potential, existing and fledgling PGD programmes. Subsequent years have seen the introduction of new technologies as well as the evolution of current techniques. Additionally, in light of recent advice from ESHRE on how practice guidelines should be written/formulated, the Consortium believed it was timely to update the PGD guidelines. Rather than one document that covers all of PGD, the new guidelines are separated into four documents, including one relating to organization of the PGD centre and three relating to the methods used: DNA amplification, fluorescence in situ hybridization and biopsy/embryology. Here, we have updated the sections on organization of the PGD centre. One area that has continued to expand is Transport PGD, in which patients are treated at one IVF centre, whereas their gametes/embryos are tested elsewhere, at an independent PGD centre. Transport PGD/preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has a unique set of challenges with respect to the nature of the sample and the rapid turn-around time required. PGS is currently controversial. Opinions of laboratory specialists and clinicians interested in PGD and PGS have been taken into account here. Current evidence suggests that PGS at cleavage stages is ineffective, but whether PGS at the blastocyst stage or on polar bodies might show improved delivery rates is still unclear. Thus, in this revision, PGS has been included. This document should assist everyone interested in PGD/PGS in developing the best laboratory and clinical practice possible.

  8. Employer Best Practice Guidelines for the Return to Work of Workers on Mental Disorder–Related Disability Leave

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Lucy; Joosen, Margot C. W.; Bonato, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There has been an increasing number of employer best practice guidelines (BPGs) for the return to work (RTW) from mental disorder–related disability leave. This systematic review addresses 2 questions: 1) What is the quality of the development and recommendations of these BPGs? and 2) What are the areas of agreement and discrepancy among the identified guidelines related to the RTW from mental illness–related disability leave? Method: A systematic literature search was performed using publically available grey literature and best practice portals. It focused on the RTW of workers with medically certified disability leave related to mental disorders. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) was used to assess the quality of the development and recommendations of these BPGs. Results: A total of 58 unique documents were identified for screening. After screening, 5 BPGs were appraised using AGREE II; 3 BPGs were included in the final set. There were no discrepancies among the 3, although they were from different countries. They all agreed there should be: 1) well-described organizational policies and procedures for the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders, 2) a disability leave plan, and 3) work accommodations. In addition, one guideline suggested supervisor training and mental health literacy training for all staff. Conclusion: Although there were no discrepancies among the 3 BPGs, they emphasized different aspects of RTW and could be considered to be complementary. Together, they provide important guidance for those seeking to understand employer best practices for mental illness–related disability. PMID:27254093

  9. Methods of cognitive analysis to support the design and evaluation of biomedical systems: the case of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Patel, V L; Arocha, J F; Diermeier, M; Greenes, R A; Shortliffe, E H

    2001-02-01

    This article provides a theoretical and methodological framework for the use of cognitive analysis to support the representation of biomedical knowledge and the design of clinical systems, using clinical-practice guidelines (CPGs) as an example. We propose that propositional and semantic analyses, when used as part of the system-development process, can improve the validity, usability, and comprehension of the resulting biomedical applications. The framework we propose is based on a large body of research on the study of how people mentally represent information and subsequently use it for problem solving. This research encompasses many areas of psychology, but the more important ones are the study of memory and the study of comprehension. Of particular relevance is research devoted to investigating the comprehension and memory of language, expressed verbally or in text. In addition, research on how contextual variables affect performance is informative because these psychological processes are influenced by situational variables (e.g., setting, culture). One important factor limiting the acceptance and use of clinical-practice guidelines (CPGs) may be the mismatch between a guideline's recommended actions and the physician-user's mental models of what seems appropriate in a given case. Furthermore, CPGs can be semantically complex, often composed of elaborate collections of prescribed procedures with logical gaps or contradictions that can promote ambiguity and hence frustration on the part of those who attempt to use them. An improved understanding of the semantics and structure of CPGs may help to improve such matching, and ultimately the comprehensibility and usability of CPGs. Cognitive methods of analysis can help guideline designers and system builders throughout the development process, from the conceptual design of a computer-based system to its implementation phases. By studying how guideline creators and developers represent guidelines, both mentally and

  10. Radiotherapy for non-malignant disorders: state of the art and update of the evidence-based practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Seegenschmiedt, M H; Micke, O; Muecke, R

    2015-07-01

    Every year in Germany about 50,000 patients are referred and treated by radiotherapy (RT) for "non-malignant disorders". This highly successful treatment is applied only for specific indications such as preservation or recovery of the quality of life by means of pain reduction or resolution and/or an improvement of formerly impaired physical body function owing to specific disease-related symptoms. Since 1995, German radiation oncologists have treated non-malignant disorders according to national consensus guidelines; these guidelines were updated and further developed over 3 years by implementation of a systematic consensus process to achieve national upgraded and accepted S2e clinical practice guidelines. Throughout this process, international standards of evaluation were implemented. This review summarizes most of the generally accepted indications for the application of RT for non-malignant diseases and presents the special treatment concepts. The following disease groups are addressed: painful degenerative skeletal disorders, hyperproliferative disorders and symptomatic functional disorders. These state of the art guidelines may serve as a platform for daily clinical work; they provide a new starting point for quality assessment, future clinical research, including the design of prospective clinical trials, and outcome research in the underrepresented and less appreciated field of RT for non-malignant disorders. PMID:25955230

  11. Radiotherapy for non-malignant disorders: state of the art and update of the evidence-based practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Micke, O; Muecke, R

    2015-01-01

    Every year in Germany about 50,000 patients are referred and treated by radiotherapy (RT) for “non-malignant disorders”. This highly successful treatment is applied only for specific indications such as preservation or recovery of the quality of life by means of pain reduction or resolution and/or an improvement of formerly impaired physical body function owing to specific disease-related symptoms. Since 1995, German radiation oncologists have treated non-malignant disorders according to national consensus guidelines; these guidelines were updated and further developed over 3 years by implementation of a systematic consensus process to achieve national upgraded and accepted S2e clinical practice guidelines. Throughout this process, international standards of evaluation were implemented. This review summarizes most of the generally accepted indications for the application of RT for non-malignant diseases and presents the special treatment concepts. The following disease groups are addressed: painful degenerative skeletal disorders, hyperproliferative disorders and symptomatic functional disorders. These state of the art guidelines may serve as a platform for daily clinical work; they provide a new starting point for quality assessment, future clinical research, including the design of prospective clinical trials, and outcome research in the underrepresented and less appreciated field of RT for non-malignant disorders. PMID:25955230

  12. Vestibular Rehabilitation for Peripheral Vestibular Hypofunction: An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Herdman, Susan J.; Whitney, Susan L.; Cass, Stephen P.; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Fife, Terry D.; Furman, Joseph M.; Getchius, Thomas S. D.; Goebel, Joel A.; Shepard, Neil T.; Woodhouse, Sheelah N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uncompensated vestibular hypofunction results in postural instability, visual blurring with head movement, and subjective complaints of dizziness and/or imbalance. We sought to answer the question, “Is vestibular exercise effective at enhancing recovery of function in people with peripheral (unilateral or bilateral) vestibular hypofunction?” Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed in 5 databases published after 1985 and 5 additional sources for relevant publications were searched. Article types included meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case control series, and case series for human subjects, published in English. One hundred thirty-five articles were identified as relevant to this clinical practice guideline. Results/Discussion: Based on strong evidence and a preponderance of benefit over harm, clinicians should offer vestibular rehabilitation to persons with unilateral and bilateral vestibular hypofunction with impairments and functional limitations related to the vestibular deficit. Based on strong evidence and a preponderance of harm over benefit, clinicians should not include voluntary saccadic or smooth-pursuit eye movements in isolation (ie, without head movement) as specific exercises for gaze stability. Based on moderate evidence, clinicians may offer specific exercise techniques to target identified impairments or functional limitations. Based on moderate evidence and in consideration of patient preference, clinicians may provide supervised vestibular rehabilitation. Based on expert opinion extrapolated from the evidence, clinicians may prescribe a minimum of 3 times per day for the performance of gaze stability exercises as 1 component of a home exercise program. Based on expert opinion extrapolated from the evidence (range of supervised visits: 2-38 weeks, mean = 10 weeks), clinicians may consider providing adequate supervised vestibular rehabilitation sessions for the

  13. Viral Immune Evasion in Dengue: Toward Evidence-Based Revisions of Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Santos, Silvana Maria Eloi; Caldeira Brant, Xenia Maria; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Maida, Carl A; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli

    2014-01-01

    Dengue, a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics since the 1950׳s, is fast spreading in the Western hemisphere. Over 30% of the world׳s population is at risk for the mosquitoes that transmit any one of four related Dengue viruses (DENV). Infection induces lifetime protection to a particular serotype, but successive exposure to a different DENV increases the likelihood of severe form of dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Prompt supportive treatment lowers the risk of developing the severe spectrum of Dengue-associated physiopathology. Vaccines are not available, and the most effective protective measure is to prevent mosquito bites. Here, we discuss selected aspects of the syndemic nature of Dengue, including its potential for pathologies of the central nervous system (CNS). We examine the fundamental mechanisms of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to viral infection in general, and the specific implications of these processes in the regulatory control of DENV infection, including DENV evasion from immune surveillance. In line with the emerging model of translational science in health care, which integrates translational research (viz., going from the patient to the bench and back to the patient) and translational effectiveness (viz., integrating and utilizing the best available evidence in clinical settings), we examine novel and timely evidence-based revisions of clinical practice guidelines critical in optimizing the management of DENV infection and Dengue pathologies. We examine the role of tele-medicine and stakeholder engagement in the contemporary model of patient centered, effectiveness-focused and evidence-based health care. Abbreviations BBB - blood-brain barrier, CNS - central nervous system, DAMP - damage-associated molecular patterns, DENV - dengue virus, DF - dengue fever, DHF - dengue hemorrhagic fever, DSS - dengue shock syndrome, DALYs - isability adjusted life years, IFN

  14. Interpreting the Australian Dietary Guideline to “Limit” into Practical and Personalised Advice

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Pearson, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Food-based dietary guidelines shift the focus from single nutrients to whole diet. Guideline 3 of the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) recommends “limiting” discretionary foods and beverages (DF)—Those high in saturated fat, added sugars, salt, and/or alcohol. In Australia, DF contribute 35% of total energy intake. Using the ADG supporting documents, the aim of this study was to develop a food‑based educational toolkit to help translate guideline 3 and interpret portion size. The methodology used to produce the toolkit is presented here. “Additional energy allowance” is specific to gender, age, height and physical activity level, and can be met from core foods, unsaturated fats/oils/spreads and/or DF. To develop the toolkit, additional energy allowance was converted to serves equaling 600 kJ. Common DF were selected and serves were determined based on nutrient profile. Portion sizes were used to calculate number of DF serves. A consumer brochure consisting of DF, portion sizes and equivalent number of DF serves was developed. A healthcare professional guide outlines the methodology used. The toolkit was designed to assist dietitians and consumers to translate guideline 3 of the ADF and develop a personalized approach to include DF as part of the diet. PMID:25803544

  15. Management of uveal melanoma: a consensus-based provincial clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Weis, E.; Salopek, T.G.; McKinnon, J.G.; Larocque, M.P.; Temple-Oberle, C.; Cheng, T.; McWhae, J.; Sloboda, R.; Shea-Budgell, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survival in uveal melanoma has remained unchanged since the early 1970s. Because outcomes are highly related to the size of the tumour, timely and accurate diagnosis can increase the chance for cure. Methods A consensus-based guideline was developed to inform practitioners. PubMed was searched for publications related to this topic. Reference lists of key publications were hand-searched. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse and individual guideline organizations were searched for relevant guidelines. Consensus discussions by a group of content experts from medical, radiation, and surgical oncology were used to formulate the recommendations. Results Eighty-four publications, including five existing guidelines, formed the evidence base. Summary Key recommendations highlight that, for uveal melanoma and its indeterminate melanocytic lesions in the uveal tract, management is complex and requires experienced specialists with training in ophthalmologic oncology. Staging examinations include serum and radiologic investigations. Large lesions are still most often treated with enucleation, and yet radiotherapy is the most common treatment for tumours that qualify. Adjuvant therapy has yet to demonstrate efficacy in reducing the risk of metastasis, and no systemic therapy clearly improves outcomes in metastatic disease. Where available, enrolment in clinical trials is encouraged for patients with metastatic disease. Highly selected patients might benefit from surgical resection of liver metastases. PMID:26966414

  16. Interpreting the Australian dietary guideline to "limit" into practical and personalised advice.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Pearson, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Food-based dietary guidelines shift the focus from single nutrients to whole diet. Guideline 3 of the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) recommends "limiting" discretionary foods and beverages (DF)-Those high in saturated fat, added sugars, salt, and/or alcohol. In Australia, DF contribute 35% of total energy intake. Using the ADG supporting documents, the aim of this study was to develop a food‑based educational toolkit to help translate guideline 3 and interpret portion size. The methodology used to produce the toolkit is presented here. "Additional energy allowance" is specific to gender, age, height and physical activity level, and can be met from core foods, unsaturated fats/oils/spreads and/or DF. To develop the toolkit, additional energy allowance was converted to serves equaling 600 kJ. Common DF were selected and serves were determined based on nutrient profile. Portion sizes were used to calculate number of DF serves. A consumer brochure consisting of DF, portion sizes and equivalent number of DF serves was developed. A healthcare professional guide outlines the methodology used. The toolkit was designed to assist dietitians and consumers to translate guideline 3 of the ADF and develop a personalized approach to include DF as part of the diet. PMID:25803544

  17. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare syndrome characterized by micro-angiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. The major pathogenesis of aHUS involves dysregulation of the complement system. Eculizumab, which blocks complement C5 activation, has recently been proven as an effective agent. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of aHUS can cause death or end-stage renal disease. Therefore, a diagnosis that differentiates aHUS from other forms of thrombotic microangiopathy is very important for appropriate management. These guidelines aim to offer recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with aHUS in Korea. The guidelines have largely been adopted from the current guidelines due to the lack of evidence concerning the Korean population. PMID:27550478

  18. Guidelines for ethical behavior relating to clinical practice issues in neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic medicine.

    PubMed

    Abel, Naomi A; De Sousa, Eduardo A; Govindarajan, Raghav; Mayer, Matthew P; Simpson, David A

    2015-12-01

    The American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) developed guidelines to formalize the ethical standards that neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic (EDx) physicians should observe in their clinical and scientific activities. Neuromuscular and EDx medicine is a subspecialty of medicine that focuses on evaluation, diagnosis, and comprehensive medical management, including rehabilitation of individuals with neuromuscular disorders. Physicians working in this subspecialty focus on disorders of the motor unit, including muscle, neuromuscular junction, axon, plexus, nerve root, anterior horn cell, and the peripheral nerves (motor and sensory). The neuromuscular and EDx physician's goal is to diagnose and treat these conditions to mitigate their impact and improve the patient's quality of life. The guidelines are consistent with the Principles of Medical Ethics adopted by the American Medical Association and represent a revision of previous AANEM guidelines.

  19. Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Korean Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Young Hwan; Joh, Jin Hyun; Kang, Jin Mo; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyung-Kee; Chang, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Jang Yong; Bae, Jae Ik; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Chang Won; Park, Sung Il; Yim, Nam Yeol; Jeon, Yong Sun; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Park, Ki Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis is a serious medical condition that can result in death or major disability due to pulmonary embolism or post-thrombotic syndrome. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are required to improve symptoms and salvage the affected limb. Early thrombus clearance rapidly resolves symptoms related to venous obstruction, restores valve function and reduces the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome. Recently, endovascular treatment has been established as a standard method for early thrombus removal. However, there are a variety of views regarding the indications and procedures among medical institutions and operators. Therefore, we intend to provide evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis by multidisciplinary consensus. These guidelines are the result of a close collaboration between interventional radiologists and vascular surgeons. The goals of these guidelines are to improve treatment, to serve as a guide to the clinician, and consequently to contribute to public health care.

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Korean Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Young Hwan; Joh, Jin Hyun; Kang, Jin Mo; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyung-Kee; Chang, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Jang Yong; Bae, Jae Ik; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Chang Won; Park, Sung Il; Yim, Nam Yeol; Jeon, Yong Sun; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Park, Ki Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis is a serious medical condition that can result in death or major disability due to pulmonary embolism or post-thrombotic syndrome. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are required to improve symptoms and salvage the affected limb. Early thrombus clearance rapidly resolves symptoms related to venous obstruction, restores valve function and reduces the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome. Recently, endovascular treatment has been established as a standard method for early thrombus removal. However, there are a variety of views regarding the indications and procedures among medical institutions and operators. Therefore, we intend to provide evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis by multidisciplinary consensus. These guidelines are the result of a close collaboration between interventional radiologists and vascular surgeons. The goals of these guidelines are to improve treatment, to serve as a guide to the clinician, and consequently to contribute to public health care. PMID:27699156

  1. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Hae Il; Jo, Sang Kyung; Yoon, Sung Soo; Cho, Heeyeon; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Young Ok; Koo, Ja Ryong; Park, Yong; Park, Young Seo; Shin, Jae Il; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Oh, Doyeun

    2016-10-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare syndrome characterized by micro-angiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. The major pathogenesis of aHUS involves dysregulation of the complement system. Eculizumab, which blocks complement C5 activation, has recently been proven as an effective agent. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of aHUS can cause death or end-stage renal disease. Therefore, a diagnosis that differentiates aHUS from other forms of thrombotic microangiopathy is very important for appropriate management. These guidelines aim to offer recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with aHUS in Korea. The guidelines have largely been adopted from the current guidelines due to the lack of evidence concerning the Korean population. PMID:27550478

  2. Individualized risk management in diabetics: how to implement best practice guidelines--design and concept of the IRIDIEM studies.

    PubMed

    Lameire, N; Stevens, P; Raptis, S; Thomas, S; Schernthaner, G

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rising rapidly in all developed countries, particularly in the growing population of persons >50 years of age. As a dangerous consequence, this is accompanied by a proportionate increase in the incidence of chronic renal disease. Evidence-based medicine has shown that tight blood glucose control can delay the onset and retard the progression of diabetic complications, and while it is a challenge to closely manage the complexity of diabetes, it is more difficult to effectively treat the multiple associated comorbidities that develop. Best practice guidelines support early intervention and aggressive treatment of hypertension, hyperglycaemia, proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, and anaemia. To date, guideline-based management has been proven to be difficult. This article describes the concept of the IRIDIEM studies. The objective of these studies is to endorse and facilitate the use of current best practice guidelines for the management of frequent comorbid diseases and established risk factors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes associated with chronic kidney disease. Additionally, IRIDIEM will assess the impact of this improved disease management model on the progression of chronic kidney disease that can result from electronically prompting clinicians with evidence-based treatment advice.

  3. A critical review of recent clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Michael Erlano; Mendoza, Jonathan; See, Manuel; Esmena, Ednalyn; Aguila, Dean; Silangcruz, Jan Michael; Reyes, Buenaventura Jose; Luna, Saturnino; Morales, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We provide an overview of the quality of recent clinical clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and summarize the recommendations for their diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Methods: We systematically searched recent (2008–2013) CPGs for non-neurogenic male LUTS. Eligible CPGs were assessed and appraised using Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) tool by a CPG-appraisal group. The appraisal scores for each guideline were summarized according to each domain and in total. A recommendation summary was made across the guidelines for diagnostics, conservative management, medical, minimally invasive therapy, and surgical management. Results: A total of 8 guidelines were considered. According to AGREE II appraisal of guidelines, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), American Urological Association (AUA) and European Association of Urology (EAU) consistently scored high on the guideline domains assessed. Recommendations on diagnostics, conservative management, medical, and surgical management were consistent among the top 3 guidelines. However, we noted a discrepancy in recommending minimally invasive therapy as an alternative management of moderate to severe or bothersome non-neurogenic male LUTS secondary to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE); the NICE guideline, in particular, does not recommend using minimally invasive therapy. Conclusion: The quality of recent CPGs on non-neurogenic male LUTS was appraised and summarized. The guidelines from NICE, AUA and EAU were considered highly compliant to the AGREE II proposition for guideline formation and development. PMID:26279717

  4. Teaching skills for accessing and interpreting information from systematic reviews/meta-analyses, practice guidelines, and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Wolf, F M; Miller, J G; Gruppen, L D; Ensminger, W D

    1997-01-01

    Skills and practice related to accessing and interpreting clinical information from systematic reviews/meta-analyses, practice guidelines, and the Internet have been integrated into a new senior year elective designed to teach medical students how to critically appraise information from a variety of sources and evaluate it's applicability to patient care. Small groups of senior medical students under the direction of a multidisciplinary team (behavioral scientist, information specialist, physician) facilitate discussions of clinical articles using checklists designed to evaluate their quality. The central feature of the course is a demonstration of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), an electronic journal distributed by BMJ Publishing, and the requirement that students conduct a literature review on a topic of their choice and present an oral and written summary in the form of a "draft" meta-analysis. Students are provided with strategies to "surf" the Internet/WWW for information, e.g., practice guidelines/treatment protocols, descriptions of on-going clinical trials. A total of 52 students have participated to date. Students have selected project topics across a wide range of medical disciplines, including internal medicine, family practice, OB/GYN, pediatrics, surgery, neurology, emergency medicine, and psychiatry. The course is one of the most favorably evaluated of all senior electives and rated more favorably than the overall mean ratings for all electives combined on 8 of 9 scales, including "Quality of course overall" (4.39 vs. 3.92 on 5-point scale). PMID:9357708

  5. New clinical practice guidelines of the surviving sepsis campaign: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Palencia Herrejón, E; Bueno García, B

    2013-12-01

    In 2004 was published the first edition of the "Surviving sepsis campaign" guidelines for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock, opening a new era in the treatment of this syndrome. The paradox is that guidelines application have produced positive results despite including in some cases treatments proven ineffective. Eight years later has been published the third edition of the guides, which updates the prior in the light of new knowledge, but the quality of evidence remains weak. In this paper the authors express their critical view on the current edition of the guides, pointing out their weaknesses and suggesting how the development of future editions should be.

  6. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Opacic, Matthew; Freer, Luanne; Grissom, Colin K; Auerbach, Paul S; Rodway, George W; Cochran, Amalia; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; McDevitt, Marion; Imray, Christopher H; Johnson, Eric L; Dow, Jennifer; Hackett, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original guidelines published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2011;22(2):156-166.

  7. Survivorship: nutrition and weight management, Version 2.2014. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor's body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed.

  8. Enhanced Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines in Hong Kong: A Study Protocol for Three Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Nannan; Zhong, Linda L. D.; Han, XueJie; Ng, Bacon; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Aiping

    2015-01-01

    We presented a study protocol of developing Chinese medicine clinical practice guidelines for three common diseases in Hong Kong, including insomnia, chronic gastritis, and cerebral infarction. This research project will be conducted in three phases. First phase is the preparation stage which consists of the establishment of steering committee and panel. Second phase involves 6 steps, which are searching and identifying evidence, text mining process, Delphi survey, synthesizing of data, consensus conference, and drafting guidelines. In this phase, text mining technique, evidence-based method, and formal consensus method are combined to get consolidated supporting data as the source of CM CPGs. The final phase comprised external reviews, dissemination, and updating. The outputs from this project will provide three CM CPGs for insomnia, chronic gastritis, and cerebral infarction for Hong Kong local use. PMID:25815035

  9. Real-life management of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adult patients and adherence to practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lozano, María Luisa; Revilla, N; Gonzalez-Lopez, T J; Novelli, S; González-Porras, J R; Sánchez-Gonzalez, B; Bermejo, N; Pérez, S; Lucas, F J; Álvarez, M T; Arilla, M J; Perera, M; do Nascimento, J; Campos, R M; Casado, L F; Vicente, V

    2016-06-01

    Very few data exist on the management of adult patients diagnosed with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The objectives of this study were to describe the diagnostic and treatment patterns for ITP and to compare the findings to recent ITP guidelines. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of adult ITP patients diagnosed with primary ITP between January 2011 and June 2012 and examined whether management strategies were consistent or not with eight recent guideline-recommended practices. Overall, median age at the diagnosis of the disease (n = 101) was 58 years and median platelet count 12 × 10(9)/L with 75.2 % of patients having symptoms of ITP. The study perceived two major shortcomings in the diagnostic approach: (1) failure to perform peripheral blood film examination in 22.8 % of patients, a test that is mandatory by all guidelines, and (2) ordinary bone marrow assessment in more than half of the patients at diagnosis (50.5 %), a test not routinely recommended by guidelines. Low appropriateness in therapeutic management of patients included (1) unjustified use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the absence of bleeding in 54.8 % of patients and (2) splenectomy not being deferred until 6-12 months from diagnosis (median 161 days). Data also reflect a trend towards the early use of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in the treatment of patients who are refractory to any first-line therapy. We have recognized important areas of inapropriateness in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of adult ITP patients. Compliance with established guidelines should be encouraged in order to improve patient outcomes. PMID:27098812

  10. Team-based Service Delivery for Students with Disabilities: Practice Options and Guidelines for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Bull, Jeannette; Drew, Ruby; Lunnen, Karen Y.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the assessment procedures, treatment procedures, and the advantages and disadvantages of three professional-family team models: multidisciplinary teams, interdisciplinary teams, and transdisciplinary teams. Guidelines for optimal team participation are provided. The importance of mission statements, communication, trust,…

  11. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations in 12 CFR part 30. ii. As the OCC has previously indicated in guidance to national banks and in..., will involve violations of OCC regulations governing real estate lending activities, 12 CFR 34.3... CFR part 34, subpart C, and the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (OCC Advisory...

  12. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the treatment of acute pain in remote environments.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie W; Scaife, Courtney L; Weber, David C; Windsor, Jeremy S; Wheeler, Albert R; Smith, William; Wedmore, Ian; McIntosh, Scott E; Lieberman, James R

    2014-03-01

    The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the management of pain in austere environments. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence as defined by criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians.

  13. From Principle to Practice: Using the Global Guidelines to Assess Quality Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Ann; Boyer, Wanda; Hardin, Belinda; Wortham, Sue

    2004-01-01

    Antarctica gathered in Ruschlikon, Switzerland, at the International Symposium on Early Childhood Education and Care for the 21st Century. The symposium's mission was to craft guidelines for programs that serve children under the age of formal schooling in countries throughout the world. After extensive discussions about what constitutes universal…

  14. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in an Autism Primary Care Practice: Which Guidelines to Implement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Susan G.; Peters, Brittany R.; Crittendon, Julie A.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Genetic testing is recommended for patients with ASD; however specific recommendations vary by specialty. American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Neurology guidelines recommend G-banded karyotype and Fragile X DNA. The American College of Medical Genetics recommends Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). We determined the yield of…

  15. Group Counseling with the Mentally Retarded: A Set of Guidelines for Practice. Working Paper No. 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, Myles R.

    Presented are guidelines for developing and conducting a group counseling program with the mentally retarded. Advantages of the group counseling approach (such as peer influence), goals for the group (such as teaching skills), and characteristics of an effective group leader (such as empathetic understanding) are outlined. Factors related to group…

  16. Treating malnutrition in AIDS: comparison of dietitians' practices and nutrition care guidelines.

    PubMed

    Charny, A; Ludman, E K

    1991-10-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a complex disease; its manifestations include many opportunistic infections that lead to conditions causing severe malnutrition. Overcoming malnutrition can help AIDS patients increase their weight, improve their self-image, and enhance the quality of their lives. Thirty-eight dietitians who work with AIDS patients in New York City were surveyed to determine whether their facilities followed 40 suggested guidelines for the assessment and treatment of malnutrition in AIDS. Thirty dietitians (80%) reported that their facilities followed more than half of the suggested guidelines. Many guidelines were "always" followed by a majority of facilities. Those not followed might provide a focus for dialogue among practitioners with regard to nutrition care procedures. Thirty-two (84%) dietitians reported receiving AIDS education, including in-service programs (n = 18), professional meetings (n = 27), and formal education (n = 3). AIDS education in both undergraduate and graduate curriculums and additional continuing education programs are needed. Persons with AIDS are at high risk for nutrition-related disorders. Practitioners need to know and apply nutrition care guidelines suggested in the literature to improve the quality of care for this growing population.

  17. Male or Female Therapists for Eating-Disordered Adolescents: Guidelines Suggested by Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilker, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Explores which therapist-patient gender matches facilitate most patient growth and avoid detriment to female patients with eating disorders. Distills relevant variables from literature on eating disorders, adolescence, transference and countertransference, and psychotherapy to suggest guidelines for effective matches. Sees therapist and patient…

  18. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. 1831p-1 (Section 39). The Guidelines are designed to protect against involvement by... regulations in 12 CFR part 30. ii. As the OCC has previously indicated in guidance to national banks and in..., will involve violations of OCC regulations governing real estate lending activities, 12 CFR...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. 1831p-1 (Section 39). The Guidelines are designed to protect against involvement by... regulations in 12 CFR part 30. ii. As the OCC has previously indicated in guidance to national banks and in..., will involve violations of OCC regulations governing real estate lending activities, 12 CFR...

  20. Guidelines for the Practice of Adaptive Diabetes Education for Visually Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    This article presents guidelines developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators concerning adaptive diabetes education for visually impaired persons (ADEVIP). The article discusses definitions, values, and assumptions; recommended professional educational background; role delineation; and process and content of ADEVIP. (DB)

  1. Placing Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Settings: Legal Guidelines and Preferred Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2004-01-01

    Two federal laws have been extremely important in providing rules and regulations to guide the educational placement of students with disabilities. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) created a detailed set of guidelines to ensure an appropriate education in the least restrictive setting for students who are eligible for special…

  2. Are the Endocrine Society's Clinical Practice Guidelines on Androgen Therapy in Women misguided? A commentary.

    PubMed

    Traish, Abdulmaged; Guay, Andre T; Spark, Richard F

    2007-09-01

    The Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines on Androgen Therapy in Women (henceforth referred to as the Guidelines) do not necessarily represent the opinion held by the many health-care professionals and clinicians who are specialized in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of women's health in androgen insufficiency states. The recommendations provided in the published Guidelines are neither accurate nor complete. We disagree with the therapeutic nihilism promoted by these Guidelines. The members of the Guidelines Panel (henceforth referred to as the Panel), in their own disclaimer, stated that the Guidelines do not establish a standard of care. Based on data available in the contemporary literature, on the role of androgens in women's health, we provide in this commentary a point-by-point discussion of the arguments made by the Panel in arriving at their recommendations. It is our view that the Guidelines are not based on the preponderance of scientific evidence. Health-care professionals, physicians, and scientists often disagree when determining how best to address and manage new and emerging clinical issues. This is where we stand now as we endeavor to understand the role of androgens in a woman's health and welfare. Indeed, some basic facts are not in contention. All agree that dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) production from the adrenal gland begins during the preteen years, peaks in the mid 20s, then declines progressively over time. In contrast, ovarian androgen (i.e., testosterone) secretion commences at puberty, is sustained during a woman's peak reproductive years and declines as a woman ages, with a more rapid and steep decrease after surgical menopause. However, there are ample data to suggest that adrenal androgens play a role in the development of axillary and pubic hair, and that testosterone is critical for women's libido and sexual function. We take this opportunity to invite members of the Panel on Androgen Therapy in Women to discuss

  3. Delivery of enteral nutrition after the introduction of practice guidelines and participation of dietitians in pediatric critical care clinical teams.

    PubMed

    Gentles, Emma; Mara, Jackie; Diamantidi, Krystalia; Alfheeaid, Hani A; Spenceley, Neil; Davidson, Mark; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos

    2014-12-01

    Provision of optimal nutrition is often difficult to achieve in the critically ill child, but can improve with better nutritional support practices. This study evaluated the joint impact of the introduction of enteral feeding practice guidelines and participation of dietitians in daily ward rounds on enteral nutrition (EN) intake and practices in children in intensive care. Nutritional intake and EN practices were audited before (period A) and after (period B) the introduction of enteral feeding practice guidelines and participation of dietitians in daily ward rounds in a pediatric intensive care unit. Information was collected on a daily basis and nutritional intake was compared with predefined targets and the United Kingdom dietary reference values. There were 65 patients and 477 nutritional support days in period A and 65 patients and 410 nutritional support days in period B. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) energy requirements were achieved in a larger proportion of nutritional support days in period B (BMR achieved [% nutritional support days]; period A: 27% vs period B: 48.9%; P<0.001). In patients admitted for nonsurgical reasons, median energy, protein, and micronutrient intake improved significantly. In the same group, the percentage of daily fluid intake delivered as EN increased post implementation (period A: median=66.8%; interquartile range=40.9 vs period B: median=79.6%; interquartile range=35.2; P<0.001). No significant changes were seen in patients admitted for corrective heart surgery. Implementation of better EN support practice can improve nutritional intake in some patients in critical care, but can have limited benefit for children admitted for corrective heart surgery.

  4. [The practice guideline 'Vaginal discharge' (first revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners; a response from the perspective of gynaecology].

    PubMed

    Hogewoning, C J A; Ottervanger, H P; Adriaanse, A H; Trum, J W

    2007-06-16

    The Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) revised their practice guideline on vaginal discharge. From a gynaecological point of view, relocation of cervix problems from this guideline to the NHG guideline 'The STD consultation' is not practical. Moreover, the role of simple, but effective diagnosis with a microscope in the primary-care setting cannot be overemphasized. The reluctance to oral treatment is rather inopportune, because once-only ingestion has the advantage of promoting compliance. As physical examination is not always necessary in a recurrent Candida infection, treatment performed by the patient with imidazole compounds is a possibility that does not always result in abuse or increased resistance.

  5. Optimal systemic therapy for early breast cancer in women: a clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Eisen, A; Fletcher, G G; Gandhi, S; Mates, M; Freedman, O C; Dent, S F; Trudeau, M E

    2015-03-01

    The Breast Cancer Disease Site Group of Cancer Care Ontario identified the need for new guidelines for the adjuvant systemic therapy of early-stage breast cancer. The specific question to be addressed was "What is the optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for female patients with early-stage operable breast cancer, when patient and disease factors are considered?" A systematic review was prepared based on literature searches conducted using the medline and embase databases for the period January 2008 to March 5, 2012, and updated to May 12, 2014. Guidelines were located from that search, from the Standards and Guidelines Evidence directory of cancer guidelines, and from the Web sites of major guideline organizations. The literature located was subdivided into the broad categories of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and therapy targeted to her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2). Although several of the systemic therapies discussed in this guideline can be considered in the neoadjuvant setting, the review focused on trials with rates of disease-free and overall survival as endpoints and thus excluded several trials that used pathologic complete response as a primary endpoint. Based on the systematic review, the working group drafted recommendations on the use of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy; based on their professional experience, they also drafted recommendations on patient and disease characteristics and recurrence risk. The literature review and draft recommendations were circulated to a consensus panel of medical oncologists who had expertise in breast cancer and who represented the regions of Ontario. Items without initial consensus were discussed at an in-person consensus meeting held in Toronto, November 23, 2012. The final recommendations are those for which consensus was reached before or at the meeting. Some of the key evidence was revised after the updated literature search. Evidence reviews for systemic chemotherapy, endocrine

  6. Treatment of Anemia in Patients with Heart Disease: A Clinical Practice Guideline

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Treatment of Anemia in Patients With Heart Disease: A Clinical Practice ... Physicians The full report is titled “Treatment of Anemia in Patients With Heart Disease: A Clinical Practice ...

  7. Opinion leaders vs audit and feedback to implement practice guidelines. Delivery after previous cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Lomas, J; Enkin, M; Anderson, G M; Hannah, W J; Vayda, E; Singer, J

    1991-05-01

    A randomized controlled trial with 76 physicians in 16 community hospitals evaluated audit and feedback and local opinion leader education as methods of encouraging compliance with a guideline for the management of women with a previous cesarean section. The guideline recommended clinical actions to increase trial of labor and vaginal birth rates. Charts for all 3552 cases in the study groups were audited. After 24 months the trial of labor and vaginal birth rates in the audit and feedback group were no different from those in the control group, but rates were 46% and 85% higher, respectively, among physicians educated by an opinion leader. Duration of hospital stay was lower in the opinion leader education group than in the other two groups. The overall cesarean section rate was reduced only in the opinion leader education group. There were no adverse clinical outcomes attributable to the interventions. The use of opinion leaders improved the quality of care. PMID:2013952

  8. Practical Design Guidelines of qZSI Based Step-Up DC/DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakis, Janis; Vinnikov, Dmitri; Roasto, Indrek; Jalakas, Tanel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some design guidelines for a new voltage fed step-up DC/DC isolated converter. The most significant advantage of proposed converter is voltage buck-boost operation on single stage. The most promising application for proposed converter is in the field of distributed power generation e.g. fuel cells or photovoltaic. The most sensitive issues - such as power losses caused by high currents in the input side of converter and high transient overvoltages across the inverter bridge caused by stray inductances were discussed and solved. The proposals and recommendations to overcome these issues are given in the paper. The Selection and design guidelines of converter elements are proposed and explained. The prototype of proposed converter was built and experimentally tested. Some results are presented and evaluated.

  9. Executive Summary: 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Galgiani, John N; Ampel, Neil M; Blair, Janis E; Catanzaro, Antonino; Geertsma, Francesca; Hoover, Susan E; Johnson, Royce H; Kusne, Shimon; Lisse, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Joel D; Meyerson, Shari L; Raksin, Patricia B; Siever, John; Stevens, David A; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Theodore, Nicholas

    2016-09-15

    It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. Infectious Diseases Society of America considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.Coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is a systemic infection endemic to parts of the southwestern United States and elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere. Residence in and recent travel to these areas are critical elements for the accurate recognition of patients who develop this infection. In this practice guideline, we have organized our recommendations to address actionable questions concerning the entire spectrum of clinical syndromes. These can range from initial pulmonary infection, which eventually resolves whether or not antifungal therapy is administered, to a variety of pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications. Additional recommendations address management of coccidioidomycosis occurring for special at-risk populations. Finally, preemptive management strategies are outlined in certain at-risk populations and after unintentional laboratory exposure. PMID:27559032

  10. ATA practice guidelines for video-based online mental health services.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Carolyn; Coleman, Mirean; Dennison, Oran; Drude, Kenneth; Goldenson, Mark; Hirsch, Phil; Jueneman, Robert; Kramer, Greg M; Luxton, David D; Maheu, Marlene M; Malik, Tania S; Mishkind, Matt C; Rabinowitz, Terry; Roberts, Lisa J; Sheeran, Thomas; Shore, Jay H; Shore, Peter; van Heeswyk, Frank; Wregglesworth, Brian; Yellowlees, Peter; Zucker, Murray L; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Bernard, Jordana

    2013-09-01

    Table of Contents PREAMBLE SCOPE INTRODUCTION Internet-Based Telemental Health Models of Care Today CLINICAL GUIDELINES A. Professional and Patient Identity and Location 1. Provider and Patient Identity Verification 2. Provider and Patient Location Documentation 3. Contact Information Verification for Professional and Patient 4. Verification of Expectations Regarding Contact Between Sessions B. Patient Appropriateness for Videoconferencing-Based Telemental Health 1. Appropriateness of Videoconferencing in Settings Where Professional Staff Are Not Immediately Available C. Informed Consent D. Physical Environment E. Communication and Collaboration with the Patient's Treatment Team F. Emergency Management 1. Education and Training 2. Jurisdictional Mental Health Involuntary Hospitalization Laws 3. Patient Safety When Providing Services in a Setting with Immediately Available Professionals 4. Patient Safety When Providing Services in a Setting Without Immediately Available Professional Staff 5. Patient Support Person and Uncooperative Patients 6. Transportation 7. Local Emergency Personnel G. Medical Issues H. Referral Resources I .Community and Cultural Competency TECHNICAL GUIDELINES A. Videoconferencing Applications B. Device Characteristics C. Connectivity D. Privacy ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES A. Qualification and Training of Professionals B. Documentation and Record Keeping C. Payment and Billing REFERENCES.

  11. A Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the U.S. Public Health Service guideline Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update, which provides recommendations for clinical interventions and system changes to promote the treatment of tobacco dependence. Participants An independent panel of 24 scientists and clinicians selected by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality on behalf of the U.S. Public Health Service. A consortium of eight governmental and nonprofit organizations sponsored the update. Evidence Approximately 8700 English-language, peer-reviewed articles and abstracts, published between 1975 and 2007, were reviewed for data that addressed assessment and treatment of tobacco dependence. This literature served as the basis for more than 35 meta-analyses. Consensus Process Two panel meetings and numerous conference calls and staff meetings were held to evaluate meta-analyses and relevant literature, to synthesize the results, and to develop recommendations. The updated guideline was then externally reviewed by more than 90 experts, made available for public comment, and revised. Conclusions This evidence-based, updated guideline provides specific recommendations regarding brief and intensive tobacco-cessation interventions as well as system-level changes designed to promote the assessment and treatment of tobacco use. Brief clinical approaches for patients willing and unwilling to quit are described. PMID:18617085

  12. Improving the reliability of clinical practice guideline appraisals: effects of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide.

    PubMed

    Oh, Moo-Kyung; Jo, Heuisug; Lee, You Kyoung

    2014-06-01

    The Korean translated Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (Korean AGREE II) instrument was distributed into Korean medical societies in 2011. However, inter-rater disagreement issues still exist. The Korean AGREE II scoring guide was therefore developed to reduce inter-rater differences. This study examines the effects of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide to reduce inter-rater differences. Appraisers were randomly assigned to two groups (Scoring Guide group and Non-Scoring Guide group). The Korean AGREE II instrument was provided to both groups. However, the scoring guide was offered to Scoring Guide group only. Total 14 appraisers were participated and each guideline was assessed by 8 appraisers. To evaluate the reliability of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide, correlation of scores among appraisers and domain-specific intra-class correlation (ICC) were compared. Most scores of two groups were comparable. Scoring Guide group showed higher reliability at all guidelines. They showed higher correlation among appraisers and higher ICC values at almost all domains. The scoring guide reduces the inter-rater disagreement and improves the overall reliability of the Korean-AGREE II instrument.

  13. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This report describes complete practical guidelines and insights for the crystalline sponge method, which have been derived through the first use of synchrotron radiation on these systems, and includes a procedure for faster synthesis of the sponges. These guidelines will be applicable to crystal sponge data collected at synchrotrons or in-house facilities, and will allow researchers to obtain reliable high-quality data and construct chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine

  14. Utility of a clinical practice guideline in treatment of chylothorax in the post-operative congenital heart patient

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jay; Brown, Erin R.; Kellogg, Kimberly A.; Donohue, Janet E.; Yu, Sunkyung; Gaies, Michael G.; Fifer, Carlen G.; Hirsch, Jennifer C.; Aiyagari, Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    Background Chylothorax following congenital heart surgery is a common complication with associated morbidities, but consensus treatment guidelines are lacking. Variability exists in the duration of medical treatment and timing for surgical intervention. Methods Following institution of a clinical practice guideline for management of post-operative chylothorax at a single center, pediatric cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in June 2010, we retrospectively analyzed two cohorts of patients: those with chylothorax from 1/2008-5/2010 (early cohort; n = 118) and from 6/2010-8/2011 (late cohort; n = 45). Data collected included demographics, cardiac surgical procedure, treatments for chylothorax, bloodstream infections, hospital mortality, length of hospitalization, duration of mechanical ventilation, and device utilization. Results There were no demographic differences between the cohorts. No differences were found in octreotide use or surgical treatments for chylothorax. Significant differences were found in median times to chylothorax diagnosis (9 in early cohort versus 6 days in late cohort, p = 0.004), ICU length of stay (18 vs. 9 days, p = 0.01), hospital length of stay (30 vs. 23 days, p = 0.005), and total durations of mechanical ventilation (11 vs. 5 days, p = 0.02), chest tube use (20 vs. 14 days, p = 0.01), central venous line use (27 vs. 15 days, p = 0.001), and NPO status (9.5 vs. 6 days, p = 0.04). Conclusions Institution of a clinical practice guideline for treatment of chylothorax following congenital heart surgery was associated with earlier diagnosis, reduced hospital length of stay, mechanical ventilation, and device utilization for these patients. PMID:23915583

  15. When rheumatologists report that they agree with a guideline, does this mean that they practise the guideline in clinical practice? Results of the International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS)

    PubMed Central

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Allaart, Cornelia F; van der Heijde, Désirée; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Smolen, Josef S; Huizinga, Tom W J; Landewé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the treat-to-target (T2T) principles have been developed in order to improve the treatment outcome of patients with RA, and have received broad attention. It is not clear, though, whether these recommendations are indeed followed up in clinical practice. Objective To investigate if rheumatologists that report to agree with existing guidelines indeed follow them up in clinical practice. Methods The International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS) included 132 participating rheumatologists from 14 countries. Participating rheumatologists received a questionnaire measuring their awareness/commitment with the EULAR/T2T recommendations and followed a dedicated educational programme. Subsequently, they were asked to enrol 5–10 patients with new-onset RA in the online IRIS database and monitor disease activity and treatment for a period of 1–2 years. Four recommendations (3 from the EULAR recommendations and one from the T2T recommendations) were selected on the basis of testability, and analysed with regard to compliance by participating rheumatologists. Results In total, 72 of the 132 participating rheumatologists contributed 378 patients to the database. Of these participants, 70 (98%) agreed upfront with the recommendation that disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy should be started as soon as possible after diagnosis in every patient; 69 (96%) of the rheumatologists agreed with the recommendation that methotrexate (MTX) should be part of the first treatment strategy. When measuring the actual performance, it was found that the recommendation on early DMARD start was met in 253 (67%) of the recorded patients, and the recommendation on MTX in 225 (60%) of the recorded patients. Of the participants, 60 (83%) agreed that composite measures should be recorded regularly, but only in 134(54%) of the patients were

  16. Design of a Fine-Grained Knowledge Model for the Formalization of Clinical Practice Guidelines: Comparison with GEM.

    PubMed

    Bouaud, Jacques; Galopin, Alexandre; Oulad Kouider, Assia; Seroussi, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Published as textual documents, clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) didn't demonstrate to impact physician practices when disseminated in their original format. However, when computerized and embedded in clinical decision support systems, they appeared to be more effective. In order to ease the translation from textual to computerized CPGs, we have elaborated a fine-grained knowledge model of CPGs (FGKM) to be used when authoring CPGs. The work has been conducted on VIDALRecos® CPGs. The building of the model has followed a bottom-up iterative process starting with 15 different CPGs. The first version of the FGKM has been assessed on two new complex CPGs, and was enriched by comparison with the Guideline Elements Model (GEM). The final version of the FGKM has been tested on the 2014 Hypertension CPGs. We compared the rules automatically derived from FGKM instances to those manually extracted from textual CPGs for decision support. Results showed that difficulties such as text normalization have to be solved. The FGKM is intended to be used upstream of the process of CPGs authoring in order to ease the implementation and the update of both textual and computerized CPGs. PMID:27577430

  17. Review of VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline on management of acute stress and interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Nash, William P; Watson, Patricia J

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the recommendations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)/Department of Defense (DOD) VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress that pertain to acute stress and the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder, including screening and early interventions for acute stress states in various settings. Recommended interventions during the first 4 days after a potentially traumatic event include attending to safety and basic needs and providing access to physical, emotional, and social resources. Psychological first aid is recommended for management of acute stress, while psychological debriefing is discouraged. Further medical and psychiatric assessment and provision of brief, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy are warranted if clinically significant distress or functional impairment persists or worsens after 2 days or if the criteria for a diagnosis of acute stress disorder are met. Follow-up monitoring and rescreening are endorsed for at least 6 months for everyone who experiences significant acute posttraumatic stress. Four interventions that illustrate early intervention principles contained in the VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline are described.

  18. Standards of Practice: Quality Assurance Guidelines for Percutaneous Treatments of Intervertebral Discs

    SciTech Connect

    Kelekis, Alexis D. Filippiadis, Dimitris K.; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Brountzos, Elias

    2010-10-15

    Percutaneous treatments are used in the therapy of small- to medium-sized hernias of intervertebral discs to reduce the intradiscal pressure in the nucleus and theoretically create space for the herniated fragment to implode inward, thus reducing pain and improving mobility and quality of life. These techniques involve the percutaneous removal of the nucleus pulposus by using a variety of chemical, thermal, or mechanical techniques and consist of removal of all or part of nucleus pulposus to induce more rapid healing of the abnormal lumbar disc. These guidelines are written to be used in quality improvement programs for assessing fluoroscopy- and/or computed tomography-guided percutaneous intervertebral disc ablative techniques.

  19. 2008 Guidelines for gamete and embryo donation: a Practice Committee report.

    PubMed

    2008-11-01

    The 2008 Guidelines for Gamete and Embryo Donation provide the latest recommendations for evaluation of potential sperm, oocyte, and embryo donors, incorporating recent information about optimal screening and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), genetic diseases, and psychological assessments. This revised document incorporates recent information from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the American Association of Tissue Banks, with which all programs offering gamete and embryo donation services must be thoroughly familiar. PMID:19007645

  20. Ovarian Cancer, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robert J; Armstrong, Deborah K; Alvarez, Ronald D; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N; Behbakht, Kian; Chen, Lee-May; Copeland, Larry; Crispens, Marta Ann; DeRosa, Maria; Dorigo, Oliver; Gershenson, David M; Gray, Heidi J; Hakam, Ardeshir; Havrilesky, Laura J; Johnston, Carolyn; Lele, Shashikant; Martin, Lainie; Matulonis, Ursula A; O'Malley, David M; Penson, Richard T; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Pineda, Mario; Plaxe, Steven C; Powell, Matthew A; Ratner, Elena; Remmenga, Steven W; Rose, Peter G; Sabbatini, Paul; Santoso, Joseph T; Werner, Theresa L; Burns, Jennifer; Hughes, Miranda

    2016-09-01

    This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer focuses on the less common ovarian histopathologies (LCOHs), because new algorithms were added for LCOHs and current algorithms were revised for the 2016 update. The new LCOHs algorithms include clear cell carcinomas, mucinous carcinomas, and grade 1 (low-grade) serous carcinomas/endometrioid epithelial carcinomas. The LCOHs also include carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Müllerian tumors of the ovary), borderline epithelial tumors (also known as low malignant potential tumors), malignant sex cord-stromal tumors, and malignant germ cell tumors. PMID:27587625

  1. Alpha interferon and hepatitis B and C. An integrated approach using practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, J; Flynn, K; Katz, L; Mahl, T; Corasanti, J

    1993-09-01

    Utilizing the techniques of total quality management, a team designed a clinical guideline for the use of alpha interferon as a treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis. The team included TEMINEX staff, a primary care physician, the plan's internal gastroenterologist, and its university-based consultant gastroenterologists. A synopsis of the available published research data and clinical opinion (a draft TEMINEX report) was used to focus discussions. The final TEMINEX report represented consensus on patient selection criteria and treatment regimens. All members of the team agreed to a review and approval process. Although quantitative data concerning the effects of guideline implementation are not yet available, it appears that the concerns of all members of the team have been satisfied. Patient selection criteria supported by the results of well-designed research are in place. Appropriate candidates for alpha-interferon therapy receive expedited treatment and the plan's internal monitoring processes are more efficient. Primary care physicians and consultant gastroenterologists feel that they made positive contributions both to the quality of care and to the consensus development process.

  2. Acute Uterine Bleeding Unrelated to Pregnancy: A Southern California Permanente Medical Group Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2013-01-01

    Acute uterine bleeding unrelated to pregnancy has been defined as bleeding “sufficient in volume as to, in the opinion of the treating clinician, require urgent or emergent intervention.” The Southern California Permanente Medical Group updated its guidelines for the management of this condition on the basis of the best available evidence, as identified in a systematic review of the available literature. Given the paucity of studies evaluating this condition, the guidelines, by necessity, include recommendations largely based on opinion or other sources such as case series that are, in general, categorized as low-quality evidence. Medical interventions with single or combined gonadal steroidal agents administered parenterally or orally show promise, but more high-quality studies are needed to better define the appropriate drugs, dose, and administrative scheduling. There is also some evidence that intrauterine tamponade may be useful in at least selected cases. Special attention must be paid to both diagnosing and treating inherited disorders of hemostasis, such as von Willebrand disease, that may otherwise be underdiagnosed in both adolescent and adult women. PMID:24355890

  3. Best practice guidelines for forensic neuropsychological examinations of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Forensic examiners generally agree that their contributions to the forensic process have to be based on scientific principles, high ethical values, and sound clinical skills and judgment. In part I, the challenges of maintaining high ethical standards as a scientist-practitioner are addressed. In part II, the scientific strengths and weaknesses of our neuropsychological assessments are explored within the context of the 4 articles published in this issue. Specifically, Wood points out that while most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) compromise the prefrontal cortex (PFC), traditional neuropsychological examinations do not fully capture to what extent PFC damage disrupts cognitive, emotional, and social regulation. New advances in clinical neuroscience are presented to facilitate a more detailed understanding of PFC functioning. Schwarz et al examine how clinical neuropsychology services can adequately handle forensic consultations. Frederick and Bowden, meanwhile, identify the persistent weaknesses of various Symptom Validity Tests in reliably classifying poor effort and malingering. Bailey et al conclude that the findings from sport concussion studies cannot be generalized to clinical populations, who, as a rule, have more premorbid and comorbid vulnerabilities. Finally, part III provides guidelines based on the introductory article by Bigler and Brooks, as well as a synopsis of the main conclusions offered by the contributors in this journal issue. Guidelines for both the diagnosis of mild TBI and the diagnosis of postconcussional disorder are included.

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report. A Framework for Addressing Multimorbidity in Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Disease, Critical Illness, and Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin C; Gould, Michael K; Krishnan, Jerry A; Boyd, Cynthia M; Brozek, Jan L; Cooke, Colin R; Douglas, Ivor S; Goodman, Richard A; Joo, Min J; Lareau, Suzanne; Mularski, Richard A; Patel, Minal R; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shanawani, Hasan; Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna; Sufian, Beth; Thomson, Carey C; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2016-03-01

    Coexistence of multiple chronic conditions (i.e., multimorbidity) is the most common chronic health problem in adults. However, clinical practice guidelines have primarily focused on patients with a single disease, resulting in uncertainty about the care of patients with multimorbidity. The American Thoracic Society convened a workshop with the goal of establishing a strategy to address multimorbidity within clinical practice guidelines. In this Workshop Report, we describe a framework that addresses multimorbidity in each of the key steps of guideline development: topic selection, panel composition, identifying clinical questions, searching for and synthesizing evidence, rating the quality of that evidence, summarizing benefits and harms, formulating recommendations, and rating the strength of the recommendations. For the consideration of multimorbidity in guidelines to be successful and sustainable, the process must be both feasible and pragmatic. It is likely that this will be achieved best by the step-wise addition and refinement of the various components of the framework.

  5. Practical Problems With Clinical Guidelines for Breast Cancer Prevention Based on Remaining Lifetime Risk

    PubMed Central

    Quante, Anne S.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Shriver, Tom; Hopper, John L.; Strauch, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinical guidelines for breast cancer chemoprevention and MRI screening involve estimates of remaining lifetime risk (RLR); in the United States, women with an RLR of 20% or higher meet “high-risk” criteria for MRI screening. Methods: We prospectively followed 1764 women without breast cancer to compare the RLRs and 10-year risks assigned by the risk models International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS) and Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) and to compare both sets of model-assigned 10-year risks to subsequent incidence of breast cancer in the cohort. We used chi-square statistics to assess calibration and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to assess discrimination. All statistical tests are two-sided. Results: The models classified different proportions of women as high-risk (IBIS = 59.3% vs BOADICEA = 20.1%) using the RLR threshold of 20%. The difference was smaller (IBIS = 52.9% vs BOADICEA = 43.2%) using a 10-year risk threshold of 3.34%. IBIS risks (mean = 4.9%) were better calibrated to observed breast cancer incidence (5.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.2% to 6.4%) than were those of BOADICEA (mean = 3.7%) overall and within quartiles of model risk (P = .20 by IBIS and P = .07 by BOADICEA). Both models gave similar discrimination, with AUCs of 0.67 (95% CI = 0.61 to 0.73) using IBIS and 0.68 (95% CI = 0.62 to 0.74) using BOADICEA. Model sensitivities at thresholds for a 20% false-positive rate were also similar, with 41.8% using IBIS and 38.0% using BOADICEA. Conclusion: RLR-based guidelines for high-risk women are limited by discordance between commonly used risk models. Guidelines based on short-term risks would be more useful, as models are generally developed and validated under a short fixed time horizon (≤10 years). PMID:25956172

  6. Patient engagement in radiation therapy: The development of guidelines for current Canadian practices.

    PubMed

    Purificacion, Sunshine; Brown, Erika; Anne-Davis, Carol; French, John

    2016-09-01

    Radiation therapy service quality is not only defined by the technical aspects of care-the patient's involvement and satisfaction also contribute largely to determining the quality of care received. Although there have been recent increases in support for the development of patient engagement activities throughout Canada, the lack of guidance and knowledge of patient engagement techniques within the radiotherapy context limits implementation. Without processes to obtain first-hand insight from patients, the need for these programs is overlooked. With a commitment to improving quality and consistency of care, the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy recognized the need for a set of national guidelines on patient engagement in radiation therapy service delivery. Making use of the perspectives and first-hand experience of patient representatives, this initiative aims to develop a pan-Canadian guidance document that radiation therapy centres can adopt for successful integration of patient engagement through core activities of service delivery. PMID:27576854

  7. New Zealand National GDM Guidelines: an alternative view of some good practice points.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Janet; Allen, Helen; Budden, Astrid; Elder, Rose; Farrant, Matthew; Hughes, Ruth; Ivanova, Valeria; Moore, Peter; Marnoch, Catherine; McGrath, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    The New Zealand Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Guidelines, commissioned by the Ministry of Health, contains many good points, but several recommendations are creating controversy. This opinion piece discusses an alternative approach to early pregnancy screening for diabetes. We suggest that it is reasonable to refer women with an HbA1c ≥41 mmol/mol (5.9%) for further management, rather than the recommended referral threshold of ≥50 mmol/mol (6.7%). We also suggest that, for subsequent screening for GDM at 24-28 weeks' gestation, a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test should be offered rather than a 50 g glucose challenge test.

  8. Elective Single Embryo Transfer: an update to UK Best Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Harbottle, Stephen; Hughes, Ciara; Cutting, Rachel; Roberts, Steve; Brison, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    A significant number of multiple pregnancies and births worldwide continue to occur following treatment with Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Whilst efforts have been made to increase the proportion of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) cycles, the multiple pregnancy rate or MPR remains at a level that most consider unacceptable given the associated clinical risks to mothers and babies, and the additional costs associated with neonatal care of premature and low birth weight babies. Northern Europe, Australia and Japan have continued to lead the way in the adoption of eSET. Randomised controlled trials or RCTs, meta-analyses and economic analyses support the implementation of an eSET policy, particularly in light of recent advances in ARTs. This paper provides a review of current evidence and an update to the eSET guidelines first published by Cutting et al. (2008) intended to assist ART clinics in the implementation of an effective eSET policy.

  9. Elective Single Embryo Transfer: an update to UK Best Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Harbottle, Stephen; Hughes, Ciara; Cutting, Rachel; Roberts, Steve; Brison, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    A significant number of multiple pregnancies and births worldwide continue to occur following treatment with Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Whilst efforts have been made to increase the proportion of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) cycles, the multiple pregnancy rate or MPR remains at a level that most consider unacceptable given the associated clinical risks to mothers and babies, and the additional costs associated with neonatal care of premature and low birth weight babies. Northern Europe, Australia and Japan have continued to lead the way in the adoption of eSET. Randomised controlled trials or RCTs, meta-analyses and economic analyses support the implementation of an eSET policy, particularly in light of recent advances in ARTs. This paper provides a review of current evidence and an update to the eSET guidelines first published by Cutting et al. (2008) intended to assist ART clinics in the implementation of an effective eSET policy. PMID:26391438

  10. Practical exercise advice during pregnancy: guidelines for active and inactive women.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K

    2005-06-01

    Many women enjoy regular exercise as a part of a healthy lifestyle and may wish to continue exercising after they become pregnant. Some previously sedentary women may want to start an exercise program during pregnancy. Primary care and sports medicine physicians should understand the contraindications (eg, hypertension, diabetes, placenta previa, preeclampsia) and the concerns about exercise during pregnancy (eg, fetal nutrition, risk of prete