Science.gov

Sample records for dehydration operations topical

  1. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  2. Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    Kenefick RW, Cheuvront SN, O'Brien KK. Dehydration, rehydration, and hyperhydration. In: Auerbach PS. Wilderness Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 70. Padlipsky P. Infectious diarrheal ...

  3. Special Operations Research Topics 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2014...Operations Studies and Research The Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) provides its publications to contribute toward expanding the body of...mission in a joint and interagency environment. JSOU conducts research through its Center for Special Operations Studies and Research (CSOSR) where

  4. Special Operations Research Topics 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    seeks to explore the antecedents of FFF with a focus on the social , environmental, and psychological factors that deter or moti- vate foreign...in 5, 10, 15 years? What future state, non-state, social , and technological “game changers” could impact global U.S. inter- ests? What do SOF need to...conditions is a POTFF issue as much as an operational issue. Is there evidence that suggests whether ( social or task) cohesion erodes during long dura

  5. Title V Operating Permit: XTO Energy, Inc. - River Bend Dehydration Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Initial Title V Operating Permit (Permit Number: V-UO-000026-2011.00) and the Administrative Permit Record for the XTO Energy, Inc., River Bend Dehydration Site, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation.

  6. Onion dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the onion dehydration process as generally practiced in the United States. The actual processing steps from harvest to final product, and geothermal applications for power production and energy requirements in the dehydration industry are discussed. A design of a dehydrator converted to geothermal energy usage is included.

  7. Onion dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Onion dehydration consists of a continuous operation, belt conveyor using fairly low-temperature hot air from 38-104{degrees}C (100 to 200{degrees}F). Typical processing plants will handle 4500 kg (10,000 pounds) of raw product per hour (single line), reducing the moisture from around 83 % to 4 % (680 to 820 kg - 1,500 to 1,800 pounds finished product). An example of a geothermal processing plant is Integrate Ingredients at Empire, Nevada, in the San Emidio Desert. A total of 6.3 million kg (14 million pounds) of dry product are produced annually: 60% onion and 40% garlic. A 130{degrees}C (266{degrees}F) well provide the necessary heat for the plant.

  8. Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

  9. Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

  10. Hydration and dehydration cycles in polymer electrolyte fuel cells operated with wet anode and dry cathode feed: A neutron imaging and modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Sánchez, D. G.; Boillat, P.; Vera, M.; Friedrich, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    Proper water management plays an essential role in the performance and durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs), but it is challenged by the variety of water transport phenomena that take place in these devices. Previous experimental work has shown the existence of fluctuations between low and high current density levels in PEFCs operated with wet hydrogen and dry air feed. The alternation between both performance states is accompanied by strong changes in the high frequency resistance, suggesting a cyclic hydration and dehydration of the membrane. This peculiar scenario is examined here considering liquid water distributions from neutron imaging and predictions from a 3D two-phase non-isothermal model. The results show that the hydration-dehydration cycles are triggered by the periodic condensation and shedding of liquid water at the anode inlet. The input of liquid water humidifies the anode channel and offsets the membrane dry-out induced by the dry air stream, thus leading to the high-performance state. When liquid water is flushed out of the anode channel, the dehydration process takes over, and the cell comes back to the low-performance state. The predicted amplitude of the current oscillations grows with decreasing hydrogen and increasing air flow rates, in agreement with previous experimental data.

  11. Evaporation dehydrator

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, L.

    1985-08-06

    A method and apparatus for the treatment of oilfield heavy oil emulsions is provided. The method utilizes, in combination, the steps of evaporation, vapor/liquid separation, and solids settling to dehydrate, degassify and remove solids from the heavy oil emulsion and produce oil having less than 0.5% by volume basic solids and water. The apparatus comprises an insulated, horizontal, cylindrical vessel. Mounted in the upper end of the vessel chamber is an inclined, tubular member having a closed upper end and an open lower end. At its closed end, the member forms a receiving chamber. A mechanical foam breaker extends transversely across the interior of the tubular member, downstream of the chamber. A stack of angularly inclined, heated trays, arranged in zigzag fashion, are positioned beneath the tubular member, to provide an elongate flowpath. The lower end of the tubular member is positioned to feed onto the upper end of the first tray. The flowpath formed by the stack of trays terminates at a level above the bottom of the vessel, so that a quiescent settling sump is provided by the base of the vessel. The vessel includes a feed inlet opening into the receiving chamber, a vapor outlet leading from the top of said vessel, and liquid and solids outlets leading from the sump. A stream of pre-heated heavy oil emulsion is fed to the receiving chamber, wherein part of the contained water in the vapor form breaks out. The foaming stream is contained by the tubular member and is substantially disintegrated by the foam breaker. The stream then issues onto the upper end of the stack of trays and is heated as it passes as a shallow, broad layer over the trays, to gradually evaporate the remaining water from the emulsion and solids. The dehydrated solids are settled out in the sump, leaving oil containing less than 0.5% basic solids and water.

  12. Topic Correlation Analysis for Bearing Fault Diagnosis Under Variable Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Shen, Fei; Yan, Ruqiang

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a Topic Correlation Analysis (TCA) based approach for bearing fault diagnosis. In TCA, Joint Mixture Model (JMM), a model which adapts Probability Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA), is constructed first. Then, JMM models the shared and domain-specific topics using “fault vocabulary” . After that, the correlations between two kinds of topics are computed and used to build a mapping matrix. Furthermore, a new shared space spanned by the shared and mapped domain-specific topics is set up where the distribution gap between different domains is reduced. Finally, a classifier is trained with mapped features which follow a different distribution and then the trained classifier is tested on target bearing data. Experimental results justify the superiority of the proposed approach over the stat-of-the-art baselines and it can diagnose bearing fault efficiently and effectively under variable operating conditions.

  13. Topics on Test Methods for Space Systems and Operations Safety: Applicability of Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews topics on test methods for space systems and operations safety through experimentation and analysis. The contents include: 1) Perception of reality through experimentation and analysis; 2) Measurements, methods, and correlations with real life; and 3) Correlating laboratory aerospace materials flammability data with data in spacecraft environments.

  14. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! Dehydration Dehydration How to Be Safe When You're in the Sun What's Sweat? Dehydration Is It Important to Drink a Lot of Water? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  15. DEHYDRATED FRUIT AND VEGETABLES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FRUITS , *VEGETABLES, QUALITY CONTROL, DEHYDRATED FOODS, PROCESSING, PACKAGING, STORAGE, TASTE, ODORS, COLORS, ACCEPTABILITY, IMPURITIES, MOISTURE, CONTAMINATION, PEST CONTROL, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, USSR.

  16. METHOD OF DEHYDRATING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.O.; Fogel, C.C.; Palmer, W.E.

    1962-12-18

    Drying and dehydration of aqueous-precipitated uranium tetrafluoride are described. The UF/sub 4/ which normally contains 3 to 4% water, is dispersed into the reaction zone of an operating reactor wherein uranium hexafluoride is being reduced to UF/sub 4/ with hydrogen. The water-containing UF/sub 4/ is dried and blended with the UF/sub 4/ produced in the reactor without interfering with the reduction reaction. (AEC)

  17. Thirst, Drinking Behavior, And Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John

    1996-01-01

    Report describes review of physiological mechanisms of involuntary dehydration. Researchers considered cellular dehydration and effects of sodium on thirst, as well as extracellular dehydration and restoration of vascular volume, effects of renin on thirst, and effects of heat.

  18. Dehydration processes using membranes with hydrophobic coating

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer

    2013-07-30

    Processes for removing water from organic compounds, especially polar compounds such as alcohols. The processes include a membrane-based dehydration step, using a membrane that has a dioxole-based polymer selective layer or the like and a hydrophilic selective layer, and can operate even when the stream to be treated has a high water content, such as 10 wt % or more. The processes are particularly useful for dehydrating ethanol.

  19. Editors' preface for the topical issue on Seven papers on Noncommutative Geometry and Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Daniele; Landi, Giovanni; Vassout, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    This topical issue grew out of the International Conference ;Noncommutative Geometry and Applications; held 16-21 June 2014 at Villa Mondragone, Frascati (Roma). The main purpose of the conference was to have a unified view of different incarnations of noncommutative geometry and its applications. The seven papers collected in the present topical issue represent a good sample of the topics covered at the workshop. The conference itself was one of the climaxes of the Franco-Italian project GREFI-GENCO, which was initiated in 2007 by CNRS and INDAM to promote and enhance collaboration and exchanges between French and Italian researchers in the area of noncommutative geometry.

  20. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  1. Is this child dehydrated?

    PubMed

    Steiner, Michael J; DeWalt, Darren A; Byerley, Julie S

    2004-06-09

    The ability to assess the degree of dehydration quickly and accurately in infants and young children often determines patient treatment and disposition. To systematically review the precision and accuracy of symptoms, signs, and basic laboratory tests for evaluating dehydration in infants and children. We identified 1561 potential articles by multiple search strategies of the MEDLINE database through PubMed. Searches of bibliographies of retrieved articles, the Cochrane Library, textbooks, and private collections of experts in the field yielded an additional 42 articles. Twenty-six of 1603 reviewed studies contained original data on the precision or accuracy of findings for the diagnosis of dehydration in young children (1 month to 5 years). Two of the 3 authors independently reviewed and abstracted data for estimating the likelihood ratios (LRs) of diagnostic tests. We eliminated 13 of the 26 studies because of the lack of an accepted diagnostic standard or other limitation in study design. The other 13 studies were included in the review. The most useful individual signs for predicting 5% dehydration in children are an abnormal capillary refill time (LR, 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-9.8), abnormal skin turgor (LR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.2), and abnormal respiratory pattern (LR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5-2.7). Combinations of examination signs perform markedly better than any individual sign in predicting dehydration. Historical points and laboratory tests have only modest utility for assessing dehydration. The initial assessment of dehydration in young children should focus on estimating capillary refill time, skin turgor, and respiratory pattern and using combinations of other signs. The relative imprecision and inaccuracy of available tests limit the ability of clinicians to estimate the exact degree of dehydration.

  2. Cognitive performance and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Adan, Ana

    2012-04-01

    No matter how mild, dehydration is not a desirable condition because there is an imbalance in the homeostatic function of the internal environment. This can adversely affect cognitive performance, not only in groups more vulnerable to dehydration, such as children and the elderly, but also in young adults. However, few studies have examined the impact of mild or moderate dehydration on cognitive performance. This paper reviews the principal findings from studies published to date examining cognitive skills. Being dehydrated by just 2% impairs performance in tasks that require attention, psychomotor, and immediate memory skills, as well as assessment of the subjective state. In contrast, the performance of long-term and working memory tasks and executive functions is more preserved, especially if the cause of dehydration is moderate physical exercise. The lack of consistency in the evidence published to date is largely due to the different methodology applied, and an attempt should be made to standardize methods for future studies. These differences relate to the assessment of cognitive performance, the method used to cause dehydration, and the characteristics of the participants.

  3. A randomised control trial on the use of topical methicillin in reducing post-operative ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection.

    PubMed

    Theophilus, Sharon Casilda; Adnan, Johari Siregar

    2011-01-01

    A double-blind randomised control study was conducted on all patients who were admitted or referred to the Department of Neurosurgery, Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru, with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus where a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was indicated. The period of study was from November 2005 to May 2007, and the follow-up period was 3 months after surgery. Randomisation was carried out in the operating room prior to the procedure. The scrub nurse selected a sealed envelope, which contained the assignment of each patient to 1 of 2 treatment groups: Group 1 patients were treated with topical methicillin, and Group 2 patients were not treated with topical methicillin. Prophylactic antibiotic, cefuroxime (25 mg/kg) was given intravenously at induction. Standard sterile operative technique was followed in preparing and draping the patients. A total of 90 patients were recruited in the study, and 13 (14.4%) patients developed an infection within 3 months post-operation. Group 1 had a 8.9% risk of infection, and Group 2 had a 20% risk; however, there was no statistically significant post-operative ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infection reduction with the use of topical methicillin in VPS surgery (P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only duration of surgery had a significant influence on the incidence of post-operative VPS infection in the non-methicillin group (P = 0.02). The non-methicillin group had an 8 times greater risk of developing post-operative VPS infection than the methicillin group if surgery lasted longer than 1 hour. Topical methicillin had no significance in the reduction of post-operative VPS infection.

  4. A Randomised Control Trial on the Use of Topical Methicillin in Reducing Post-Operative Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Theophilus, Sharon Casilda; Adnan, Johari Siregar

    2011-01-01

    Background: A double-blind randomised control study was conducted on all patients who were admitted or referred to the Department of Neurosurgery, Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru, with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus where a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was indicated. Methods: The period of study was from November 2005 to May 2007, and the follow-up period was 3 months after surgery. Randomisation was carried out in the operating room prior to the procedure. The scrub nurse selected a sealed envelope, which contained the assignment of each patient to 1 of 2 treatment groups: Group 1 patients were treated with topical methicillin, and Group 2 patients were not treated with topical methicillin. Prophylactic antibiotic, cefuroxime (25 mg/kg) was given intravenously at induction. Standard sterile operative technique was followed in preparing and draping the patients. Results: A total of 90 patients were recruited in the study, and 13 (14.4%) patients developed an infection within 3 months post-operation. Group 1 had a 8.9% risk of infection, and Group 2 had a 20% risk; however, there was no statistically significant post-operative ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infection reduction with the use of topical methicillin in VPS surgery (P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only duration of surgery had a significant influence on the incidence of post-operative VPS infection in the non-methicillin group (P = 0.02). The non-methicillin group had an 8 times greater risk of developing post-operative VPS infection than the methicillin group if surgery lasted longer than 1 hour. Conclusion: Topical methicillin had no significance in the reduction of post-operative VPS infection. PMID:22135571

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: II. The time-dependent case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolicard, Georges; Killingbeck, John P.

    2003-10-01

    Part II of the review shows how the stationary Bloch wave operator of part I can be suitably modified to give a time-dependent wave operator. This operator makes it possible to use a relatively small active space in order to describe the dynamical processes which occur in quantum mechanical systems which have a time-dependent Hamiltonian. A close study is made of the links between the time-dependent and time-independent wave operators at the adiabatic limit; the analysis clarifies the way in which the wave operator formalism allows the time evolution of a system or a wave packet to be described in terms of a fast evolution inside the active space together with weak transitions out of this space which can be treated by perturbation methods. Two alternative wave operator equations of motion are derived and analysed. The first one is a non-linear differential equation in the usual Hilbert space; the second one is a differential equation in an extended Hilbert space with an extra time variable added and becomes equivalent to the usual Bloch equation when the Floquet Hamiltonian is taken in place of the ordinary Hamiltonian. A study is made of the close relationships between the time-dependent wave operator formalism, the Floquet theory and the (t, t') theory. Some original methods of solution of the two forms of wave operator equation are proposed and lead to new techniques of integration for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (e.g., the generalized Green equation procedure). Mixed procedures involving both the time-independent and time-dependent wave operators are shown to be applicable to the internal eigenstate problem for large complex matrices. A detailed account is given of the description of inelastic and photoreactive processes by means of the time-dependent wave operator formalism, with particular attention to laser-molecule interactions. The emphasis is on projection operator techniques, with special attention being given to the method of selection of

  6. A Prospective, Open-label Study to Compare the Efficacy and the Safety of Topical Loteprednol Etabonate and Topical Flurbiprofen Sodium in Patients with Post-Operative Inflammation after Cataract Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Bannale, Sheshidhar G.; Pundarikaksha, H.P.; Sowbhagya, H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of the topical Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug (NSAID), Flurbiprofen 0.03%, as an alternative to the topical steroids for the postoperative control of inflammation in cataract surgeries. Methods The effect of the topical NSAID, flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, was studied and compared with that of the topical steroid – Loteprednol etabonate 0.5% suspension (as eye drops) in a prospective, open labelled study. Both the groups (20 patients each) were similar in the baseline parameters. The postoperative inflammatory response following the standard, small incision, extra capsular cataract extraction was assessed in both the groups for 28 post-operative days. The parameters which were considered for the study were conjunctival hyperaemia, ciliary congestion, corneal oedema, cells in the anterior chamber, aqueous flare and ocular pain. The severity of the postoperative inflammatory responses for both the drugs was graded on the post-operative days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and it was statistically analyzed. Results The 2 groups did not differ statistically in the effect of the treatment for any of the variables, which included aqueous cells, flare, ciliary congestion and conjunctival congestion (p< 0.001). Both the drugs were well tolerated and no severe adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) were caused by the topical NSAID and the topical steroid. Conclusion The topical NSAID, Flurbiprofen, is as effective as the topical corticosteroid, Loteprednol and it can be used as an alternative in the routine postoperative treatment following uncomplicated cataract surgeries. PMID:23285440

  7. Olfactory contributions to dehydration-induced anorexia in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Bruno, J P; Hall, W G

    1982-11-01

    By 20 days of age, dehydration produces a clear anorexia, even though weanling rats have had only limited feeding and drinking experience. Their lack of ingestive experience makes weanlings good subjects for studying the physiological mechanisms subserving anorexic phenomena because learned contributions are unlikely to add significant complications. Twenty-day-old rats dehydrated by hypertonic saline injection were anorexic when offered milk or solid food (rat chow), but not when offered sucrose solutions (Experiment I). However, when the scent of almond was associated with sucrose solutions, or with water, intake of these solutions was depressed by dehydration (Experiment II). Thus for dehydrated rats, olfactory stimulation may help produce dehydration-induced anorexia. Making rats anosmic by intransal lavage with ZnSO4 (Experiment III) eliminated the anorexia to almond-scented water and partially eliminated that to milk. For these fluids, an odor cue seems a requirement for the occurrence of dehydration-anorexia. In Experiment IV, we found that dehydration-anorexia did not occur when milk was infused directly into pups' mouths. This finding suggests that the inhibitory process mediating dehydration-anorexia influences the approach to food and not the actual consumatory response that occurs once food is in the mouth. The inhibition of feeding produced by dehydration, therefore, may depend largely on olfactory cues, and seems to operate at a distance, as rats locate and approach food.

  8. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  9. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) System Integration Project, Phase 2. Topical report for test circuit operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The objective of the task (Task 6) covered in this document was to operate the refurbished/modified test circuit of the Gravimeh Process in a continuous integrated manner to obtain the engineering and operational data necessary to assess the technical performance and reliability of the circuit. This data is critical to the development of this technology as a feasible means of producing premium clean burning fuels that meet New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Significant refurbishments and design modifications had been made to the facility (in particular to the vacuum filtration and evaporation units) during Tasks 1 and 2, followed by off-line testing (Task 3). Two weeks of continuous around-the-clock operation of the refurbished/modified MCL test circuit were performed. During the second week of testing, all sections of the plant were operated in an integrated fashion for an extended period of time, including a substantial number of hours of on-stream time for the vacuum filters and the caustic evaporation unit. A new process configuration was tested in which centrate from the acid wash train (without acid addition) was used as the water makeup for the water wash train, thus-eliminating the one remaining process waste water stream. A 9-inch centrifuge was tested at various solids loadings and at flow rates up to 400 lbs/hr of coal feed to obtain a twenty-fold scaleup factor over the MCL integrated test facility centrifuge performance data.

  10. Phase 3 Final Topical Report for the Remote Operated Vehicle with C02 Blasting (ROVCO2)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-14

    This report documents the third and final phase of the Remote Operated Vehicle with CO2 Blasting (ROVCO2) Program. The Program=s goal is to develop and demonstrate a tool to improve the productivity of concrete floor decontamination. In Phase 3 of the ROVCO2 program, the workhead and the COYOTEE end-effector were redesigned, and effectiveness and productivity tests were performed. This report documents the development activities. The results show that the ROVCO2 system is an efficient decontamination tool, but with relatively slow production rates.

  11. Observations on saliva osmolality during progressive dehydration and partial rehydration.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Kerry, Pete; McGhee, Sheena; Peoples, Gregory E; Brown, Marc A; Patterson, Mark J

    2012-09-01

    A need exists to identify dehydrated individuals under stressful settings beyond the laboratory. A predictive index based on changes in saliva osmolality has been proposed, and its efficacy and sensitivity was appraised across mass (water) losses from 1 to 7%. Twelve euhydrated males [serum osmolality: 286.1 mOsm kg(-1) H(2)O (SD 4.3)] completed three exercise- and heat-induced dehydration trials (35.6°C, 56% relative humidity): 7% dehydration (6.15 h), 3% dehydration (with 60% fluid replacement: 2.37 h), repeat 7% dehydration (5.27 h). Expectorated saliva osmolality, measured at baseline and at each 1% mass change, was used to predict instantaneous hydration state relative to mass losses of 3 and 6%. Saliva osmolality increased linearly with dehydration, although its basal osmolality and its rate of change varied among and within subjects across trials. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated a good predictive power for saliva osmolality when used with two, single-threshold cutoffs to differentiate between hydrated and dehydrated individuals (area under curve: 3% cutoff = 0.868, 6% cutoff = 0.831). However, when analysed using a double-threshold detection technique (3 and 6%), as might be used in a field-based monitor, <50% of the osmolality data could correctly identify individuals who exceeded 3% dehydration. Indeed, within the 3-6% dehydration range, its sensitivity was 64%, while beyond 6% dehydration, this fell to 42%. Therefore, while expectorated saliva osmolality tracked mass losses within individuals, its large intra- and inter-individual variability limited its predictive power and sensitivity, rendering its utility questionable within a universal dehydration monitor.

  12. Virtual reality in planning and operations from research topic to practical issue

    SciTech Connect

    Rindahl, G.; Johnsen, T.; Mark, N. K. F.; Meyer, G.

    2006-07-01

    During the last decade of research and development on advanced visualization systems for the nuclear industry, the available technology has evolved significantly. In the same period, nuclear companies have entered a more competitive environment due to the increasingly open electricity market, resulting in strong demands on cost effective operations. This paper reports on some of the 3D applications developed by Inst. for Energy Technology in this time period, and on the emerging possibilities for practical applications of Virtual and Augmented Reality. Finally the paper proposes that well-considered deployment of recent and on-going technological advances in this field can be a contribution to improving economy and efficiency without compromising safety. (authors)

  13. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.].

  14. EDAM: an ontology of bioinformatics operations, types of data and identifiers, topics and formats

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Jon; Kalaš, Matúš; Jonassen, Inge; Bolser, Dan; Uludag, Mahmut; McWilliam, Hamish; Malone, James; Lopez, Rodrigo; Pettifer, Steve; Rice, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Advancing the search, publication and integration of bioinformatics tools and resources demands consistent machine-understandable descriptions. A comprehensive ontology allowing such descriptions is therefore required. Results: EDAM is an ontology of bioinformatics operations (tool or workflow functions), types of data and identifiers, application domains and data formats. EDAM supports semantic annotation of diverse entities such as Web services, databases, programmatic libraries, standalone tools, interactive applications, data schemas, datasets and publications within bioinformatics. EDAM applies to organizing and finding suitable tools and data and to automating their integration into complex applications or workflows. It includes over 2200 defined concepts and has successfully been used for annotations and implementations. Availability: The latest stable version of EDAM is available in OWL format from http://edamontology.org/EDAM.owl and in OBO format from http://edamontology.org/EDAM.obo. It can be viewed online at the NCBO BioPortal and the EBI Ontology Lookup Service. For documentation and license please refer to http://edamontology.org. This article describes version 1.2 available at http://edamontology.org/EDAM_1.2.owl. Contact: jison@ebi.ac.uk PMID:23479348

  15. Biomass energy analysis for crop dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.P.; Haase, S.G.; Quinn, M.W.; Zachritz, W.; Lansford, R.; Swanson, D.

    1995-06-01

    In 1994, an agricultural processing facility began constructing a new spice and herb dehydration facility in southern New Mexico. Because of the considerable energy intensity of the dehydration operation, management of energy costs is of special concern to the facility. Biomass energy conversion offers the potential for firms to reduce annual operating costs-especially firms with access to low-cost resources. Because the selected facility produces a biomass by-product as a result of its dehydration operation, it is appropriate to explore the technical, regulatory, institutional and economic conditions that affect the successful utilization of biomass resources. The facility is characterized as a small-scale installation, relative to other energy users. In this context, small-scale represents less than 100 million Btu per hour of thermal load and less than 1 MWe of electrical load. However, the projected annual energy bill is approximately $1.1 million and represents a significant portion of operational costs for the firm. For this study, the biomass resources in southern New Mexico and western Texas are detailed. Annual supplies of various biomass resources (i.e., wood chips, pecan shells, discarded tires and cotton gin trash) were inventoried. Further, delivered costs are projected for each of the resource forms. A technical assessment for the small-scale gasification and combustion systems is presented.

  16. Onion dehydration: a review.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    2012-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly.

  17. Dehydration (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC What's a Healthy Alternative to Water? Compulsive Exercise IV (Video) Sports Center Caffeine Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea A Guide ...

  18. 7 CFR 989.12 - Dehydrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.12 Dehydrator. Dehydrator means any person who produces raisins by dehydrating grapes by artificial means....

  19. [Dehydration due to "mouth broken"].

    PubMed

    Meijler, D P M; van Mossevelde, P W J; van Beek, R H T

    2012-09-01

    Two children were admitted to a medical centre due to dehydration after an oral injury and the extraction of a tooth. One child complained of "mouth broken". Dehydration is the most common water-electrolyte imbalance in children. Babies and young children are prone to dehydration due to their relatively large body surface area, the high percentage extracellular fluid, and the limited ability of the kidneys to conserve water. After the removal ofa tooth, after an oral trauma or in case of oral discomfort, a child is at greater risk of dehydration by reduced fluid and food intake due to oral pain and/or discomfort and anxiety to drink. In those cases, extra attention needs to be devoted to the intake of fluids.

  20. Comparison of clinical and biochemical markers of dehydration with the clinical dehydration scale in children: a case comparison trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical dehydration scale (CDS) is a quick, easy-to-use tool with 4 clinical items and a score of 1–8 that serves to classify dehydration in children with gastroenteritis as no, some or moderate/severe dehydration. Studies validating the CDS (Friedman JN) with a comparison group remain elusive. We hypothesized that the CDS correlates with a wide spectrum of established markers of dehydration, making it an appropriate and easy-to-use clinical tool. Methods This study was designed as a prospective double-cohort trial in a single tertiary care center. Children with diarrhea and vomiting, who clinically required intravenous fluids for rehydration, were compared with minor trauma patients who required intravenous needling for conscious sedation. We compared the CDS with clinical and urinary markers (urinary electrolytes, proteins, ratios and fractional excretions) for dehydration in both groups using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the area under the curve (AUC). Results We enrolled 73 children (male = 36) in the dehydration group and 143 (male = 105) in the comparison group. Median age was 32 months (range 3–214) in the dehydration and 96 months (range 2.6-214 months, p < 0.0001) in the trauma group. Median CDS was 3 (range 0–8) within the dehydration group and 0 in the comparison group (p < 0.0001). The following parameters were statistically significant (p < 0.05) between the comparison group and the dehydrated group: difference in heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, urine sodium/potassium ratio, urine sodium, fractional sodium excretion, serum bicarbonate, and creatinine measurements. The best markers for dehydration were urine Na and serum bicarbonate (ROC AUC = 0.798 and 0.821, respectively). CDS was most closely correlated with serum bicarbonate (Pearson r = -0.3696, p = 0.002). Conclusion Although serum bicarbonate is not the gold standard for dehydration, this study provides

  1. External Validation and Comparison of Three Pediatric Clinical Dehydration Scales

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Joshua; Nelson, Daniel; Choo, Esther; Stearns, Branden; Levine, Adam C.; Liebmann, Otto; Shah, Sachita P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prospectively validate three popular clinical dehydration scales and overall physician gestalt in children with vomiting or diarrhea relative to the criterion standard of percent weight change with rehydration. Methods We prospectively enrolled a non-consecutive cohort of children ≤ 18 years of age with an acute episode of diarrhea or vomiting. Patient weight, clinical scale variables and physician clinical impression, or gestalt, were recorded before and after fluid resuscitation in the emergency department and upon hospital discharge. The percent weight change from presentation to discharge was used to calculate the degree of dehydration, with a weight change of ≥ 5% considered significant dehydration. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed for each of the three clinical scales and physician gestalt. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the best cut-points of the ROC curve. Results We approached 209 patients, and of those, 148 were enrolled and 113 patients had complete data for analysis. Of these, 10.6% had significant dehydration based on our criterion standard. The Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) and Gorelick scales both had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) statistically different from the reference line with AUCs of 0.72 (95% CI 0.60, 0.84) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.57, 0.85) respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale and physician gestalt had AUCs of 0.61 (95% CI 0.45, 0.77) and 0.61 (0.44, 0.78) respectively, which were not statistically significant. Conclusion The Gorelick scale and Clinical Dehydration Scale were fair predictors of dehydration in children with diarrhea or vomiting. The World Health Organization scale and physician gestalt were not helpful predictors of dehydration in our cohort. PMID:24788134

  2. Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Dehydration (body water deficit) is a physiologic state that can have profound implications for human health and performance. Unfortunately, dehydration can be difficult to assess, and there is no single, universal gold standard for decision making. In this article, we review the physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment. We highlight how phenomenologic interpretations of dehydration depend critically on the type (dehydration compared with volume depletion) and magnitude (moderate compared with severe) of dehydration, which in turn influence the osmotic (plasma osmolality) and blood volume-dependent compensatory thresholds for antidiuretic and thirst responses. In particular, we review new findings regarding the biological variation in osmotic responses to dehydration and discuss how this variation can help provide a quantitative and clinically relevant link between the physiology and phenomenology of dehydration. Practical measures with empirical thresholds are provided as a starting point for improving the practice of dehydration assessment.

  3. Dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental rates of dehydration of shocked and unshocked serpentine were determined using a differential scanning calorimetric technique. Dehydration rates in shocked serpentine are enhanced by orders of magnitude over corresponding rates in unshocked material, even though the impact experiments were carried out under conditions that inhibited direct impact-induced devolatilization. Extrapolation to temperatures of the Martian surface indicates that dehydration of shocked material would occur 20 to 30 orders of magnitude more rapidly than for unshocked serpentine. The results indicate that impacted planetary surfaces and associated atmospheres would reach chemical equilibrium much more quickly than calculations based on unshocked material would indicate, even during the earliest, coldest stages of accretion. Furthermore, it is suggested that chemical weathering of shocked planetary surfaces by solid-gas reactions would be sufficiently rapid that true equilibrium mineral assemblages should form.

  4. Geothermal vegetable dehydration at Brady`s Hot Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the utilization of the Brady`s Springs geothermal resource for heat generation used in the food dehydration process. This geothermal system is located in the Forty-Mile Desert area of Nevada. Geothermal Food Processors, Inc. of Reno, Nevada started construction of the geothermal vegetable dehydration plant in 1978, and the plant started operations in 1979. The industrial process of vegetable dehydration at the plant is described. In July of 1992, the Brady`s Springs geothermal system began being used for power generation by the Brady`s Hot Springs geothermal power plant, operated by Oxbow Power Services, Inc. As a result, the water levels in the food processing plant wells have dropped below usable levels and the geothermal brine is now being supplied by the Oxbow power plant.

  5. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill).

  6. Dehydration kinetics of neotame monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zedong; Salsbury, Jonathon S; Zhou, Deliang; Munson, Eric J; Schroeder, Steve A; Prakash, Indra; Vyazovkin, Sergey; Wight, Charles A; Grant, David J W

    2002-06-01

    The dehydration of neotame monohydrate was monitored at various temperatures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TGA), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), and (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy. This work emphasizes kinetic analysis of isothermal TGA data by fitting to various solid-state reaction models and by model-free kinetic treatment. The dehydration of neotame monohydrate follows the kinetics of a two-dimensional phase boundary reaction (R2) at 40-50 degrees C with an activation energy of 75 +/- 9 kJ/mol, agreeing well with 60-80 kJ/mol from model-free kinetics. At a low heating rate in DSC and TGA, neotame monohydrate undergoes dehydration to produce anhydrate Form E, which then converts to anhydrate Form A, followed by the melting of A. Neotame monohydrate under dry nitrogen purge at 50 mL/min undergoes partial isothermal dehydration at 50 degrees C to produce neotame anhydrate Form A. When neotame monohydrate is heated very slowly from 50 to 65-70 degrees C over 24 h, pure Form A is obtained. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Biomass energy analysis for crop dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.P.; Haase, S.G.; Quinn, M.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1994, an agricultural processing facility was constructed in southern New Mexico for spice and herb dehydration. Annual operational costs are dominated by energy costs, due primarily to the energy intensity of dehydration. A feasibility study was performed to determine whether the use of biomass resources as a feedstock for a cogeneration system would be an economical option. The project location allowed access to unusual biomass feedstocks including cotton gin trash, pecan shells and in-house residues. A resource assessment of the immediate project area determined that approximately 120,000 bone dry tons of biomass feedstocks are available annually. Technology characterization for the plant energy requirements indicated gasification systems offer fuel flexibility advantages over combustion systems although vendor support and commercial experience are limited. Regulatory siting considerations introduce a level of uncertainty because of a lack of a precedent in New Mexico for gasification technology and because vendors of commercial gasifiers have little experience operating such a facility nor gathering emission data. A public opinion survey indicated considerable support for renewable energy use and biomass energy utilization. However, the public opinion survey also revealed limited knowledge of biomass technologies and concerns regarding siting of a biomass facility within the geographic area. The economic analysis conducted for the study is based on equipment vendor quotations, and indicates there will be difficulty competing with current prices of natural gas.

  8. [Study of erythrocyte dehydration using spin labels].

    PubMed

    Moiseev, V A; Mezhidov, S Kh; Nardid, O A

    1989-01-01

    Possibility of studying erythrocyte dehydration by ESR-spin probe is substantiated. Dehydration of erythrocytes in relation to osmolarity of sodium chloride solutions is investigated. The results are shown to agree with the data obtained by radioisotope method.

  9. Experimental Deformation of Dehydrating Antigorite: Challenging Models of Dehydration Embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirth, Greg; Chernak, Linda

    2010-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that intermediate depth earthquakes in subduction zones are caused by the dehydration of hydrous phases, we conducted temperature-ramping experiments on antigorite serpentinite. Cold-pressed powdered samples of antigorite were deformed to a high differential stress at 400°C and 1.0 GPa, within the antigorite stability field, where we have shown that deformation localizes. Temperature was then increased at different rates, 1800°C/hr and 180°C/hr, to cross the reaction boundary while the sample continued to deform; samples were deformed at strain rates of 10-4 s-1, 10-5 s-1 and 10-6 s-1. Two additional experiments were conducted in a similar manner at 300°C, 1.5 GPa and 10-5 s-1 but samples remained 'statically' at high stress during the temperature increase. Our results show that although the decrease in stress during temperature ramping is large, stress relaxes stably, even after dehydration. We find that the slopes of the unloading curves are approximately the same for constant values of the ratio (strain rate/ramp rate) and that the unloading slope is greater for higher values of this ratio. In addition, we find that the unloading curves with the greatest slopes are similar to the apparatus compliance, suggesting that we are generating 'slow earthquakes' in our experiments over the course 5 to 10s of minutes. A strain rate stepping experiment indicates that antigorite has velocity strengthening behavior at 700°C and 1.5 GPa suggesting that as soon as an instability develops in the antigorite, the material strengthens sufficiently to not go unstable. Our results thus suggest that antigorite dehydration does not result in 'dehydration embrittlement' but that it may promote slow earthquakes. We have also conducted a preliminary experiment to study the role of effective pressure on deformation behavior after dehydration. A cold-pressed powdered sample of antigorite with a small core of coarse-grained olivine at one end was deformed at 700

  10. Effect of leaf dehydration duration and dehydration degree on PSII photochemical activity of papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meijun; Zhang, Zishan; Gao, Huiyuan; Yang, Cheng; Fan, Xingli; Cheng, Dandan

    2014-09-01

    Although the effect of dehydration on photosynthetic apparatus has been widely studied, the respective effect of dehydration duration and dehydration degree was neglected. This study showed that, when leaves dehydrated in air, the PSII activities of leaves decreased with the decline of leaf relative water content (RWC). Unexpectedly, when leaves dehydrated to same RWC, the decreases in Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm were lower in leaves dehydrating at 43 °C than those at 25 °C. However, to reach the same RWC, leaves dehydrating at 43 °C experienced 1/6 of the dehydration duration for leaves dehydrating at 25 °C. To distinguish the respective effect of dehydration degree and dehydration duration on photosynthetic apparatus, we studied the PSII activities of leaves treated with different concentration of PEG solutions. Increasing dehydration degree aggravated the decline of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in leaves with the same dehydration duration, while prolonging the dehydration duration also exacerbated the decline of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in leaves with identical dehydration degree. With the same dehydration degree and duration, high temperature enhanced the decrease of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in the leaves. When leaves dehydrated in air, the effect of high temperature was underestimated due to reduction of dehydration duration. The results demonstrated that, dehydration degree and duration both play important roles in damage to photosynthetic apparatus. We suggest that, under combined stresses, the effects of dehydration degree and duration on plants should be considered comprehensively, otherwise, partial or incorrect results may be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Unnecessary operations in the exercise of surgery. A topic of our times with serious implications in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Guarner, V

    2000-01-01

    Unnecessary operations represent between 20 and 25% of total surgical practice. This article analyses causes, history, enormous economic effects and their consequences as an iatrogenic harm. Looking for a solution to the problem of unnecessary operations is urgent because these surgeries have a direct effect on the field of ethics and morality in the practice of surgery.

  12. Physical signs of dehydration in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Miyuki; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Hattori, Kazuya; Ota, Yoshio; Kanai, Takao; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2012-01-01

    Dehydration is a common condition and frequent cause of hospitalization in older people, despite the caregiver's high attention in attempt to avoid its occurrence. In this study, various physical signs were examined as clinical signs of dehydration in elderly. A prospective observational study was conducted in an acute care teaching hospital. Consecutive elderly patients who were admitted to the Department of Medicine were evaluated. Dehydration was defined as a calculated serum osmolality above 295 mOsm/L. The patients diagnosed as dehydrated or not dehydrated were observed for physical signs of dehydration. Data of blood and urine chemistry analysis were also compared between the two groups. A total of 27 elderly patients admitted with acute medical conditions were included in this study. For the physical signs, dry axilla had moderate sensitivity (44%) and excellent specificity (89%) to detect dehydration. Sunken eyes and delayed capillary refill time also showed relatively good specificity (83%). For laboratory data, the mean concentrations of serum sodium of the dehydrated group (146 mEq/L) was significantly higher (p<0.01) than those of the non-dehydrated group (134 mEq/L). Physical signs of dehydration in elderly showed relatively good specificity but poor sensitivity. The evaluation of the axillary moisture could help assess dehydration as well as laboratory data analysis such as serum sodium concentration.

  13. Detailed project plan: Design, construction and operation of pilot scale Charfuel{reg_sign} process. Topical report, Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    In this project, a pilot-scale facility for the flash hydropyrolysis of coal will be designed, built and operated to demonstrate the integrated operation of critical components of the CHARFUEL process and to obtain scale-up data for subsequent demonstration facility for the production of a clean coal slurry fuel. This report presents project plans which includes detailed construction plan; procurement of materials and equipment; construction, test and start-up; potential problems and solutions during operations; data collection and analysis; and feasibility analysis.

  14. North Carolina used motor oil re-refinging program. Plant operation and quality control tests. Topical report 4

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.K.; Schurter, T.L.; Ritchie, M.; Miller, T.M.

    1984-06-01

    A cooperative project is described to re-refine used motor oil for use in state-owned vehicles. The re-refining plant has a rated capacity of two million gallons per year for full operation, utilizes up-to-date technology, and is capable of producing a lube-stock product of very high quality. While the overall project has a number of objectives, the objectives of the work described in this report are to investigate the chemistry of the process and to develop and test a set of quality control analyses that will assure that the plant is producing a satisfactory lubestock product. In addition, a number of tests were also developed to aid in the operation of the plant. This report presents a brief description of the plant and its operation, a discussion of the process and the process chemistry, a description of the tests developed and used, a discussion of sampling and sample locations, and an evaluation of the tests for assuring satisfactory plant operation and quality control of the lubestock product. 6 references, 4 figures, 15 tables.

  15. Draft Part 71 Permit: XTO Energy Inc. - River Bend Dehydration Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Draft Title V Operating Permit, statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and the administrative permit docket (application and other supporting documents) for the Draft Part 71 Permit for XTO Energy Inc. - River Bend Dehydration Site

  16. Draft Part 71 Permit: XTO Energy Inc. - River Bend Dehydration Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Draft Operating Permit (Permit Number: V-UO-000026-2011.00), statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and the administrative permit docket (application and other supporting documents) for the XTO Energy Inc. - River Bend Dehydration Site

  17. Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... of water over a period of time. Drinking too much all at once can overload your stomach and make you throw up. If you are exercising in the heat and losing a lot of minerals in sweat, sports drinks can be helpful. Avoid any drinks that have caffeine. NIH: National Institutes of Health

  18. Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... you don't drink enough water during hot weather — especially if you are exercising vigorously. You can ... it's important to increase water intake during hot weather or when you're ill. The signs and ...

  19. Dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    The news that the Earth is losing 1,000 gallons of water every day is nothing for the planet's inhabitants to sweat, given the vast amount of water in the oceans. But this new information, gathered from measurements on the POLAR satellite, has shed new light on ways that water and other materials leave the atmosphere. The new data should also improve models of how the atmospheres of Earth and other planets evolve.Using a unique instrument to reduce electrical interference from the satellite, the research team took the first accurate high-altitude measurements of the polar wind—charged gas or plasma that escapes from Earth and its ionosphere through the poles. The team, headed by Los Alamos physicist Beth Nordholt, proved that the polar wind is one mechanism by which the atomic constituents of water vapor and other atmospheric gases are dragged outward from the ionosphere, where they spiral along the planet's magnet field lines. Sunlight breaks the water into ionized hydrogen and oxygen gases in the upper atmosphere.

  20. Evaluation of enhanced recovery operations in Smackover fields of southwest Alabama. Draft topical report on Subtasks 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains detailed geologic and engineering information on enhanced-recovery techniques used in unitized Smackover fields in Alabama. The report also makes recommendations on the applicability of these enhanced-recovery techniques to fields that are not now undergoing enhanced recovery. Eleven Smackover fields in Alabama have been unitized. Three fields were unitized specifically to allow the drilling of a strategically placed well to recover uncontacted oil. Two fields in Alabama are undergoing waterflood projects. Five fields are undergoing gas-injection programs to increase the ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons. Silas and Choctaw Ridge fields were unitized but no enhanced-recovery operations have been implemented.

  1. Detecting dehydration in older people: useful tests.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane

    Dehydration is common in older people, leading to longer hospital stays and increased disability and mortality. Health professionals can diagnose water-loss dehydration by taking a blood sample and measuring serum osmolality, but a less-invasive test would be useful. Evidence that tests, clinical signs or questions tested to date are useful when screening for dehydration in older people is limited. This article looks at known risk factors, signs and test for dehydration, and outlines evidence on how useful they have proven to be. Part 2 describes how a care home has used a multicomponent strategy to improve hydration.

  2. A dehydration mechanism for the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielsen, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    Although mean circulations are generally credited with dehydration of the earth's stratosphere, convective instability in the tropics converts mean circulations to small residuals of local convective circulations. The effects of large cumulonimbus which penetrate the stratosphere and form huge anvils in the lower stratosphere are discussed with respect to hydration and dehydration of the stratosphere. Radiative heating at anvil base combined with cooling at anvil top drives a dehydration engine considered essential to explain the dry stratosphere. Seasonal and longitudinal variations in dehydration potentials are examined with maximum potential attributed to Micronesian area during winter and early spring.

  3. Garlic prevents ultrastructural alterations caused by dehydration in mouse cerebral microvessels.

    PubMed

    Fahim, M A; El-Sabban, F F

    2001-05-01

    Dehydration is known to significantly reduce both the time required for the first platelet aggregate and the time to full occlusion in photochemically-induced thrombosis, in vivo. Ultrastructural changes that contribute to such events remain unknown. Therefore, the effect of water deprivation for 24 hr, (as a model for dehydration) on the ultrastructure of mouse pial microvessels was investigated. The possible beneficial effect of garlic in preventing such ultrastructural changes was also investigated. Four groups of TO strain: control, control-garlic treated, dehydrated, and dehydrated-garlic treated male mice, 10/group, were used. Dehydration was induced by water deprivation for 24 hr. Garlic solution was i.p. injected at 0.1 ml/10g body weight. In urethane-anesthetized (2 mg/g, i.p.) mice, topical and transvessel bimodal fixation of pial microvessels was done with a phosphate buffered mixture of glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde, followed by a conventional electron microscopy procedure. Examination of control cerebral pial microvessels showed no evidence of cellular damage. Membranes of endothelial cells were intact. Within pial microvessels there was no evidence of platelet aggregation. Garlic treatments did not cause any ultrastructure abnormalities in control mice. Compared with control, dehydration caused the appearance of thrombi that consisted of platelet aggregates. Discoid platelets containing granules, spheroid degranulated platelets, and those with large pseudopodia were present in 80% of dehydrated mice. The venular endothelial surface of dehydrated mice revealed dilated profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and variously shaped vacuoles. Swelling of nuclear envelopes and mitochondrial distension were also present in dehydrated mice. Concomitant garlic treatment prevented most of these ultrastructural changes. These findings demonstrated the extent of damage to the pial microvessels in response to water deprivation and demonstrated the beneficial effect

  4. Efinaconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... may catch fire. Stay away from heat and flames while you are applying this medication.Do not get a pedicure or apply nail polish or other cosmetic nail products to your toenails during your treatment with efinaconazole topical solution.To apply the topical ...

  5. Microfluidic Droplet Dehydration for Concentrating Processes in Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anna, Shelley

    2014-03-01

    Droplets in microfluidic devices have proven useful as picoliter reactors for biochemical processing operations such as polymerase chain reaction, protein crystallization, and the study of enzyme kinetics. Although droplets are typically considered to be self-contained, constant volume reactors, there can be significant transport between the dispersed and continuous phases depending on solubility and other factors. In the present talk, we show that water droplets trapped within a microfluidic device for tens of hours slowly dehydrate, concentrating the contents encapsulated within. We use this slow dehydration along with control of the initial droplet composition to influence gellation, crystallization, and phase separation processes. By examining these concentrating processes in many trapped drops at once we gain insight into the stochastic nature of the events. In one example, we show that dehydration rate impacts the probability of forming a specific crystal habit in a crystallizing amino acid. In another example, we phase separate a common aqueous two-phase system within droplets and use the ensuing two phases to separate DNA from an initial mixture. We further influence wetting conditions between the two aqueous polymer phases and the continuous oil, promoting complete de-wetting and physical separation of the polymer phases. Thus, controlled dehydration of droplets allows for concentration, separation, and purification of important biomolecules on a chip.

  6. D-TRANSPOSITION OF THE GREAT ARTERIES: Hot Topics in the Current Era of the Arterial Switch Operation

    PubMed Central

    Villafañe, Juan; Lantin-Hermoso, M. Regina; Bhatt, Ami B.; Tweddell, James S.; Geva, Tal; Nathan, Meena; Elliott, Martin J.; Vetter, Victoria L.; Paridon, Stephen M.; Kochilas, Lazaros; Jenkins, Kathy J.; Beekman, Robert H.; Wernovsky, Gil; Towbin, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aims to update clinicians on “Hot Topics” in the management of patients with d-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) in the current surgical era. Background The arterial switch operation (ASO) has replaced atrial switch procedures for D-TGA and 90% of patients now reach adulthood. Methods The Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Council (ACPC) of the American College of Cardiology assembled a team of experts to summarize current knowledge on genetics, prenatal diagnosis, surgical timing, balloon atrial septostomy (BAS), prostaglandin therapy (PGE), intraoperative techniques, imaging, coronary obstruction, arrhythmias, sudden death, aortic dilation and regurgitation (AR), neurodevelopmental (ND) issues and lifelong care of D-TGA patients. Results In simple D-TGA, 1) familial recurrence risk is low; 2) children diagnosed prenatally have improved cognitive skills compared with those diagnosed postnatally; 3) echocardiography helps to identify risk factors; 4) routine use of BAS and PGE may not be beneficial in some cases; 5) early ASO improves outcomes and reduces costs with a low mortality. Single or intramural coronary arteries remain risk factors; 6) post-ASO arrhythmias and cardiac dysfunction should raise suspicion of coronary insufficiency; 7) coronary insufficiency and arrhythmias are rare but associated with sudden death; 8) early and late-onset ND abnormalities are common; 9) AR and aortic root dilation are well tolerated; and 10) the aging ASO patient may benefit from “exercise-prescription” rather than restriction. Conclusions Significant strides have been made in understanding risk factors for cardiac, ND and other important clinical outcomes after ASO. PMID:25082585

  7. Spectral effects of dehydration on phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckenthal, E. A.; Singer, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Six phyllosilicates were progressively dehydrated under controlled conditions in an effort to study the spectral effects of their dehydration. The spectra obtained at each level of hydration provide information that may be used in future spectroscopic observations of the planets, as well as a data set which compliments the existing body of terrestrial soil knowledge.

  8. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  9. Oxybutynin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Oxybutynin topical gel is used to treat overactive bladder (a condition in which the bladder muscles contract uncontrollably and cause frequent ... bladder even when it is not full). Oxybutynin gel is in a class of medications called antimuscarinics. ...

  10. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process. ...

  11. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process. ...

  12. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process. ...

  13. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process. ...

  14. Experiments and simulating on dehydration of antigorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, D.

    2016-12-01

    Antigorite is a key hydrous minerals in subduction zone. Dehydration of antigorite is related to many geodynamics processes, for examples, the dehydration of antigorite is thought to cause the seismicity of the lower plane located in a double seismic zone. Therefore, it is necessary to study the dehydration kinetics of antigorite. Previous studies show the results of antigorite dehydration using M XRD and FTIR. In this study, we report the new results of dehydration kinetics of antigorite by thermogravimetric(TG) analysis, and develop a new model to simulate the dehydration. The dehydration experiments using antigorite with a grain size 5-10μm were determined by non-isothermal methods with heating rate of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 K/min up to 1260K. The results show the reaction progress of dehydration varied with the heating rates. Considering the various activation energy of hydroxyl groups in different locations, we used a double-Gaussian distributed activation energy model to fit the experimental results of antigorite. In this model, we assure that two sets of parallel reactions occur sharing the same pre-exponential factor but not sharing the same distribution of activation energy. Simulated annealing algorithm is adopted in solving pre-exponential factor(κ), weight(ω), two mean activation energies(Ε1 and Ε2) couplied with two standard deviations(σ1 and σ2). Five solutions can fit well the experimental data and ln(κ) linearly changes with average activation energy. κ is fixed —10^13/s which is closed to atom vibration frequency. The correlation coefficient between experimental data and fitting result is 0.999. The first step of dehydration is distributed in a wide interval of activation energy(E1=268.1kJ/mol,σ1=29.8kJ/mol) , but the second dehydration step is confined in a narrow interval(E1=299.2kJ/mol,σ1=8.9kJ/mol) at higher activation energy. We determined that the release of aqueous fluid is 1.8×10^(-4), 4.2×10^(-4), 9.7×10^(-4), 2.2×10^(-3), 4.6

  15. Water-loss dehydration and aging.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane; Jimoh, Florence O; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    This review defines water-loss and salt-loss dehydration. For older people serum osmolality appears the most appropriate gold standard for diagnosis of water-loss dehydration, but clear signs of early dehydration have not been developed. In older adults, lower muscle mass, reduced kidney function, physical and cognitive disabilities, blunted thirst, and polypharmacy all increase dehydration risk. Cross-sectional studies suggest a water-loss dehydration prevalence of 20-30% in this population. Water-loss dehydration is associated with higher mortality, morbidity and disability in older people, but evidence is still needed that this relationship is causal. There are a variety of ways we may be able to help older people reduce their risk of dehydration by recognising that they are not drinking enough, and being helped to drink more. Strategies to increase fluid intake in residential care homes include identifying and overcoming individual and institutional barriers to drinking, such as being worried about not reaching the toilet in time, physical inability to make or to reach drinks, and reduced social drinking and drinking pleasure. Research needs are discussed, some of which will be addressed by the FP7-funded NU-AGE (New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy ageing in Europe) trial.

  16. Special Operations Research Topics 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ally government-sponsored and funded roles such as post-traumatic stress/traumatic brain injury research and treatment, family/child counseling, other...connected young adults in their teens and twenties versus the old man in the coffee shop? Which social media venues are best suited to interfacing

  17. Spotlight Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  18. Specification for glycol-type gas dehydration units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This specification covers minimum requirements for materials, design, fabrication and testing of a conventional lease glycol-type gas dehydration system utilizing triethylene glycol as the desiccant. Conventional systems are normally designed to operate at an inlet temperature between 60{degrees}F and 120{degrees}F and at or above 400 psig pressure but not to exceed pressure limited by ANSI B16.5 Class flanges. This API specification encompasses a system which includes an inlet separator, a glycol/gas contractor, gas/glycol heat exchanger, glycol reboiler, glycol surge tank, glycol circulating pump(s), filter(s), glycol/glycol heat exchanger, glycol flash separator (optional) and skid(s). While this specification does not preclude dehydrators for service on offshore platforms, it should be noted that considerable additional requirements may apply to offshore units.

  19. Dehydration Processes of Sugar Glasses and Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2006-05-01

    The dehydration processes of sugar glasses and sugar crystals were studied by using Thermogravimetry — Differential Thermal Analysis method. We used three monosaccharide sugars (fructose, galactose, and glucose) and three disaccharide sugars (sucrose, maltose and trehalose). It was found that a trehalose showed different dehydration process compared to the other sugars. The amount of mass reductions in sugar glasses is larger than that in sugar crystals. However, in the case of trehalose, the amount of mass reduction in trehalose glasses is smaller than that in trehalose crystals. It seems to be possible that this unique dehydration property of trehalose glasses maybe relate to the cell protection ability during an anhydrobiosis process.

  20. Clindamycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had asthma, eczema (sensitive skin that often becomes itchy or irritated) or allergies.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using topical clindamycin, ...

  1. Ciclopirox Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... use this medication near heat or an open flame, such as a cigarette.To use ciclopirox topical solution, follow these steps: Be sure that you have trimmed your nails properly before your first treatment. Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle ...

  2. Spinosad Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Spinosad suspension is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and ... Topical spinosad comes as a suspension (liquid) to apply to the scalp and hair. It is usually applied to the scalp and hair in one or sometimes ...

  3. Hydrated Salts: Dehydration, Dissolution, and Incongruent Melting In Terrestrial Evaporites and at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Dougherty, A.; Feldman, W.; Hogenboom, D.; Marion, G.; McCarthy, C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.

    2004-12-01

    The Opportunity rover and orbital observations of Meridiani Planum (Mars) have revealed much about the region's stratigraphy, chemistry, sedimentology, and mineralogy of what appears to be a layered lacustrine sedimentary sequence, including chemical sediments deposited by evaporative or freezing processes in a large, saline lake or sea. The roles of evaporation versus freezing are not clearly elucidated in the data, but both freezing and evaporation are likely on Mars for any paleoclimate scenario that minimizes excursions from current climate. The rock sequences reveal many interesting features reported in press accounts, NASA press releases, and in conference presentations by the MER science teams. The topic dealt with here concerns indirect sedimentologic indications of phase changes that seem to have generated negative volume changes due to dehydration, dissolution, and/or annealing. These indicators include microkarstic and polygonal structures in the laminated chemical sediments. These processes have operated on a small scale at Meridiani Planum, and serve as possible analogs for processes operative on mega scales elsewhere on Mars. Comparable processes are common in terrestrial evaporite basins and in sequences of evaporitic rocks. Fluctuations of mineral water content drive large changes in volume and pore fluid pressure, and these exert stresses that can drive extensional fracturing and faulting, folding, thrusting, and diapirism. These processes may be even more important on Mars than on Earth, because on Mars solid salts may be more abundant, more widespread, and subject to larger ranges of hydration states; the effects of these processes may be better preserved for lack of erasure by fluvial erosional processes and other degradational processes on Earth's more active surface. Specific processes and reactions proposed here can account for the sedimentologic structures observed at Meridiani Planum based on aqueous chemical phase equilibria and phase

  4. DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  5. Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

  6. DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  7. Dehydration resistance of liposomes containing trehalose glycolipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, Kendra; Goulding, Morgan; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2010-03-01

    The pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has an unusual outer membrane containing trehalose glycolipids that may contribute to its ability to survive freezing and dehydration. Based on our recent discovery that trehalose glycolipids confer dehydration resistance to supported lipid monolayers (Biophys. J. 94: 4718-4724 (2008); Langmuir 25: 5193-5198, (2009)), we hypothesized that liposomes containing synthetic trehalose glycolipids may be dehydration-resistant as well. To test this, we measured the leakage of encapsulated fluorophores and larger macromolecular cargo from such liposomes subject to freeze drying. Both leakage assays and size measurements show that the liposomes are dehydration-resistant. In addition to demonstrating a possibly technologically useful encapsulation platform, our results corroborate the view that encapsulation in a trehalose-glycolipid-rich membrane is a biophysically viable route to protection of mycobacteria from environmental stresses.

  8. Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

  9. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  10. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  11. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To can, freeze, or dehydrate. 929.11 Section 929.11... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.11 To can, freeze, or dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated...

  12. Dehydration behavior of eprosartan mesylate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Sheng, J; Venkatesh, G M; Duddu, S P; Grant, D J

    1999-10-01

    Eprosartan mesylate (SKF 108566-J; EM) is an antihypertensive agent approved for marketing in the USA. EM dihydrate was prepared by three methods, one of which included suspending the anhydrous drug in an aqueous solution of 1.0 M methanesulfonic acid to form a slurry, followed by filtration. The dehydration kinetics of EM dihydrate were derived by analyzing the fit of the isothermal thermogravimetric analytical (TGA) data to numerous kinetic models. EM dihydrate undergoes dehydration in two distinct steps, each involving the loss of 1 mol of water at 25-70 degrees C and 70-120 degrees C, respectively. Recrystallization of EM occurs at approximately 120-140 degrees C after dehydration to the anhydrous phase. This explanation is supported by variable temperature powder X-ray diffractometry. The mechanism of the dehydration reaction is complex, the dependence of the reaction rate on temperature varying as a function of the particles size. For the dihydrate of sieve fraction <125 microm, the kinetics of the first and second dehydration steps are consistent with the Avrami-Erofeev equation (A3, n = 1/3) over the temperature range studied, corresponding to three-dimensional growth of nuclei. In contrast, for the 125-180-microm and 180-250-microm sieve fractions, the kinetics are best described by the two-dimensional phase boundary reaction (R2) at a lower dehydration temperature (i.e., 28.3 degrees C), and by the Avrami-Erofeev equation (A3, n = 1/3) at a higher dehydration temperature (i.e., 93.7 degrees C). The activation energies (15-40 kcal/mol) and frequency factors of the dehydration of EM dihydrate were determined both by Arrhenius plots of the isothermal rates determined by TGA and by Kissinger plots of the nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetric data. Hot stage microscopy of single crystals of EM dihydrate showed random nucleation at the surface and dehydration with the growth of microcrystals along the needle a axis. Cerius(2) molecular modeling

  13. Comparison Between the Continuous and Intermittent Heating Methods for Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration of Apple Slices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD) can be operated in two heating modes, continuous and intermittent heating. Under continuous heating, infrared radiation intensity was kept constant while the product temperature remained constant under intermittent heating in this study. ...

  14. Heat stress and dehydration in adapting for performance: Good, bad, both, or neither?

    PubMed Central

    Akerman, Ashley Paul; Tipton, Michael; Minson, Christopher T.; Cotter, James David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Physiological systems respond acutely to stress to minimize homeostatic disturbance, and typically adapt to chronic stress to enhance tolerance to that or a related stressor. It is legitimate to ask whether dehydration is a valuable stressor in stimulating adaptation per se. While hypoxia has had long-standing interest by athletes and researchers as an ergogenic aid, heat and nutritional stressors have had little interest until the past decade. Heat and dehydration are highly interlinked in their causation and the physiological strain they induce, so their individual roles in adaptation are difficult to delineate. The effectiveness of heat acclimation as an ergogenic aid remains unclear for team sport and endurance athletes despite several recent studies on this topic. Very few studies have examined the potential ergogenic (or ergolytic) adaptations to ecologically-valid dehydration as a stressor in its own right, despite longstanding evidence of relevant fluid-regulatory adaptations from short-term hypohydration. Transient and self-limiting dehydration (e.g., as constrained by thirst), as with most forms of stress, might have a time and a place in physiological or behavioral adaptations independently or by exacerbating other stressors (esp. heat); it cannot be dismissed without the appropriate evidence. The present review did not identify such evidence. Future research should identify how the magnitude and timing of dehydration might augment or interfere with the adaptive processes in behaviorally constrained versus unconstrained humans. PMID:28349082

  15. Gunion - Nevada`s most innovative geothermal food dehydration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Taylan, G.; Stewart, M.B.; Baker, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Gunion (garlic and onion) dehydration plant, owned and operated by Integrated Ingredients, a Division of Burns Philp Food, Incorporated, uses geothermal fluids at a temperature of 306{degrees}F to dehydrate 50 to 70-thousand pounds per day of garlic and onions. The geothermal fluids are provided by Empire Farms, who has the rights for development of the resource and is the lease holder of fee land known as the Kosmos Lease. The San Emidio KGRA is located in northern Washoe County, 90 miles north-northeast of Reno, Nevada and 20 miles south of Gerlach, Nevada. Geothermal fluids exit the plant at 242{degrees}F and are piped to an injection well located 3,000 feet south-southwest of the plant. The plant location was selected not only for the geothermal resource, but also for the area`s low relative humidity. Currently, 1100-1200 gpm of geothermal fluids, at an inlet temperature of 302{degrees}F, are sufficient to provide the dryer line with ample BTU`s. Three geothermal wells drilled to depths ranging from 493 to 1817 feet produce fluids ranging in temperature from 266 to 306{degrees}F. One well can easily provide the heat required by the dryer line and will be capable of providing heat for a planned three-fold expansion of the facility. The remaining two wells are used as backup, or may be used for other applications such as soil sterilization. The fluid exiting the plant at 242{degrees}F may be cascaded and used for greenhouses and soil warming in the future. Geothermal heat is also used to dehumidify onions placed in the cold storage facility. The dehydration process takes 5-6 hours to dry the product to a 4.5% moisture content. The dried product is then milled to various sizes from powder to granules. The dehydration plant operates 24 hours/day 7 days a week. Currently 80 people are employed full-time at the plant. The dehydrated onion and garlic are used in condiments, soups, sauces and salad dressing.

  16. Plastic and dehydration instabilities of antigorite serpentinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, J.; Katayama, I.; Ohfuji, H.; Terada, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We conducted a constant displacement rate test of antigorite serpentinite by a triaxial solid medium deformation apparatus installed at Hiroshima University. Experimental conditions were P = ca. 1.0 GPa, T = 450 C to 800 C, which cover from stability to dehydration conditions of antigorite, and strain rate of digit of 10-5 /sec. Samples were cylindrical shape cored from serpentinite and their sizes were 7 mm x 7 mm and 5 mm x 5 mm in diameter by length. Faults were observed in recovered samples from all temperature conditions. Mechanical data of faulted samples showed stress drop of several 10 MPa during experiments. The followings summarize microstructural observations of the recovered samples, and propose generation processes of fault at stability and dehydration conditions. 1) Stability field (plastic instability): Antigorite grains develop a lattice preferred orientation (LPO) along a fault, which characterized by (001) cleavage face parallel to fault plane. This fact suggests the fault is generated by the following process. i) Antigorite grains on the plane applied by maximum shear stress are preferentially deformed by plastic manner, and then develop the LPO. ii) The arrangement of cleavage face gradually reduces the strength of this plane. iii) Eventually, embrittlement occurs at the critical point when the rock strength along this weak plane becomes smaller than shear stress. 2) Dehydration condition (dehydration instability): Fine grained dehydration phases less than 1 micrometer in size such as olivine and talc are detected as a thin vein along the fault. Moreover, talc and olivine, or antigorite ca. 1 - 5 micrometers in size with angular shape are observed within the fault as a fault gauge. These facts suggest the following generation process of fault. i) Dehydration reaction of antigorite begins on the plane applied by maximum shear stress and expands along this plane. ii) The dehydration gradually reduces the strength of this plane. iii) Eventually

  17. Buffering and inhibition of glycol in gas dehydration applications: An alternative to amines

    SciTech Connect

    Stefl, B.A.; Bosen, S.F.

    1997-02-01

    Corrosion in gas dehydration systems can be attributed to many factors, including chloride intrusion, acid gas absorption, and glycol degradation. Inhibition systems for glycol dehydration systems must incorporate corrosion inhibition and buffering using stable, nonscaling, and nondepleting additives. Traditional amine treatments are unstable in gas streams containing carbon dioxide. An alternative inhibitor technology was tested in three field test programs under various dehydration conditions. Traditional nitrite, molybdate, and amine inhibitors were tested in combination with the alternative technology. Uninhibited and amine inhibited control units were included. Corrosion rates and dehydration fluid chemistries were monitored. Field tests demonstrated effectiveness of the nonamine-based technology in reducing corrosion rates and maintaining alkalinity of the glycol dehydration fluid. Corrosion rates at the reboiler in systems treated with the alternative technology averaged 10 times less than the average rate in control units and had a substantially lower incidence of localized corrosion. The pH of the treated glycol stayed alkaline throughout the testing, varying within 0.85 pH units. Corresponding control units showed wide swings in pH, ranging from an acidic 4.1 to an alkaline 10.3. No operational difficulties, including foaming, inadequate drying, or excess glycol loss, were experienced in the treated dehydration units. Testing of the alternative technology in combination with traditional technologies revealed no significant benefits over the alternative technology alone. However, the alternate technology showed significant improvements in corrosion control and stability over traditional amine inhibition.

  18. Dehydration-responsive features of Atrichum undulatum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruoyang; Xiao, Lihong; Bao, Fang; Li, Xuedong; He, Yikun

    2016-09-01

    Drought is an increasingly important limitation on plant productivity worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in plants can lead to new strategies for developing drought-tolerant crops. Many moss species are able to survive desiccation-a more severe state of dehydration than drought. Research into the mechanisms and evolution of desiccation tolerance in basal land plants is of particular significance to both biology and agriculture. In this study, we conducted morphological, cytological, and physiological analyses of gametophytes of the highly desiccation-tolerant bryophyte Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv during dehydration and rehydration. Our results suggested that the mechanisms underlying the dehydration-recovery cycle in A. undulatum gametophytes include maintenance of membrane stability, cellular structure protection, prevention of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, elimination of ROS, protection against ROS-induced damage, and repair of ROS-induced damage. Our data also indicate that this dehydration-recovery cycle consists not only of the physical removal and addition of water, but also involves a highly organized series of cytological, physiological, and biochemical changes. These attributes are similar to those reported for other drought- and desiccation-tolerant plant species. Our findings provide major insights into the mechanisms of dehydration-tolerance in the moss A. undulatum.

  19. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  20. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, O. ); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. ); Cooper, L. ); Caicedo, A. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1991-08-01

    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Oxidative stress and its effects during dehydration.

    PubMed

    França, M B; Panek, A D; Eleutherio, E C A

    2007-04-01

    Water is usually thought to be required for the living state, but several organisms are capable of surviving complete dehydration (anhydrobiotes). Elucidation of the mechanisms of tolerance against dehydration may lead to development of new methods for preserving biological materials that do not normally support drying, which is of enormous practical importance in industry, in clinical medicine as well as in agriculture. One of the molecular mechanisms of damage leading to death in desiccation-sensitive cells upon drying is free-radical attack to phospholipids, DNA and proteins. This review aims to summarize the strategies used by anhydrobiotes to cope with the danger of oxygen toxicity and to present our recent results about the importance of some antioxidant defense systems in the dehydration tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a usual model in the study of stress response.

  2. Electrical precipitation solves Udang's dehydration problem

    SciTech Connect

    Aulenbacher, M.W.

    1982-06-01

    A tough crude dehydration problem was solved on the Udang a platform offshore Indonesia when Conoco opted to use electric precipitation to remove water from the field's high pour point crude. The platform's 13 wells could produce up to 40,000 bpd of crude, but the system was designed under the assumption that water cuts would increase. Design capacity was set at 50% water, to a maximum of 27,000 bpd of oil and a like amount of water. A dehydration system on a second platform is now handling 60,000 bpd of oil with 5% water.

  3. [Topical contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  4. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-05-07

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans.

  5. Thermodynamic stability considerations for isostructural dehydrates.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brendan J; Casteel, Melissa J; Samas, Brian; Krzyzaniak, Joseph F

    2012-04-01

    Nonstoichiometric channel hydrates are a class of crystalline hydrates that can incorporate a range of water levels as a function of temperature and relative humidity (RH). When a nonstoichiometric channel hydrate can dehydrate to yield a physically stable isostructural crystalline lattice, it may become challenging to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic stability relationship associated with a polymorphic system using traditional methods. This work demonstrates application of a eutectic-melting method to determine the stability relationship between a nonstoichiometric channel dehydrate and an anhydrous form. A transition temperature (122°C) between the isostructural dehydrate of the nonstoichiometric channel hydrate and the anhydrous polymorph was identified, with the nonstoichiometric channel hydrate being the thermodynamically stable anhydrous form at room temperature (RT). Solid-state storage at a range of RH conditions demonstrated that the nonstoichiometric channel hydrate is also the stable form at RT above an RH of 94%. These results demonstrate that the nonstoichiometric channel hydrate is the stable form at low temperatures, independent of its hydration state. It has been demonstrated that the eutectic-melting method is applicable to the study of thermodynamic stability relationships between anhydrous forms and dehydrated channel hydrates.

  6. Voluntary Dehydration and Alliesthesia for Water,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-13

    of the extracellular fluid are maintained in dynamic balance, and partially controlled by antidiuretic hormone and thirst (2). The drive to drink...dehydration which limits sweating, adversely affects cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions , and predisposes to heat illness. Emphasis on drinking by

  7. Thermoelastic behavior and dehydration process of cancrinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatta, G. D.; Comboni, D.; Alvaro, M.; Lotti, P.; Cámara, F.; Domeneghetti, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    The high-temperature thermoelastic behavior of a natural cancrinite has been investigated by in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The unit-cell volume variation as a function of temperature ( T) exhibits a continuous trend up to 748 K (hydrous expansion regime). The unit-cell edges expansion clearly shows an anisotropic expansion scheme ( α a < α c ). At 748 K, a dehydration process takes place, and a series of unit-cell parameter measurements at constant temperature (748 K) for a period of 12 days indicate that the dehydration process continued for the entire period of time, until the cell parameters were found to be constant. After the dehydration process is completed, the structure expands almost linearly with increasing temperature up to 823 K, where a sudden broadening of the diffraction peaks, likely due to the impending decomposition, did not allow the collection of further data points. Even with a very limited temperature range for the anhydrous regime, we observed that the behavior of the two (i.e., hydrous and anhydrous) high-temperature structures is similar in terms of (1) volume thermal expansion coefficient and (2) thermoelastic anisotropy. The structure refinements based on the data collected at 303, 478 and 748 K (after the dehydration), respectively, showed a change in the mechanism of tilting of the quasi-rigid (Si,Al)O4 tetrahedra, following the loss of H2O molecules, ascribable to the high-temperature Na+ coordination environment within the cages.

  8. Dehydration in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Jensen, Eric; Podolske, James; Selkirk, Henry; Anderson, Bruce; Avery, Melody; Diskin. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Recent work has shown that limited amounts of tropospheric air can penetrate as much as 1 km into the middleworld stratosphere during the arctic winter. This, coupled with temperatures that are cold enough to produce saturation mixing ratios of less than 5 ppmv at the tropopause, results in stratospheric cloud formation and upper tropospheric dehydration. Even though these "cold outbreaks" occupy only a small portion of the area in the arctic (1-2%), their importance is magnified by an order of magnitude because of the air flow through them. This is reinforced by evidence of progressive drying through the winter measured during SOLVE-1. The significance of this process lies in its effect on the upper tropospheric water content of the middle and high latitude tropopause region, which plays an important role in regulating the earth's radiative balance. There appears to be significant year-to-year variability in the incidence of the cold outbreaks. This work has two parts. First, we describe case studies of dehydration taken from the SOLVE and SOLVE2 aircraft sampling missions during the Arctic winters of 2000 and 2003 respectively. Trajectory based microphysical modeling is employed to examine the sensitivity of the dehydration to microphysical parameters and the nature of sub-grid scale temperature fluctuations. We then examine the year-to-year variations in potential dehydration using a trajectory climatology.

  9. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    PubMed Central

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  10. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  11. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  12. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  13. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  14. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  15. ADVANCED DEHYDRATOR DESIGN SAVES GAS AND REDUCES HAP EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glycol dehydrators remove water from gas pipe lines. An advanced dehydrator by Engineered Concepts, Farmington, NM, saves a significant amount of gas, while reducing hazardous air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and CO2 air pollutants

  16. Dehydration Comes on Fast and Can Be Fatal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Holiday and Seasonal Dehydration comes on fast and can be fatal During the hot summer months,the ... cool and keeping hydrated. “Dehydration is verydangerous. It can lead to an emergency visit, and it can ...

  17. Dehydration of 1-octadecanol over H-BEA: A combined experimental and computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wenji; Liu, Yuanshuai; Barath, Eszter; Wang, Lucy; Zhao, Chen; Mei, Donghai; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-02-05

    Liquid phase dehydration of 1-octdecanol, which is intermediately formed during the hydrodeoxygenation of microalgae oil, has been explored in a combined experimental and computational study. The alkyl chain of C18 alcohol interacts with acid sites during diffusion inside the zeolite pores, resulting in an inefficient utilization of the Brønsted acid sites for samples with high acid site concentrations. The parallel intra- and inter- molecular dehydration pathways having different activation energies pass through alternative reaction intermediates. Formation of surface-bound alkoxide species is the rate-limiting step during intramolecular dehydration, whereas intermolecular dehydration proceeds via a bulky dimer intermediate. Octadecene is the primary dehydration product over H-BEA at 533 K. Despite of the main contribution of Brønsted acid sites towards both dehydration pathways, Lewis acid sites are also active in the formation of dioctadecyl ether. The intramolecular dehydration to octadecene and cleavage of the intermediately formed ether, however, require strong BAS. L. Wang, D. Mei and J. A. Lercher, acknowledge the partial support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  18. The diagnostic accuracy of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis in diagnosing dehydration after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Mohannad W; Myint, Phyo Kway; Doherty, Danielle; Wilson, Alexander Hugh; Potter, John F; Hooper, Lee

    2013-07-10

    Non-invasive methods for detecting water-loss dehydration following acute stroke would be clinically useful. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) against reference standards serum osmolality and osmolarity. Patients admitted to an acute stroke unit were recruited. Blood samples for electrolytes and osmolality were taken within 20 minutes of MF-BIA. Total body water (TBW%), intracellular (ICW%) and extracellular water (ECW%), as percentages of total body weight, were calculated by MF-BIA equipment and from impedance measures using published equations for older people. These were compared to hydration status (based on serum osmolality and calculated osmolarity). The most promising Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were plotted. 27 stroke patients were recruited (mean age 71.3, SD10.7). Only a TBW% cut-off at 46% was consistent with current dehydration (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg) and TBW% at 47% impending dehydration (calculated osmolarity ≥295-300 mOsm/L) with sensitivity and specificity both >60%. Even here diagnostic accuracy of MF-BIA was poor, a third of those with dehydration were wrongly classified as hydrated and a third classified as dehydrated were well hydrated. Secondary analyses assessing diagnostic accuracy of TBW% for men and women separately, and using TBW as a percentage of lean body mass showed some promise, but did not provide diagnostically accurate measures across the population. MF-BIA appears ineffective at diagnosing water-loss dehydration after stroke and cannot be recommended as a test for dehydration, but separating assessment by sex, and using TBW as a percentage of lean body weight may warrant further investigation.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Natural Gas Transmission and Storage... dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or... connecting the process vent to a process natural gas line. (2) The owner or operator shall demonstrate,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Natural Gas Transmission and Storage... dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or... connecting the process vent to a process natural gas line. (2) The owner or operator shall demonstrate,...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Natural Gas Transmission and Storage... dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or... connecting the process vent to a process natural gas line. (2) The owner or operator shall demonstrate,...

  2. Leveraging the micellar effect: gold-catalyzed dehydrative cyclizations in water at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Minkler, Stefan R K; Isley, Nicholas A; Lippincott, Daniel J; Krause, Norbert; Lipshutz, Bruce H

    2014-02-07

    The first examples of gold-catalyzed cyclizations of diols and triols to the corresponding hetero- or spirocycles in an aqueous medium are presented. These reactions take place within nanomicelles, where the hydrophobic effect is operating, thereby driving the dehydrations, notwithstanding the surrounding water. By the addition of simple salts such as sodium chloride, reaction times and catalyst loadings can be significantly decreased.

  3. The effect of pre-operative topical anaesthetic cream on the ablative width and coagulative depth of ablative fractional resurfacing laser.

    PubMed

    Punyaratabandhu, Preawphan; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Sitthinamsuwan, Panitta; Phothong, Weeranut; Eimpunth, Sasima; Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2017-02-01

    Topical anaesthetic cream (TAC) is commonly used as a pre-treatment of ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) laser. Most of anaesthetic cream contains distilled water as major component. Therefore, pre-operative TAC may interfere the photothermal reaction in the skin treated with fractional carbon-dioxide (FCO2) laser and fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (FEr:YAG) laser. The objective of the study was to compare the ablative width (AW) and coagulative depth (CD) of AFR laser with and without pre-treatment with TAC. Four Thai females who underwent abdominoplasty were included in the study. The excised skin of each subject was divided into four areas. TAC (eutectic mixture of local anaesthesia; EMLA) with 1-h occlusion was applied only on the first and second areas. The first and third areas were treated with FCO2 at 15 mj and 5% density. The second and fourth areas were treated with FEr:YAG at 28 J/cm(2) and 5% density. Six biopsied specimens were obtained from each area. A total of 96 specimens (24 specimens from each area) were collected from four patients and examined randomly by two dermatopathologists. The ablative width and coagulative depth from each specimen were determined. In FCO2-treated specimens, the mean AW of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 174.86 ± 24.57 and 188.52 ± 41.32 μm. The mean CD of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 594.96 ± 111.72 and 520.03 ± 147.40 μm. There were no significant differences in AW and CD between both groups (p = 0.53 and p = 0.15). In FEr:YAG-treated specimens, the mean AW of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 381.11 ± 48.02 and 423.65 ± 60.16 μm. The mean CD of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 86.03 ± 29.44 and 71.59 ± 18.99 μm. There were no significant differences in AW and CD between both groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.24). The pre

  4. Vasopressin Mediates the Renal Damage Induced by Limited Fructose Rehydration in Recurrently Dehydrated Rats.

    PubMed

    García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Tapia, Edilia; Blas-Marron, Mónica G; Gonzaga, Guillermo; Silverio, Octaviano; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Osorio, Horacio; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Zazueta, Cecilia; Aparicio-Trejo, Omar Emiliano; Reyes-García, Juan G; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Soto, Virgilia; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Johnson, Richard J; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent dehydration and heat stress cause chronic kidney damage in experimental animals. The injury is exacerbated by rehydration with fructose-containing beverages. Fructose may amplify dehydration-induced injury by directly stimulating vasopressin release and also by acting as a substrate for the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway, as both of these systems are active during dehydration. The role of vasopressin in heat stress associated injury has not to date been explored. Here we show that the amplification of renal damage mediated by fructose in thermal dehydration is mediated by vasopressin. Fructose rehydration markedly enhanced vasopressin (copeptin) levels and activation of the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the kidney. Moreover, the amplification of the renal functional changes (decreased creatinine clearance and tubular injury with systemic inflammation, renal oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction) were prevented by the blockade of V1a and V2 vasopressin receptors with conivaptan. On the other hand, there are also other operative mechanisms when water is used as rehydration fluid that produce milder renal damage that is not fully corrected by vasopressin blockade. Therefore, we clearly showed evidence of the cross-talk between fructose, even at small doses, and vasopressin that interact to amplify the renal damage induced by dehydration. These data may be relevant for heat stress nephropathy as well as for other renal pathologies due to the current generalized consumption of fructose and deficient hydration habits.

  5. Vasopressin Mediates the Renal Damage Induced by Limited Fructose Rehydration in Recurrently Dehydrated Rats

    PubMed Central

    García-Arroyo, Fernando E.; Tapia, Edilia; Blas-Marron, Mónica G; Gonzaga, Guillermo; Silverio, Octaviano; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Osorio, Horacio; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S.; Zazueta, Cecilia; Aparicio-Trejo, Omar Emiliano; Reyes-García, Juan G.; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Soto, Virgilia; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Johnson, Richard J.; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent dehydration and heat stress cause chronic kidney damage in experimental animals. The injury is exacerbated by rehydration with fructose-containing beverages. Fructose may amplify dehydration-induced injury by directly stimulating vasopressin release and also by acting as a substrate for the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway, as both of these systems are active during dehydration. The role of vasopressin in heat stress associated injury has not to date been explored. Here we show that the amplification of renal damage mediated by fructose in thermal dehydration is mediated by vasopressin. Fructose rehydration markedly enhanced vasopressin (copeptin) levels and activation of the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the kidney. Moreover, the amplification of the renal functional changes (decreased creatinine clearance and tubular injury with systemic inflammation, renal oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction) were prevented by the blockade of V1a and V2 vasopressin receptors with conivaptan. On the other hand, there are also other operative mechanisms when water is used as rehydration fluid that produce milder renal damage that is not fully corrected by vasopressin blockade. Therefore, we clearly showed evidence of the cross-talk between fructose, even at small doses, and vasopressin that interact to amplify the renal damage induced by dehydration. These data may be relevant for heat stress nephropathy as well as for other renal pathologies due to the current generalized consumption of fructose and deficient hydration habits.

  6. Bronsted Acid Catalyzed Dehydration of Neat Supercritical tert-Butanol in a Capillary Micro-Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-02-01

    Dehydration of supercritical t-butanol to yield 2-methyl-propene was observed to occur rapidly and in high yield at elevated pressures without addition of a catalyst. A capillary micro-reactor was used to carry out the reaction at pressures up to 3.1 kbar. The products were characterized in-situ using FTIR, GC-MS and NMR. The dehydration reaction is proposed to occur by a self-catalyzed Bronsted acid mechanism. An addition driving force for the reaction was the phase separation of the 2-methyl-propene product. Self-catalyzed dehydration of t-butanol is a limiting factor for operations in supercritical t-butanol, but it implies the t-butanol may be employed as a self-neutralizing catalyst under these conditions.

  7. Food dehydration by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Bolin, H R; Salunkhe, D K

    1982-01-01

    Solar driers that are currently being investigated for drying of agricultural products can be divided into two major divisions, depending upon how they transfer the incident solar energy to the product to be dried. These two divisions are direct and indirect drying, with some work also being done on combination drying procedures. In direct solar driers, the product to be dried is usually either inside a tent, greenhouse, or a glass-topped box, where the product to be dried is heated by the direct rays from the sun and the moist air is removed by ambient wind movement. These dryers do accelerate moisture loss rate and the product is usually safe from inclement weather. These dryers usually do not require fans for forced air circulation. With indirect drying, the opposite is true, where most require powered fans for forced air circulation. With this type of dryer, both flatplate and inflated tube solar heat absorbers are used, with each offering certain advantages. Also, combination dryers have been built that utilize both direct and indirect principles. Product evaluation of solar dried foods indicate that in most cases the physical properties, flavor, and vitamin A and C retention were as good as, or better than, conventional dried foods. The economics of the solar systems indicate that most drying procedures are economically feasible for use in small-scale operations only, with the exception of grain drying.

  8. Accuracy of Inferior Vena Cava Ultrasound for Predicting Dehydration in Children with Acute Diarrhea in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Payal; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Nasrin, Sabiha; Guy, Allysia; Rege, Soham; Noble, Vicki E.; Alam, Nur H.; Levine, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although dehydration from diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five, existing methods of assessing dehydration status in children have limited accuracy. Objective To assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound measurement of the aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration in children. Methods A prospective cohort study of children under five years with acute diarrhea was conducted in the rehydration unit of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Ultrasound measurements of aorta-to-IVC ratio and dehydrated weight were obtained on patient arrival. Percent weight change was monitored during rehydration to classify children as having “some dehydration” with weight change 3–9% or “severe dehydration” with weight change > 9%. Logistic regression analysis and Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the accuracy of aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration severity. Results 850 children were enrolled, of which 771 were included in the final analysis. Aorta to IVC ratio was a significant predictor of the percent dehydration in children with acute diarrhea, with each 1-point increase in the aorta to IVC ratio predicting a 1.1% increase in the percent dehydration of the child. However, the area under the ROC curve (0.60), sensitivity (67%), and specificity (49%), for predicting severe dehydration were all poor. Conclusions Point-of-care ultrasound of the aorta-to-IVC ratio was statistically associated with volume status, but was not accurate enough to be used as an independent screening tool for dehydration in children under five years presenting with acute diarrhea in a resource-limited setting. PMID:26766306

  9. Dehydration of isopropanol by pervaporation using aromatic polyetherimide membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.Y.M.; Feng, X. )

    1993-08-01

    Aromatic polyetherimide membranes were prepared by the phase inversion method and tested for the pervaporation separation of water from isopropanol with emphasis on the breaking of azcotropic composition and the dehydration of high concentrations of isopropanol. It was found that the membrane selectivity was enhanced by partial evaporation of the solvent in the cast polymer films prior to the gelation step during membrane formation. The membrane performance was shown to be dependent on the feed concentration and the operating temperature. At a feed temperature of 25[degree]C and a permeate pressure of 133 Pa, separation factors of 173 and 384 were achieved for the dehydration of isopropanol solutions at 0.68 (azeotropic composition) and 0.96 mole fractions isopropanol, respectively, with reasonably high permeation rates. The utility of the membranes for the proposed separation was demonstrated; however, these membranes were not prepared under optimized conditions and thus a continuous study is required to rationalize the effects of membrane preparation parameters on membrane performance. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Pulsed ultrasound assisted dehydration of waste oil.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Li, Rui; Lu, Xiaoping

    2015-09-01

    A method to aid the separation of the oil phase from waste oil emulsion of refineries had been developed by using a pulsed ultrasonic irradiation technology. Compared with conventional continuous ultrasonic irradiation, it is found that pulsed ultrasonic irradiation is much better to make water drop coalescence and hence dehydration of waste oil. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation parameters on waste oil dehydration are further discussed. The orthogonal experiment is also designed to investigate the degrees of influence of ultrasonic parameters and the optimal technological conditions. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the water content of waste oil is decreased from 65% to 8%, which thereby satisfies the requirements of refineries on the water content of waste oil after treatment (<10%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dehydration, Hyperthermia, and Athletes: Science and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To present the recent research that underscores the value of preventing both dehydration and hyperthermia. Such efforts will improve the athlete's capacity to perform physical activity and reduce the risk of heat-related problems. Data Sources: Data were drawn from an extensive review of the scientific literature over the past 50 years with an emphasis on recent research (> 1990) that focuses on the physiological and performance benefits of fluid replacement. Data Synthesis: Even low levels of dehydration (eg, less than a 2% loss of body weight) impair cardiovascular and thermoregulatory response and reduce the capacity for exercise. Heat exposure also reduces the athlete's ability to train and compete, an effect that can be independent of hydration status. Even if athletes are well hydrated, hot weather alone will reduce their capacity to exercise. Optimal performance is possible only when dehydration and hyperthermia are minimized by ingesting ample volumes of fluid during exercise and by taking common-sense precautions in keeping cool. Recent research has demonstrated that consuming fluid in volumes approximating sweat loss maintains important physiological functions and significantly improves exercise performance, even during exercise lasting only 1 hour. Carbohydrate ingestion also improves exercise performance, an effect that is independent of, and additive to, preventing dehydration. Conclusion/Application: Athletes should follow an aggressive fluid replacement and temperature regulation regimen. Successful implementation of this regimen requires that athletic trainers, coaches, athletes, and support personnel are made aware of the benefits of adequate fluid replacement, that appropriate fluid replacement strategies are developed and implemented, that athletes have the opportunity to train themselves to ingest larger volumes of fluid more frequently, and that other practical steps are taken to keep athletes cool during both training and

  12. Treatment of Dredged Sludge By Mechanical Dehydration,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the...conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water...turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers

  13. Dehydration-induced drinking in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The human tendency to experience a delay in rehydration (involuntary dehydration) after fluid loss is considered. The two primary factors contributing to involuntary dehydration are probably upright posture, and extracellular fluid and electrolyte loss by sweating from exercise and heat exposure. First, as the plasma sodium and osmotic concentrations remain virtually unchanged for supine to upright postural changes, the major stimuli for drinking appear to be associated with the hypovolemia and increase in the renin-angiotension system. Second, voluntary drinking during the heat experiments was 146% greater than in cool experiments; drinking increased by 109% with prior dehydration as opposed to normal hydration conditions; and drinking was increased by 41% after exercise as compared with the resting condition. Finally, it is concluded that the rate of sweating and the rate of voluntary fluid intake are highly correlated, and that the dispogenic factors of plasma volume, osmolality, and plasma renin activity are unrelated to sweat rate, but are likely to induce drinking in humans.

  14. Solar energy food dehydration system: Concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    The research activities to be carried out to form the body of this work were planned, first, to increase the general knowledge in the areas of solar energy application and, secondly, to provide sufficient data for the development of a new solar energy powered food dehydrating system. The research work does not aim merely at pursuing the study and development of a new component or a new type of material to be used in the solar industry. But the final and main part of this research is devoted to the development and design of a solar energy system uncharted before the purpose of dehydrating various agricultural products. This proposed solar powered system development is thereby a contribution of technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. It is one of the viable and effective solutions to solving the world's food and energy shortage problem, especially in the less developed regions of the world. The body of this work, thus is divided into three major parts as follows: (1) The search for a thorough understanding of the origin and fundamental characteristics of solar energy. (2) Past and present applications of solar energy. (3) The development and design of a new solar energy powered system for the dehydration of food crops.

  15. Fasting headache, weight loss, and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Mosek, A; Korczyn, A D

    1999-03-01

    Recently, we showed that fasting is a strong headache precipitator unrelated to coffee, tea, or smoking withdrawal or to oversleeping. In the current study, we evaluated the role of dehydration as a possible precipitator of fasting headache. The effects of a 25-hour fast of the Jewish Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) were studied in women who participated in our previous Yom Kippur study. We asked the subjects to weigh themselves at the beginning and at the end of the Yom Kippur fast, assuming that the weight loss would largely reflect dehydration. In all but 1 of the 56 participants, the fast resulted in weight loss but only 28 (50%) reported headache. The average weight loss was 1.4 +/- 0.8 kg in those who developed headache and 1.2 +/- 0.5 kg in those who did not. This small difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that dehydration, as reflected by acute weight loss, is an unlikely cause of headache during a single day of fasting. The mechanism of fasting headache remains unclear.

  16. May eclogite dehydration cause slab fracturation ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loury, Chloé; Lanari, Pierre; Rolland, Yann; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

    2015-04-01

    Petrological and geophysical evidences strongly indicate that fluids releases play a fundamental role in subduction zones as in subduction-related seismicity and arc magmatism. It is thus important to assess quantitatively their origin and to try to quantify the amount of such fluids. In HP metamorphism, it is well known that pressure-dependent dehydration reactions occur during the prograde path. Many geophysical models show that the variations in slab physical properties along depth could be linked to these fluid occurrences. However it remains tricky to test such models on natural sample, as it is difficult to assess or model the water content evolution in HP metamorphic rocks. This difficulty is bound to the fact that these rocks are generally heterogeneous, with zoned minerals and preservation of different paragenesis reflecting changing P-T conditions. To decipher the P-T-X(H2O) path of such heterogeneous rocks the concept of local effective bulk (LEB) composition is essential. Here we show how standardized X-ray maps can be used to constrain the scale of the equilibration volume of a garnet porphyroblast and to measure its composition. The composition of this equilibrium volume may be seen as the proportion of the rock likely to react at a given time to reach a thermodynamic equilibrium with the growing garnet. The studied sample is an eclogite coming from the carboniferous South-Tianshan suture (Central Asia) (Loury et al. in press). Compositional maps of a garnet and its surrounding matrix were obtained from standardized X-ray maps processed with the program XMapTools (Lanari et al, 2014). The initial equilibration volume was modeled using LEB compositions combined together with Gibbs free energy minimization. P-T sections were calculated for the next stages of garnet growth taking into account the fractionation of the composition at each stage of garnet growth. The modeled P-T-X(H2O) path indicates that the rock progressively dehydrates during the

  17. Comparison of topically applied flurbiprofen or bromfenac ophthalmic solution on post-operative ocular hypertension in canine patients following cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jennifer; English, Robert; Nadelstein, Brad; Weigt, Anne; Berdoulay, Andrew; Binder, Dan; Ngan, Esther

    2017-03-01

    To compare the prevalence and kinetics of ocular hypertension after routine cataract extraction when using a predominately COX-2 inhibitor (bromfenac) versus a predominately COX-1 inhibitor (flurbiprofen) in combination with a topical corticosteroid. Patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral cataract surgery were randomly assigned to receive flurbiprofen or bromfenac at the day of surgery and continued for 6 weeks postoperatively, along with topical neo poly dexamethasone. No systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications were administered before or after surgery. Intraocular pressure was monitored pre and postoperatively. When an IOP of >25 mmHg was detected, therapeutic intervention was performed. Eyes in both treatment groups showed a similar IOP profile with the highest mean IOP occurring two hours postsurgery and slowly declining during the next 6 weeks. However, eyes receiving bromfenac had a higher mean IOP at 2 h post-op (22.1 mmHg) than eyes receiving flurbiprofen (18.8 mmHg) and a slower decrease in IOP in the weeks after surgery. Over the course of the study, a higher percentage of eyes receiving bromfenac had therapy discontinued over concerns of elevated IOP compared to eyes receiving flurbiprofen (bromfenac 23.1% and flurbiprofen 9.8%). On average, the risk of having elevated intraocular pressure with bromfenac is 1.04 times higher than with flurbiprofen. Elevated postoperative IOP was observed in both treatment groups; however, bromfenac-treated eyes were more likely to require intervention for elevated IOP. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Buffering and inhibition of glycol in gas dehydration applications: An alternative to amines

    SciTech Connect

    Stefl, B.A.; Bosen, S.F.

    1995-12-01

    Corrosion in gas dehydration systems can be attributed to many factors, including chloride intrusion, acid gas absorption, and glycol degradation. Inhibition systems for glycol dehydration systems must incorporate both corrosion inhibition and buffering, utilizing stable, non-scaling, non-depleting additives. Traditional amine treatments are unstable in CO{sub 2} containing gas streams; traditional inorganic salt glycol inhibitors are unstable and cause scaling in the presence of intruded mineral salts. An alternative inhibitor technology was tested in three field test programs, under various dehydration conditions. Traditional nitrite, molybdate, and amine inhibitors were tested in combination with the alternative technology; uninhibited and amine inhibited control units were included in the study. Corrosion rates and dehydration fluid chemistries were monitored. The field tests demonstrated the effectiveness of the non-amine-based alternative technology in reducing corrosion rates and maintaining the alkalinity of the glycol dehydration fluid. Corrosion rates at the reboiler in systems treated with the alternative technology averaged ten times less than the average rate in the control units, and had a substantially lower incidence of localized corrosion. The pH of the treated glycol stayed alkaline throughout the testing, varying within 0.85 pH units; whereas corresponding control units showed wide swings in pH, ranging from an acidic 4.1 to an alkaline 10.3. No operational difficulties, including foaming, inadequate drying, or excess glycol loss, were experienced in the treated dehydration units. Testing of the alternative technology in combination with more traditional technologies revealed no significant benefits over the alternative technology alone; however, the alternate technology showed significant improvements in both corrosion control and stability over traditional amine inhibition.

  19. Dehydration of football referees during a match

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, A I; Fernandez, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study hydration status in referees (main) and assistant referees (linesmen) during official football matches. Methods: Twelve male football referees were evaluated; all were volunteers. Before and after each match, the referee and one of the assistants were weighed without clothes and a blood sample was taken. Total water loss was determined for each subject from the change in body weight. The main haematological variables were analysed in the blood samples. Total plasma protein concentration and osmolarity were also determined. Variation in plasma volume was determined from changes in packed cell volume and a combination of changes in packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentrations. Results: During a match, total body water loss was 1.60 (0.13) litres, equivalent to 2.05 (0.18)% of body weight. Body weight was reduced by 1.55 (0.12)%, showing that water ingestion during the interval replaces only 24.4% of the body fluids lost during the match. The assistants lost 0.79 (0.19) litre of water, equivalent to 1.05 (0.25)% of body weight. The referees showed a significant decrease in plasma volume of 4.99 (1.33)%. The assistants showed a non-significant increase in plasma volume. The reduction in plasma volume observed in the referees correlated significantly with total body water loss (r = 0.9623). From these data, it is possible to predict that a dehydration of 1% reflects a reduction in plasma volume of nearly 2.5%. Conclusions: Referees are moderately dehydrated after a football match (2%), whereas assistants show a non-significant dehydration of 1% of their body weight. PMID:14665588

  20. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  1. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry; Avens, Larry R.; Trujillo, Eddie A.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  2. Intrastab Earthquakes: Dehydration of the Cascadia Slab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, L.A.; Creager, K.C.; Crosson, R.S.; Brocher, T.M.; Trehu, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We simultaneously invert travel times of refracted and wide-angle reflected waves for three-dimensional compressional-wave velocity structure, earthquake locations, and reflector geometry in northwest Washington state. The reflector, interpreted to be the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, separates intrastab earthquakes into two groups, permitting a new understanding of the origins of intrastab earthquakes in Cascadia. Earthquakes up-dip of the Moho's 45-kilometer depth contour occur below the reflector, in the subducted oceanic mantle, consistent with serpentinite dehydration; earthquakes located down-dip occur primarily within the subducted crust, consistent with the basalt-to-eclogite transformation.

  3. Dehydration anorexia is attenuated in oxytocin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Karam, Joseph; Phillips, Donnesha; Li, Xia; Amico, Janet A

    2005-06-01

    Evidence in rats suggests that central oxytocin (OT) signaling pathways contribute to suppression of food intake during dehydration (i.e., dehydration anorexia). The present study examined water deprivation-induced dehydration anorexia in wild-type and OT -/- mice. Mice were deprived of food alone (fasted, euhydrated) or were deprived of both food and water (fasted, dehydrated) for 18 h overnight. Fasted wild-type mice consumed significantly less chow during a 60-min refeeding period when dehydrated compared with their intake when euhydrated. Conversely, fasting-induced food intake was slightly but not significantly suppressed by dehydration in OT -/- mice, evidence for attenuated dehydration anorexia. In a separate experiment, mice were deprived of water (but not food) overnight for 18 h; then they were anesthetized and perfused with fixative for immunocytochemical analysis of central Fos expression. Fos was elevated similarly in osmo- and volume-sensitive regions of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus in wild-type and OT -/- mice after water deprivation. OT-positive neurons expressed Fos in dehydrated wild-type mice, and vasopressin-positive neurons were activated to a similar extent in wild-type and OT -/- mice. Conversely, significantly fewer neurons within the hindbrain dorsal vagal complex were activated in OT -/- mice after water deprivation compared with activation in wild-type mice. These findings support the view that OT-containing projections from the hypothalamus to the hindbrain are necessary for the full expression of compensatory behavioral and physiological responses to dehydration.

  4. Effects of Dehydration on Fish Muscles at Chilled Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Hidemasa; Seto, Fuminori; Nishimoto, Motomi; Nishimoto, Junichi

    Recently,new method of removing water from fish fillet at low temperature using dehydration sheet have been reported. The present study is concerned with the factors to affect the quality during dehydration of horse mackerel muscle at low temperature. The rate of dehydration at -3 °C was about two times faster than that at 0 °C. The rate of denaturation of fish muscle protein was kept less than about 10 % (ATPase activity) of the undenaturated initial values after removing free water content. Present results suggest the practical possibility of the dehydration at -3 °C for keeping quality of fish flesh.

  5. Dehydration-mediated cluster formation of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-06-01

    Drying procedure is a powerful method to modulate the bottom-up assembly of basic building component. The initially weak attraction between the components screened in a solution strengthens as the solvent evaporates, organizing the components into structures. Drying is process-dependent, irreversible, and nonequilibrated, thus the mechanism and the dynamics are influenced by many factors. Therefore, the interaction of the solvent and the elements during the drying procedure as well as the resulting pattern formations are strongly related. Nonetheless still many things are open in questions in terms of their dynamics. In this study, nanoscale dehydration procedure is experimentally investigated using a nanoparticle (NP) model system. The role of water is verified in a single NP scale and the patterns of collective NP clusters are determined. Stepwise drying procedures are proposed based on the location from which water is removed. Effective water exodus from a unit NP surface enhances the attractive interaction in nanoscale and induces heterogeneous distribution in microscale. This study provides fundamental proof of systematic relation between the dehydration process and the resultant cluster patterns in hierarchical multiscales.

  6. Dehydration-mediated cluster formation of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sungsook; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Drying procedure is a powerful method to modulate the bottom-up assembly of basic building component. The initially weak attraction between the components screened in a solution strengthens as the solvent evaporates, organizing the components into structures. Drying is process-dependent, irreversible, and nonequilibrated, thus the mechanism and the dynamics are influenced by many factors. Therefore, the interaction of the solvent and the elements during the drying procedure as well as the resulting pattern formations are strongly related. Nonetheless still many things are open in questions in terms of their dynamics. In this study, nanoscale dehydration procedure is experimentally investigated using a nanoparticle (NP) model system. The role of water is verified in a single NP scale and the patterns of collective NP clusters are determined. Stepwise drying procedures are proposed based on the location from which water is removed. Effective water exodus from a unit NP surface enhances the attractive interaction in nanoscale and induces heterogeneous distribution in microscale. This study provides fundamental proof of systematic relation between the dehydration process and the resultant cluster patterns in hierarchical multiscales. PMID:26077841

  7. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    PubMed

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration].

    PubMed

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryoprotective dehydration is widespread in Arctic springtails.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Holmstrup, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) is a cold tolerance strategy employed by small invertebrates that readily lose water by evaporation when subjected to sub-zero temperatures in the presence of ice. Until now, relatively few species have been investigated using methods by which CPD can be shown. In the present study we investigated the cold tolerance strategy of seven soil arthropod species from the high Arctic Spitzbergen, and compared water content and water loss, body fluid melting points (MP) and survival under cold and desiccating conditions. We tested the hypothesis that CPD is a commonly occurring cold hardiness strategy among soil arthropods. We found that four springtail species (Hypogastrura viatica, Folsomia quadrioculata, Oligaphorura groenlandica and Megaphorura arctica; Collembola) went through severe dehydration and MP equilibration with ambient temperature, and thus overwinter by employing CPD, whereas a beetle (Atheta graminicola) and one of the springtails (Isotoma anglicana) were typical freeze avoiding species over-wintering by supercooling. Desiccation tolerance of the red velvet mite (Neomolgus littoralis) was also investigated; very low water loss rates of this species indicated that it does not survive winter by use of CPD. All in all, the results of the present study confirm the hypothesis that CPD is an effective over-wintering strategy which is widespread within soil arthropods.

  10. Dehydration-driven topotaxy in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Tommasi, Andréa; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2014-05-01

    Mineral replacement reactions play a fundamental role in the chemistry and the strength of the lithosphere. When externally or internally derived fluids are present, interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation is the driving mechanism for such reactions [1]. One of the microstructural features of this process is a 3D arrangement of crystallographic axes across internal interfaces (topotaxy) between reactant and product phases. Dehydration reactions are a special case of mineral replacement reaction that generates a transient fluid-filled porosity. Among others, the dehydration serpentinite is of special relevance in subduction zones because of the amount of fluids involved (potentially up to 13 wt.%). Two topotatic relationships between olivine and antigorite (the serpentine mineral stable at high temperature and pressure) have been reported in partially hydrated mantle wedge xenoliths [2]. Therefore, if precursor antigorite serpentine has a strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) its dehydration might result in prograde peridotite with a strong inherited CPO. However for predicting the importance of topotactic reactions for seismic anisotropy of subduction zones we also need to consider the crystallization orthopyroxene + chlorite in the prograde reaction and, more importantly, the fact that this dehydration reaction produces a transient porosity of ca. 20 % vol. that results in local fluctuations of strain during compaction and fluid migration. We address this issue by a microstructural comparison between the CPO developed in olivine, orthopyroxene and chlorite during high-pressure antigorite dehydration in piston cylinder experiments (at 750ºC and 20 kbar and 1000ºC and 30 kbar, 168 h) and that recorded in natural samples (Cerro del Almirez, Betic Cordillera, Spain). Experimentally developed CPOs are strong. Prograde minerals show a significant inheritance of the former antigorite foliation. Topotactic relations are dominated by (001)atg//(100)ol

  11. Mechanistic insights into aqueous phase propanol dehydration in H-ZSM-5 zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-10-06

    Aqueous phase dehydration of 1-propanol over H-ZSM-5 zeolite was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The water molecules in the zeolite pores prefer to aggregate via the hydrogen bonding network and be protonated at the Brønsted acidic sites (BAS). Two typical configurations, i.e., dispersed and clustered, of water molecules were identified by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of the mimicking aqueous phase H-ZSM-5 zeolite unit cell with 20 water molecules per unit cell. DFT calculated Gibbs free energies suggest that the dimeric propanol-propanol, the propanol-water complex, and the trimeric propanol-propanol-water are formed at high propanol concentrations, which provide a kinetically feasible dehydration reaction channel of 1-propanol to propene. However, calculation results also indicate that the propanol dehydration via the unimolecular mechanism becomes kinetically discouraged due to the enhanced stability of the protonated dimeric propanol and the protonated water cluster acting as the BAS site for alcohol dehydration reaction. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  12. Site Development, Operations, and Closure Plan Topical Report 5 An Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin. Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, Robert; Payne, William; Kirksey, Jim

    2015-06-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has partnered with Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) and Schlumberger Carbon Services to conduct a large-volume, saline reservoir storage project at ADM’s agricultural products processing complex in Decatur, Illinois. The Development Phase project, named the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) involves the injection of 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep saline formation of the Illinois Basin over a three-year period. This report focuses on objectives, execution, and lessons learned/unanticipated results from the site development (relating specifically to surface equipment), operations, and the site closure plan.

  13. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  14. Evaluation of exhaust emissions from a Bi-fueled vehicle operating on liquid and gaseous fuels. Topical report, June-July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1995-12-01

    Exhaust emissions were characterized from a bi-fueled vehicle operating on compressed natural gas and two gasolines over a heavy acceleration/high speed driving cycle and during cold temperature operation. The test fuels included compressed natural gas (CNG) meeting California Air Resources Board emissions certification specifications, industry average gasoline formulated to the specifications of Reference Fuel A (RF-A) used in the CRC/Auto Oil program, and Federal reformulated gasoline (RFG) purchased at a commercial service station in metropolitan Houston. Exhaust emissions were evaluated over the light-duty chassis dynamometer portion of the Federal Test Procedure at 75 deg F and at 20 deg F, and the REP05 - a hot, stabilized, high speed, high acceleration driving cycle developed by the EPA to be representative of non-FTP, in-use driving. In addition, CNG emissions were evaluated over the US06 driving cycle. Average regulated exhaust emissions (total hydrocarbons, methane, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen) were evaluated in a manner consistent with the Code of Federal Regulations.

  15. Dehydration and drinking responses in a pelagic sea snake.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Brischoux, François; Sheehy, Coleman M; Pfaller, Joseph B

    2012-08-01

    Recent investigations of water balance in sea snakes demonstrated that amphibious sea kraits (Laticauda spp.) dehydrate in seawater and require fresh water to restore deficits in body water. Here, we report similar findings for Pelamis platurus, a viviparous, pelagic, entirely marine species of hydrophiine ("true") sea snake. We sampled snakes at Golfo de Papagayo, Guanacaste, Costa Rica and demonstrated they do not drink seawater but fresh water at variable deficits of body water incurred by dehydration. The threshold dehydration at which snakes first drink fresh water is -18.3 ± 1.1 % (mean ± SE) loss of body mass, which is roughly twice the magnitude of mass deficit at which sea kraits drink fresh water. Compared to sea kraits, Pelamis drink relatively larger volumes of water and make up a larger percentage of the dehydration deficit. Some dehydrated Pelamis also were shown to drink brackish water up to 50% seawater, but most drank at lower brackish values and 20% of the snakes tested did not drink at all. Like sea kraits, Pelamis dehydrate when kept in seawater in the laboratory. Moreover, some individuals drank fresh water immediately following capture, providing preliminary evidence that Pelamis dehydrate at sea. Thus, this widely distributed pelagic species remains subject to dehydration in marine environments where it retains a capacity to sense and to drink fresh water. In comparison with sea kraits, however, Pelamis represents a more advanced stage in the evolutionary transition to a fully marine life and appears to be less dependent on fresh water.

  16. Smackerels of Somethings: Dehydrating Food and How to Use It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditzler, Carmen

    1994-01-01

    Provides ideas about how to add variety, flavor, texture, and nutrition to outdoor meals by dehydrating food and using it on camping trips. The goal is to prepare nutritious and appealing meals without spending a lot of money on commercially dehydrated or freeze-dried foods. Includes instructions for rehydrating foods. (LP)

  17. Two-stage dehydration of sugars

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Werpy, Todd A.

    2009-11-10

    The invention includes methods for producing dianhydrosugar alcohol by providing an acid catalyst within a reactor and passing a starting material through the reactor at a first temperature. At least a portion of the staring material is converted to a monoanhydrosugar isomer during the passing through the column. The monoanhydrosugar is subjected to a second temperature which is greater than the first to produce a dianhydrosugar. The invention includes a method of producing isosorbide. An initial feed stream containing sorbitol is fed into a continuous reactor containing an acid catalyst at a temperature of less than 120.degree. C. The residence time for the reactor is less than or equal to about 30 minutes. Sorbitol converted to 1,4-sorbitan in the continuous reactor is subsequently provided to a second reactor and is dehydrated at a temperature of at least 120.degree. C. to produce isosorbide.

  18. Formation and dehydration enthalpy of potassium hexaniobate

    DOE PAGES

    Sahu, Sulata K.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2016-09-15

    The formation energetics of hydrous and dehydrated potassium hexaniobates are investigated using high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The enthalpies of formation of K4Nb6O17 and K4Nb6O17•3H2O from oxides are (–864.42 ± 10.63) and (–899.32 ± 11.48) kJ/mol, respectively. The formation enthalpy of K4Nb6O17 from elements is (–7289.64 ± 12.50) kJ/mol, and of K4Nb6O17•3H2O is (–8181.94 ± 13.24) kJ/mol. The enthalpy of dehydration (ΔHdehy) for the reaction K4Nb6O173H2O (xl, 25 °C) = K4Nb6O17 (xl, 25 °C) + 3H2O (l, 25 °C) is endothermic and is 34.60 ± 7.56 kJ/mol. The ΔHdehy per mole of water, 11.53 ± 2.52 kJ/mol, indicates the watermore » molecules in K4Nb6O17•3H2O are not just physically adsorbed, but loosely bonded in the K4Nb6O17 phase, presumably in specific interlayer sites. As a result, the loss of this water near 100 °C on heating is consistent with the weak bonding of water.« less

  19. DMSO Induces Dehydration near Lipid Membrane Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Song, Jinsuk; Pas, Jolien; Meijer, Lenny H.H.; Han, Songi

    2015-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been broadly used in biology as a cosolvent, a cryoprotectant, and an enhancer of membrane permeability, leading to the general assumption that DMSO-induced structural changes in cell membranes and their hydration water play important functional roles. Although the effects of DMSO on the membrane structure and the headgroup dehydration have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which DMSO invokes its effect on lipid membranes and the direct role of water in this process are unresolved. By directly probing the translational water diffusivity near unconfined lipid vesicle surfaces, the lipid headgroup mobility, and the repeat distances in multilamellar vesicles, we found that DMSO exclusively weakens the surface water network near the lipid membrane at a bulk DMSO mole fraction (XDMSO) of <0.1, regardless of the lipid composition and the lipid phase. Specifically, DMSO was found to effectively destabilize the hydration water structure at the lipid membrane surface at XDMSO <0.1, lower the energetic barrier to dehydrate this surface water, whose displacement otherwise requires a higher activation energy, consequently yielding compressed interbilayer distances in multilamellar vesicles at equilibrium with unaltered bilayer thicknesses. At XDMSO >0.1, DMSO enters the lipid interface and restricts the lipid headgroup motion. We postulate that DMSO acts as an efficient cryoprotectant even at low concentrations by exclusively disrupting the water network near the lipid membrane surface, weakening the cohesion between water and adhesion of water to the lipid headgroups, and so mitigating the stress induced by the volume change of water during freeze-thaw. PMID:26200868

  20. DMSO induces dehydration near lipid membrane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Song, Jinsuk; Pas, Jolien; Meijer, Lenny H H; Han, Songi

    2015-07-21

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been broadly used in biology as a cosolvent, a cryoprotectant, and an enhancer of membrane permeability, leading to the general assumption that DMSO-induced structural changes in cell membranes and their hydration water play important functional roles. Although the effects of DMSO on the membrane structure and the headgroup dehydration have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which DMSO invokes its effect on lipid membranes and the direct role of water in this process are unresolved. By directly probing the translational water diffusivity near unconfined lipid vesicle surfaces, the lipid headgroup mobility, and the repeat distances in multilamellar vesicles, we found that DMSO exclusively weakens the surface water network near the lipid membrane at a bulk DMSO mole fraction (XDMSO) of <0.1, regardless of the lipid composition and the lipid phase. Specifically, DMSO was found to effectively destabilize the hydration water structure at the lipid membrane surface at XDMSO <0.1, lower the energetic barrier to dehydrate this surface water, whose displacement otherwise requires a higher activation energy, consequently yielding compressed interbilayer distances in multilamellar vesicles at equilibrium with unaltered bilayer thicknesses. At XDMSO >0.1, DMSO enters the lipid interface and restricts the lipid headgroup motion. We postulate that DMSO acts as an efficient cryoprotectant even at low concentrations by exclusively disrupting the water network near the lipid membrane surface, weakening the cohesion between water and adhesion of water to the lipid headgroups, and so mitigating the stress induced by the volume change of water during freeze-thaw.

  1. Improving diffraction resolution using a new dehydration method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingqiu; Szebenyi, Doletha M E

    2016-02-01

    The production of high-quality crystals is one of the major obstacles in determining the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules by X-ray crystallography. It is fairly common that a visually well formed crystal diffracts poorly to a resolution that is too low to be suitable for structure determination. Dehydration has proven to be an effective post-crystallization treatment for improving crystal diffraction quality. Several dehydration methods have been developed, but no single one of them is suitable for all crystals. Here, a new convenient and effective dehydration method is reported that makes use of a dehydrating solution that will not dry out in air for several hours. Using this dehydration method, the resolution of Archaeoglobus fulgidus Cas5a crystals has been increased from 3.2 to 1.95 Å and the resolution of Escherichia coli LptA crystals has been increased from <5 to 3.4 Å.

  2. Response of Chinese wampee axes and maize embryos to dehydration at different rates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Song, Song-Quan; Wu, Xian-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Survival of wampee (Clausena lansiumSkeels) axes and maize (Zea mays L.) embryos decreased with rapid and slow dehydration. Damage of wampee axes by rapid dehydration was much less than by slow dehydration, and that was contrary to maize embryos. The malondialdehyde contents of wampee axes and maize embryos rapidly increased with dehydration, those of wampee axes were lower during rapid dehydration than during slow dehydration, and those of maize embryos were higher during rapid dehydration than during slow dehydration. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) of wampee axes markedly increased during the early phase of dehydration, and then rapidly decreased, and those of rapidly dehydrated axes were higher than those of slow dehydrated axes when they were dehydrated to low water contents. Activities of SOD and APX of maize embryos notable decreased with dehydration. There were higher SOD activities and lower APX activities of slowly dehydrated maize embryos compared with rapidly dehydrated maize embryos. CAT activities of maize embryos markedly increased during the early phase of dehydration, and then decreased, and those of slowly dehydrated embryos were higher than those of rapidly dehydrated embryos during the late phase of dehydration.

  3. Is this elderly patient dehydrated? Diagnostic accuracy of hydration assessment using physical signs, urine, and saliva markers.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Matthew B; Owen, Julian A; Raymond-Barker, Philippa; Bishop, Claire; Elghenzai, Salah; Oliver, Samuel J; Walsh, Neil P

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration in older adults contributes to increased morbidity and mortality during hospitalization. As such, early diagnosis of dehydration may improve patient outcome and reduce the burden on healthcare. This prospective study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of routinely used physical signs, and noninvasive markers of hydration in urine and saliva. Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Hospital acute medical care unit and emergency department. One hundred thirty older adults [59 males, 71 females, mean (standard deviation) age = 78 (9) years]. Participants with any primary diagnosis underwent a hydration assessment within 30 minutes of admittance to hospital. Hydration assessment comprised 7 physical signs of dehydration [tachycardia (>100 bpm), low systolic blood pressure (<100 mm Hg), dry mucous membrane, dry axilla, poor skin turgor, sunken eyes, and long capillary refill time (>2 seconds)], urine color, urine specific gravity, saliva flow rate, and saliva osmolality. Plasma osmolality and the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio were assessed as reference standards of hydration with 21% of participants classified with water-loss dehydration (plasma osmolality >295 mOsm/kg), 19% classified with water-and-solute-loss dehydration (blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio >20), and 60% classified as euhydrated. All physical signs showed poor sensitivity (0%-44%) for detecting either form of dehydration, with only low systolic blood pressure demonstrating potential utility for aiding the diagnosis of water-and-solute-loss dehydration [diagnostic odds ratio (OR) = 14.7]. Neither urine color, urine specific gravity, nor saliva flow rate could discriminate hydration status (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.49-0.57, P > .05). In contrast, saliva osmolality demonstrated moderate diagnostic accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.76, P < .001) to distinguish both dehydration types (70% sensitivity, 68

  4. Experimental investigation of bioethanol liquid phase dehydration using natural clinoptilolite

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Samira; Ghobadian, Barat; Omidkhah, Mohammad-Reza; Towfighi, Jafar; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of bioethanol adsorption on natural Iranian clinoptilolite was carried out. Dynamic breakthrough curves were used to investigate the best adsorption conditions in bioethanol liquid phase. A laboratory setup was designed and fabricated for this purpose. In order to find the best operating conditions, the effect of liquid pressure, temperature and flow rate on breakthrough curves and consequently, maximum ethanol uptake by adsorbent were studied. The effects of different variables on final bioethanol concentration were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results showed that by working at optimum condition, feed with 96% (v/v) initial ethanol concentration could be purified up to 99.9% (v/v). In addition, the process was modeled using Box–Behnken model and optimum operational conditions to reach 99.9% for final ethanol concentration were found equal to 10.7 °C, 4.9 bar and 8 mL/min for liquid temperature, pressure and flow rate, respectively. Therefore, the selected natural Iranian clinoptilolite was found to be a promising adsorbent material for bioethanol dehydration process. PMID:27222748

  5. Experimental investigation of bioethanol liquid phase dehydration using natural clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Samira; Ghobadian, Barat; Omidkhah, Mohammad-Reza; Towfighi, Jafar; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study of bioethanol adsorption on natural Iranian clinoptilolite was carried out. Dynamic breakthrough curves were used to investigate the best adsorption conditions in bioethanol liquid phase. A laboratory setup was designed and fabricated for this purpose. In order to find the best operating conditions, the effect of liquid pressure, temperature and flow rate on breakthrough curves and consequently, maximum ethanol uptake by adsorbent were studied. The effects of different variables on final bioethanol concentration were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results showed that by working at optimum condition, feed with 96% (v/v) initial ethanol concentration could be purified up to 99.9% (v/v). In addition, the process was modeled using Box-Behnken model and optimum operational conditions to reach 99.9% for final ethanol concentration were found equal to 10.7 °C, 4.9 bar and 8 mL/min for liquid temperature, pressure and flow rate, respectively. Therefore, the selected natural Iranian clinoptilolite was found to be a promising adsorbent material for bioethanol dehydration process.

  6. Onion and garlic dehydration in the San Emidio Desert, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Integrated Ingredients dedicated their new onion and garlic processing plant on May 25th. {open_quotes}Grunion{close_quotes} as the new community of 72 employees has been labeled, is located just south of Empire and Gerlach and about 100 miles north of Reno, Nevada. The plant, run by Integrated Ingredients (based in Alameda, CA), is a division of Burns Philp Food, Inc., which owns brands such as Spice Islands, Durkee-French and Fleischmann`s. This plant gives the company the ability to produce its own products for industrial and consumer markets instead of purchasing them. The plant was located in the San Emidio Desert at the edge of the vast Black Rock Desert and the Great Basin to take advantage of the high temperature geothermal resource (approximately 270{degrees}F). The resource is also used by the OESI/AMOR II 3.6 MW binary plant about a mile south of the dehydration plant and a gold heap leaching operation just to the north of the plant (Wind Mt. mine operated by AMAX). In addition to the geothermal energy, the high desert is an ideal location for onion and garlic processing because the cold winters kill damaging microbes. Dry winters and summers also help.

  7. The effect of post-traumatic-stress-disorder on intra-operative analgesia in a veteran population during cataract procedures carried out using retrobulbar or topical anesthesia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Yuna; Wayman, Laura L; Chomsky, Amy S

    2017-06-07

    , and with having received a retrobulbar block. Patients without a history of PTSD were more likely to have received topical anesthesia with or without sedation. The veteran population requires more sedation to allay anxiety and perceptions of discomfort, which may account for longer surgical times. The veteran population is a special population and it is important to investigate how PTSD in the veteran population affects intra-operative analgesia.

  8. Special topics--Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Ott, T; Tricarico, J; Rotz, A; Waghorn, G; Adesogan, A; Dijkstra, J; Montes, F; Oh, J; Kebreab, E; Oosting, S J; Gerber, P J; Henderson, B; Makkar, H P S; Firkins, J L

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of livestock product. Improving the genetic potential of animals through planned cross-breeding or selection within breeds and achieving this genetic potential through proper nutrition and improvements in reproductive efficiency, animal health, and reproductive lifespan are effective approaches for improving animal productivity and reducing GHG emission intensity. In subsistence production systems, reduction of herd size would increase feed availability and productivity of individual animals and the total herd, thus lowering CH4 emission intensity. In these systems, improving the nutritive value of low-quality feeds for ruminant diets can have a considerable benefit on herd productivity while keeping the herd CH4 output constant or even decreasing it. Residual feed intake may be a tool for screening animals that are low CH4 emitters, but there is currently insufficient evidence that low residual feed intake animals have a lower CH4 yield per unit of feed intake or animal product. Reducing age at slaughter of finished cattle and the number of days that animals are on feed in the feedlot can significantly reduce GHG emissions in beef and other meat animal production systems. Improved animal health and reduced mortality and morbidity are expected to increase herd productivity and reduce GHG emission intensity in all livestock production systems. Pursuing a suite of intensive and extensive reproductive management technologies provides a significant opportunity to reduce GHG emissions. Recommended approaches will differ by region and species but should target increasing conception rates in dairy, beef, and buffalo, increasing fecundity in swine and small ruminants, and reducing

  9. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  10. Regulatory Information By Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  11. Special topics--Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options.

    PubMed

    Montes, F; Meinen, R; Dell, C; Rotz, A; Hristov, A N; Oh, J; Waghorn, G; Gerber, P J; Henderson, B; Makkar, H P S; Dijkstra, J

    2013-11-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production is an effective practice to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions. Most CH4 is produced during manure storage; therefore, reducing storage time, lowering manure temperature by storing it outside during colder seasons, and capturing and combusting the CH4 produced during storage are effective practices to reduce CH4 emission. Anaerobic digestion with combustion of the gas produced is effective in reducing CH4 emission and organic C content of manure; this increases readily available C and N for microbial processes creating little CH4 and increased N2O emissions following land application. Nitrous oxide emission occurs following land application as a byproduct of nitrification and dentrification processes in the soil, but these processes may also occur in compost, biofilter materials, and permeable storage covers. These microbial processes depend on temperature, moisture content, availability of easily degradable organic C, and oxidation status of the environment, which make N2O emissions and mitigation results highly variable. Managing the fate of ammoniacal N is essential to the success of N2O and CH4 mitigation because ammonia is an important component in the cycling of N through manure, soil, crops, and animal feeds. Manure application techniques such as subsurface injection reduce ammonia and CH4 emissions but can result in increased N2O emissions. Injection works well when combined with anaerobic digestion and solids separation by improving infiltration. Additives such as urease and nitrification inhibitors that inhibit microbial processes have mixed results but are generally effective in controlling N2O emission from intensive grazing systems. Matching plant nutrient

  12. Topicalization: A Stylistic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penelope, Julia

    Although the nature of topicalization is complex and cannot be easily separated from considerations of syntactic structure and sentence focus, analysis of language usage has indicated that topicalization is more a stylistic than a syntactic process. Topicalization refers to moving a noun phrase (NP) into the initial position of a sentence.…

  13. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  14. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  15. Assembly of light-emitting diode based on hydrophilic CdTe quantum dots incorporating dehydrated silica gel.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinhua; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Zhuyuan; Xu, Shuhong; Cui, Yiping

    2016-03-01

    Stable photoluminescence QD light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) were made based on hydrophilic CdTe quantum dots (QDs). A quantum dot-inorganic nanocomposite (hydrophilic CdTe QDs incorporating dehydrated silica gel) was prepared by two methods (rotary evaporation and freeze drying). Taking advantage of its viscosity, plasticity and transparency, dehydrated silica gel could be coated on the surface of ultraviolet (UV) light LEDs to make photoluminescence QD-LEDs. This new photoluminescence QD-LED, which is stable, environmentally non-toxic, easy to operate and low cost, could expand the applications of hydrophilic CdTe QDs in photoluminescence.

  16. Recent advances of packed column technology for gas dehydration and absorbent regeneration in arctic and off-shore gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    In-depth revamp of dehydration and regeneration trayed columns with proprietary structured packings in arctic gas production will be presented in terms of throughput increase and mass transfer efficiency improvement achieved. Mathematical expressions that relate the column performance to operating variables such as absorbent temperature and concentration, ratio of absorbent to gas, degree of dehydration/regeneration and number of transfer units available are described. Equipment specification and performance between conventional tray design and packed column for off-shore application are also included. Initial capital investment versus subsequent net savings of numerous commercial installations are discussed.

  17. Immobilisation increases yeast cells' resistance to dehydration-rehydration treatment.

    PubMed

    Borovikova, Diana; Rozenfelde, Linda; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rapoport, Alexander

    2014-08-20

    This study was performed with the goal of revealing if the dehydration procedure used in our new immobilisation method noticeably decreases the viability of yeast cells in immobilised preparations. Various yeasts were used in this research: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were rather sensitive to dehydration and had been aerobically grown in an ethanol-containing medium, a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic conditions which were completely non-resistant to dehydration and an anaerobically grown bakers' yeast strain S. cerevisiae, as well as a fairly resistant Pichia pastoris strain. Experiments performed showed that immobilisation of all these strains essentially increased their resistance to a dehydration-rehydration treatment. The increase of cells' viability (compared with control cells dehydrated in similar conditions) was from 30 to 60%. It is concluded that a new immobilisation method, which includes a dehydration stage, does not lead to an essential loss of yeast cell viability. Correspondingly, there is no risk of losing the biotechnological activities of immobilised preparations. The possibility of producing dry, active yeast preparations is shown, for those strains that are very sensitive to dehydration and which can be used in biotechnology in an immobilised form. Finally, the immobilisation approach can be used for the development of efficient methods for the storage of recombinant yeast strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dehydration indicators for broiler chickens at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Buijs, S; Sprenger, M; Goethals, K; Willemsen, H; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2013-03-01

    Freedom of (prolonged) thirst is considered to be of paramount importance for animal welfare. This emotion normally results from dehydration, which can be measured using physiological indicators. Because no reliable physiological indicator for thirst was available for broilers, we aimed to identify such a measure in this study. This indicator would ideally be integrated into quality control systems in commercial slaughter plants. In the first experiment, water deprivation was manipulated systematically by withdrawing water for different durations (total water withdrawal for 0 (control), 24, 36, or 48 h, or a 10-d period with restricted access to water for 2 times 10 min per day). A significant decrease in drained blood content and BW occurred from 36 h of total water deprivation onward (both P = 0.03), whereas long-term restricted access tended to decrease drained blood content (P = 0.05). No effect of water deprivation or restriction on skin turgor was found. In the second experiment, water was withdrawn for 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. Plasma chloride concentration was increased after 6 h of water withdrawal, but did not rise further with longer withdrawal. If assessed at slaughter, chloride will thus mainly reflect the catching-to-slaughter interval. In contrast, plasma creatinine and hematocrit levels showed a numerical decrease after 6 h of water withdrawal, but rose again after prolonged withdrawal. Plasma creatinine values were significantly higher in 24-h-deprived birds than in 6-h-deprived birds (P < 0.01), allowing for discernment between water withdrawal during catching and transport from dehydration that had occurred on the farm. Blood sodium concentrations and plasma osmolality showed a steady increment between 0 and 24 h of water deprivation (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 for both), and may thus be used to assess the combined effects of water deprivation on farm and during the catching-to-slaughter interval. These findings may form the basis of an on

  19. Formation and dehydration enthalpy of potassium hexaniobate

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Sulata K.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2016-09-15

    The formation energetics of hydrous and dehydrated potassium hexaniobates are investigated using high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The enthalpies of formation of K4Nb6O17 and K4Nb6O17•3H2O from oxides are (–864.42 ± 10.63) and (–899.32 ± 11.48) kJ/mol, respectively. The formation enthalpy of K4Nb6O17 from elements is (–7289.64 ± 12.50) kJ/mol, and of K4Nb6O17•3H2O is (–8181.94 ± 13.24) kJ/mol. The enthalpy of dehydration (ΔHdehy) for the reaction K4Nb6O173H2O (xl, 25 °C) = K4Nb6O17 (xl, 25 °C) + 3H2O (l, 25 °C) is endothermic and is 34.60 ± 7.56 kJ/mol. The ΔHdehy per mole of water, 11.53 ± 2.52 kJ/mol, indicates the water molecules in K4Nb6O17•3H2O are not just physically adsorbed, but loosely bonded in the K4Nb6O17 phase, presumably in specific interlayer sites. As a result, the loss of this water near 100 °C on heating is consistent with the weak bonding of water.

  20. Experimental investigation of processes responsible for dehydration weakening and embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirth, G.; Okazaki, K.; Proctor, B.

    2016-12-01

    We have conducted suites of experiments designed to test the efficacy of dehydration embrittlement for inducing intermediate depth earthquakes. Deformation experiments have been conducted in a Griggs apparatus at 1 to 2 GPa on both antigorite and lawsonite gouge. To scale experimental results to natural conditions, we conducted experiments where we use temperature ramps to induce dehydration while the samples deform at a constant strain rate. The weakening rate of the samples scales with the ratio of the temperature ramp rate over the strain rate. We also conducted experiments at these conditions where the pore fluid pressure is either drained or undrained. In this poster, we will describe the following observations: (1) Experiments on antigorite demonstrate that weakening is associated with an increase in pore-fluid pressure. However, weakening is always stable even when the weakening rate is the same as the apparatus stiffness. Strain rate stepping experiments on both antigorite, and dehydrating antigorite indicate velocity strengthening behavior and no AEs are resolvable during the dehydration reaction. (2) Experiments on lawsonite show unstable weakening (i.e. stick slip behavior) at all ratios of temperature ramp rate over strain rate. Experiments within the lawsonite stability field exhibit stick-slip behavior and AEs are detected both during deformation within the lawsonite stability field and during the dehydration reaction. These results indicate that dehydration embrittlement is suppressed when the reacting phase shows velocity strengthening frictional behavior. The results of the experiments on dehydration of antigorite also suggest that embrittlement of the reaction products is suppressed by enhancement of solution-precipitation processes. This observation provides a possible explanation for why dehydration of antigorite induces embrittlement at lower confining pressures (i.e. 200 MPa), where the dehydration temperature is lower and hence the

  1. Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review.

    PubMed

    Sagar, V R; Suresh Kumar, P

    2010-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are dried to enhance storage stability, minimize packaging requirement and reduce transport weight. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on sun and solar drying techniques which cause poor quality and product contamination. Energy consumption and quality of dried products are critical parameters in the selection of drying process. An optimum drying system for the preparation of quality dehydrated products is cost effective as it shortens the drying time and cause minimum damage to the product. To reduce the energy utilization and operational cost new dimensions came up in drying techniques. Among the technologies osmotic dehydration, vacuum drying, freeze drying, superheated steam drying, heat pump drying and spray drying have great scope for the production of quality dried products and powders.

  2. Change in hydrogen bonding structures of a hydrogel with dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naohara, Ryo; Narita, Kentaro; Ikeda-Fukazawa, Tomoko

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of structural changes in polymer network and water during dehydration, X-ray diffraction of poly-N,N-dimethylacrylamide (PDMAA) hydrogels was measured. The variation process in the individual structures of water and PDMAA were analyzed by decomposition of the diffraction patterns to separate the respective contributions. The results show that the short-range structures of PDMAA expand during dehydration, whereas the network structure as a whole shrinks. The average length of the hydrogen bonds between water molecules increases with the process. The present results provide a direct evidence of the structural changes of water and polymer in the hydrogel during dehydration.

  3. Transient dehydration of lungs in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The fluid balance in the lungs of rats exposed to head-down tilt is examined. Six Munich-Wister rats were suspended for 7 days and 10 Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days using the technique of Morey (1979). The water contents of the lungs of the suspended and a control group are calculated and compared. The data reveal that the two-days suspended rats had dehydrated lungs; however, the lungs of the 14-day suspended and control group rats were similar. It is noted that the dehydration in the 2-day suspended rats is caused by general dehydration not the head-tilt position.

  4. Effects of prior experience with dehydration and water on the time course of dehydration-induced drinking in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Myers, K P; Hall, W G

    2001-04-01

    Although cellular dehydration increases oral responding and swallowing of orally infused water in rats as young as 2 days old, it is not until well after the time of weaning that dehydration stimulates immediate water-seeking and initiation of drinking in situations where the water source must be approached voluntarily. Recent work has shown that the goal-directed appetitive sequence for drinking-orienting, approaching, and initiating contact with water-matures much later than the more precocial oral licking and swallowing behaviors, and normally comes to be elicited by dehydration only after post-weaning experience with dry food. In the current experiments we evaluate some critical features of post-weaning experience with dehydration and drinking, and find that prior experience with initiating drinking while dehydrated, but not experience with dehydration nor water per se, alters the time course of water intake during a subsequent hydrational challenge. The effects of experience are manifested as an increased proportion of water consumed in the early portion of the test, rather than a general increase in total consumption. These findings are consistent with the interpretation that prior experience is necessary for the coordination of water-oriented appetitive behaviors that lead to the initiation and maintenance of drinking bouts, and provide further evidence for an associative learning account of the acquisition of dehydration-induced drinking.

  5. Preparation of osmotic dehydrated ripe banana slices.

    PubMed

    Chavan, U D; Prabhukhanolkar, A E; Pawar, V D

    2010-08-01

    Process for preparation of ripe banana slices using osmotic dehydration was standardized. Fully ripe banana fruits were peeled and slices of 8 mm thickness were prepared. The slices were divided into 5 lots and pretreated with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g/kg of slices for 2 h then each lot was soaked in 60 (0)Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1 % citrate, 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% ascorbic acid and control respectively. After 16 h soaking, quick washing, blotting and then cabinet drying at 55 °C for 10 h up to 18% moisture content was done. The dried products were packed in 200 gauge polypropylene bags and stored at ambient condition for 6 months. The chemical, microbial and organoleptic changes were monitored for 6 months. The osmo-dried banana slices prepared with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g /kg slices for 2 h followed by soaking in 60(0)Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2% ascorbic acid were found better with respect to colour and appearance, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability with non-stickiness of the product. Storage study showed that there was marginal decrease in moisture content and organoleptic quality and increase in TSS, total sugars and reducing sugars content of osmodried banana slices. The products were found microbiologically safe and sensorily acceptable up to 6 months storage at ambient condition.

  6. Renal tubular vasopressin receptors downregulated by dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, M.; Phillips, M.I. )

    1988-03-01

    Receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) were characterized in tubular epithelial basolateral membranes (BL membranes) prepared from the kidneys of male Spraque-Dawley rats. Association of ({sup 3}H)AVP was rapid, reversible, and specific. Saturation studies revealed a single class of saturable binding sites with a maximal binding (B{sub max}) of 184 {plus minus} 15 fmol/mg protein. The V{sub 2} receptor antagonist was more than 3,700 times as effective in displacing ({sup 3}H)AVP than was the V{sub 1} antagonist. To investigate the physiological regulation of vasopressin receptors, the effects of elevated levels of circulating AVP on receptor characteristics were studied. Seventy-two-hour water deprivation significantly elevated plasma osmolality and caused an 11.5-fold increase in plasma (AVP). Scatchard analysis revealed a 38% decreased in the number of AVP receptors on the BL membranes from dehydrated animals. The high-affinity binding sites on the BL membranes fit the pharmacological profile for adenylate cyclase-linked vasopressin receptors (V{sub 2}), which mediate the antidiuretic action of the hormone. The authors conclude that physiologically elevated levels of AVP can downregulate vasopressin receptors in the kidney.

  7. Dehydration and crystallization kinetics of zirconia-yttria gels

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, S.; Muraleedharan, R.V.; Roy, S.K.; Nayar, P.K.K.

    1995-02-01

    Zirconia and zirconia-yttria gels containing 4 and 8 mol% yttria were obtained by coprecipitation and drying at 373 K. The dehydration and crystallization behavior of the dried gels was studied by DSC, TG, and XRD. The gels undergo elimination of water over a wide temperature range of 373--673 K. The peak temperature of the endotherm corresponding to dehydration and the kinetic constants for the process were not influenced by the yttria content of the gel. The enthalpy of dehydration observed was in good agreement with the heat of vaporization data. The dehydration was followed by a sharp exothermic crystallization process. The peak temperature of the exotherm and the activation energy of the process increased with an increase in yttria content, while the enthalpy of crystallization showed a decrease. The ``glow effect`` reduced with increasing yttria content. Pure zirconia crystallizes in the tetragonal form while the zirconia containing 4 and 8 mol% yttria appears to crystallize in the cubic form.

  8. Effects of dehydration on performance in man: Annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of studies on the effect of dehydration on human performance and related physiological mechanisms. The annotations are listed in alphabetical order by first author and cover material through June 1973.

  9. 25. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING HOUSE, DETAIL OF SOLVENT RECOVERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING HOUSE, DETAIL OF SOLVENT RECOVERY DUCTS. SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. NOVEL POLYMERIC MEMBRANE FOR DEHYDRATION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a critical role...

  11. NOVEL POLYMERIC MEMBRANE FOR DEHYDRATION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a critical role...

  12. Voluntary dehydration and cognitive performance in trained college athletes.

    PubMed

    D'anci, Kristen E; Vibhakar, Arjun; Kanter, Jordan H; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2009-08-01

    Cognitive and mood decrements resulting from mild dehydration and glucose consumption were studied. Men and women (total N = 54; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.2) were recruited from college athletic teams. Euhydration or dehydration was achieved by athletes completing team practices with or without water replacement. Dehydration was associated with higher thirst and negative mood ratings as well as better Digit Span performance. Participants showed better Vigilance Attention with euhydration. Hydration status and athlete's sex interacted with performance on Choice Reaction Time and Vigilance Attention. In a second study, half of the athletes received glucose prior to cognitive testing. Results for negative mood and thirst ratings were similar, but for cognitive performance the results were mixed. Effects of glucose on cognition were independent of dehydration.

  13. Hospital Admissions for Malnutrition and Dehydration in Patients With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Katherine A; Burson, Rosanne; Gall, Kristyn; Saunders, Mitzi M

    2016-01-01

    Dehydration and malnutrition are commonly experienced by patients with dementia and can result in hospitalizations and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe retrospectively, the incidence and correlations of variables that may precede hospitalizations for dehydration/malnutrition in the community-dwelling patient with dementia. Data from the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) Start of Care (SOC) on 44 patients served by a Michigan home care agency were retrieved for analysis. This study did not reveal any single or collection of variables that would predict risk for hospitalization for dehydration/malnutrition. With the lack of specific predictors of hospitalization related to dehydration and malnutrition, clinicians need to place high priority on risk-lowering strategies and preventive education for patients, family, and caregivers.

  14. Hemoglobin C trait accentuates erythrocyte dehydration in hereditary xerocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Elizabeth; Voelkel, Erin B; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Schulz, Vincent P; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2017-08-01

    A 17-year-old male presented with acute hemolysis with stomatocytosis, elevated mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and osmotic gradient ektacytometry consistent with marked erythrocyte dehydration. Erythrocytes from both parents also demonstrated evidence of dehydration with elevated MCHC and abnormal ektacytometry, but neither to the degree of the patient. Genetic studies revealed the patient had hereditary xerocytosis (HX) due to a novel PIEZO1 mutation inherited from his mother and hemoglobin C (HbC) trait inherited from his father. HbC trait accentuated the erythrocyte dehydration of HX. Coinheritance of interrelated disorders and/or modifier alleles should be considered whenever severe erythrocyte dehydration is observed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.

    PubMed

    Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits.

  16. Neuropsychological Performance, Postural Stability, and Symptoms After Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Akshay V; Mihalik, Jason P; Notebaert, Andrew J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Prentice, William E

    2007-01-01

    Context: Dehydration and concussion are common in athletic performance. Some experts have speculated that dehydration may negatively influence performance on tests commonly used for concussion assessment. Objective: To determine how the signs and symptoms, neuropsychological performance, and postural stability are affected by dehydration. Design: Repeated-measures design assessing subjects in the euhydrated and dehydrated conditions. Setting: Sports Medicine Research Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four healthy, male recreational athletes participated in the study. Intervention(s): Subjects participated in 2 counterbalanced sessions (euhydrated and dehydrated) separated by at least 7 days. Subjects were dehydrated using fluid restriction and an exercise task. No direct intervention was provided for the euhydrated condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Standardized Assessment of Concussion to test mental status, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) to evaluate neuropsychological performance, the NeuroCom Sensory Organization Test and Balance Error Scoring System to test postural stability, the Graded Symptom Checklist to assess symptom presence and severity in our participants, and urine specific gravity and body mass to determine hydration status. Results: No differences were noted for the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, total Balance Error Scoring System errors, composite Sensory Organization Test, and composite ANAM scores between conditions. Subjects in the dehydrated condition had significant deterioration in visual memory (t23 = 2.130, P < .001) and fatigue measures (t23 = −7.880, P < .001) as assessed by ANAM. The dehydrated condition resulted in subjects reporting a significantly higher number (t23 = −8.585, P < .001) and severity (t23 = −7.673, P < .001) of symptoms than the euhydrated subjects on the Graded Symptom Checklist. Conclusions: Our results suggest that moderate dehydration (−2.5

  17. Effects of Fixation and Dehydration Procedures on Marine Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Timm, R. W.; Hackney, T.

    1969-01-01

    Different combinations of fixation and dehydration procedures for the preparation of permanent mounts of marine nematodes of the subfamily Oncholaiminae were tested and compared. Qualitatively, the best specimens resulted from Seinhorst's killing method and fixation in FAA; the dehydration procedure was of less significance. Quantitatively, no significant modification of measurements resulted from any of the methods used. Sources of error in measurements are discussed. PMID:19325668

  18. [Use of zinc-containing dehydrating fixatives for neurohistological studies].

    PubMed

    Korzhevskiĭ, D E; Grigor'ev, I P; Otellin, V A

    2006-01-01

    The suitability of zinc-containing dehydrating fixatives for neurohistological study of paraffin sections using Nissl staining and immunocytochemical techniques was examined. It was found that zinc-containing dehydrating fixatives (zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde and zinc-acetone-isopropanol-formaldehyde) had a capacity for good preservation of both structure and antigenic properties of the nervous tissue and could be recommended for application in neurohistological studies.

  19. Control of Transient Slip Weakening During Gypsum Dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclere, H.; Faulkner, D.; Wheeler, J.; Mariani, E.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of fault mechanics is of first order importance to unravel earthquake triggering. Among the parameters influencing fault reactivation and earthquake triggering, the influence of pore-fluid pressure and friction on stability of fault zones have been a focus of recent work based on geological, geophysical and experimental analyses. Here, the effects of dehydration reactions on hydraulic and mechanical properties of rock are analysed to better understand the conditions required to trigger earthquakes. Triaxial experiments are conducted using gypsum and a direct shear sample assembly that allows a constant normal stress to be applied and permeability to be measured during sliding. The evolutions of shear stress, pore-fluid pressure and permeability are continuously measured throughout the experiment until dehydration reaction reached completion. Tests are conducted with a temperature ramp from 70 to 150 °C and with different effective confining pressures (50, 100 and 150 MPa) and velocities (0.1 and 0.4 μm.s-1). Results show that gypsum dehydration induces transient stable slip weakening that is controlled by pore-fluid pressure and permeability evolutions followed by unstable slip on fully dehydrated product.The evolution of microstructures and mineralogy during the experiment are inferred from SEM and XRD analyses of deformed samples collected at different key stages during repeated tests. The microstructural analysis shows clear evidence of dehydration reactions related to the development of S-C-C' structures where dehydration product is preferentially localized along shear and schistosity planes. A conceptual model is then proposed to explain transient slip weakening during dehydration reactions incorporating the key role played by permeability, and to provide a framework to define the conditions required to trigger unstable events during dehydration reactions.

  20. Dehydration-driven stress transfer triggers intermediate-depth earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, Thomas P.; Hilairet, Nadège; Incel, Sarah; Deldicque, Damien; Labrousse, Loïc; Gasc, Julien; Renner, Joerg; Wang, Yanbin; Green, Harry W., II; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes (30-300 km) have been extensively documented within subducting oceanic slabs, but their mechanics remains enigmatic. Here we decipher the mechanism of these earthquakes by performing deformation experiments on dehydrating serpentinized peridotites (synthetic antigorite-olivine aggregates, minerals representative of subduction zones lithologies) at upper mantle conditions. At a pressure of 1.1 gigapascals, dehydration of deforming samples containing only 5 vol% of antigorite suffices to trigger acoustic emissions, a laboratory-scale analogue of earthquakes. At 3.5 gigapascals, acoustic emissions are recorded from samples with up to 50 vol% of antigorite. Experimentally produced faults, observed post-mortem, are sealed by fluid-bearing micro-pseudotachylytes. Microstructural observations demonstrate that antigorite dehydration triggered dynamic shear failure of the olivine load-bearing network. These laboratory analogues of intermediate-depth earthquakes demonstrate that little dehydration is required to trigger embrittlement. We propose an alternative model to dehydration-embrittlement in which dehydration-driven stress transfer, rather than fluid overpressure, causes embrittlement.

  1. Kinetics of volatile extraction from carbonaceous chondrites: Dehydration of talc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Ganguly, Jibamitra

    1991-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are believed to be the primary constituents of near-Earth asteroids and Phobos and Deimos, and are potential resources of fuels that may be exploited for future planetary missions. Calculations of equilibrium phase relations suggest that talc (Ta) and antigorite (Ant) are likely to be the major hydrous phases in the C1 and C2 meteorites (Ganguly and Saxena, 1989), which constitute the most volatile rich classes of carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics of talc are studied as a function of temperature, grain size, composition and fluid fugacity, as part of a systematic study of the reaction kinetics of the volatile bearing phases that are either known or likely to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics were investigated at 1 bar, 775 to 875 C by monitoring the in-situ weight loss as a function of time of a natural talc. The talc platelets had a dimension of 0.8 to 1 micron. The run durations varied from 233.3 hours at 775 C (48 percent dehydration) to 20.8 hours at 875 C (80 pct. dehydration). The results can be adequately represented by a given rate equation. Theoretical analysis suggests that the reduction in the concentration of H2O in the environment of dehydrating talc, as would be encountered in processing chondritic materials, will have negligible effect on the rate of dehydration, unless there is a change of reaction mechanism owing to the presence of other volatile species.

  2. Seawater drinking restores water balance in dehydrated harp seals.

    PubMed

    How, Ole-Jakob; Nordøy, Erling S

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to answer the question of whether dehydrated harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) are able to obtain a net gain of water from the intake of seawater. Following 24 h of fasting, three subadult female harp seals were dehydrated by intravenous administration of the osmotic diuretic, mannitol. After another 24 h of fasting, the seals were given 1,000 ml seawater via a stomach tube. Urine and blood were collected for measurement of osmolality and osmolytes, while total body water (TBW) was determined by injections of tritiated water. In all seals, the maximum urinary concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) were higher than in seawater, reaching 540 and 620 mM, respectively, compared to 444 and 535 mM in seawater. In another experiment, the seals were given ad lib access to seawater for 48 h after mannitol-induced hyper-osmotic dehydration. In animals without access to seawater, the mean blood osmolality increased from 331 to 363 mOsm kg(-1) during dehydration. In contrast, the blood osmolality, hematocrit and TBW returned to normal when the seals were permitted ad lib access to seawater after dehydration. In conclusion, this study shows that harp seals have the capacity to gain net water from mariposa (voluntarily drinking seawater) and are able to restore water balance after profound dehydration by drinking seawater.

  3. Kinetics of volatile extraction from carbonaceous chondrites: Dehydration of talc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Ganguly, Jibamitra

    1991-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are believed to be the primary constituents of near-Earth asteroids and Phobos and Deimos, and are potential resources of fuels that may be exploited for future planetary missions. Calculations of equilibrium phase relations suggest that talc (Ta) and antigorite (Ant) are likely to be the major hydrous phases in the C1 and C2 meteorites (Ganguly and Saxena, 1989), which constitute the most volatile rich classes of carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics of talc are studied as a function of temperature, grain size, composition and fluid fugacity, as part of a systematic study of the reaction kinetics of the volatile bearing phases that are either known or likely to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics were investigated at 1 bar, 775 to 875 C by monitoring the in-situ weight loss as a function of time of a natural talc. The talc platelets had a dimension of 0.8 to 1 micron. The run durations varied from 233.3 hours at 775 C (48 percent dehydration) to 20.8 hours at 875 C (80 pct. dehydration). The results can be adequately represented by a given rate equation. Theoretical analysis suggests that the reduction in the concentration of H2O in the environment of dehydrating talc, as would be encountered in processing chondritic materials, will have negligible effect on the rate of dehydration, unless there is a change of reaction mechanism owing to the presence of other volatile species.

  4. Fructokinase activity mediates dehydration-induced renal injury.

    PubMed

    Roncal Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Rivard, Christopher J; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Ejaz, A Ahsan; Cicerchi, Christina; Inaba, Shinichiro; Le, MyPhuong; Miyazaki, Makoto; Glaser, Jason; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; González, Marvin A; Aragón, Aurora; Wesseling, Catharina; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Johnson, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    The epidemic of chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua (Mesoamerican nephropathy) has been linked with recurrent dehydration. Here we tested whether recurrent dehydration may cause renal injury by activation of the polyol pathway, resulting in the generation of endogenous fructose in the kidney that might subsequently induce renal injury via metabolism by fructokinase. Wild-type and fructokinase-deficient mice were subjected to recurrent heat-induced dehydration. One group of each genotype was provided water throughout the day and the other group was hydrated at night, after the dehydration. Both groups received the same total hydration in 24 h. Wild-type mice that received delayed hydration developed renal injury, with elevated serum creatinine, increased urinary NGAL, proximal tubular injury, and renal inflammation and fibrosis. This was associated with activation of the polyol pathway, with increased renal cortical sorbitol and fructose levels. Fructokinase-knockout mice with delayed hydration were protected from renal injury. Thus, recurrent dehydration can induce renal injury via a fructokinase-dependent mechanism, likely from the generation of endogenous fructose via the polyol pathway. Access to sufficient water during the dehydration period can protect mice from developing renal injury. These studies provide a potential mechanism for Mesoamerican nephropathy.

  5. Traditional Male Circumcision: Ways to Prevent Deaths Due to Dehydration.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Mbuyiselo; Maluleke, Thelmah Xavela

    2016-02-01

    Deaths of initiates occurring in the circumcision initiation schools are preventable. Current studies list dehydration as one of the underlying causes of deaths among traditional male circumcision initiates in the Eastern Cape, a province in South Africa, but ways to prevent dehydration in the initiation schools have not been adequately explored. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the underlying determinants of dehydration among initiates aged from 12 to 18 years in the traditional male circumcision initiation schools and (b) determine knowledge of participants on the actions to be taken to prevent dehydration. The study was conducted at Libode, a rural area falling under Nyandeni municipality. A simple random sampling was used to select three focus group discussions with 36 circumcised boys. A purposive sampling was used to select 10 key informants who were matured and experienced people with knowledge of traditional practices and responsible positions in the communities. The research findings indicate that the practice has been neglected to inexperienced, unskillful, and abusive traditional attendants. The overall themes collated included traditional reasons for water restriction, imbalanced food nutrients given to initiates, poor environmental conditions in the initiation hut, and actions that should be taken to prevent dehydration. This article concludes with discussion and recommendation of ways to prevent dehydration of initiates in the form of a comprehensive circumcision health promotion program.

  6. Dehydration-driven stress transfer triggers intermediate-depth earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Ferrand, Thomas P.; Hilairet, Nadège; Incel, Sarah; Deldicque, Damien; Labrousse, Loïc; Gasc, Julien; Renner, Joerg; Wang, Yanbin; Green II, Harry W.; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes (30–300 km) have been extensively documented within subducting oceanic slabs, but their mechanics remains enigmatic. Here we decipher the mechanism of these earthquakes by performing deformation experiments on dehydrating serpentinized peridotites (synthetic antigorite-olivine aggregates, minerals representative of subduction zones lithologies) at upper mantle conditions. At a pressure of 1.1 gigapascals, dehydration of deforming samples containing only 5 vol% of antigorite suffices to trigger acoustic emissions, a laboratory-scale analogue of earthquakes. At 3.5 gigapascals, acoustic emissions are recorded from samples with up to 50 vol% of antigorite. Experimentally produced faults, observed post-mortem, are sealed by fluid-bearing micro-pseudotachylytes. Microstructural observations demonstrate that antigorite dehydration triggered dynamic shear failure of the olivine load-bearing network. These laboratory analogues of intermediate-depth earthquakes demonstrate that little dehydration is required to trigger embrittlement. We propose an alternative model to dehydration-embrittlement in which dehydration-driven stress transfer, rather than fluid overpressure, causes embrittlement. PMID:28504263

  7. External validation of the DHAKA score and comparison with the current IMCI algorithm for the assessment of dehydration in children with diarrhoea: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Adam C; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Atika, Bita; Rege, Soham; Robertson, Sarah; Schmid, Christopher H; Alam, Nur H

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Dehydration due to diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death worldwide, yet no clinical tools for assessing dehydration have been validated in resource-limited settings. The Dehydration: Assessing Kids Accurately (DHAKA) score was derived for assessing dehydration in children with diarrhoea in a low-income country setting. In this study, we aimed to externally validate the DHAKA score in a new population of children and compare its accuracy and reliability to the current Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm. Methods DHAKA was a prospective cohort study done in children younger than 60 months presenting to the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with acute diarrhoea (defined by WHO as three or more loose stools per day for less than 14 days). Local nurses assessed children and classified their dehydration status using both the DHAKA score and the IMCI algorithm. Serial weights were obtained and dehydration status was established by percentage weight change with rehydration. We did regression analyses to validate the DHAKA score and compared the accuracy and reliability of the DHAKA score and IMCI algorithm with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and the weighted κ statistic. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02007733. Findings Between March 22, 2015, and May 15, 2015, 496 patients were included in our primary analyses. On the basis of our criterion standard, 242 (49%) of 496 children had no dehydration, 184 (37%) of 496 had some dehydration, and 70 (14%) of 496 had severe dehydration. In multivariable regression analyses, each 1-point increase in the DHAKA score predicted an increase of 0·6% in the percentage dehydration of the child and increased the odds of both some and severe dehydration by a factor of 1·4. Both the accuracy and reliability of the DHAKA score were significantly greater than those of the IMCI algorithm. Interpretation The DHAKA score

  8. THE FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF DEHYDRATION-ANOREXIA

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Alan G.; Boyle, Christina N.

    2010-01-01

    The anorexia that accompanies the drinking of hypertonic saline (DE-anorexia) is a critical adaptive behavioral mechanism that helps protect the integrity of fluid compartments during extended periods of cellular dehydration. Feeding is rapidly reinstated once drinking water is made available again. The relative simplicity and reproducibility of these behaviors makes DE-anorexia a very useful model for investigating how the various neural networks that control ingestive behaviors first suppress and then reinstate feeding. We show that DE-anorexia develops primarily because the mechanisms that terminate ongoing meals are upregulated in such a way as to significantly reduce meal size. At the same time however, signals generated by the ensuing negative energy balance appropriately activate neural mechanisms that can increase food intake. But as the output from these two competing processes is integrated, the net result is an increasing reduction of nocturnal food intake, despite the fact that spontaneous meals are initiated with the same frequency as in control animals. Furthermore, hypothalamic NPY injections also stimulate feeding in DE-anorexic animals with the same latency as controls, but again meals are prematurely terminated. Comparing Fos expression patterns across the brain following 2-deoxyglucose administration to control and DE-anorexic animals implicates neurons in the descending part of the parvicellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamic areas as key components of the networks that control DE-anorexia. Finally, DE-anorexia generates multiple inhibitory processes to suppress feeding. These are differentially disengaged once drinking water is reinstated. PMID:20399797

  9. A model of teneral dehydration in Glossina.

    PubMed

    Childs, S J

    2014-03-01

    The results of a long-established investigation into teneral transpiration are used as a rudimentary data set. These data are not complete in that all are at 25°C and the temperature-dependence cannot, therefore, be resolved. An allowance is, nonetheless, made for the outstanding temperature-dependent data. The data are generalised to all humidities, levels of activity and, in theory, temperatures, by invoking the property of multiplicative separability. In this way a formulation, which is a very simple, first order, ordinary differential equation, is devised. The model is extended to include a variety of Glossina species by resorting to their relative, resting water loss rates in dry air. The calculated, total water loss is converted to the relevant humidity, at 24°C, that which produced an equivalent water loss in the pupa, in order to exploit an adaption of an established survival relationship. The resulting computational model calculates total, teneral water loss, consequent mortality and adult recruitment. Surprisingly, the postulated race against time, to feed, applies more to the mesophilic and xerophilic species, in that increasing order. So much so that it is reasonable to conclude that, should Glossina brevipalpis survive the pupal phase, it will almost certainly survive to locate a host, without there being any significant prospect of death from dehydration. With the conclusion of this work comes the revelation that the classification of species as hygrophilic, mesophilic and xerophilic is largely true only in so much as their third and fourth instars are and, possibly, the hours shortly before eclosion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    by Adam et al. In the paper by V Man'ko et al the diagonal representation of the density operator (usually called P-function of Glauber-Sudarshan) is related to the star-product quantization method and to the tomographic-probability representation of quantum states. Laskowski et al suggest an elegant geometrical criterion for the separability, which is based on the local correlation measurements readily available in the laboratory. Mizrahi describes a method to derive the Pauli-Schrödinger equation starting from a simple model of a qubit carried by a massive particle. By analyzing unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments, Rauch concludes that basic quantum irreversibility exists in neutron interferometry. Rauch also shows how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, and then argues that a quantum system carries much more information than is usually extracted. Kupczynski advocates various statistical tests which could be used to search for a fine structure in experimental data in order to answer the question: is quantum theory predictably complete? For an ion confined within a Paul trap, Mihalcea constructs an invariant operator based on the Lews and Riesenfeld approach and determines the spectrum of the quasienergy operator. Popov et al construct pair-coherent states of the Barut-Girardello kind for two noninteracting subsystems of pseudoharmonic oscillators and examine their statistical properties in different regions of parameters. The property of entanglement, considered to be the most intriguing property of composite quantum systems, has been an important research subject in recent years. It is considered to be a possible resource for quantum computation and communication. Therefore, a substantial number of papers in this topical issue is devoted to entanglement. Leon et al write that two-photon emission from two atoms initially excited in a common electromagnetic

  11. In situ bioremediation of a former natural gas dehydrator site using bioventing/biosparging

    SciTech Connect

    Shamory, B.D.; Lawrence, A.W.; Miller, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is conducting a research program on site remediation and residuals management for natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities. Biological processes are considered to be a key component of the GRI remedial strategy since most of the chemicals-of-interest in soils and groundwater at E&P sites have been reported to be biodegradable. A bioventing/biosparging field demonstration was conducted over a ten month period at a former glycol dehydrator site, located near Traverse City, Michigan. The chemicals-of-interest at this site were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes; and alkanes (primarily C{sub 4} through C{sub 10}). The goal of the project was to determine the feasibility of using this technology for dehydrator site remediation and to develop engineering basis of design concepts for applying bioventing/biosparging at other similar sites. Three different air sparging operational modes (pulsed, continuous, and offgas recycle) were tested to determine the optimum process configuration for site remediation. Biodegradation was also evaluated. Operational mode performance was evaluated by situ conducting in situ respirometry studies. Depletion of oxygen and hydrocarbons and production of carbon dioxide were used to calculated biodegradation rates in the vadose and saturated zones. The mass of hydrocarbons biologically degraded was estimated based on these biokinetic rates. In addition, biodegradation was also estimated based on contaminant removal shown by analytical sampling of soil and groundwater and based on other losses attributed to pump and treat and soil vapor extraction systems. In addition, an engineering evaluation of the operating modes is presented. The results of this study suggest that bioventing/biosparging is a feasible technology for in situ remediation of soil and groundwater at gas industry glycol dehydrator sites and that the pulsed operating mode may have an advantage over the other modes.

  12. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  13. Long Live Topic Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the value of topic work with regard to the British National Curriculum guidelines on curriculum planning. After years of concentrating on issues of content in planning, consideration of basic aims and values in education is again urged. Topic work allows teachers to teach in depth areas of personal expertise and interest in a local…

  14. Using Wind and Temperature Fields to Study Dehydration Mechanisms in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Jasna; Miller, Timothy; Robertson, Franklin

    2008-01-01

    The tropics are the main region for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport (TST) of air. One of the dominant mechanisms that control tropical TST of water vapor is freeze-drying by the cold tropical tropopause. This mechanism is supported by evidence from satellite observations of the "tape recorder", where seasonal changes in stratospheric water vapor are in phase with seasonal changes in tropopause temperatures in the tropics. Over the last few years, however, the concept of the tropical tropopause has evolved from a single material surface to a layer called the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). A recent hypothesis on dehydration mechanisms suggests that dehydration and entry point into the stratosphere are not always co-located (Holton and Gettelman, 2001). Instead, dehydration can occur during horizontal advection through Lagrangian 'cold pools', or coldest regions along a parcel's trajectory, as air ascends within the TTL while the entry point into the stratosphere occurs at a different geographical location. In this study, we investigate the impact that these Lagrangian cold pools have on TTL moisture. For this purpose, we use in situ measurements of TTL water vapor obtained aboard NASA's WB-57 aircraft over the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and we compare these measurements to minimum saturation water vapor mixing ratios obtained from three-dimensional backward trajectory calculations. Aircraft measurements show frequent unsaturated conditions, which suggest that the entry value of stratospheric water vapor in this region was not set by local saturation conditions. Trajectory calculations, driven by both ECMWF operational analysis and reanalysis winds and temperature fields, are used to explore the impact (e.g., geographical location, timing, dehydration magnitude) of the Lagrangian cold pools intercepted by the parcels sampled by the aircraft. We find noteworthy differences in the location of the Lagrangian cold pools using the two ECMWF data sets, namely

  15. Microcrystalline hexagonal tungsten bronze. 2. Dehydration dynamics.

    PubMed

    Luca, Vittorio; Griffith, Christopher S; Hanna, John V

    2009-07-06

    Low-temperature (25-600 degrees C) thermal transformations have been studied for hydrothermally prepared, microcrystalline hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) phases A(x)WO(3+x/2).zH(2)O as a function of temperature, where A is an exchangeable cation (in this case Na(+) or Cs(+)) located in hexagonal structural tunnels. Thermal treatment of the as-prepared sodium- and cesium-exchanged phases in air were monitored using a conventional laboratory-based X-ray diffractometer, while thermal transformations in vacuum were studied using synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction. Concurrent thermogravimetric, diffuse reflectance infrared (DRIFT), and (23)Na and (133)Cs magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic studies have also been undertaken. For the cesium variant, cell volume contraction occurred from room temperature to about 350 degrees C, the regime in which water was "squeezed" out of tunnel sites. This was followed by a lattice expansion in the 350-600 degrees C temperature range. Over the entire temperature range, a net thermal contraction was observed, and this was the result of an anisotropic change in the cell dimensions which included a shortening of the A-O2 bond length. These changes explain why Cs(+) ions are locked into tunnel positions at temperatures as low as 400 degrees C, subsequently inducing a significant reduction in Cs(+) extractability under low pH (nitric acid) conditions. The changing Cs(+) speciation as detected by (133)Cs MAS NMR showed a condensation from multiple Cs sites, presumably associated with differing modes of Cs(+) hydration in the tunnels, to a single Cs(+) environment upon thermal transformation and water removal. While similar lattice contraction was observed for the as-prepared sodium variant, the smaller radius of Na(+) caused it to be relatively easily removed with acid in comparison to the Cs(+) variant. From (23)Na MAS NMR studies of the parent material, complex Na(+) speciation was observed with dehydrated and various

  16. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing.

  17. Ice Cloud Formation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor is important not only for its greenhouse forcing, but also because it plays a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. Several recent studies have focused on the potential for dehydration due to ice cloud formation in air rising slowly through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Holton and Gettelman showed that temperature variations associated with horizontal transport of air in the TTL can drive ice cloud formation and dehydration, and Gettelman et al. recently examined the cloud formation and dehydration along kinematic trajectories using simple assumptions about the cloud properties. In this study, a Lagrangian, one-dimensional cloud model has been used to further investigate cloud formation and dehydration as air is transported horizontally and vertically through the TTL. Time-height curtains of temperature are extracted from meteorological analyses. The model tracks the growth, advection, and sedimentation of individual cloud particles. The regional distribution of clouds simulated in the model is comparable to the subvisible cirrus distribution indicated by SAGE II. The simulated cloud properties and cloud frequencies depend strongly on the assumed supersaturation threshold for ice nucleation. The clouds typically do not dehydrate the air along trajectories down to the temperature minimum saturation mixing ratio. Rather the water vapor mixing ratio crossing the tropopause along trajectories is 10-50% larger than the saturation mixing ratio. I will also discuss the impacts of Kelvin waves and gravity waves on cloud properties and dehydration efficiency. These simulations can be used to determine whether observed lower stratospheric water vapor mixing ratios can be explained by dehydration associated with in situ TTL cloud formation alone.

  18. Ice Cloud Formation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor is important not only for its greenhouse forcing, but also because it plays a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. Several recent studies have focused on the potential for dehydration due to ice cloud formation in air rising slowly through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Holton and Gettelman showed that temperature variations associated with horizontal transport of air in the TTL can drive ice cloud formation and dehydration, and Gettelman et al. recently examined the cloud formation and dehydration along kinematic trajectories using simple assumptions about the cloud properties. In this study, a Lagrangian, one-dimensional cloud model has been used to further investigate cloud formation and dehydration as air is transported horizontally and vertically through the TTL. Time-height curtains of temperature are extracted from meteorological analyses. The model tracks the growth, advection, and sedimentation of individual cloud particles. The regional distribution of clouds simulated in the model is comparable to the subvisible cirrus distribution indicated by SAGE II. The simulated cloud properties and cloud frequencies depend strongly on the assumed supersaturation threshold for ice nucleation. The clouds typically do not dehydrate the air along trajectories down to the temperature minimum saturation mixing ratio. Rather the water vapor mixing ratio crossing the tropopause along trajectories is 10-50% larger than the saturation mixing ratio. I will also discuss the impacts of Kelvin waves and gravity waves on cloud properties and dehydration efficiency. These simulations can be used to determine whether observed lower stratospheric water vapor mixing ratios can be explained by dehydration associated with in situ TTL cloud formation alone.

  19. Topical management of facial burns.

    PubMed

    Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2008-11-01

    The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of calculated serum osmolarity to predict dehydration in older people: adding value to pathology laboratory reports

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Ali, Adam; Bunn, Diane K; Jennings, Amy; John, W Garry; Kerry, Susan; Lindner, Gregor; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Walsh, Neil P; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess which osmolarity equation best predicts directly measured serum/plasma osmolality and whether its use could add value to routine blood test results through screening for dehydration in older people. Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Participants Older people (≥65 years) in 5 cohorts: Dietary Strategies for Healthy Ageing in Europe (NU-AGE, living in the community), Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE, living in residential care), Fortes (admitted to acute medical care), Sjöstrand (emergency room) or Pfortmueller cohorts (hospitalised with liver cirrhosis). Reference standard for hydration status Directly measured serum/plasma osmolality: current dehydration (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg), impending/current dehydration (≥295 mOsm/kg). Index tests 39 osmolarity equations calculated using serum indices from the same blood draw as directly measured osmolality. Results Across 5 cohorts 595 older people were included, of whom 19% were dehydrated (directly measured osmolality >300 mOsm/kg). Of 39 osmolarity equations, 5 showed reasonable agreement with directly measured osmolality and 3 had good predictive accuracy in subgroups with diabetes and poor renal function. Two equations were characterised by narrower limits of agreement, low levels of differential bias and good diagnostic accuracy in receiver operating characteristic plots (areas under the curve >0.8). The best equation was osmolarity=1.86×(Na++ K+)+1.15×glucose+urea+14 (all measured in mmol/L). It appeared useful in people aged ≥65 years with and without diabetes, poor renal function, dehydration, in men and women, with a range of ages, health, cognitive and functional status. Conclusions Some commonly used osmolarity equations work poorly, and should not be used. Given costs and prevalence of dehydration in older people we suggest use of the best formula by pathology laboratories using a cutpoint of 295 mOsm/L (sensitivity 85%, specificity 59%), to report

  1. Dehydration and Cognition in Geriatrics: A Hydromolecular Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Sfera, Adonis; Cummings, Michael; Osorio, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Dehydration is one of the ten most frequent diagnoses responsible for the hospital admission of elderly in the United States. It is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and an estimated cost of 1.14 billion per year (Xiao et al., 2004; Schlanger et al., 2010; Pretorius et al., 2013; Frangeskou et al., 2015). Older individuals are predisposed to dehydration encephalopathy as a result of decreased total body water (TBW) and diminished sensation of thirst. We hypothesize that thirst blunting in older individuals is the result of a defective microRNA-6842-3p failing to silence the expression of the vesicular GABA transporters (VGAT) and alpha 7 cholinergic nicotinic receptors in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize further that resultant dehydration facilitates protein misfolding and aggregation, predisposing to neurocognitive disorders. We completed a search of predicted microRNA targets, utilizing the public domain tool miRDB and found that microRNA-6842-3p modulates the SLC6A1 and CHRNA7 genes both of which were previously hypothesized to inhibit the thirst sensation by their action on SFO. The primary aim of this article is to answer two questions: Can prevention and correction of dehydration in elderly lower age-related cognitive deterioration? Can exosomal miR-6842 in the peripheral blood predict dehydration encephalopathy in elderly? PMID:27252943

  2. Urinary caffeine after coffee consumption and heat dehydration.

    PubMed

    Chambaz, A; Meirim, I; Décombaz, J

    2001-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of heat-induced dehydration on urinary caffeine excretion after the consumption of a strong coffee solution. Following ingestion of coffee (caffeine 4.9+/-0.1 [SE] mg/kg, 3-4 cups), ten healthy males were intermittently exposed to heat in a sauna until they had lost 2.9 % of lean mass. On a separate occasion, they consumed the same amount of coffee but remained quiet and euhydrated (control). Urine flow was reduced 7-fold in dehydration. At these low excretion rates (< 30 ml/h), caffeine concentration was negatively correlated with flow. Peak urinary caffeine (Cmax) was 7.6 +/- 0.4 (SE) microg/ml in dehydration and 7.1 +/- 0.2 microg/ml in the control (p > 0.05). Compared with the control, dehydration delayed Cmax by 1 hour, maintained higher saliva caffeine concentration (6.1 vs 5.2 microg/ml, p < 0.05) and a lower saliva paraxanthine/caffeine ratio (p < 0.001). The 24h-recovery of caffeine in urine was reduced (1.2 vs 2.8% of dose, p < 0.001), however at least 2.6% of dose were lost in sweat. These results suggest that the rise in circulating caffeine due to delayed metabolic clearance was partly opposed by a sizeable elimination in sweat. Therefore, heat dehydration did not lead to higher concentration of caffeine in urine after coffee ingestion.

  3. 'Hot Topics' in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Three current topics in astrophysics are described here on the occasion of the joint meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11, 2001, San Diego, Calif.). Many equally exciting topics--ranging from the dozens of newly discovered planets of sunlike stars to evidence suggesting that the expansion of the universe is accelerating--could have been chosen. The topics discussed are: (1) the habitability of Mars, (2) black holes, galaxy bulges, and the X-ray background, and (3) the greatest explosions since the Big Bang.

  4. 'Hot Topics' in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Three current topics in astrophysics are described here on the occasion of the joint meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11, 2001, San Diego, Calif.). Many equally exciting topics--ranging from the dozens of newly discovered planets of sunlike stars to evidence suggesting that the expansion of the universe is accelerating--could have been chosen. The topics discussed are: (1) the habitability of Mars, (2) black holes, galaxy bulges, and the X-ray background, and (3) the greatest explosions since the Big Bang.

  5. Early Transcriptional Response of Soybean Contrasting Accessions to Root Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar Costa; Pandolfi, Valesca; Guimaraes, Francismar Corrêa Marcelino; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Romero, Cynara; Silva, Roberta Lane de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Abdelnoor, Ricardo Vilela; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Kido, Ederson Akio

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a significant constraint to yield increase in soybean. The early perception of water deprivation is critical for recruitment of genes that promote plant tolerance. DeepSuperSAGE libraries, including one control and a bulk of six stress times imposed (from 25 to 150 min of root dehydration) for drought-tolerant and sensitive soybean accessions, allowed to identify new molecular targets for drought tolerance. The survey uncovered 120,770 unique transcripts expressed by the contrasting accessions. Of these, 57,610 aligned with known cDNA sequences, allowing the annotation of 32,373 unitags. A total of 1,127 unitags were up-regulated only in the tolerant accession, whereas 1,557 were up-regulated in both as compared to their controls. An expression profile concerning the most representative Gene Ontology (GO) categories for the tolerant accession revealed the expression “protein binding” as the most represented for “Molecular Function”, whereas CDPK and CBL were the most up-regulated protein families in this category. Furthermore, particular genes expressed different isoforms according to the accession, showing the potential to operate in the distinction of physiological behaviors. Besides, heat maps comprising GO categories related to abiotic stress response and the unitags regulation observed in the expression contrasts covering tolerant and sensitive accessions, revealed the unitags potential for plant breeding. Candidate genes related to “hormone response” (LOX, ERF1b, XET), “water response” (PUB, BMY), “salt stress response” (WRKY, MYB) and “oxidative stress response” (PER) figured among the most promising molecular targets. Additionally, nine transcripts (HMGR, XET, WRKY20, RAP2-4, EREBP, NAC3, PER, GPX5 and BMY) validated by RT-qPCR (four different time points) confirmed their differential expression and pointed that already after 25 minutes a transcriptional reorganization started in response to the new condition, with

  6. Topicalization: A Psycholinguistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ruilin

    2001-01-01

    Explores topicalization in the Chinese-English translation classroom. Examines translation in language teaching, Advocates translation as a useful skill and discusses it as a means of mastering a foreign language--in this case, English. (Author/VWL)

  7. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV Breast Implants Caregiving College Health Diabetes Healthy Aging Heart Health Mammograms Menopause Pregnancy Safe Medication Use Other Topics like cosmetics and nutrition Other Tips Hispanic Women's Health 4 Tips for ...

  8. Topical therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy D; Barthel, H Richard

    2011-07-09

    This review discusses the pharmacology, analgesic efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, salicylates and capsaicin for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Topical therapies present a valuable therapeutic option for OA pain management, with substantial evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs, but less robust support for capsaicin and salicylates. We define topical therapies as those intended to act locally, in contrast to transdermal therapies intended to act systemically. Oral therapies for patients with mild to moderate OA pain include paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs. Paracetamol has only weak efficacy at therapeutic doses and is hepatotoxic at doses >3.25 g/day. NSAIDs have demonstrated efficacy in patients with OA, but are associated with dose-, duration- and age-dependent risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, haematological and hepatic adverse events (AEs), as well as clinically meaningful drug interactions. To minimize AE risks, treatment guidelines for OA suggest minimizing NSAID exposure by prescribing the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time. Systemic NSAID exposure may also be limited by prescribing topical NSAIDs, particularly in patients with OA pain limited to a few superficial joints. Topical NSAIDs have been available in Europe for decades and were introduced to provide localized analgesia with minimal systemic NSAID exposure. Guidelines of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), Osteoarthritis Research Society International, and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) state that topical NSAIDs may be considered for patients with mild to moderate OA of the knee or hand, particularly in patients with few affected joints and/or a history of sensitivity to oral NSAIDs. In fact, the EULAR and NICE guidelines state that topical NSAIDs should be considered before oral therapies. Clinical trials of topical

  9. Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Heyd, R.; Rampino, A.; Bellich, B.; Elisei, E.; Cesàro, A.; Saboungi, M.-L.

    2014-03-28

    The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

  10. The dehydration of potassium alum induced by shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki; Imasu, Yuhta; Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    Shock-induced dehydration and structural change on potassium alum, KAl(SO4)2 .12H2O, has been studied up to a peak pressure of 8 GPa. The shock-recovered samples have been characterized using Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the sample shocked at 5 GPa are consolidated and recovered, no evidence for structural change or dehydration is obtained. However, prominent change of texture and color of the recovered sample shocked at 8 GPa is observed. The XRD results reveal that the recovered sample shocked at 8 GPa consists of anhydrous potassium alum crystals with amorphous. This structure differs from that of dehydrated alum caused by heat. The critical pressure for the shock-induced phase transition is close to the transition pressure from alum crystal to amorphous phase, which is obtained by static pressure loading.

  11. Dehydration Process of Protein Crystals by Micro-Brillouin Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Eiji; Aoki, Yuichiro; Seshimo, Yuichi; Sasanuma, Keita; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    Polymorphism and dehydration process have been studied by the micro-Brillouin scattering technique in hen egg white lysozyme crystals without cross-linking. Two types of crystal with tetragonal and monoclinic systems have been successfully grown by the two-liquid interface method. The dehydration processes of tetragonal and monoclinic crystals have been investigated by the exposure of crystals to open air. Sound velocity increases markedly owing to the increase in intermolecular interaction between lysozyme molecules, while the attenuation of sound wave decreases markedly owing to the decrease in friction generated by mobile water. The time dependences of sound velocity in two crystals have been discussed on the basis of the Avrami-Erofe'ev model. It is found that a monoclinic crystal dehydrates much faster than a tetragonal one.

  12. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  13. Topical Therapies in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Torsekar, R.; Gautam, Manjyot M.

    2017-01-01

    Topical therapy as monotherapy is useful in psoriasis patients with mild disease. Topical agents are also used as adjuvant for moderate-to-severe disease who are being concurrently treated with either ultraviolet light or systemic medications. Emollients are useful adjuncts to the treatment of psoriasis. Use of older topical agents such as anthralin and coal tar has declined over the years. However, they are cheaper and can still be used for the treatment of difficult psoriasis refractory to conventional treatment. Salicylic acid can be used in combination with other topical therapies such as topical corticosteroids (TCS) and calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of thick limited plaques to increase the absorption of the latter into the psoriatic plaques. Low- to mid-potent TCS are used in facial/flexural psoriasis and high potent over palmoplantar/thick psoriasis lesions. The addition of noncorticosteroid treatment can also facilitate the avoidance of long-term daily TCS. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus can be used for the treatment of facial and intertriginous psoriasis. Tazarotene is indicated for stable plaque psoriasis usually in combination with other therapies such as TCS. Vitamin D analogs alone in combination with TCS are useful in stable plaques over limbs and palmoplantar psoriasis. Topical therapies for scalp psoriasis include TCS, Vitamin D analogs, salicylic acid, coal tar, and anthralin in various formulations such as solutions, foams, and shampoos. TCS, vitamin D analogs, and tazarotene can be used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. PMID:28761838

  14. Effect of experimental and sample factors on dehydration kinetics of mildronate dihydrate: mechanism of dehydration and determination of kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Bērziņš, Agris; Actiņš, Andris

    2014-06-01

    The dehydration kinetics of mildronate dihydrate [3-(1,1,1-trimethylhydrazin-1-ium-2-yl)propionate dihydrate] was analyzed in isothermal and nonisothermal modes. The particle size, sample preparation and storage, sample weight, nitrogen flow rate, relative humidity, and sample history were varied in order to evaluate the effect of these factors and to more accurately interpret the data obtained from such analysis. It was determined that comparable kinetic parameters can be obtained in both isothermal and nonisothermal mode. However, dehydration activation energy values obtained in nonisothermal mode showed variation with conversion degree because of different rate-limiting step energy at higher temperature. Moreover, carrying out experiments in this mode required consideration of additional experimental complications. Our study of the different sample and experimental factor effect revealed information about changes of the dehydration rate-limiting step energy, variable contribution from different rate limiting steps, as well as clarified the dehydration mechanism. Procedures for convenient and fast determination of dehydration kinetic parameters were offered.

  15. The independent influences of heat strain and dehydration upon cognition.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Haberley, Benjamin J; Hoyle, David J R; Taylor, Nigel A S; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-05-01

    Many researchers have addressed the potential effects of hyperthermia and dehydration on cognition, often revealing contradictory outcomes. A possible reason for this inconsistency is that experiments may have been inadequately designed for such effects. In this study, the impact of hyperthermia, dehydration and their combination on cognition were evaluated in eight young males, after accounting for a range of experimental limitations. Passive heating and thermal clamping at two mean body temperatures (36.5, 38.5 °C) were performed under three hydration states (euhydrated, 3 and 5% dehydrated) to assess their effects on difficulty-matched working memory and visual perception tasks, and on a difficulty manipulated perceptual task. Data were analysed according to signal detection theory to isolate changes in response sensitivity, bias and speed. Neither moderate hyperthermia (P = 0.141) nor dehydration (P > 0.604) modified response sensitivity, nor did they significantly interact (P > 0.698). Therefore, the ability to distinguish correct from incorrect responses was unaffected. Nevertheless, hyperthermia, but not dehydration (P = 0.301), reduced the response bias (-0.08 versus 2.2 [normothermia]; P = 0.010) and reaction time (mean reduction 49 ms; P < 0.001), eliciting more liberal and faster responses (P = 0.010). Response bias was reduced for the memory relative to the perceptual task (P = 0.037), and this effect was enhanced during hyperthermia (P = 0.031). These observations imply that, once potentially confounding influences were controlled, moderate hyperthermia, significant dehydration and their combined effects had insufficient impact to impair cognition within the memory and perceptual domains tested. Nonetheless, moderate hyperthermia elicited more liberal and rapid responses.

  16. Dehydration decreases saliva antimicrobial proteins important for mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Matthew B; Diment, Bethany C; Di Felice, Umberto; Walsh, Neil P

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of exercise-induced dehydration and subsequent overnight fluid restriction on saliva antimicrobial proteins important for host defence (secretory IgA (SIgA), α-amylase, and lysozyme). On two randomized occasions, 13 participants exercised in the heat, either without fluid intake to evoke progressive body mass losses (BML) of 1%, 2%, and 3% with subsequent overnight fluid restriction until 0800 h in the following morning (DEH) or with fluids to offset losses (CON). Participants in the DEH trial rehydrated from 0800 h until 1100 h on day 2. BML, plasma osmolality (Posm), and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed as hydration indices. Unstimulated saliva samples were assessed for flow rate (SFR), SIgA, α-amylase, and lysozyme concentrations. Posm and USG increased during dehydration and remained elevated after overnight fluid restriction (BML = 3.5% ± 0.3%, Posm = 297 ± 6 mosmol·kg⁻¹, and USG = 1.026 ± 0.002; P < 0.001). Dehydration decreased SFR (67% at 3% BML, 70% at 0800 h; P < 0.01) and increased SIgA concentration, with no effect on SIgA secretion rate. SFR and SIgA responses remained unchanged in the CON trial. Dehydration did not affect α-amylase or lysozyme concentration but decreased secretion rates of α-amylase (44% at 3% BML, 78% at 0800 h; P < 0.01) and lysozyme (46% at 3% BML, 61% at 0800 h; P < 0.01), which were lower than in CON at these time points (P < 0.05). Rehydration returned all saliva variables to baseline. In conclusion, modest dehydration (~3% BML) decreased SFR, α-amylase, and lysozyme secretion rates. Whether the observed magnitude of decrease in saliva AMPs during dehydration compromises host defence remains to be shown.

  17. Ice Cloud Formation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor is important not only for its greenhouse forcing, but also because it plays a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. several recent studies have focused on the potential for dehydration due to ice cloud formation in air rising slowly through the tropical tropopause layer. Holton and Gettelman showed that temperature variations associated with horizontal transport of air in the tropopause layer can drive ice cloud formation and dehydration, and Gettelman et al. recently examined the cloud formation and dehydration along kinematic trajectories using simple assumptions about the cloud properties. In this study, we use a Lagrangian, one-dimensional cloud model to further investigate cloud formation and dehydration as air is transported horizontally and vertically through the tropical tropopause layer. Time-height curtains of temperature are extracted from meteorological analyses. The model tracks the growth and sedimentation of individual cloud particles. The regional distribution of clouds simulated in the model is comparable to the subvisible cirrus distribution indicated by SAGE II. The simulated cloud properties depend strongly on the assumed ice supersaturation threshold for ice nucleation. with effective nuclei present (low supersaturation threshold), ice number densities are high (0.1--10 cm(circumflex)-3), and ice crystals do not grow large enough to fall very far, resulting in limited dehydration. With higher supersaturation thresholds, ice number densities are much lower (less than 0.01 cm(circumflex)-3), and ice crystals grow large enough to fall substantially; however, supersaturated air often crosses the tropopause without cloud formation. The clouds typically do not dehydrate the air along trajectories down to the temperature minimum saturation mixing ratio. Rather the water vapor mixing ratio crossing the tropopause along trajectories is typically 10-50% larger than the saturation mixing ratio.

  18. Ice Cloud Formation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor is important not only for its greenhouse forcing, but also because it plays a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. several recent studies have focused on the potential for dehydration due to ice cloud formation in air rising slowly through the tropical tropopause layer. Holton and Gettelman showed that temperature variations associated with horizontal transport of air in the tropopause layer can drive ice cloud formation and dehydration, and Gettelman et al. recently examined the cloud formation and dehydration along kinematic trajectories using simple assumptions about the cloud properties. In this study, we use a Lagrangian, one-dimensional cloud model to further investigate cloud formation and dehydration as air is transported horizontally and vertically through the tropical tropopause layer. Time-height curtains of temperature are extracted from meteorological analyses. The model tracks the growth and sedimentation of individual cloud particles. The regional distribution of clouds simulated in the model is comparable to the subvisible cirrus distribution indicated by SAGE II. The simulated cloud properties depend strongly on the assumed ice supersaturation threshold for ice nucleation. with effective nuclei present (low supersaturation threshold), ice number densities are high (0.1--10 cm(circumflex)-3), and ice crystals do not grow large enough to fall very far, resulting in limited dehydration. With higher supersaturation thresholds, ice number densities are much lower (less than 0.01 cm(circumflex)-3), and ice crystals grow large enough to fall substantially; however, supersaturated air often crosses the tropopause without cloud formation. The clouds typically do not dehydrate the air along trajectories down to the temperature minimum saturation mixing ratio. Rather the water vapor mixing ratio crossing the tropopause along trajectories is typically 10-50% larger than the saturation mixing ratio.

  19. In situ bioventing at a natural gas dehydrator site: Field demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, A.W.; Miller, D.L.; Miller, J.A.; Weightman, R.L.; Raetz, R.M.; Hayes, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a bioventing/biosparging field demonstration that was conducted over a 10-month period at a former glycol dehydrator site located near Traverse City, Michigan. The goal of the project was to determine the feasibility of this technology for dehydrator site remediation and to develop engineering design concepts for applying bioventing/biosparging at similar sites. The chemicals of interest are benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and alkanes. Soil sampling indicated that the capillary fringe and saturated zones were heavily contaminated, but that the unsaturated zone was relatively free of the contaminants. A pump-and-treat system has operated since 1991 to treat the groundwater BTEX plume. Bioventing/biosparging was installed in September 1993 to treat the contaminant source area. Three different air sparging operating modes were tested to determine an optimal process configuration for site remediation. These operational modes were compared through in situ respirometry studies. Respirometry measurements were used to estimate biodegradation rates. Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide were monitored in the groundwater.

  20. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Aleksieva, K.

    2007-06-01

    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and γ-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas γ-irradiated exhibit "sugar-like" EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

  1. Boria modified alumina probed by methanol dehydration and IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Farias, Andréa M. Duarte; Esteves, Angela M. Lavogade; Ziarelli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Stefano; Fraga, Marco A.; Appel, Lucia G.

    2004-04-01

    Al 2O 3·B 2O 3 catalysts were synthesized by co-precipitation and impregnation methods applying two calcination temperatures and boria loadings. Catalysts were analyzed by IR spectroscopy of pyridine and CO 2 adsorption and were evaluated in methanol dehydration. Results showed that boron addition to alumina causes a decrease of the number of basic and Lewis acid sites on alumina surface. It could also be observed an enhancement in acid strength of Lewis sites for impregnated samples. The results of methanol dehydration show that strong Brönsted sites are not formed on borate alumina.

  2. Process and apparatus for dehydrating waste solids concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanno, A.J.; Greenfield, C.

    1983-03-22

    An apparatus and process for dehydrating waste solids concentrates including secondary and digested sewage sludges and those concentrates prone to form emulsions upon the addition of oil are obtained and accomplished by mixing the sludge or other concentrate with fluidizing oil prior to dehydration by heat evaporation to maintain pumpability; recycling a portion of the substantially anhydrous waste solids and oil evaporator output slurry, and admixing it with the fluidizing oil and input sludge or concentrate to regulate the solids content and viscosity of the steady state feed mixture and thereby prevent fouling of the evaporator heat transfer surfaces and convert emulsions to suspensions.

  3. How reaction and permeability develop in dehydrating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, H. J.; Faulkner, D. R.; Wheeler, J.; Bedford, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    The triggering of earthquakes at intermediate-depth along subduction zones is often explained by dehydration reactions, releasing free-water and allowing pore-fluid pressure build-up. During dehydration reactions, pore-fluid pressure is increased when permeability is low enough to prevent fluid escape. Permeability is not constant during dehydration reactions but is rather changed by porosity changes (i.e. solid volume reduction or pore compaction). The evolution of permeability during dehydration reactions will thus dictate the pore-fluid pressure evolution that will affect rock strength and earthquake triggering. However, our understanding on the coupling between permeability, pore-fluid pressure, microstructures, deformation and reaction rate is incomplete. In some cases, the development of reactions is distributed uniformly and permeability increases steadily throughout the reaction progress. In other cases, reactions will not proceed uniformly and nature along with previous experiments indicate that "reaction fronts" develop. On the large scale, reaction rate and fluid pressure evolution depend on the movement of these fronts. Experimental results are presented on permeability and reaction front evolution during gypsum dehydration - an analogue for silicate dehydration. Triaxial experiments were conducted using polycrystalline gypsum cores with very low initial porosity. Pore-fluid pressure is controlled at one end of the sample and monitored at the other in order to measure permeability. Gypsum cores were dehydrated at a constant temperature of 115°C. Two parameter spaces were explored: the pore-fluid pressure (20, 40 or 60 MPa) that influences reaction rate, and effective confining pressure (60 or 110 MPa) that influences pore-compaction. The evolution of permeability, porosity, reaction rate and pore-fluid pressure are measured throughout the reaction. SEM observations of post-mortem samples collected at three key stages during the reaction shows how the

  4. Ductile Deformation of Dehydrating Serpentinite Evidenced by Acoustic Signal Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasc, J.; Hilairet, N.; Wang, Y.; Schubnel, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinite dehydration is believed to be responsible for triggering earthquakes at intermediate depths (i.e., 60-300 km) in subduction zones. Based on experimental results, some authors have proposed mechanisms that explain how brittle deformation can occur despite high pressure and temperature conditions [1]. However, reproducing microseismicity in the laboratory associated with the deformation of dehydrating serpentinite remains challenging. A recent study showed that, even for fast dehydration kinetics, ductile deformation could take place rather than brittle faulting in the sample [2]. This latter study was conducted in a multi-anvil apparatus without the ability to control differential stress during dehydration. We have since conducted controlled deformation experiments in the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) on natural serpentinite samples at sector 13 (GSECARS) of the APS. Monochromatic radiation was used with both a 2D MAR-CCD detector and a CCD camera to determine the stress and the strain of the sample during the deformation process [3]. In addition, an Acoustic Emission (AE) recording setup was used to monitor the microseismicity from the sample, using piezo-ceramic transducers glued on the basal truncation of the anvils. The use of six independent transducers allows locating the AEs and calculating the corresponding focal mechanisms. The samples were deformed at strain rates of 10-5-10-4 s-1 under confining pressures of 3-5 GPa. Dehydration was triggered during the deformation by heating the samples at rates ranging from 5 to 60 K/min. Before the onset of the dehydration, X-ray diffraction data showed that the serpentinite sustained ~1 GPa of stress which plummeted when dehydration occurred. Although AEs were recorded during the compression and decompression stages, no AEs ever accompanied this stress drop, suggesting ductile deformation of the samples. Hence, unlike many previous studies, no evidence for fluid embrittlement and anticrack generation was found

  5. The role of venous diameter in predicting arteriovenous fistula maturation: when not to expect an AVF to mature according to pre-operative vein diameter measurements? A best evidence topic.

    PubMed

    Bashar, K; Clarke-Moloney, M; Burke, P E; Kavanagh, E G; Walsh, S R

    2015-03-01

    This best evidence topic was investigated according to a described protocol. We asked the question: what is the minimal vein diameter that can successfully predict maturation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in patients undergoing dialysis. Using the reported search 804 papers were found, of which five represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. All studies assessed the association between successful AVF maturation and the size of vein used. The strongest evidence came from a nonrandomised controlled follow-up study in which 76% of fistulas created using >2 mm cephalic vein successfully matured compared to 16% when the vein measured ≤2 mm. Another prospective, multicentre study showed 65% successful maturation using veins >4 mm compared to 45% with veins <3 mm. Vein diameter was found to be an independent predictor of maturation in multivariate regression analysis in two retrospective observational studies. Another retrospective observational study found that using venous measurements of ≥2.5 mm following tourniquet application resulted in more fistulas been created that would have otherwise been denied based on venous ultrasound mapping. A large multicentre randomised clinical trial assessing the use of different vein sizes both with and without tourniquet application using proper statistical tools - such as receiver operating characteristic - is required to make a final recommendation. Until then, a vein diameter of <2.5 mm should be considered inadequate for formation of an AVF, particularly if those measurements remain unchanged following the use of tourniquet. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  7. Increased efficiency using the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation methods. Between one and seven shoot tips were encapsulated within 4 mm calcium-alginate beads. Beads were formed in the presence of 2 M glycerol+0.4M sucrose. The time required to mak...

  8. Study of wound dressing structure and hydration/dehydration properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugão, A. B.; Machado, L. D. B.; Miranda, L. F.; Alvarez, M. R.; Rosiak, J. M.

    1998-06-01

    Hydrogels manufactured by radio-induced crosslinking and simultaneous sterilisation of hydrogels of PVP, PEG and agar, according to the Rosiak method, have many desirable properties for using as wound dressings. However, some properties need to be improved or better controlled. The membranes need to be strong enough to be freely used. Another important property to be controlled is the capacity of absorption of exudate and the kinetics of drying. Therefore, it was necessary to understand the role of main parameters (agar, PVP, PEG concentration and dose) in the structure of the net and in the hydration and dehydration properties. The structure of the membranes was studied by sol analysis and the hydrating/dehydrating properties were studied by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The gel content for all samples were always in agreement with expected values considering that only PVP undergoes crosslinking. The hydrating and dehydration results did not show variation with the tested parameters. It was concluded that the network was solely composed of crosslinked PVP plasticezed by the other compounds. The properties of hydration/dehydration is related rather to diffusion than to capillarity or osmose and to the chemical retention of water in the polymeric matrix.

  9. Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children with Dehydrating Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ronan, Anne; Khan, Wasif Ali; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia are based on the history of cough or difficult breathing and age-adjusted respiration rates. Metabolic acidosis associated with dehydrating diarrhoea also influences the respiration rate. Two hundred and four children, aged 2 to 59 months, with dehydrating diarrhoea and a history of cough and/or fast breathing, were enrolled in a prospective study. Pneumonia diagnoses were made on enrollment and again 6 hours post-enrollment (after initial rehydration), using the WHO guidelines. These were compared with investigators’ clinical diagnosis based on history and findings of physical examination and a chest x-ray at the same time points. Using the WHO guidelines, 149/152 (98%) infants in the 2-11 months age-group and 38/40 (95%) children in the 12-59 months age-group were diagnosed to have pneumonia on enrollment, which dropped to 107 (70%) and 30 (75%) respectively at 6 hours post-enrollment. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia was very low (6.9%) at enrollment but increased to 65.5% at 6 hours post-enrollment, after initial rehydration. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia in young children is significantly reduced in dehydrating diarrhoea. For young children with dehydrating diarrhoea, rehydration, clinical and radiological assessments are useful in identifying those with true pneumonia. PMID:24847588

  10. Science Study Aids 1: Dehydration for Food Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeschen, John; And Others

    This publication is the first of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grades 9 through 12. It is concerned with the osmatic dehydration of fruits. The guide provides students with information about food…

  11. DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOLS VIA PERVAPORATION USING A NOVEL HYDROHILIC MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a suitable membrane system with high flux and high selectivity plays a criti...

  12. DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOLS VIA PREVAPORATION USING A NOVEL HYDROPHILIC MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a suitable membrane system with high flux and high selectivity plays a criti...

  13. DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOLS VIA PERVAPORATION USING A NOVEL HYDROHILIC MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a suitable membrane system with high flux and high selectivity plays a criti...

  14. DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOLS VIA PREVAPORATION USING A NOVEL HYDROPHILIC MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a suitable membrane system with high flux and high selectivity plays a criti...

  15. Diagnosis of pneumonia in children with dehydrating diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debasish; Ronan, Anne; Khan, Wasif Ali; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia are based on the history of cough or difficult breathing and age-adjusted respiration rates. Metabolic acidosis associated with dehydrating diarrhoea also influences the respiration rate. Two hundred and four children, aged 2 to 59 months, with dehydrating diarrhoea and a history of cough and/or fast breathing, were enrolled in a prospective study. Pneumonia diagnoses were made on enrollment and again 6 hours post-enrollment (after initial rehydration), using the WHO guidelines. These were compared with investigators' clinical diagnosis based on history and findings of physical examination and a chest x-ray at the same time points. Using the WHO guidelines, 149/152 (98%) infants in the 2-11 months age-group and 38/40 (95%) children in the 12-59 months age-group were diagnosed to have pneumonia on enrollment, which dropped to 107 (70%) and 30 (75%) respectively at 6 hours post-enrollment. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia was very low (6.9%) at enrollment but increased to 65.5% at 6 hours post-enrollment, after initial rehydration. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia in young children is significantly reduced in dehydrating diarrhoea. For young children with dehydrating diarrhoea, rehydration, clinical and radiological assessments are useful in identifying those with true pneumonia.

  16. [Oral rehydration in newborns with dehydration caused by diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Mota-Hernández, F; Rillman-Pinagel, M L; Velásquez-Jones, L

    1990-08-01

    The clinical experience obtained while treating 43 dehydrated newborns due to diarrhea with oral rehydration solution (ORS) using the formula recommended by the World Health Organization is reported. Of the 43 patients, 26 were severely dehydrated (greater than equal to 10% of weight recovery once rehydrated). The averaged time need to correct the dehydration was 4.7 +/- 2.7 hours, with a average intake of ORS of 26.5 +/- 7.5 mL/kg/hour. Children who were being breastfed continued so during the rehydration period. Two of the patients were hospitalized for intravenous treatment, one was due to persistent vomiting during rehydration and probably due to sepsis, and the other due to necrosing enterocolitis. The oral rehydration therapy was successful in 95% of the newborns included in the study, which proved the method to be safe and adequate for the correction of dehydration due to diarrhea among these patients. Similar experiences are reported in Mexico as well as from other countries, which also suggest the use of this therapeutic procedure in children of this age.

  17. Mechanisms by Which Dehydration May Lead to Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Roncal-Jimenez, C; Lanaspa, M A; Jensen, T; Sanchez-Lozada, L G; Johnson, R J

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration, a condition that characterizes excessive loss of body water, is well known to be associated with acute renal dysfunction; however, it has largely been considered reversible and to be associated with no long-term effects on the kidney. Recently, an epidemic of chronic kidney disease has emerged in Central America in which the major risk factor seems to be recurrent heat-associated dehydration. This has led to studies investigating whether recurrent dehydration may lead to permanent kidney damage. Three major potential mechanisms have been identified, including the effects of vasopressin on the kidney, the activation of the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway, and the effects of chronic hyperuricemia. The discovery of these pathways has also led to the recognition that mild dehydration may be a risk factor in progression of all types of chronic kidney diseases. Furthermore, there is some evidence that increasing hydration, particularly with water, may actually prevent CKD. Thus, a whole new area of investigation is developing that focuses on the role of water and osmolarity and their influence on kidney function and health.

  18. Persistence of Salmonella enterica during dehydration and subsequent cold storage.

    PubMed

    Gruzdev, Nadia; Pinto, Riky; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo

    2012-12-01

    Despite the fact that Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium SL 1344 has served as a model pathogen in many studies, information regarding its desiccation response is still scarce. In this study, we investigated environmental conditions that affect Salmonella survival following dehydration and subsequent cold storage, using a 96-well polystyrene plate model. The SL 1344 strain exhibited high survival compared with other Typhimurium isolates and S. enterica serotypes. Further characterization of desiccation tolerance in this strain revealed that temperature, stationary-phase of growth, solid medium, and the presence of increasing NaCl concentrations (0.5-5.0%) in the growth medium enhanced desiccation tolerance. Dehydration at basic pHs (8-10), or in trehalose, sucrose, but not in glycine-betaine, improved bacterial persistence. Dehydrated Salmonella survived over 100 weeks at 4 °C with a ∼5-log reduction in numbers. However, viability staining revealed only a ∼50% reduction in viable cells, suggesting bacterial transition into a viable-but-not-cultivable state (VBNC). Addition of chloramphenicol reduced bacterial survival implying that adaptation to desiccation stress requires de-novo protein synthesis. Consistent with this finding, shortening the dehydration time resulted in lower survival. This study emphasizes the impact of environmental conditions on the fate of dried Salmonella in the food chain and highlights the potential transition of the pathogen to the VBNC state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compositional Constraints on Dehydration Embrittlement in Serpentinized Peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, G.; Zhang, J.; Green, H. W.

    2012-12-01

    Double seismic zones (DSZ) which have two parallel planes of seismicity separated by 15-40 km are a global feature of subduction zones in the 70-250 km depth range (Brudzinski et al., 2007). While the physical mechanism of lower plane seismicity is still controversial, the leading hypotheses currently are associated with dehydration of antigorite serpentine within the subducting mantle plate (Peacock, 2001; Jung et al., 2004). In this study, we are conducting high-pressure (1-3GPa), high-temperature (720-750 Celsius), deformation experiments on specimens of varying compositions of serpentine plus peridotite in our 4GPa Modified Griggs apparatus. Using samples composed of interlayered thin discs of antigorite and harzburgite, we find that dehydration embrittlement occurs down to less than ~30 vol % antigorite. Interlayered mineralogy was impractical at lower antigorite fractions so we prepared homogeneous mixtures of powders of the two rock types (35-75 μm grain-size) and "warm" pressed them to a coherent solid with little porosity. Subsequent deformation of these specimens extended the faulting regime to as little as ~8 vol % antigorite. In summary, we find that faulting occurs during dehydration in a wide range of serpentinized peridotite compositions but not during dehydration of nearly pure serpentinite nor nearly pure peridotite. We suggest that the lack of faulting in nearly pure peridotite is a consequence of too little H2O production and the lack of faulting in nearly pure serpentine is due to extensive crystal plasticity.

  20. X-ray studies of crystal transformation in dehydrating trehalose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Duncan; Sokol, Paul

    2008-03-01

    The disaccharide trehalose is known to assist in stabilizing dehydrated biological cellular structure. It is present in relatively large quantities in certain organisms whose bodies remain viable for significant periods of time under conditions of extreme drought. Whilst trehalose may not be unique among the sugars in this function, there have been several studies investigating the influence of water on trehalose structure in the hope of determining the mechanism responsible for the properties noted above. We report real-time wide angle X-ray diffraction studies as the commonly occurring crystalline dihydrate form of trehalose is dehydrated at a range of temperatures (in the range 40-70 C) and forms the `alpha' crystalline form of anhydrous trehalose. We find that there is evidence of a two-step process: the dehydration, followed by a crystalline-crystalline transition. The speed of the latter transition is surprising because the dehydrated amorphous form of trehalose has a glass transition temperature of roughly 120 C.

  1. Novel Topic Authorship Attribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    include area code ) NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8–98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 25-03-2011 Master’s Thesis 2010-01-01—2011-03-25...your writer’s voice. St. Martin’s Press, 1994. 43 [35] S. Roman, Introduction to Coding and Information Theory. Springer-Verlag New York, New York...0 0 0 0 T50077 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTALS 1582 3293 1493 1858 1182 1129 1160 1107 Table B.2: Topic/Author Data Tabulation 48 AUTHORS TOPICS A100512

  2. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  3. Clinical symptoms, signs and tests for identification of impending and current water-loss dehydration in older people.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Attreed, Natalie J; Campbell, Wayne W; Channell, Adam M; Chassagne, Philippe; Culp, Kennith R; Fletcher, Stephen J; Fortes, Matthew B; Fuller, Nigel; Gaspar, Phyllis M; Gilbert, Daniel J; Heathcote, Adam C; Kafri, Mohannad W; Kajii, Fumiko; Lindner, Gregor; Mack, Gary W; Mentes, Janet C; Merlani, Paolo; Needham, Rowan A; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Perren, Andreas; Powers, James; Ranson, Sheila C; Ritz, Patrick; Rowat, Anne M; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Smith, Alexandra C; Stookey, Jodi J D; Stotts, Nancy A; Thomas, David R; Vivanti, Angela; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Waldréus, Nana; Walsh, Neil P; Ward, Sean; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul

    2015-04-30

    each index test study data were presented in forest plots of sensitivity and specificity. The primary target condition was water-loss dehydration (including either impending or current water-loss dehydration). Secondary target conditions were intended as current (> 300 mOsm/kg) and impending (295 to 300 mOsm/kg) water-loss dehydration, but restricted to current dehydration in the final review.We conducted bivariate random-effects meta-analyses (Stata/IC, StataCorp) for index tests where there were at least four studies and study datasets could be pooled to construct sensitivity and specificity summary estimates. We assigned the same approach for index tests with continuous outcome data for each of three pre-specified cut-off points investigated.Pre-set minimum sensitivity of a useful test was 60%, minimum specificity 75%. As pre-specifying three cut-offs for each continuous test may have led to missing a cut-off with useful sensitivity and specificity, we conducted post-hoc exploratory analyses to create receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves where there appeared some possibility of a useful cut-off missed by the original three. These analyses enabled assessment of which tests may be worth assessing in further research. A further exploratory analysis assessed the value of combining the best two index tests where each had some individual predictive ability. There were few published studies of the diagnostic accuracy of state (one time), minimally invasive clinical symptoms, signs or tests to be used as screening tests for detecting water-loss dehydration in older people. Therefore, to complete this review we sought, analysed and included raw datasets that included a reference standard and an index test in people aged ≥ 65 years.We included three studies with published diagnostic accuracy data and a further 21 studies provided datasets that we analysed. We assessed 67 tests (at three cut-offs for each continuous outcome) for diagnostic accuracy of water

  4. Spatiotemporal evolution of dehydration reactions in subduction zones (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padron-Navarta, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale deep water cycling takes place through subduction zones in the Earth, making our planet unique in the solar system. This idiosyncrasy is the result of a precise but unknown balance between in-gassing and out-gassing fluxes of volatiles. Water is incorporated into hydrous minerals during seafloor alteration of the oceanic lithosphere. The cycling of volatiles is triggered by dehydration of these minerals that release fluids from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge and eventually to the crust or to the deep mantle. Whereas the loci of such reactions are reasonably well established, the mechanisms of fluid migration during dehydration reactions are still barely known. One of the challenges is that dehydration reactions are dynamic features evolving in time and space. Experimental data on low-temperature dehydration reactions (i.e. gypsum) and numerical models applied to middle-crust conditions point to a complex spatiotemporal evolution of the dehydration process. The extrapolation of these inferences to subduction settings has not yet been explored but it is essential to understand the dynamism of these settings. Here I propose an alternative approach to tackle this problem through the textural study of high-pressure terrains that experienced dehydration reactions. Spatiotemporal evolution of dehydration reactions should be recorded during mineral nucleation and growth through variations in time and space of the reaction rate. Insights on the fluid migration mechanism could be inferred therefore by noting changes in the texture of prograde assemblages. The dehydration of antigorite in serpentinite is a perfect candidate to test this approach as it releases a significant amount of fluid and produces a concomitant porosity. Unusual alternation of equilibrium and disequilibrium textures observed in Cerro del Almirez (Betic Cordillera, S Spain)[1, 2] attest for a complex fluid migration pattern for one of the most relevant reactions in subduction zones

  5. Mild dehydration does not reduce postexercise appetite or energy intake.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peta J; Guelfi, Kym J; Wallman, Karen E; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2012-03-01

    It has now been established that exercise performed under various environmental conditions may affect acute energy intake and appetite-related hormones. The exact mechanism linking acute energy intake and exercise remains unknown, although indirect evidence suggests a possible role for hydration status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of exercise and hydration status on subsequent energy intake and appetite-related hormones. In a randomized, counterbalanced design, 10 physically active males completed three experimental trials in a fasted state: exercise when hydrated (0%-1% of body mass), exercise when dehydrated (-1% to -2% of body mass), and a hydrated resting control. Exercise consisted of treadmill running for 45 min at 70% VO2peak. Participants were then given access to a buffet-style breakfast from which they could consume ad libitum. Blood was sampled regularly during trials for appetite-related hormones. There were no significant differences in total energy intake between trials (P = 0.491); however, relative energy intake was significantly higher in the control (4839 ± 415 kJ, P < 0.001) compared to hydrated (1749 ± 403 kJ) and dehydrated exercise (1656 ± 413 kJ) conditions. Exercise performed in a dehydrated state resulted in significantly lower concentrations of ghrelin compared with control (P = 0.045) and hydrated exercise conditions (P = 0.014). Exercise significantly decreased relative energy intake compared with resting control; however, energy intake (relative and total) was no different between the exercise conditions (dehydrated vs hydrated). Despite similar energy intake between trials, exercise in a dehydrated state resulted in a significantly lower concentration of ghrelin, a hormone responsible for stimulating appetite.

  6. Effect of exercise, heat stress and dehydration on myocardial performance.

    PubMed

    Fehling, P C; Haller, J M; Lefferts, W K; Hultquist, E M; Wharton, M; Rowland, T W; Smith, D L

    2015-06-01

    Myocardial dysfunction is a well-documented outcome of extended periods of high cardiac output. Whether similar effects occur during firefighting, an occupation characterized by repeated periods of work compounded by dehydration and heat stress, is uncertain. To investigate the independent and combined effects of moderate heat stress and dehydration on indicators of myocardial performance following intermittent, submaximal treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Twelve aerobically fit young men (age 21.5±2.6 years; maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 60.3±4.4ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed intermittent treadmill walking exercise consisting of three 20min bouts at an intensity of ~40% VO2max separated by two periods of rest in four different conditions in random order: (i) no heat stress-euhydrated, (ii) heat stress-euhydrated (heat stress created by wearing PPE, (iii) no heat stress-dehydrated and (iv) heat stress-dehydrated. We measured core temperature by a telemetric gastrointestinal pill. We determined cardiac variables by standard echocardiographic techniques immediately before and ~30min after exercise. We recorded no significant changes in markers of systolic (ejection fraction, shortening fraction, tissue Doppler-S) or diastolic (mitral peak E velocity, tissue Doppler-E' and E/E') function following exercise in any of the four conditions. In this model of exercise designed to mimic the work, heat stress and dehydration associated with firefighting activities, we observed no negative effects on myocardial inotropic or lusitropic function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. mPGES-1-derived PGE2 mediates dehydration natriuresis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhanjun; Liu, Gang; Sun, Ying; Kakizoe, Yutaka; Guan, Guangju; Zhang, Aihua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yang, Tianxin

    2013-01-15

    PGE(2) is a natriuretic factor whose production is elevated after water deprivation (WD) but its role in dehydration natriuresis is not well-defined. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in dehydration natriuresis. After 24-h WD, wild-type (WT) mice exhibited a significant increase in 24-h urinary Na(+) excretion accompanied with normal plasma Na(+) concentration and osmolality. In contrast, WD-induced elevation of urinary Na(+) excretion was completely abolished in mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice in parallel with increased plasma Na(+) concentration and a trend increase in plasma osmolality. WD induced a 1.8-fold increase in urinary PGE(2) output and a 1.6-fold increase in PGE(2) content in the renal medulla of WT mice, both of which were completely abolished by mPGES-1 deletion. Similar patterns of changes were observed for urinary nitrate/nitrite and cGMP. The natriuresis in dehydrated WT mice was associated with a significant downregulation of renal medullary epithelial Na channel-α mRNA and protein, contrasting to unaltered expressions in dehydrated KO mice. By quantitative RT-PCR, WD increased the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS, and neuronal NOS expressions in the renal medulla of WT mice by 3.9-, 1.48-, and 2.6-fold, respectively, all of which were significantly blocked in mPGES-1 KO mice. The regulation of eNOS expression was further confirmed by immunoblotting. Taken together, our results suggest that mPGES-1-derived PGE(2) contributes to dehydration natriuresis likely via NO/cGMP.

  8. Self-Organizing Reactive Fluid Escape from Dehydrating Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, T.; Pluemper, O.; Podladchikov, Y.; Vrijmoed, J. C.; Scambelluri, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water escape from dehydrating rocks within the Earth's interior is a key process for long-term global water and element cycles, eg. at subduction zones a fluid escape mechanism must exist that prevents ocean water to be drained into the mantle. Existing fluid flow models require a priori physical assumptions (eg. preexisting porosity) and cannot resolve the evolution from initial fluid production to flow channelization. In order to develop a model of this evolution, we need to unravel natural laboratories that display the incipient dehydration stages and the micro- to macro-scale fluid escape route evolution. The Erro-Tobbio meta-serpentinites (Italy) provide a unique snapshot into these early dehydration stages, recording the breakdown of hydrous antigorite to anhydrous olivine plus fluid and the formation of an olivine-vein network. We find that dehydration, fluid pooling, and flow initiation are controlled by micro-scale compositional rock differences. Our model starts with a rock in which all water is stored in solid and any preexisting porosity is negligible (zero-porosity case). As the rock descents into the mantle increasing T will initiate dehydration reactions, dividing the rock continuously into a dry solid and a fluid-filled porosity. Spatially variable reaction progress results in dynamically evolving porosity/permeability and heterogeneous fluid-pore pressure distributions. Fluid-pressure gradient relaxation causes fluid flow and its thermodynamic feedback triggers reactions to progress, resulting in a self-amplifying process. Our new thermodynamic-mechanical model for reaction-porosity waves shows that fluid flow occurs solely in the reaction products and self-organizes into channelized fluid escape networks. This holds the key to formulating future quantitative models that address spatiotemporal processes such as the coupling between fluid release at depth and volcanic eruptions and the amounts of structurally bound water transferred into deep Earth.

  9. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  10. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  11. Integrating Local Governmental Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centner, Terence J.

    1994-01-01

    Students who pursue business and professional careers in natural resources and life science (NRLS) will have a decided need for a basic understanding of local government topics that shape public policy. Suggests that a responsible curriculum in NRLS should provide students with opportunities to explore these issues, and discusses methods for…

  12. Diclofenac Topical (actinic keratosis)

    MedlinePlus

    Solaraze® Gel ... Diclofenac topical gel (Solaraze) is used to treat actinic keratosis (flat, scaly growths on the skin caused by too much sun ... nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The way diclofenac gel works to treat actinic keratosis is not known. ...

  13. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  14. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  15. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  16. Topical delivery of hexamidine.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Nicola; Paz-Alvarez, Miguel; Matts, Paul J; Lever, Rebecca; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2016-06-15

    Hexamidine diisethionate (HEX D) has been used for its biocidal actions in topical preparations since the 1950s. Recent data also suggest that it plays a beneficial role in skin homeostasis. To date, the extent to which this compound penetrates the epidermis has not been reported nor how its topical delivery may be modulated. In the present work we set out to characterise the interaction of HEX D with the skin and to develop a range of simple formulations for topical targeting of the active. A further objective was to compare the skin penetration of HEX D with its corresponding dihydrochloride salt (HEX H) as the latter has more favourable physicochemical properties for skin uptake. Candidate vehicles were evaluated by in vitro Franz cell permeation studies using porcine skin. Initially, neat solvents were investigated and subsequently binary systems were examined. The solvents and chemical penetration enhancers investigated included glycerol, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 1,2-pentanol (1,2-PENT), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200, propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) and Transcutol(®)P (TC). Of a total of 30 binary solvent systems evaluated only 10 delivered higher amounts of active into the skin compared with the neat solvents. In terms of topical efficacy, formulations containing PGML far surpassed all other solvents or binary combinations. More than 70% of HEX H was extracted from the skin following application in PG:PGML (50:50). Interestingly, the same vehicle effectively promoted skin penetration of HEX D but demonstrated significantly lower uptake into and through the skin (30%). The findings confirm the unpredictable nature of excipients on delivery of actives with reference to skin even where there are minor differences in molecular structures. We also believe that they underline the ongoing necessity for fundamental studies on the interaction of topical excipients with the skin.

  17. Reversion and dehydration reactions of glucose during the dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The inaccessibility of all glycosidic bonds necessitates industrial conversion schemes which employ a dilute acid catalyst at high temperatures. Process conditions also promote further reactions of glucose via the reversion and dehydration pathways. Quantitative determination of the yields of the major reversion and dehydration products is important for understanding and predicting the amounts of these materials expected under envisioned industrial operating conditions. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid (0.0-1.25 wt.%), at high temperatures (160-250/sup 0/C), and at a 3:1 liquid-to-solid ratio. The hydrolysis was monitored by evaluating the amount of cellulose remaining and the yields of glucose, solid humin, levulinic acid, formic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and reversion products as a function of the aforementioned reaction conditions. Analysis of the reversion products required the development of a technique for the quantitation of trace carbohydrates in complex mixtures and led to the development of a reduction/permethylation gas chromatographic procedure. Cellulose hydrolysis followed pseudo-homogeneous first-order kinetics. Glucose yield was adequately described as consecutive first-order reactions. Anhydrosugars formed via reversion followed equilibrium reaction kinetics whereas the disaccharides did not. Total reversion product yields approached 10% at 250/sup 0/C. Quantitative determination of the major dehydration products provided important information concerning the destruction of glucose. HMF was produced in up to 12% yields based on the theoretical amount of glucose available, and furfural was detected in up to 5% yields. A carbon mass balance based on the determined product yields revealed that approximately 90% of all carbon was accounted for at maximum glucose yields.

  18. Dehydration Injury in Germinating Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Senaratna, Tissa; McKersie, Bryan D.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Maple Arrow) seeds to dehydration changed during germination. Seeds were tolerant of dehydration to 10% moisture if dried at 6 hours of imbibition, but were susceptible to dehydration injury if dried at 36 hours of imbibition. Dehydration injury appeared as loss of germination, slower growth rates of isolated axes, hypocotyl and root curling, and altered membrane permeability. Increased electrolyte leakage due to dehydration treatment was observed only from isolated axes but not from cotyledons, suggesting that cotyledons are more tolerant of dehydration. The transition from a dehydration-tolerant to a dehydration-susceptible state coincided with radicle elongation. However, the prevention of cell elongation by osmotic treatment in polyethylene glycol (−6 bars) or imbibition in 20 micrograms per milliliter cycloheximide did not prevent the loss of dehydration tolerance suggesting that neither cell elongation nor cytoplasmic protein synthesis was responsible for the change in sensitivity of soybean seeds to dehydration. Furthermore, the rate of dehydration or rate of rehydration did not alter the response to the dehydration stress. PMID:16663056

  19. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  20. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  1. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  2. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  3. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  4. Slab crustal dehydration, melting and dynamics through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hunen, Jeroen; Bouilhol, Pierre; Magni, Valentina; Maunder, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Melting subducted mafic crust is commonly assumed to be the main process leading to silicic melts with an adakitic signature, which may form Archaean granitoids and generate early continental crust. Alternatively, melting of the overriding lower mafic crust and near-Moho depth fractional crystallisation of mantle melts can form differentiated magmas with an adakitic signature. Previous work shows how only very young slabs melt through dehydration melting, or depict melting of dry eclogites via water addition from deeper slab dehydration. We quantify subduction dehydration and melting reactions in a warm subduction system using a thermo-mechanical subduction model with a thermodynamic database. We find that even young (hot) slabs dehydrate before reaching their solidus, which suppresses any slab dehydration melting and creates significant amounts of mantle wedge melting irrespective of slab age. Significant slab crust melting is only achieved in young slabs via water present melting if metamorphic fluids from the subducted mantle flux through the dry eclogites. These slab melts, however, are affected by massive mantle wedge melting and unlikely to participate in the overriding plate felsic magmatism, unlike the shallower, primitive mantle wedge melts. Understanding the overall flux of water carried by the descending slab mantle is therefore of prime importance. We thus inverstigated the deeper dehydration processes in subduction zones and implications for the water cycle throughout Earth's history. We estimate that presently ~26% of the global influx water is recycled into the mantle, and that deep water recycling was also significant (although less efficient, 2-13% at 2.8 Ga) in early Earth conditions, which has important implications for mantle dynamics and tectonic processes in the Early Earth. Alternatively, delamination and underplating of the mafic subducted crust would be a suitable mechanism to fit the geological record. We thus explore the conditions for

  5. Mixed Alcohol Dehydration over Bronsted and Lewis Acidic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Connor P.; Ramanathan, Anand; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Behl, Mayank; Gjersing, Erica; Griffin, Michael; Zhu, Hongda; Subramaniam, Bala; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Hensley, Jesse E.

    2015-12-01

    Mixed alcohols are attractive oxygenated products of biomass-derived syngas because they may be catalytically converted to a range of hydrocarbon products, including liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Catalytic dehydration to form olefins is a potential first step in the conversion of C2–C4 alcohols into longer-chain hydrocarbons. Here, we describe the physical and chemical characterization along with catalytic activity and selectivity of 4 Brønsted and Lewis acidic catalysts for the dehydration of two mixed alcohol feed streams that are representative of products from syngas conversion over K-CoMoS type catalysts (i.e., ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol). Specifically, a Lewis acidic Zr-incorporated mesoporous silicate (Zr-KIT-6), a commercial Al-containing mesoporous silicate (Al-MCM-41), a commercial microporous aluminosilicate (HZSM-5), and a commercial microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO-34) were tested for mixed alcohol dehydration at 250, 300 and 350 °C. The zeolite materials exhibited high activity (>98% ethanol conversion) at all temperatures while the mesoporous materials only displayed significant activity (>10% ethanol conversion) at or above 300 °C. The turnover frequencies for ethanol dehydration at 300 °C decreased in the following order: HZSM-5 > SAPO-34 > Al-MCM-41 > Zr-KIT-6, suggesting that Brønsted acidic sites are more active than Lewis acidic sites for alcohol dehydration. At 300 °C, SAPO-34 produced the highest yield of olefin products from both a water-free ethanol rich feed stream and a C3+-alcohol rich feed stream containing water. Post-reaction characterization indicated changes in the Brønsted-to-Lewis acidic site ratios for Zr-KIT-6, Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5. Ammonia temperature programmed desorption indicated that the acid sites of post-reaction samples could be regenerated following treatment in air. The post-reaction SAPO-34 catalyst contained more aromatic, methylated aromatic

  6. Mixed Alcohol Dehydration over Bronsted and Lewis Acidic Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Nash, Connor P.; Ramanathan, Anand; Ruddy, Daniel A.; ...

    2015-12-01

    Mixed alcohols are attractive oxygenated products of biomass-derived syngas because they may be catalytically converted to a range of hydrocarbon products, including liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Catalytic dehydration to form olefins is a potential first step in the conversion of C2–C4 alcohols into longer-chain hydrocarbons. Here, we describe the physical and chemical characterization along with catalytic activity and selectivity of 4 Brønsted and Lewis acidic catalysts for the dehydration of two mixed alcohol feed streams that are representative of products from syngas conversion over K-CoMoS type catalysts (i.e., ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol). Specifically, a Lewis acidic Zr-incorporated mesoporous silicate (Zr-KIT-6),more » a commercial Al-containing mesoporous silicate (Al-MCM-41), a commercial microporous aluminosilicate (HZSM-5), and a commercial microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO-34) were tested for mixed alcohol dehydration at 250, 300 and 350 °C. The zeolite materials exhibited high activity (>98% ethanol conversion) at all temperatures while the mesoporous materials only displayed significant activity (>10% ethanol conversion) at or above 300 °C. The turnover frequencies for ethanol dehydration at 300 °C decreased in the following order: HZSM-5 > SAPO-34 > Al-MCM-41 > Zr-KIT-6, suggesting that Brønsted acidic sites are more active than Lewis acidic sites for alcohol dehydration. At 300 °C, SAPO-34 produced the highest yield of olefin products from both a water-free ethanol rich feed stream and a C3+-alcohol rich feed stream containing water. Post-reaction characterization indicated changes in the Brønsted-to-Lewis acidic site ratios for Zr-KIT-6, Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5. Ammonia temperature programmed desorption indicated that the acid sites of post-reaction samples could be regenerated following treatment in air. The post-reaction SAPO-34 catalyst contained more aromatic, methylated aromatic and polyaromatic compounds

  7. Concluding remarks: Emerging topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret-Gallix, D.

    2006-04-01

    In summing up this workshop, we would like to open a broad discussion on additional emerging topics that may contribute to shape the future of physics research computing activities. To initiate this global discussion let me address in this short contribution some of these issues: distributed public computing, social or collaborative software, web computing, high precision numerical computation, common development platforms and languages issues. We welcome contributions to this discussion on the ACAT Twiki web site.

  8. Cold trap dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer characterized by SOWER chilled-mirror hygrometer network data in the Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, F.; Inai, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Vömel, H.; Nishi, N.; Ogino, S.-Y.; Shibata, T.; Iwasaki, S.; Komala, N.; Peter, T.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2012-09-01

    A network of balloon-born radiosonde observations employing chilled-mirror hygrometers for water and electrochemical concentration cells for ozone has been operated since late 1990s in the Tropical Pacific trying to capture the progress of dehydration for the air parcels advected horizontally in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). The analyses of this dataset are made on isentropes taking advantage of the conservative properties of tracers in adiabatic motion. The existence of ice particles is diagnosed by lidars simultaneously operated with sonde flights. Characteristics of the TTL dehydration are presented on the basis of individual soundings and statistical features. Supersaturations close to 80% in the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) have been observed in subvisible cirrus clouds located near the cold point tropopause at extremely low temperatures around 180 K. Further observational evidence is needed to confirm the credibility of such high values of RHice. The progress of TTL dehydration is reflected in isentropic scatter plots between the sonde-observed mixing ratio (OMR) and the minimum saturation mixing ratio (SMRmin) along the back trajectories associated with the observed air mass. The supersaturation exceeding the critical value of the homogeneous ice nucleation (OMR > 1.6 × SMRmin) is frequently observed on 360 and 365 K surfaces indicating that the cold trap dehydration is under progress in the TTL. The near correspondence between the two (OMR ~ SMRmin) on 380 K on the other hand implies that this surface is not significantly cold for the advected air parcels to be dehydrated. Above 380 K, the cold trap dehydration would scarcely function while some moistening in turn occurs before the air parcels reach the lowermost stratosphere at around 400 K where OMR is generally smaller than SMRmin.

  9. Dehydration of xylose to furfural over MCM-41-supported niobium-oxide catalysts.

    PubMed

    García-Sancho, Cristina; Sádaba, Irantzu; Moreno-Tost, Ramón; Mérida-Robles, Josefa; Santamaría-González, José; López-Granados, Manuel; Maireles-Torres, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    A series of silica-based MCM-41-supported niobium-oxide catalysts are prepared, characterized by using XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and pyridine adsorption coupled to FTIR spectroscopy, and tested for the dehydration of D-xylose to furfural. Under the operating conditions used all materials are active in the dehydration of xylose to furfural (excluding the MCM-41 silica support). The xylose conversion increases with increasing Nb2 O5 content. At a loading of 16 wt % Nb2 O5 , 74.5 % conversion and a furfural yield of 36.5 % is achieved at 170 °C, after 180 min reaction time. Moreover, xylose conversion and furfural yield increase with the reaction time and temperature, attaining 82.8 and 46.2 %, respectively, at 190 °C and after 100 min reaction time. Notably, the presence of NaCl in the reaction medium further increases the furfural yield (59.9 % at 170 °C after 180 min reaction time). Moreover, catalyst reutilization is demonstrated by performing at least three runs with no loss of catalytic activity and without the requirement for an intermediate regeneration step. No significant niobium leaching is observed, and a relationship between the structure of the catalyst and the activity is proposed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cirrus Clouds, Equatorial Kelvin Waves and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrems, O.; Immler, F.; Krueger, K.; Rex, M.; Fujiwara, M.

    2007-12-01

    A number of field-campaigns in the tropics have been conducted in the past years with the mobile LIDAR systems MARL and ComCAL of the Alfred Wegener Institute aboard the research vessel Polarstern in the tropical Atlantic and at Paramaribo in Suriname. The lidars detect particles in the atmosphere with high vertical and temporal resolution and are capable of detecting extremely thin cloud layers which frequently occur in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). We investigated the occurrence of clouds in the TTL with a newly developed trajectory model and found that ice particles form in slow ascent and efficiently dehydrate the air. The Lagrangian temperature history thus defines the water vapour transported to the stratosphere in the tropics. Radiosonde as well as ECMWF operational analysis data show a strong influence of eastward moving equatorial Kelvin waves on the temperature at the tropical cold point tropopause (CPT). We find a clear correlation between the temperature anomalies introduced by these waves and the occurrence of thin cirrus. This finding suggests an influence of Kelvin wave activity on the dehydration characteristics of the TTL

  11. Effect of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration pretreatment on the convective drying of strawberry.

    PubMed

    Amami, Ezzeddine; Khezami, Wissal; Mezrigui, Salma; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Bejar, Asma Kammoun; Perez, Carmen Tellez; Kechaou, Nabil

    2017-05-01

    The work was planned to produce dietetic dehydrated strawberries with application of ultrasound osmotic dehydration (UOD) as pretreatment. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) were employed to characterize the UOD strawberry process, optimize and investigate the effect of independent variables like ultrasound time (10, 20 and 30min), concentration of osmotic solution (distilled water, 32.5 and 65 °Brix) and temperature (20, 30 and 40°C) on the water loss (WL), solid gain (SG) and weight reduction (WR). The same BBD were used to estimate the main effects of OD without ultrasound treatment. A multi-criteria optimization based on maximal possible values of WL and WR and minimal value of SG was achieved. This was 20.5min of ultrasound time, 47.5 °Brix osmotic solution concentration and 31°C medium temperature. The effects of UOD carried out under the optimized operating conditions on kinetics of convective air drying of strawberry at 40, 50 and 60°C, and velocity of 1m/s, using the phenomenological model of Coupled Washing/Diffusion (CWD). Starting accessibility, moisture effective diffusivity Deff value and activation energy (Ea) were calculated from similar-Fick's law and analogous Arrhenius equation, respectively with and without shrinkage correction. Color difference, Chroma and hue angle of fresh and UOD-air dried strawberries were evaluated. Quality attributes were estimated through the assessment of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, rehydration capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction characteristics.

  12. Hydrothermal Dehydration of Aqueous Fructose Solutions in a Closed System

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Chunhua; Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Li Q.; Windisch, Charles F.; Samuels, William D.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Risen Jr., William M.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2007-10-25

    The synthesis of materials with targeted size and shape has attracted much attention. Specifically, colloidal spheres with targeted and uniform sizes have opened the door for a variety of applications associated with drug delivery, and manipulation of light (photonic band-gap crystals). Surface modification is a key to realizing many of these applications owing to the inherent inert surface.The remarkable transformation of carbohydrate molecules including sugars to homogeneous carbon spheres is found to readily occur by a dehydration mechanism and subsequent sequestering in aqueous solutions that are heated at 160-180oC in a pressurized vessel. Under such conditions, these molecules actually dehydrate even though they are dissolved in water. Size-tunable metal and metal oxides with uniform shells have also been prepared by using carbon spheres as templates.

  13. Nocturnal lagophthalmos: never seen before in hypernatraemic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Rai, Birendra; Moka, Sudha; Sharif, Farhana

    2014-04-11

    We present two cases in which a 10-month-old male infant and another 15-month-old female child presented with symptoms of sleeping with their eyes wide open (lagophthalmos) with features of gastroenteritis (GE) and dehydration. The first child had been seen and discharged the previous day from the paediatric emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of GE. He presented the following day with sleeping discomfort with his eyes wide open and ongoing symptoms of GE. The second child presented to the ED with features of GE. She was found to be sleeping in the ED with her eyes wide open. Investigations of both children revealed hypernatraemic dehydration. Correction of the electrolyte imbalance in both cases over a period of 48 h led to the resolution of symptoms.

  14. Nocturnal lagophthalmos: never seen before in hypernatraemic dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Birendra; Moka, Sudha; Sharif, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    We present two cases in which a 10-month-old male infant and another 15-month-old female child presented with symptoms of sleeping with their eyes wide open (lagophthalmos) with features of gastroenteritis (GE) and dehydration. The first child had been seen and discharged the previous day from the paediatric emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of GE. He presented the following day with sleeping discomfort with his eyes wide open and ongoing symptoms of GE. The second child presented to the ED with features of GE. She was found to be sleeping in the ED with her eyes wide open. Investigations of both children revealed hypernatraemic dehydration. Correction of the electrolyte imbalance in both cases over a period of 48 h led to the resolution of symptoms. PMID:24728900

  15. The hydration/dehydration behavior of aspartame revisited.

    PubMed

    Guguta, C; Meekes, H; de Gelder, R

    2008-03-13

    Aspartame, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester, has two hydrates (IA and IB), a hemi-hydrate (IIA) and an anhydrate (IIB). The hydration/dehydration behavior of aspartame was investigated using hot-humidity stage X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and molecular mechanics modeling in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of this study are compared to earlier studies on aspartame as described in literature. It is shown that earlier transition studies were hampered by incomplete conversions and wrong assignment of the forms. The combination of the techniques applied in this study now shows consistent results for aspartame and yields a clear conversion scheme for the hydration/dehydration behavior of the four forms.

  16. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  17. Skeletal muscle water and electrolytes following prolonged dehydrating exercise.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodríguez, R; Fernández-Elías, V E; Hamouti, N; Ortega, J F

    2015-06-01

    We studied if dehydrating exercise would reduce muscle water (H2Omuscle ) and affect muscle electrolyte concentrations. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were collected prior, immediately after, and 1 and 4 h after prolonged dehydrating exercise (150 min at 33 ± 1 °C, 25% ± 2% humidity) on nine endurance-trained cyclists (VO2max  = 54.4 ± 1.05 mL/kg/min). Plasma volume (PV) changes and fluid shifts between compartments (Cl(-) method) were measured. Exercise dehydrated subjects 4.7% ± 0.3% of body mass by losing 2.75 ± 0.15 L of water and reducing PV 18.4% ± 1% below pre-exercise values (P < 0.05). Right after exercise H2Omuscle remained at pre-exercise values (i.e., 398 ± 6 mL/100 g dw muscle(-1)) but declined 13% ± 2% (342 ± 12 mL/100 g dw muscle(-1); P < 0.05) after 1 h of supine rest. At that time, PV recovered toward pre-exercise levels. The Cl(-) method corroborated the shift of fluid between extracellular and intracellular compartments. After 4 h of recovery, PV returned to pre-exercise values; however, H2Omuscle remained reduced at the same level. Muscle Na(+) and K(+) increased (P < 0.05) in response to the H2Omuscle reductions. Our findings suggest that active skeletal muscle does not show a net loss of H2O during prolonged dehydrating exercise. However, during the first hour of recovery H2Omuscle decreases seemly to restore PV and thus cardiovascular stability.

  18. 30. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING PRESSES, LOOKING SOUTH. ALUMINUM NARROWGUAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING PRESSES, LOOKING SOUTH. ALUMINUM NARROW-GUAGE GONDOLA CAR IN LEFT BACKGROUND BROUGHT MOISTENED GUN COTTON FROM REST HOUSE (BUILDING NO. 320-B) IN CANS. (ONE OF THESE CANS IS ON UNLOADING PLATFORM RUNNING BESIDE PRESSES). CONTENTS OF CANS WERE UNLOADED INTO PRESSES BY HAND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. Dehydration-induced porosity waves and episodic tremor and slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarbek, Rob M.; Rempel, Alan W.

    2016-02-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) along the subduction interface takes place where there is abundant evidence for elevated, near-lithostatic pore pressures, at sufficiently great depths (30-45 km) that chemical dehydration reactions must act as their dominant source. We simulate fluid and heat flow while tracking the location of a vertically oriented, one-dimensional column of material as it subducts through the slow slip and tremor zone. The material in the column is transformed through a pressure-dependent and temperature-dependent dehydration reaction that we describe with a generalized nonlinear kinetic rate law. Column deformation is largely dominated by viscous creep, with a closure rate that depends linearly on porosity. This behavior causes the dehydration reaction to generate traveling porosity waves that transport increased fluid pressures within the slow slip region. To explore the possibility that the observed periodicity of slow slip and tremor in subduction zones can be explained by the migration of such porosity waves, we derive a dispersion relation that accurately describes our numerical results. We also obtain an expression for how the thickness of the dehydrating layer is expected to vary as a function of the parameters in the reaction rate law. Although the amplitudes of pore pressure perturbations rival those that are produced by known external forcings (e.g., tides or passing surface waves), our analysis suggests that given reasonable estimates of rock viscosity, permeabilities in the range 6.5×10-15 to 5×10-10 m2 are required for porosity wave trains to form at periods comparable to those of slow slip and tremor.

  20. Biological Variation and Diagnostic Accuracy of Dehydration Assessment Markers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    nature of body fluid losses (6–8). Clinical dehydration is a state of hypertonic hypovolemia that occurs in response to a net loss of hypotonic body... hypotonic hypovolemia (6–8, 10). De- hydration predictably modulates renal function and urine composition in accordance with the deficit of body water...heat storage and induce sweating ( hypotonic fluid loss) to achieve a state of hypertonic hypovolemia (9–11). The goal for de- hydration spanned a

  1. 28. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH AT NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH AT NORTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF PRELIMINARY SOLVENT RECOVERY WING. RAILS LEADING FROM DOORS CARRIED STANDARD GUAGE R.R. CARTS ONTO SMALL FLATCARS RIDING IN TRACKS IN FOREGROUND. FROM HERE THE CARS WERE TAKEN TO BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY. BUILDING NO. 540, LOADING DOCK (STORAGE FOR POWDER BUGGIES) IN BACKGROUND LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  2. The physiological effects of dehydration caused by sweat loss. [athletes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, S.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanisms of fluid loss in the human body while sweating due to physical exercise are discussed. Trained and untrained persons were examined and compared. Since sweat is hypotonous, a disruption in the hydrosalinic balance occurs; the consequences of this finding, also pertaining to the fluid and electrolytic substitution, are presented. Further explanations on the problem of dehydration refer to reactions of individual organ systems, to alterations in bodily capabilities as well as to questions relating to sex and age.

  3. Improvements in the order, isotropy and electron density of glypican-1 crystals by controlled dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, Wael; Svensson Birkedal, Gabriel; Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M.; Mani, Katrin; Logan, Derek T.

    2013-12-01

    The anisotropy of crystals of glypican-1 was significantly reduced by controlled dehydration using the HC1 device, allowing the building of previously disordered parts of the structure. The use of controlled dehydration for improvement of protein crystal diffraction quality is increasing in popularity, although there are still relatively few documented examples of success. A study has been carried out to establish whether controlled dehydration could be used to improve the anisotropy of crystals of the core protein of the human proteoglycan glypican-1. Crystals were subjected to controlled dehydration using the HC1 device. The optimal protocol for dehydration was developed by careful investigation of the following parameters: dehydration rate, final relative humidity and total incubation time T{sub inc}. Of these, the most important was shown to be T{sub inc}. After dehydration using the optimal protocol the crystals showed significantly reduced anisotropy and improved electron density, allowing the building of previously disordered parts of the structure.

  4. Radical-mediated dehydration reactions in anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Buckel, Wolfgang; Martins, Berta M; Messerschmidt, Albrecht; Golding, Bernard T

    2005-10-01

    Most dehydratases catalyse the elimination of water from beta-hydroxy ketones, beta-hydroxy carboxylic acids or beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. The electron-withdrawing carbonyl functionalities acidify the alpha-hydrogens to enable their removal by basic amino acid side chains. Anaerobic bacteria, however, ferment amino acids via alpha- or gamma-hydroxyacyl-CoA, dehydrations of which involve the abstraction of a beta-hydrogen, which is ostensibly non-acidic (pK ca. 40). Evidence is accumulating that beta-hydrogens are acidified via transient conversion of the CoA derivatives to enoxy radicals by one-electron transfers, which decrease the pK to 14. The dehydrations of (R)-2-hydroxyacyl-CoA to (E)-2-enoyl-CoA are catalysed by heterodimeric [4Fe-4S]-containing dehydratases, which require reductive activation by an ATP-dependent one-electron transfer mediated by a homodimeric protein with a [4Fe-4S] cluster between the two subunits. The electron is further transferred to the substrate, yielding a ketyl radical anion, which expels the hydroxyl group and forms an enoxy radical. The dehydration of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA involves a similar mechanism, in which the ketyl radical anion is generated by one-electron oxidation. The structure of the FAD- and [4Fe-4S]-containing homotetrameric dehydratase is related to that of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, suggesting a radical-based mechanism for both flavoproteins.

  5. Recent Advances on Bioethanol Dehydration using Zeolite Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy has gained increasing attention throughout the world. Bioethanol has the potential to replace existing fossil fuel usage without much modification in existing facilities. Bioethanol which generally produced from fermentation route produces low ethanol concentration. However, fuel grade ethanol requires low water content to avoid engine stall. Dehydration process has been increasingly important in fuel grade ethanol production. Among all dehydration processes, pervaporation is considered as the most promising technology. Zeolite possesses high potential in pervaporation of bioethanol into fuel grade ethanol. Zeolite membrane can either remove organic (ethanol) from aqueous mixture or water from the mixture, depending on the framework used. Hydrophilic zeolite membrane, e.g. LTA, can easily remove water from the mixture leaving high ethanol concentration. On the other hand, hydrophobic zeolite membrane, e.g. silicate-1, can remove ethanol from aqueous solution. This review presents the concept of bioethanol dehydration using zeolite membrane. Special attention is given to the performance of selected pathway related to framework selection.

  6. Dehydration faulting in serpentinite: regular vs. slow earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Yongfeng; Zimmerman, Mark; Kohlstedt, David

    2017-04-01

    It has been well documented in the laboratory that dehydration of hydrous minerals in subducting slabs can generate intermediate-depth earthquakes. However, these earthuqkes has not been well characterized. Here we report two different-types of earthquakes generated by dehydration of antigrite in serpentinite peridotite using the Paterson deformation apparatus at temperatures beyond the stability of antigorite. The first-type of earthquakes is a single event characterzied by a relatively large stress drop and a short duration. The second-type of earthquakes are multiple stick-slip events followed immediately by the single big event. They are characterized with much smaller stress drips and longer duration. There is a narrow temperature range for faulting in serpentinite. Fluid filled mode I cracks in olivine or pyroxene-rich zones are crucial for the self-organization and generation of mode II shearing in serpentinite. Our results suggest that dehydration of hydrous minerals can generate new faults in homogenous rocks (regular earthquakes) and small tremors (slow earthquakes) along the pre-existing fault caused by regular earthquakes in subduction zones.

  7. Non-volcanic tremor and discontinuous slab dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Åke; Diener, Johann F. A.

    2011-08-01

    Non-volcanic tremor is a recently discovered fault slip style occurring with remarkable regularity in space near the down-dip end of the locked zone on several subduction thrust interfaces. The physical mechanisms and the controls on the location of tremor have not yet been determined. We calculate the stable mineral assemblages and their water content in the subducting slab, and find that slab dehydration is not continuous, but rather restricted to a few reactions localised in pressure-temperature space. Along geothermal gradients applicable to Shikoku and Cascadia - where tremor has been relatively easy to detect - tremor locations correlate with discontinuous and localised voluminous water release from the breakdown of lawsonite and chlorite + glaucophane respectively. The shape of the pressure-temperature path for subducting slabs prevents fluid release at depths above and below where these dehydration reactions occur. We conclude that abundant tremor activity requires metamorphic conditions where localised dehydration occurs during subduction, and this may explain why tremor appears more abundant in some subduction zones than others.

  8. Inhibition of plasma vasopressin after drinking in dehydrated humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Kravik, S. E.; Wade, C. E.; Thrasher, T. N.; Barnes, P. R.; Pyka, G.; Nesvig, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of nonosmotic and nonvolumetric factors on vasopressin secretion in dehydrated humans has been investigated experimentally, before and after drinking. The subjects of the experiment were five adult men and three adult women weighing 69-77 kg. In order to determine the influence of nonosmotic and nonvolumetric factors on vasopressin secretion, measurements were obtained of the following blood hematological indices: serum Na(+) content; serum K(+) content; osmolality; and hemoglobin. Measurements of hematocrit, plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), aldosterone, and renin activity were also obtained. It is found that dehydration increased mean serum Na(+) content, osmolality,and AVP. No significant changes were observed in renin activity, hemoglobin, hematocrit, or plasma volume, while plasma aldosterone increased from 11.1 ng/dl after dehydration to 15.6 ng/dl between 30 and 60 min after drinking. A rapid fall of AVP content following rehydration occurred in the absence of changes in the primary regulators of AVP osmolality and plasma volume, with no change in blood pressure. On the basis of the experimental results, it is suggested that oropharyngeal factors may be the mechanism, for the observed decrease in AVP following rehydration.

  9. Distortions in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin at moderate dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Varo, G.; Lanyi, J.K. )

    1991-02-01

    The photoreaction of bacteriorhodopsin was studied in moderately dehydrated films (relative humidities between 100 and 65%). Time-resolved difference spectra from a gated optical multichannel analyzer, between 100 ns and 100 ms after photoexcitation, were decomposed into sums of difference spectra of the intermediates K, L, M, N, and O, and the kinetics obtained were fitted to various alternative schemes. The data confirm the model of a single reaction sequence with reversible reactions we proposed recently for purple membrane suspensions but including reversibility also for the reaction K in equilibrium with L in addition to L in equilibrium with M, M in equilibrium with N, and N in equilibrium with O. With increasing dehydration the kinetics were increasingly dominated by the reverse reactions. As before, fitting the data required the existence of two M species in series: L in equilibrium with M1 in equilibrium with M2 in equilibrium with N. The M1 in equilibrium with M2 reaction was greatly slowed at lower humidities. This step might be the switch for the unidirectional transfer of protons. With increasing dehydration recovery of BR occurred less and less via the N intermediate and increasingly via direct shunts from the two M species. As indicated earlier by electrical measurements with similarly dried bacteriorhodopsin films. The latter are pathways not necessarily associated with net proton translocation.

  10. Dehydration influences mood and cognition: a plausible hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Benton, David

    2011-05-01

    The hypothesis was considered that a low fluid intake disrupts cognition and mood. Most research has been carried out on young fit adults, who typically have exercised, often in heat. The results of these studies are inconsistent, preventing any conclusion. Even if the findings had been consistent, confounding variables such as fatigue and increased temperature make it unwise to extrapolate these findings. Thus in young adults there is little evidence that under normal living conditions dehydration disrupts cognition, although this may simply reflect a lack of relevant evidence. There remains the possibility that particular populations are at high risk of dehydration. It is known that renal function declines in many older individuals and thirst mechanisms become less effective. Although there are a few reports that more dehydrated older adults perform cognitive tasks less well, the body of information is limited and there have been little attempt to improve functioning by increasing hydration status. Although children are another potentially vulnerable group that have also been subject to little study, they are the group that has produced the only consistent findings in this area. Four intervention studies have found improved performance in children aged 7 to 9 years. In these studies children, eating and drinking as normal, have been tested on occasions when they have and not have consumed a drink. After a drink both memory and attention have been found to be improved.

  11. Dehydration Influences Mood and Cognition: A Plausible Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Benton, David

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis was considered that a low fluid intake disrupts cognition and mood. Most research has been carried out on young fit adults, who typically have exercised, often in heat. The results of these studies are inconsistent, preventing any conclusion. Even if the findings had been consistent, confounding variables such as fatigue and increased temperature make it unwise to extrapolate these findings. Thus in young adults there is little evidence that under normal living conditions dehydration disrupts cognition, although this may simply reflect a lack of relevant evidence. There remains the possibility that particular populations are at high risk of dehydration. It is known that renal function declines in many older individuals and thirst mechanisms become less effective. Although there are a few reports that more dehydrated older adults perform cognitive tasks less well, the body of information is limited and there have been little attempt to improve functioning by increasing hydration status. Although children are another potentially vulnerable group that have also been subject to little study, they are the group that has produced the only consistent findings in this area. Four intervention studies have found improved performance in children aged 7 to 9 years. In these studies children, eating and drinking as normal, have been tested on occasions when they have and not have consumed a drink. After a drink both memory and attention have been found to be improved. PMID:22254111

  12. When less means more: dehydration improves innate immunity in rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Brusch, George A; DeNardo, Dale F

    2017-04-12

    Immune function can vary based on availability of resources, and most studies of such influences have focused on the co-investment of energy into immune and other physiological functions. When energy resources are limited, trade-offs exist, which can compromise immunity for other functions. As with energy, water limitation can also alter various physiological processes, yet water has received little consideration for its role in possibly modulating immune functions. We examined the relationship between immunocompetence and hydration state using the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). This species is known to undergo substantial seasonal fluctuations in water availability with extreme limitations during the hot, dry season. We collected blood samples from free-ranging C. atrox to compare osmolality and innate immune function (lysis, agglutination, bacterial growth inhibition) during the milder and relatively moister early spring season, the hot-dry season, and the hot-wet season. To isolate effects of dehydration from other possible seasonal influences, we complemented this field study with a laboratory study in which we withheld food and water from individually housed adult C. atrox for up to 16 weeks. We collected blood samples from each snake as it dehydrated and collected a final sample after the snake was given ad lib water at the end of the experiment. Our results demonstrate that C. atrox experience significant dehydration during the hot-dry season, and that, in general, innate immune function is highly correlated with osmolality, whether natural or artificially manipulated.

  13. Erythrocyte disorders leading to potassium loss and cellular dehydration.

    PubMed

    Glader, B E; Sullivan, D W

    1979-01-01

    RBC K loss and cellular dehydration are associated with a variety of normal and abnormal erythrocyte conditions. In some cases (normal RBC aging, pyruvate-kinase-deficient RBCs and irreversibly sickled cells) cation and water changes are related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and to increased RBC calcium content. In other disorders, such as hereditary xerocytosis, cation depletion and cellular hydration are not related to altered energy or calcium metabolism. Rather, this condition is thought to be due to a structural membrane defect which is manifested by imbalanced cation leaks (K less greater than Na gain) for which the active cation transport is unable to compensate. None of the disorders described here are associated with known structural membrane alterations. The fact that K loss and cellular dehydration are common to several RBC disorders suggests that this phenomenon may have a direct role in membrane injury. This hypothesis is supported by two separate observations: 1)Formation of irreversible sickled cells in vitro is prevented if K and water loss are inhibited, and these effects are independent of ATP depletion and calcium accumulation; 2) the mean critical hemolytic volume is markedly reduced in K- and water-depleted normal RBCs. RBC dehydration without intracellular cation depletion, however, is not associated with changes in mean critical hemolytic volume. These data thus indicate that K loss may have a direct role in RBC membrane injury. The mechanism by which this occurs and the associated alterations in membrane structure, however, remain to be identified.

  14. Inhibition of chloroplastic respiration by osmotic dehydration. [Spinacia oleracea L

    SciTech Connect

    Willeford, K.O.; Ahluwalia, K.J.K.; Gibbs, M. )

    1989-04-01

    The respiratory capacity of isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts, measured as the rate of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved from the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle in darkened chloroplasts exogenously supplied with ({sup 14}C)glucose, was progressively diminished by escalating osmotic dehydration with betaine or sorbitol. Comparing the inhibitions of CO{sub 2} evolution generated by osmotic dehydration in chloroplasts given C-1 and C-6 labeled glucose, 54% and 84%, respectively, indicates that osmotic dehydration effects to a greater extent the recycling of the oxidative pentose phosphate intermediates, fructose-6P and glyceraldehyde-3P. Respiratory inhibition in the darkened chloroplast could be alleviated by addition of NH{sub 4}Cl (a stromal alkylating agent), iodoacetamide (an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde-3P dehydrogenase), or glycolate-2P (an inhibitor of phosphofructokinase). It is concluded that the site which primarily mediates respiratory inhibition in the darkened chloroplast occurs at the fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase/phosphofructokinase junction.

  15. Modelling of mass transfer kinetic in osmotic dehydration of kiwifruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabrayili, Sharokh; Farzaneh, Vahid; Zare, Zahra; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel S.

    2016-04-01

    Osmotic dehydration characteristics of kiwifruit were predicted by different activation functions of an artificial neural network. Osmotic solution concentration (y1), osmotic solution temperature (y2), and immersion time (y3) were considered as the input parameters and solid gain value (x1) and water loss value (x2) were selected as the outlet parameters of the network. The result showed that logarithm sigmoid activation function has greater performance than tangent hyperbolic activation function for the prediction of osmotic dehydration parameters of kiwifruit. The minimum mean relative error for the solid gain and water loss parameters with one hidden layer and 19 nods were 0.00574 and 0.0062% for logarithm sigmoid activation function, respectively, which introduced logarithm sigmoid function as a more appropriate tool in the prediction of the osmotic dehydration of kiwifruit slices. As a result, it is concluded that this network is capable in the prediction of solid gain and water loss parameters (responses) with the correlation coefficient values of 0.986 and 0.989, respectively.

  16. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  17. Topically induced diphenhydramine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J F; Weisse, M E

    1990-01-01

    We report the case of a 2 1/2-year-old child who manifested acute anticholinergic toxicity after the applications of a topical calamine-antihistamine lotion. This mechanism of diphenhydramine toxicity is uncommon, with only a few other case reports noted in the literature. This case is also intriguing in that this child had an underlying varicella illness with fever that tended to obscure the picture. This report describes the characteristic history and physical examination pertinent to anticholinergic toxicity, varicella complication considerations, and case management.

  18. Topics in CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, H.R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

  19. Serpentine dehydration kinetics up to 1023 K and 4 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M. R.; Scott, H. P.; Maglio, S.; Aarestad, B.; Uesugi, J.; Prakapenka, V.

    2007-12-01

    Serpentine minerals are ubiquitous within the oceanic lithosphere and are hypothesized to be a significant source of water, released during thermal dehydration, in subduction zones. Additionally, serpentinized oceanic mantle has been hypothesized to represent a fluid and incompatiable element reservoir that could be a major part of element cycling in subduction zones. Data detailing the kinetics of serpentine breakdown are difficult to obtain and require in situ analyses. Candela et al., 2007 ( Am. Min., In Press) and Frank et al., 2005 ( GSA Abs. Programs) illustrated that the breakdown of serpentine minerals (chrysotile and lizardite, respectively) is complex and results in the variable release of H2O. Further, it has been noted that the reaction products proceed in a step-wise fashion as a function of temperature and these ''steps'' are not the same for all serpentine minerals. In order to understand the release of volatile phases from serpentine minerals in subduction zones, we studied the thermal decomposition of lizardite over a range of temperature, 500- 750°C in 25° increments, at atmospheric pressure. High-pressure experiments ranged from 2-5 GPa and were conducted from 550-700°C. The thermal decomposition of lizardite was monitored by using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and synchrotron X-ray radiation. The experiments were conducted at the GSECARS 13-BM-D beam line (Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory), using monochromatic X-ray radiation, with a wavelength of 0.3344 Å, and a MAR 345 online imaging system. The diffraction data were used to monitor the dehydration reactants and products as a function of temperature and time. The reaction products of serpentine dehydration are dominantly forsterite (at all temperatures and pressure of dehydration) with minor amounts of talc-like and anthophyllite-like phases. Enstatite could not be identified definitively. Further, forsterite nucleates before more silica-rich phases, at generally

  20. Analysis of Dehydration and Strength in Elite Badminton Players

    PubMed Central

    Abián-Vicén, Javier; Del Coso, Juan; González-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Abián, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The negative effects of dehydration on aerobic activities are well established. However, it is unknown how dehydration affects intermittent sports performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the level of dehydration in elite badminton players and its relation to muscle strength and power production. Methodology Seventy matches from the National Spanish badminton championship were analyzed (46 men’s singles and 24 women’s singles). Before and after each match, jump height and power production were determined during a countermovement jump on a force platform. Participants’ body weight and a urine sample were also obtained before and after each match. The amount of liquid that the players drank during the match was also calculated by weighing their individual drinking bottles. Results and Discussion Sweat rate during the game was 1.14±0.46 l/h in men and 1.02±0.64 l/h in women. The players rehydrated at a rate of 1.10±0.55 l/h and 1.01±0.44 l/h in the male and female groups respectively. Thus, the dehydration attained during the game was only 0.37±0.50% in men and 0.32±0.83% in women. No differences were found in any of the parameters analyzed during the vertical jump (men: from 31.82±5.29 to 32.90±4.49 W/kg; p>0.05, women: from 26.36±4.73 to 27.25±4.44 W/kg; p>0.05). Post-exercise urine samples revealed proteinuria (60.9% of cases in men and 66.7% in women), leukocyturia (men = 43.5% and women = 50.0%) and erythrocyturia (men = 50.0% and women = 21.7%). Conclusions Despite a moderate sweat rate, badminton players adequately hydrated during a game and thus the dehydration attained was low. The badminton match did not cause muscle fatigue but it significantly increased the prevalence of proteinuria, leukocyturia and erythrocyturia. PMID:22666396

  1. Effects of dehydration and rehydration on thermoregulatory sweating in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M A

    1989-01-01

    1. Measurement of rectal temperature (Tr), sweat rate, respiratory frequency (f) and respiratory evaporation (Eresp) were made in one Nubian and four Alpine-Toggenberg goats while they stood for 90 min in a climate chamber at 40 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta). The animals were studied when they were hydrated, when they had been dehydrated by 48 h water deprivation, and when they were rehydrated by voluntary drinking of water or saline or by intraruminal water administration. Plasma osmolality (Posm), plasma protein concentration (PP) and haematocrit (Hct) were measured before every experiment and before and after voluntary drinking. 2. Hydrated animals increased evaporation by panting and sweating during heat exposure and Tr rose about 1 degree C. The rate of sweating was as high or higher than Eresp. Dehydrated animals had lower sweat rates and higher Tr than hydrated animals, but f and Eresp were the same in hydrated and dehydrated animals. 3. When dehydrated goats were allowed to drink after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating began abruptly within 3 min of the start of drinking in every animal whether water or saline was drunk. Sweat rate returned to hydrated levels or higher before any change occurred in Posm, PP or Hct. Respiratory frequency was higher after drinking than in dehydrated animals which were not allowed to drink. 4. When water was administered by rumen tube after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating in the Nubian occurred with a short latency, similar to the onset after drinking. In the other four animals, sweating onset occurred on average at 13 min 42 s after intraruminal water administration. 5. It is concluded that sweating is a significant avenue of evaporative heat loss in these goats when they are hydrated and exposed to high Ta. Sweat rate is markedly reduced after water deprivation but returns to hydrated levels within 3 min after the start of drinking. The rapid recovery of sweating after voluntary drinking is not initiated by changes in

  2. Slab dehydration recorded in subducted serpentine sea-mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Fukumura, S.; Ishimori, C.; Jung, H.

    2014-12-01

    It has been considered that there is a correlation between the double seismic zones and metamorphic dehydration reaction in deep slab. The lower seismic plane of the double seismic zone is considered to be located on the 600 oC isotherm in the subducting lithosphere. Antigorite terminal reaction is highly temperature sensitive around 600 oC. Therefore it has been proposed that the oceanic lithosphere was hydrated forming serpentine prior to subduction, then serpentine was decomposed to release fluid causing dehydration embrittlement in the slab. In order to unravel relation between dehydration and seismic deformation, we have investigated dehydration process of natural metamorphic rocks recording very cold geothermal history in the crust and lithosphere in the slab. Metamorphic olivine after antigorite has been described in Italian Alps and also from the Mt. Shiraga, Japan [1]. However, the olivine was formed with talc and fluid by antigorite breakdown reaction in pressures lower than 1.5 GPa. Spinifex olivine with opx in the Cerro del Almirez [2], is the product at pressures (P > 1.5 GPa) relevant to the lower seismic plane beneath Northeast Japan. It clearly indicates the presence of large amount of water facilitate crystallization of elongated olivine with opx. It is also supported by LPO pattern of olivines determined by EBSD. Fine-grained olivine-rich samples shows that Type-C fabric pattern is dominant, suggesting deformation under water-rich condition [3]. With metamorphic olivines, chlorite was also recrystallized, suggesting that water would be transported farther down to deep. The estimated dehydration reaction has a negative P-T slope at pressures higher than 1.5 GPa. The reaction is volume reducing reaction and the olivine-opx spinifex texture was formed under volume reducing reaction. In the warm slab beneath SW Japan, the reaction has a positive slope in P-T space and forms olivine+talc+fluid. From microstrucral and petrological analysis of the

  3. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the range of electronic calculators currently available and their capabilities. Prices range from $20.00 to $800.00, and functions performed range from the four arithmetic operations to complex operations such as the computation of standard deviation, vector addition, and programs with up to 100 steps. (MLH)

  4. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the range of electronic calculators currently available and their capabilities. Prices range from $20.00 to $800.00, and functions performed range from the four arithmetic operations to complex operations such as the computation of standard deviation, vector addition, and programs with up to 100 steps. (MLH)

  5. Topical Knowledge and Topical Interest Predictors of Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Victoria Chou; Devine, Denise A.

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated whether preassessments of general and specific knowledge can predict children's listening comprehension. Topical knowledge, assessed by multiple-choice questions, did predict story comprehension; topical interest, however, did not correlate either with topical knowledge or comprehension. (Authors/PP)

  6. Photosynthetic limitations and volatile and non-volatile isoprenoids in the poikilochlorophyllous resurrection plant Xerophyta humilis during dehydration and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Megan; Loreto, Francesco; Velikova, Violeta; Brunetti, Cecilia; Di Ferdinando, Martina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Calfapietra, Carlo; Farrant, Jill M

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the photosynthetic limitations occurring during dehydration and rehydration of Xerophyta humilis, a poikilochlorophyllous resurrection plant, and whether volatile and non-volatile isoprenoids might be involved in desiccation tolerance. Photosynthesis declined rapidly after dehydration below 85% relative water content (RWC). Raising intercellular CO(2) concentrations during desiccation suggest that the main photosynthetic limitation was photochemical, affecting energy-dependent RuBP regeneration. Imaging fluorescence confirmed that both the number of photosystem II (PSII) functional reaction centres and their efficiency were impaired under progressive dehydration, and revealed the occurrence of heterogeneous photosynthesis during desiccation, being the basal leaf area more resistant to the stress. Full recovery in photosynthetic parameters occurred on rehydration, confirming that photosynthetic limitations were fully reversible and that no permanent damage occurred. During desiccation, zeaxanthin and lutein increased only when photosynthesis had ceased, implying that these isoprenoids do not directly scavenge reactive oxygen species, but rather protect photosynthetic membranes from damage and consequent denaturation. X. humilis was found to emit isoprene, a volatile isoprenoid that acts as a membrane strengthener in plants. Isoprene emission was stimulated by drought and peaked at 80% RWC. We surmise that isoprene and non-volatile isoprenoids cooperate in reducing membrane damage in X. humilis, isoprene being effective when desiccation is moderate while non-volatile isoprenoids operate when water deficit is more extreme. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Topical hemostatic agents in surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Emilia, Masci; Luca, Santoleri; Francesca, Belloni; Luca, Bottero; Paolo, Stefanini; Giuseppe, Faillace; Gianbattista, Bertani; Carmela, Montinaro; Luigi, Mancini; Mauro, Longoni

    2011-12-01

    Hemostasis is of critical importance in achieving a positive outcome in any surgical intervention. Different hemostatic methods can be employed and topical hemostatic agents are used in a wide variety of surgical settings. Procoagulation agents have different hemostatic properties and the choice of a specific one is determined by the type of surgical procedure and bleeding. Hemostatic treatments include fibrin sealants, microfibrillar collagen, gelatin hemostatic agents, oxidized regenerated cellulose and cyanoacrylates adhesives. Surgeons should be familiar with topical hemostatics to ensure an appropriate use. Our purpose is to illustrate the currently available agents, their mechanism of action and their effective applications, in order to ensure an optimal use in operating room.

  8. Chemical dehydration of specimens with 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) for paraffin processing of animal tissues: practical and economic advantages over dehydration in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Conway, K; Kiernan, J A

    1999-01-01

    Chemical dehydration can be accomplished using 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP). In the presence of an acid catalyst, this liquid reacts with water generating methanol and acetone as products. Although DMP is more expensive per milliliter than ethanol and other solvents used for dehydration, it is an economical alternative because a much smaller volume is needed. Slow penetration of DMP was previously thought to restrict its use to tiny specimens, but we now show that pieces of tissue as thick as 2 cm are dehydrated by overnight immersion in acidified DMP. We also show that dehydration in acidified DMP does not impair the staining of RNA or other basophilic components of animal tissues. The temperature and concentrations of methanol and H+ in the chemical dehydrating agent are too low to produce histochemically detectable methylation or nucleic acid extraction.

  9. Hot topics for leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management.

  10. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  11. Commercialization in NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with commercialization in NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NASA's financial outlook; 2) Space operations; 3) Space operations technology; and 4) Strategies associated with these operations.

  12. [Chitosan in topical preparations].

    PubMed

    Matusová, D; Truplová, E

    2007-06-01

    Chitosan in topical preparations Within the framework of experimental work at the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology of Slovak Medical University, "insect" chitin obtained from the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) was processed to produce dosage forms and compared with commercially available chitin, or chitosan, obtained from shrimps (Pandalus borealus). The paper aimed to find whether insect chitin, or chitosan, possessed similar technological properties as commercially available and for topical preparations used products. Samples were prepared containing chitin, or chitosan, of different origin, 0.25 and 0.5% in a gel base. In some gels the gel base was acidified with citric acid (in an amount of 0.75%) or lactic acid (1%) to improve the mechanical properties of foils. All samples were well applicable and after drying a relatively resistant transparent layer was formed on the skin. All samples could be made to produce elastic foils, which after moistening clung well to the skin. Both chitin and chitosan obtained from the bodies of buff-tailed bumblebees differed from reference materials obtained from shrimps by the degree of deacetylation, possessed different technological properties, e.g., finer fibres, were more fragile, and when wet, they could be disintegrated better, which is obvious also from the results of microscopic evaluation. Chitosan prepared from chitin SAV (insect) possessed substantially finer particles in the dosage form. The evaluation of the flow properties of the prepared samples revealed that except Sample I (gel base alone) they are time-dependent tixotropic systems. Whereas chitin gels did not show any antimicrobial effect (which is apparently connected with bad solubility of chitin), gels with chitosan showed this activity. A more marked effect was observed in the strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and in Escherichia coli it was weaker. The paper reports the first tentative results of comparisons of

  13. Management of wastewater from the vegetable dehydration industry in Egypt--a case study.

    PubMed

    El-Gohary, Fatma; El-Kamah, Hala; Abdel Wahaab, Rifaat; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Hamdy A

    2012-01-01

    Management of wastewater from the vegetable dehydration industry was the subject of this study. A continuous monitoring programme for wastewater was carried out for almost four months. The characterization of the wastewater indicated that the vegetable dehydration wastewater contains moderate concentrations of organics, solids and nutrients. The wastewater was subjected to three different treatment processes, namely aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment and chemical coagulation-flocculation treatment. For aerobic treatment, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS) was accomplished within 5 h, and no further reduction was observed after that, with the steady state COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies being 95% +/- 10% and 97% +/- 8%, respectively. For anaerobic treatment, the removal efficiencies for COD, BOD5 and TSS were 67-81%, 70-86% and 56-69%, respectively at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 5, 6 and 8 h. Chemical coagulation-flocculation treatment also achieved good results. The COD removal efficiency was 72%, 51% and 75% for ferric chloride (56 g/m3 of wastewater), lime (140 g/m3 of wastewater) and ferric chloride aided with lime (100 g/m3 for ferric chloride and 200 g/m3 for lime), respectively. The corresponding TSS removal values were 92% +/- 17%, 20% +/- 7% and 93% +/- 9%. Based on the available results and the seasonally operated mode of this industry in Egypt, the chemical coagulation-flocculation process is therefore considered to be moste applicable from a technical point of view and for the simplicity of operation and maintenance.

  14. Effect of Dehydration Reaction on Serpentinite Deformation in Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinciguerra, S.; Trovato, C.; Meredith, P. G.; Benson, P. M.; Hirose, T.; Bystricky, M.; Stünitz, H.; Kunze, K.

    2003-12-01

    Dehydration of serpentine to olivine, talc and water during deformation is critical for understanding the possible localization of deformation into shear zones and the generation of earthquakes along subduction zones. In order to investigate the effect of the dehydration reaction on the strength and ductility of serpentinite, torsion experiments were performed using a Paterson high PT torsion rig at constant shear strain rates of 10-4 to 10-5 s-1, temperatures of 550 to 750 ° C and a confining pressure of 300 MPa, to local shear strains up to γ = 3. We deformed two types of serpentinite: antigorite from Val Malenco, Italy, a high-temperature phase of serpentine (stable at T <500 ° C), and lizardite from Elba, Italy, a low-temperature phase of serpentine (stable at T <400 ° C). Most of the samples were shaped in dog-bone geometry with a central hole along their axial direction which acted as a fluid conduit, enabling an easy escape for any released fluid during the dehydration reaction. We also deformed solid bone-shaped specimens to compare the mechanical behavior of solid and hollow specimens. In both cases, porous alumina spacers were placed on both end sides of specimen and led to the atmosphere through the pore pressure line. Thus our experiments were performed under drained conditions. Antigorite deformed in the semi-brittle field at the run conditions. Visible faults formed probably due to reaction-induced fracturing, and the stress started to drop just after the initial peak stress ( ˜350 MPa at 650 to 700 ° C and ˜280 MPa at 750 ° C). Highly comminuted grains with various sizes along the faults were identified as partially dehydrated antigorite (H2O ˜6 wt%) at 650 ° C and olivine and talc at >700 ° C. Mechanical behavior after the peak stress is thought to occur by cataclastic flow, possibly assisted by diffusion mass transfer processes of these fine-grained reactant minerals. We have also investigated the effect of pre-heating on the strength of

  15. Neutron transport simulation (selected topics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, P.

    2009-10-01

    Neutron transport simulation is usually performed for criticality, power distribution, activation, scattering, dosimetry and shielding problems, among others. During the last fifteen years, innovative technological applications have been proposed (Accelerator Driven Systems, Energy Amplifiers, Spallation Neutron Sources, etc.), involving the utilization of intermediate energies (hundreds of MeV) and high-intensity (tens of mA) proton accelerators impinging in targets of high Z elements. Additionally, the use of protons, neutrons and light ions for medical applications (hadrontherapy) impose requirements on neutron dosimetry-related quantities (such as kerma factors) for biologically relevant materials, in the energy range starting at several tens of MeV. Shielding and activation related problems associated to the operation of high-energy proton accelerators, emerging space-related applications and aircrew dosimetry-related topics are also fields of intense activity requiring as accurate as possible medium- and high-energy neutron (and other hadrons) transport simulation. These applications impose specific requirements on cross-section data for structural materials, targets, actinides and biologically relevant materials. Emerging nuclear energy systems and next generation nuclear reactors also impose requirements on accurate neutron transport calculations and on cross-section data needs for structural materials, coolants and nuclear fuel materials, aiming at improved safety and detailed thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage studies. In this review paper, the state-of-the-art in the computational tools and methodologies available to perform neutron transport simulation is presented. Proton- and neutron-induced cross-section data needs and requirements are discussed. Hot topics are pinpointed, prospective views are provided and future trends identified.

  16. Characterization of dehydration-induced luminescence of kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Lahav, N; Coyne, L; Lawless, J G

    1985-01-01

    Dehydration-induced luminescence (DIL), the emission of light from a clay paste upon dehydration, was characterized experimentally for a colloidal kaolinite. The relationship between total photon count of the emitted light and film thickness is linear up to a thickness of 30 micrometers. The photon emission was obtained over a critical range of water contents (25-60%) of the oven-dry clay, and the kinetics of photon emission was presumed to be closely associated with the kinetics of film dehydration. Whether drying proceeded throughout the bulk or via a moving front was undetermined, but in either mode it was preceded by the formation of a thin dry film at the interface with the atmosphere. Grinding of the kaolinite for several minutes by mortar and pestle before paste preparations resulted in an overall increase of photon emission compared to unground kaolinite and in the formation of more than one emission peak, as well as a prolongation of the light emission. This effect on the kinetics of light emittance was observed for about two months after the application of the mechanical stress and suggests a means of detecting the mechanical stress history of a clay. An estimate was made of the spectral characteristics of the emitted light using optical filters and by incorporating tryptophan and salicylic acid into the kaolinite paste where they acted as fluorescent probes. The latter technique shifted the frequency of the light emitted by the kaolinite from the ultraviolet to the visible range where it was less effectively reabsorbed. The first method showed that the wavelengths of 97% of the emitted light was <460 nm and that 75% of the light had wavelengths < 410 nm. The second method showed that the total intensity of DIL increased in the presence of fluorescence molecules, suggesting that the emittance was in the ultraviolet range.

  17. Dehydration melting in the top of the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, B.; Jacobsen, S. D.; Becker, T. W.; Liu, Z.; Dueker, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    The high water storage capacity of minerals in Earth's mantle transition zone (410-660 km) implies the possibility of a deep H2O reservoir, which could cause dehydration melting of mantle that flows vertically across the boundaries of the transition zone. We examined the effects of downwelling from the transition zone into the lower mantle with high-pressure laboratory experiments, numerical modeling, and seismic P-to-S conversions recorded by EarthScope's USArray. In experiments, the transition of hydrous ringwoodite to perovskite and (Mg,Fe)O produces intergranular melt as a result of the large decrease in water storage capacity. Beneath USArray we detect abrupt decreases in seismic velocity near the top of the lower mantle. Detections are widespread beneath the Great Plains and northern Cordillera, and detections are absent beneath the southwestern U.S. Mantle circulation models show that most of the areas (>95%) with abrupt velocity decreases in the top of the lower mantle are collocated with downward flow across the 660 km discontinuity (660). Mantle circulation models predict upwelling across the 660 beneath the southwestern U.S where abrupt velocity decreases are not detected. The strong correlation between downwelling across the 660 and velocity decreases in the top of the lower mantle is consistent with a small amount (~0.5-1%) of dehydration melting, similar to that observed in laboratory experiments on hydrous ringwoodite. Our results suggest hydration of a large region of the transition zone, and that dehydration melting may act to trap H2O in the transition zone.

  18. Thickness measurement of hydrated and dehydrated cryosections by EELS.

    PubMed

    Shi, S; Sun, S; Andrews, S B; Leapman, R D

    1996-02-15

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) provides a useful method for determining the thickness of frozen-hydrated and dehydrated cryosections in terms of the inelastic mean free path. Cryosection thickness is an important parameter because plural inelastic scattering limits the sensitivity of elemental microanalysis based on core-loss EELS, and because overlapping structures can affect interpretation of microanalytical data as well as the quality of electron images. The purpose of this work was to establish the minimum practical thickness for cutting cryosections and to explain the measured values for hydrated and dehydrated specimens. Hydrated sections were typically found to be between 1.5-2.5 times thicker than expected from the nominal microtome setting; this difference can be largely explained by compression during cutting. Comparison of micrographs from hydrated and dehydrated cryosections of rapidly-frozen, vitrified liver revealed a lateral shrinkage of approximately 20% on drying. The measured compression and shrinkage factors are consistent with dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) mass measurements on freeze-dried sections. Freeze-dried cryosections, cut to a nominal thickness of 90 nm and supported on thin Formvar/carbon films, had a relative thickness t/lambda i in the range of 0.5 for cytoplasm to 0.9 for mitochondria when analyzed at 100 keV beam energy. Mass loss of approximately 30% occurring at high electron dose enabled useful core-loss spectra to be recorded even from high-mass compartments such as mitochondria without excessive plural scattering.

  19. The intraocular pressure response to dehydration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew P; Feigl, Beatrix; Stewart, Ian B

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intraocular pressure response to differing levels of dehydration. Seven males participated in 90 min of treadmill walking (5 km h(-1) and 1% grade) in both temperate (22 °C) and hot (43 °C) conditions. At baseline and 30 min intervals intraocular pressure, nude body mass, body temperature and heart rate were recorded. Statistically significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed for intraocular pressure (hot condition: baseline 17.0 ± 2.9, 30 min 15.6 ± 3.5, 60 min 14.5 ± 3.7 and 90 min 13.6 ± 2.9 mmHg; temperate condition: baseline 16.8 ± 2.7, 30 min 16.5 ± 2.6, 60 min 15.8 ± 2.5 and 90 min 15.7 ± 1.8 mmHg) and body mass loss (hot condition: 30 min -1.07 ± 0.35, 60 min -2.17 ± 0.55 and 90 min -3.13 ± 0.74%; temperate condition: 30 min -0.15 ± 0.11, 60 min -0.47 ± 0.18 and 90 min -0.78 ± 0.25%). Significant linear regressions (p < 0.05) were observed for intraocular pressure and body mass loss (adjusted r(2) = 0.24) and intraocular pressure change and body mass loss (adjusted r(2) = 0.51). In conclusion, intraocular pressure was progressively reduced during a period of exercise causing dehydration, but remained relatively stable when hydration was maintained. The present study revealed a moderate relationship between dehydration (body mass loss) and intraocular pressure change.

  20. Deformation-induced dehydration structures in the Nankai accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famin, V.; Byrne, T.; Lewis, J. C.; Kanagawa, K.; Behrmann, J.; Iodp 314/315/316 Scientists, E.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates the chemical changes caused by deformation in the hanging wall of a major, probably seismogenic thrust fault in the Kumano forearc basin, Nankai Trough. In cores from IODP Expedition 315 (site C0001), the clay sediments display numerous deformation structures including tilted beddings, decimeter scale faults and shear zones with normal or thrust offsets, and clusters of parallel curviplanar veins interpreted as earthquake-induced dewatering structures. Curviplanar veins are often observed to merge into small oblique shear zones with millimeter offsets, or to branch on larger shear zones with a ~30° angle. This suggests that some shear zones may form by the coalescence of veins. Curviplanar veins and shear zones appear darker than the surrounding clay at the macroscopic observation scale, and brighter and therefore denser under CT-scan imaging. At the micro-scale, clay has a preferred crystallographic orientation in the deformation structures and no preferred orientation outside. Electron probe micro-analysis reveals that the dark material has a higher sum of major elements (65-80 wt%), i.e. a lower volatile content (assumed to be mostly water) than the host sediment (50-60 wt%). All the major elements are equally enriched in proportion to the volatile depletion. Mass balance calculation indicates that a 20-30 wt% water loss is required to account for chemical change in the deformation microstructures. The water loss may be due to clay dehydration or to pore collapse. Shear zones are equally dehydrated as the curviplanar veins from the mass balance standpoint. In 1 m3 of sediment, a deformed volume of 1 % should produce about 6.2 L of water. Given the low permeability of the sediment, dehydration may increase the pore pressure and enhance further deformation. Deformation localization would be self-sustained by fluid overpressure, suggesting that dewatering veins may evolve into larger deformation structures after an earthquake.

  1. Crystallization of a protein using dehydration without a precipitant

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Miriam L.; Baker, Edward N.; Lott, J. Shaun

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxic response protein I (HRPI) is a protein of unknown biochemical function whose expression is very strongly upregulated in response to oxygen depletion in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Crystals have been grown from a solution of full-length HRPI by the unusual method of dehydration without the use of precipitants. The crystals produced diffract to a maximum resolution of 2.1 Å and belong to space group P41212 (or P43212), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.18, c = 37.34 Å. PMID:16511097

  2. Dehydrative cross-coupling reactions of allylic alcohols with olefins.

    PubMed

    Gumrukcu, Yasemin; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-08-25

    The direct dehydrative activation of allylic alcohols and subsequent cross-coupling with alkenes by using palladium catalyst containing a phosphoramidite ligand is described. The activation of the allyl alcohol does not require stoichiometric additives, thus allowing clean, waste-free reactions. The scope is demonstrated by application of the protocol to a series allylic alcohols and vinyl arenes, leading to variety of 1,4-diene products. Based on kinetic studies, a mechanism is proposed that involves a palladium hydride species that activates the allyl alcohol to form the allyl intermediate.

  3. Observations of denitrification and dehydration in the winter polar stratospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Kawa, S. R.; Tuck, A. F.; Loewenstein, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that denitrification of the Arctic stratosphere can be explained by the selective growth and sedimentation of aerosol particles rich in nitric acid. Because reactive nitrogen species moderate the destruction of ozone by chlorine-catalyzed reactions by sequestering chlorine in reservoir species such as ClONO2, the possibility of the removal of reactive nitrogen without dehydration should be allowed for in attempts to model ozone depletion in the Arctic. Indeed, denitrification along with elevated concentrations of reactive chlorine observed in 1989 indicate that the Arctic was chemically primed for ozone destruction without an extended period of temperatures below the frost point, as is characteristic of the Antarctic.

  4. Improvements in the order, isotropy and electron density of glypican-1 crystals by controlled dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wael; Svensson Birkedal, Gabriel; Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M.; Mani, Katrin; Logan, Derek T.

    2013-01-01

    The use of controlled dehydration for improvement of protein crystal diffraction quality is increasing in popularity, although there are still relatively few documented examples of success. A study has been carried out to establish whether controlled dehydration could be used to improve the anisotropy of crystals of the core protein of the human proteoglycan glypican-1. Crystals were subjected to controlled dehydration using the HC1 device. The optimal protocol for dehydration was developed by careful investigation of the following parameters: dehydration rate, final relative humidity and total incubation time T inc. Of these, the most important was shown to be T inc. After dehydration using the optimal protocol the crystals showed significantly reduced anisotropy and improved electron density, allowing the building of previously dis­ordered parts of the structure. PMID:24311593

  5. Topics in Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-01

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.

  6. Value of point-of-care ketones in assessing dehydration and acidosis in children with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jason A; Waltzman, Mark; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    Children with gastroenteritis often develop dehydration with metabolic acidosis. Serum ketones are frequently elevated in this population. The goal was to determine the relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and both the degree of dehydration and the magnitude of acidosis. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective trial of crystalloid administration for rapid rehydration. Children 6 months to 6 years of age with gastroenteritis and dehydration were enrolled. A point-of-care serum ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) concentration was obtained at the time of study enrollment. The relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and a prospectively assigned and previously validated clinical dehydration score, and serum bicarbonate concentration, was analyzed. A total of 188 patients were enrolled. The median serum ketone concentration was elevated at 3.1 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.2 to 4.6 mmol/L), and the median dehydration score was consistent with moderate dehydration. A significant positive relationship was found between serum ketone concentration and the clinical dehydration score (Spearman's rho = 0.22, p = 0.003). Patients with moderate dehydration had a higher median serum ketone concentration than those with mild dehydration (3.6 mmol/L vs. 1.4 mmol/L, p = 0.007). Additionally, the serum ketone concentration was inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate concentration (ρ = -0.26, p < 0.001). Children with gastroenteritis and dehydration have elevated serum ketone concentrations that correlate with both degree of dehydration and magnitude of metabolic acidosis. Point-of-care serum ketone measurement may be a useful tool to inform management decisions at the point of triage or in the initial evaluation of children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. Effects of dehydration on organ metabolism in the frog Pseudacris crucifer: hyperglycemic responses to dehydration mimic freezing-induced cryoprotectant production.

    PubMed

    Churchill, T A; Storey, K B

    1994-01-01

    The metabolic effects of evaporative water loss at 5 degrees C were assessed for both fall- and spring-collected spring peepers Pseudacris crucifer. Frogs readily endured the loss of 50% of total body water. During dehydration organ water content was defined with no change in water content in skeletal muscle, gut, and kidney of 50% dehydrated frogs and reduced water content in liver, brain and heart. Dehydration stimulated a rapid and massive increase in liver glucose production. In fall-collected frogs liver glucose rose by 120-fold to 2690 +/- 400 nmol.mg protein-1 or 220 mumol.g ww-1 in 50% dehydrated frogs and glucose in other organs increased by 2.6- to 60-fold. Spring-collected frogs showed the same qualitative response to dehydration although absolute glucose levels were lower, rising maximally by 8.4-fold in liver. Glucose synthesis was supported by glycogenolysis in liver and changes in the levels of glycolytic intermediates in liver indicated that an inhibitory block at the phosphofructokinase locus during desiccation helped to divert hexose phosphates into the production of glucose. Liver energy status (ATP, total adenylates, energy charge) was maintained even after the loss of 35% of total body water but at 50% dehydration all parameters showed a sharp decline; for example, energy charge fell from about 0.85 to 0.42. Severe dehydration also led to an accumulation of lactate in four organs, probably hypoxia-induced due to impaired circulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  9. Hot topics in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Michael R.

    2003-10-01

    Our world continues to be a noisy place and the challenge to ``increase and diffuse knowledge of noise propagation, passive and active noise control, and the effects of noise'' remains. In the last several years, noise in the classroom has emerged as one of the hotter topics: Considerable progress has been made in the underpinning research, the formulation of recommendations, and the process of educating society on the social and personal impact of inadequate acoustical conditions in classrooms. The establishment of the ANSI S12.60-2002 standard for classroom acoustics was a milestone event. Noise in cities and the understanding of our soundscapes are subjects of ongoing significance. The development of standards and regulations is a continuing process, with urban community noise regulations, aviation noise, and the preservation of natural quiet in national parks being of current concern. New methods to reduce noise are under development and include passive and active methods of noise control, techniques for modeling the performance of noise barriers, and approaches for designing product sound quality.

  10. Topics in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  11. A rapid dehydration leaf assay reveals stomatal response differences in grapevine genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Daniel W; Ghan, Ryan; Cramer, Grant R

    2014-01-01

    A simple and reliable way of phenotyping plant responses to dehydration was developed. Fully-developed leaves were detached and placed in a closed plastic box containing a salt solution to control the atmospheric water potential in the container. Three hours of dehydration (weight loss of the leaf) was optimal for measuring changes in stomatal response to dehydration. Application of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to leaf detachment decreased the amount of water loss, indicating that the assay was able to detect differences based on a stomatal response to dehydration. Five different Vitis genotypes (V. riparia, V. champinii, V. vinifera cv. Shiraz, V. vinifera cv. Grenache and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) with known differences in drought tolerance were screened for their dehydration response and the results obtained corresponded to previous reports of stomatal responses in the vineyard. Significant differences in stomatal density along with differences in the amount and rate of water lost indicate differences in dehydration sensitivity among the genotypes screened. Differences in stomatal response to ABA were also detected. Shiraz had the lowest stomatal density and the highest ABA sensitivity among the genotypes screened, yet Shiraz lost the most amount of water, indicating that it was the least sensitive to dehydration. Despite having the highest stomatal density and intermediate stomatal sensitivity to ABA, V. riparia lost the smallest amount of water, indicating that it was the most sensitive to dehydration. The assay presented here represents a simple and reliable phenotyping method for plant responses to leaf dehydration. PMID:26504528

  12. Effects of dehydration on immune functions after a judo practice session.

    PubMed

    Chishaki, Takeharu; Umeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Iwane, Kaori; Matsumoto, Hidehiko; Ishibashi, Goshi; Ueno, Yuichi; Kashiwa, Naohiro; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dehydration after a judo practice session on player muscle and immune functions. Subjects included 25 female university judoists. Investigations were performed before and after 2.5 h of regular judo practice. Body composition, serum enzymes (myogenic enzymes, immunoglobulins and complements), neutrophils counts, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability, and phagocytic activity (PA) were measured. Subjects were divided into two groups according to level of dehydration after practice (mild dehydration and severe dehydration groups) and results were compared. Creatine kinase was found to increase significantly after practice. In addition, neutrophil count also increased significantly after practice in both groups. The changing ratios of IgA, IgG and C3 observed in the mild dehydration group were significantly higher than those in the severe dehydration group. In the severe dehydration group, post-practice PA/neutrophil had decreased significantly. Significant positive correlations were found between severity of dehydration and changing ratios of IgA, IgG, IgM, C3, C4 and ROS production capabilities, whereas no significant association was seen with PA and/or serum SOD activity. These results suggest that dehydration resulted in immunosuppression, including decreased neutrophil function.

  13. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534) and obesity (r =  -.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  14. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  15. Seismic probing of hydration and dehydration reactions in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondenay, Stéphane; McGary, R. Shane; Halpaap, Felix; Goes, Saskia; Perrin, Alexander; Wang, Hongliang; Huismans, Ritske; Ottemöller, Lars

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, high-resolution images based on teleseismic scattered waves have given us new insight into the distribution and movement of water in subduction zones. In particular, these images have shown us where the subducted crust loses the bulk of its water through eclogitization and where the mantle wedge becomes hydrated via serpentinization. The first images provided adequate constraints to infer where these processes occur for uniformly hydrated/dehydrated components of the system. However, we know that this assumption of uniformity does not really apply owing to petrological evidence that prograde and retrograde metamorphic reactions do not proceed uniformly across the subducted crust or mantle wedge. Here, we expand on previous work by (i) comparing high-resolution images from a catalogue that now samples a wide range of subduction zones, and (ii) jointly interpreting these high-resolution images with results from complementary seismic/geodynamic/petrological modelling. Our goal is to generate a set of new models that can help us better constrain the variable levels of hydration within the subducted slab and mantle wedge, and to use these models to better understand how fluid transfer between the various components of the system relates to seismicity. We illustrate these concepts with examples from the Cascadia subduction zone, where we find strong evidence for a layer of metastable gabbro in the lower portion of the subducted crust, and the Western Hellenic subduction zone, where the distribution of intraslab seismicity seems indicative of variable hydration/dehydration regimes along strike.

  16. Structural and functional insights into asymmetric enzymatic dehydration of alkenols.

    PubMed

    Nestl, Bettina M; Geinitz, Christopher; Popa, Stephanie; Rizek, Sari; Haselbeck, Robert J; Stephen, Rosary; Noble, Michael A; Fischer, Max-Philipp; Ralph, Erik C; Hau, Hoi Ting; Man, Henry; Omar, Muhiadin; Turkenburg, Johan P; van Dien, Stephen; Culler, Stephanie J; Grogan, Gideon; Hauer, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    The asymmetric dehydration of alcohols is an important process for the direct synthesis of alkenes. We report the structure and substrate specificity of the bifunctional linalool dehydratase isomerase (LinD) from the bacterium Castellaniella defragrans that catalyzes in nature the hydration of β-myrcene to linalool and the subsequent isomerization to geraniol. Enzymatic kinetic resolutions of truncated and elongated aromatic and aliphatic tertiary alcohols (C5-C15) that contain a specific signature motif demonstrate the broad substrate specificity of LinD. The three-dimensional structure of LinD from Castellaniella defragrans revealed a pentamer with active sites at the protomer interfaces. Furthermore, the structure of LinD in complex with the product geraniol provides initial mechanistic insights into this bifunctional enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed active site amino acid residues essential for its dehydration and isomerization activity. These structural and mechanistic insights facilitate the development of hydrating catalysts, enriching the toolbox for novel bond-forming biocatalysis.

  17. Enzyme dehydration using Microglassification™ preserves the protein's structure and function.

    PubMed

    Aniket; Gaul, David A; Bitterfield, Deborah L; Su, Jonathan T; Li, Victoria M; Singh, Ishita; Morton, Jackson; Needham, David

    2015-02-01

    Controlled enzyme dehydration using a new processing technique of Microglassification™ has been investigated. Aqueous solution microdroplets of lysozyme, α-chymotrypsin, catalase, and horseradish peroxidase were dehydrated in n-pentanol, n-octanol, n-decanol, triacetin, or butyl lactate, and changes in their structure and function were analyzed upon rehydration. Water solubility and microdroplet dissolution rate in each solvent decreased in the order: butyl lactate > n-pentanol > triacetin > n-octanol > n-decanol. Enzymes Microglassified™ in n-pentanol retained higher activity (93%-98%) than n-octanol (78%-85%) or n-decanol (75%-89%), whereas those Microglassified™ in triacetin (36%-75%) and butyl lactate (48%-79%) retained markedly lower activity. FTIR spectroscopy analyses showed α-helix to β-sheet transformation for all enzymes upon Microglassification™, reflecting a loss of bound water in the dried state; however, the enzymes reverted to native-like conformation upon rehydration. Accelerated stressed-storage tests using Microglassified™ lysozyme showed a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in enzymatic activity from 46,560 ± 2736 to 31,060 ± 4327 units/mg after 3 months of incubation; however, it was comparable to the activity of the lyophilized formulation throughout the test period. These results establish Microglassification™ as a viable technique for enzyme preservation without affecting its structure or function.

  18. Laboratory tests in the analysis of states of dehydration.

    PubMed

    Bruck, E

    1971-02-01

    In an otherwise healthy child with acute dehydration known to be due to diarrhea or vomiting, the amount of deficit can best be estimated by accurate weight. Total serum protein and hematocrit provide a rough estimate of reduction in circulating blood volume, but calculation from these data will usually underestimate the deficit. Determination of urea nitrogen concentration helps to detect reduced glomerular filtration rate. Acid-base disturbances, most commonly metabolic acidosis, are detected by measuring pH and CO2 content (or base excess). Blood glucose should be measured to rule out diabetes mellitus, even in the absence of a suggestive history. Determination of potassium in serum is most important in the diagnosis of adrenal or renal insufficiency and in the post-acidotic phase after dehydration. Osmolality of body fluids is estimated by measuring [Na+]. Since osmolality of body fluids is normally maintained at the expense of fluid volume by the kidney and the hormones governing renal excretion of water and sodium, abnormal osmolality indicates a serious condition which has to be interpreted with the help of clinical data. In cases of abnormal renal function or of abnormal losses, as with removal of gastrointestinal fluids by suction, or excessive and prolonged diarrhea, measuring volume and composition of excreta may be essential. Because of cumulative deficits, patients with prolonged losses or inability to regulate oral intake by thirst cannot be treated without continual careful interpretation of the reports from a good laboratory.

  19. Catalytic Ethanol Dehydration over Different Acid-activated Montmorillonite Clays.

    PubMed

    Krutpijit, Chadaporn; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the catalytic dehydration of ethanol to obtain ethylene over montmorillonite clays (MMT) with mineral acid activation including H2SO4 (SA-MMT), HCl (HA-MMT) and HNO3 (NA-MMT) was investigated at temperature range of 200 to 400°C. It revealed that HA-MMT exhibited the highest catalytic activity. Ethanol conversion and ethylene selectivity were found to increase with increased reaction temperature. At 400°C, the HA-MMT yielded 82% of ethanol conversion having 78% of ethylene yield. At lower temperature (i.e. 200 to 300°C), diethyl ether (DEE) was a major product. The highest activity obtained from HA-MMT can be attributed to an increase of weak acid sites and acid density by the activation of MMT with HCl. It can be also proven by various characterization techniques that in most case, the main structure of MMT did not alter by acid activation (excepted for NA-MMT). Upon the stability test for 72 h during the reaction, the MMT and HA-MMT showed only slight deactivation due to carbon deposition. Hence, the acid activation of MMT by HCl is promising to enhance the catalytic dehydration of ethanol.

  20. Crystal structures of phosphoketolase: thiamine diphosphate-dependent dehydration mechanism.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Katayama, Takane; Kim, Byung-Jun; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi; Ashida, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2010-10-29

    Thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes are ubiquitously present in all organisms and catalyze essential reactions in various metabolic pathways. ThDP-dependent phosphoketolase plays key roles in the central metabolism of heterofermentative bacteria and in the pentose catabolism of various microbes. In particular, bifidobacteria, representatives of beneficial commensal bacteria, have an effective glycolytic pathway called bifid shunt in which 2.5 mol of ATP are produced per glucose. Phosphoketolase catalyzes two steps in the bifid shunt because of its dual-substrate specificity; they are phosphorolytic cleavage of fructose 6-phosphate or xylulose 5-phosphate to produce aldose phosphate, acetyl phosphate, and H(2)O. The phosphoketolase reaction is different from other well studied ThDP-dependent enzymes because it involves a dehydration step. Although phosphoketolase was discovered more than 50 years ago, its three-dimensional structure remains unclear. In this study we report the crystal structures of xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase from Bifidobacterium breve. The structures of the two intermediates before and after dehydration (α,β-dihydroxyethyl ThDP and 2-acetyl-ThDP) and complex with inorganic phosphate give an insight into the mechanism of each step of the enzymatic reaction.

  1. Twin formation in hematite during dehydration of goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Genki; Kunisada, Yuji; Nomura, Takahiro; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2016-11-01

    Twin formation in hematite during dehydration was investigated using X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When synthetic goethite was heated at different temperatures between 100 and 800 °C, a phase transformation occurred at temperatures above 250 °C. The electron diffraction patterns showed that the single-crystalline goethite with a growth direction of [001]G was transformed into hematite with a growth direction of [100]H. Two non-equivalent structures emerged in hematite after dehydration, with twin boundaries at the interface between the two variants. As the temperature was increased, crystal growth occurred. At 800 °C, the majority of the twin boundaries disappeared; however, some hematite particles remained in the twinned variant. The electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution TEM observations indicated that the twin boundaries consisted of crystallographically equivalent prismatic (100) (010), and (1bar{1}0) planes. According to the total energy calculations based on spin-polarized density functional theory, the twin boundary of prismatic (100) screw had small interfacial energy (0.24 J/m2). Owing to this low interfacial energy, the prismatic (100) screw interface remained after higher-temperature treatment at 800 °C.

  2. Severe hypercalcaemia and colon ischaemia: dehydration as an unusual cause?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Liliana Gil; Ferreira, Nuno Ribeiro; Cardiga, Rosa; Póvoa, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia is an emergency with severe consequences. Dehydration can be an uncommon cause of hypercalcaemia, as seen in this case. A 63-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and osteoporosis, was admitted to the emergency room with abdominal distension and vomiting for 24 h. Initial evaluation was Hg 18.5 g/dL, Htc 56.2%, creatinine 2 mg/dL, metabolic acidaemia, lactate 8.3 mmol/L, anion gap 19, total Ca2+ 17.7 mg/dL and PO4+ 6.6 mg/dL. CT revealed colonic distension without obstruction or ischaemia. Renal replacement therapy and pamidronate were initiated. The patient's clinical condition deteriorated with septic shock in the context of toxic megacolon and she underwent an emergency subtotal colectomy (10 kg). Hypercalcaemia was corrected in 24 h with aggressive fluid replacement (8 L NaCl 0.9% first 12 h), with a reduction of total Ca2+ to 8.2 mg/dL. Other causes of hypercalcaemia were excluded. ‘Hypercalcaemic crisis’ secondary to severe acute dehydration is not mentioned in the literature. PMID:25809432

  3. Lipopolysaccharide reduces sodium intake and sodium excretion in dehydrated rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Roberto L; Constancio, Juliana; Vendramini, Regina C; Fracasso, José F; Menani, José V; De Luca, Laurival A

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to find out if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered intraperitoneally affects sodium and water intake and renal excretion in dehydrated rats. LPS (0.3-5 mg/kg b.w.) inhibited 0.3M NaCl intake induced by subcutaneous injection of the diuretic furosemide (FURO, 10 mg/kg b.w.) combined with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril (CAP, 5 mg/kg b.w.). Only the highest doses of LPS (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) inhibited water intake induced by FURO/CAP. LPS (0.6 mg/kg) reduced urinary volume and sodium excretion, but had no effect on mean arterial pressure or heart rate of rats treated with FURO/CAP. LPS (0.3-5.0 mg/kg) abolished intracellular thirst and reduced by 50% the urine sodium concentration of rats that received 2 ml of 2M NaCl by gavage. LPS (0.3-5.0 mg/kg) also reduced thirst in rats treated with FURO alone (10 mg/rat sc). The results suggest that LPS has a preferential, but not exclusive, inhibitory effect on sodium intake and on intracellular thirst. The inhibition of hydro-mineral intake and the antinatriuresis caused by LPS in dehydrated rats may contribute to the multiple effects of the endotoxin on fluid and electrolyte balance and be part of the strategy to cope with infections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of Fumonisins in Fresh and Dehydrated Commercial Garlic.

    PubMed

    Tonti, Stefano; Mandrioli, Mara; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Prodi, Antonio

    2017-08-16

    An epidemic fungal disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum, responsible for fumonisin production (FB1, FB2, and FB3), has been reported in the main garlic-producing countries in recent years. Fumonisins are a group of structurally related toxic metabolites produced by this pathogen. The aim of this work was to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure, mostly applied to cereals, that is suitable for fumonisin detection in garlic and compare these results to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and screening of fresh and dehydrated garlic for toxicological risk. The results show good correlation between the two analytical methods. In fresh symptomatic garlic, fumonisin levels were higher in the basal plates than those in the portions with necrotic spots. Among the 56 commercially dehydrated garlic samples screened, three were positive by ELISA test and only one was above the limit of quantitation. The same samples analyzed by HPLC showed the presence of FB1 in trace amounts that was below the limit of quantitation; FB2 and FB3 were absent. The results are reassuring, because no substantial contamination by fumonisins was found in commercial garlic.

  5. Dehydration-induced amorphous phases of calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Saharay, Moumita; Yazaydin, A Ozgur; Kirkpatrick, R James

    2013-03-28

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a critical transient phase in the inorganic precipitation of CaCO3 and in biomineralization. The calcium carbonate crystallization pathway is thought to involve dehydration of more hydrated ACC to less hydrated ACC followed by the formation of anhydrous ACC. We present here computational studies of the transition of a hydrated ACC with a H2O/CaCO3 ratio of 1.0 to anhydrous ACC. During dehydration, ACC undergoes reorganization to a more ordered structure with a significant increase in density. The computed density of anhydrous ACC is similar to that of calcite, the stable crystalline phase. Compared to the crystalline CaCO3 phases, calcite, vaterite, and aragonite, the computed local structure of anhydrous ACC is most-similar to those of calcite and vaterite, but the overall structure is not well described by either. The strong hydrogen bond interaction between the carbonate ions and water molecules plays a crucial role in stabilizing the less hydrated ACC compositions compared to the more hydrated ones, leading to a progressively increasing hydration energy with decreasing water content.

  6. Equatorial Kelvin waves, cirrus clouds, and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immler, F. J.; Krüger, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Schrems, O.

    2009-04-01

    A number of field-campaigns in the tropics have been conducted in the recent years with the mobile LIDAR systems MARL and ComCAL aboard the research vessel Polarstern in the tropical Atlantic and at Paramaribo in Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W). The lidars detected particles in the atmosphere with high vertical and temporal resolution and are capable of detecting extremely thin cloud layers which frequently occur in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). We investigated the occurrence of clouds in the TTL with a newly developed trajectory model and found that ice particles form in slow ascent and efficiently dehydrate the air [Immler et al., 2007]. The Lagrangian temperature history thus defines the water vapour transported to the stratosphere in the tropics. Radiosonde as well as ECMWF operational analysis data show a strong influence of eastward moving equatorial Kelvin waves on the temperature at the tropical cold point tropopause (CPT). We find a clear correlation between the temperature anomalies introduced by these waves and the occurrence of thin cirrus. This finding suggests an influence of Kelvin wave activity on the dehydration characteristics of the TTL [Fujiwara et al., 2001, Immler et al. 2008]. References: Fujiwara, M., F. Hasebe, M. Shiotani, N. Nishi, H. Voemel, and S.J. Oltmans (2001), Water vapor control at the tropopause by equatorial Kelvin waves observed over the Galapagos, Geophys. Res. Lett, 28,16, 3143-3146. Immler F., K. Krüger, S. Tegtmeier, M. Fujiwara, P. Fortuin, G. Verver, and O. Schrems (2007), Cirrus clouds, humidity, and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer observed at Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W), J. Geophys. Res., 112, D3, D03209, doi 10.1029/2006JD007440. Immler F., K. Krüger, M. Fujiwara, G. Verver,, M. Rex and O. Schrems (2008), Correlation between equatorial Kelvin waves and the occurrence of extremely thin ice clouds at the tropical tropopause, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2008, 8, 4019-4026

  7. Special Operation. Module 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  8. Creatine use and exercise heat tolerance in dehydrated men.

    PubMed

    Watson, Greig; Casa, Douglas J; Fiala, Kelly A; Hile, Amy; Roti, Melissa W; Healey, Julie C; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2006-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate (CrM) use is highly prevalent in team sports (eg, football, lacrosse, ice hockey) and by athletes at the high school, college, professional, and recreational levels. Concerns have been raised about whether creatine use is associated with increased cramping, muscle injury, heat intolerance, and risk of dehydration. To assess whether 1 week of CrM supplementation would compromise hydration status, alter thermoregulation, or increase the incidence of symptoms of heat illness in dehydrated men performing prolonged exercise in the heat. Double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Human Performance Laboratory. Twelve active males, age = 22 +/- 1 year, height = 180 +/- 3 cm, mass = 78.8 +/- 1.2 kg, body fat = 9 +/- 1%, V(O2)peak = 50.9 +/- 1 ml.kg(-1).min(-1). Subjects consumed 21.6 g.d(-1) of CrM or placebo for 7 days, underwent 48 +/- 10 days of washout between treatments, and then crossed over to the alternate treatment in the creatine group. On day 7 of each treatment, subjects lost 2% body mass by exercising in 33.5 degrees C and then completed an 80-minute exercise heat-tolerance test (33.5 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C, relative humidity = 41 +/- 12%). The test consisted of four 20-minute sequences of 4 minutes of rest, alternating a 3-minute walk and 1-minute high-intensity run 3 times, and walking for 4 minutes. Thermoregulatory, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, urinary, and perceptual responses. On day 7, body mass had increased 0.88 kg. No interaction or treatment differences for placebo versus CrM during the exercise heat-tolerance test were noted in thermoregulatory (rectal temperature, 39.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C versus 39.4 +/- 0.4 degrees C) cardiorespiratory (Vo(2), 21.4 +/- 2.7 versus 20.0 +/- 1.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); heart rate, 192 +/- 10 versus 192 +/- 11 beats.min(-1); mean arterial pressure, 90 +/- 9 versus 88 +/- 5 mm Hg), metabolic (lactate, 6.7 +/- 2.7 versus 7.0 +/- 3.0 mmol.L(-1)), perceptual thirst (thirst, 7 +/- 1 versus 7 +/- 1

  9. Creatine Use and Exercise Heat Tolerance in Dehydrated Men

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Greig; Casa, Douglas J; Fiala, Kelly A; Hile, Amy; Roti, Melissa W; Healey, Julie C; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2006-01-01

    Context: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) use is highly prevalent in team sports (eg, football, lacrosse, ice hockey) and by athletes at the high school, college, professional, and recreational levels. Concerns have been raised about whether creatine use is associated with increased cramping, muscle injury, heat intolerance, and risk of dehydration. Objective: To assess whether 1 week of CrM supplementation would compromise hydration status, alter thermoregulation, or increase the incidence of symptoms of heat illness in dehydrated men performing prolonged exercise in the heat. Design: Double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Setting: Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve active males, age = 22 ± 1 year, height = 180 ± 3 cm, mass = 78.8 ± 1.2 kg, body fat = 9 ± 1%, V̇o2peak = 50.9 ± 1 ml·kg−1·min−1. Intervention(s): Subjects consumed 21.6 g·d−1 of CrM or placebo for 7 days, underwent 48 ± 10 days of washout between treatments, and then crossed over to the alternate treatment in the creatine group. On day 7 of each treatment, subjects lost 2% body mass by exercising in 33.5°C and then completed an 80-minute exercise heat-tolerance test (33.5°C ± 0.5°C, relative humidity = 41 ± 12%). The test consisted of four 20-minute sequences of 4 minutes of rest, alternating a 3-minute walk and 1-minute high-intensity run 3 times, and walking for 4 minutes. Main Outcome Measures: Thermoregulatory, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, urinary, and perceptual responses. Results: On day 7, body mass had increased 0.88 kg. No interaction or treatment differences for placebo versus CrM during the exercise heat-tolerance test were noted in thermoregulatory (rectal temperature, 39.3 ± 0.4°C versus 39.4 ± 0.4°C) cardiorespiratory (V̇o2, 21.4 ± 2.7 versus 20.0 ± 1.8 ml·kg−1·min−1; heart rate, 192 ± 10 versus 192 ± 11 beats·min−1; mean arterial pressure, 90 ± 9 versus 88 ± 5 mm Hg), metabolic (lactate, 6.7 ± 2.7 versus 7.0

  10. USSOCOM Research Topics 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    military services G8. Training systems for USSOCOM and its components G9. SOF aviation: Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) G10 . Preparing the human...IW operations. G10 . Preparing the human weapons platform Discussion of new technology and weapons systems is a familiar staple. This study returns...the FARC Because of the information age and Web use, terrorist networks share common tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), both successful

  11. USSOCOM Research Topics 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    operations G19. Game theory and the warrior diplomat: Understanding competitive and cooperative decision making and their applications to inter- agency...and the two-step communication process. G19. Game theory and the warrior diplomat: Understanding competi- tive and cooperative decision making and their...competitive decision making . How can the introduction of game theory shift the negotia- tion paradigm from competitive to cooperative decision making

  12. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Richard L.

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate counterparts of similar thickness

  13. Topics in nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  14. Topics in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-30

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  15. Topics in Particle Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Toby David

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation consists of a study of two topics in particle astrophysics. In Part I, we examine the generation of microwave background radiation fluctuations due to an inflationary epoch in the early universe. In Chapter 1, we study the angular dependence of the three-point correlation function of microwave background fluctuations. We use the standard techniques of field theory in curved spacetime to compute, up to an overall constant, the three-point function of the inflaton field varphi and relate this to the three-point function of microwave background temperature fluctuations. In Chapter 2, we study the dependence of the size of the fluctuations on the coupling constant lambda in the inflaton potential, and in particular we show that some claims in the literature that upper bounds on the size of the fluctuations do not put an upper bound on lambda are false. In Part II, we calculate the relic density of two supersymmetric particles with an eye to studying their viability as dark matter candidates. In Chapters 3 and 4, we compute corrections to the annihilation rate for binos (B) due to sfermion mixing (Chapter 3) and some loop effects (Chapter 4). We find that the effect of sfermion mixing may be large, both on the relic density of binos and their present annihilation cross-section, which affects their prospects for detection. The effect of the loop graphs we calculate is generically small, but can be large for bino masses near half the Z mass. In Chapter 5, we do a thorough calculation of the relic density of massive (_sp{~}>500 GeV) sneutrinos (~nu). We find that the relic density may lie in the cosmologically interesting region 0.1 _sp{~ }< Omega h^2 _sp{~}< 1.0 for sneutrino masses between 1 TeV and 4 TeV. Direct detection experiments require m _{~nu} _sp{~}< 2200 GeV and Omega_{~nu }h^2 _sp{~ }< 0.4.

  16. New insights in dehydration stress behavior of two maize hybrids using advanced distributed reactivity model (DRM). Responses to the impact of 24-epibrassinolide

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Bojan; Janković, Marija; Nikolić, Bogdan; Dimkić, Ivica; Lalević, Blažo; Raičević, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Proposed distributed reactivity model of dehydration for seedling parts of two various maize hybrids (ZP434, ZP704) was established. Dehydration stresses were induced thermally, which is also accompanied by response of hybrids to heat stress. It was found that an increased value of activation energy counterparts within radicle dehydration of ZP434, with a high concentration of 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) at elevated operating temperatures, probably causes activation of diffusion mechanisms in cutin network and may increases likelihood of formation of free volumes, large enough to accommodate diffusing molecule. Many small random effects were detected and can be correlated with micro-disturbing in a space filled with water caused by thermal gradients, increasing capillary phenomena, and which can induce thermo-capillary migration. The influence of seedling content of various sugars and minerals on dehydration was also examined. Estimated distributed reactivity models indicate a dependence of reactivity on structural arrangements, due to present interactions between water molecules and chemical species within the plant. PMID:28644899

  17. Dehydration pathways of 1-propanol on HZSM-5 in the presence and absence of water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi, Yuchun; Shi, Hui; Mu, Linyu; Liu, Yue; Mei, Donghai; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-12-23

    The Brønsted acid-catalyzed gas-phase dehydration of 1-propanol (0.075-4 kPa) was studied on zeolite H-MFI (Si/Al = 26, containing minimal amounts of extraframework Al moieties) in the absence and presence of co-fed water (0-2.5 kPa) at 413-443 K. It is shown that propene can be formed from monomeric and dimeric adsorbed 1-propanol. The stronger adsorption of 1-propanol relative to water indicates that the reduced dehydration rates in the presence of water are not a consequence of the competitive adsorption between 1-propanol and water. Instead, the deleterious effect is related to the different extents of stabilization of adsorbed intermediates and the relevant elimination/substitution transition states by water. Water stabilizes the adsorbed 1-propanol monomer significantly more than the elimination transition state, leading to a higher activation barrier and a greater entropy gain for the rate-limiting step, which eventually leads to propene. In a similar manner, an excess of 1-propanol stabilizes the adsorbed state of 1-propanol more than the elimination transition state. In comparison with the monomer-mediated pathway, adsorbed dimer and the relevant transition states for propene and ether formation are similarly, while less effectively, stabilized by intrazeolite water molecules. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and was performed in part using the Molecular Sciences Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  18. [Non adherence and topical steroids].

    PubMed

    Aubert, H; Barbarot, S

    2012-01-01

    Compliance raises very specific questions in dermatology related to the frequent use of local treatments: creams or ointments, including topical corticosteroids. The adherence in dermatology is a complex issue. It is difficult to quantify objectively because of the patient subjectivity, the constant adaptation to changes in the course of the disease, and due to the lack of adapted device. Moreover poor compliance may be related to topical corticosteroid phobia, defined as a fear vis-à-vis the topical corticosteroids, rational or not. The topical corticosteroid phobia is very common in the management of chronic inflammatory skin diseases especially in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative Study for the Surface Dehydration of Vocal Folds Based on High-Speed Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Yu; Maytag, Allison L; Jiang, Jack J

    2015-07-01

    From the perspective of the glottal area and mucosal wave, quantitatively estimate the differences of vocal fold on laryngeal activity during phonation at three different dehydration levels. Controlled three sets of tests. A dehydration experiment for 10 excised canine larynges was conducted at 16 cm H2O. According to the dehydration cycle time (H), dehydration levels were divided into three degrees (0% H, 50% H, 75% H). The glottal area and mucosal wave under three dehydration levels were extracted from high-speed images and digital videokymography (DKG) image sequences. Direct and non-direct amplitude components were derived from glottal areas. The amplitude and frequency of mucosal wave were calculated from DKG image sequences. These parameters in condition of three dehydration levels were compared for statistical analysis. The results showed a significant difference in direct (P = 0.001; P = 0.005) and non-direct (P = 0.005; P = 0.016) components of glottal areas between every two different dehydration levels. Considering the right-upper, right-lower, left-upper, and left-lower of vocal fold, the amplitudes of mucosal waves consistently decreased with increasing of dehydration levels. But, there was no significant difference in frequency. Surface dehydration could give rise to complex variation of vocal fold on tissues and vibratory mechanism, which should need analyzing from multiple perspectives. The results suggested that the combination of glottal area and mucosal wave could be better to research the change of vocal fold at different dehydrations. It would become a better crucial research tool for the clinical treatment of dehydration-induced laryngeal pathologies. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Topicality 1 and Topicality 2: A Quest for True Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Clark D.; Vasilius, Janet M.

    The actual nature of topicality as it is presented in intercollegiate debate rounds has become so split that there are two different types of topicality. The first type (T1) is a "real" argument that is subjective, intentional, absolute, jurisdictional, pragmatic, and focuses on content and product. The second type (T2) is strategic,…

  1. Topics in spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Turkel, E.

    1985-01-01

    After detailing the construction of spectral approximations to time-dependent mixed initial boundary value problems, a study is conducted of differential equations of the form 'partial derivative of u/partial derivative of t = Lu + f', where for each t, u(t) belongs to a Hilbert space such that u satisfies homogeneous boundary conditions. For the sake of simplicity, it is assumed that L is an unbounded, time-independent linear operator. Attention is given to Fourier methods of both Galerkin and pseudospectral method types, the Galerkin method, the pseudospectral Chebyshev and Legendre methods, the error equation, hyperbolic partial differentiation equations, and time discretization and iterative methods.

  2. Topics in Bethe Ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunguang

    Integrable quantum spin chains have close connections to integrable quantum field. theories, modern condensed matter physics, string and Yang-Mills theories. Bethe. ansatz is one of the most important approaches for solving quantum integrable spin. chains. At the heart of the algebraic structure of integrable quantum spin chains is. the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. This. thesis focuses on four topics in Bethe ansatz. The Bethe equations for the isotropic periodic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N. sites have solutions containing ±i/2 that are singular: both the corresponding energy and the algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. Such solutions must be carefully regularized. We consider a regularization involving a parameter that can be. determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. These generalized Bethe. equations provide a practical way of determining which singular solutions correspond. to eigenvectors of the model. The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular. solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to bephysical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of. the Hamiltonian. We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain. with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots. split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We. argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a. generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the. leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters. We argue that the Hamiltonians for A(2) 2n open quantum spin chains

  3. Anaerobic stabilization of waste activated sludge at different temperatures and solid retention times: Evaluation by sludge reduction, soluble chemical oxygen demand release and dehydration capability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiyao; Peng, Yongzhen; He, Yuelan; Wang, Shuying; Guo, Siyu; Li, Lukai

    2017-03-01

    Anaerobic treatment is the most widely used method of waste activated sludge (WAS) stabilization. Using a semi-continuous stirring tank with condensed WAS, we investigated effects of decreasing the solid retention time (SRT) from 32days to 6.4days on sludge reduction, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release and dehydration capability, along with anaerobic digestion operated at medium temperature (MT-AD) or anaerobic digestion operated at room temperature (RT-AD). Results showed that effects of temperature on SCOD release were greater at SRT of 32d and 6.4d. When SRT was less than 8d, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS) and capillary suction time (CST) did not change significantly. CST was lowest at SRT of 10.7days, indicating best condition for sludge dehydration. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the most optimum SRT was higher than 10.7d both in MT-AD or RT-AD.

  4. Skeletal muscle volume following dehydration induced by exercise in heat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle volume in active (knee extensors (KE)) and less active (biceps/triceps brachii, deltoid) musculature following dehydration induced by exercise in heat. Methods Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points. Results In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p = 0.005) and 5% (p < 0.001) ETBW losses, while FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p = 0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464 ± 446 ml to 1,406 ± 425 ml (3.9%, p < 0.001) at 3% ETBW loss and to 1,378 ± 421 ml (5.9%, p < 0.001) at 5% ETBW loss. The largest decline in KE volume in DYHD occurred in the mid-belly (31 ml, p = 0.001) and proximal (24 ml, p = 0.001) regions of the grouped vasti muscles. There were no changes in volume for the biceps/triceps (p = 0.35) or deltoid (p = 0.92) during DHYD. FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430 ± 435 ml, p = 0.074) and 5% (1,431 ± 439 ml, p = 0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445 ± 436 ml). Conclusions Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline

  5. Dehydration of 2-Methyl-1-Cyclohexanol: New Findings from a Popular Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent; Schretzman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The mineral acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2-methyl-1-cyclohexanol has been a popular laboratory exercise in second-year organic chemistry for several decades. The dehydration experiment is often performed by organic chemistry students to illustrate Zaitsev's rule. However, sensitive analytical techniques reveal that the results do not entirely…

  6. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and vitamin E in the forage crops. (c) It is added to the dehydrated forage crops in an oil mixture containing only suitable animal or suitable vegetable oil, prior to grinding and mixing. (d) The maximum... vegetable oils are to be used in the oil mix. (f) The label of any dehydrated forage crops treated with...

  7. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and vitamin E in the forage crops. (c) It is added to the dehydrated forage crops in an oil mixture containing only suitable animal or suitable vegetable oil, prior to grinding and mixing. (d) The maximum... vegetable oils are to be used in the oil mix. (f) The label of any dehydrated forage crops treated with...

  8. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and vitamin E in the forage crops. (c) It is added to the dehydrated forage crops in an oil mixture containing only suitable animal or suitable vegetable oil, prior to grinding and mixing. (d) The maximum... vegetable oils are to be used in the oil mix. (f) The label of any dehydrated forage crops treated with...

  9. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and vitamin E in the forage crops. (c) It is added to the dehydrated forage crops in an oil mixture containing only suitable animal or suitable vegetable oil, prior to grinding and mixing. (d) The maximum... vegetable oils are to be used in the oil mix. (f) The label of any dehydrated forage crops treated with...

  10. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and vitamin E in the forage crops. (c) It is added to the dehydrated forage crops in an oil mixture containing only suitable animal or suitable vegetable oil, prior to grinding and mixing. (d) The maximum... vegetable oils are to be used in the oil mix. (f) The label of any dehydrated forage crops treated with...

  11. Rates of Hospitalization for Dehydration Following Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Swerdel, Joel N; Rhoads, George G; Cosgrove, Nora M; Kostis, John B

    2016-04-01

    Hurricane Sandy, one of the most destructive natural disasters in New Jersey history, made landfall on October 29, 2012. Prolonged loss of electrical power and extensive infrastructure damage restricted access for many to food and water. We examined the rate of dehydration in New Jersey residents after Hurricane Sandy. We obtained data from 2008 to 2012 from the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System (MIDAS), a repository of in-patient records from nonfederal New Jersey hospitals (N=517,355). Patients with dehydration had ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis codes for dehydration, volume depletion, and/or hypovolemia. We used log-linear modeling to estimate the change in in-patient hospitalizations for dehydration comparing 2 weeks after Sandy with the same period in the previous 4 years (2008-2011). In-patient hospitalizations for dehydration were 66% higher after Sandy than in 2008-2011 (rate ratio [RR]: 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50, 1.84). Hospitalizations for dehydration in patients over 65 years of age increased by nearly 80% after Sandy compared with 2008-2011 (RR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.58, 2.02). Sandy was associated with a marked increase in hospitalizations for dehydration. Reducing the rate of dehydration following extreme weather events is an important public health concern that needs to be addressed, especially in those over 65 years of age.

  12. Dehydration of 2-Methyl-1-Cyclohexanol: New Findings from a Popular Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent; Schretzman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The mineral acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2-methyl-1-cyclohexanol has been a popular laboratory exercise in second-year organic chemistry for several decades. The dehydration experiment is often performed by organic chemistry students to illustrate Zaitsev's rule. However, sensitive analytical techniques reveal that the results do not entirely…

  13. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  14. Chemical and physicochemical quality parameters in carrots dehydrated by power ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Soria, Ana Cristina; Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Montilla, Antonia; Riera, Enrique; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Villamiel, Mar

    2010-07-14

    Preservation of the quality and bioactivity of carrots dehydrated by power ultrasound (US) under different experimental conditions including prior blanching has been evaluated for the first time by measuring the evolution of the Maillard reaction and the changes in soluble sugars, proteins, total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and rehydration ability. This study also includes a comparison with a freeze-dried sample and data of commercial dehydrated carrots. The synergic effect of US and temperature (60 degrees C) increased the dehydration rate of carrots (90% moisture loss in only 75 min) while still providing carrots with a level of 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids significantly lower than that of dehydrated commercial samples. Whereas a decrease in the content of reducing soluble sugars was observed with processing temperature, minor carbohydrates (scyllo- and myo-inositol and sedoheptulose) were rather stable, irrespective of the US dehydration parameters. Blanching significantly improved the rehydration ability of US-dehydrated carrots without increasing the loss of soluble sugars by leaching. As supported by the similarity of most quality indicators studied in both US-treated and freeze-dried carrots, the mild processing conditions employed in US dehydration gave rise to premium quality dehydrated carrots.

  15. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  16. Quality of frozen fruit bars manufactured through infrared pre-dehydration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, frozen restructured whole apple and strawberry bars were manufactured by partial dehydration, using infrared (IR) heating, followed by restructuring and freezing. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of IR partial dehydration on the quality of restructured f...

  17. Exercise-induced hemolysis in xerocytosis. Erythrocyte dehydration and shear sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Platt, O S; Lux, S E; Nathan, D G

    1981-01-01

    A patient with xerocytosis was found to have swimming-induced intravascular hemolysis and shortening of erythrocyte life-span. In a microviscometer, xerocytes were more susceptible than normal erythrocytes to hemolysis by shear stress. Fractionation of normal and abnormal cells on discontinuous Stractan density gradients revealed that increasingly dehydrated cells were increasingly more shear sensitive. This sensitivity was partially corrected by rehydrating xerocytic erythrocytes by means of the cation-ionophore nystatin in a high potassium buffer. Conversely, normal erythrocytes were rendered shear sensitive by dehydrating them with nystatin in a low potassium buffer. This effect of dehydration was entirely reversible if normal cells were dehydrated for less than 4 h but was only partially reversed after more prolonged dehydration. It is likely that dehydration of erythrocytes results in shear sensitivity primarily because of concentration of cell contents and reduced cellular deformability. With prolonged dehydration, secondary membrane changes may potentiate the primary effect. This increased shear sensitivity of dehydrated cells may explain atraumatic exercise-induced hemolysis in xerocytosis as cardiac output is shifted to vessels of exercising muscles with small diameters and high shear rates. PMID:7276163

  18. Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration of apple slices Controlled by Intermittent Heating Mode

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infrared heating controlled by intermittent heating mode was found to be able to achieve simultaneous dry-blanching and dehydration of apple slices with a desirable quality. In order to better understand the performance of intermittent heating for simultaneous dry-blanching and dehydration (SIDBD),...

  19. Resources for Topics in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in architecture or on the work of a particular architect presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and series list (PASL). Two topics are researched as examples: the contemporary architect Richard Meier, and…

  20. Resources for Topics in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in art or the work of a particular artist presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and serials list (PASL). Three topics are researched as examples: the contemporary artist and author Frank Stella, the…

  1. [Violence Prevention: A Topical Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourland, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses the issue of violence prevention in American schools and is based on presentations and discussions at the Workgroup To Improve the Quality of Technical Assistance around the Topic of Violence Prevention held in Washington, D.C. on June 12-14, 1995. The newsletter reports on the following presentation topics:…

  2. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  3. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  4. Topical Search: AIDS and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This topical search includes 30 of the most representative citations on the subject of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and youth selected from the National Institute of Justice/NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service) database. Topics covered in this package include education programs for in-school youth, policies and…

  5. Working Topics for Students' Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marting, Janet

    Students enrolled in composition classes may provide the answer to the dilemma of coming up with a writing topic: work--the "four letter word." Most, if not all, students have already become part of the labor force. The theme of "work" is naturally successful because it centers around a topic students know well, something that…

  6. Rehydration of a reattached fractured tooth fragment after prolonged dehydration.

    PubMed

    Arhun, Neslihan; Onay, Emel Olga; Ungor, Mete

    2012-01-01

    Crown fractures of the anterior teeth are one of the most common outcomes of trauma to the orofacial region. The reattachment of dental fragments is a conservative treatment and should be considered a primary treatment choice in the restoration of anterior tooth fractures. This article presents a clinical technique for the restoration of a fractured maxillary lateral incisor by reattaching the tooth fragment that was kept in dry conditions for five days with the aid of adhesive dentistry. The esthetic compromise of white color (due to excessive dehydration of the segment) was reconciled after one month of service in the mouth by regaining the natural color by rehydration. The one-year clinical evaluation revealed a successful outcome for this technique, and the patient was pleased with the esthetic results of the conservative treatment modality.

  7. Dehydration of oil waste emulsions by means of flocculants

    SciTech Connect

    Gandurina, L.V.; Butseva, L.N.; Shtondina, V.S.

    1995-05-01

    Oil waste emulsions are formed in the course of pumping petroleum crudes and products and are collected from the surfaces of equipment in recirculating water systems and wastewater disposal facilities (oil separators, sand traps, oil traps, holding pits for accidental spills, settlers, ponds, sludge accumulators, and so on). Emulsions are also obtained in the course of cleaning equipment in crude oil desalting and dehydration units. Such emulsions are stable, structurized systems that are very resistant to dewatering by heating and settling in separator tanks. In order to break stabilized emulsions, i.e., in order to ensure complete coalescence of drops when they collide, it is not sufficient to increase the forces of mutual attraction of drops at the moment of collision; in addition, the protective shell must be either destroyed or weakened. Demulsifying agents, or surfactants, will displace the stabilizers. This report is concerned with demulsifier efficiency.

  8. Characterization of dehydration-induced luminescence of kaolinite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahav, N.; Coyne, L.; Lawless, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    The dehydration-induced luminescence of a colloidal kaolinite is investigated experimentally, with particular attention given to the effect of various treatments on the luminescence characteristics. It is found that the total photon count of the emitted light is linearly related to the film thickness up to a thickness of 30 microns; mechanical stress in the form of grinding increases the photon output and produces extensive changes in the emission kinetics. A direct check of the emission wavelength dependence (by using color filters) indicates that roughly 75 percent of the emission occurs in the wavelength range below 410 nm. It is also found that incorporation of fluorescent molecules into the kaolinite paste increases the photon output and may indicate the transfer of ultraviolet photons to the fluorescent probe.

  9. Dehydration of water-pyridine mixtures by pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, W. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-UA 494, Nancy ); Nguyen, T.Q.; Neel, J. )

    1991-08-01

    The pervaporation technique, in which the liquid feed mixture is maintained in contact with one side of a nonporous membrane and the permeate is continuously removed from the other side as a vapor, is one of the new methods to attain separation of azeotropic mixtures, structural isomers, or even to displace the equilibrium of chemical reactions. Several ion-exchange and neutral membranes were examined in the pervaporation of water-pyridine mixtures. Carboxylic and sulfonic ion-exchange membranes were used with hydrogen counterion and additionally with trimethylammonium, triethylammonium, and tributylammonium counterions. All membranes were selective to water, but the transport mode and selectivity properties of membranes were dependent on both the character of the ion-exchange group and the ionic form of the membrane. The results obtained suggest that pervaporation of water-pyridine mixtures could be used with standard distillation in the large-scale dehydration process of pyridine.

  10. Definition of a mechanical glass transition temperature for dehydrated foods.

    PubMed

    Kasapis, Stefan

    2004-04-21

    A new concept of the mechanical glass transition temperature (T(g)) is presented with application in dehydrated high-sugar/gelatin mixtures, fish, and fruits. The macroscopic basis and manner of relaxation processes during vitrification of these foodstuffs are developed using small deformation dynamic oscillation, the master curve of viscoelasticity, and the time-temperature superposition principle. The quantitative features of the mechanical T(g) are based on the combined framework of free volume/WLF theory and the Andrade equation. It is proposed that the thermal profile of storage modulus on shear is a fundamental index of monitoring changes in a glassy structure, and several cases are presented in support of this concept.

  11. Hypernatraemic dehydration and breast feeding: a population study

    PubMed Central

    Oddie, S; Richmond, S; Coulthard, M

    2001-01-01

    As part of a population based regional review of all neonatal readmissions, the incidence of dehydration with hypernatraemia in exclusively breast fed infants was estimated. All readmissions to hospital in the first month of life during 1998 from a population of 32 015 live births were reviewed. Eight of 907 readmissions met the case definition, giving an incidence of at least 2.5 per 10 000 live births. Serum sodium at readmission varied from 150to 175 mmol/l. One infant had convulsions. The sole explanation for hypernatraemia was unsuccessful breast feeding in all cases. The eight cases are compared with the 65 cases published in the literature since 1979. Presentation, incidence, risk factors, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention are discussed.

 PMID:11567942

  12. Characterization of dehydration-induced luminescence of kaolinite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahav, N.; Coyne, L.; Lawless, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    The dehydration-induced luminescence of a colloidal kaolinite is investigated experimentally, with particular attention given to the effect of various treatments on the luminescence characteristics. It is found that the total photon count of the emitted light is linearly related to the film thickness up to a thickness of 30 microns; mechanical stress in the form of grinding increases the photon output and produces extensive changes in the emission kinetics. A direct check of the emission wavelength dependence (by using color filters) indicates that roughly 75 percent of the emission occurs in the wavelength range below 410 nm. It is also found that incorporation of fluorescent molecules into the kaolinite paste increases the photon output and may indicate the transfer of ultraviolet photons to the fluorescent probe.

  13. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  14. Effect of dehydration prior to cryopreservation of large equine embryos.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; McCue, P M; Squires, E L; Seidel, G E

    2009-08-01

    Cryopreservation of equine embryos>300microm in diameter results in low survival rates using protocols that work well for smaller equine embryos. These experiments tested the potential benefit of incorporating a dehydration step prior to standard cryopreservation procedures. Forty-six, day 7-8, grade 1, equine embryos 300-1350microm in diameter were subjected to one of the following treatments: (A) 2 min in 0.6M galactose, 10min in 1.5M glycerol, slow freeze (n=21); (B) 10min in 1.5M glycerol, slow freeze (n=15); (C) 2min in 0.6M galactose, 10min in 1.5M glycerol, followed by exposure to thaw solutions, then culture medium (n=5); (D) transferred directly to culture medium (n=5). Frozen embryos were thawed and subjected to a three-step cryoprotectant removal. Five embryos from each treatment were evaluated morphologically after 24 and 48h culture (1=excellent, 5=degenerate/dead). All treatments had at least 4/5 embryos with a quality score >or=3 at these time points except treatment B (2/5 at 24h, 1/5 at 48h). Subsequent embryos from treatment A (n=16) or B (n=10) were matched in sets of two for size and treatment, thawed, and immediately transferred in pairs to 13 recipients. Only two recipient mares were pregnant; one received two 400microm embryos from treatment A, and the other one 400 and one 415microm embryo from treatment B. There was no advantage of incorporating a 2min dehydration step into the cryopreservation protocol for large equine embryos.

  15. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2010-12-01

    Cryopreservation of coconut can be used as a strategy to back up the establishment of living collections which are expensive to maintain and are under constant threat from biotic and abiotic factors. Unfortunately, cryopreservation protocols still need to be developed that are capable of producing a sizeable number of field-grown plants. Therefore, we report on the development of an improved cryopreservation protocol which can be used on a wide range of coconut cultivars. The cryopreservation of zygotic embryos and their recovery to soil-growing plants was achieved through the application of four optimised steps viz.: (i) rapid dehydration; (ii) rapid cooling; (iii) rapid warming and recovery in vitro and (iv) acclimatization and soil-supported growth. The thermal properties of water within the embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to ensure that the freezable component was kept to a minimum. The feasibility of the protocol was assessed using the Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD) cultivar in Australia and then tested on a range of cultivars which were freshly harvested and studied in Indonesia. The most efficient protocol was one based on an 8-h rapid dehydration step followed by rapid cooling step. Best recovery percentages were obtained when a rapid warming step and an optimised in vitro culture step were used. Following this protocol, 20% (when cryopreserved 12 days after harvesting) and 40% (when cryopreserved at the time of harvest) of all MYD embryos cryopreserved could be returned to normal seedlings growing in soil. DSC showed that this protocol induced a drop in embryo fresh weight to 19% and significantly reduced the amount of water remaining that could produce ice crystals (0.1%). Of the 20 cultivars tested, 16 were found to produce between 10% and 40% normal seedlings while four cultivars generated between 0% and 10% normal seedlings after cryopreservation. This new protocol is applicable to a wide range of coconut

  16. Dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in a slurry reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Latshaw, B.E.

    1994-02-01

    The April 1990 Alternative Fuels Proposal to the Department of Energy involved the development of new technology, based on the liquid phase process, for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, fuel additives, and fuel intermediates. The objective of this work was to develop a slurry reactor based process for the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The isobutene can serve as a feedstock for the high octane oxygenated fuel additive methyl tertiary-butyl either (MTBE). Alumina catalysts were investigated because of their wide use as a dehydration catalyst. Four commercially available alumina catalysts (Catapal B, Versal B, Versal GH, and Al-3996R) were evaluated for both activity and selectivity to the branched olefin. All four catalysts demonstrated conversions greater than 80% at 290 C, while conversions of near 100% could be obtained at 330 C. The reaction favors low pressures and moderate to low space velocities. A yield of 0.90 mole isobutene per mole reacted isobutanol or better was obtained at conversions of 60--70% and higher. From 75 to 98% conversion, the four catalysts all provide isobutene yields ranging from 0.92 to 0.94 with the maximum occurring around 90% conversion. At low conversions, the concentration of diisobutyl ether becomes significant while the concentration of linear butenes is essentially a linear function of isobutanol conversion. Doping the catalyst with up to 0.8 wt % potassium showed a modest increase in isobutene selectivity; however, this increase was more than offset by a reduction in activity. Investigations using a mixed alcohols feed (consistent with isobutanol synthesis from syngas) demonstrated a small increase in the C4 iso-olefin selectivity over that observed for a pure isobutanol feed. 55 refs.

  17. Spring dehydration in the Antarctic stratospheric vortex observed by HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grose, William L.; Russell, James M., III; Tuck, Adrian F.; Swinbank, Richard; O'Neill, Alan

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of dehydrated air in the middle and lower stratosphere during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring is investigated using Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) observations and trajectory techniques. Comparisons between previously published Version 9 and the improved Version 16 retrievals on the 700-K isentropic surface show very slight (0.05 ppmv) increases in Version 16 CH4 relative to Version 9 within the polar vortex. Version 16 H2O mixing ratios show a reduction of 0.5 ppmv relative to Version 9 within the polar night jet and a reduction of nearly 1.0 ppmv in middle latitudes when compared to Version 9. The version 16 HALOE retrievals show low mixing ratios of total hydrogen (2CH4 + H2O) within the polar vortex on both 700 and 425 K isentropic surfaces relative to typical middle-stratospheric 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios. The low 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios are associated with dehydration. Slight reductions in total hydrogen, relative to typical middle-stratospheric values, are found at these levels throughout the Southern Hemisphere during this period. Trajectory calculations show that middle-latitude air masses are composed of a mixture of air from within the polar night jet and air from middle latitudes. A strong kinematic barrier to large-scale exchange is found on the poleward flank of the polar night jet at 700 K. A much weaker kinematic barrier is found at 425 K. The impact of the finite tangent pathlength of the HALOE measurements is investigated using an idealized tracer distribution. This experiment suggests that HALOE should be able to resolve the kinematic barrier, if it exists.

  18. Spring dehydration in the Antarctic stratospheric vortex observed by HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grose, William L.; Russell, James M., III; Tuck, Adrian F.; Swinbank, Richard; O'Neill, Alan

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of dehydrated air in the middle and lower stratosphere during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring is investigated using Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) observations and trajectory techniques. Comparisons between previously published Version 9 and the improved Version 16 retrievals on the 700-K isentropic surface show very slight (0.05 ppmv) increases in Version 16 CH4 relative to Version 9 within the polar vortex. Version 16 H2O mixing ratios show a reduction of 0.5 ppmv relative to Version 9 within the polar night jet and a reduction of nearly 1.0 ppmv in middle latitudes when compared to Version 9. The version 16 HALOE retrievals show low mixing ratios of total hydrogen (2CH4 + H2O) within the polar vortex on both 700 and 425 K isentropic surfaces relative to typical middle-stratospheric 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios. The low 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios are associated with dehydration. Slight reductions in total hydrogen, relative to typical middle-stratospheric values, are found at these levels throughout the Southern Hemisphere during this period. Trajectory calculations show that middle-latitude air masses are composed of a mixture of air from within the polar night jet and air from middle latitudes. A strong kinematic barrier to large-scale exchange is found on the poleward flank of the polar night jet at 700 K. A much weaker kinematic barrier is found at 425 K. The impact of the finite tangent pathlength of the HALOE measurements is investigated using an idealized tracer distribution. This experiment suggests that HALOE should be able to resolve the kinematic barrier, if it exists.

  19. Advancing microwave technology for dehydration processing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Cellemme, Stephanie L; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha; Elliott, Gloria D

    2013-10-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex(®) syringe filter holder (Millipore(™), Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit.

  20. Recent advances in topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthetics act on the peripheral nerves and reduce the sensation of pain at the site of application. In dentistry, they are used to control local pain caused by needling, placement of orthodontic bands, the vomiting reflex, oral mucositis, and rubber-dam clamp placement. Traditional topical anesthetics contain lidocaine or benzocaine as active ingredients and are used in the form of solutions, creams, gels, and sprays. Eutectic mixtures of local anesthesia cream, a mixture of various topical anesthetics, has been reported to be more potent than other anesthetics. Recently, new products with modified ingredients and application methods have been introduced into the market. These products may be used for mild pain during periodontal treatment, such as scaling. Dentists should be aware that topical anesthetics, although rare, might induce allergic reactions or side effects as a result of an overdose. Topical anesthetics are useful aids during dental treatment, as they reduce dental phobia, especially in children, by mitigating discomfort and pain. PMID:28879311

  1. Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-inflammatories but may cause nasal bleeding; sodium cromoglycate improves allergic and general inflammation but is less potent than steroids. Topical decongestants are beneficial for short-term use when there is nasal obstruction or copious discharge, but can cause damage to nasal epithelium or atrophy and dryness of the nasal mucous membrane after years of use. Anticholinergic spray is effective when watery discharge predominates, and saline is helpful when there is nasal dryness. Treatment of associated conjunctivitis is also discussed. PMID:21286563

  2. A generic protocol for protein crystal dehydration using the HC1b humidity controller

    PubMed Central

    Lobley, Carina M. C.; Sandy, James; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Mazzorana, Marco; Krojer, Tobias; Nowak, Radosław P.; Sorensen, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Dehydration may change the crystal lattice and affect the mosaicity, resolution and quality of X-ray diffraction data. A dehydrating environment can be generated around a crystal in several ways with various degrees of precision and complexity. This study uses a high-precision crystal humidifier/dehumidifier to provide an airstream of known relative humidity in which the crystals are mounted: a precise yet hassle-free approach to altering crystal hydration. A protocol is introduced to assess the impact of crystal dehydration systematically applied to nine experimental crystal systems. In one case, that of glucose isomerase, dehydration triggering a change of space group from I222 to P21212 was observed. This observation is supported by an extended study of the behaviour of the glucose isomerase crystal structure during crystal dehydration. PMID:27139626

  3. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: influence of calcium and magnesium ions on yeast resistance to dehydration-rehydration.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Yuliya; Walker, Graeme; Rapoport, Alexander

    2010-07-01

    The influence of calcium and magnesium ions on resistance to dehydration in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was investigated. Magnesium ion availability directly influenced yeast cells' resistance to dehydration and, when additionally supplemented with calcium ions, this provided further significant increase of yeast resistance to dehydration. Gradual rehydration of dry yeast cells in water vapour indicated that both magnesium and calcium may be important for the stabilization of yeast cell membranes. In particular, calcium ions were shown for the first time to increase the resistance of yeast cells to dehydration in stress-sensitive cultures from exponential growth phases. It is concluded that magnesium and calcium ion supplementations in nutrient media may increase the dehydration stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae cells significantly, and this finding is important for the production of active dry yeast preparations for food and fermentation industries.

  4. Effect of dehydration on the electrical conductivity of phyllite at high temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Dai, Lidong; Li, Heping; Hu, Haiying; Jiang, Jianjun; Hui, Keshi

    2017-02-01

    The electrical conductivity of phyllite (measured in situ at 0.5-2.5 GPa and 773-1173 K) increases with increasing temperature, satisfying an Arrhenius relation. Dehydration of phyllite at 973-1173 K enormously enhances its electrical conductivity, and the activation enthalpy (0.64-0.81 eV) remains almost constant before and after dehydration. The inflection point of the relationship between electrical conductivity and temperature is used to determine the dehydration temperature (T d ) at each considered pressure (P), leading to the following relationship: T d = 1181 - 100P. The derived relation implies that the dehydration depths of hot and cold subduction zones are 70 and 129 km respectively, which are both close to the depths of arc magma source regions, thereby indicating that the dehydration of pelite significantly influences the generation of melt in subduction zones.

  5. Maternal understanding of diarrhoea-related dehydration and its influence on ORS use in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, S E; Moralejo, M N D G; Matthews, M K

    2007-01-01

    Dehydration resulting from diarrhoea remains a significant cause of death for young children in developing countries such as Indonesia. Although Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) is effective in preventing and treating dehydration, its use in home treatment is not widespread. This study sought to assess whether mothers' understanding of diarrhoea-related dehydration influenced their use of ORS in home treatment. One hundred mothers of children under the age of five years in rural Indonesia were surveyed using a structured questionnaire, administered in an interview format in their homes. Only 38 (38%) of the mothers surveyed could identify two or more correct signs of dehydration. Significant relationship was found between maternal knowledge of correct signs of dehydration and the use of ORS in home treatment (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.24, 10.63). Resulting recommendations include improved health education programming for mothers of young children, as well as future programme evaluation and intervention studies.

  6. ROLE OF PRESSURE IN SMECTITE DEHYDRATION - EFFECTS ON GEOPRESSURE AND SMECTITE-TO-ILLITE TRANSFORMATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colten-Bradley, Virginia

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of pressure on the temperature of interlayer water loss (dehydration) by smectites under diagenetic conditions indicates that smectites are stable as hydrated phases in the deep subsurface. Hydraulic and differential pressure conditions affect dehydration differently. The temperature of dehydration increase with pore fluid pressure and interlayer water density. The temperatures of dehydration increase with pore fluid pressure and interlayer water density. The temperatures of dehydration under differential-presssure conditions are inversely related to pressure and interlayer water density. The model presented assumes the effects of pore fluid composition and 2:1 layer reactivity to be negligible. Agreement between theoretical and experimental results validate this assumption. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

  7. Methods to increase the rate of mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of foods.

    PubMed

    Chwastek, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of food preservation such as freezing, freeze drying (lyophilization), vacuum drying, convection drying are often supplemented by new technologies that enable obtaining of high quality products. Osmotic dehydration is more and more often used during processing of fruits and vegetables. This method allows maintaining good organoleptic and functional properties in the finished product. Obtaining the desired degree of dehydration or saturation of the material with an osmoactive substance often requires  elongation of time or use of high temperatures. In recent years much attention was devoted to techniques aimed at increasing the mass transfer between the dehydrated material and the hypertonic solution. The work reviews the literature focused on methods of streamlining the process of osmotic dehydration which include the use of: ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, vacuum osmotic dehydration and pulsed electric field.

  8. An organ-specific role for ethylene in rose petal expansion during dehydration and rehydration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Daofeng; Liu, Xiaojing; Meng, Yonglu; Sun, Cuihui; Tang, Hongshu; Jiang, Yudong; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Xue, Jingqi; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration is a major factor resulting in huge loss from cut flowers during transportation. In the present study, dehydration inhibited petal cell expansion and resulted in irregular flowers in cut roses, mimicking ethylene-treated flowers. Among the five floral organs, dehydration substantially elevated ethylene production in the sepals, whilst rehydration caused rapid and elevated ethylene levels in the gynoecia and sepals. Among the five ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes (RhACS1–5), expression of RhACS1 and RhACS2 was induced by dehydration and rehydration in the two floral organs. Silencing both RhACS1 and RhACS2 significantly suppressed dehydration- and rehydration-induced ethylene in the sepals and gynoecia. This weakened the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. β-glucuronidase activity driven by both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters was dramatically induced in the sepals, pistil, and stamens, but not in the petals of transgenic Arabidopsis. This further supports the organ-specific induction of these two genes. Among the five rose ethylene receptor genes (RhETR1–5), expression of RhETR3 was predominantly induced by dehydration and rehydration in the petals. RhETR3 silencing clearly aggravated the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. However, no significant difference in the effect between RhETR3-silenced flowers and RhETR-genes-silenced flowers was observed. Furthermore, RhETR-genes silencing extensively altered the expression of 21 cell expansion-related downstream genes in response to ethylene. These results suggest that induction of ethylene biosynthesis by dehydration proceeds in an organ-specific manner, indicating that ethylene can function as a mediator in dehydration-caused inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals. PMID:23599274

  9. Low serum urea level in dehydrated patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Comtois, R; Bertrand, S; Beauregard, H; Vinay, P

    1988-01-01

    Dehydrated patients usually present with an elevated serum urea level, owing in part to increased renal reabsorption of urea mediated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We carried out a study to examine whether, during dehydration, the variations in the serum urea level could discriminate patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) from those with dehydration not due to CDI. We studied retrospectively 27 episodes of dehydration in 23 patients with CDI and 14 episodes in 14 patients without CDI. The mean serum urea level was 2.9 mmol/L in the CDI group and 15.4 mmol/L in the patients without CDI (p less than 0.001); the mean serum sodium level was 155 mmol/L in both groups. All the patients with CDI had a sodium/urea ratio greater than 24.2, whereas the ratio was less than 21.7 in all the patients without CDI. In the patients with CDI a positive correlation was found between the magnitude of diuresis and the percentage decrease in the serum urea level compared with the level before dehydration (p less than 0.001). In the patients with CDI the serum urea level returned to the level before dehydration after the administration of vasopressin; a striking increase in the clearance of urea, which exceeded the creatinine clearance, was observed during dehydration in the three patients in whom clearance studies were done. The results suggest that serum urea values can be used to distinguish patients dehydrated because of CDI from those with hypertonic dehydration but without ADH deficiency and that during dehydration the net reabsorption of urea is dependent on the renal action of ADH. PMID:3179869

  10. Effects of dehydration on cardiovascular development in the embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis).

    PubMed

    Tate, Kevin B; Eme, John; Swart, Justin; Conlon, J Michael; Crossley, Dane A

    2012-07-01

    Effects of dehydration on reptilian embryonic cardiovascular function are unknown. Here, we present the first morphological and physiological data quantifying the cumulative effects of four acute dehydration events on the embryonic American alligator, Alligator mississipiensis. We hypothesized that dehydration would alter embryonic morphology, reduce blood volume and augment the response to angiotensin II (Ang II), a key osmotic and blood volume regulatory response element in adult vertebrates. Drying events at 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of embryonic incubation reduced total egg water content by 14.43 ± 0.37 g, a 3.4 fold increase relative to controls. However, embyronic blood volume was greater in the dehydration group at 70% of embryonic incubation compared to controls (0.39 ± 0.044 mLg(-1) and 0.22 ± 0.03 mLg(-1), respectively), however, both groups were similar at 90% of incubation (0.18 ± 0.02 mLg(-1) in the controls and 0.23 ± 0.03 mLg(-1) in the dehydrated group). Dehydration altered the morphological phenotype and resulted in an overall reduction in embryonic mass at both incubation time points measured. Dehydration also altered the physiological phenotype, resulting in embryonic alligators that were relatively bradycardic at 90% of incubation. Arterial Ang II injections resulted in a dose dependent hypertension, which increased in intensity over the span of incubation studied. While progressive incubation altered the Ang II response, dehydration had no impact on the cardiovascular responses to the peptide. Quantification of Ang II type-1 receptor protein using western blot analysis illustrated that dehydration condition and incubation time point did not alter protein quantity. Collectively, our results show that dehydration during embryonic development of the American alligator alters embryonic morphology and baseline heart rate without altering arterial pressure and response to Ang II.

  11. An organ-specific role for ethylene in rose petal expansion during dehydration and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daofeng; Liu, Xiaojing; Meng, Yonglu; Sun, Cuihui; Tang, Hongshu; Jiang, Yudong; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Xue, Jingqi; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2013-05-01

    Dehydration is a major factor resulting in huge loss from cut flowers during transportation. In the present study, dehydration inhibited petal cell expansion and resulted in irregular flowers in cut roses, mimicking ethylene-treated flowers. Among the five floral organs, dehydration substantially elevated ethylene production in the sepals, whilst rehydration caused rapid and elevated ethylene levels in the gynoecia and sepals. Among the five ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes (RhACS1-5), expression of RhACS1 and RhACS2 was induced by dehydration and rehydration in the two floral organs. Silencing both RhACS1 and RhACS2 significantly suppressed dehydration- and rehydration-induced ethylene in the sepals and gynoecia. This weakened the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. β-glucuronidase activity driven by both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters was dramatically induced in the sepals, pistil, and stamens, but not in the petals of transgenic Arabidopsis. This further supports the organ-specific induction of these two genes. Among the five rose ethylene receptor genes (RhETR1-5), expression of RhETR3 was predominantly induced by dehydration and rehydration in the petals. RhETR3 silencing clearly aggravated the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. However, no significant difference in the effect between RhETR3-silenced flowers and RhETR-genes-silenced flowers was observed. Furthermore, RhETR-genes silencing extensively altered the expression of 21 cell expansion-related downstream genes in response to ethylene. These results suggest that induction of ethylene biosynthesis by dehydration proceeds in an organ-specific manner, indicating that ethylene can function as a mediator in dehydration-caused inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals.

  12. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  13. APT accelerator. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  14. Liposomes in topical photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic-Curic, Nina; Fahr, Alfred

    2012-08-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) refers to topical application of a photosensitizer onto the site of skin disease which is followed by illumination and results in death of selected cells. The main problem in topical PDT is insufficient penetration of the photosensitizer into the skin, which limits its use to superficial skin lesions. In order to overcome this problem, recent studies tested liposomes as delivery systems for photosensitizers. This paper reviews the use of different types of liposomes for encapsulating photosensitizers for topical PDT. Liposomes should enhance the photosensitizers' penetration into the skin, while decreasing its absorption into systemic circulation. Only few photosensitizers have currently been encapsulated in liposomes for topical PDT: 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), temoporfin (mTHPC) and methylene blue. Investigated liposomes enhanced the skin penetration of 5-ALA and mTHPC, reduced their systemic absorption and reduced their cytotoxicity compared with free drugs. Their high tissue penetration should enable the treatment of deep and hyperkeratotic skin lesions, which is the main goal of using liposomes. However, liposomes still do not attract enough attention as drug carriers in topical PDT. In vivo studies of their therapeutic effectiveness are needed in order to obtain enough evidence for their potential clinical use as carriers for photosensitizers in topical PDT.

  15. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  16. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  17. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  18. Pervaporation dehydration of ethanol by hyaluronic acid/sodium alginate two-active-layer composite membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chengyun; Zhang, Minhua; Ding, Jianwu; Pan, Fusheng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Li, Yifan; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The composite membranes with two-active-layer (a capping layer and an inner layer) were prepared by sequential spin-coatings of hyaluronic acid (HA) and sodium alginate (NaAlg) on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support layer. The SEM showed a mutilayer structure and a distinct interface between the HA layer and the NaAlg layer. The coating sequence of two-active-layer had an obvious influence on the pervaporation dehydration performance of membranes. When the operation temperature was 80 °C and water concentration in feed was 10 wt.%, the permeate fluxes of HA/Alg/PAN membrane and Alg/HA/PAN membrane were similar, whereas the separation factor were 1130 and 527, respectively. It was found that the capping layer with higher hydrophilicity and water retention capacity, and the inner layer with higher permselectivity could increase the separation performance of the composite membranes. Meanwhile, effects of operation temperature and water concentration in feed on pervaporation performance as well as membrane properties were studied.

  19. The future of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain.

  20. Topics in Collider Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Petriello, Frank J

    2003-08-27

    It is an exciting time for high energy physics. Several experiments are currently exploring uncharted terrain; the next generation of colliders will begin operation in the coming decade. These experiments will together help us understand some of the most puzzling issues in particle physics: the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and the generation of flavor physics. It is clear that the primary goal of theoretical particle physics in the near future is to support and guide this experimental program. These tasks can be accomplished in two ways: by developing experimental signatures for new models which address outstanding problems, and by improving Standard Model predictions for precision observables. We present here several results which advance both of these goals. We begin with a study of non-commutative field theories. It has been suggested that TeV-scale non-commutativity could explain the origin of CP violation in the SM. We identify several distinct signatures of non-commutativity in high energy processes. We also demonstrate the one-loop quantum consistency of a simple spontaneously broken non-commutative U(1) theory; this result is an important preface to any attempt to embed the SM within a non-commutative framework. We then investigate the phenomenology of extra-dimensional theories, which have been suggested recently as solutions to the hierarchy problem of particle physics. We first examine the implications of allowing SM fields to propagate in the full five-dimensional spacetime of the Randall-Sundrum model, which solves the hierarchy problem via an exponential ''warping'' of the Planck scale induced by a five-dimensional anti de-Sitter geometry. In an alternative extra-dimensional theory, in which all SM fields are permitted to propagate in flat extra dimensions, we show that properties of the Higgs boson are significantly modified. Finally, we discuss the next-to-next-to leading order QCD corrections to the dilepton rapidity distribution in

  1. Topics in quantum chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Andrew Noble

    2002-09-01

    In this dissertation, we study the quantum mechanics of classically chaotic dynamical systems. We begin by considering the decoherence effects a quantum chaotic system has on a simple quantum few state system. Typical time evolution of a quantum system whose classical limit is chaotic generates structures in phase space whose size is much smaller than Planck's constant. A naive application of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle indicates that these structures are not physically relevant. However, if we take the quantum chaotic system in question to be an environment which interacts with a simple two state quantum system (qubit), we show that these small phase-space structures cause the qubit to generically lose quantum coherence if and only if the environment has many degrees of freedom, such as a dilute gas. This implies that many-body environments may be crucial for the phenomenon of quantum decoherence. Next, we turn to an analysis of statistical properties of time correlation functions and matrix elements of quantum chaotic systems. A semiclassical evaluation of matrix elements of an operator indicates that the dominant contribution will be related to a classical time correlation function over the energy surface. For a highly chaotic class of dynamics, these correlation functions may be decomposed into sums of Ruelle resonances, which control exponential decay to the ergodic distribution. The theory is illustrated both numerically and theoretically on the Baker map. For this system, we are able to isolate individual Ruelle modes. We further consider dynamical systems whose approach to ergodicity is given by a power law rather than an exponential in time. We propose a billiard with diffusive boundary conditions, whose classical solution may be calculated analytically. We go on to compare the exact solution with an approximation scheme, as well calculate asympotic corrections. Quantum spectral statistics are calculated assuming the validity of the Again, Altshuler

  2. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... different ingredients, but common active ingredients are benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, glycolic acid, and salicylic acid. Can ... to a developing baby. Can using topical benzoyl peroxide during pregnancy cause birth defects? There are no ...

  3. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin ...

  4. Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of clindamycin ...

  5. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Topics include bed bug biology and behavior, detection and monitoring, non-chemical techniques such as heat treatment, and pesticides.

  6. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  7. Hierarchical Theme and Topic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jen-Tzung

    2016-03-01

    Considering the hierarchical data groupings in text corpus, e.g., words, sentences, and documents, we conduct the structural learning and infer the latent themes and topics for sentences and words from a collection of documents, respectively. The relation between themes and topics under different data groupings is explored through an unsupervised procedure without limiting the number of clusters. A tree stick-breaking process is presented to draw theme proportions for different sentences. We build a hierarchical theme and topic model, which flexibly represents the heterogeneous documents using Bayesian nonparametrics. Thematic sentences and topical words are extracted. In the experiments, the proposed method is evaluated to be effective to build semantic tree structure for sentences and the corresponding words. The superiority of using tree model for selection of expressive sentences for document summarization is illustrated.

  8. New approaches to topical therapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, C H

    2000-10-01

    Despite the rapid and proven efficacy of topical corticosteroids, side-effects can limit their clinical usefulness. Topically active macrolide immunosuppressants such as ascomycin and tacrolimus appear to provide comparable therapeutic potency without significant local or adverse effects. Data from ongoing studies will be crucial in determining the safety of these agents in the long term, and also their place within the current therapeutic armamentarium available for patients with atopic dermatitis. Enzyme inhibitors of PLA(2) and PDE 4 currently in the very early stages of clinical development also show potential promise as additional alternative strategies to topical treatment and may perhaps act as steroid sparing agents. Having been in the therapeutic doldrums for years, topical management of atopic dermatitis is likely to show great changes in the very near future.

  9. Ozone fumigation for safety and quality of wine grapes in postharvest dehydration.

    PubMed

    Botondi, Rinaldo; De Sanctis, Federica; Moscatelli, Niccolò; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Catelli, Cesare; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes postharvest ozone fumigation (as a method) to control microorganisms and evaluate the effect on polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and cell wall enzymes during the grape dehydration for wine production. Pignola grapes were ozone-treated (1.5 g/h) for 18 h (A=shock treatment), then dehydrated or ozone-treated (1.5 g/h) for 18 h and at 0.5 g/h for 4 h each day (B=long-term treatment) during dehydration. Treatment and dehydration were performed at 10 °C. No significant difference was found for total carotenoid, total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents after 18 h of O3 treatment. A significant decrease in phenolic and anthocyanin contents occurred during treatment B. Also carotenoids were affected by B ozone treatment. Pectin methylesterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) activities were higher in A-treated grapes during dehydration. Finally, ozone reduced fungi and yeasts by 50%. Shock ozone fumigation (A treatment) before dehydration can be used to reduce the microbial count during dehydration without affecting polyphenol and carotenoid contents.

  10. Wet fractionation of forage to reduce energy requirements of dehydration. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Valley Dehydrating Company of Atwood, Colorado, was founded in 1952 to dehydrate alfalfa. Subsequently, it was realized that the rapidly escalating cost of natural gas, burned to provide heat for the dehydration of the alfalfa, would make the traditional process of direct dehydration uneconomical. As an alternative, the use of green crop fractionation in combination with waste heat recovery from the main dryer was investigated. In the wet, or green crop fractionation process, freshly cut alfalfa is brought to the processing site where it is first macerated to rupture the plant cells and then is pressed to remove as much juice as possible. The fiber fraction from the pressing contains only about half as much moisture as the original alfalfa; and thus, can be dehydrated at a much lower cost. The juice which contains plant proteins and lipids as well as a variety of soluble components, is heated to above 80/sup 0/C in order to coagulate the protein. When this material is separated from the residual liquid and dried a high protein, high xanthophyll product (Pro-Xan) results. The remaining solubles are concentrated, using the waste heat from the main dryer to yield a molasses-like product. Instead of the one product, (dehydrated alfalfa) produced by the traditional process, green crop fractionation produces three: dehydrated pressed alfalfa, leaf nutrient concentrate, and molasses.

  11. Link between heterogeneous dehydration and deformation during experiments on gypsum: implications for subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclere, Henri; Faulkner, Dan; Wheeler, John; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of the influence of pore-fluid pressure and friction on stability of fault zones is of first order importance to unravel earthquake triggering. Here, the effects of dehydration reactions on hydraulic and mechanical properties of rock are analysed to better understand the conditions required to trigger earthquakes. Triaxial experiments are conducted using gypsum and a direct shear sample assembly allowing to maintain the normal stress constant and to measure permeability during sliding. The evolutions of shear stress, pore-fluid pressure and permeability are continuously measured throughout the experiment until dehydration reaction reached completion. Tests are conducted with temperature ramp from 70 to 150 °C and with different effective confining pressures (50, 100 and 150 MPa) and velocities (0.1 and 0.4 µm.s-1). Results show that gypsum dehydration induces transient stable slip weakening that is controlled by pore-fluid pressure and permeability evolutions followed by unstable slip on fully dehydrated product. Microstructural analysis shows clear evidence of dehydrated product preferentially localized along Riedel shear structures. A conceptual model is then proposed to explain transient slip weakening during dehydration reactions incorporating the key role played by permeability, and to provide a framework to define the conditions required to trigger unstable events during dehydration reactions. Is clear that the reaction product forms preferentially on shear bands: whether that relates to permeability heterogeneities or to a more fundamental link between stress and reaction is a point to be discussed.

  12. Unusual effect of water vapor pressure on dehydration of dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Aditya M; Vangala, Venu R; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2011-04-01

    Dibasic calcium phosphate occurs as an anhydrate (DCPA; CaHPO₄) and as a dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO₄•2H₂O). Our objective was to investigate the unusual behavior of these phases. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate was dehydrated in a (i) differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in different pan configurations; (ii) variable-temperature X-ray diffractometer (XRD) at atmospheric and under reduced pressure, and in sealed capillaries; and (iii) water vapor sorption analyzer at varying temperature and humidity conditions. Dehydration was complete by 210°C in an open DSC pan and under atmospheric pressure in the XRD. Unlike "conventional" hydrates, the dehydration of DCPD was facilitated in the presence of water vapor. Variable-temperature XRD in a sealed capillary and DSC in a hermetic pan with pinhole caused complete dehydration by 100°C and 140°C, respectively. Under reduced pressure, conversion to the anhydrate was incomplete even at 300°C. The increase in dehydration rate with increase in water vapor pressure has been explained by the Smith-Topley effect. Under "dry" conditions, a coating of poorly crystalline product is believed to form on the surface of particles and act as a barrier to further dehydration. However, in the presence of water vapor, recrystallization occurs, creating cracks and channels and facilitating continued dehydration.

  13. Characterization of the ABA-regulated global responses to dehydration in Arabidopsis by metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Urano, Kaoru; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Migiwa; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Saito, Kazuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2009-03-01

    Drought is the major environmental threat to agricultural production and distribution worldwide. Adaptation by plants to dehydration stress is a complex biological process that involves global changes in gene expression and metabolite composition. Here, using one type of functional genomics analysis, metabolomics, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of Arabidopsis wild-type and a knockout mutant of the NCED3 gene (nc3-2) under dehydration stress. NCED3 plays a role in the dehydration-inducible biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a phytohormone that is important in the dehydration-stress response in higher plants. Metabolite profiling performed using two types of mass spectrometry (MS) systems, gas chromatography/time-of-flight MS (GC/TOF-MS) and capillary electrophoresis MS (CE-MS), revealed that accumulation of amino acids depended on ABA production, but the level of the oligosaccharide raffinose was regulated by ABA independently under dehydration stress. Metabolic network analysis showed that global metabolite-metabolite correlations occurred in dehydration-increased amino acids in wild-type, and strong correlations with raffinose were reconstructed in nc3-2. An integrated metabolome and transcriptome analysis revealed ABA-dependent transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, saccharopine, proline and polyamine. This metabolomics analysis revealed new molecular mechanisms of dynamic metabolic networks in response to dehydration stress.

  14. Insights into the dehydration behavior of thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) hydrates: part I.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Paroma; Berendt, Robert T; Munson, Eric J; Young, Victor G; Govindarajan, Ramprakash; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2010-02-01

    Thiamine hydrochloride (Vitamin B(1), THCl) can exist as a nonstoichiometric hydrate (NSH) and as a hemihydrate (HH). NSH can contain up to approximately 1 molar equivalent of water and be dehydrated to an isomorphic desolvate (ID) with minimal change in lattice structure. Crystallographic and spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the influence of structure and mobility on NSH dehydration. Dehydration was accompanied by lattice contraction, as noted by a decrease in the d-spacings. Dehydration also led to the development of surface cracks parallel to the (101*) and (102*) planes in the NSH single crystal, as observed by hot stage microscopy. Step-wise dehydration of NSH produced gradual shifts in XRPD and SSNMR peaks, indicating that NSH (with approximately 1 mole water) and ID represent the two extremes of a continuum in the hydration state. Variable temperature (13)C SSNMR studies showed that water molecules move rapidly at room temperature within the NSH crystal lattice, and the thiamine molecules transiently exist in distinct hydrated and dehydrated states. It is hypothesized that, despite the lack of continuous hydration channels in the NSH crystal lattice, cooperative deformation of the thiamine molecules allows a nondisruptive departure of water molecules from the lattice during dehydration.

  15. Hybrid Drying of Carrot Preliminary Processed with Ultrasonically Assisted Osmotic Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary In this paper the kinetics of osmotic dehydration of carrot and the influence of this pretreatment on the post-drying processes and the quality of obtained products are analysed. Osmotic dehydration was carried out in the aqueous fructose solution in two different ways: with and without ultrasound assistance. In the first part of the research, the kinetics of osmotic dehydration was analysed on the basis of osmotic dewatering rate, water loss and solid gain. Next, the effective time of dehydration was determined and in the second part of research samples were initially dehydrated for 30 min and dried. Five different procedures of drying were established on the grounds of convective method enhanced with microwave and infrared radiation. The influence of osmotic dehydration on the drying kinetics and final product quality was analysed. It was found that it did not influence the drying kinetics significantly but positively affected the final product quality. Negligible influence on the drying kinetics was attributed to solid uptake, which may block the pores, hindering heat and mass transfer. It was also concluded that the application of microwave and/or infrared radiation during convective drying significantly influenced the kinetics of the final stage of drying. A proper combination of aforementioned techniques of hybrid drying allows reducing the drying time. Differences between the particular dehydration methods and drying schedules were discussed. PMID:28867949

  16. Dehydration does not influence cardiovascular reactivity to behavioural stress in young healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Szinnai, Gabor; Keller, Ulrich; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2007-09-01

    Enhanced hydration increases the human cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. If reduced water intake has the opposite effect, this would suggest controlling for water deprivation when studying such responses. Blood pressure, heart rate and parasympathetically dominated beat-to-beat heart rate fluctuations were assessed during resting baseline and mental stress. Two challenging cognitive-motor tasks, a 5-Choice Reaction Time Task (CRTT) and a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT), served as mental stress tests. Eight female and eight male volunteers were examined twice, after 24 h of water deprivation and after normal water intake (counterbalanced order, 7-day interval). Water deprivation resulted in moderate dehydration with a mean 2.6% decrease of total body weight. Dehydration did neither affect baseline blood pressure, heart rate, nor blood pressure reactivity to mental stress. However, dehydration slightly (-1.2 bpm) diminished heart rate reactivity to the PASAT (P = 0.03) and increased beat-to-beat heart rate fluctuations in response to the CRTT (P = 0.05). Dehydration intensified CRTT- and PASAT-induced reductions of beat-to-beat heart rate fluctuations in females (gender x dehydration interactions: P = 0.04-0.05). Moderate dehydration induced by water restriction has no effect on blood pressure reactivity to mental stress. The effects on heart rate reactivity are small. However, stress-induced parasympathetic withdrawal may be fortified during dehydration in females, which suggests controlling for water intake when studying such responses.

  17. Continuous Time Dynamic Topic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-20

    called topics, can be used to explain the observed collection. LDA is a probabilistic extension of latent semantic indexing (LSI) [5] and probabilistic... latent semantic indexing (pLSI) [11]. Owing to its formal generative semantics, LDA has been extended and applied to authorship [19], email [15...Steyvers. Probabilistic topic models. In Latent Semantic Analysis: A Road to Meaning. 2006. [9] T. L. Griffiths and M. Steyvers. Finding scientific

  18. The topical treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, P C M; Vissers, W H P M

    2003-01-01

    According to the patients, improvement of efficacy, long-term safety and improvement of compliance are needed. The topical treatment has been innovated during the last decade. Most important are the introduction of two new classes of treatments: topical vitamin D(3) analogues and the retinoid tazarotene. To what extent, however, have we achieved developments which are in line with the needs as expressed by the patients? Improved efficacy has been realized by successful combinations of topical treatments. In particular, the combinations of dithranol, vitamin D(3) and tazarotene with a topical corticosteroid proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side-effects. The efficacy of vitamin D(3) analogues and tazarotene is such that the efficacy of a potent corticosteroid (betamethasone-17-valerate) is approached; calcipotriol even showed an efficacy which is at least as good as this corticosteroid. The long-term safety of new compounds has been evaluated for at least 12 months in large studies. Remarkably for corticosteroids such information is available for only 12 weeks. However, intermittent applications of a topical corticosteroid in combination with another topical treatment provide an effective and safe long-term control of psoriasis. Compliance is a conditio sine qua non for an effective topical treatment. Important progress has been made to increase compliance. Short-contact dithranol has been popularized as an ambulatory treatment which is a highly effective approach as a care instruction programme. Formulations which are better from a cosmetical point of view have been developed for various topical treatments. Reduction of the frequency of applications proved to be possible for most treatments. Once daily applications for corticosteroids, vitamin D(3) analogues and retinoids have been developed, and intermittent applications, a few times per week, are possible for corticosteroids, which proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side

  19. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2008-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to

  20. Dehydration at the Tropical Tropopause Over the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohs, S.; Beuermann, J.; Gensch, I.; Kraemer, M.; MacKenzie, R.; Schiller, C.; Yushkov, V. A.

    2004-05-01

    During the APE-THESEO campaign in February/March 1999 high-resolution in-situ measurements were carried out onboard the Russian M-55 Geophysica high altitude aircraft, based on the Seychelles (-4.7° N, 55.3° E) in the western Indian Ocean. In the potential temperature range from 340 - 430 K, 36 individual (quasi)-vertical profiles of temperature, the gas-phase and total water cloud particles, and ozone were obtained. The height of the tropopause and the hygropause were highly variable for the investigated period. We attribute this to short and local perturbations to the seasonal cycle. The cold point tropopause was located at a potential temperature range from 365 - 403 K. Minimum temperatures were very low (183 - 194 K), leading to saturation mixing ratios at the tropopause of 1.1 - 8.4 ppmv. The hygropause was located on average 4 K above the tropopause with water vapour mixing ratios of 1.2 - 4.1 ppmv. These very low mixing ratios are comparable to those found in previous studies in the 'fountain region' over Micronesia. For 70 % of the vertical profiles, ice saturation was found in a wide range around the tropopause. Predominantly the saturation was corroborated by concurrently detected clouds up to the altitude of the cold point, providing evidence of active dehydration. We identify three common types of vertical profiles: coincident hygropause and cold point at relatively low potential temperatures, associated with a cirrus deck; coincident hygropause and cold point at relatively high potential temperatures, associated with thin subvisible cirrus; and unsaturated, cloud-free, profiles without a pronounced relationship between hygropause and cold point. Characteristics such as extension, number density, frequency distribution of relative humidity over ice of the cirrus clouds were different for these categories which allows to infer their different origin. The low water vapour ratios and the existence of saturation support the hypothesis that the Tropical

  1. Use of a Dehydrated Amniotic Membrane Allograft on Lower Extremity Ulcers in Patients with Challenging Wounds: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Lintzeris, Dimitrios; Yarrow, Kari; Johnson, Laura; White, Amber; Hampton, Amanda; Strickland, Andy; Albert, Kristy; Cook, Arlene

    2015-10-01

    Lower extremity ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus may take a long time to heal despite the use of advanced topical therapies. A retrospective review of cases was conducted to assess the use of a dehydrated amniotic membrane allograft (DAMA) in a convenience sample of 9 wounds in 8 patients (5 men, 3 women, average age 62 years [range 31-81 years]) with diabetes mellitus and/or vascular disease. Wound data and patient characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. In 5 of 9 wounds, DAMA was applied after a failure to demonstrate a 50% reduction in area after 4 weeks of treatment with advanced wound care, offloading, and compression as indicated. In 4 wounds, DAMA was applied 2-4 weeks after presentation because of concerns about existing patient risk factors for nonhealing. Wounds were present for an average of 11 weeks (range 1-35 weeks) before application of DAMA. Mean baseline wound area and volume were 3.11 cm2 (± 3.73) and 0.55 cm3 (± 0.58), respectively. All wounds healed in an average of 5.7 (± 2.9) weeks (range: 1-9 weeks) after a mean of 2.7 applications (± 1.7) (range 1-5 applications). No adverse events occurred. These observations suggest prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies to compare the use of DAMA to other topical treatment modalities are warranted.

  2. Dehydration of corneal anterior donor tissue with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-enriched media.

    PubMed

    Lie, Jessica T; Monnereau, Claire; Groeneveld-van Beek, Esther A; van der Wees, Jacqueline; Frank, Johannes; Bruinsma, Marieke; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2015-09-01

    Anterior donor grafts (including scleral rim, without Descemet membrane) increase in thickness and become hazy upon storage in organ culture (OC) medium. Transfer of these grafts to standard dehydration media just before transplantation does not reduce their thickness to normal. Therefore, we assessed the efficacy of different media enriched with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as dehydrating agents for organ-cultured anterior donor grafts. Grafts were harvested and stored in the commercial OC medium 'Max' (without dextran) for 1 week, and subsequently dehydrated in the standard commercial dehydration medium 'Jet' (with dextran) supplemented with 4-20% PEG3350, or 'Max' supplemented with 20% PEG6000 and PEG20.000, or 5-20% PEG35.000. Central corneal thickness (CCT), as assessed by anterior segment-optical coherence tomography, and transparency were evaluated before, and at 1, 4 and 7 days of dehydration. Transfer of grafts after 1 week of OC (average 1,200 µm) to 'Jet' supplemented with PEG3350 revealed a concentration-dependent effect of dehydration; CCT was restored to normal (500-600 µm) when 10% PEG3350 was added. However, transparency was only temporarily restored; after 1 day, the grafts turned hazy. In contrast, grafts transferred to 'Max' supplemented with 20% PEG35.000 were transparent throughout the evaluation period, but were dehydrated to beyond normal levels (average 300 µm). 'Max' supplemented with 5% PEG35.000 dehydrated grafts to normal values and restored transparency throughout. Thus, dehydration of anterior donor grafts prior to surgery in dextran-free OC medium supplemented with 5% PEG35.000 reduces graft thickness to normal and may facilitate anterior keratoplasty procedures.

  3. Haemodynamic responses to dehydration in the resting and exercising human leg.

    PubMed

    Pearson, James; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Stöhr, Eric J; Low, David A; Barker, Horace; Ali, Leena; González-Alonso, José

    2013-06-01

    Dehydration and hyperthermia reduces leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output ([Formula: see text]) and arterial pressure during whole-body exercise. It is unknown whether the reductions in blood flow are associated with dehydration-induced alterations in arterial blood oxygen content (C aO2) and O2-dependent signalling. This study investigated the impact of dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 upon LBF and [Formula: see text]. Haemodynamics, arterial and femoral venous blood parameters and plasma [ATP] were measured at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise in 7 males in four conditions: (1) control, (2) mild dehydration, (3) moderate dehydration, and (4) rehydration. Relative to control, C aO2 and LBF increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise (C aO2: from 199 ± 1 to 208 ± 2, and 202 ± 2 to 210 ± 2 ml L(-1) and LBF: from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 0.77 ± 0.09, and 1.64 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.1 L min(-1), respectively). Similarly, [Formula: see text] was unchanged or increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise, whereas arterial and leg perfusion pressures declined. Following rehydration, C aO2 declined (to 193 ± 2 mL L(-1)) but LBF remained elevated. Alterations in LBF were unrelated to C aO2 (r (2) = 0.13-0.27, P = 0.48-0.64) and plasma [ATP]. These findings suggest dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 do not compromise LBF despite reductions in plasma [ATP]. While an additive or synergistic effect cannot be excluded, reductions in LBF during exercise with dehydration may not necessarily be associated with alterations in C aO2 and/or intravascular [ATP].

  4. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a tool to measure dehydration in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Matthew; Vassiliou, Christophoros C; Colucci, Lina A; Cima, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Dehydration is a prevalent pathology, where loss of bodily water can result in variable symptoms. Symptoms can range from simple thirst to dire scenarios involving loss of consciousness. Clinical methods exist that assess dehydration from qualitative weight changes to more quantitative osmolality measurements. These methods are imprecise, invasive, and/or easily confounded, despite being practiced clinically. We investigate a non-invasive, non-imaging (1)H NMR method of assessing dehydration that attempts to address issues with existing clinical methods. Dehydration was achieved by exposing mice (n = 16) to a thermally elevated environment (37 °C) for up to 7.5 h (0.11-13% weight loss). Whole body NMR measurements were made using a Bruker LF50 BCA-Analyzer before and after dehydration. Physical lean tissue, adipose, and free water compartment approximations had NMR values extracted from relaxation data through a multi-exponential fitting method. Changes in before/after NMR values were compared with clinically practiced metrics of weight loss (percent dehydration) as well as blood and urine osmolality. A linear correlation between tissue relaxometry and both animal percent dehydration and urine osmolality was observed in lean tissue, but not adipose or free fluids. Calculated R(2) values for percent dehydration were 0.8619 (lean, P < 0.0001), 0.5609 (adipose, P = 0.0008), and 0.0644 (free fluids, P = 0.3445). R(2) values for urine osmolality were 0.7760 (lean, P < 0.0001), 0.5005 (adipose, P = 0.0022), and 0.0568 (free fluids, P = 0.3739). These results suggest that non-imaging (1)H NMR methods are capable of non-invasively assessing dehydration in live animals.

  5. Influence of environmental conditions on the kinetics and mechanism of dehydration of carbamazepine dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Han, J; Suryanarayanan, R

    1998-11-01

    The object of this project was to study the influence of temperature and water vapor pressure on the kinetics and mechanism of dehydration of carbamazepine dihydrate and to establish the relationship between the dehydration mechanism and the solid-state of the anhydrous phase formed. Three experimental techniques were utilized to study the kinetics of dehydration of carbamazepine dihydrate (C15H12N2O.2H2O)-thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and variable temperature powder X-ray diffractometry (VTXRD). These techniques respectively provide information about the changes in weight, heat flow and solid-state (phase) during the dehydration process. The instrumental setup was modified so that simultaneous control of both the temperature and the water vapor pressure was possible. The experiments were carried out at different temperatures, ranging from 26 to 64 degrees C. In the absence of water vapor, the dehydration followed the 2-dimensional phase boundary controlled model at all the temperatures studied. In the next stage, the water vapor pressure was altered while the studies were carried out at a single temperature of 44 degrees C. The dehydration was 2-dimensional phase boundary controlled at water vapor pressures < or = 5.1 torr while the Avrami-Erofeev kinetics (3-dimensional nucleation) was followed at water vapor pressures > or = 12.0 torr. In the former case, the anhydrous phase formed was X-ray amorphous while it was the crystalline anhydrous gamma-carbamazepine in the latter. Thus a relationship between the mechanism of dehydration and the solid-state of the product phase was evident. The dehydration conditions influence not only the mechanism but also the solid-state of the anhydrous phase formed. While the techniques of TGA and DSC have found extensive use in studying dehydration reactions, VTXRD proved to be an excellent complement in characterizing the solid-states of the reactant and product phases.

  6. Urine specific gravity and other urinary indices: inaccurate tests for dehydration.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Michael J; Nager, Alan L; Wang, Vincent J

    2007-05-01

    Urine output, specific gravity, and ketones (urinary indices) are commonly used as an objective means to assess for dehydration and gastroenteritis severity; however, their utility has not been established. The study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of urinary indices as diagnostic tests to identify acute dehydration. We completed a prospective cohort study in the Emergency Department of an urban pediatric hospital. Seventy-nine subjects ages 3 months to 36 months with gastroenteritis, clinically suspected moderate dehydration, and the need for intravenous rehydration were enrolled in the trial. Urine specific gravity and urine ketone levels were determined with bedside calorimetric (dipstick) testing, and urine output during rehydration and observation was measured by commonly used techniques. An internally validated, weight-based criterion standard for the percent dehydration on enrollment was used to identify the cohort of dehydrated subjects. Correlation statistics were calculated for urine output, specific gravity, and ketones. In addition, multilevel tables were created to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio at varying test cutoff values to detect 3% and 5% dehydration. Urine specific gravity (r = -0.06, P = 0.64), urine ketones (r = 0.08, P = 0.52), and urine output during rehydration (r = 0.01, P = 0.96) did not correlate with the initial degree of dehydration present. Clinically useful cutoff values for urine specific gravity and ketones to increase or decrease the likelihood of dehydration at the time of enrollment could not be identified. Urinary indices are not useful diagnostic tests to identify the presence of dehydration during the initial assessment of children with gastroenteritis.

  7. Different effects of light irradiation on the photosynthetic electron transport chain during apple tree leaf dehydration.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

    2012-06-01

    Effects of light irradiation on the photosynthetic electron transport chain between P680 and P700 in apple tree leaves was probed with chlorophyll a fluorescence transient and 820 nm transmission measurements during dehydration under different light intensities. The results showed that light accelerated the leaf water-loss rate during dehydration. Leaf dehydration lowered the maximum quantum yield of PSII and the far-red light induced maximal transmission change at 820 nm, but increased the relative variable fluorescence intensity at J-step, especially under increasing irradiation conditions. During leaf dehydration, irradiation lowered the relative variable fluorescence intensity at I-step. At the beginning of leaf dehydration, moderate light accelerated the leaf water-loss rate and then lowered the maximal light-trapping efficiency of P₆₈₀. Upon further dehydration under moderate light or dehydration under high light, light accelerated the water-loss rate and also directly decreased the maximal light-trapping efficiency of P680. The more significant decrease in the exchange capacity of plastoquinones at the Q(B) site was mainly attributed to the faster water-loss rate under moderate light than in the dark. Under high light, irradiation also directly lowered the capacity. The reoxidation of PQH₂ in the dehydrated leaves was enhanced by the light irradiation. The rapidly decreased contents of P700 + plastocyanin were mainly attributed to the faster water-loss rate under light conditions in contrast with that in the dark. The different effects of light irradiations on the photosynthetic electron transport chain might be involved in the acclimation of apple tree leaves to dehydration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative Study of the Effects of Dehydration on the Viscoelastic Parameters in the Vocal Fold Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuai; Zhang, Yu; Mills, Randal D; Jiang, Jack J

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the viscoelastic parameters of the vocal fold mucosa at varying dehydration levels. Healthy canine larynges were obtained postmortem, and the samples were separated from the subglottal wall. The samples were dehydrated in a vacuum dryer. According to the total dehydration time per sample, dehydration levels were divided into four degrees: 0%, 40%, 60%, and 80%. The stepper was set to stretch the sample to a level of 35% strain at the same rate (0.5 mm/s). Data collection was repeated five times under each dehydration condition. The compression resilience, RC% = S'/S*100%, and the hysteresis area were measured according to the stress-strain curves. The varying properties of the samples under different dehydration levels were investigated by fitting the curves. The area of the hysteresis loops observed in the stress-strain curves increased exponentially with dehydration levels, whereas the RC% decreased linearly. For all curves, low-strain stages can be explained by Hooke's law (σ = E0*ε). With increasing levels of dehydration, E0 was shown to increase, whereas the linear range was shortened. High-strain stages resembled exponential rather than the linear curves. And the nonlinear stage of the curve became increasingly apparent in the stress-strain curves of increased dehydration levels. The quantitative results in this study not only provide a numerical reference for future experimental measurements, but also can be used to verify the biphasic model in future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of plant hormone profiles in response to moderate dehydration stress.

    PubMed

    Urano, Kaoru; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Plant responses to dehydration stress are mediated by highly complex molecular systems involving hormone signaling and metabolism, particularly the major stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA-dependent gene expression. To understand the roles of plant hormones and their interactions during dehydration, we analyzed the plant hormone profiles with respect to dehydration responses in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) plants and ABA biosynthesis mutants (nced3-2). We developed a procedure for moderate dehydration stress, and then investigated temporal changes in the profiles of ABA, jasmonic acid isoleucine (JA-Ile), salicylic acid (SA), cytokinin (trans-zeatin, tZ), auxin (indole-acetic acid, IAA), and gibberellin (GA4 ), along with temporal changes in the expression of key genes involved in hormone biosynthesis. ABA levels increased in a bi-phasic pattern (at the early and late phases) in response to moderate dehydration stress. JA-Ile levels increased slightly in WT plants and strongly increased in nced3-2 mutant plants at 72 h after the onset of dehydration. The expression profiles of dehydration-inducible genes displayed temporal responses in an ABA-dependent manner. The early phase of ABA accumulation correlated with the expression of touch-inducible genes and was independent of factors involved in the major ABA regulatory pathway, including the ABA-responsive element-binding (AREB/ABF) transcription factor. JA-Ile, SA, and tZ were negatively regulated during the late dehydration response phase. Transcriptome analysis revealed important roles for hormone-related genes in metabolism and signaling during dehydration-induced plant responses.

  10. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Andrew; Schmaltz, Martin; Katz, Emmanuel; Rebbi, Claudio; Glashow, Sheldon; Brower, Richard; Pi, So-Young

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  11. TopicPanorama: A Full Picture of Relevant Topics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiting; Liu, Shixia; Liu, Junlin; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Baining

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a visual analytics approach to analyzing a full picture of relevant topics discussed in multiple sources, such as news, blogs, or micro-blogs. The full picture consists of a number of common topics covered by multiple sources, as well as distinctive topics from each source. Our approach models each textual corpus as a topic graph. These graphs are then matched using a consistent graph matching method. Next, we develop a level-of-detail (LOD) visualization that balances both readability and stability. Accordingly, the resulting visualization enhances the ability of users to understand and analyze the matched graph from multiple perspectives. By incorporating metric learning and feature selection into the graph matching algorithm, we allow users to interactively modify the graph matching result based on their information needs. We have applied our approach to various types of data, including news articles, tweets, and blog data. Quantitative evaluation and real-world case studies demonstrate the promise of our approach, especially in support of examining a topic-graph-based full picture at different levels of detail.

  12. Web mining for topics defined by complex and precise predicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Cheng; Sampathkumar, Sushma

    2004-04-01

    The enormous growth of the World Wide Web has made it important to perform resource discovery efficiently for any given topic. Several new techniques have been proposed in the recent years for this kind of topic specific web-mining, and among them a key new technique called focused crawling which is able to crawl topic-specific portions of the web without having to explore all pages. Most existing research on focused crawling considers a simple topic definition that typically consists of one or more keywords connected by an OR operator. However this kind of simple topic definition may result in too many irrelevant pages in which the same keyword appears in a wrong context. In this research we explore new strategies for crawling topic specific portions of the web using complex and precise predicates. A complex predicate will allow the user to precisely specify a topic using Boolean operators such as "AND", "OR" and "NOT". Our work will concentrate on defining a format to specify this kind of a complex topic definition and secondly on devising a crawl strategy to crawl the topic specific portions of the web defined by the complex predicate, efficiently and with minimal overhead. Our new crawl strategy will improve the performance of topic-specific web crawling by reducing the number of irrelevant pages crawled. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the above approach, we have built a complete focused crawler called "Eureka" with complex predicate support, and a search engine that indexes and supports end-user searches on the crawled pages.

  13. Treatment of waste water in non-evaporating dehydration of low grade coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, Y.; Kamei, T.; Komai, K.; Kurihara, M.; Matsuura, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Shimotamari, A.; Wakabayashi, T.

    1983-07-26

    In a non-evaporating dehydration of brown coal, the coal is crushed and classified into lumps and fine particles. The lumps of coal are subjected to a non-evaporating dehydration in which waste water is produced. The waste water is contacted with the fine particles of coal so that components which affect the COD value of the water are absorbed by the coal particles. The coal particles are then burnt to produce saturated steam which is used in the non-evaporating dehydration.

  14. Mechanistic insights into the rhenium-catalyzed alcohol-to-olefin dehydration reaction.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Ties J; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2013-09-23

    Rhenium-based complexes are powerful catalysts for the dehydration of various alcohols to the corresponding olefins. Here, we report on both experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies into the mechanism of the rhenium-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols to olefins in general, and the methyltrioxorhenium-catalyzed dehydration of 1-phenylethanol to styrene in particular. The experimental and theoretical studies are in good agreement, both showing the involvement of several proton transfers, and of a carbenium ion intermediate in the catalytic cycle. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Intrarenal role of angiotensin II in controlling sodium excretion during dehydration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Trippodo, N C; Hall, J E; Lohmeier, T E; Guyton, A C

    1977-05-01

    1. The intrarenal role of angiotensin II in controlling sodium excretion was examined in anaesthetized, dehydrated dogs by infusing the angiotensin II antagonist Sar1-Ile8-angiotensin II directly into the renal artery. Comparisons were made with dehydrated dogs receiving only sodium chloride solution intrarenally. 2. Intrarenal angiotensin II blockade resulted in significant increases in urinary sodium excretion and urine flow rate. 3. The results indicate that during the high-renin state of dehydration endogenous angiotensin II has intrarenal effects which lead to salt and water retention.

  16. Iron-Catalyzed Dehydration of Aldoximes to Nitriles Requiring Neither Other Reagents Nor Nitrile Media.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kengo; Kitagawa, Saki; Yamazaki, Masayuki; Uchida, Kingo

    2016-05-06

    The dehydration of aldoximes is an environmentally benign reaction affording the desired nitrile and water as a by-product. However, most of the reported catalytic dehydration reactions of aldoximes require a solvent containing nitrile to synthesize the corresponding nitrile compounds. Inspired by recent reports on the enzymatic synthesis under nitrile-free conditions, we here describe that a simple iron salt catalyzes the dehydration of aldoximes requiring neither other reagents nor nitrile media. Our method can be applied to the one-pot synthesis of nitiriles from aldehydes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Dehydration of ethanol by facile synthesized glucose-based silica.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-02-01

    Bioethanol is considered a potential liquid fuel that can be produced from biomass by fermentation and distillation. Although most of the water is removed by distillation, the purity of ethanol is limited to 95-96 % due to the formation of a low-boiling point, water-ethanol azeotrope. To improve the use of ethanol as a fuel, many methods, such as dehydration, have been proposed to avoid distillation and improve the energy efficiency of extraction. Glucose-based silica, as an adsorbent, was prepared using a simple method, and was proposed for the adsorption of water from water-ethanol mixtures. After adsorption using 0.4 g of adsorbent for 3 h, the initial water concentration of 20 % (water, v/v) was decreased to 10 % (water, v/v). For water concentrations less than 5 % (water, v/v), the adsorbent could concentrate ethanol to 99 % (ethanol, v/v). The Langmuir isotherms used to describe the adsorption of water on an adsorbent showed a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The separation factor of the adsorbent also decreased with decreasing concentration of water in solution.

  18. Ethanol Dehydration to Ethylene in a Stratified Autothermal Millisecond Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, MJ; Michor, EL; Fan, W; Tsapatsis, M; Bhan, A; Schmidt, LD

    2011-08-10

    The concurrent decomposition and deoxygenation of ethanol was accomplished in a stratified reactor with 50-80 ms contact times. The stratified reactor comprised an upstream oxidation zone that contained Pt-coated Al(2)O(3) beads and a downstream dehydration zone consisting of H-ZSM-5 zeolite films deposited on Al(2)O(3) monoliths. Ethanol conversion, product selectivity, and reactor temperature profiles were measured for a range of fuel:oxygen ratios for two autothermal reactor configurations using two different sacrificial fuel mixtures: a parallel hydrogen-ethanol feed system and a series methane-ethanol feed system. Increasing the amount of oxygen relative to the fuel resulted in a monotonic increase in ethanol conversion in both reaction zones. The majority of the converted carbon was in the form of ethylene, where the ethanol carbon-carbon bonds stayed intact while the oxygen was removed. Over 90% yield of ethylene was achieved by using methane as a sacrificial fuel. These results demonstrate that noble metals can be successfully paired with zeolites to create a stratified autothermal reactor capable of removing oxygen from biomass model compounds in a compact, continuous flow system that can be configured to have multiple feed inputs, depending on process restrictions.

  19. A study of dielectric anisotropy in dehydrated cortical bone.

    PubMed

    García Sánchez, F J; De Mercato, G

    The complex permittivity of dehydrated bovine femoral bone has been studied in vitro, in the three orthogonal directions from 1 kHz to 3 MHz, as part of an analysis of the various factors involved in the dielectric behavior of fluid-saturated cortical bone. In this study the bone's physical structure reveals its anisotropic nature by its dependence on both the real and imaginary parts of permittivity on the orientation of the applied electric field. The real permittivity and the total conductivity are generally higher in the longitudinal direction than in the other two transverse directions, with the tangential direction presenting values between those of the longitudinal and radial directions and closer to the former. The high frequency limit of the real part of the permittivity was found to be around 10 and its low frequency limit is of the order of 1000. The dispersion parameters of relaxation time show values of about 0.4 and the corresponding mean relaxation frequencies are below 100 Hz.

  20. Freeze avoidance: a dehydrating moss gathers no ice.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Hocart, Charles H; Huang, Cheng X; Ball, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    Using cryo-SEM with EDX fundamental structural and mechanical properties of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. were studied in relation to tolerance of freezing temperatures. In contrast to more complex plants, no ice accumulated within the moss during the freezing event. External ice induced desiccation with the response being a function of cell type; water-filled hydroid cells cavitated and were embolized at -4 °C while parenchyma cells of the inner cortex exhibited cytorrhysis, decreasing to ∼ 20% of their original volume at a nadir temperature of -20 °C. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed that these winter acclimated mosses displayed no evidence of damage after thawing from -20 °C while GCMS showed that sugar concentrations were not sufficient to confer this level of freezing tolerance. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry showed internal ice nucleation occurred in hydrated moss at ∼-12 °C while desiccated moss showed no evidence of freezing with lowering of nadir temperature to -20 °C. Therefore the rapid dehydration of the moss provides an elegantly simple solution to the problem of freezing; remove that which freezes.

  1. A computational insight into cyclopropenone activated dehydration reaction of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Tataroğlu, M M; Sungur, F A

    2017-08-10

    The cyclopropenone activated dehydration reaction of alcohols is a promising alternative to alcohol substitution reactions to avoid hazardous byproducts and harsh reaction conditions. Density functional theory calculations at M062X/6-31+G(d,p) level were performed for two proposed reaction mechanisms of the cyclopropenone activated chlorodehydration reaction where alkyl chloride product can be obtained from both of the proposed reaction mechanisms but chloroxalate has only one alternative. The calculations enabled us to explain the rection mechanisms in detail. Additionally, the effects of the various substituents on the cyclopropenone ring for the product distribution ratio was clarified.The substitution with electron donating group on para position of the phenyl ring of cyclopropenone has no effect on the relative free energy of the rate-determining step where the electron-withdrawing group increase the energy values independent from the position. The product ratio values that were calculated from energy barriers are in harmony with the experimentally obtained ones pointing out the reaction mechanism preference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel Gardos channel mutations linked to dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (xerocytosis).

    PubMed

    Andolfo, Immacolata; Russo, Roberta; Manna, Francesco; Shmukler, Boris E; Gambale, Antonella; Vitiello, Giuseppina; De Rosa, Gianluca; Brugnara, Carlo; Alper, Seth L; Snyder, L Michael; Iolascon, Achille

    2015-10-01

    Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHSt) is an autosomal dominant congenital hemolytic anemia with moderate splenomegaly and often compensated hemolysis. Affected red cells are characterized by a nonspecific cation leak of the red cell membrane, reflected in elevated sodium content, decreased potassium content, elevated MCHC and MCV, and decreased osmotic fragility. The majority of symptomatic DHSt cases reported to date have been associated with gain-of-function mutations in the mechanosensitive cation channel gene, PIEZO1. A recent study has identified two families with DHSt associated with a single mutation in the KCNN4 gene encoding the Gardos channel (KCa3.1), the erythroid Ca(2+) -sensitive K(+) channel of intermediate conductance, also expressed in many other cell types. We present here, in the second report of DHSt associated with KCNN4 mutations, two previously undiagnosed DHSt families. Family NA exhibited the same de novo missense mutation as that recently described, suggesting a hot spot codon for DHSt mutations. Family WO carried a novel, inherited missense mutation in the ion transport domain of the channel. The patients' mild hemolytic anemia did not improve post-splenectomy, but splenectomy led to no serious thromboembolic events. We further characterized the expression of KCNN4 in the mutated patients and during erythroid differentiation of CD34+ cells and K562 cells. We also analyzed KCNN4 expression during mouse embryonic development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Ethylene Formation by Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol with Industrial Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Denise; Dai, Der-Jong; Wu, Ho-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene is the primary component in most plastics, making it economically valuable. It is produced primarily by steam-cracking of hydrocarbons, but can alternatively be produced by the dehydration of ethanol, which can be produced from fermentation processes using renewable substrates such as glucose, starch and others. Due to rising oil prices, researchers now look at alternative reactions to produce green ethylene, but the process is far from being as economically competitive as using fossil fuels. Many studies have investigated catalysts and new reaction engineering technologies to increase ethylene yield and to lower reaction temperature, in an effort to make the reaction applicable in industry and most cost-efficient. This paper presents various lab synthesized catalysts, reaction conditions, and reactor technologies that achieved high ethylene yield at reasonable reaction temperatures, and evaluates their practicality in industrial application in comparison with steam-cracking plants. The most promising were found to be a nanoscale catalyst HZSM-5 with 99.7% ethylene selectivity at 240 °C and 630 h lifespan, using a microreactor technology with mechanical vapor recompression, and algae-produced ethanol to make ethylene. PMID:28809297

  4. Dehydrating and Sterilizing Wastes Using Supercritical CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ian J.

    2006-01-01

    A relatively low-temperature process for dehydrating and sterilizing biohazardous wastes in an enclosed life-support system exploits (1) the superior mass-transport properties of supercritical fluids in general and (2) the demonstrated sterilizing property of supercritical CO2 in particular. The wastes to be treated are placed in a chamber. Liquid CO2, drawn from storage at a pressure of 850 psi (approx.=5.9 MPa) and temperature of 0 C, is compressed to pressure of 2 kpsi (approx.=14 MPa) and made to flow into the chamber. The compression raises the temperature to 10 C. The chamber and its contents are then further heated to 40 C, putting the CO2 into a supercritical state, in which it kills microorganisms in the chamber. Carrying dissolved water, the CO2 leaves the chamber through a back-pressure regulator, through which it is expanded back to the storage pressure. The expanded CO2 is refrigerated to extract the dissolved water as ice, and is then returned to the storage tank at 0 C

  5. Dehydrating agents sharply reduce curvature in DNAs containing A tracts.

    PubMed

    Sprous, D; Zacharias, W; Wood, Z A; Harvey, S C

    1995-05-25

    The structural basis of DNA curvature remains elusive, because models for curvature based on crystallographic structures of molecules containing A tracts do not agree with any of the models for sequence-directed curvature based on solution studies. Here we demonstrate that the difference is probably due to MPD (2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol), the dehydrating agent commonly used in crystallography. One characteristic signature of curved DNA molecules is that they run anomalously slowly on polyacrylamide gels, appearing to be larger than they actually are. The gel anomalies of three curved DNAs from trypanosome kinetoplast minicircles drop monotonically with increasing MPD concentration, indicating that MPD straightens molecules that are curved in aqueous solution. This is not due to some non-specific effect of MPD on poly(dA) or polypurine tracts, because control molecules containing dA70 and dG43 run normally over the full range of MPD concentrations. Circular dichroism spectra are not affected by MPD, ruling out a conformational change to a structure outside the B-DNA family. The effect is not due to MPD-induced changes in phasing of the curved sequences, because MPD has virtually no effect on the linking numbers of relaxed plasmids containing either curved sequences or dA70. At the concentrations of MPD used in X-ray crystallography, the curvature of DNAs containing A tracts is substantially lower than in solution, which probably explains the ongoing discrepancies between the crystallographic results and models based on solution studies.

  6. Research on the application of solar energy to industrial drying or dehydration processes. Fourth phase. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The operation and maintenance of this proof-of-concept solar dehydration facility in Fresno, California is reported. Phase I of this project incorporated the analysis and design of an inexpensive solar collector unit, coupled with a commercial heat recovery unit and rock storage facilities. These three components supplied about 85% of the hot air required by a single tunnel of the Lamanuzzi and Pantaleo (L and P) dehydration facility in Fresno, California. A relatively simple air solar collector and heat storage system, was used. This facility was built during Phase II. The system is comprised of 22,000 square feet of single glazed air solar collectors, 700 tons of rock storage, and a heat recovery wheel, and is controlled by a microcomputer control system. The facility was monitored and evaluated over the first drying season of 133 days in Fresno, California. In the last Phase, the glazings on the solar collectors were replaced. That is, one-third of the field was replaced with glass, another one-third of the field with Filon, and one-third of the field with Lexan. Also, a new microcomputer control system was designed, tested, and installed using readily available parts and based upon the Apple II microcomputer system.

  7. Catalytic dehydration of biomass derived 1-propanol to propene over M-ZSM-5 (M = H, V, Cu, or Zn)

    DOE PAGES

    Lepore, Andrew W.; Li, Zhenglong; Davison, Brian H.; ...

    2017-04-03

    Here, the impetus to explore biomass derived chemicals arises from a desire to enable renewable and sustainable commodity chemicals. To this end, we report catalytic production of propene, a building-block molecule, from 1-propanol. We found that zeolite catalysts are quite versatile and can produce propene at or below 230 C with high selectivity. Increasing the reaction temperature above 230 C shifted product selectivity towards C4+ hydrocarbons. Cu-ZSM-5 was found to exhibit a broader temperature window for high propene selectivity and could function at higher 1-propanol space velocities than H-ZSM-5. A series of experiments with 1-propan(ol-D) showed deuterium incorporation in themore » hydrocarbon product stream including propene suggesting that hydrocarbon pool type pathway might be operational concurrent with dehydration to produce C4+ hydrocarbons. Diffuse reflectance infra-red spectroscopy of 1-propanol and 1-propan(ol-D) over Cu-ZSM-5 in combination with deuterium labeling experiments suggest that deuterium incorporation occurs in two steps. Incorporation of deuterium occurs post dehydration via exchange with the partially deuterated catalyst surface.« less

  8. Recycling of osmotic solutions in microwave-osmotic dehydration: product quality and potential for creation of a novel product.

    PubMed

    Wray, Derek; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-08-01

    Despite osmotic dehydration being a cost effective process for moisture removal, the cost implications of making, regenerating, and properly disposing of the spent osmotic solutions contributes greatly to the economic feasibility of the drying operation. The potential for recycling of osmotic solutions and their use for creation of a novel product was explored using microwave-osmotic dehydration under continuous flow spray (MWODS) conditions. Identical runs were repeated 10 times to determine the progressive physical and compositional effects of the thermal treatment and leaching from the cranberry samples. The microbiological stability and constant drying performance indicated that MWODS would be well suited for employing recycled solutions. While the anthocyanin content of the solution never approached that of cranberry juice concentrate, it is demonstrated that the spent syrup can infuse these health positive components into another product (apple). This study found that re-using osmotic solutions is a viable option to reduce cost in future MWODS applications, with no detriment to product quality and potential to use the spent solution for novel products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. [Application of topical drugs in burn wound].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-an

    2008-10-01

    For burn patients, topical treatment is as important as systemic treatment. Reasonable and timely wound treatment will influence the homeostatic equilibrium, and the progression, the prognosis, and the outcome of the disease. The therapeutic principle should be varied for wounds with different depth of injury. But avoiding or at least alleviating infection, and accelerating healing period, were the common principles. In common, the medication for local wound treatment includes: topical antiseptic, surgical dressing products, artificial skins, and so on. Ideal topical antiseptic should have the following characteristics: the antimicrobial spectrum is broad, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA; be able to penetrate necrotic tissue; does not induce drug resistance easily; no local irritating effect and not painful; no side effect to body;can be applied easily; low cost. The functions of surgical dressing include: protect the wounds, keep the microcirculation open, and accelerate wound healing. Artificial skin has been used as the autoskin carrier in skin transplantation operation for large burn area to protect the autoskin grafts, accelerate wound healing, and cover the wounds temporarily. Burns therapy has developed for 50 years in China, the study of local treatment for burn wounds has also experienced a tortuous path of trial and error. This review might contribute some ideas future research.

  10. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  11. Chronology of DIC technique based on the fundamental mathematical modeling and dehydration impact.

    PubMed

    Alias, Norma; Saipol, Hafizah Farhah Saipan; Ghani, Asnida Che Abd

    2014-12-01

    A chronology of mathematical models for heat and mass transfer equation is proposed for the prediction of moisture and temperature behavior during drying using DIC (Détente Instantanée Contrôlée) or instant controlled pressure drop technique. DIC technique has the potential as most commonly used dehydration method for high impact food value including the nutrition maintenance and the best possible quality for food storage. The model is governed by the regression model, followed by 2D Fick's and Fourier's parabolic equation and 2D elliptic-parabolic equation in a rectangular slice. The models neglect the effect of shrinkage and radiation effects. The simulations of heat and mass transfer equations with parabolic and elliptic-parabolic types through some numerical methods based on finite difference method (FDM) have been illustrated. Intel®Core™2Duo processors with Linux operating system and C programming language have been considered as a computational platform for the simulation. Qualitative and quantitative differences between DIC technique and the conventional drying methods have been shown as a comparative.

  12. Ammonia-methane two-stage anaerobic digestion of dehydrated waste-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nakashimada, Yutaka; Ohshima, Yasutaka; Minami, Hisao; Yabu, Hironori; Namba, Yuzaburo; Nishio, Naomichi

    2008-07-01

    The study investigated methane production from dehydrated waste-activated sludge (DWAS) with approximately 80% water content under thermophilic conditions. The repeated batch-wise treatment of DWAS using methanogenic sludge unacclimated to high concentrations of ammonia, increased the ammonia production up to 7,600 mg N per kilogram total wet sludge of total ammonia concentration, and stopped the methane production. Investigation revealed that the loading ratio of DWAS for methanogenic sludge influences anaerobic digestion. Methane production significantly decreased and ammonia concentration increased with the increase in loading ratio of DWAS. Since the semicontinuous culture revealed that approximately 50% of organic nitrogen in DWAS converted to ammonia at sludge retention time (SRT) after 4 days at 37 degrees C and 1.33 days at 55 degrees C, the previous stripping of the ammonia produced from DWAS was carried out. The stripping of ammonia increased methane production significantly. This ammonia-methane two-stage anaerobic digestion demonstrated a successful methane production at SRT 20 days in the semicontinuous operation using a laboratory-scale reactor system.

  13. Pervaporation performance of PPO membranes in dehydration of highly hazardous mmh and udmh liquid propellants.

    PubMed

    Moulik, Siddhartha; Kumar, K Praveen; Bohra, Subha; Sridhar, Sundergopal

    2015-05-15

    Polyphenylene oxide (PPO) membranes synthesized from 2,6-dimethyl phenol monomer were subjected to pervaporation-based dehydration of the highly hazardous and hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) liquid propellants. Membranes were characterized by TGA, DSC and SEM to study the effect of temperature besides morphologies of surface and cross-section of the films, respectively. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the diffusion behavior of solutions within the membrane. CFD method was employed to solve the governing mass transfer equations by considering the flux coupling. The modeling results were highlighted by the experimental data and were in good agreement. High separation factors (35-70) and reasonable water fluxes (0.1-0.2 kg/m(2)h) were observed for separation of the aqueous azeotropes of MMH (35 wt%) and UDMH (20 wt%) and their further enrichment to >90% purity. Effect of feed composition, membrane thickness and permeate pressure on separation performance of PPO membranes were investigated to determine optimum operating conditions.

  14. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Includes short discussion of perimeters of regular polygons having fixed areas, Fibonacci numbers, triangle transformations, transformational matrices, round-off errors, and a mathematical model for musical keys. (RS)

  15. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Includes short discussion of perimeters of regular polygons having fixed areas, Fibonacci numbers, triangle transformations, transformational matrices, round-off errors, and a mathematical model for musical keys. (RS)

  16. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on divisibility using manipulative materials, cyclic groups of functions, Horner's method of synthetic division, arc lengths of cycloids and cardioids, number squares, and students' concepts of mathematics. (MM)

  17. Dehydration rate determines the degree of membrane damage and desiccation tolerance in bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Cruz de Carvalho, Ricardo; Catalá, Myriam; Branquinho, Cristina; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Barreno, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Desiccation tolerant (DT) organisms are able to withstand an extended loss of body water and rapidly resume metabolism upon rehydration. This ability, however, is strongly dependent on a slow dehydration rate. Fast dehydration affects membrane integrity leading to intracellular solute leakage upon rehydration and thereby impairs metabolism recovery. We test the hypothesis that the increased cell membrane damage and membrane permeability observed under fast dehydration, compared with slow dehydration, is related to an increase in lipid peroxidation. Our results reject this hypothesis because following rehydration lipid peroxidation remains unaltered, a fact that could be due to the high increase of NO upon rehydration. However, in fast-dried samples we found a strong signal of red autofluorescence upon rehydration, which correlates with an increase in ROS production and with membrane leakage, particularly the case of phenolics. This could be used as a bioindicator of oxidative stress and membrane damage.

  18. Effects of glycerol on intracellular ice formation and dehydration of onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, T; Ishimoto, Y; Masuoka, T

    1998-09-11

    Microscopic observations of freezing processes of onion epidermis have been carried out using a directional solidification stage. Effects of cryoprotectant on the intracellular ice formation and the dehydration were examined for several kinds of concentrations of glycerol in a wide range of cooling rate. With an increase of the glycerol concentration the ice formation due to the surface-catalyzed nucleation (SCN) at the plasma membrane was suppressed and the freezing temperature decreased. Especially, under a rapid cooling condition, a large supercooling should be achieved and we observed a different type of freezing in the lower temperature conditions. At the slower cooling rate, on the other hand, the use of glycerol can not prevent the cell shrinkage caused by the dehydration. It is also found that the intracellular ice formation and the dehydration under the ordinary cooling condition can be estimated based on the SCN theory by Toner et al. and Mazuar's dehydration model.

  19. Mixed Matrix Silicone and Fluorosilicone/Zeolite 4A Membranes for Ethanol Dehydration by Pervaporation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of homogeneous and mixed matrix membranes prepared using standard silicone rubber, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), and fluorosilicone rubber, poly(trifluoropropylmethylsiloxane) (PTFPMS), to dehydrate ethanol by pervaporation was evaluated. Although PDMS is generally c...

  20. Dehydration-induced conformational transitions in proteins and their inhibition by stabilizers.

    PubMed Central

    Prestrelski, S J; Tedeschi, N; Arakawa, T; Carpenter, J F

    1993-01-01

    Dehydration of proteins results in significant, measurable conformational changes as observed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and resolution-enhancement techniques. For several proteins these conformational changes are at least partially irreversible, since, upon rehydration, denaturation and aggregation are observed. The presence of certain stabilizers inhibited these dehydration-induced transitions; the native structure was preserved in the dried state and upon reconstitution. Conformational transitions were also observed in a model polypeptide, poly-L-lysine, after lyophilization and were inhibited with the addition of stabilizing cosolutes. The ability of a particular additive to preserve the aqueous structure of dehydrated proteins and poly-L-lysine upon dehydration correlates directly with its ability to preserve the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, a labile enzyme, during drying. PMID:7693001