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Sample records for dehydroepiandrosterone supplement increases

  1. Novel dehydroepiandrosterone troche supplementation improves the serum androgen profile of women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Kevin N; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Namdar, Navid; Conceicao, Jason L; Newsholme, Philip; Yovich, John L

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant steroid hormone in the circulation and has potent multifunctional activity. Epidemiological evidence suggests that levels of serum DHEA decrease with advancing age, and this has been associated with onset or progression of various age-related ailments, including cognitive decline and dementia, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Consequently, these findings have sparked intense research interest in DHEA supplementation as an “antiaging” therapy. Currently, DHEA is being used by 25% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinicians as an adjuvant in assisted reproductive programs, yet the therapeutic benefit of DHEA is unclear. Here, we examined the use of novel DHEA-containing oral troches in patients undertaking IVF and investigated the impact of these troches on their serum androgen profile. This retrospective study determined the androgen profile of 31 IVF patients before (baseline) and after DHEA supplementation (with DHEA). Baseline serum measurements of testosterone (total and free), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and androstenedione were made before and after supplementation. Each patient received DHEA troches containing 25 mg of micronized DHEA, and troches were administered sublingually twice daily for a period of no greater than 4 months. Adjuvant treatment with DHEA boosted the serum concentration of a number of androgen-related analytes, including total and free testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEAS, while serum SHBG remained unchanged. Supplementation also significantly increased the free-androgen index in IVF patients. Interestingly, the increase in serum analyte concentration following DHEA supplementation was found to be dependent on body mass index (BMI), but not individual age. Patients with the lowest BMI (<20.0 kg/m2) tended to have lower testosterone and DHEAS, but higher SHBG and androstenedione levels in comparison with other BMI groups postsupplementation

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases resistance to experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla Domingues; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; Santello, Fabrícia Helena; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Brazão, Vânia; do Prado Júnior, José Clóvis

    2008-05-31

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) enhances immune responses against a wide range of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. In a previous study, we reported that administration of DHEA significantly decreased the numbers of blood parasites in Trypanosoma cruzi experimental infection. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of DHEA in reducing the severity of acute phase T. cruzi infection of male and female Wistar rats. Animals were treated subcutaneously with 40 mg/kg body weight/day of DHEA. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was determined in spleen peritoneal cavity. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were determined in the sera of uninfected and infected animals. DHEA treatment augments NO production for both sexes after in vitro LPS treatment for uninfected animals. Infection triggered enhanced NO levels although not significant. IL-2 and IFN-gamma were detectable in higher concentrations in treated and infected rats of both genders when compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that DHEA may have a potent immunoregulatory function that can affect the course of T. cruzi infection.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  5. Human nutritional supplements in the horse. Dehydroepiandrosterone versus androstenedione: comparative effects on the androgen profile and consequences for doping analysis.

    PubMed

    Dehennin, L; Bonnaire, Y; Plou, P

    2001-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione are weak androgens, which need conversion to more potent testosterone in order to enhance anabolic action. Consequences of oral dosing at 1 mg/kg on the urinary and plasma androgen profile of mare and gelding have been evaluated with an analytical method involving conjugate fractionation and selective hydrolysis, group separation, and quantitation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring of trimethylsilyl ethers. Peak levels of testosterone total conjugates in urine (range 300-6000 microg/L) were attained a few hours after dosing. Renal clearance was fast, so the testosterone detection period lasted only 20 to 33 h, the longest time being generated by androstenedione. The urinary testosterone/epitestosterone ratio for detection of exogenous testosterone in the mare was inoperative after DHEA administration because there was a concomitant increase of epitestosterone, which thereby acted as a masking agent. Androstanediols and androstenediols, as well as some 17-ketosteroids, were additional markers. A transient increase of circulating free testosterone has been evidenced, and this would support possible anabolic/androgenic action by supplementation with DHEA and androstenedione along the oral route.

  6. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction suppresses osteoclastogenesis via increasing dehydroepiandrosterone to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yuyan; Qiu, Xuemin; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to prevent and treat age-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) for decades. This study sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of BSNXD in terms of receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro because of the critical roles of bone resorption in the development and progression of osteoporosis. In mice, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17-β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated with an enzyme immunoassay kit after ovariectomy. Levels of DHEA and DHEAS increased significantly following administration of BSNXD while the level of E2 did not. In addition, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining showed that DHEA profoundly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner via estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not via estrogen receptor β or androgen receptors. Cytotoxicity was not detected in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These data suggest that BSNXD prevents PMO by increasing DHEA via the ERαpathway to suppress osteoclastogenesis.

  7. Concerning the mechanism of increased thermogenesis in rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Bobyleva, V; Kneer, N; Bellei, M; Battelli, D; Lardy, H A

    1993-06-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment of rats decreases gain of body weight without affecting food intake; simultaneously, the activities of liver malic enzyme and cytosolic glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase are increased. In the present study experiments were conducted to test the possibility that DHEA enhances thermogenesis and decreases metabolic efficiency via transhydrogenation of cytosolic NADPH into mitochondrial FADH2 with a consequent loss of energy as heat. The following results provide evidence which supports the proposed hypothesis: (a) the activities of cytosolic enzymes involved in NADPH production (malic enzyme, cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase, and aconitase) are increased after DHEA treatment; (b) cytosolic glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase may use both NAD+ and NADP+ as coenzymes; (c) activities of both cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase are increased by DHEA treatment; (d) cytosol obtained from DHEA-treated rats synthesizes more glycerol-3-P during incubation with fructose-1,6-P2 (used as source of dihydroxyacetone phosphate) and NADP+; the addition of citrate in vitro further increases this difference; (e) mitochondria prepared from DHEA-treated rats more rapidly consume glycerol-3-P added exogenously or formed endogenously in the cytosol in the presence of fructose-1,6-P2 and NADP+.

  8. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Eri; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Ohira, Tatsuro; Sugiyama, Masaki

    2017-01-21

    Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s). Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees' mental health.

  9. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Eri; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Ohira, Tatsuro; Sugiyama, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s). Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees’ mental health. PMID:28117719

  10. Reversal of age-associated decline in immune response to Pnu-imune vaccine by supplementation with the steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M; Bondada, S

    1993-01-01

    Recently, we reported that murine antibody responses to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (Pnu-Imune) vaccine declined with age. Here we present data to support the concept that age-associated immune defects are not only due to intrinsic defects in immune cells but are also due to extrinsic factors emanating from the neuroendocrine system. We found that supplementation with dehydroepiandrosterone, a steroid hormone known to be reduced in the aged, corrects the immune deficiency of aged mice and significantly enhanced their splenic immune responses to the Pnu-Imune vaccine. PMID:8478117

  11. Peculiar observations in measuring testosterone in women treated with oral contraceptives supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    PubMed

    Heijboer, Annemieke C; Zimmerman, Yvette; de Boer, Theo; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan; Blankenstein, Marinus A

    2014-03-20

    Total testosterone is considered to be decreased during the use of combined oral contraceptives. There is, however, considerable concern about the quality of testosterone assays, especially at low levels. We aimed to confirm testosterone levels measured by direct radioimmunoassay in a recent clinical trial with a state-of-the-art LC-MSMS method. Surplus specimens with known testosterone levels collected during the study (Clinical Trial Registration number ISRCTN06414473) were reanalyzed with an LC-MSMS method. This method was compared to another LC-MSMS method that had shown to concur excellently to a reference method. Follow-up experiments were designed to explain the results. In contrast to our expectation, LC-MSMS measurements did not corroborate the data obtained by radioimmunoassay. Subsequent experiments showed that this could be attributed to a strong dependency of the radioimmunoassay on SHBG. Testosterone results (n = 198) obtained by direct radioimmunoassay showed a negative correlation to SHBG levels (r = -0.676; p<0.001). By contrast, testosterone results obtained by LC-MSMS were not related to SHBG (r = 0.100; NS). In conclusion, our results indicate that total testosterone measurements during oral contraceptive use are unreliable when performed with assays sensitive to the SHBG concentration. The discrepancy with the literature can most likely be explained by the sensitivity of the immunoassay used to SHBG. Given the sharp increase in SHBG during the use of many oral contraceptives, total testosterone may not decrease, whereas its bioavailability, estimated by free testosterone levels, will be diminished. Studies aiming at restoration of testosterone homeostasis during oral contraception need to take this into account.

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): hypes and hopes.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Sowa, Paweł; Rutkowska-Talipska, Joanna; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Rutkowski, Ryszard

    2014-07-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating steroid hormones in humans. In animal studies, their low levels have been associated with age-related involuntary changes, including reduced lifespan. Extrapolation of animal data to humans turned DHEA into a 'superhormone' and an 'anti-aging' panacea. It has been aggressively marketed and sold in large quantities as a dietary supplement. Recent double-blind, placebo-controlled human studies provided evidence to support some of these claims. In the elderly, DHEA exerts an immunomodulatory action, increasing the number of monocytes, T cells expressing T-cell receptor gamma/delta (TCRγδ) and natural killer (NK) cells. It improves physical and psychological well-being, muscle strength and bone density, and reduces body fat and age-related skin atrophy stimulating procollagen/sebum production. In adrenal insufficiency, DHEA restores DHEA/DHEAS and androstenedione levels, reduces total cholesterol, improves well-being, sexual satisfaction and insulin sensitivity, and prevents loss of bone mineral density. Normal levels of CD4+CD25(hi) and FoxP3 (forkhead box P3) are restored. In systemic lupus erythematosus, DHEA is steroid-sparing. In an unblinded study, it induced remission in the majority of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. DHEA modulates cardiovascular signalling pathways and exerts an anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant and anti-remodelling effect. Its low levels correlate with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. DHEA/DHEAS appear protective in asthma and allergy. It attenuates T helper 2 allergic inflammation, and reduces eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity. Low levels of DHEAS accompany adrenal suppression. It could be used to screen for the side effects of steroids. In women, DHEA improves sexual satisfaction, fertility and age-related vaginal atrophy. Many factors are responsible for the inconsistent

  13. Disposition and metabolic profile of the weak androgen Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) following administration as part of a nutritional supplement to exercised horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Stanley, S D; McKemie, D S

    2015-01-01

    In order to ensure the welfare of performance horses and riders as well as the integrity of the sport, the use of both therapeutic and illegal agents in horse racing is tightly regulated. While Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is not specifically banned from administration to racehorses in the United States and no screening limit or threshold concentration exists, the metabolic conversion of DHEA to testosterone make its presence in nutritional supplements a regulatory concern. The recommended regulatory threshold for total testosterone in urine is 55 and 20 ng/mL for mares and geldings, respectively. In plasma, screening and confirmation limits for free testosterone (mares and geldings), of no greater than 0.1 and 0.025 ng/mL, respectively are recommended. DHEA was administered orally, as part of a nutritional supplement, to 8 exercised female thoroughbred horses and plasma and urine samples collected at pre-determined times post administration. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), plasma and urine samples were analyzed for DHEA, DHEA-sulfate, testosterone, testosterone-sulfate, pregnenolone, androstenedione, and androstenediol. DHEA was rapidly absorbed with maximal plasma concentrations reaching 52.0 ± 43.8 ng/mL and 32.1 ± 12.9 ng/mL for DHEA and DHEA sulfate, respectively. Free testosterone was not detected in plasma or urine samples at any time. Maximum sulfate conjugated testosterone plasma concentrations were 0.98 ± 1.09 ng/mL. Plasma testosterone-sulfate concentrations did not fall below 0.1 ng/mL and urine testosterone-sulfate below 55 ng/mL until 24-36 h post DHEA administration. Urine testosterone sulfate concentrations remained slightly above baseline levels at 48 h for most of the horses studied.

  14. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increases serum levels of androgens and estrogens but does not enhance short-term memory in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Paul; Stangl, Bethany; Hirshman, Elliot; Verbalis, Joseph

    2012-11-05

    The current study examines the effect of administering dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on short-term memory. This experiment used a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design to explore the effects of a four week regimen of 50 mg oral DHEA on performance on the digit span, verbal span, and modified Sternberg (Oberauer) tasks. The results demonstrate that the current regimen of drug administration significantly increases serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone and estrone and substantially alters the patterns of correlations among the serum levels of these hormones. Despite this substantial change in the hormonal milieu, DHEA administration produced no beneficial effects on cognitive performance in the digit span, verbal span, or modified Sternberg paradigm tasks. Ancillary analyses of the relation between hormone levels and cognitive performance demonstrated a strong positive correlation between DHEA levels and performance on digit span forward/backward and verbal span forward in the placebo drug condition, but not in the DHEA condition. We interpret the juxtaposition of the null results of DHEA administration and the correlation of DHEA levels and performance in the placebo condition to indicate that the referenced correlations arise because a third variable (i.e., age) is associated with both performance and DHEA levels. Additional analyses supported this hypothesis.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases the number and dendrite maturation of doublecortin cells in the dentate gyrus of middle age male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Ortiz-López, L; Cabrera-Muñoz, E A; Galindo-Sevilla, N; Zambrano, E; Hernández-Luis, F; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Flores-Ramos, M

    2017-03-15

    Aging increases the vulnerability to stress and risk of developing depression. These changes have been related to a reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, an adrenal steroid with anti-stress effects. Also, adult hippocampal neurogenesis decreases during aging and its alteration or impaired is related to the development of depression. Besides, it has been hypothesized that DHEA increases the formation of new neurons. However, it is unknown whether treatment with DHEA in aging may stimulate the dendrite maturation of newborn neurons and reversing depressive-like signs evoked by chronic stress exposure. Here aged male rats (14 months old) were subjected to a scheme of chronic mild stress (CMS) during six weeks, received a treatment with DHEA from the third week of CMS. Changes in body weight and sucrose preference (SP) were measured once a week. DHEA levels were measured in serum, identification of doublecortin-(DCX)-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells was done in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. CMS produced a gradual reduction in the body weight, but no changes in the SP were observed. Treatment enhanced levels of DHEA, but lack of recovery on body weight of stressed rats. Aging reduced the number of DCX-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN- cells but DHEA just significantly increased the number of DCX-cells in rats under CMS and controls, reaching levels of young non-stressed rats (used here as a reference of an optimal status of health). In rats under CMS, DHEA facilitated dendritic maturation of immature new neurons. Our results reveal that DHEA improves neural plasticity even in conditions of CMS in middle age rats. Thus, this hormone reverted the decrement of DCX-cells caused during normal aging.

  16. Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.

    PubMed

    Duszczyk-Budhathoki, Michalina; Olczak, Mieszko; Lehner, Malgorzata; Majewska, Maria Dorota

    2012-02-01

    Thimerosal, a mercury-containing vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We previously showed that its administration to infant rats causes behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathological abnormalities similar to those present in autism. Here we examined, using microdialysis, the effect of thimerosal on extracellular levels of neuroactive amino acids in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC). Thimerosal administration (4 injections, i.m., 240 μg Hg/kg on postnatal days 7, 9, 11, 15) induced lasting changes in amino acid overflow: an increase of glutamate and aspartate accompanied by a decrease of glycine and alanine; measured 10-14 weeks after the injections. Four injections of thimerosal at a dose of 12.5 μg Hg/kg did not alter glutamate and aspartate concentrations at microdialysis time (but based on thimerosal pharmacokinetics, could have been effective soon after its injection). Application of thimerosal to the PFC in perfusion fluid evoked a rapid increase of glutamate overflow. Coadministration of the neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS; 80 mg/kg; i.p.) prevented the thimerosal effect on glutamate and aspartate; the steroid alone had no influence on these amino acids. Coapplication of DHEAS with thimerosal in perfusion fluid also blocked the acute action of thimerosal on glutamate. In contrast, DHEAS alone reduced overflow of glycine and alanine, somewhat potentiating the thimerosal effect on these amino acids. Since excessive accumulation of extracellular glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, our data imply that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders. DHEAS may partially protect against mercurials-induced neurotoxicity.

  17. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  18. Neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate in individuals with personality disorders convicted of serious violent crimes.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, V A; Ivanova, S A; Gusev, S I; Trofimova, M V; Bokhan, N A

    2012-11-01

    We studied blood serum levels of neurosteroids, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, in individuals with personality disorders convicted of serious violent crimes. The data were compared with that of a group of mentally and physically healthy persons convicted of acquisitive crimes, and with that of the control group. Significant increase in DHEA in both groups of convicts in comparison with the control was shown. The level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate remained unchanged. Increased dehydroepiandrosterone level in the convicted individuals with personality disorders is probably more associated with detention stress than directly with psychopathology or criminal aggression.

  19. [Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA)and bone metabolism].

    PubMed

    Ohnaka, Keizo

    2016-07-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA), an adrenal androgen, has attracted much attention as an anti-aging hormone as well as a marker for senescence because of its unique change along with aging. DHEA is reported to have beneficial effects such as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-atherosclerosis. It is also shown that DHEA has anti-osteoporosis effects to increase bone mineral density in randomized controlled trials(RCTs). As osteoblasts express aromatase which will convert androgen to estrogen, DHEA may act protectively against osteoporosis through its metabolites. Because there is no report on fracture risk by DHEA administration, further studies are required to clarify DHEA effects on human bone metabolism.

  20. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate inhibits persistent sodium currents in rat medial prefrontal cortex via activation of sigma-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zheng-Xiang; Lan, Dan-Mei; Wu, Pei-Ying; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Dong, Yi; Ma, Lan; Zheng, Ping

    2008-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate is one of the most important neurosteroids. In the present paper, we studied the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate on persistent sodium currents and its mechanism and functional consequence with whole-cell patch clamp recording method combined with a pharmacological approach in the rat medial prefrontal cortex slices. The results showed that dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate inhibited the amplitude of persistent sodium currents and the inhibitory effect was significant at 0.1 microM, reached maximum at 1 microM and decreased with the increase in the concentrations of above 1 microM. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate on persistent sodium currents was canceled by the Gi protein inhibitor and the protein kinase C inhibitor, but not by the protein kinase A inhibitor. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate on persistent sodium currents was also canceled by the sigma-1 receptor blockers and the sigma-1 receptor agonist could mimic the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate had no significant influence on neuronal excitability but could significantly inhibit chemical inhibition of mitochondria-evoked increase in persistent sodium currents. These results suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate inhibits persistent sodium currents via the activation of sigma-1 receptors-Gi protein-protein kinase C-coupled signaling pathway, and the main functional consequence of this effect of DHEAS is presumably to protect neurons under ischemia.

  1. [Calcium supplementation and the possible increase in cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Montero Sáez, Abelardo; Formiga, Francesc; Pujol Farriols, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of osteoporosis treatment is to prevent the occurrence of fragility fractures, and thereby reduce morbidity and mortality. Among the various approaches to the treatment of this disease include ensuring proper calcium intake and to obtain adequate levels of vitamin D. Virtually all clinical trials with drugs used to treat osteoporosis systematically include calcium and vitamin D supplements. In light of the recent publication of clinical trials and meta-analyses, a possible increase in cardiovascular risk, particularly in the form of a myocrdial infarction, is hypothesised in patients taking calcium supplements. However, data published to date are inconclusive. Until the development of new scientific evidence, it seems reasonable to recommend, whenever practicable and individualized for each patient, increasing calcium intake with food and reserve supplements for patients with very low calcium intake in the diet. It would also be advisable for the administration of total daily dose to be fractionated throughout the day and with meals, and to obtain appropriate levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol or calcidiol), along with the basic treatment for osteoporosis that is decided to be prescribed to patients.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone administration before IVF in poor responders: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikos; Papalouka, Maria; Triantafyllidou, Olga; Vlachos, Athanasios; Vakas, Panagiotis; Grimbizis, Gregory; Creatsas, George; Zikopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-02-01

    The use of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may improve ovarian stimulation outcomes in women of advanced reproductive age and could reduce embryo aneuploidy. In this prospective study, 48 women diagnosed with poor ovarian response received DHEA supplementation for at least 12 weeks. These women were compared with a group of poor responders (n = 113) who did not receive supplementation. During the study period, patients taking day 2 FSH and oestradiol were measured monthly before and after treatment. Stimulation characteristics, stimulation outcome and clinical outcome (clinical pregnancy and live birth rates) were reported. Evaluation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was carried out before initiation of treatment and immediately before the subsequent stimulation. Supplementation with DHEA for at least 12 weeks resulted in a modest, but statistically significant, increase in AMH levels and decrease in baseline FSH (P < 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively). Administration of DHEA had no effect on any of the stimulation parameters nor was there any difference in clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates between the two groups. Supplementation with DHEA significantly affects women with poor prognosis undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF. Patients should be counselled about the uncertain effectiveness, potential side-effects and cost of this treatment.

  3. Protein and carbohydrate supplementation increases aerobic and thermoregulatory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Kazunobu; Goto, Masaki; Nose, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of heat illness and heat stroke is greater in older than younger people. In this context, exercise training regimens to increase heat tolerance in older people may provide protection against heat illness. Acute increases in plasma volume (PV) improve thermoregulation during exercise in young subjects, but there is some evidence that changes in PV in response to acute exercise are blunted in older humans. We recently demonstrated that protein–carbohydrate (Pro-CHO) supplementation immediately after a bout of exercise increased PV and plasma albumin content (Albcont) after 23 h in both young and older subjects. We also examined whether Pro-CHO supplementation during aerobic training enhanced thermoregulation by increasing PV and Albcont in older subjects. Older men aged ∼68 years exercised at moderate intensity, 60 min day−1, 3 days week−1, for 8 weeks, at ∼19°C, and took either placebo (CNT; 0.5 kcal, 0 g protein kg−1) or Pro-CHO supplement (Pro-CHO; 3.2 kcal, 0.18 g protein kg−1) immediately after exercise. After training, we found during exercise at 30°C that increases in oesophageal temperature (Tes) were attenuated more in Pro-CHO than CNT and associated with enhanced cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating. We also confirmed similar results in young subjects after 5 days of training. These results demonstrate that post-exercise protein and CHO consumption enhance thermoregulatory adaptations especially in older subjects and provide insight into potential strategies to improve cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations to exercise in both older and younger subjects. PMID:19752117

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Feeding Protects Liver Steatosis in Obese Breast Cancer Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Hakkak, Reza; Bell, Andrea; Korourian, Soheila

    2017-03-20

    Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver steatosis, body weight gain, and serum DHEA, DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. Female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either a control diet or a control diet with DHEA supplementation for 155 days. Livers were collected for histological examination. Serum was collected to measure DHEA, DHEA-S, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. Our results show that DHEA-fed rats had significantly less liver steatosis (p < 0.001) than control-fed rats and gained less weight (p < 0.001). DHEA feeding caused significant decreases (p < 0.001) in the serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and significantly increased (p < 0.001) serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S. Our results suggest that DHEA feeding can protect against liver steatosis by reducing body weight gain and modulating serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an obese breast cancer rat model.

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) and emotional processing - A behavioral and electrophysiological approach.

    PubMed

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2015-07-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may have mood enhancement effects: higher DHEAS concentrations and DHEA/cortisol ratio have been related to lower depression scores and controlled trials of DHEA administration have reported significant antidepressant effects. The balance between DHEAS and DHEA has been suggested to influence brain functioning. We explored DHEAS, DHEA, cortisol, DHEA/cortisol and DHEAS/DHEA ratios relations to the processing of negative emotional stimuli at behavioral and brain levels by recording the electroencephalogram of 21 young women while performing a visual task with implicit neutral or negative emotional content in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. For each condition, salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol were measured before performing the task and at 30 and 60min intervals. DHEA increased after task performance, independent of the implicit emotional content. With implicit negative emotion, higher DHEAS/DHEA and DHEA/cortisol ratios before task performance were related to shorter visual P300 latencies suggesting faster brain processing under a negative emotional context. In addition, higher DHEAS/DHEA ratios were related to reduced visual P300 amplitudes, indicating less processing of the negative emotional stimuli. With this study, we could show that at the electrophysiological level, higher DHEAS/DHEA and DHEA/cortisol ratios were related to shorter stimulus evaluation times suggesting less interference of the implicit negative content of the stimuli with the task. Furthermore, higher DHEAS/DHEA ratios were related to reduced processing of negative emotional stimuli which may eventually constitute a protective mechanism against negative information overload.

  6. Improving Nutrition by Increasing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Benefits.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ann M; Klerman, Jacob A

    2017-02-01

    The diets of Americans fall far short of recommended dietary guidelines, and those who live in low-income households have even poorer diets than higher-income households. Many low-income Americans rely on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). The program's dual goals are to improve food security and nutrition. Among the possible strategies to address dietary shortfalls among low-income Americans is to increase the SNAP benefit. This article uses data from the random assignment evaluation of the Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children demonstration to add new insights on the impact of SNAP on diet quality for households receiving SNAP who also received SNAP-like benefits through Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children. Households received $60 each month per eligible school-aged child. The objective of the evaluation was to see if Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children improved children's food security and nutrition. The evaluation surveyed these households to collect information about food expenditures, food security, and children's diets. For households receiving SNAP in sites that used the SNAP Electronic Benefit Transfer delivery system, the analysis showed increases in food expenditures and decreases in levels of food insecurity. The analysis also indicates improvements in dietary quality among school-aged children, but the impacts were modest.

  7. Weekly iron supplementation does not block increases in serum zinc due to weekly zinc supplementation in Bangladeshi infants.

    PubMed

    Baqui, Abdullah H; Walker, Christa L Fischer; Zaman, K; El Arifeen, Shams; Chowdhury, Hafizur Rahman; Wahed, Mohammed A; Black, Robert E; Caulfield, Laura E

    2005-09-01

    Because infants and young children in many developing countries are deficient in both iron and zinc, and zinc can affect iron metabolism, evaluation of optimum strategies to simultaneously supplement iron and zinc is an important public health priority. This study evaluated the efficacy of weekly supplementation of iron or zinc or both on iron, zinc, and copper status in Bangladeshi infants. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled community trial, 6-mo-old infants were assigned to receive weekly supplements of 1 mg riboflavin (control, n = 82) or 1 mg riboflavin + 20 mg iron (n = 83), 20 mg zinc (n = 83), or both (n = 85) for 6 mo. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, and copper concentrations were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. Serum Zn increased in both groups receiving zinc; the increase was greatest among children with low baseline serum zinc concentration. Iron status indicators did not differ among the groups before or after 6 mo of supplementation. Supplementation with either zinc or iron decreased serum copper after 6 mo. Joint supplementation did not alter the individual effects of iron or zinc supplementation in these Bangladeshi children. However, the dosing regimen may not have been adequate to achieve the desired biochemical effects.

  8. Daily supplementation with iron increases lipid peroxidation in young women with low iron stores.

    PubMed

    King, Sarah M; Donangelo, Carmen M; Knutson, Mitchell D; Walter, Patrick B; Ames, Bruce N; Viteri, Fernando E; King, Janet C

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether women with low iron stores (plasma ferritin supplement for 8 wks at a level commonly used to treat poor iron status develop increased lipid peroxidation as measured by ethane exhalation rates and plasma malondialdehyde. The women served as their own control as pre- and post-supplementation periods were compared. Twelve women participated in the study for a 70-day period and consumed daily iron supplements (98 mg of iron as ferrous sulfate) from day 14 to day 70. Baseline blood and expired air samples were obtained on days 1 and 14; measurements during supplementation were performed on days 56 and 70, that is at 6 and 8 weeks of supplementation. Iron status improved during the iron supplementation period; biochemical indicators of lipid peroxidation also increased. After 6 wks of iron supplementation, serum ferritin almost doubled and body iron more than doubled. Hemoglobin levels increased slightly and other indicators of iron status became normal. However, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and breath ethane exhalation rates (BEER) increased by more than 40% between baseline and 6 wks of supplementation; these increases correlated significantly with plasma iron and ferritin levels. MDA was positively correlated with BEER. BEER increased further after 8 wks of iron supplementation. The increased indicators of lipid peroxidation with duration of supplementation and as iron status improved suggest that providing daily nearly 100 mg iron may not be a totally innocuous regimen for correcting iron depletion in women.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone, Its Sulfate and Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    de Menezes, Karina Junqueira; Peixoto, Clayton; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sérgio; Veras, André Barciela

    2016-01-01

    To present a review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between the hormones Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cognition. Methods: The cognition items included in this review were global cognitive function, memory, attention, executive function, intelligence, perception and visuospatial ability. A systematic review was proceeded using three databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Results: Two thousand fifty five references about cognition and hormones were found; 772 duplicated references were excluded, resulting in 1.283 references to be evaluated. According to exclusion and inclusion criteria, 25 references were selected. A positive correlation between DHEA-S blood levels and global cognition was found in women and men. Other positive correlations between DHEA-S and working memory, attention and verbal fluency were found only in women. The DHEA effect on cognition is limited to one study conducted among young men with high-doses. PMID:27346998

  10. Lack of Dehydroepiandrosterone Effect on a Combined Endurance and Resistance Exercise Program in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Igwebuike, Ada; Irving, Brian A.; Bigelow, Maureen L.; Short, Kevin R.; McConnell, Joseph P.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2008-01-01

    Context: Recent studies disputed the widely promoted anti-aging effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation; however, conflicting data exist on whether physiological DHEA supplementation enhances exercise training effects on body composition, physical performance, and cardiometabolic risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 wk of DHEA supplementation (50 mg/d) in postmenopausal women enhances exercise-related changes in body composition, physical performance, and cardiometabolic risk. Design and Setting: This study was a 12-wk randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and took place at the Mayo Clinic General Clinical Research Center (Rochester, MN). Participants: Thirty-one sedentary, postmenopausal, Caucasian women (mean ± sem age 64.6 ± 1.0 yr) completed the study. Intervention: Participants were randomized to one of two 12-wk interventions: 1) exercise training plus 50 mg/d of DHEA (n = 17), or 2) exercise training plus placebo (n = 14). The exercise intervention consisted of both endurance (4 d/wk) and resistance (3 d/wk) exercise components. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcomes were measures of body composition, physical performance, and measures of cardiometabolic risk. Results: DHEA treatment with exercise resulted in increases in circulating sulfated DHEA (650%), total testosterone (100%), estradiol (165%), estrone (85%), and IGF-I (30%) (all P ≤ 0.05, for all within and between treatment comparisons). Although exercise training alone significantly improved physical performance, body composition, and insulin sensitivity, administration of DHEA provided no additional benefits. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of combined endurance and resistance training significantly improved body composition, physical performance, insulin sensitivity, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particle number and size, whereas DHEA had no additional benefits. PMID:18029465

  11. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    PubMed

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice.

  12. Vitamin D supplementation increases calcium absorption without a threshold effect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maximal calcium absorption in response to vitamin D has been proposed as a biomarker for vitamin D sufficiency. Our objective was to determine whether there is a threshold beyond which increasing doses of vitamin D, or concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], no longer increase cal...

  13. Supplementation of cattle fed tropical grasses with microalgae increases microbial protein production and average daily gain.

    PubMed

    Costa, D F A; Quigley, S P; Isherwood, P; McLennan, S R; Poppi, D P

    2016-05-01

    A series of 3 experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of microalgae as supplements for ruminants consuming low-CP tropical grasses. In Exp. 1, the chemical composition and in vitro protein degradability of 9 algae species and 4 protein supplements were determined. In Exp. 2, rumen function and microbial protein (MCP) production were determined in steers fed speargrass hay alone or supplemented with , , , or cottonseed meal (CSM). In Exp. 3, DMI and ADG were determined in steers fed speargrass hay alone or supplemented with increasing amounts of NPN (urea combined with ammonia sulfate), CSM, or . In Exp. 1, the CP content of and (675 and 580 g/kg DM) was highest among the algae species and higher than the other protein supplements evaluated, and sp. had the highest crude lipid (CL) content (198 g/kg DM). In Exp. 2, supplementation increased speargrass hay intake, the efficiency of MCP production, the fractional outflow rate of digesta from the rumen, the concentration of NHN, and the molar proportion of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen fluid of steers above all other treatments. acceptance by steers was low and this resulted in no significant difference to unsupplemented steers for all parameters measured for this algae supplement. In Exp. 3, ADG linearly increased with increasing supplementary N intake from both and NPN, with no difference between the 2 supplements. In contrast, ADG quadratically increased with increasing supplementary N intake from CSM. It was concluded that and may potentially be used as protein sources for cattle grazing low-CP pastures.

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone and 7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone in male reproductive health: Implications of differential regulation of human Sertoli cells metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Almeida, Susana P; Silva, Joaquina; Barros, Alberto; Sousa, Mário; Silva, Branca M; Silvestre, Samuel M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a precursor of androgen synthesis whose action is partially exerted through its metabolites. 7-Oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone (7-oxo-DHEA) is a common DHEA metabolite, non-convertible to androgens, which constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy for multiple conditions. Sertoli cells (SCs) are responsible for the support of spermatogenesis, having unique metabolic characteristics strongly modulated by androgens. Consequently, disruptions in androgen synthesis compromise SCs function and hence male fertility. We aimed to evaluate the effects of DHEA and 7-oxo-DHEA in human SCs (hSCs) metabolism and oxidative profile. To do so, hSCs were exposed to increasing concentrations of DHEA and 7-oxo-DHEA (0.025, 1 and 50 μM) that revealed to be non-cytotoxic in these experimental conditions. We measured hSCs metabolites consumption/production by (1)H NMR, the protein expression levels of key players of the glycolytic pathway by Western blot as well as the levels of carbonyl groups, nitration and lipid peroxidation by Slot blot. The obtained data demonstrated that 7-oxo-DHEA is a more potent metabolic modulator than DHEA since it increased hSCs glycolytic flux. DHEA seem to redirect hSCs metabolism to the Krebs cycle, while 7-oxo-DHEA has some inhibitory effect in this path. The highest 7-oxo-DHEA concentrations (1 and 50 μM) also increased lactate production, which is of extreme relevance for the successful progression of spermatogenesis in vivo. None of these steroids altered the intracellular oxidative profile of hSCs, illustrating that, at the concentrations used they do not have pro- nor antioxidant actions in hSCs. Our study represents a further step in the establishment of safe doses of DHEA and 7-oxo-DHEA to hSCs, supporting its possible use in hormonal and non-hormonal therapies against male reproductive problems.

  15. Meat supplementation increases arm muscle area in Kenyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Jiang, Luohua; Weiss, Robert E; Grillenberger, Monika; Gewa, Constance A; Siekmann, Jonathan H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Bwibo, Nimrod O

    2013-04-14

    The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart. Children in each cohort were given feedings at school and studied for three school terms per year over 2 years, a total of 9 months per year: cohort I from 1998 to 2000 and cohort II from 1999 to 2001. Food intake was assessed by 24 h recall every 1-2 months and biochemical analysis for micronutrient status conducted annually (in cohort I only). Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). Mid-upper-arm muscle area (MAMA) and mid-upper-arm fat area (MAFA) were calculated. The two cohorts were combined for analyses. The meat group showed the steepest rates of gain in MUAC and MAMA over time, and the milk group showed the next largest significant MUAC and MAMA gain compared with the plain githeri and control groups (P< 0.05). The meat group showed the least increase in TSF and MAFA of all groups. These findings have implications for increasing micronutrient intake and lean body mass in primary schoolchildren consuming vegetarian diets.

  16. Increase in the strength characteristics of Portland cement due to introduction of the compound mineral supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Gichko, Nikolai; Mukhina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    At the initial phase of hardening it is the limestone component that plays a major role in the hardening process, which acts as the substrate for the crystallization of hydrate tumors due to its chemical affinity with the products of Portland cement hydration. After 7 days, the diopside supplement influences the processes more significantly. Diopside has a high modulus of elasticity compared to the cement paste. As a result, stresses are redistributed within the cement paste and the whole composition is hardened. An increase in the quantity of diopside in the compound supplement to more than 66.7% does not provide a substantial increase in the strength of the cement paste. As the hardness of diopside is higher than the hardness of limestone, much more energy is required to grind it down to a usable component. Therefore, a further increase in the quantity of diopside in the compound supplement is not economically feasible. An evaluation of the optimum quantity of input compound mineral supplements can be made based on the ideas of close packing of spherical particles and the Pauling rules. The optimum content of the supplement is 8-8.5% provided that its dispersion and density are close to the dispersion and density of the binder. An increase in the dispersion of the supplement reduces its optimal quantity.

  17. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance.

    PubMed

    del Favero, Serena; Roschel, Hamilton; Artioli, Guilherme; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Costa, André; Barroso, Renato; Negrelli, Ana Lua; Otaduy, Maria Concepción; da Costa Leite, Cláudia; Lancha-Junior, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of betaine supplementation on muscle phosphorylcreatine (PCr) content and strength performance in untrained subjects. Additionally, we compared the ergogenic and physiological responses to betaine versus creatine supplementation. Finally, we also tested the possible additive effects of creatine and betaine supplementation. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were assigned to receive betaine (BET; 2 g/day), creatine (CR; 20 g/day), betaine plus creatine (BET+CR; 2+20 g/day, respectively) or placebo (PL). At baseline and after 10 days of supplementation, we assessed muscle strength and power, muscle PCr content, and body composition. The CR and BET+CR groups presented greater increase in muscle PCr content than PL (p=0.004 and p=0.006, respectively). PCr content was comparable between BET versus PL (p=0.78) and CR versus BET+CR (p=0.99). CR and BET+CR presented greater muscle power output than PL in the squat exercise following supplementation (p=0.003 and p=0.041, respectively). Similarly, bench press average power was significantly greater for the CR-supplemented groups. CR and BET+CR groups also showed significant pre- to post-test increase in 1-RM squat and bench press (CR: p=0.027 and p<0.0001; BET+CR: p=0.03 and p<0.0001 for upper- and lower-body assessments, respectively) No significant differences for 1-RM strength and power were observed between BET versus PL and CR versus BET+CR. Body composition did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, we reported that betaine supplementation does not augment muscle PCr content. Furthermore, we showed that betaine supplementation combined or not with creatine supplementation does not affect strength and power performance in untrained subjects.

  18. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduce performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akter, M; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-04-11

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance was investigated in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0, 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe x phytase interaction significantly influenced the FI, BWG and FCR. The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe x phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  19. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?].

    PubMed

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello

    2010-09-01

    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  20. Asthma and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja

    2010-10-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is considered as an important immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory hormone. Despite the continuing interest in DHEA replacement therapy, our knowledge of its effects upon asthma is very limited. DHEA is able to reverse cytokine imbalances associated with asthma, may prevent and attenuate allergic inflammation in airways, and does not possess the undesirable side effects of glucocorticoids; therefore, it may be potentially applied in the treatment of asthma. The steroid-sparing effect observed with DHEA clinically could appear especially favorable in asthmatic patients receiving oral treatment and those inhaling high doses of glucocorticoids. In addition, DHEA and its analogs might prove useful in reversing relative glucocorticoids insensitivity in patients with corticosteroid-resistant asthma. In this review we have focused specifically on DHEA's role in asthma.

  1. Whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake but not homocysteine plasma concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Deminice, Rafael; Comparotto, Hugo; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8) to receive one of the following diets for 4 weeks: control diet (C), whey protein-composed diet (WP), and whey protein-supplemented diet (WPS). The C and WP diets consisted of AIN-93 with 20% casein and 20% whey protein as protein source, respectively. WPS was AIN-93 (20% casein) supplemented by the addition of 20% (w/w) whey protein. Four weeks of ingesting a WPS diet resulted in a significantly higher (P < 0.05) total protein and methionine intakes. Although a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine levels occurred in WPS group compared with C and WP, no significant change was observed in plasma Hcy concentration between groups. Furthermore, the levels of lipid hydroperoxides and advanced oxidation protein products, known liver oxidative stress markers, were increased in the WPS group compared with the C group. In addition, no change in glutathione liver concentration was observed in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake substantially; however, it does not change plasma Hcy concentrations. On the other hand, increased hepatic oxidative stress markers were observed in whey protein supplemented rats were probably due to high protein intake.

  2. Effects of DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) on Host Virus Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-28

    of dehydroepiandrosterone metabolites in diabetes mutant mice (C57BL/KsJ db/db). Endocrinologia 115:238-248,1984. % S% DD Form1473, JUN 86 R SI. "S D...Leiter EH, Applezweig N (1984 b): Therapeutic effects of dehydroepiandrosterone metabolites in diabetes * mutant mice (C57BL/KsJ db/db). Endocrinologia ...115:238-248. 13 16. Coleman LD (1985): Antiobesity effects of Etiocholanolones in Diabetes (db), viable yellow (AY), and normal mice. Endocrinologia

  3. Hypoxia and dehydroepiandrosterone in old age: a mouse survival study

    PubMed Central

    Debonneuil, Edouard H; Quillard, Janine; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile

    2006-01-01

    Background Survival remains an issue in pulmonary hypertension, a chronic disorder that often affects aged human adults. In young adult mice and rats, chronic 50% hypoxia (11% FIO2 or 0.5 atm) induces pulmonary hypertension without threatening life. In this framework, oral dehydroepiandrosterone was recently shown to prevent and reverse pulmonary hypertension in rats within a few weeks. To evaluate dehydroepiandrosterone therapy more globally, in the long term and in old age, we investigated whether hypoxia decreases lifespan and whether dehydroepiandrosterone improves survival under hypoxia. Methods 240 C57BL/6 mice were treated, from the age of 21 months until death, by normobaric hypoxia (11% FIO2) or normoxia, both with and without dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (25 mg/kg in drinking water) (4 groups, N = 60). Survival, pulmonary artery and heart remodeling, weight and blood patterns were assessed. Results In normoxia, control mice reached the median age of 27 months (median survival: 184 days). Hypoxia not only induced cardiopulmonary remodeling and polycythemia in old animals but also induced severe weight loss, trembling behavior and high mortality (p < 0.001, median survival: 38 days). Under hypoxia however, dehydroepiandrosterone not only significantly reduced cardiopulmonary remodeling but also remarkably extended survival (p < 0.01, median survival: 126 days). Weight loss and trembling behavior at least partially remained, and polycythemia completely, the latter possibly favorably participating in blood oxygenation. Interestingly, at the dose used, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was detrimental to long-term survival in normoxia (p < 0.05, median survival: 147 days). Conclusion Dehydroepiandrosterone globally reduced what may be called an age-related frailty induced by hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. This interestingly recalls an inverse correlation found in the prospective PAQUID epidemiological study, between dehydroepiandrosterone blood levels and

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    or 9), although these compounds still showed anti-DHT effects (lanes 2 vs. 6, 8, or 10). Figure 4 . The effects of DHEA derivatives on PSA...2009 - 30 JUN 2010 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER with Marginal Agonist...words) We hypothesized that dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) metabolites or their synthetic derivatives are able to bind to the androgen receptor with

  5. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P < 0.01) but did not differ (P = 0.67) due to supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as

  6. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  7. Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2α) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2α). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2α) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits cell proliferation and improves viability by regulating S phase and mitochondrial permeability in primary rat Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Dian; Li, Longlong; Ding, Xiao; Ma, Haitian

    2016-07-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is widely used as a nutritional supplement and exhibits putative anti‑aging properties. However, the molecular basis of the actions of DHEA, particularly on the biological characteristics of target cells, remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of DHEA on cell viability, cell proliferation, cell cycle and mitochondrial function in primary rat Leydig cells. Adult Leydig cells were purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation, and cell proliferation was detected using a Click-iT® EdU Assay kit and cell cycle assessment performed using flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected using JC-1 staining assay. The results of the current study demonstrate that DHEA decreased cell proliferation in a dose‑dependent manner, whereas it improved cell viability in a time‑dependent and dose‑dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that DHEA treatment increased the S phase cell population and decreased the G2/M cell population. Cyclin A and CDK2 mRNA levels were decreased in primary rat Leydig cells following DHEA treatment. DHEA treatment decreased the transmembrane electrical gradient in primary Leydig cells, whereas treatment significantly increased succinate dehydrogenase activity. These results indicated that DHEA inhibits primary rat Leydig cell proliferation by decreasing cyclin mRNA level, whereas it improves cells viability by modulating the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane and succinate dehydrogenase activity. These findings may demonstrate an important molecular mechanism by which DHEA activity is mediated.

  9. Use of nutrient supplements to increase the microbial degradation of PAH in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, L.M.; Pfaender, F.K.

    1994-12-31

    The microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is often low in soils due to unavailability of PAH and/or to conditions in the soil that are not favorable to microbial activity. As a result, successful bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils may require the addition of supplements to impact PAH availability or soil conditions. This paper reports on the addition of supplements (Triton X-100, Inopol, nutrient buffer, an organic nutrient solution, salicylic acid) on the fate of (9-{sup 14}C) phenanthrene, a model PAH, in creosote contaminated soils. Phenanthrene metabolism was assessed using a mass balance approach that accounts for metabolism of phenanthrene to CO{sub 2}, relative metabolite production, and uptake of phenanthrene into cells. Most of the supplements did not drastically alter the fate of phenanthrene in the contaminated soils. Additions of Inopol, however, increased phenanthrene mineralization, while salicylic acid decreased phenanthrene mineralization but greatly increased the production of polar and water soluble metabolites. All supplements (excluding salicylic acid and the organic nutrient solution) increased populations of heterotrophic microorganisms, as measured by plate counts. Phenanthrene degrader populations, however, were only slightly increased by additions of the nutrient buffer, as measured by the Most Probable Number assay.

  10. Oral "N"-Carbamylglutamate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the potential mechanisms by which oral supplementation of “N”-carbamylglutamate (NCG), an analogue of endogenous “N“-acetylglutamate (an activator of arginine synthesis) increases growth rate in sow-reared piglets. Two piglets of equal body weight (BW) and of the same gender...

  11. 38 CFR 21.9525 - Eligibility for increased and supplemental educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligibility for increased and supplemental educational assistance. 21.9525 Section 21.9525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11...

  12. 38 CFR 21.9525 - Eligibility for increased and supplemental educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligibility for increased and supplemental educational assistance. 21.9525 Section 21.9525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11...

  13. 38 CFR 21.9525 - Eligibility for increased and supplemental educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligibility for increased and supplemental educational assistance. 21.9525 Section 21.9525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11...

  14. 38 CFR 21.9525 - Eligibility for increased and supplemental educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligibility for increased and supplemental educational assistance. 21.9525 Section 21.9525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11...

  15. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of biotin supplementation involves increased levels of cGMP and AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrúbal; Fernández-Mejía, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role as a carboxylase cofactor, biotin modifies gene expression and has manifold effects on systemic processes. Several studies have shown that biotin supplementation reduces hypertriglyceridemia. We have previously reported that this effect is related to decreased expression of lipogenic genes. In the present work, we analyzed signaling pathways and posttranscriptional mechanisms involved in the hypotriglyceridemic effects of biotin. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (1.76 or 97.7 mg of free biotin/kg diet, respectively for 8 weeks after weaning. The abundance of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1c), fatty-acid synthase (FAS), total acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and its phosphorylated form, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were evaluated in the liver. We also determined the serum triglyceride concentrations and the hepatic levels of triglycerides and cyclic GMP (cGMP). Compared to the control group, biotin-supplemented mice had lower serum and hepatic triglyceride concentrations. Biotin supplementation increased the levels of cGMP and the phosphorylated forms of AMPK and ACC-1 and decreased the abundance of the mature form of SREBP-1c and FAS. These data provide evidence that the mechanisms by which biotin supplementation reduces lipogenesis involve increased cGMP content and AMPK activation. In turn, these changes lead to augmented ACC-1 phosphorylation and decreased expression of both the mature form of SREBP-1c and FAS. Our results demonstrate for the first time that AMPK is involved in the effects of biotin supplementation and offer new insights into the mechanisms of biotin-mediated hypotriglyceridemic effects.

  16. EPA or DHA supplementation increases triacylglycerol, but not phospholipid, levels in isolated rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele; Boschetti, Elisa; Biagi, Pierluigi; Bonora, Sergio; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2011-07-01

    It is well recognized that a high dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) has profound benefits on health and prevention of chronic diseases. In particular, in recent years there has been a dramatic surge of interest in the health effects of n-3 LC-PUFA derived from fish, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Notwithstanding, the metabolic fate and the effects of these fatty acids once inside the cell has seldom been comprehensively investigated. Using cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes as model system we have investigated for the first time, by means of high-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy in combination with gas chromatography (GC), the modification occurring in the cell lipid environment after EPA and DHA supplementation. The most important difference between control and n-3 LC-PUFA-supplemented cardiomyocytes highlighted by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy is the increase of signals from mobile lipids, identified as triacylglycerols (TAG). The observed increase of mobile TAG is a metabolic response to n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation, which leads to an increased lipid storage. The sequestration of mobile lipids in lipid bodies provides a deposit of stored energy that can be accessed in a regulated fashion according to metabolic need. Interestingly, while n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes causes a huge variation in the cell lipid environment, it does not induce detectable modifications in water-soluble metabolites, suggesting negligible interference with normal metabolic processes.

  17. Thyroid hormone and dehydroepiandrosterone permit gluconeogenic hormone responses in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kneer, N; Lardy, H

    2000-03-01

    The importance of the sn-glycerol- 3-phosphate (G-3-P) electron transfer shuttle in hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis was examined in hepatocytes from rats with decreased mitochondrial G-3-P dehydrogenase activity (thyroidectomized) or increased G-3-P dehydrogenase activity [triiodothyronine (T(3)) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treated]. Rates of glucose formation from 10 mM lactate, 10 mM pyruvate, or 2.5 mM dihydroxyacetone were somewhat less in hypothyroid cells than in cells from normal rats but gluconeogenic responses to calcium addition and to norepinephrine (NE), glucagon (G), or vasopressin (VP) were similar to the responses observed in cells from normal rats. However, with 2. 5 mM glycerol or 2.5 mM sorbitol, substrates that must be oxidized in the cytosol before conversion to glucose, basal gluconeogenesis was not appreciably altered by hypothyroidism but responses to calcium and to the calcium-mobilizing hormones were abolished. Injecting thyroidectomized rats with T(3) 2 days before preparing the hepatocytes greatly enhanced gluconeogenesis from glyc erol and restored the response to Ca(2+) and gluconeogenic hormones. Feeding dehydroepiandrosterone for 6 days depressed gluconeogenesis from lactate or pyruvate but substantially increased glucose production from glycerol in euthyroid cells and restored responses to Ca(2+) in hypothyroid cells metabolizing glycerol. Euthyroid cells metabolizing glycerol or sorbitol use the G-3-P and malate/aspartate shuttles to oxidize excess NADH generated in the cytosol. The transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA) decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol 40%, but had little effect on responses to Ca(2+) and NE. However, in hypothyroid cells, with minimal G-3-P dehydrogenase, AOA decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol more than 90%. Thus, the basal rate of gluconeogenesis from glycerol in the euthyroid cells is only partly dependent on electron transport from cytosol to mitochondria via the malate

  18. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related steroids: their role in inflammatory, allergic and immunological disorders.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Joseph S

    2005-06-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are metabolic intermediates in the production of potent androgens, estrogens and other less well-characterized steroids. DHEA(S) and closely related steroid hormones have a variety of immunological effects both in vitro and in vivo in experimental animals and humans. Many of these effects have been demonstrated in animal models where there is little circulating DHEA(S), and the demonstrated effects are generally seen at concentrations of DHEA(S) which are supra-physiological in man. The physiological role of DHEA(S) in the immunological system is unknown. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action of DHEA(S) is unclear. In this review, I focus on studies of the immunological effects of DHEA(S) and closely related steroid metabolites and analogs, mainly derived from literature published in the last five years. My purpose is to describe the demonstrated effects and to highlight some of the remaining major research issues in this field. These issues include defining the molecular mechanism of DHEA(S) action; determining whether the effect of DHEA(S) is related to the steroid itself or to a metabolic product of DHEA; determining the relationship of physiological function to the pharmacological effects; and determining the molecular basis for species-specific differences in effects.

  20. Strawberry or blueberry supplementation may protect against increased oxidative stress vulnerability from both irradiation and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.

    In several studies we have now shown that there are some interesting parallels between aging and the effects of heavy particle irradiation (56Fe) in a rat model. Interestingly this research also has shown that, much as has been seen in aged animals, dietary supplementation with high antioxidant-strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) extracts (2% of the diet) reversed many of the age-related changes. Similarly, supplementing the diets of young rats with SBs or BBs (2% of diet as in the aged animals) for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n), using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory, prevented the deleterious effects of the radiation exposure on the motor, cognitive and neuronal parameters described above. In the present experiment we examined whether striatal tissue obtained from BB- or SB-supplemented or control-fed, irradiated or non-radiated, young rats would show differential sensitivity (as assessed via decrements in mAChR stimulation of dopamine release) to hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating agent. The results indicated that, just as we had seen previously with respect to radiation protection in the parameters described above, the tissue from the SB or BB-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals showed increased mAChR-stimulated DA release from the striatal tissue following hydrogen peroxide exposure compared to that seen in non-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals (e.g., DA rels. p moles/mg protein, rad + H202 non-supplemented = 90, SB = 260, BB = 360). These results show that aging and irradiation may produce similar decrements in dopamine release and that, much as we have seen previously with age, radiation enhances the vulnerability to oxidative stressors, but these are reduced with SB or BB supplementation. They are discussed in-terms of protection against the effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging via nutritional supplementation with foods that are high in antioxidant activity

  1. Impact of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate on Newborn Leukocyte Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Zhou, Guangdi; Chen, Qian; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Little, Julian; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The newborn setting of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) likely has important implications for telomere dynamics over the lifespan. However, its determinants are poorly understood. Hormones play an important role during pregnancy and delivery. We hypothesized that exposure to hormones may impact the fetal telomere biology system. To test this hypothesis, cortisol, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in cord blood of 821 newborns from a prospective study. After accounting for the effects of potential determinants of newborn LTL, a 10-fold increase in DHEAS concentration was associated with a 0.021 increase in T/S ratio of newborn LTL (95% confidence interval: 0.009–0.034, P = 0.0008). For newborns who fell in the lowest quartile of DHEAS level, the mean newborn LTL was estimated to be approximately 2.0% shorter than the newborns in the highest DHEAS concentration quartile (P = 0.0014). However, no association was found between newborn LTL and cortisol or estradiol. As expected, newborns with higher ROS level (ROS > 260 mol/L) had lower LTL compared to that with lower ROS level (ROS ≤ 260 mol/L) (P = 0.007). There was also an inverse relationship between DHEAS and ROS (P < 1×10−4). Our findings suggest that exposure to DHEAS may exert a “programming” effect on the newborn telomere biology system. PMID:28186106

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Wang, Ming-Fu; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotics (i.e., ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects for the host). However, few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10) supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) strain mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for oral administration of LP10 for six weeks at 0, 2.05 × 108, or 1.03 × 109 colony-forming units/kg/day, designated the vehicle, LP10-1X and LP10-5X groups, respectively. LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001) and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (p = 0.0118), and glucose (p = 0.0151) after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects. PMID:27070637

  3. Adrenal Androgen Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Inhibits Vascular Remodeling Following Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ii, Masaaki; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Negoro, Nobuyuki; Fukui, Ryosuke; Nakakoji, Takahiro; Kohbayashi, Eiko; Shibata, Nobuhiko; Furutama, Daisuke; Ishihara, Tadashi; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Losordo, Douglas W.; Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels have a significant inverse correlation with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. However, direct evidence for the association with DHEAS and vascular disorders has not yet been explored. DHEAS significantly reduced neointima formation 28 days after surgery without altering other serum metabolite levels in a rabbit carotid balloon injury model. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and increase of TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) index, expressing differentiated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) markers in the media 7 days after surgery. In vitro, DHEAS exhibited inhibitory effects on VSMC proliferation and migration activities, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest with upregulation of one of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p16INK4a and apoptosis with activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α in VSMCs. DHEAS inhibits vascular remodeling reducing neointima formation after vascular injury via its effects on VSMC phenotypic modulation, functions and apoptosis upregulating p16INK4a/activating PPARα. DHEAS may play a pathophysiological role for vascular remodeling in cardiovascular disease. PMID:19298964

  4. Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases aerobic endurance capacity in young individuals

    PubMed Central

    Umemoto, Sachiro; Otsuki, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, contains a variety of nutrients including amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. A previous animal study found that maximal swimming time in mice increased after 14 days on a diet including Chlorella powder compared to no change in swimming performance on a normal diet. However, it is currently unknown whether Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases aerobic endurance capacity in humans. We investigated the effects of Chlorella-derived supplementation on peak oxygen uptake during incremental maximal cycling in young individuals using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study design. Seven men and three women (mean age, 21.3 year) were allocated to placebo or Chlorella tablets (15 tablets × twice per day) for 4 weeks, with at least a 6-week washout period between trials, in a randomized order. Peak oxygen uptake significantly increased after Chlorella supplementation (before vs after, 37.9 ± 1.9 vs 41.4 ± 1.9 ml/kg/min, p = 0.003), but not with placebo (39.4 ± 2.2 vs 40.1 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min, p = 0.38). The change in peak oxygen uptake over the 4-week trial was significantly greater in the Chlorella trial than in the placebo trial (3.5 ± 0.9 vs 0.7 ± 0.8 ml/kg/min, p = 0.03). These results suggest that Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases aerobic endurance capacity in young individuals. PMID:25320462

  5. B-vitamin and choline supplementation increases neuroplasticity and recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, Nafisa M; Emmerson, Joshua T; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Willmore, William G; Smith, Patrice D

    2017-04-07

    Folates are B-vitamins that play an important role in brain function. Dietary and genetic deficiencies in folate metabolism result in elevated levels of homocysteine which have been linked to increased risk of developing a stroke. Reducing levels of homocysteine before or after a stroke through B-vitamin supplementation has been a focus of many clinical studies, however, the results remain inconsistent. Animal model systems provide a powerful mechanism to study and understand functional impact and mechanisms through which supplementation affects stroke recovery. The aim of this study was to understand the role of B-vitamins in stroke pathology using in vivo and in vitro mouse models. The first objective assessed the impact of folate deficiency prior to ischemic damage followed by B-vitamins and choline supplementation. Ischemic damage targeted the sensorimotor cortex. C57Bl/6 wild-type mice were maintained on a folic acid deficient diet for 4weeks prior to ischemic damage to increased levels of plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for stroke. Post-operatively mice were placed on a B-vitamin and choline supplemented diet for a period of four weeks, after which motor function was assessed in mice using the rotarod, ladder beam and forepaw asymmetry tasks. The second objective was to determine how a genetic deficiency in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme involved in folate metabolism, increases vulnerability to stroke. Primary cortical neurons were isolated from Mthfr(+/+), Mthfr(+/-) and Mthfr(-/-) embryos and were exposed to in vitro models of stroke which include hypoxia or oxygen glucose deprivation. Cell viability was measured 24-h after exposure stroke like conditions in vitro. In supplemented diet mice, we report improved motor function after ischemic damage compared to mice fed a control diet after ischemic damage. Within the perilesional cortex, we show enhanced proliferation, neuroplasticity and anti-oxidant activity in mice fed the

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Summary 3. DATES COVERED 1 JUL 2013 - 30 JUN 2014 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with... 4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………… 5 References……………………………………………………………………………. 6 Appendices...metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of testosterone, has an intrinsic androgenic activity which was not completely antagonized by

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    DATES COVERED 01 July 2012 – 30 June 2013 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist...Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 1 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 1- 4 Key Research...In addition, we previously found that androstenediol (Adiol), a physiological metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of

  8. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p < 0.05) in the placebo group, but not in the taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  9. Induction of ovarian granulosa cell tumors in SWXJ-9 mice with dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Beamer, W G; Shultz, K L; Tennent, B J

    1988-05-15

    Spontaneous ovarian granulosa cell (GC) tumors develop in SWXJ-9 inbred mice at approximately the time of puberty. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid secreted by the adrenals and reported to have antitumor actions, was examined in this ovarian tumor model. In contrast with expectations, administration of diet supplemented with 0.4% DHEA or Silastic capsules containing 10 mg DHEA resulted in a significant multifold increase in GC tumor incidence. Similar studies with metabolites of DHEA, i.e., testosterone (TESTO), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17 beta-estradiol (E2), revealed that TESTO was as effective as DHEA in increasing GC tumor incidence. DHT was without effect, and E2 suppressed GC tumor incidence. Serum steroid levels and steroid target tissue responses were assessed to determine if a correlation between a change in level or response to specific steroids and GC tumorigenesis existed. In both tumor-free and GC tumor host mice, dietary or capsular treatment with DHEA, TESTO, or DHT resulted in substantial alteration in one or more of serum steroids, DHEA, androstenedione, TESTO, and DHT, in addition to the administered steroid. No consistent correlation was observed between changes in a single steroid or pattern of steroids and GC tumorigenesis. Although significant increases in serum estrogens could be detected in GC tumor hosts treated with DHEA but not TESTO, estrogens did not induce these tumors. Treatment with E2 increased only serum E2 levels. In tumor-free mice, DHEA and E2 treatments were associated with vaginal cytological evidence of estrogen action, whereas the androgens induced a leukocytic pattern. Eighty-eight % of GC tumor host mice, regardless of steroid treatment, showed a vaginal cytology pattern that included cornified cells. The evidence presented in this report leads us to hypothesize that (a) spontaneous and steroid-induced GC tumorigenesis in these mice have the same mechanism, and (b) subtle increases in DHEA or a

  10. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Hammond, Kelley G; Schilling, Brian K; Weber, Adrianna A; Cole, Bradford J

    2009-01-01

    Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD) ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals) or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03), glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p < 0.0001), and FFA (1.24 ± 0.17 mmol·L-1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003). No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05). For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02) for the

  11. Folic acid supplementation increases cutaneous vasodilator sensitivity to sympathetic nerve activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Greaney, Jody L; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-02-22

    During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. In protocol 1, esophageal temperature (Tes) was increased by 1.0ºC (water-perfused suit) while SSNA (peroneal microneurography) and red cell flux in the innervated dermatome (laser Doppler flowmetry; dorsum of the foot) were continuously measured. In protocol 2, two intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of the lateral calf for graded infusions of acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10) to 10(-1)M) with and without nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockade (20mM L-NAME). Folic acid improved reflex vasodilation (46±4% vs. 31±3 %CVCmax for placebo; P<0.001) without affecting the increase in SSNA (Δ506±104% vs. Δ415±73% for placebo; NS). Folic acid increased the slope of the SSNA:CVC relation (0.08±0.02 vs. 0.05±0.01 for placebo; P<0.05) and extended the response range. Folic acid augmented ACh-induced vasodilation (83±3% vs. 66±4 %CVCmax for placebo; P=0.002); however there was no difference between treatments at the NOS-inhibited site (53±4% vs. 52±4% CVCmax for placebo; NS). These data demonstrate that folic acid supplementation enhances reflex vasodilation by increasing the sensitivity of skin arterioles to central sympathetic nerve outflow during hyperthermia in aged human subjects.

  12. A revised mineral nutrient supplement increases biomass and growth rate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Kropat, Janette; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Casero, David; Ent, Petr; Castruita, Madeli; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Malasarn, Davin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner’s supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni2+-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni2+ because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation, and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient-deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology. PMID:21309872

  13. Supplemental oxygen attenuates the increase in wound bacterial growth during simulated aeromedical evacuation in goats

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Ryan E.; Sonnier, Dennis I.; Makley, Amy T.; Campion, Eric M.; Wenke, Joseph C.; Bailey, Stephanie R.; Dorlac, Warren C.; Lentsch, Alex B.; Pritts, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial growth in soft tissue and open fractures is a known risk factor for tissue loss and complications in contaminated musculoskeletal wounds. Current care for battlefield casualties with soft tissue and musculoskeletal wounds includes tactical and strategic aeromedical evacuation (AE). This exposes patients to a hypobaric, hypoxic environment. In the present study, we sought to determine whether exposure to AE alters bacterial growth in contaminated complex musculoskeletal wounds and whether supplemental oxygen had any effect on wound infections during simulated AE. Methods A caprine model of a contaminated complex musculoskeletal wound was employed. Complex musculoskeletal wounds were created and inoculated with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Goats were divided into three experimental groups: ground control, simulated aeromedical evacuation (AE), and simulated AE with supplemental oxygen (AE+O2). Simulated AE was induced in a hypobaric chamber pressurized to 8800 feet for 7 hours. Bacterial luminescence was measured using a photon counting camera at three timepoints: preflight (20 hours post surgery), postflight (7 hours from preflight and 27 hours post-surgery), and necropsy (24 hours from preflight and 44 hours post surgery). Results There was a significant increase in bacterial growth in the AE group compared to the ground control group measured postflight and at necropsy. Simulated AE induced hypoxia with oxygen saturation less than 93%. Supplemental oxygen corrected the hypoxia and significantly reduced bacterial growth in wounds at necropsy. Conclusions Hypoxia induced during simulated AE enhances bacterial growth in complex musculoskeletal wounds which can be prevented with the application of supplemental oxygen to the host. PMID:22743376

  14. TNF-α gene expression is increased following zinc supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chu, Anna; Foster, Meika; Hancock, Dale; Bell-Anderson, Kim; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can elicit changes in whole-body zinc metabolism. The interaction among the expression of inflammatory cytokines, zinc transporter and metallothionein (MT) genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in type 2 DM remains unclear. In a 12-week randomized controlled trial, the effects of zinc (40 mg/day) supplementation on the gene expression of cytokines, zinc transporters and MT in women with type 2 DM were examined. In the zinc-supplemented group, gene expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α tended to be upregulated by 27 ± 10 % at week 12 compared to baseline (P = 0.053). TNF-α fold change in the zinc-treated group was higher than in those without zinc supplementation (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the expression or fold change of interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6. Numerous bivariate relationships were observed between the fold changes of cytokines and zinc transporters, including ZnT7 with IL-1β (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.01) and TNF-α (P < 0.01). In multiple regression analysis, IL-1β expression was predicted by the expression of all zinc transporters and MT measured at baseline (r (2) = 0.495, P < 0.05) and at week 12 (r (2) = 0.532, P < 0.03). The current study presents preliminary evidence that zinc supplementation increases cytokine gene expression in type 2 DM. The relationships found among zinc transporters, MT and cytokines suggest close  interactions between zinc homeostasis and inflammation.

  15. Selenium supplementation and increased muscle glutathione concentration do not improve the color stability of lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jose, Cameron G; Jacob, Robin H; Gardner, Graham E; Pethick, David W; Liu, Shimin M

    2010-06-23

    In the eyes of the consumer, a red surface color of lamb meat is desirable. This red color is caused by oxymyoglobin; however, under conditions of retail display this pigment slowly oxidizes and turns brown, deterring consumers. The antioxidant activity of both glutathione (GSH) and selenium has been suggested to slow myoglobin oxidation, thus improving color stability. The following experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that high muscle GSH will improve the color stability of lamb meat, and this effect of GSH will be further improved by supplementing animals with selenium. Forty-eight 12-month-old Merino wether lambs were selected from a flock for high (n = 24) or low (n = 24) GSH concentration in whole blood. Each GSH group was then randomly allocated into two selenium treatments (supplemented with or without 2.5 mg of selenium/kg for 8 weeks). The lambs were slaughtered, and samples were taken from m. semimembranosus (SM) and m. longissimus dorsi (LD) to measure muscle GSH, selenium, and vitamin E concentrations. Further samples were taken to measure color stability (as oxy/metmyoglobin ratio, reflectance at 630/580 nm) over 96 h of retail display. There was no effect of muscle GSH concentration or selenium supplementation on oxy/metmyoglobin ratio at 60, 48, or 30 h of retail display, with the only exception being the non-selenium-supplemented SM samples, which actually decreased in ratio as the muscle GSH concentration increased (P < 0.05). There was a poor correlation between blood and muscle GSH, with a correlation coefficient of 0.18 for the SM and 0.026 for the LD. Thus, it is apparent that neither GSH nor selenium improved the color stability of meat from merino lambs.

  16. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P < 0.01), respectively, and (2) that taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P < 0.01), respectively. Overall, our results indicated that taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  17. Increased Calcium Supplementation Postpartum Is Associated with Breastfeeding among Chinese Mothers: Finding from Two Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2016-01-01

    The calcium supplementation status during the postpartum period among Chinese lactating women is still unclear. The objective of this study is to utilize data from two population-based prospective cohort studies to examine the calcium supplementation status and to identify whether breastfeeding is associated with increased calcium supplementation among Chinese mothers after child birth. Information from 1540 mothers on breastfeeding and calcium supplementation measured at discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum were extracted to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and calcium supplementation postpartum. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to each study initially to account for the inherent correlation among repeated measurements, adjusting for socio-demographic, obstetric factors and calcium supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, breastfeeding status measured at different follow-up time points was treated as a time dependent variable in the longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, the effect sizes of the two cohort studies were pooled using fixed effect model. Based on the two cohort studies, the pooled likelihood of taking calcium supplementation postpartum among breastfeeding mothers was 4.02 times (95% confidence interval (2.30, 7.03)) higher than that of their non-breastfeeding counterparts. Dietary supplementation intervention programs targeting different subgroups should be promoted in Chinese women, given currently a wide shortage of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation postpartum. PMID:27735835

  18. Increased Calcium Supplementation Postpartum Is Associated with Breastfeeding among Chinese Mothers: Finding from Two Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2016-10-09

    The calcium supplementation status during the postpartum period among Chinese lactating women is still unclear. The objective of this study is to utilize data from two population-based prospective cohort studies to examine the calcium supplementation status and to identify whether breastfeeding is associated with increased calcium supplementation among Chinese mothers after child birth. Information from 1540 mothers on breastfeeding and calcium supplementation measured at discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum were extracted to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and calcium supplementation postpartum. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to each study initially to account for the inherent correlation among repeated measurements, adjusting for socio-demographic, obstetric factors and calcium supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, breastfeeding status measured at different follow-up time points was treated as a time dependent variable in the longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, the effect sizes of the two cohort studies were pooled using fixed effect model. Based on the two cohort studies, the pooled likelihood of taking calcium supplementation postpartum among breastfeeding mothers was 4.02 times (95% confidence interval (2.30, 7.03)) higher than that of their non-breastfeeding counterparts. Dietary supplementation intervention programs targeting different subgroups should be promoted in Chinese women, given currently a wide shortage of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation postpartum.

  19. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fuxia; Nieman, David C; Sha, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P < 0.001). EPA increased 30 % above baseline (overall time effect, P = 0.019) and was correlated across time with ALA (r = 0.84, P = 0.02). No significant change in plasma DPA levels was measured (overall time effect, P = 0.067). Plasma DHA decreased slightly by the end of the study (overall time effect, P = 0.030) and was not correlated with change in ALA. In conclusion, ingestion of 25 g/day milled chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA.

  20. Acute Low-Dose Caffeine Supplementation Increases Electromyographic Fatigue Threshold in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Morse, Jacob J; Pallaska, Gramos; Pierce, Patrick R; Fields, Travis M; Galen, Sujay S; Malek, Moh H

    2016-11-01

    Morse, JJ, Pallaska, G, Pierce, PR, Fields, TM, Galen, SS, and Malek, MH. Acute low-dose caffeine supplementation increases electromyographic fatigue threshold in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3236-3241, 2016-The purpose of this study is to determine whether consumption of a single low-dose caffeine drink will delay the onset of the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles. We hypothesize that the EMGFT values for the caffeine condition will be significantly higher than the EMGFT values for the placebo condition. On separate occasions, 10 physically active men performed incremental single-leg knee-extensor ergometry 1 hour after caffeine (200 mg) or placebo consumption. The EMGFT was determined for each participant for both conditions. The results indicated a significant increase for maximal power output (16%; p = 0.004) and EMGFT (45%; p = 0.004) in the caffeine condition compared with placebo. These findings suggest that acute low-dose caffeine supplementation delays neuromuscular fatigue in the quadriceps femoris muscles.

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates H2O2-induced Leydig cells oxidation damage and apoptosis through inhibition of ROS production and activation of PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao; Wang, Dian; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is widely used as a nutritional supplement, and administration of DHEA produces a number of beneficial effects in the elderly. Many researchers have suggested that DHEA exerts it function after conversion into more biologically active hormones in peripheral target cells. The actions of DHEA in Leydig cells, a major target cell of DHEA biotransformation in males, are not clear. The present study found that DHEA increased cell viability and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde contents in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. DHEA significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the DNA damage in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. Apoptosis was significant decreased in H2O2-induced Leydig cells after DHEA treatment. DHEA inhibited the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the upregulation of the caspase-3 protein level induced by H2O2 in Leydig cells. DHEA also reversed the decrease in PI3K and p-Akt protein levels induced by H2O2. These data showed that DHEA could ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative damage by increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activities, which resulted in reduced ROS content, and decreased apoptosis, mainly by preventing the loss of ΔΨm and inhibiting caspase-3 protein levels via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the anti-ageing effect of DHEA.

  2. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbing; Xiong, Xia; Tan, Bie; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Fang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium. PMID:27761062

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone improves the ovarian reserve of women with diminished ovarian reserve and is a potential regulator of the immune response in the ovaries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiali; Qiu, Xuemin; Gui, Yuyan; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2015-12-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) has a high morbidity rate worldwide and has become a primary cause of infertility. DOR is a daunting obstacle in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and leads to poor ovarian response, high cancellation rates, poor IVF outcomes, and low pregnancy rates. Abnormal autoimmune function may also contribute to DOR. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a C19 androgenic steroid. DHEA is secreted mainly by the adrenal gland, and its secretion declines with age. DHEA has a pro-inflammatory immune function that opposes cortisol. The cortisol to DHEA ratio increases with age, which may lead to decreased immune function. DHEA supplementation helps improve this situation. A number of clinical case control studies and several prospective randomized clinical trials have observed a positive effect of DHEA supplementation in women with DOR. However, the underlying mechanism by which DHEA improves ovarian reserve remains unclear. DHEA functions as an immune regulator in many different tissues in mammals and may also play an important role in regulating the immune response in the ovaries. The conversion of DHEA to downstream sex steroids may allow it to regulate the immune response there. DHEA can also enhance the Th1 immune response and regulate the balance of the Th1/Th2 response. DHEA treatment can increase selective T lymphocyte infiltration in mice, resulting in a decline in the CD4+ T lymphocyte population and an upregulation of the CD8+ T lymphocyte population in ovarian tissue, thus regulating the balance of CD4+/CD8+ T cells. This review mainly focuses on how DHEA supplementation affects regulation of the immune response in the ovaries.

  4. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts < 350 cells/μL (P- interaction for treatment × CD4+ T-cell count = 0.10). Supplementation of HIV-infected women with vitamins increased the risk of subclinical mastitis. PMID:20739447

  5. Vitamin E supplementation increases the resistance of both LDL and HDL to oxidation and increases cholesteryl ester transfer activity.

    PubMed

    Arrol, S; Mackness, M I; Durrington, P N

    2000-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is important in atherogenesis. Evidence that antioxidant therapy decreases mortality is, however, inconclusive. We have examined the effects of vitamin E on the susceptibility of LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL) to oxidation, and on cholesteryl ester heteroexchange in an in vitro system using autologous serum lipoproteins. Vitamin E in doses of 200 and 400 mg/day were administered orally to 21 healthy volunteers (12 females and nine males) aged between 23 and 50 years, and to 16 healthy volunteers (eight females and eight males) aged between 22 and 51 years for 50 days, respectively. Fasting serum lipoproteins, susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation and cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) were measured before and after vitamin E supplementation. Serum lipoprotein and lipid concentrations did not change significantly in either group. The LDL-conjugated diene (CD) lag phase during incubation with Cu(2+) was increased by 157% (110-232%) (median (interquartile range)) (P<0.05) on vitamin E (200 mg/day) and by 235% (185-259%) (P<0.0001) on 400 mg/day. The lag phases for LDL-lipid peroxide (LPO) generation were also significantly increased by 146% (122-192%) (P<0.005) and 177% (101-267%) (P<0.005), respectively. The HDL-CD lag phase also increased on both doses 140% (115-169%) (P<0.005) and 171% (122-192%) (P<0.005), as did the HDL-LPO lag phase by 123% (104-153%) (P<0.05) on 200 mg/day and 240% (97-360%) (P<0.005) on 400 mg daily. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity from HDL to very low and low density lipoproteins significantly increased from 12. 7+/-2.6 (mean+/-SEM) to 16+/-3.4 nmol/ml/h (P<0.05) on 200 mg/daily and 10.4+/-2.0 to 19.2+/-3.3 nmol/ml/h (P<0.005) on vitamin E, 400mg day. Thus, vitamin E (200 and 400mg daily) significantly decreased the susceptibility of LDL and HDL to oxidation in vitro. However, the increase in CETA

  6. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Thorn, Stephanie R; Friedman, Jacob E; Hay, William W

    2012-08-01

    Placental insufficiency decreases fetal amino acid uptake from the placenta, plasma insulin concentrations, and protein accretion, thus compromising normal fetal growth trajectory. We tested whether acute supplementation of amino acids or insulin into the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would increase net fetal protein accretion rates. Late-gestation IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep received acute, 3-h infusions of amino acids (with euinsulinemia), insulin (with euglycemia and euaminoacidemia), or saline. Fetal leucine metabolism was measured under steady-state conditions followed by a fetal muscle biopsy to quantify insulin signaling. In CON, increasing amino acid delivery rates to the fetus by 100% increased leucine oxidation rates by 100%. In IUGR, amino acid infusion completely suppressed fetal protein breakdown rates but increased leucine oxidation rate by only 25%, resulting in increased protein accretion rates by 150%. Acute insulin infusion, however, had very little effect on amino acid delivery rates, fetal leucine disposal rates, or fetal protein accretion rates in CON or IUGR fetuses despite robust signaling of the fetal skeletal muscle insulin-signaling cascade. These results indicate that, when amino acids are given directly into the fetal circulation independently of changes in insulin concentrations, IUGR fetal sheep have suppressed protein breakdown rates, thus increasing net fetal protein accretion.

  7. The relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), working memory and distraction--a behavioral and electrophysiological approach.

    PubMed

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Gomes, Ana Coelho; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load) or 1-back (working memory load) task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level.

  8. Maternal Omega-3 Supplementation Increases Fat Mass in Male and Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara; Miljkovic, Dijana; Fong, Laura; Xian, Cory J.; Duthoit, Emmanuelle; Gibson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n = 10) or chow designed to provide ∼15 mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n = 11) and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3 and 6 weeks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs. 4.56 ± 0.2%, P < 0.04) and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs. 3.89 ± 0.36%, P < 0.04) offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a% of total fatty acids) was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2% vs. 5.6 ± 0.2%, P < 0.001). There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n−3 LCPUFA

  9. Photosynthetic light reactions increase total lipid accumulation in carbon-supplemented batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Benjamin D; Mead, Rebecca L; Nichols, Courtney N; Kolling, Derrick R J

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae are an attractive biofuel feedstock because of their high lipid to biomass ratios, lipid compositions that are suitable for biodiesel production, and the ability to grow on varied carbon sources. While algae can grow autotrophically, supplying an exogenous carbon source can increase growth rates and allow heterotrophic growth in the absence of light. Time course analyses of dextrose-supplemented Chlorella vulgaris batch cultures demonstrate that light availability directly influences growth rate, chlorophyll production, and total lipid accumulation. Parallel photomixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures grown to stationary phase reached the same amount of biomass, but total lipid content was higher for algae grown in the presence of light (an average of 1.90 mg/mL vs. 0.77 mg/mL over 5 days of stationary phase growth).

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens With Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    of the molecules, which was only marginally suppressed by the steroid derivatives. Figure 4 . The effects of DHEA derivatives on expression of...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...physiological metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of testosterone, has an intrinsic androgenic activity which was not

  11. Supplementation with vitamin D does not increase serum testosterone levels in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Jorde, R; Grimnes, G; Hutchinson, M S; Kjærgaard, M; Kamycheva, E; Svartberg, J

    2013-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies indicate a positive relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and testosterone. It is not known if this relation is causal, which in theory could be in both directions. A cross-sectional population based study was designed with pooled data from 3 vitamin D randomized clinical trials (RCTs) performed in Tromsø with weight reduction, insulin sensitivity, and depression scores as endpoints, and one testosterone RCT in subjects with low serum testosterone (<11.0 nmol/l) and with body composition as endpoint. Serum 25(OH)D and androgens were measured in 893 males in the cross-sectional part, at baseline and after 6-12 months of supplementation with vitamin D 20 000 IU-40 000 IU per week vs. placebo in the vitamin D RCTs (n=282), and at baseline and after one year treatment with testosterone undecanoate 1 000 mg or placebo injections (at baseline and after 6, 16, 28, and 40 weeks) in the testosterone RCT (n=37). In the cross-sectional study, serum 25(OH)D was found to be a significant and positive predictor of serum testosterone. In the vitamin D RCTs, no significant effect on serum total or free testosterone levels was seen, and in the testosterone RCT no significant effect on serum 25(OH)D was seen. This was unchanged in sub-analyses in subjects with low serum 25(OH)D (or testosterone) levels. In conclusion, in subjects without significant vitamin D deficiency, there is no increase in serum testosterone after high dose vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, in subjects with moderately low serum testosterone levels, substitution with testosterone does not increase serum 25(OH)D.

  12. 21 CFR 862.1245 - Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1245 Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1245 - Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1245 Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1245 - Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1245 Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1245 - Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1245 Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1245 - Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1245 Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system. (a)...

  17. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    PubMed

    Ford, Judith H

    2013-12-13

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  18. Vitamin E Supplementation Increases the Attractiveness of Males' Scent for Female European Green Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Kopena, Renáta; Martín, José; López, Pilar; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Background In spite that chemoreception is important in sexual selection for many animals, such as reptiles, the mechanisms that confer reliability to chemical signals are relatively unknown. European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) have substantial amounts of α-tocopherol ( = vitamin E) in their femoral secretions. Because vitamin E is metabolically important and can only be attained from the diet, its secretion is assumed to be costly. However, its role in intraspecific communication is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we experimentally show that male European green lizards that received a dietary supplement of vitamin E increased proportions of vitamin E in their femoral secretions. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that females preferred to use areas scent marked by males with experimentally increased vitamin E levels in their secretions. Finally, female preferences were stronger when vitamin E differences between a pair of males' secretions were larger. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that female green lizards are able to discriminate between males based on the vitamin E content of the males' femoral secretions. We suggest that the possible cost of allocating vitamin E to secretions, which might be dependent on male quality, may be a mechanism that confers reliability to scent marks of green lizards and allows their evolution as sexual signals. PMID:21552540

  19. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  20. Supplementation with Major Royal-Jelly Proteins Increases Lifespan, Feeding, and Fecundity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Yong; Chen, Di; Xiao, Fa; Parnell, Laurence D; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Liang; Ordovas, Jose M; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Shen, Li-Rong

    2016-07-27

    The major royal-jelly proteins (MRJPs) are the main constituents responsible for the specific physiological role of royal jelly (RJ) in honeybees. Male and female Drosophila flies were fed diets containing either no MRJPs (A) or casein (B) at 1.25% (w/w) of diet or MRJPs at 1.25% (C), 2.50% (D), or 5.00% (E). Diets B, C, D, and E increased mean lifespan by 4.3%, 9.0%, 12.4%, and 13.9% in males and by 5.8%, 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.8% in females in comparison to results from diet A, respectively. The diet supplemented with 2.50% MRJPs seems to have the optimal dose to improve both physiological and biochemical measures related to aging in both sexes. Interestingly, lifespan extension by MRJPs in Drosophila was positively associated with feeding and fecundity and up-regulation of copper and zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and the Egfr-mediated signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence that MRJPs are important components of RJ for prolonging lifespan in Drosophila.

  1. Organic selenium supplementation increases PHGPx but does not improve viability in chilled boar semen.

    PubMed

    Martins, S M M K; De Andrade, A F C; Zaffalon, F G; Bressan, F F; Pugine, S M P; Melo, M P; Chiaratti, M R; Marino, C T; Moretti, A S; Arruda, R P

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary organic selenium (Se) on viability of chilled boar semen. Twelve boars were divided into three groups: control (CON), 0.3 mg kg(-1) sodium selenite; inorganic (INO), 0.5 mg kg(-1) sodium selenite and organic (ORG), 0.5 mg kg(-1) Se yeast. The experiment was conducted within 10 weeks, and analysis was performed fortnightly, in storage semen by 72 h. No effect was observed on motility; however, straightness and linearity percentages were higher (P < 0.05) in the animals receiving CON diet compared with INO group. Percentages of cells with both plasma and acrosomal intact membranes, lipidic membrane peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential were similar on all treatments. Animals receiving CON diet presented higher (P < 0.05) values of ATP when compared with INO group. The PHGPx was higher (P < 0.05) in animals that received ORG in comparison with INO group. In conclusion, organic selenium supplementation increases PHGPx but does not improve chilled semen viability in 72 h.

  2. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  3. Dietary quercetin supplementation increases serum antioxidant capacity and alters hepatic gene expression profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liting; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on hepatic gene expression profile in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and the quercetin-treated group, in which a diet containing 0.5% quercetin was provided. After two weeks of feeding, serum and liver samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E (VE), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The hepatic gene expression profile was examined using a microarray technique. The results showed that serum FRAP value, levels of ascorbic acid and VE were increased significantly, whereas serum levels of GSH and MDA were not changed significantly after quercetin supplementation. The microarray analysis revealed that some hepatic genes involved in phase 2 reaction, metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine, and energy production were expressed differentially in response to quercetin administration. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the actions played by quercetin in vivo.

  4. Comparative studies of effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on rat and chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Bobyleva, V; Kneer, N; Bellei, M; Battelli, D; Muscatello, U; Lardy, H

    1993-01-01

    1. An attempt to identify the cause of decrease of gain in body weight during dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment was made comparing the effects of hormone treatment on chickens and rats. 2. Chickens treated with DHEA for 7-10 days do not change their weight gain with respect to controls although their mitochondrial respiration and peroxisomal catalase (index of peroxisomal mass) were increased. 3. Liver cytosolic malic enzyme and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were depressed in chickens treated with DHEA in comparison with activities in untreated controls. DHEA treatment did not increase the activity of mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. 4. In contrast to rat liver cytosolic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase this enzyme in chicken liver was inactive with NADPH.

  5. Synthesis and application of a photoaffinity analog of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Horacio F.; Perez-Hernandez, Nury; Liu, Dongmin; Iruthayanathan, Mary; O’Leary, Brianne; Homan, Laurie L.; Dillon, Joseph S.

    2009-01-01

    We have synthesized an analog of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 1) containing both a benzophenone (BP) and a biotin (Bt) group (DHEA-BP-Bt, 8). Compound 8 was prepared by functionalization on C-17 of 1. Biocytin was reacted with 4-benzoylbenzoic acid and the product was condensed with 1 containing a diamine-hexane linker. We detected specific protein bands of approximately 55, 80, and 150 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis of vascular endothelial cell plasma membranes which had been photoirradiated in the presence of 8. PMID:20031404

  6. THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE INVOLVES MULTIPLE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Stephanie J.; Geoghegan, Thomas E.; Prough, Russell A.; Miller, Kristy K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone has been thought to have physiological functions other than as an androgen precursor. The previous studies performed have demonstrated a number of biological effects in rodents, such as amelioration of disease in diabetic, chemical carcinogenesis, and obesity models. To date, activation of the peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha, pregnane X receptor, and estrogen receptor by DHEA and its metabolites have been demonstrated. Several membrane-associated receptors have also been elucidated leading to additional mechanisms by which DHEA may exert its biological effects. This review will provide an overview of the receptor multiplicity involved in the biological activity of this sterol. PMID:16684650

  7. Baker's yeast β-glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk?

    PubMed

    Carpenter, K C; Breslin, W L; Davidson, T; Adams, A; McFarlin, B K

    2013-02-14

    Strenuous aerobic exercise is known to weaken the immune system, and while many nutritional supplements have been proposed to boost post-exercise immunity, few are known to be effective. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether 10 d of supplementation with a defined source of baker's yeast β-glucan (BG, Wellmune WGP®) could minimise post-exercise immunosuppression. Recreationally active men and women (n 60) completed two 10 d trial conditions using a cross-over design with a 7 d washout period: placebo (rice flour) and baker's yeast BG (250 mg/d of β-1,3/1,6-glucans derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) before a bout of cycling (49 ± 6 min) in a hot (38 ± 2°C), humid (45 ± 2 % relative humidity) environment. Blood was collected at baseline (before supplement), pre- (PRE), post- (POST) and 2 h (2H) post-exercise. Total and subset monocyte concentration was measured by four-colour flow cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production were measured using separate multiplex assays. Total (CD14⁺) and pro-inflammatory monocyte concentrations (CD14⁺/CD16⁺) were significantly greater at POST and 2H (P<0·05) with BG supplementation. BG supplementation boosted LPS-stimulated production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) at PRE and POST (P<0·05). Plasma IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ concentrations were greater at 2H following BG supplementation. It appears that 10 d of supplementation with BG increased the potential of blood leucocytes for the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ. The key findings of the present study demonstrate that BG may have potential to alter immunity following a strenuous exercise session.

  8. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  9. Green tea supplementation increases glutathione and plasma antioxidant capacity in adults with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Mulugeta, Afework; Tong, Capella; Newman, Emily; Lyons, Timothy J

    2013-03-01

    Green tea, a popular polyphenol-containing beverage, has been shown to alleviate clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. However, its effects in endogenous antioxidant biomarkers are not clearly understood. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that green tea supplementation will upregulate antioxidant parameters (enzymatic and nonenzymatic) in adults with the metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five obese participants with the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to receive one of the following for 8 weeks: green tea (4 cups per day), control (4 cups water per day), or green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water per day). Blood samples and dietary information were collected at baseline (0 week) and 8 weeks of the study. Circulating carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and tocopherols (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol) and trace elements were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, respectively. Serum antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, catalase) and plasma antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. Green tea beverage and green tea extract significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 to 2.3 μmol/L and 1.2 to 2.5 μmol/L, respectively; P < .05) and whole blood glutathione (1783 to 2395 μg/g hemoglobin and 1905 to 2751 μg/g hemoglobin, respectively; P < .05) vs controls at 8 weeks. No effects were noted in serum levels of carotenoids and tocopherols and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Green tea extract significantly reduced plasma iron vs baseline (128 to 92 μg/dL, P < .02), whereas copper, zinc, and selenium were not affected. These results support the hypothesis that green tea may provide antioxidant protection in the metabolic syndrome.

  10. β-alanine Supplementation Fails to Increase Peak Aerobic Power or Ventilatory Threshold in Aerobically Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Katalinas, Matthew E; Shaholli, Danielle M; Gallo, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation on peak aerobic power and ventilatory threshold (VT) in aerobically fit males. Fourteen males (28.8 ± 9.8 yrs) were assigned to either a β-alanine (SUPP) or placebo (PLAC) group; groups were matched for VT as it was the primary outcome measure. β-alanine supplementation consisted of 3 g/day for 7 days, and 6 g/day for the remaining 23 days. Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed a continuous, graded cycle ergometry test to determine VO2 peak and VT. Metabolic data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 ANOVA with repeated measures. Thirty days of β-alanine supplementation (SUPP) did not increase VO2 peak (4.05 ± 0.6 vs. 4.14 ± 0.6 L/min) as compared to the placebo (PLAC) group (3.88 ± 0.2 vs. 3.97 ± 0.2 L/min) (p > .05). VT did not significantly improve in either the SUPP (3.21 ± 0.5 vs. 3.33 ± 0.5 L/min) or PLAC (3.19 ± 0.1 vs. 3.20 ± 0.1 L/min) group (p > .05). In conclusion, 30 days of β-alanine supplementation had no effect on VO2 peak or VT in aerobically trained athletes.

  11. Testosterone supplementation improves glucose homeostasis despite increasing hepatic insulin resistance in male mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Pal, M; Gupta, S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have revealed that testosterone supplementation had a positive effect on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but did not address how testosterone supplementation affected insulin responsiveness in the liver, a key glucose homeostatic organ. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of testosterone supplementation on hepatic insulin responsiveness and glucose homeostasis through liver in male high-fat diet-induced T2DM mice. Testosterone treatment to T2DM animals showed reduced hepatic glucose output. Testosterone inhibited the insulin signaling in liver, thus increased insulin resistance. However, testosterone treatment inactivated GSK3α independent of PI3K/AKT pathway and inhibited FOXO1 By interaction of androgen receptor to FOXO1 and downregulated PEPCK, causing repression of gluconeogenic pathway, which is otherwise upregulated in T2DM, resulted in better glucose homeostasis. PMID:27941939

  12. Noncovalent intermolecular interactions between dehydroepiandrosterone and the active site of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase: A density functional theory based treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astani, Elahe; Heshmati, Emran; Chen, Chun-Jung; Hadipour, Nasser L.; Shekarsaraei, Setareh

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical study was performed to characterize noncovalent intermolecular interactions, especially hydrogen bond (HB), in the active site of enzyme human dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase (SULT2A1/DHEA) using the local (M06-L) and hybrid (M06, M06-2X) meta-GGA functionals of density functional theory (DFT). Results revealed that DHEA is able to form HBs with residues His99, Tyr231, Met137 and Met16 in the active site of the SULT2A1/DHEA. It was found that DHEA interacts with the other residues through electrostatic and Van der Waals interactions.

  13. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P < 0.01) but glucagon level was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in arginine-supplemented than in control pigs. Compared with the control, arginine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P < 0.01) carcass fat content by 11%. The arginine treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) longissimus dorsi muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  14. Ergosteroids: induction of thermogenic enzymes in liver of rats treated with steroids derived from dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Lardy, H; Partridge, B; Kneer, N; Wei, Y

    1995-07-03

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of testosterone and estrogens, exerts several physiological effects not involving the sex hormones. When fed to rats it induces the thermogenic enzymes mitochondrial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malic enzyme in their livers. Animals and humans, and their excised tissues, are known to hydroxylate DHEA at several positions and to interconvert 7 alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, 7 beta-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-oxo-DHEA, and the corresponding derivatives of androst-5-enediol. We report here that these 7-oxygenated derivatives are active inducers of these thermogenic enzymes in rats and that the 7-oxo derivatives are more active than the parent steroids. We postulate that the 7 alpha-hydroxy and 7-oxo derivatives are on a metabolic pathway from DHEA to more active steroid hormones. These 7-oxo steroids have potential as therapeutic agents because of their increased activity and because they are not convertible to either testosterone or estrogens.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi: dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and immune response during the chronic phase of the experimental Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Leony Cristina; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Del Vecchio Filipin, Marina; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Luana Naiara; Toldo, Miriam Paula Alonso; Caldeira, Jerri C; do Prado Júnior, José Clóvis

    2009-07-07

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has long been considered as a precursor for many steroid hormones. It also enhances the immune responses against a wide range of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. The aims of this work were to evaluate the influences of exogenous DHEA treatment on Wistar rats infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi during the acute and its influence on the chronic phase of infection. Animals were subcutaneous treated with 40 mg/kg body weight/day of DHEA. DHEA treatment promoted increased lymphoproliferative responses as well as enhanced concentrations of NO and IL-12. So, we point in the direction that our results validate the utility of the use of DHEA as an alternative therapy candidate against T. cruzi.

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the spontaneous release of superoxide radical by alveolar macrophages in vitro in asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Harkin, T. )

    1991-08-01

    Asbestosis is characterized by an alveolar macrophage alveolitis with injury and fibrosis of the lower respiratory tract. Alveolar macrophages recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage spontaneously release exaggerated amounts of oxidants including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide that may mediate alveolar epithelial cell injury. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a normally occurring adrenal androgen that inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the pentose phosphate shunt necessary for NADPH generation and superoxide anion formation. In this regard, the authors hypothesized that DHEA may reduce asbestos-induced oxidant release. DHEA added in vitro to alveolar macrophages lavaged from 11 nonsmoking asbestos workers significantly reduced superoxide anion release. DHEA is an antioxidant and potential anticarcinogenic agent that may have a therapeutic role in reducing the increased oxidant burden in asbestos-induced alveolitis of the lower respiratory tract.

  17. Increased fructose absorption and oxidation after oral supplementation with sucraid enzyme: Implications for fructose malabsorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of Sucraid enzyme supplements for correction of sucrase deficiency in CSID is well documented. Sucraid is an invertase derived from brewer’s yeast which has been characterized as hydrolyzing sucrose to glucose and fructose. However, sacrosidase may have another role: conversion of fructose...

  18. Protein and glucogenic precursor supplementation: A nutritional strategy to increase reproductive and economic output

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance in young beef cows is often compromised due to a mismatch of physiological demands and suboptimal environmental conditions. Studies conducted at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center from 2000 to 2007 evaluated 3 postpartum supplement strategies that varied in the ...

  19. Enteral B-hydroxy-B-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite B-hydr...

  20. Taurine supplementation increases skeletal muscle force production and protects muscle function during and after high-frequency in vitro stimulation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Craig A; Horvath, Deanna; Stathis, Christos; Mori, Trevor; Croft, Kevin; Murphy, Robyn M; Hayes, Alan

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies report that depletion and repletion of muscle taurine (Tau) to endogenous levels affects skeletal muscle contractility in vitro. In this study, muscle Tau content was raised above endogenous levels by supplementing male Sprague-Dawley rats with 2.5% (wt/vol) Tau in drinking water for 2 wk, after which extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were examined for in vitro contractile properties, fatigue resistance, and recovery from fatigue after two different high-frequency stimulation bouts. Tau supplementation increased muscle Tau content by approximately 40% and isometric twitch force by 19%, shifted the force-frequency relationship upward and to the left, increased specific force by 4.2%, and increased muscle calsequestrin protein content by 49%. Force at the end of a 10-s (100 Hz) continuous tetanic stimulation was 6% greater than controls, while force at the end of the 3-min intermittent high-frequency stimulation bout was significantly higher than controls, with a 12% greater area under the force curve. For 1 h after the 10-s continuous stimulation, tetanic force in Tau-supplemented muscles remained relatively stable while control muscle force gradually deteriorated. After the 3-min intermittent bout, tetanic force continued to slowly recover over the next 1 h, while control muscle force again began to decline. Tau supplementation attenuated F(2)-isoprostane production (a sensitive indicator of reactive oxygen species-induced lipid peroxidation) during the 3-min intermittent stimulation bout. Finally, Tau transporter protein expression was not altered by the Tau supplementation. Our results demonstrate that raising Tau content above endogenous levels increases twitch and subtetanic and specific force in rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Also, we demonstrate that raising Tau protects muscle function during high-frequency in vitro stimulation and the ensuing recovery period and helps reduce oxidative stress during prolonged stimulation.

  1. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI<5th, >5th to <25th, >25th to <75th percentile) and randomised. The intervention group received 120 ml oral sip-feed supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still <50 % for the sample of patients in the intervention group. The present study suggests this method is acceptable to patients and staff and improves total energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases.

  2. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas

  3. Effects of a supplement designed to increase ATP levels on muscle strength, power output, and endurance

    PubMed Central

    Herda, Trent J; Ryan, Eric D; Stout, Jeffrey R; Cramer, Joel T

    2008-01-01

    Background The present study examined the acute effects of a nutritional supplement intended to improve adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations on vertical jump height, isometric strength of the leg extensors, leg extension endurance, and forearm flexion endurance. Methods Twenty-four healthy men (mean age ± SD = 23 ± 4 yrs, stature = 181 ± 7 cm, and body mass = 82 ± 12 kg) volunteered to complete a familiarization trial plus 2 randomly-ordered experimental trials separated by a 7-day washout period. Participants received either 6 (body mass < 91 kg) or 8 (body mass ≥ 91 kg) tablets of the treatment (TR; 625 mg of adenylpyrophosphoric acid and calcium pyruvate, 350.8 mg of cordyceps sinensis extract and yohimbine hydrochloride) or placebo (PL; 980 mg of microcrystalline cellulose) 1 hour prior to the following tests: countermovement vertical jump (CVJ), forearm flexion repetitions to exhaustion, isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the leg extensors, and a 50-repetition maximal concentric isokinetic leg extension endurance test. Results There were no differences between the TR and PL trials for CVJ height (P > 0.05), isometric MVC peak torque (P > 0.05), maximal concentric isokinetic peak torque (P > 0.05), percent decline during the leg extension endurance tests (P > 0.05), or repetitions to exhaustion during the forearm flexion endurance tests (P > 0.05). Conclusion These findings indicated no improvements in the measured variables as a result of ingesting this nutritional supplement. Future studies should examine whether chronic supplementation or a loading period is necessary to observe any ergogenic effects of this supplement. PMID:18230170

  4. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fukukita, Hiroshi; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Kataoka, Keiko; Hwang, Shiang-Jyi; Nagasaka, Yosuke; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), patients with dry AMD (dAMD), and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group), and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD. PMID:28243361

  5. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Kei; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ye, Fuxiang; Fukukita, Hiroshi; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Kataoka, Keiko; Hwang, Shiang-Jyi; Nagasaka, Yosuke; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), patients with dry AMD (dAMD), and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group), and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD.

  6. Oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels at least partially via stimulation of parathyroid hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Akutsu, Miho; Nagata, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Oral phosphorus supplementation stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in increased plasma FGF23 levels after oral phosphorus supplementation in rats. Rats received single dose of phosphate with concomitant subcutaneous injection of saline or human PTH (1-34) after treatment with cinacalcet or its vehicle. Cinacalcet is a drug that acts as an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor and reduces PTH secretion. Plasma phosphorus and PTH levels significantly increased 1 h after oral phosphorus administration and returned to basal levels within 3 h, while plasma FGF23 levels did not change up to 2 h post-treatment, but rather significantly increased at 3 h after administration and maintained higher levels for at least 6 h compared with the 0 time point. Plasma PTH and FGF23 levels were significantly lower in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats. Plasma phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats at 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral phosphorus administration. Furthermore, rats treated with cinacalcet+human PTH (1-34) showed transiently but significantly higher plasma FGF23 levels at 3 h after oral phosphorus administration compared with cinacalcet-treated rats. These results suggest that oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating FGF23 levels at least partially by stimulation of PTH secretion.

  7. Prenatal choline supplementation increases NGF levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Noah J; Loy, Rebekah; Williams, Christina L

    2002-08-23

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats received approximately 300 mg/kg per day of choline chloride through their drinking water on days 11 of pregnancy through birth and the level of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of their male offspring was measured at 20 and 90 days of age. Prenatal choline supplementation caused significant increases in hippocampal NGF levels at 20 and 90 days of age, while levels of NGF in the frontal cortex were elevated in choline-supplemented rats at 20 days of age, but not 90 days of age. These results suggest that increases in NGF levels during development or adulthood may be one mechanism underlying improvements in spatial and temporal memory of adult rats exposed to elevated levels of choline chloride perinatally.

  8. The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, but not androsterone, enhances the antidepressant effect of cocaine examined in the forced swim test--Possible role of serotonergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Krzascik, Pawel; Zajda, Malgorzata Elzbieta; Majewska, Maria Dorota

    2015-04-01

    One of the mechanisms of cocaine's actions in the central nervous system is its antidepressant action. This effect might be responsible for increased usage of the drug by individuals with mood disorders. Higher endogenous levels of the excitatory neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were reported to correlate with successful abstinence from cocaine use in addicts, but a clinical trial showed that supplementation with a high dose of DHEA increased cocaine usage instead. Such ambiguous effects of DHEA(S) could potentially be linked to its influence on the antidepressant effect of cocaine. In this study we tested DHEAS and its metabolite, androsterone, for interactions with cocaine in animal model of depression (forced swim test) and examined the effects of both steroids and cocaine on serotoninergic neurotransmission. All substances were also tested for influence on locomotor activity. A cocaine dose of 5mg/kg, which had no significant effect on locomotor activity, was chosen for the forced swim test. Neither DHEAS nor androsterone showed any antidepressant action in this test, while cocaine manifested a clear antidepressant effect. Androsterone slightly reduced the antidepressant influence of cocaine while DHEAS markedly, dose-dependently enhanced it. Such an effect might be caused by the influence of DHEAS on serotonin neurotransmission, as this steroid decreased serotonin concentration and turnover in the striatum. When DHEAS and cocaine were administered together, the levels of serotonin in the striatum and hippocampus remained unchanged. This phenomenon may explain the additive antidepressant action of DHEAS and cocaine and why co-administration of DHEAS and cocaine increases drug use.

  9. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, R. S.; Kleppinger, A.; Brindisi, J.; Feinn, R.; Burleson, J. A.; Kenny, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: this analysis was to investigate the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics. Design, setting and participants: the study was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 99 women (mean 76.6 ± 6.0 year) with the low DHEA-S level and frailty. Intervention: participants received 50 mg/day DHEA or placebo for 6 months; all received calcium (1,000–1,200 mg/day diet) and supplement (combined) and cholecalciferol (1,000 IU/day). Women participated in 90-min twice weekly exercise regimens, either chair aerobics or yoga. Main outcome measures: assessment of outcome variables included hormone levels (DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)), lipid profiles (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides), body composition measured by dual energy absorptiometry, glucose levels and blood pressure (BP). Results: eighty-seven women (88%) completed 6 months of study; 88% were pre-frail demonstrating 1–2 frailty characteristics and 12% were frail with ≥3 characteristics. There were significant changes in all hormone levels including DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone and a decline in SHBG levels in those taking DHEA supplements. In spite of changes in hormone levels, there were no significant changes in cardiovascular risk factors including lipid profiles, body or abdominal fat, fasting glucose or BP. Conclusion: research to date has not shown consistent effects of DHEA on cardiovascular risk, and this study adds to the literature that short-term therapy with DHEA is safe for older women in relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study is novel in that we recruited women with evidence of physical frailty. PMID:20484057

  10. A comparison of dehydroepiandrosterone and 7-keto dehydroepiandrosterone with other drugs that modulate ethanol intake in rats responding under a multiple schedule

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Russell J.; Hulin, Mary W.; Winsauer, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 7-keto DHEA, and several comparison drugs (ethanol, chlordiazepoxide, rauwolscine, and RO15-4513) were administered to male rats responding under a multiple schedule of food and ethanol presentation to determine their selectively for decreasing ethanol-maintained responding. DHEA and 7-keto DHEA significantly decreased both ethanol- and food-maintained responding, compared to control, while also decreasing blood ethanol concentration (BEC). Acute ethanol administration also decreased responding for both food and ethanol; however, ethanol-maintained responding was more potently decreased than food-maintained responding. BEC remained relatively stable after increasing ethanol doses. Among the other drugs tested, RO15-4513 was the most selective for decreasing ethanol-maintained responding compared to food-maintained responding, and it decreased BECs as ethanol-maintained responding decreased. The largest dose of rauwolscine significantly decreased responding for food, while not affecting ethanol-maintained responding compared to control. Low to intermediate doses of rauwolscine produced small, non-significant increases in ethanol-maintained responding and BECs. Chlordiazepoxide produced significant decreases in food-maintained responding and the dose of ethanol presented, but only at the highest dose tested. Although DHEA and 7-keto DHEA did not decrease ethanol-maintained responding as selectively as ethanol or RO15-4513 under the multiple schedule, these neurosteroids may be valuable pharmacological tools in the development of new treatments for alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:22473025

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi: orchiectomy and dehydroepiandrosterone therapy in infected rats.

    PubMed

    Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; Caetano, Luana Naiara; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2008-11-01

    The ability of gonadal hormones to influence and induce diverse immunological functions during the course of a number of parasitic infections has been extensively studied in the latest decades. Dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate are the most abundant steroid hormones secreted by the human adrenal cortex and are considered potent immune-activators. The effects of orchiectomy on the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rats, treated and untreated with DHEA were examined, by comparing blood and cardiac parasitism, macrophage numbers, nitric oxide and IFN-gamma levels. Orchiectomy enhanced resistance against infection with elevated numbers of macrophages, enhanced concentrations of NO and IFN-gamma and reduced amastigote burdens in heart when compared to control animals. DHEA replacement exerted a synergistic effect, up-modulating the immune response. Male sex steroids appear to play fundamental role in determining the outcome of disease, through the regulation and modulation of the activity of the immune response.

  12. Photo-DHEA--a functional photoreactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analog.

    PubMed

    Waschatko, Gustav; Kojro, Elzbieta; Zahnow, Michael; Gehrig-Burger, Katja

    2011-04-01

    The steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has beneficial effects on vascular function, survival of neurons, and fatty acid metabolism. However, a specific receptor for DHEA has not been identified to date. Here, we describe the synthesis of a photoreactive DHEA derivative (Photo-DHEA). In Photo-DHEA, typical characteristics of DHEA are conserved: (i) a "planar" tetracyclic ring system with a Δ(5) double bond, (ii) a 3β-hydroxyl group, and (iii) a keto group at C17. In cell-based assays, Photo-DHEA showed the same properties as DHEA. We conclude that Photo-DHEA is suitable for radioiodination to yield a tool for the identification of the elusive DHEA receptor.

  13. Synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone analogues modified with phosphatidic acid moiety.

    PubMed

    Smuga, Damian A; Smuga, Małgorzata; Swizdor, Alina; Panek, Anna; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2010-12-12

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its metabolite 7α-OH DHEA have many diverse physiological, biological and biochemical effects encompassing various cell types, tissues and organs. In in vitro studies, DHEA analogues have myriad biological actions, but in vivo, especially in oral administration, DHEA produces far more limited clinical effects. One of the possible solutions of this problem is conversion of DHEA to active analogues and/or its transformation into prodrug form. In this article, the studies on the conversion of DHEA and 7α-OH DHEA into their phosphatides by the phosphodiester approach are described. In this esterification, N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) was the most efficient coupling agent as well as p-toluenesulphonyl chloride (TsCl).

  14. Syntheses and antiproliferative activities of novel phosphatidylcholines containing dehydroepiandrosterone moieties.

    PubMed

    Kłobucki, Marek; Grudniewska, Aleksandra; Smuga, Damian A; Smuga, Małgorzata; Jarosz, Joanna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Maciejewska, Gabriela; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2017-02-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a natural hormone with many beneficial properties including an anticancer activity. Unfortunately, DHEA is unstable in the body and exhibits cytotoxicity against healthy cells. In this study, a series of new phosphocholines containing DHEA at sn-1 and/or sn-2 positions were prepared. Succinic acid was used as a linker between the active drug and sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. All the compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activities against four cell lines: Balb/3T3, HL-60, B16, and LNCaP. The results showed that phosphocholines with DHEA at sn-1 and/or sn-2 positions did not have cytotoxic effects on the normal cell line (Balb/3T3). Mixed-chain phospholipids with DHEA and fatty acid residues showed the highest activity against tumor cell lines. The most active compound, 11c, showed a moderate cytotoxic effect against the HL-60 and B16 cell lines.

  15. Dietary Supplementation with ω-3 PUFA Increases Adiponectin and Attenuates Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction with Pressure Overload

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Monika K.; O'Shea, Karen M.; Lei, Biao; Barrows, Brian R.; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; McElfresh, Tracy E.; Hoit, Brian D.; Kop, Willem J.; Stanley, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) decreases the risk of heart failure. We assessed the effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA from fish oil on the response of the left ventricle (LV) to arterial pressure overload. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow or a ω-3 PUFA-supplemented diet. After 1 week rats underwent abdominal aortic banding or sham surgery (n=9-12/group). LV function was assessed by echocardiography after 8 weeks. In addition, we studied the effect of ω-3 PUFA on the cardioprotective adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin, which may alter the pro-growth serine-threonine kinase Akt. Results Banding increased LV mass to a greater extent with the standard chow (31%) than with ω-3 PUFA (18%). LV end diastolic and systolic volumes were increased by 19% and 105% with standard chow, respectively, but were unchanged with ω-3 PUFA. The expression of adiponectin was up-regulated in adipose tissue, and the plasma adiponectin concentration was significantly elevated. Treatment with ω-3 PUFA increased total Akt protein expression in the heart, but decreased the fraction of Akt in the active phosphorylated form, and thus did not alter the amount of active phospho-Akt. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA attenuated pressure overload-induced LV dysfunction, which was associated with elevated plasma adiponectin. PMID:17643403

  16. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B.; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21−/− mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine’s beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  17. Ergosteroids. II: Biologically active metabolites and synthetic derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Lardy, H; Kneer, N; Wei, Y; Partridge, B; Marwah, P

    1998-03-01

    An improved procedure for the synthesis of 3 beta-hydroxyandrost-5-ene-7,17-dione, a natural metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is described. The synthesis and magnetic resonance spectra of several other related steroids are presented. Feeding dehydroepiandrosterone to rats induces enhanced formation of several liver enzymes among which are mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and cytosolic malic enzyme. The induction of these two enzymes, that complete a thermogenic system in rat liver, was used as an assay to search for derivatives of DHEA that might be more active than the parent steroid. Activity is retained in steroids that are reduced to the corresponding 17 beta-hydroxy derivative, or hydroxylated at 7 alpha or 7 beta, and is considerably enhanced when the 17-hydroxy or 17-carbonyl steroid is converted to the 7-oxo derivative. Several derivatives of DHEA did not induce the thermogenic enzymes whereas the corresponding 7-oxo compounds did. Both short and long chain acyl esters of DHEA and of 7-oxo-DHEA are active inducers of the liver enzymes when fed to rats. 7-Oxo-DHEA-3-sulfate is as active as 7-oxo-DHEA or its 3-acetyl ester, whereas DHEA-3-sulfate is much less active than DHEA. Among many steroids tested, those possessing a carbonyl group at position 3, a methyl group at 7, a hydroxyl group at positions 1, 2, 4, 11, or 19, or a saturated B ring, with or without a 4-5 double bond, were inactive.

  18. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi; Tufekovic, Goran; Verney, Julien; Olesen, Jens L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned to strength training (STR) while receiving a timed intake of creatine (STR-CRE) (n=9), protein (STR-PRO) (n=8) or placebo (STR-CON) (n=8), or serving as a non-training control group (CON) (n=7). Supplementation was given daily (STR-CRE: 6-24 g creatine monohydrate, STR-PRO: 20 g protein, STR-CON: placebo). Furthermore, timed protein/placebo intake were administered at all training sessions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at week 0, 4, 8 (week 8 not CON) and 16 of resistance training (3 days per week). Satellite cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. Muscle mean fibre (MFA) area was determined after histochemical analysis. All training regimes were found to increase the proportion of satellite cells, but significantly greater enhancements were observed with creatine supplementation at week 4 (compared to STR-CON) and at week 8 (compared to STR-PRO and STR-CON) (P<0.01-0.05). At week 16, satellite cell number was no longer elevated in STR-CRE, while it remained elevated in STR-PRO and STR-CON. Furthermore, creatine supplementation resulted in an increased number of myonuclei per fibre and increases of 14-17% in MFA at week 4, 8 and 16 (P<0.01). In contrast, STR-PRO showed increase in MFA only in the later (16 week, +8%) and STR-CON only in the early (week 4, +14%) phases of training, respectively (P<0.05). In STR-CRE a positive relationship was found between the percentage increases in MFA and myonuclei from baseline to week 16, respectively (r=0.67, P<0.05). No changes were observed in the control group (CON). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that creatine supplementation in combination with strength training amplifies the training

  19. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi; Tufekovic, Goran; Verney, Julien; Olesen, Jens L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjær, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19–26 years) were assigned to strength training (STR) while receiving a timed intake of creatine (STR-CRE) (n = 9), protein (STR-PRO) (n = 8) or placebo (STR-CON) (n = 8), or serving as a non-training control group (CON) (n = 7). Supplementation was given daily (STR-CRE: 6–24 g creatine monohydrate, STR-PRO: 20 g protein, STR-CON: placebo). Furthermore, timed protein/placebo intake were administered at all training sessions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at week 0, 4, 8 (week 8 not CON) and 16 of resistance training (3 days per week). Satellite cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. Muscle mean fibre (MFA) area was determined after histochemical analysis. All training regimes were found to increase the proportion of satellite cells, but significantly greater enhancements were observed with creatine supplementation at week 4 (compared to STR-CON) and at week 8 (compared to STR-PRO and STR-CON) (P < 0.01–0.05). At week 16, satellite cell number was no longer elevated in STR-CRE, while it remained elevated in STR-PRO and STR-CON. Furthermore, creatine supplementation resulted in an increased number of myonuclei per fibre and increases of 14–17% in MFA at week 4, 8 and 16 (P < 0.01). In contrast, STR-PRO showed increase in MFA only in the later (16 week, +8%) and STR-CON only in the early (week 4, +14%) phases of training, respectively (P < 0.05). In STR-CRE a positive relationship was found between the percentage increases in MFA and myonuclei from baseline to week 16, respectively (r = 0.67, P < 0.05). No changes were observed in the control group (CON). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that creatine supplementation in combination with strength training amplifies

  20. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  1. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young’s modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet. PMID:26177083

  2. Alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves intestinal metabolism and prevents increased permeability in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Haque, S M; Chen, K; Usui, N; Iiboshi, Y; Okuyama, H; Masunari, A; Cui, L; Nezu, R; Takagi, Y; Okada, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the effects of alanyl-glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on mucosal metabolism, integrity, and permeability of the small intestine in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive TPN supplemented with a conventional amino acids mixture (STD group) or the same solution supplemented with alanyl-glutamine; both solutions were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On the seventh day of TPN, D-xylose and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran were administered orally. One hour later, superior mesenteric vein (SMV) D-xylose and plasma FITC-dextran concentration were measured. Intestinal blood flow and calculated intestinal substrates flux were measured with ultrasonic transit time flowmetery. RESULTS: Plasma FITC-dextran increased significantly in the STD group. Intestinal blood flow and SMV D-xylose concentration did not differ between the groups. Mucosa weight, villus height, mucosal wall thickness, mucosal protein, and DNA and RNA content in jejunal mucosa were significantly increased in the alanyl-glutamine group. Jejunal mucosal glutaminase activity and net intestinal uptake of glutamine (glutamine flux) were significantly higher in the alanyl-glutamine group as compared with the STD group. CONCLUSION: Addition of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide to the TPN solution improves intestinal glutamine metabolism and prevents mucosal atrophy and deterioration of permeability. PMID:8604914

  3. Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults2

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-01-01

    Background Rodent studies show that oligofructose promotes weight loss, stimulates satiety hormone secretion, reduces energy intake, and improves lipid profiles. Objective Our objective was to examine the effects of oligofructose supplementation on body weight and satiety hormone concentrations in overweight and obese adults. Design This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-eight otherwise healthy adults with a body mass index (in kg/m2) > 25 were randomly assigned to receive 21 g oligo-fructose/d or a placebo (maltodextrin) for 12 wk. Body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); meal tolerance tests, including satiety hormone response; food intake; and subjective appetite ratings were determined. Results There was a reduction in body weight of 1.03 ±0.43 kg with oligofructose supplementation, whereas the control group experienced an increase in body weight of 0.45 ± 0.31 kg over 12 wk (P = 0.01). A lower area under the curve (AUC) for ghrelin (P = 0.004) and a higher AUC for peptide YY (PYY) with oligofructose (P = 0.03) coincided with a reduction in self-reported caloric intake (P ≤ 0.05). Glucose decreased in the oligofructose group and increased in the control group between initial and final tests (P ≤ 0.05). Insulin concentrations mirrored this pattern (P ≤ 0.05). Oligofructose supplementation did not affect plasma active glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion. According to a visual analog scale designed to assess side effects, oligofructose was well tolerated. Conclusions Independent of other lifestyle changes, oligofructose supplementation has the potential to promote weight loss and improve glucose regulation in overweight adults. Suppressed ghrelin and enhanced PYY may contribute in part to the reduction in energy intake. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00522353. PMID:19386741

  4. Coupling landscape water storage and supplemental irrigation to increase productivity and improve environmental stewardship in the U.S. Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Ochsner, Tyson E.

    2012-05-01

    Agriculture must increase production for a growing population while simultaneously reducing its environmental impacts. These goals need not be in tension with one another. Here we outline a vision for improving both the productivity and environmental performance of agriculture in the U.S. Midwest, also known as the Corn Belt. Mean annual precipitation has increased throughout the region over the past 50 years, consistent with climate models that attribute the increase to a warming troposphere. Stream gauge data indicate that higher precipitation has been matched or exceeded by higher stream flows, contributing to flooding, soil loss, and excessive nutrient flux to the Gulf of Mexico. We propose increasing landscape hydrologic storage through construction of ponds and restoration of wetlands to retain water for supplemental irrigation while also reducing flood risks. Primary productivity is proportional to transpiration, and analysis shows that in the U.S. Midwest both can be sustainably increased with supplemental irrigation. The proposed strategy should reduce interannual yield variability by limiting losses due to transient drought, while facilitating adoption of cropping systems that "perennialize" the landscape to take advantage of the full potential growing season. When implemented in concert, these practices should reduce the riverine nitrogen export that is a primary cause of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Erosive sediment losses should also be reduced through the combination of enhanced hydrologic storage and increased vegetative cover. Successful implementation would require watershed-scale coordination among producers and landowners. An obvious mechanism to encourage this is governmental farm policy.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of esters of 16-formyl-17-methoxy-dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives as inhibitors of 5α-reductase type 2.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Márquez, Araceli; Arellano, Yazmín; Bratoeff, Eugene; Heuze, Yvonne; Córdova, Karen; Nieves, Gladys; Soriano, Juan; Cabeza, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro effect of 16-formyl-17-methoxy dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives on the activity of 5α-reductase type 2 (5α-R2) obtained from human prostate. The activity of different concentrations of these derivatives was determined for the conversion of labelled testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The results indicated that an aliphatic ester moiety at the C-3 position of these derivatives increases their in vitro potency as inhibitors of 5α-R2 activity compared to finasteride®, which is considered to be a potent inhibitor of 5α-R2. In this case, the augmentation of the lipophilicity of these dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives increased their potency as inhibitors of 5α-R2. However, the presence of cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl or cycloheptyl rings as the cycloaliphatic ester moiety at C-3 of the formyl methoxy dehydroepiandrosterone scaffold did not inhibit the activity of this enzyme. This may be due to the presence of steric factors between the enzyme and the spatial structure of these derivatives.

  6. Chronic Pyruvate Supplementation Increases Exploratory Activity and Brain Energy Reserves in Young and Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Hennariikka; Leinonen, Henri; Puurula, Mari; Hafez, Hani Sayed; Barrera, Glenda Alquicer; Stridh, Malin H.; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Zilberter, Yuri; Tanila, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2–6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force, and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic postmortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment, but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement. PMID:27014054

  7. Effects of maternal treatment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in embryonic chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Tang, Xue; Zhang, Yuanshu; Ma, Haitian; Zou, Sixiang

    2010-04-01

    Over the last decade, much evidence emerged to suggest that alterations in maternal diets during pregnancy may irreversibly affect aspects of physiological and biochemical functions in the fetus. To explore the effects of maternal dietary treatments with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on lipid metabolism in the embryo, we investigated serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the maternal and embryonic chicken. Sixteen-week-old pullets were allocated into 3 groups (n=30), and after laying, they were provided with a commercial diet supplemented with DHEA at 0, 20 or 100mg/kg diet. Eggs were collected after DHEA treatment and incubated at 37.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. Blood and liver samples were collected from hens and embryonic chickens. DHEA treatment resulted in decreased body weight and increased relative liver weight in both maternal and embryonic chickens, while the concentrations of blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were significantly lower in the 20mg DHEA/kg group as compared to the control group during embryonic development. The expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPTI) gene was also reduced following treatment with 20mg DHEA/kg at hatching. However, blood TC, and hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hydroxy methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) gene expression were significantly up-regulated in the 100mg DHEA/kg group during embryonic development and hatching. Overall, the results of this study indicate that maternal dietary treatment with DHEA regulates serum lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression.

  8. Weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A during pregnancy increases hemoglobin concentration but decreases serum ferritin concentration in Indonesian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, S; Schmidt, M K; Schultink, W; West, C E; Hautvast, J A; Gross, R; Muhilal

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether weekly iron supplementation was as effective as the national daily iron supplementation program in Indonesia in improving iron status at near term in pregnancy. In addition, we examined whether weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation was more efficacious than weekly supplementation with iron alone. One group of pregnant women (n = 122)was supplemented weekly with iron (120 mg Fe as FeSO4) and folic acid (500 microg); another group (n = 121) received the same amount of iron and folic acid plus vitamin A [4800 retinol equivalents (RE)]. A third ("daily") group (n = 123), participating in the national iron plus folic acid supplementation program, was also recruited. Data on subjects with complete biochemical data are reported (n = 190). At near term, hemoglobin concentrations increased, whereas serum ferritin concentrations decreased significantly in the weekly vitamin A and iron group, suggesting that vitamin A improved utilization of iron for hematopoiesis. Iron status in the weekly iron group was not different from that of the "daily" group. However, iron status decreased with daily supplementation if <50 iron tablets were ingested. Serum transferrin receptor concentrations increased in all groups (P < 0.01). Serum retinol concentrations were maintained in the weekly vitamin A and iron group, but decreased in the other two groups (P < 0.01). Thus, delivery of iron supplements on a weekly basis can be as effective as ona daily basis if compliance can be ensured. Addition of vitamin A to the supplement improved hemoglobin concentration.

  9. Role of dehydroepiandrosterone in improving oocyte and embryo quality in IVF cycles.

    PubMed

    Zangmo, Rinchen; Singh, Neeta; Kumar, Sunesh; Vanamail, Perumal; Tiwari, Abanish

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the number and quality of oocytes and embryos in poor responders undergoing IVF cycles. A total of 50 patients with a history of poor ovarian response in the previous cycle(s) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. They were treated with oral micronized DHEA 25mg three times a day for 4 months. Oocyte and embryo number and quality were recorded before and after treatment. The results were analysed using Student's paired t-test. After treatment with DHEA, a significant increase in number of mature follicles was seen in the post treatment period (⩽ 35 years P<0.001; ⩾ 36 years P = 0.002). There were significant increases in numbers of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rates and, consequently, the total number of embryos available. More embryos were vitrified among patients ⩽ 35 years (P<0.001) post treatment, and clinical pregnancy rate in this group was 26.7%. DHEA treatment resulted in a higher number of oocytes retrieved, oocytes fertilized, embryos overall and of grade-I embryos. It can help in increasing pregnancy rate in poor responders. This study was performed to evaluate the role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment on the number and quality of oocytes and embryos in poor responders undergoing IVF cycles. Fifty patients with a history of poor ovarian response in the previous cycle(s) were enrolled in the study and a prospective cohort study was performed. Patients were prescribed oral micronized DHEA 25mg three times a day for 4 months. Oocytes and embryos in terms of both number and quality were measured before and after treatment. A significant increase in mean number of mature follicles was seen in the post-treatment group. There was a significant increase in the number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rates and, consequently, in the total number of embryos available after treatment with DHEA. More embryos were vitrified post treatment and the

  10. Ergosteroids V: preparation and biological activity of various D-ring derivatives in the 7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone series.

    PubMed

    Reich, Ieva L; Reich, Hans J; Kneer, Nancy; Lardy, Henry

    2002-03-01

    Our previous finding that D-ring seco derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone retained biologic activity (Reich et al., Steroids 1998;63:542-53) motivated us to synthesize and test a number of steroids in which the D-ring is retained but altered in various ways. Several new steroids were synthesized and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The availability of a number of closely related compounds allowed detailed (13)C chemical shift correlations. Using the induction of two thermogenic enzymes in rats, liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and cytosolic malic enzyme, as criteria of biologic activity some 30 compounds were assayed. Hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at the 16 alpha position was previously shown to diminish activity (Lardy et al., Steroids 1998;63:158-65); the corresponding 7-oxo compound is fully active. Hydroxylation at the 15 beta position of DHEA, 7-oxo-DHEA, or 16 alpha-hydroxy-7-oxo-DHEA greatly diminished the induction of GPDH but induction of malic enzyme was retained. Most 5,15 diene steroids tested had 2 weak, or no, ability to enhance the formation of GPDH but did increase malic enzyme.

  11. Dietary Resistant Starch Supplementation Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number in Pigs Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Harding, Scott V; Raslawsky, Amy; Rempel, Curtis B

    2017-05-04

    Resistant starch (RS) has been well characterized for its glycemic control properties; however, there is little consensus regarding the influence of RS on blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein distribution and size. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the effect of daily RS supplementation in a controlled capsule delivery on biomarkers of cardiovascular (blood lipids, lipoproteins) and diabetes (glucose, insulin) risk in a pig model. Twelve 8-week-old male Yorkshire pigs were placed on a synthetic Western diet and randomly divided into two groups (n = 6/group) for 30 days: (1) a placebo group supplemented with capsules containing unmodified pre-gelatinized potato starch (0 g/RS/day); and (2) an RS group supplemented with capsules containing resistant potato starch (10 g/RS/day). Serum lipids including total-cholesterol (C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides did not differ (p > 0.05) between the RS and placebo groups. Although the total numbers of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were similar (p > 0.05) between the two groups, total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were higher (+28%, p < 0.05) in the RS group compared with placebo, resulting from an increase (p < 0.05) in the small HDL subclass particles (+32%). Compared with the placebo group, RS supplementation lowered (p < 0.05) fasting serum glucose (-20%) and improved (p < 0.05) insulin resistance as estimated by Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) without a change in insulin. Additionally, total serum glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) was higher (+141%, p < 0.05) following RS supplementation compared with placebo. This data suggests that in addition to the more well-characterized effect of RS intake in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity, the consumption of RS may be beneficial in lipid management strategies by enhancing total

  12. The Dehydroepiandrosterone And WellNess (DAWN) study: research design and methods.

    PubMed

    von Mühlen, Denise; Laughlin, Gail A; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    Levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS), the major secretory products of the adrenal gland, decline dramatically with age, concurrent with the onset of degenerative changes and chronic diseases associated with aging. Epidemiological evidences in humans and animal studies suggest that DHEA(S) may have cardioprotective, antiobesity, antidiabetic, and immuno-enhancing properties. These observations led to the proposal that restoration of DHEA to young adult levels may have beneficial effects on age-related conditions. Most clinical trials of DHEA replacement have been limited due to small samples and short duration, restriction to one sex, failure to adjust for baseline endogenous hormone level and age, or lack of placebo comparison groups. We designed a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial to determine the acceptability, benefits, and adverse effects of 50 mg daily oral DHEA replacement for one year in 110 men and 115 women, aged 55 to 85, who were healthy and not currently using hormone therapy. A wide range of biological outcomes were studied including bone mineral density and metabolism, body composition and muscle strength, immune function, and cardiovascular risk factors. Steroid hormone levels, bone markers, cytokines, and the IGF-I, IGF binding protein system were measured at baseline and at 3 follow-up clinic visits. Changes in mood and well-being, cognitive function, and sexuality were assessed. Information on potentially confounding covariates such as smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, diet and dietary supplements were obtained, and potential adverse effects of DHEA administration were monitored. This study enables an examination of the benefits of DHEA administration on the health of older men and women, and the influence of gender, age, and baseline endogenous DHEA level on each outcome variable. Potential mechanisms of DHEA action, including the biotransformation of DHEA to active steroids and steroid

  13. Estrogen supplementation reduces whole body leucine and carbohydrate oxidation and increases lipid oxidation in men during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, Mazen J; Devries, Michaela C; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2005-06-01

    Healthy active men exhibit higher rates of carbohydrate (CHO) and leucine oxidation and lower rates of lipid oxidation compared with their female counterparts both at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. We postulated that this reduced dependence on amino acids as a fuel source in women was due to the female sex hormone estrogen. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of supplementing 12 recreationally active men with estrogen on whole body substrate oxidation and leucine kinetics at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. Subjects cycled for 90 min at an intensity of 65% maximum O(2) consumption after 8 d of either estrogen supplementation (2 mg 17beta-estradiol/d) or placebo (polycose). After a 2-wk washout period, they repeated the test after 8 d of the alternate treatment. On the test day, after a primed continuous infusion of l-[(13)C]leucine, O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, steady-state breath (13)CO(2), and plasma alpha-[(13)C]ketoisocaproate enrichments were measured at rest and at 60, 75, and 90 min during exercise in the postabsorptive state. Exercise increased energy expenditure more than 5-fold, CHO oxidation more than 6-fold, lipid oxidation more than 4-fold, and leucine oxidation 2.2-fold (all P < 0.0001), whereas it decreased the ratio of lipid to CHO oxidation by 50-70% (P = 0.003) compared with values at rest. Estrogen supplementation decreased respiratory exchange ratio during exercise (P = 0.03). Estrogen supplementation significantly decreased CHO oxidation by 5-16% (P = 0.04) and leucine oxidation by 16% (P = 0.01), whereas it significantly increased lipid oxidation by 22-44% (P = 0.024) at rest and during exercise. We conclude that estrogen influences fuel source selection at rest and during endurance exercise in recreationally active men, characterized by a reduced dependence on amino acids and CHO and an increased reliance on lipids as a fuel

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2002-01-01

    The adrenal steroidal hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been studied as a potential pharmacological agent in the treatment of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both the endocrine effects (the ability to be converted peripherally to androgenic and oestrogenic sex steroids) and the immunomodulatory effects of DHEA (the production of the Th(1) cytokines, such as IL-2) suggest that this hormone could be of benefit for patients with SLE. During the past decade, five controlled clinical trials and a number of additional observational studies have been performed investigating these possibilities. The results from these studies suggest that 200 mg/day of DHEA for 7 - 12 months decreases corticosteroid requirement for the patients, the frequency of disease flares, has an anti-osteoporotic effect and has an overall beneficial effect on SLE disease activity in female patients. A small study suggested benefits for cognitive function in such patients. The side effects acne and hirsutism were seen relatively frequently (30 - 40% and 10 - 12% of patients, respectively) but in most instances were deemed mild. DHEA treatment resulted in changes in lipid profile and may have endocrine effects, the consequences of which will need to be ascertained through longer-term follow-up studies.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    July 2011 - 30 June 2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity 5a...Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 1 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Key Research Accomplishments………………………………………….…….. 4 ...Reportable Outcomes……………………………………………………………… 4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………… 8 References……………………………………………………………………………. 9

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone Attenuates Cocaine-Seeking Behaviour Independently of Corticosterone Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Maayan, R; Hirsh, L; Yadid, G; Weizman, A

    2015-11-01

    The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including cocaine addiction. We have previously shown that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour, and also that DHEA decreases corticosterone (CORT) levels in plasma and the prefrontal cortex. Previous studies have found that rats demonstrate cocaine-seeking behaviour only when the level of CORT reaches a minimum threshold. In the present study, we investigated whether the attenuating effect of DHEA on cocaine seeking is a result of it reducing CORT levels rather than a result of any unique neurosteroid properties. Rats received either daily DHEA injections (2 mg/kg, i.p.) alone, daily DHEA (2 mg/kg, i.p.) with CORT infusion (to maintain stable basal levels of CORT; 15 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (i.p.) as control, throughout self-administration training and extinction sessions. We found that both DHEA-treated and DHEA + CORT-treated groups showed a significantly lower number of active lever presses compared to controls throughout training and extinction sessions, as well as at cocaine-primed reinstatement. DHEA-treated rats showed lower CORT levels throughout the experimental phases compared to DHEA + CORT-treated and control rats. Additionally, we show that DHEA administered to cocaine-trained rats throughout extinction sessions, or immediately before reinstatement, attenuated cocaine seeking. These findings indicate that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour independently of fluctuations in CORT levels.

  17. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on insulin sensitivity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima-fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Miura, Atsushi; Kajita, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masami; Sugiyama, Chiyo; Matsubara, Kenji; Ikeda, Takahide; Mori, Ichiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Uno, Yoshihiro; Mune, Tomoatsu; Kanoh, Yoshinori; Ishizawa, Masayoshi

    2007-12-01

    In order to clarify the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on improvement of insulin resistance, we examined the effects of overexpression of wild-type protein kinase C-zeta (wt-PKCzeta)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (wt-PDK1) and kinase-inactive PKCzeta/PDK1 (DeltaPKCzeta/DeltaPDK1) on DHEA-induced [(3)H]2-deoxyglucose (DOG) uptake using the electroporation method in rat adipocytes. Overexpression of wt-PKCzeta and wt-PDK1 significantly increased in DHEA-induced [(3)H]2-DOG uptake. Wortmannin completely suppressed DHEA-induced [(3)H]2-DOG uptake in wt-PKCzeta- and wt-PDK1-transfected adipocytes. Overexpression of neither DeltaPKCzeta nor DeltaPDK1 increased DHEA-induced [(3)H]2-DOG uptake. Otsuka Long-Evans fatty rats (OLETF), animal models of type 2 diabetes, and Long-Evans Tokushima rats (LETO) as control, were treated with 0.4% DHEA for 2 weeks. Insulin-induced [(3)H]2-DOG uptakes, activations of PI 3-kinase and PKCzeta of adipocytes were significantly increased in DHEA-treated OLETF rats. Moreover, plasma glucose levels in OLETF rats after treatment with DHEA for 2 weeks were significantly lower than treatment without DHEA, but not in LETO rats. These results indicate that DHEA treatment may improve glucose tolerance through a PI 3-kinase-PKCzeta pathway and downregulates adiposity in OLETF rats.

  18. Dietary supplementation with docosahexanoic acid (DHA) increases red blood cell membrane flexibility in mice with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Wandersee, Nancy J; Maciaszek, Jamie L; Giger, Katie M; Hanson, Madelyn S; Zheng, Suilan; Guo, YiHe; Mickelson, Barbara; Hillery, Cheryl A; Lykotrafitis, George; Low, Philip S; Hogg, Neil

    2015-02-01

    Humans and mice with sickle cell disease (SCD) have rigid red blood cells (RBCs). Omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA), may influence RBC deformability via incorporation into the RBC membrane. In this study, sickle cell (SS) mice were fed natural ingredient rodent diets supplemented with 3% DHA (DHA diet) or a control diet matched in total fat (CTRL diet). After 8weeks of feeding, we examined the RBCs for: 1) stiffness, as measured by atomic force microscopy; 2) deformability, as measured by ektacytometry; and 3) percent irreversibly sickled RBCs on peripheral blood smears. Using atomic force microscopy, it is found that stiffness is increased and deformability decreased in RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, RBCs from SS mice fed DHA diet had markedly decreased stiffness and increased deformability compared to RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet. Furthermore, examination of peripheral blood smears revealed less irreversibly sickled RBCs in SS mice fed DHA diet as compared to CTRL diet. In summary, our findings indicate that DHA supplementation improves RBC flexibility and reduces irreversibly sickled cells by 40% in SS mice. These results point to potential therapeutic benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in SCD.

  19. P and Ca digestibility is increased in broiler diets supplemented with the high-phytase HIGHPHY wheat.

    PubMed

    Scholey, D; Burton, E; Morgan, N; Sanni, C; Madsen, C K; Dionisio, G; Brinch-Pedersen, H

    2017-03-20

    Around 70% of total seed phosphorus is represented by phytate which must be hydrolysed to be bioavailable in non-ruminant diets. The limited endogenous phytase activity in non-ruminant animals make it common practice to add an exogenous phytase source to most poultry and pig feeds. The mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) of cereal seeds provides a route for the seeds themselves to contribute to phytate digestion, but MGPA varies considerably between species and most varieties in current use make negligible contributions. Currently, all phytases used for feed supplementation and transgenic improvement of MGPA are derived from microbial enzymes belonging to the group of histidine acid phosphatases (HAP). Cereals contain HAP phytases, but the bulk of MGPA can be attributed to phytases belonging to a completely different group of phosphatases, the purple acid phosphatases (PAPhy). In recent years, increased MGPAs were achieved in cisgenic barley holding extra copies of barley PAPhy and in the wheat HIGHPHY mutant, where MGPA was increased to ~6200 FTU/kg. In the present study, the effect of replacing 33%, 66% and 100% of a standard wheat with HIGHPHY wheat was compared with a control diet with and without 500 FTU of supplemental phytase. Diets were compared by evaluating broiler performance, ileal Ca and P digestibility and tibia development, using nine replicate pens of four birds per diet over 3 weeks from hatch. There were no differences between treatments in any tibia or bird performance parameters, indicating the control diet did not contain sufficiently low levels of phosphorus to distinguish effect of phytase addition. However, in a comparison of the two wheats, the ileal Ca and P digestibility coefficients for the 100% HIGHPHY wheat diets are 22.9% and 35.6% higher, respectively, than for the control diet, indicating the wheat PAPhy is functional in the broiler digestive tract. Furthermore, 33% HIGHPHY replacement of conventional wheat, significantly improved

  20. Contracts with Community College Adjunct Faculty Members: Potential Supplemental Benefits to Increase Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Kimberly Ann

    2016-01-01

    During the 21st century Great Recession, college enrollments increased as displaced workers trained to advance their skills (Baum & Ma, 2012). At the same time, state funding to community colleges declined (Baum & Ma, 2012; Ehrenberg, 2012). Although higher enrollments increased tuition revenues, they were insufficient to cover the gap…

  1. Comparative study of levamisole-selenium supplementation effect on CD4 increase in HlV / AIDS patients

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Feizollah; Janbakhsh, Alireza; Vaziri, Siavash; Sayad, Babak; Afsharian, Mandana; Hosseinpor, Farzaneh; Mahdavian, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Given to the abundant incidence of malnutrition in HIV+ patients and its effect on progress of AIDS disease, several studies have recommended supplementation therapy (such as Selenium, Levamisole, Zinc). Methods: This clinical trial was prefunded on patient's with HIV + in Behavior Diseases Consulting Center, Kermanshah, Iran 2006-2007. One hundred-seventy eight out of all patients with CD4 1ess than 350 cell/mm3 who did not receive antiretroviral drugs were in this study. They were divided into four groups: the first group received 200 micg selenium per day, the second group received levamisole 50 mg every other day, and third group received both two drugs. The fourth group was the control group. All four groups were studied for six months. Patients' baseline CD4 and other data were recorded in a form. CD4 was rechecked after six months and collected values were compared with basic values. CD4 changes were compared among all groups, either. Results: One hundred-seventy eight patients initiated treatment and 108 cooperated in the 6-month follow up assessment. Niuety-two (85%) were males and 15% were female. CD4 decreased in control group and Levamisole group during the study which was significant, but 13 units increase was seen in Selenium-Levamisole group. CD4 count decreased 36 units in Selenium group. Comparing CD4 count change among 4 study groups showed that only CD4 change between Selenium-Levamisole group and control group was significant. Conclusion: Regarding to collected results, Selenium-Levamisole supplementation can be used as a supplementation therapy besides antiretroviral therapies. PMID:24024019

  2. Marked Increase in PROP Taste Responsiveness Following Oral Supplementation with Selected Salivary Proteins or Their Related Free Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Melania; Aragoni, Maria Carla; Arca, Massimiliano; Cabras, Tiziana; Caltagirone, Claudia; Castagnola, Massimo; Crnjar, Roberto; Messana, Irene; Tepper, Beverly J.; Barbarossa, Iole Tomassini

    2013-01-01

    The genetic predisposition to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) varies among individuals and is associated with salivary levels of Ps-1 and II-2 peptides, belonging to the basic proline-rich protein family (bPRP). We evaluated the role of these proteins and free amino acids that selectively interact with the PROP molecule, in modulating bitter taste responsiveness. Subjects were classified by their PROP taster status based on ratings of perceived taste intensity for PROP and NaCl solutions. Quantitative and qualitative determinations of Ps-1 and II-2 proteins in unstimulated saliva were performed by HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Subjects rated PROP bitterness after supplementation with Ps-1 and II-2, and two amino acids (L-Arg and L-Lys) whose interaction with PROP was demonstrated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. ANOVA showed that salivary levels of II-2 and Ps-1 proteins were higher in unstimulated saliva of PROP super-tasters and medium tasters than in non-tasters. Supplementation of Ps-1 protein in individuals lacking it in saliva enhanced their PROP bitter taste responsiveness, and this effect was specific to the non-taster group.1H-NMR results showed that the interaction between PROP and L-Arg is stronger than that involving L-Lys, and taste experiments confirmed that oral supplementation with these two amino acids increased PROP bitterness intensity, more for L-Arg than for L-Lys. These data suggest that Ps-1 protein facilitates PROP bitter taste perception and identifies a role for free L-Arg and L-Lys in PROP tasting. PMID:23555788

  3. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  4. 78 FR 31916 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Supplemental Agenda Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software... improved software. A detailed agenda with the list of times for the selected speakers and presentation... diverse experts from public utilities, the software industry, government, research centers and...

  5. Antacids and dietary supplements with an influence on the gastric pH increase the risk for food sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Pali-Schöll, I.; Herzog, R.; Wallmann, J.; Szalai, K.; Brunner, R.; Lukschal, A.; Karagiannis, P.; Diesner, S. C.; Jensen-Jarolim, E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Elevation of the gastric pH increases the risk for sensitization against food allergens by hindering protein breakdown. This can be caused by acid-suppressing medication like sucralphate, H2-receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors, as shown in recent murine experimental and human observational studies. Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitization capacity of the dietary supplement base powder and of over-the-counter antacids. Methods Changes of the pH as well as of protein digestion due to base powder or antacids were measured in vitro. To examine the in vivo influence, BALB/c mice were fed codfish extract with one of the acid-suppressing substances. Read-out of antibody levels in the sera, of cytokine levels of stimulated splenocytes and of intradermal skin tests was performed. Results The pH of hydrochloric acid was substantially increased in vitro by base powder as well as antacids in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This elevation hindered the digestion of codfish proteins in vitro. A significant increase in codfish-specific IgE antibodies was found in the groups fed codfish combined with Rennie® Antacidum or with base powder; the latter also showed significantly elevated IgG1 and IgG2a levels. The induction of an anaphylactic immune response was proven by positive results in intradermal skin tests. Conclusions Antacids and dietary supplements influencing the gastric pH increase the risk for sensitization against allergenic food proteins. As these substances are commonly used in the general population without consulting a physician, our data may have a major practical and clinical impact. PMID:20214670

  6. 38 CFR 21.9525 - Eligibility for increased and supplemental educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Increased assistance for members with critical skills or specialty. The Secretary of the military department... assistance for members serving additional service. The Secretary of the military department concerned... discharge; (iii) Is placed on the retired list; (iv) Is transferred to the Fleet Reserve or the Fleet...

  7. Positive impact of a weekly iron-folic acid supplement delivered with social marketing to Cambodian women: compliance, participation, and hemoglobin levels increase with higher socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Crape, Byron L; Kenefick, Eric; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Busch-Hallen, Jennifer; Milani, Silvano; Kanal, Koum

    2005-12-01

    A social marketing program promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation improved hemoglobin levels in women of reproductive age in Cambodia. Supplementation was increasingly effective among women of higher socioeconomic status (SES). Among higher SES schoolgirls, 58% took the supplements, compared with 49% for lower SES (P = 0.07). Garment factory workers with an 11th- or 12th-grade education had a mean improvement in hemoglobin of 0.72 g/dL over those with a 5th-grade education or less (P = 0.04). The percentage of rural village women taking supplements increased with increasing SES (linear trend P = 0.046). These results suggest that women with lower SES be given special attention for future programs.

  8. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p < .05). In E1, BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in

  9. Ergosteroids: induction of thermogenic enzymes in liver of rats treated with steroids derived from dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed Central

    Lardy, H; Partridge, B; Kneer, N; Wei, Y

    1995-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of testosterone and estrogens, exerts several physiological effects not involving the sex hormones. When fed to rats it induces the thermogenic enzymes mitochondrial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malic enzyme in their livers. Animals and humans, and their excised tissues, are known to hydroxylate DHEA at several positions and to interconvert 7 alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, 7 beta-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-oxo-DHEA, and the corresponding derivatives of androst-5-enediol. We report here that these 7-oxygenated derivatives are active inducers of these thermogenic enzymes in rats and that the 7-oxo derivatives are more active than the parent steroids. We postulate that the 7 alpha-hydroxy and 7-oxo derivatives are on a metabolic pathway from DHEA to more active steroid hormones. These 7-oxo steroids have potential as therapeutic agents because of their increased activity and because they are not convertible to either testosterone or estrogens. PMID:7604042

  10. Impaired oocyte quality induced by dehydroepiandrosterone is partially rescued by metformin treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Yu, Yang; Gao, Jiangman; Li, Rong; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhao, Hongcui; Zhao, Yue; Qiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of hyperandrogenism on oocyte quality using a murine PCOS model induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and further explored the effect of metformin treatment. Female BALB/c mice were treated with a vehicle control or DHEA (6 mg /100 g body weight) or DHEA plus metformin (50 mg /100 g body weight) for 20 consecutive days. DHEA-induced mice resembled some characters of human PCOS, such as irregular sexual cycles and polycystic ovaries. After the model validation was completed, metaphase II (MII) oocytes were retrieved and subsequent analyses of oocyte quality were performed. DHEA-treated mice yielded fewer MII oocytes, which displayed decreased mtDNA copy number, ATP content, inner mitochondrial membrane potential, excessive oxidative stress and impaired embryo development competence compared with those in control mice. Metformin treatment partially attenuated those damages, as evidenced by the increased fertilization and blastocyst rate, ATP content, GSH concentration and GSH/GSSG ratio, and decreased reactive oxygen species levels. No significant difference in normal spindle assembly was observed among the three groups. During in vitro maturation (IVM), the periods of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body (PB1) extrusion were extended and the maturation rate of GVBD oocytes was decreased in DHEA mice compared with controls. Metformin treatment decreased the time elapsed of GVBD while had no effect on PB1 extrusion. These results indicated that excessive androgen is detrimental to oocyte quality while metformin treatment is, directly or indirectly, beneficial for oocyte quality improvement.

  11. Impaired Oocyte Quality Induced by Dehydroepiandrosterone Is Partially Rescued by Metformin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Yu, Yang; Gao, Jiangman; Li, Rong; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhao, Hongcui; Zhao, Yue; Qiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of hyperandrogenism on oocyte quality using a murine PCOS model induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and further explored the effect of metformin treatment. Female BALB/c mice were treated with a vehicle control or DHEA (6 mg /100 g body weight) or DHEA plus metformin (50 mg /100 g body weight) for 20 consecutive days. DHEA-induced mice resembled some characters of human PCOS, such as irregular sexual cycles and polycystic ovaries. After the model validation was completed, metaphase II (MII) oocytes were retrieved and subsequent analyses of oocyte quality were performed. DHEA-treated mice yielded fewer MII oocytes, which displayed decreased mtDNA copy number, ATP content, inner mitochondrial membrane potential, excessive oxidative stress and impaired embryo development competence compared with those in control mice. Metformin treatment partially attenuated those damages, as evidenced by the increased fertilization and blastocyst rate, ATP content, GSH concentration and GSH/GSSG ratio, and decreased reactive oxygen species levels. No significant difference in normal spindle assembly was observed among the three groups. During in vitro maturation (IVM), the periods of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body (PB1) extrusion were extended and the maturation rate of GVBD oocytes was decreased in DHEA mice compared with controls. Metformin treatment decreased the time elapsed of GVBD while had no effect on PB1 extrusion. These results indicated that excessive androgen is detrimental to oocyte quality while metformin treatment is, directly or indirectly, beneficial for oocyte quality improvement. PMID:25811995

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone down-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Kazuo; Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Mune, Tomoatsu; Miura, Atsushi; Ishizawa, Masayoshi; Kanoh, Yoshinori; Kawai, Yasunori; Natsume, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2003-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is expected to have a weight-reducing effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DHEA on genetically obese Otsuka Long Evans Fatty rats (OLETF) compared with Long-Evans Tokushima rats (LETO) as control. Feeding with 0.4% DHEA-containing food for 2 wk reduced the weight of sc, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue in association with decreased plasma leptin levels in OLETF. Adipose tissue from OLETF showed increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) protein, which was prevented by DHEA treatment. Further, we examined the effect of DHEA on PPARgamma in primary cultured adipocytes and monolayer adipocytes differentiated from rat preadipocytes. PPARgamma protein level was decreased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and DHEA significantly reduced mRNA levels of PPARgamma, adipocyte lipid-binding protein, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein, but not CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. DHEA-sulfate also reduced the PPARgamma protein, but dexamethasone, testosterone, or androstenedione did not alter its expression. In addition, treatment with DHEA for 5 d reduced the triglyceride content in monolayer adipocytes. These results suggest that DHEA down-regulates adiposity through the reduction of PPARgamma in adipocytes.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hanan F; Metwally, Fateheya M; Ahmed, Hanaa H

    2011-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) against the development of Alzheimer's disease in experimental rat model. Alzheimer's disease was produced in young female ovariectomized rats by intraperitoneal administration of AlCl(3) (4.2 mg/kg body weight) daily for 12 weeks. Half of these animals also received orally DHEA (250 mg/kg body weight, three times weekly) for 18 weeks. Control groups of animals received either DHAE alone, or no DHEA, or were not ovariectomized. After such treatment the animals were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, antiapoptotic marker Bcl-2 and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Also brain cholinergic markers (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine) were determined. The results revealed significant increase in oxidative stress parameters associated with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities in Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats. Significant depletion in brain Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were also detected. Moreover, significant elevations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity accompanied with significant reduction in acetylcholine level were recorded. Significant amelioration in all investigated parameters was detected as a result of treatment of Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats with DHEA. These results were confirmed by histological examination of brain sections. These results clearly indicate a neuroprotective effect of DHEA against Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and lactate on glucose uptake in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Danielle Kaiser; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos Rios

    2012-01-17

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) prevents brain aging, enhances the cerebral metabolism and interacts with energy substrates. The interaction between lactate and DHEA on glucose uptake and lactate oxidation by various nervous structures was investigated and results demonstrate that the 2-(14)C-deoxiglucose (2-(14)C-Dglucose) uptake was stimulated by 10mM lactate in the hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, inhibited in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and unaffected in the hippocampus. We also show that, in both the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, (14)C-lactate oxidation was higher than (14)C-glucose oxidation (p≤0.001), demonstrating a relevant role for lactate as energy substrate. The interaction of lactate and 10(-8)M DHEA was tested and, although DHEA had no significant effect on uptake in the cerebellum, hippocampus, or hypothalamus, 10(-8)M DHEA increased the 2-(14)C-Dglucose uptake in the cerebral cortex in the presence of lactate (p≤0.001), and in the olfactory bulb in the absence of lactate (p<0.05). However, DHEA had no significant effect on (14)C-lactate oxidation. We suggest that DHEA improves glucose uptake in specific conditions. Thus, DHEA may affect CNS metabolism and interact with lactate, which is the most important neuronal energy substrate, on glucose uptake.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment in vitro inhibits adipogenesis in human omental but not subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rice, S P L; Zhang, L; Grennan-Jones, F; Agarwal, N; Lewis, M D; Rees, D A; Ludgate, M

    2010-05-14

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a precursor sex steroid, circulates in sulphated form (DHEAS). Serum DHEAS concentrations are inversely correlated with metabolic syndrome components and in vivo/in vitro studies suggest a role in modulating adipose mass. To investigate further, we assessed the in vitro biological effect of DHEA in white (3T3-L1) and brown (PAZ6) preadipocyte cell lines and human primary preadipocytes. DHEA (from 10(-8)M) caused concentration-dependent proliferation inhibition of 3T3-L1 and PAZ6 preadipocytes. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated unaltered apoptosis but indicated blockade at G1/S or G2/M in 3T3-L1 and PAZ6, respectively. Preadipocyte cell-line adipogenesis was not affected. In human primary subcutaneous and omental preadipocytes, DHEA significantly inhibited proliferation from 10(-8)M. DHEA 10(-7)M had opposing effects on adipogenesis in the two fat depots. Subcutaneous preadipocyte differentiation was unaffected or increased whereas omental preadipocytes showed significantly reduced adipogenesis. We conclude that DHEA exerts fat depot-specific differences which modulate body composition by limiting omental fat production.

  16. Assessment of growth and metabolism characteristics in offspring of dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovary syndrome adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Gao, Jiang-Man; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Zhao, Hong-Cui; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder that has many characteristic features including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance and obesity, which may have significant implications for pregnancy outcomes and long-term health of women. Daughters born to PCOS mothers constitute a high-risk group for metabolic and reproductive derangements, but no report has described potential growth and metabolic risk factors for such female offspring. Hence, we used a mouse model of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS to study the mechanisms underlying the pathology of PCOS by investigating the growth, developmental characteristics, metabolic indexes and expression profiles of key genes of offspring born to the models. We found that the average litter size was significantly smaller in the DHEA group, and female offspring had sustained higher body weight, increased body fat and triglyceride content in serum and liver; they also exhibited decreased energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and impaired glucose tolerance. Genes related to glucolipid metabolism such as Pparγ, Acot1/2, Fgf21, Pdk4 and Inhbb were upregulated in the liver of the offspring in DHEA group compared with those in controls, whereas Cyp17a1 expression was significantly decreased. However, the expression of these genes was not detected in male offspring. Our results show that female offspring in DHEA group exhibit perturbed growth and glucolipid metabolism that were not observed in male offspring. PMID:27798284

  17. Use of a nonmedicated dietary supplement correlates with increased prevalence of streptomycin-sulfa-tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli on a dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Artashes R; Besser, Thomas E; Hancock, Dale D; Call, Douglas R

    2006-07-01

    We examined how a dietary supplement affects the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli on a dairy farm in Washington State. Between 2001 and 2004 the prevalence of fecal E. coli strains resistant to streptomycin, sulfadiazine, and tetracycline (SSuT strains) declined from 59.2% to 26.1% in the calf population. In 2003 the dairy discontinued use of a dietary supplement, and we hypothesized that the decline in prevalence of SSuT strains was related to this change in management. To test this we established three treatments in which calves received no supplement, the dietary supplement with oxytetracycline, or the dietary supplement without oxytetracycline. Calves receiving either dietary supplement had a significantly higher prevalence of SSuT E. coli than the no-supplement control group (approximately 37% versus 20%, respectively; P = 0.03). Importantly, there was no evidence that oxytetracycline contributed to an increased prevalence of fecal SSuT E. coli. We compared the growth characteristics of SSuT and non-SSuT E. coli in LB broth enriched with either the complete dietary supplement or its individual constituents. Both the complete dietary supplement and its vitamin D component supported a significantly higher cell density of SSuT strains (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). The dry milk and vitamin A components of the dietary supplement did not support different cell densities. These results were consistent with selection and maintenance of SSuT E. coli due to environmental components independent of antibiotic selection.

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates AMP kinase and regulates GLUT4 and PGC-1α expression in C2C12 myotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Yokokawa, Takumi; Sato, Koji; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Honda, Hiroki; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-07-17

    Exercise and caloric restriction (CR) have been reported to have anti-ageing, anti-obesity, and health-promoting effects. Both interventions increase the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in muscle and blood, suggesting that DHEA might partially mediate these effects. In addition, it is thought that either 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mediates the beneficial effects of exercise and CR. However, the effects of DHEA on AMPK activity and PGC-1α expression remain unclear. Therefore, we explored whether DHEA in myotubes acts as an activator of AMPK and increases PGC-1α. DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake but not the phosphorylation levels of Akt and PKCζ/λ in C2C12 myotubes. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. Finally, we found that DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. Our current results might reveal a previously unrecognized physiological role of DHEA; the activation of AMPK and the induction of PGC-1α by DHEA might mediate its anti-obesity and health-promoting effects in living organisms. - Highlights: • We assessed whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) activates AMPK and PGC-1α. • DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • The phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. • DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. • AMPK might mediate the anti-obesity and health-promoting effects of DHEA.

  19. SLUDGE BATCH SUPPLEMENTAL SRAT RUNS EFFECTS OF YIELD STRESS AND CYCLE TIME INCREASE

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-08-10

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has transitioned from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing. Phase III-Tank 40 Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet simulations have been completed to determine the initial processing conditions for the DWPF transition. The impact of higher yield stress (SB-25) and cycle time extension (SB6-26) on the physical and chemical effects of SB6 processing during the SRAT (Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank) cycle were evaluated. No significant impacts on the SRAT chemistry were noted during the higher yield stress run. In particular, no impact on mercury stripping was noted, indicating that settling of elemental mercury was not the primary factor in the low mercury recovery noted in the flowsheet testing. The SRAT product from this run retained the higher yield stress of the starting sludge. The run indicated that ultrasonication is an effective tool to increase the yield stress of simulants to targeted values and the chemistry of downstream processing is not impacted. Significant differences were noted in the cycle time extension test compared to the Phase III flowsheet baseline runs. Large decreases in the ammonia and hydrogen generation rates were noted along with reduced mercury stripping efficiency. The latter effect is similar to that of operating under a high acid stoichiometry. It is conceivable that, under the distinctly different conditions of high formic acid concentration (high acid run) or slow formic acid addition (extended run), that mercury could form amalgams with noble metals, possibly rendering both inert. Thus, the removal of free mercury and noble metals could decrease the rate of catalytic formic acid reactions which would decrease generation of ammonium and hydrogen. The potential underlying reasons for the behavior noted during this run would require additional testing.

  20. Increasing Student Success in Large Survey Science Courses via Supplemental Instruction in Learning Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; Nossal, S.; Watson, L.; Timbie, P.

    2010-05-01

    Large introductory astronomy and physics survey courses can be very challenging and stressful. The University of Wisconsin-Madison Physics Learning Center (PLC) reaches about 10 percent of the students in four introductory physics courses, algebra and calculus based versions of both classical mechanics and electromagnetism. Participants include those potentially most vulnerable to experiencing isolation and hence to having difficulty finding study partners as well as students struggling with the course. They receive specially written tutorials, conceptual summaries, and practice problems; exam reviews; and most importantly, membership in small groups of 3 - 8 students which meet twice per week in a hybrid of traditional teaching and tutoring. Almost all students who regularly participate in the PLC earn at least a "C,” with many earning higher grades. The PLC works closely with other campus programs which seek to increase the participation and enhance the success of underrepresented minorities, first generation college students, and students from lower-income circumstances; and it is well received by students, departmental faculty, and University administration. The PLC staff includes physics education specialists and research scientists with a passion for education. However, the bulk of the teaching is conducted by undergraduates who are majoring in physics, astronomy, mathematics, engineering, and secondary science teaching (many have multiple majors). The staff train these enthusiastic students, denoted Peer Mentor Tutors (PMTs) in general pedagogy and mentoring strategies, as well as the specifics of teaching the physics covered in the course. The PMTs are among the best undergraduates at the university. While currently there is no UW-Madison learning center for astronomy courses, establishing one is a possible future direction. The introductory astronomy courses cater to non-science majors and consequently are less quantitative. However, the basic structure

  1. Middle-aged rats orally supplemented with gel-encapsulated catechin favorably increases blood cytosolic NADPH levels.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-04-15

    Green tea catechins are primarily known to function as free radical scavengers and have several beneficial uses. Orally supplemented catechin (OSC) was previously shown to increase mitochondrial heme and catalase levels in rat heart blood, however, its effect in the cytosol has not been elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of OSC in the rat heart blood cytosol. We used middle-aged (40 week-old) and young (4 week-old) rats throughout the study. We isolated blood cytosol, verified its purity, and determined heme, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, catalase (CAT) activities, gp91(phox) amounts, NADP and NAD pools, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and free fatty acids (FFA). We established that OSC is associated with decreased heme-dependent H2O2 amounts while increasing heme-independent CAT activity. Moreover, we found that OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among middle-aged rats is associated to increased NADPH levels and SIRT1 activity. In contrast, we associated OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among young rats to decreased NADPH levels and increased SIRT1 activity. This highlights a major difference between catechin-treated middle-aged and young rats. Furthermore, we observed that cytosolic FFA and GR levels were significantly increased only among OSC-treated middle-aged rats which we hypothesize are related to increased NADPH levels. This insinuates that OSC treatment allows higher catechin amounts to enter the bloodstream of middle-aged rats. We propose that this would favorably increase NADPH amounts and lead to the simultaneous decrease in NADPH-related pro-oxidant activity and increase in NADPH-related biomolecules and anti-oxidant activities.

  2. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men.

    PubMed

    McGlory, Chris; Wardle, Sophie L; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; Witard, Oliver C; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; Tipton, Kevin D

    2016-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed a bout of unilateral RE followed by ingestion of 30 g of whey protein. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after supplementation for assessment of muscle lipid composition and relevant protein kinase activities. Infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine was used to measure basal myofibrillar MP Sat rest (REST), in a nonexercised leg following protein ingestion (FED) and following RE and protein ingestion (FEDEX).MPS was significantly elevated above REST during FEDEX in both the FO and CO groups, but there was no effect of supplementation. There was a significant increase in MPS in both groups above REST during FED but no effect of supplementation. Supplementation significantly decreased pan PKB activity at RESTin the FO group but not the CO group. There was a significant increase from REST at post-RE for PKB and AMPKα2 activity in the CO group but not in the FO group. In FEDEX, there was a significant increase in p70S6K1 activity from REST at 3 h in the CO group only. These data highlight that 8 weeks of FO supplementation alters kinase signaling activity in response to RE plus protein ingestion without influencing MPS.

  3. Vitamin A Supplementation in Early Life Enhances the Intestinal Immune Response of Rats with Gestational Vitamin A Deficiency by Increasing the Number of Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Cui, Ting; Li, Yingying; Wang, Yuting; Wang, Qinghong; Li, Xin; Bi, Yang; Wei, Xiaoping; Liu, Lan; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune response are achieved when

  4. Bi-directional actions of dehydroepiandrosterone and aggression in female Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    There is a well-established positive relationship between gonadal steroids and aggression. In some seasonally breeding species, however, aggression often persists or is increased during short "winter-like" days when the gonads are regressed and circulating levels of gonadal steroids are relatively low. Although the mechanisms underlying short-day increases in aggression are not fully known, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been suggested as an alternative neuroendocrine mechanism regulating seasonal aggression. We used two complementary experimental approaches to examine the bi-directional actions of DHEA and aggression in female Siberian hamsters, a seasonal rodent that displays increased aggression concomitant with elevated circulating DHEA in short days. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of aggressive interactions on DHEA concentrations before and after an aggressive encounter in long- and short-day hamsters. Serum DHEA was altered in a photoperiod-dependent manner, with decreased DHEA levels in response to aggression in short- but not long-day hamsters. Next, we experimentally induced adrenal DHEA release via injections of exogenous ACTH and assessed changes in aggressive behavior across photoperiods. We show a robust increase in aggression in short compared with long days during baseline aggression trials; however, aggression was not significantly increased further in response to ACTH in either photoperiod during post-ACTH aggression trials. These findings suggest that DHEA plays a role in the regulation of short-day aggression, while also highlighting the need for additional studies addressing the causal relationship between DHEA and aggression in this and others species.

  5. Combined supplementation of carbohydrate, alanine, and proline is effective in maintaining blood glucose and increasing endurance performance during long-term exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Nogusa, Yoshihito; Mizugaki, Ami; Hirabayashi-Osada, Yuri; Furuta, Chie; Ohyama, Kana; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate supplementation is extremely important during prolonged exercise because it maintains blood glucose levels during later stages of exercise. In this study, we examined whether maintaining blood glucose levels by carbohydrate supplementation could be enhanced during long-term exercise by combining this supplementation with alanine and proline, which are gluconeogenic amino acids, and whether such a combination would affect exercise endurance performance. Male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered either maltodextrin (1.25 g/kg) or maltodextrin (1.0 g/kg) with alanine (0.225 g/kg) and proline (0.025 g/kg) 15 min before running for 170 min. Combined supplementation of maltodextrin, alanine, and proline induced higher blood glucose levels than isocaloric maltodextrin alone during the late exercise phase (100-170 min). The hepatic glycogen content of mice administered maltodextrin, alanine, and proline was higher than that of mice ingesting maltodextrin alone 60 min after beginning exercise, but the glycogen content of the gastrocnemius muscle showed no difference. We conducted a treadmill running test to determine the effect of alanine and proline on endurance performance. The test showed that running time to exhaustion of mice that were supplemented with maltodextrin (2.0 g/kg) was longer than that of mice that were supplemented with water alone. Maltodextrin supplementation (1.0 g/kg) with alanine (0.9 g/kg) and proline (0.1 g/kg) further increased running time to exhaustion compared to maltodextrin alone (2.0 g/kg). These results indicate that combined supplementation of carbohydrate, alanine, and proline is effective for maintaining blood glucose and hepatic glycogen levels and increasing endurance performance during long-term exercise in mice.

  6. Inhibition of methylation of DNA by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in dehydroepiandrosterone-fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Prasanna, H.R.; Magee, P.N. ); Harrington, G.W. ); Hart, R.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The influence of the anticarcinogen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the metabolism and macromolecular interactions of the potent hepatocarcinogen dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (2-3 mo old) were fed DHEA for 14 d at a dietary level 0.8%. Compared with pair-fed controls, the liver weights of the DHEA-treated animals increased significantly (11.7 vs. 7.1 g) with increase, per total liver, in proteins including those of cytosol and microsomes as well as cytochromes P-450 and b{sub 5}. DNA content of the liver, however, remained constant. Five hours after a single ip dose of ({sup 14}C)NDMA (30 mg/kg body wt, 42 {mu}Ci/rat) DNA methylation was reduced in the DHEA-fed animals as measured by 7-methyl- and O{sup 6}-methylguanine per mole of guanine, by 39 and 31%, respectively. The rate of NDMA metabolism was slightly higher in the DHEA-fed rats as determine in vivo by the exhalation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and by the declining concentrations of NDMA in the blood. The incorporation of radioactivity from ({sup 14}C)NDMA into hepatic proteins in vivo was greater (2.1-fold) in the DHEA-fed rats. Our results suggest that feeding rats with the adrenal steroid DHEA enhances the metabolic activation of NDMA in vivo, and that the increased association of NDMA-derived metabolites with increased hepatic cellular proteins may be partially responsible for protection of hepatic DNA from NDMA-induced damage.

  7. Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation during Stressful Military Training: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Field Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Kettermann A, Longo DL, Metter EJ, Carter HB. 2010. Serum testosterone is associated with aggressive prostate cancer in older men: Results from the... exercise , after which they participated in a highly realistic mock-captivity scenario. Salivary hormones and dissociative symptoms were assessed again...to self-administer accord- ing to the same daily regimen while in the field. At some point during the evasion exercise , each subject was “captured”. At

  8. Increased intermediate M1-M2 macrophage polarization and improved cognition in mild cognitive impairment patients on ω-3 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Famenini, Sam; Rigali, Elizabeth A; Olivera-Perez, Henry M; Dang, Johnny; Chang, Michael To; Halder, Ramesh; Rao, Rammohan V; Pellegrini, Matteo; Porter, Verna; Bredesen, Dale; Fiala, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophages of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are defective in phagocytosis and degradation amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42), but are improved by ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3s). The hypothesis of this study was that active Aβ1-42 phagocytosis by macrophages prevents brain amyloidosis and thus maintains cognition. We studied the effects of self-supplementation with a drink with ω-3s, antioxidants, and resveratrol on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, macrophage M1M2 phenotype [the ratio of inflammatory cluster of differentiation (CD)54+CD80 and proresolution markers CD163+CD206], and Aβ1-42 phagocytosis in patients initially diagnosed as having MCI or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). At baseline, the median MMSE score in patients in both the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε3/ε3 and ApoE ε3/ε4 groups was 26.0 and macrophage Aβ1-42 phagocytosis was defective. The MMSE rate of change increased in the ApoE ε3/ε3 group a median 2.2 points per year (P = 0.015 compared to 0) but did not change in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group (P = 0.014 between groups). In the ApoE ε3/ε3 group, all patients remained cognitively stable or improved; in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group, 1 recovered from dementia, but 3 lapsed into dementia. The macrophage phenotype polarized in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε3 to an intermediate (green zone) M1-M2 type at the rate of 0.226 U/yr, whereas in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε4, polarization was negative (P = 0.08 between groups). The baseline M1M2 type in the extreme M1 (red zone) or M2 (white zone) was unfavorable for cognitive outcome. Aβ1-42 phagocytosis increased in both ApoE groups (P = 0.03 in each groups). In vitro, the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) down regulated the M1 type in patients with ApoE ε3/ε3 but in some patients with ε3/ε4, paradoxically up-regulated the M1 type. Antioxidant/ω-3/resveratrol supplementation was associated with favorable immune and cognitive responses in ApoE ε3/ε3

  9. Increased intermediate M1-M2 macrophage polarization and improved cognition in mild cognitive impairment patients on ω-3 supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Famenini, Sam; Rigali, Elizabeth A.; Olivera-Perez, Henry M.; Dang, Johnny; Chang, Michael To; Halder, Ramesh; Rao, Rammohan V.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Porter, Verna; Bredesen, Dale; Fiala, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophages of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are defective in phagocytosis and degradation amyloid β1–42 (Aβ1–42), but are improved by ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3s). The hypothesis of this study was that active Aβ1–42 phagocytosis by macrophages prevents brain amyloidosis and thus maintains cognition. We studied the effects of self-supplementation with a drink with ω-3s, antioxidants, and resveratrol on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, macrophage M1M2 phenotype [the ratio of inflammatory cluster of differentiation (CD)54+CD80 and proresolution markers CD163+CD206], and Aβ1–42 phagocytosis in patients initially diagnosed as having MCI or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). At baseline, the median MMSE score in patients in both the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε3/ε3 and ApoE ε3/ε4 groups was 26.0 and macrophage Aβ1–42 phagocytosis was defective. The MMSE rate of change increased in the ApoE ε3/ε3 group a median 2.2 points per year (P = 0.015 compared to 0) but did not change in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group (P = 0.014 between groups). In the ApoE ε3/ε3 group, all patients remained cognitively stable or improved; in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group, 1 recovered from dementia, but 3 lapsed into dementia. The macrophage phenotype polarized in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε3 to an intermediate (green zone) M1-M2 type at the rate of 0.226 U/yr, whereas in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε4, polarization was negative (P = 0.08 between groups). The baseline M1M2 type in the extreme M1 (red zone) or M2 (white zone) was unfavorable for cognitive outcome. Aβ1–42 phagocytosis increased in both ApoE groups (P = 0.03 in each groups). In vitro, the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) down regulated the M1 type in patients with ApoE ε3/ε3 but in some patients with ε3/ε4, paradoxically up-regulated the M1 type. Antioxidant/ω-3/resveratrol supplementation was associated with favorable immune and cognitive responses in

  10. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Rios, Amelia; Arellano-Mendoza, Monica; Escalante, Bruno A.; Schnoor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion) would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications. PMID:25922641

  11. Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Responsiveness to Social Challenge in Adolescents with Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Slattery, Marcia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an adrenal androgen which is stress responsive and a trigger for pubertal maturation. Studies on basal DHEA suggest protective benefits against anxiety and depression, yet it is unknown whether DHEA responsivity is protective. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined salivary DHEA responses to a…

  12. Androgenic and estrogenic metabolites in serum of mice fed dehydroepiandrosterone: relationship to antihyperglycemic effects.

    PubMed

    Leiter, E H; Beamer, W G; Coleman, D L; Longcope, C

    1987-09-01

    The steroid prehormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has potent antihyperglycemic effects when fed in the diet of genetically diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze changes in sex steroid levels in serum of mice fed DHEA, and to compare the antihyperglycemic potencies of the various metabolites in order to clarify the mechanism of DHEA action. Steroid radioimmunoassays showed that dietary DHEA entered the blood in high concentrations and was actively metabolized to both androgens (testosterone, T; dihydrotestosterone, DHT) and estrogens (estrone, E1; 17 beta-estradiol, E2). This metabolism did not require intact adrenal glands or gonads. In C57BL/KsJ normal (+/+) males, conversion of DHEA to androgens was the prominent feature; in db/db males, DHEA feeding not only increased serum T and DHT, but also serum E1 and E2 levels. The db/db mice had increased amounts of adipose tissue that sequestered more intravenously injected 3H-E2; this additional body fat could account for increased aromatization of DHEA-derived estrogen precursors. Comparisons of the relative antihyperglycemic potencies of androgenic and estrogenic steroid metabolites of DHEA in db/db mice showed that the estrogens and metabolites with estrogenic properties (androstenediol) or those convertible to estrogens (DHEA sulfate) were the most potent. Although 17 beta-E2 was effective by injection or per os, DHEA was effective only when administered per os, implicating alimentary tract conversion of DHEA to more biologically active reactants. Based on the pivotal position of DHEA as a prehormone for androgens, estrogens, and etiocholanolones, an explanation of the seemingly paradoxical effects exerted by this compound in blocking autoimmune disease, hyperglycemia, obesity, and neoplasia was proposed.

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women. Relationships with age, body mass index and insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Mazza, E; Maccario, M; Ramunni, J; Gauna, C; Bertagna, A; Barberis, A M; Patroncini, S; Messina, M; Ghigo, E

    1999-10-01

    Sex and age are the major determinants of serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S): they are about twice in men than in women and show a progressive reduction from the end of the puberty to aging in both sexes. It has been reported that DHEA-S levels are also negatively influenced by insulin. Moreover, DHEA-S levels reduction has been associated to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, which connotes hyperinsulinemic states, such as obesity. We have evaluated serum levels of DHEA-S and insulin as function of age and body mass index (BMI) in 376 adult women (age 18.1-89.6 yrs, median 42.2; BMI 15.7-57.8 kg/m2, median 32.7) by multiple regression and piecewise regression analysis. Insulin levels positively associated to BMI (p=0.000002) and DHEA-S levels negatively associated with age (p=0.000001). Considering the whole population, DHEA-S levels were related positively with BMI (p=0.0013) independently of age. DHEA-S were also directly related to insulin levels independently of age (p=0.042), but this association disappeared after correction for BMI. Piecewise regression analysis did not reveal a threshold level for the increase of BMI (p=0.0004). Interestingly, DHEA-S levels and BMI were positively associated before but not after menopause. Taking into account only obese population, (no.=143, age 18.7-67.3 yrs, mean 39.0, median 39.4) DHEA-S levels were again related negatively with age and positively with BMI, while were unrelated with waist to hip ratio (p=0.391). Our data show that increasing body mass and insulin secretion is not associated to DHEA-S reduction in women. This evidence suggests that DHEA-S is unlikely implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in obese women.

  14. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on corticosterone release in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling-Ling; Wun, Wan-Song Alfred; Ho, L Low-Tone; Wang, Paulus S

    2003-12-01

    The decline of plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and maintenance of glucocorticoid levels with increasing age contribute to excess body fat accumulation, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and cancer. Although opposing actions of DHEA and corticosterone have been proposed in a rat model, the effects and action mechanisms of DHEA on rat adrenal zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells are still unclear. This study addressed the effects of DHEA on corticosterone release, cellular cAMP production, the functions of steroidogenic enzymes and the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc). ZFR cells were incubated with DHEA in the presence or absence of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), 8-Br-cAMP, forskolin, 25-OH-cholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone or deoxycorticosterone at 37 degrees C for 30 min, 1 h or 5 h and the concentration of corticosterone or pregnenolone measured subsequently in the media by RIA. The cells were used to measure the content of cAMP by RIA and to extract protein for Western blot or mRNA for RT-PCR analysis. The data demonstrated that (1) DHEA inhibited ACTH-, 8-Br-cAMP-, 25-OH-cholesterol-, pregnenolone-, progesterone- or deoxycorticosterone-stimulated corticosterone release; (2) DHEA increased 25-OH-cholesterol-stimulated pregnenolone release but not when 25-OH-cholesterol was combined with trilostane; (3) DHEA increased the K(m) of 11beta-hydroxylase but not P450scc; (4) DHEA affected the expression levels of StAR protein but not of P450scc. These results suggest that DHEA acts directly on rat ZFR cells to diminish corticosterone secretion by inhibition within the post-cAMP pathway, by inhibiting steroidogenic enzymes downstream from P450scc and by inhibiting StAR expression.

  15. Prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements increase cord leptin concentration in pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Meda, Nicolas; Taes, Youri; Valea, Innocent; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2013-05-01

    In developing countries, prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) were shown to increase birth size; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Cord blood hormone concentrations are strongly associated with birth size. Therefore, we hypothesize that LNSs increase birth size through a change in the endocrine regulation of fetal development. We compared the effect of daily prenatal LNSs with multiple micronutrient tablets on cord blood hormone concentrations using a randomized, controlled design including 197 pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II, their binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, leptin, cortisol, and insulin were quantified in cord sera using immunoassays. LNS was associated with higher cord blood leptin mainly in primigravidae (+57%; P = 0.02) and women from the highest tertile of BMI at study inclusion (+41%; P = 0.02). We did not find any significant LNS effects on other measured cord hormones. The observed increase in cord leptin was associated with a significantly higher birth weight. Cord sera from small-for-gestational age newborns had lower median IGF-I (-9 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGF-II (-79 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGFBP-3 (-0.7 μg/L; P = 0.007), and leptin (-1.0 μg/L; P = 0.016) concentrations but higher median cortisol (+18 μg/L; P = 0.037) concentrations compared with normally grown newborns. Prenatal LNS resulted in increased cord leptin concentrations in primigravidae and mothers with higher BMI at study inclusion. The elevated leptin concentrations could point toward a higher neonatal fat mass.

  16. Dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides increases short-chain fatty acids but decreases protein-derived catabolites in the intestinal luminal content of weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Li; Kong, Xiang-Feng; Lian, Guo-Qi; Blachier, Francois; Geng, Mei-Mei; Yin, Yu-Long

    2014-09-01

    The improvement of gut health and function with prebiotic supplements after weaning is an active area of research in pig nutrition. The present study was conducted to test the working hypothesis that medium-term dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) can affect the gut ecosystem in terms of microbiota composition, luminal bacterial short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and intestinal expression of genes related to intestinal immunity and barrier function. Ten Huanjiang mini-piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Each group received a standard diet containing either dietary supplementation with 0.5% corn starch (control group) or 0.5% SBOS (experimental group). The results showed that dietary supplementation with SBOS increased the diversity of intestinal microflora and elevated (P < .05) the numbers of some presumably beneficial intestinal bacteria (e.g., Bifidobacterium sp, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and Roseburia). Soybean oligosaccharide supplementation also increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acid in the intestinal lumen, and it reduced (P < .05) the numbers of bacteria with pathogenic potential (e.g., Escherichia coli, Clostridium, and Streptococcus) and the concentration of several protein-derived catabolites (e.g., isobutyrate, isovalerate, and ammonia). In addition, SBOS supplementation increased (P < .05) expression of zonula occludens 1 messenger RNA, and it decreased (P < .05) expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 8 messenger RNA in the ileum and colon. These findings suggest that SBOS supplementation modifies the intestinal ecosystem in weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets and has potentially beneficial effects on the gut.

  17. Adrenarche in bonobos (Pan paniscus): evidence from ontogenetic changes in urinary dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Hohmann, Gottfried; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias

    2012-07-01

    Adrenarche is characterized by the onset of adrenal secretions of increasing amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S). While the function of adrenarche remains a matter of speculation, evidence suggests that the morphological and physiological changes related to it are restricted to humans and closely related primates. Within the primate order, adrenarche has been described only in humans and chimpanzees, but bonobos, the sister species of chimpanzees, have not yet been studied regarding the early ontogenetic changes such as adrenarche. While bonobos and chimpanzees share many morphological and behavioral characteristics, they differ in a number of behavioral traits, and there is a growing interest in terms of the physiological differences that can be linked to species-specific patterns of social behavior. In this study, we measured urinary DHEA-S levels to determine whether bonobos experience physiological changes that are indicative of adrenarche. We measured DHEA-S in urine using ELISA and analyzed its levels in the samples from 53 bonobos aged 1-18 years. Our results show that bonobos experience an increase in DHEA-S levels after 5 years of age, which is comparable with the patterns observed in humans and chimpanzees. This indicates that bonobos do undergo adrenarche and that the timing of onset is similar to that of the two Pan species. The extraction procedures described in this report demonstrate the use of urine for monitoring ontogenetic changes in DHEA-S excretion. If applicable to other species, the technique would facilitate more research on the evolutionary origin of adrenarche and other developmental processes.

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone exerts antiglucocorticoid action on human preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    McNelis, Joanne C.; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos N.; Gathercole, Laura L.; Bujalska, Iwona J.; Stewart, Paul M.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids increase adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, a process underpinned by the local reactivation of inactive cortisone to active cortisol within adipocytes catalyzed by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). The adrenal sex steroid precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been shown to inhibit 11β-HSD1 in murine adipocytes; however, rodent adrenals do not produce DHEA physiologically. Here, we aimed to determine the effects and underlying mechanisms of the potential antiglucocorticoid action of DHEA and its sulfate ester DHEAS in human preadipocytes. Utilizing a human subcutaneous preadipocyte cell line, Chub-S7, we examined the metabolism and effects of DHEA in human adipocytes, including adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, 11β-HSD1 expression, and activity and glucose uptake. DHEA, but not DHEAS, significantly inhibited preadipocyte proliferation via cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase independent of sex steroid and glucocorticoid receptor activation. 11β-HSD1 oxoreductase activity in differentiated adipocytes was inhibited by DHEA. DHEA coincubated with cortisone significantly inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, which was assessed by the expression of markers of early (LPL) and terminal (G3PDH) adipocyte differentiation. Coincubation with cortisol, negating the requirement for 11β-HSD1 oxoreductase activity, diminished the inhibitory effect of DHEA. Further consistent with glucocorticoid-opposing effects of DHEA, insulin-independent glucose uptake was significantly enhanced by DHEA treatment. DHEA increases basal glucose uptake and inhibits human preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation, thereby exerting an antiglucocorticoid action. DHEA inhibition of the amplification of glucocorticoid action mediated by 11β-HSD1 contributes to the inhibitory effect of DHEA on human preadipocyte differentiation. PMID:24022868

  19. Nongenomic bronchodilating action elicited by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a guinea pig asthma model.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Julia; Montaño, Luis M; Perusquía, Mercedes

    2013-11-01

    Primates secrete large amounts of the precursor steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA); in humans, its levels are low during childhood and start declining after the fourth decade. It has been postulated that the progressive decline in DHEA levels may be related with the severity of asthma associated with age. To determine whether DHEA may regulate the airway smooth muscle (ASM) activity, isolated tracheal rings with and without epithelium from male guinea pigs were isometrically recorded to characterize the response of ASM to DHEA at different concentrations on KCl- and carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction as well as on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced contraction in sensitized guinea pigs. Additionally, we used barometric plethysmography in sensitized guinea pigs in order to compare changes of the lung resistance increased by the antigen challenge to OVA in the absence and presence of different doses of DHEA. DHEA concentration-dependently abolished the contraction to KCl, CCh and OVA, and no differences were found in preparations with and without epithelium. DHEA-induced relaxation was not modified by the suppression of protein synthesis or transcription, pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, nor by antagonist of β2-adrenergic receptors or an inhibitor of the 3β-HSD enzyme. Likewise, Ca(2+)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free depolarized tissues was antagonized by DHEA, and the contraction to the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel activator (Bay K 8644) was inhibited by DHEA. Furthermore, DHEA prevented OVA-induced increases in lung resistance. These results indicate that DHEA-induced relaxation in ASM is a nongenomic (membrane) action and is not produced after its bioconversion. The data suggest that DHEA-induced relaxation is an epithelium- and NO-independent mechanism that involves a blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels and possible non-selective cation channels.

  20. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P < .001) in the krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P < .05) in the menhaden oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P < .006). No significant differences for other safety variables were noted, including adverse events. In conclusion, 4 weeks of krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters.

  1. Linoleic acid supplementation results in increased arachidonic acid and eicosanoid production in CF airway cells and in cftr−/− transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Munir M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Andersson, Charlotte; Bhutta, Abdul Q.; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Laposata, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF leads to increased levels of arachidonate-derived proinflammatory metabolites and that this process is exacerbated by increasing linoleic acid levels in the diet. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of linoleic acid supplementation on downstream proinflammatory biomarkers in two CF models: 1) in vitro cell culture model using 16HBE14o− sense [wild-type (WT)] and antisense (CF) human airway epithelial cells; and 2) in an in vivo model using cftr−/− transgenic mice. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and IL-8 and eicosanoids were measured by ELISA. Neutrophils were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from knockout mice following linoleic acid supplementation and exposure to aerosolized Pseudomonas LPS. Linoleic acid supplementation increased arachidonic acid levels in CF but not WT cells. IL-8, PGE2, and PGF2α secretion were increased in CF compared with WT cells, with a further increase following linoleic acid supplementation. cftr−/− Mice supplemented with 100 mg of linoleic acid had increased arachidonic acid levels in lung tissue associated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the airway compared with control mice. These findings support the hypothesis that increasing linoleic acid levels in the setting of loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function leads to increased arachidonic acid levels and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:20656894

  2. Topical alpha-tocotrienol supplementation inhibits lipid peroxidation but fails to mitigate increased transepidermal water loss after benzoyl peroxide treatment of human skin.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan U; Thiele, Jens J; Han, Nancy; Luu, Chate; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Weber, Stefanie; Packer, Lester

    2003-01-15

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a commonly used drug in the treatment of acne vulgaris, but it induces unwanted side effects related to stratum corneum (SC) function. Since it has been recently shown to oxidize SC antioxidants, it was hypothesized that antioxidant supplementation may mitigate the BPO-induced SC changes. To test this, 11 subjects were selected to be topically supplemented with alpha-tocotrienol (5% w/vol) for 7 d on defined regions of the upper back, while the contralateral region was used for vehicle-only controls. Starting on day 8, all test sites were also treated with BPO (10%) for 7 d; the alpha-tocotrienol supplementation was continued throughout the study. A single dose of BPO depleted 93.2% of the total vitamin E. While continuing the BPO exposure for 7 d further depleted vitamin E in both vehicle-only and alpha-tocotrienol-treated sites, significantly more vitamin E remained in the alpha-tocotrienol-treated areas. Seven BPO applications increased lipid peroxidation. Alpha-tocotrienol supplementation significantly mitigated the BPO-induced lipid peroxidation. The transepidermal water loss was increased 1.9-fold by seven BPO applications, while there was no difference between alpha-tocotrienol treatment and controls. The data suggest that alpha-tocotrienol supplementation counteracts the lipid peroxidation but not the barrier perturbation in the SC induced by 10% BPO.

  3. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P < 0·001) in the presence of energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  4. Maternal Supplementation with Oligofructose (10%) during Pregnancy and Lactation Leads to Increased Pro-Inflammatory Status of the 21-D-Old Offspring.

    PubMed

    Mennitti, Laís Vales; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Oliveira, Juliana Lopez; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Santamarina, Aline Boveto; de Santana, Aline Alves; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha; Pisani, Luciana Pellegrini

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that oligofructose (10%) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased endotoxemia in 21-d-old pups. The present study evaluated the effect of 10% oligofructose diet supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat on the pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring. On the first day of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) was assessed using a specific kit. Protein expression was determined by Western Blotting, and the relative mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group. Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET. These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group. In conclusion, supplementing the dam's diet with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of hydrogenated vegetable fat addition, contributes to the increased pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring, possibly through the activation of the TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) pathway.

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone has strong antifibrotic effects and is decreased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Milla, Criselda; Valero Jiménez, Ana; Rangel, Claudia; Lozano, Alfredo; Morales, Violeta; Becerril, Carina; Chavira, Roberto; Ruiz, Víctor; Barrera, Lourdes; Montaño, Martha; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2013-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an ageing-related lung disorder characterised by expansion of the myofibroblast population and aberrant lung remodelling. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid pro-hormone, decreases with age but an exaggerated decline has been associated with chronic degenerative diseases. We quantified the plasma levels of DHEA and its sulfated form (DHEA-S) in 137 IPF patients and 58 controls and examined the effects of DHEA on human lung fibroblasts. Plasma DHEA/DHEA-S was significantly decreased in male IPF patients (median (range) DHEA: 4.4 (0.2-29.2) versus 6.7 (2.1-15.2) ng · mL(-1), p<0.01; DHEA-S: 47 (15.0-211) versus 85.2 (37.6-247.0) μg · dL(-1), p<0.001), while in females only DHEA-S was significantly decreased (32.6 (15.0-303.0) versus 68.3 (16.4-171) μg · dL(-1), p<0.001). DHEA caused a decrease in fibroblast proliferation and an approximately two-fold increase in fibroblast apoptosis, probably through the intrinsic pathway with activation of caspase-9. This effect was accompanied by upregulation of several pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor CDNK1A) and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (c-IAP)1 and c-IAP2. DHEA also caused a significant decrease of transforming growth factor-β1-induced collagen production and fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation, and inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-induced fibroblast migration. These findings demonstrate a disproportionate decrease of DHEA/DHEA-S in IPF patients and indicate that this molecule has multiple antifibrotic properties.

  6. Bovine liver slices: A multifunctional in vitro model to study the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    PubMed

    Rijk, Jeroen C W; Bovee, Toine F H; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Groot, Maria J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2012-09-01

    Biotransformation of inactive prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can lead to the formation of potent androgens and subsequent androgenic responses in target tissues. In the present study, precision-cut bovine liver slices were used to study the effects of DHEA on the metabolite, transcript and androgenic activity level. Bovine liver slices were exposed for 6h to various concentrations of DHEA. Changes in androgenic activity of the DHEA containing cell culture media were measured using a yeast androgen bioassay and metabolites were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS), while gene expression in the DHEA-treated liver slices was examined using bovine microarrays and compared with the profile as obtained with 17ß-testosterone (17ß-T). An increase in androgenic activity was observed in the bioassay upon testing of samples from incubations of DHEA with liver slices and the formation of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), 5-androstene-3ß,17ß-diol, 17ß-T, 7α-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA and 17α-T could be confirmed by UPLC-TOFMS analysis. Exposure of liver slices to DHEA and the strong androgen 17ß-T resulted in the identification of significantly up- and down-regulated genes and revealed similar gene expression profiles for both compounds. The results indicate that DHEA itself is biologically not very active, but is rapidly converted by the liver slices into the more androgen active compounds 4-AD and 17ß-T. Moreover, the present data highlight the multi-functionality of bovine liver slices as an in vitro bioactivation model, allowing the assessment of androgen activity or gene expression as effect-based endpoints for prohormone exposure.

  7. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on renal function and metabolism in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Jacob, Maria Helena Vianna Metello; da Rocha Janner, Daiane; Araújo, Alex Sander da Rosa; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos

    2011-05-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous steroid hormone involved in a number of biological actions in humans and rodents, but its effects on renal tissue have not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of DHEA treatment on diabetic rats, mainly in relation to renal function and metabolism. Diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injections of a 10mg/kg dose of DHEA diluted in oil. Plasma glucose and creatinine, in addition to urine creatinine, were quantified espectophotometrically. Glucose uptake and oxidation were quantified using radioactive glucose, the urinary Transforming Growth Factor β(1) (TGF-β(1)) was assessed by enzyme immunoassay, and the total glutathione in the renal tissue was also measured. The diabetic rats displayed higher levels of glycemia, and DHEA treatment reduced hyperglycemia. Plasmatic creatinine levels were higher in the diabetic rats treated with DHEA, while creatinine clearance was lower. Glucose uptake and oxidation were lower in the renal medulla of the diabetic rats treated with DHEA, and urinary TGF-β(1), as well as total gluthatione levels, were higher in the diabetic rats treated with DHEA. DHEA treatment was not beneficial to renal tissue, since it reduced the glomerular filtration rate and renal medulla metabolism, while increasing the urinary excretion of TGF-β(1) and the compensatory response by the glutathione system, probably due to a mechanism involving a pro-oxidant action or a pro-fibrotic effect of this androgen or its derivatives. In conclusion, this study reports that DHEA treatment may be harmful to renal tissue, but the mechanisms of this action have not yet been fully understood.

  8. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on follicular dynamics in a diminished ovarian reserve in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Hassa, Hikmet; Aydin, Yunus; Ozatik, Orhan; Erol, Kevser; Ozatik, Yasemin

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there are changes in primary, primordial, and growing follicles after dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration in rats that have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) due to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) application, and to examine the mechanism of the probable effect of DHEA on folliculogenesis. Two groups of Wistar rats were used. In Group A unilateral oophorectomy (eight rats) was carried out on day-0. The remaining study ovary was removed by relaparotomy after VCD (160 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered for 15 days. In Group B unilateral oophorectomy (eight rats) was carried out on day-0. The remaining study ovary was removed by relaparotomy after VCD (160 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) administration for 15 days followed by DHEA (60 mg/kg body weight) daily for 45 days. Primordial, primary, and growing (secondary+antral) follicles were counted in 1,664 sections from 32 ovaries. In all three types of follicles (primordial, primary, and growing), the number of follicles significantly decreased in the study ovaries compared to the control ovaries in both Group A and Group B. In Group B, atresia rates were significantly lower in the study ovary compared to the control ovary in all of the follicular groups: primordial (p=0.02), primary (p=0.01), and growing (p=.027). To demonstrate the probable effects of DHEA on follicular dynamics, we also compared the study ovaries in both groups; the primordial (p=0.027), primary (p=0.031), and growing (p=0.04) number of follicles were significantly higher in Group B compared to Group A. In conclusion, our findings suggest that DHEA administration in DOR rats due to VCD results in a larger follicular pool. Decreased atresia may be one of the possible effects of DHEA in DOR cases. Whatever the mechanism, DHEA treatment potentially may be useful clinically as a means to increase the number of gonadotropin-responsive follicles for ovarian stimulation.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) restrains intestinal inflammation by rendering leukocytes hyporesponsive and balancing colitogenic inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vanessa Beatriz Freitas; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angélica; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros

    2016-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone that plays an important role in the modulation of inflammatory responses. However, the precise mechanisms that link the actions of this androgen with protection or susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remain uknown. Here we showed that low dose DHEA inhibited proliferation of spleen cells and IFN-у production. The hormone was not toxic to myeloid lineage cells, although it caused necrosis of spleen cells at the intermediate and highest doses in vitro (50 and 100μM). The treatment of C57BL/6 mice with DHEA during colitis induction by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) led to a reduction in weight loss and clinical signs of disease. There were decreased peripheral blood monocytes on day 6 of DSS exposure and treatment, besides increase in circulating neutrophils in the tissue repair phase. DHEA also led to reduced lamina propria cellularity and restoration of normal colon length. These results were accompanied by decreased expression of IL-6 and TGF-β mRNA, while IL-13 was augmented in the colon on day 6, which was probably related to attenuation of inflammation. There was retention of CD4(+) cells in the spleen after use of DHEA, along with augmented frequency of CD4(+)IL-4(+) cells, decreased CD4(+)IFN-ɣ(+) in spleen and constrained CD4(+)IL-17(+) population in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Moreover, splenocytes of mice treated with DHEA became hyporesponsive, as observed by reduced proliferation after re-stimulation ex-vivo. In conclusion, DHEA modifyies leukocyte activity and balances the exacerbated immune responses which drive local and systemic damages in IBD.

  10. Role of androgen and estrogen receptors for the action of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    PubMed

    Engdahl, Cecilia; Lagerquist, Marie K; Stubelius, Alexandra; Andersson, Annica; Studer, Erik; Ohlsson, Claes; Westberg, Lars; Carlsten, Hans; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena

    2014-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an abundant steroid hormone, and its mechanism of action is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the importance of androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ERs) for DHEA function. Orchidectomized C57BL/6 mice were treated with DHEA, DHT, 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (E2), or vehicle. Orchidectomized AR-deficient (ARKO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were treated with DHEA or vehicle for 2.5 weeks. At termination, bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated, thymus and seminal vesicles were weighted, and submandibular glands (SMGs) were histologically examined. To evaluate the in vivo ER activation of the classical estrogen signaling pathway, estrogen response element reporter mice were treated with DHEA, DHT, E2, or vehicle, and a reporter gene was investigated in different sex steroid-sensitive organs after 24 hours. DHEA treatment increased trabecular BMD and thymic atrophy in both WT and ARKO mice. In WT mice, DHEA induced enlargement of glands in the SMGs, whereas this effect was absent in ARKO mice. Furthermore, DHEA was able to induce activation of classical estrogen signaling in bone, thymus, and seminal vesicles but not in the SMGs. In summary, the DHEA effects on trabecular BMD and thymus do not require signaling via AR and DHEA can activate the classical estrogen signaling in these organs. In contrast, DHEA induction of gland size in the SMGs is dependent on AR and does not involve classical estrogen signaling. Thus, both ERs and ARs are involved in mediating the effects of DHEA in an organ-dependent manner.

  11. l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation increase glutamine-glutathione axis and muscle HSP-27 in rats trained using a progressive high-intensity resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Leite, Jaqueline Santos Moreira; Raizel, Raquel; Hypólito, Thaís Menezes; Rosa, Thiago Dos Santos; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-08-01

    In this study we investigated the chronic effects of oral l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation, either in their free or dipeptide form, on glutamine-glutathione (GLN-GSH) axis and cytoprotection mediated by HSP-27 in rats submitted to resistance exercise (RE). Forty Wistar rats were distributed into 5 groups: sedentary; trained (CTRL); and trained supplemented with l-alanyl-l-glutamine, l-glutamine and l-alanine in their free form (GLN+ALA), or free l-alanine (ALA). All trained animals were submitted to a 6-week ladder-climbing protocol. Supplementations were offered in a 4% drinking water solution for 21 days prior to euthanasia. Plasma glutamine, creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MYO), and erythrocyte concentration of reduced GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were measured. In tibialis anterior skeletal muscle, GLN-GSH axis, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP-27), and glutamine synthetase were determined. In CRTL animals, high-intensity RE reduced muscle glutamine levels and increased GSSG/GSH rate and TBARS, as well as augmented plasma CK and MYO levels. Conversely, l-glutamine-supplemented animals showed an increase in plasma and muscle levels of glutamine, with a reduction in GSSG/GSH rate, TBARS, and CK. Free l-alanine administration increased plasma glutamine concentration and lowered muscle TBARS. HSF-1 and HSP-27 were high in all supplemented groups when compared with CTRL (p < 0.05). The results presented herein demonstrate that l-glutamine supplemented with l-alanine, in both a free or dipeptide form, improve the GLN-GSH axis and promote cytoprotective effects in rats submitted to high-intensity RE training.

  12. Short-term dietary concentrate supplementation during estrus synchronization treatment in beef cows increased IGF-I serum concentration but did not affect the reproductive response.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Torres, A M; López-Cedillo, Z B; Hernández-Coronado, C G; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Mendoza, G D; Guzmán, A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if short-term dietary concentrate supplementation increased IGF-I serum concentration and resulted in a reproductive response during estrus synchronization treatment in non-lactating beef cows. Thirty non-lactating beef cows (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) were allocated to the same pastureland and fed native tropical grasses as a basal diet. Cows were synchronized using a 7-day CO-Synch plus controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and received fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI). Cows were divided into two groups; the control group (n = 16) received 0.5 kg of concentrate/cow/day, whereas the supplemented group (n = 14) received 4.0 kg of concentrate/cow/day. The period of supplementation was 10 days from the day of CIDR insert to FTAI. The concentration of IGF-I increased (P < 0.05) in the supplemented group, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. Moreover, at the time of insemination, IGF-I serum concentrations were higher in supplemented cows compared with control cows (P < 0.05). Notably, metabolite and insulin concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatment groups or sampling day. The response to estrus induction, measured as estrus presentation, ovulation rate, and pregnancy rate, was similar between experimental groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that supplementation with dietary concentrate for 10 days in non-lactating beef cows changed the endocrine milieu, specifically increasing IGF-I serum concentration. However, these endocrine changes did not affect response to estrous induction treatment.

  13. Leucine supplementation of a low-protein meal increases skeletal muscle and visceral tissue protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein synthesis and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) activation are increased in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs parenterally infused with amino acids. Leucine appears to be the most effective single amino acid to trigger these effects. To examine the response to enteral leucine supplementation...

  14. Increasing glucogenic precursors in range supplements improves reproductive efficiency and profitability in young postpartum range cows in years 2000 to 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency in young beef cows is often compromised due to a mismatch of physiological demands and suboptimal environmental conditions. Studies conducted at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center from 2000 to 2007 evaluated 3 postpartum supplement strategies increasing in glucog...

  15. Vitamin A supplementation leads to increases in regulatory CD4+Foxp3+LAP+ T cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Samara R; Pinheiro-Rosa, Natalia; Lemos, Luisa; Loli, Flavia G; Pereira, Alline G; Santiago, Andrezza F; Pinter, Ester C; Alves, Andrea C; Oliveira, Jamil S; Cara, Denise C; Maioli, Tatiani U; Faria, Ana Maria C

    2015-10-01

    Dietary compounds, including micronutrients such as vitamin A and its metabolite retinoic acid, directly influence the development and function of the immune system. In this study, we show that either dietary deficiency of or supplementation with vitamin A had immunologic effects in mice that were fed these diets during their development (for 8 wk during the postweaning period). Deficient mice presented higher levels of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, transforming growth factor-β, IL-17, and IL-10 in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues and draining lymph nodes, indicating a proinflammatory shift in the gut mucosa. Serum immunoglobulin G levels also were elevated in these mice. Conversely, supplemented mice showed higher frequencies of CD4+Foxp3+LAP+ regulatory T cells in gut lymphoid tissues and spleen, suggesting that vitamin A supplementation in the diet may be beneficial in pathologic situations such as inflammatory bowel diseases.

  16. Dietary l-leucine supplementation of lactating rats results in a tendency to increase lean/fat ratio associated to lower orexigenic neuropeptide expression in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    López, N; Sánchez, J; Picó, C; Palou, A; Serra, F

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dietary leucine supplementation in lactating dams, particularly on energy homeostasis through signaling mechanisms in the central nervous system. Dams were fed ad libitum with standard diet during pregnancy (control dams) or supplemented with 2% leucine (leucine-supplemented dams) from delivery onwards. Food intake, body weight and composition were periodically recorded. Hypothalamus was collected at the end of lactation, and the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), insulin receptor (InsR), ghrelin receptor (GSHR), melanocortin receptor (MCR4), leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) were analyzed. Dietary leucine supplementation to lactating rats increased plasma leucine by 56%, modulated body composition and contributed to a tendency of higher ratio of lean/fat mass content of dams during lactation, without affecting food intake, thermogenesis capacity or body or tissue/organs weights. No differences in body weight of offspring from control and leucine-supplemented dams were found. The expression of orexigenic peptides (NPY and AgRP) decreased in leucine-dams, whereas the expression of anorexigenic peptides (POMC and CART), the hypothalamic receptors of insulin, ghrelin, melanocortin and leptin and SOCS3 did not change by leucine supplementation. In conclusion, increased leucine intake during lactation may contribute to a healthier profile of body composition in dams, without compromising the growth and development of the progeny by a mechanism associated with lower expression of orexigenic neuropeptides in hypothalamus.

  17. Antioxidant vitamins C and E supplementation increases markers of haemolysis in sickle cell anaemia patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Martha M; Mecabo, Grazielle; Rodrigues, Celso A; Matsuda, Sandra S; Rabelo, Iara B; Figueiredo, Maria S

    2013-03-01

    Erythrocytes from sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients continuously produce larger amounts of pro-oxidants than normal cells. Oxidative stress seems to primarily affect the membrane and results in haemolysis. The use of antioxidants in vitro reduces the generation of pro-oxidants. To evaluate the impact of vitamins C (VitC) and E (VitE) supplementation in SCA patients, patients over 18 years were randomly assigned to receive VitC 1400 mg + VitE 800 mg per day or placebo orally for 180 d. Eighty-three patients were enrolled (44 vitamins, 39 placebo), median age 27 (18-68) years, 64% female. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding clinical complications or baseline laboratorial tests. Sixty percent of the patients were VitC deficient, 70% were VitE deficient. Supplementation significantly increased serum VitC and E. However, no significant changes in haemoglobin levels were observed, and, unexpectedly, there was a significant increase in haemolytic markers with vitamin supplementation. In conclusion, VitC + VitE supplementation did not improve anaemia and, surprisingly, increased markers of haemolysis in patients with SCA and S-β(0) -thalassaemia. The exact mechanisms to explain this findings and their clinical significance remain to be determined.

  18. Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids increases protein synthesis in children wHh severe acute malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although 2 earlier studies reported that aromatic amino acid (AAA) supplementation of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) improved whole-body protein anabolism during the early postadmission (maintenance) phase of rehabilitation, it is not known whether this positive effect was maintained ...

  19. NIH-funded study shows increased prostate cancer risk from vitamin E supplements | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Men who took 400 international units (I.U.) of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,000 men, there were 76 prostate cancers in men who took only vitamin E supplements, vs. |

  20. Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Brito, A; Chiquette, J; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H; Girard, C L

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (mean±standard deviation=238±21 days in milk and 736±47 kg of BW) were used in a crossover design. Cows were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of a gelatin capsule containing 1.5 g of 5,6-DMB via the rumen cannula or no supplement. Each period lasted 29 days and consisted of 21 days for treatment adaptation and 8 days for data and samples collection. Five corrinoids, CBL and four cobamides were detected in the total mixed ration and the omasal digesta from both treatments. The dietary supplement of 5,6-DMB increased (P=0.02) apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL from 14.6 to 19.6 (s.e.m. 0.8) mg/day but had no effect (P>0.1) on apparent ruminal synthesis of the four analogs. The supplement of 5,6-DMB had no effect (P>0.1) on milk production and composition, or on protozoal count, ruminal pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in rumen content. The supplement had also no effect (P>0.1) on intake, omasal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and nitrogenous fractions. Plasma concentration of CBL was not affected by treatments (P=0.98). Providing a preformed part of the CBL molecule, that is, 5,6-DMB, increased by 34% the apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL by ruminal bacteria but had no effect on ruminal fermentation or protozoa count and it was not sufficient to increase plasma concentrations of the vitamin. Even though

  1. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women <14 wk of gestation in Bangalore, India, were randomly assigned to receive daily oral supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P < 0.001) and third (median: 184 vs. 105 pmol/L, P < 0.001) trimesters. At 6 wk postpartum, median breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P < 0.0005). Among vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are

  2. Effects of Vitamin E Supplements and Diet on Colonic α- and γ-tocopherol Concentrations In Persons at Increased Colon Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiting; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Askew, Leah M.; Sidahmed, ElKhansa; Brenner, Dean E.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Turgeon, D. Kim; Djuric, Zora

    2014-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that γ-tocopherol has more potential for colon cancer prevention than α-tocopherol, but little is known about the effects of foods and supplements on tocopherol levels in human colon. This study randomized 120 subjects at increased colon cancer risk to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet for six months. Supplement use was reported by 39% of the subjects, and vitamin E intake from supplements was 2-fold higher than that from foods. Serum α-tocopherol at baseline was positively predicted by dietary intakes of synthetic vitamin E in foods and supplements but not by natural α-tocopherol from foods. For serum γ-tocopherol, dietary γ-tocopherol was not a predictor, but dietary α-tocopherol was a negative predictor. Unlike with serum, the data supported a role for metabolic factors, and not a direct effect of diet, in governing concentrations of both α- and γ-tocopherol in colon. The Mediterranean intervention increased intakes of natural α-tocopherol, which is high in nuts, and decreased intakes of γ-tocopherol, which is low in olive oil. These dietary changes had no significant effects on colon tocopherols. The impact of diet on colon tocopherols therefore appears to be limited. PMID:25372556

  3. Dietary zinc supplementation of 3xTg-AD mice increases BDNF levels and prevents cognitive deficits as well as mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, C; Masciopinto, F; Silvestri, E; Viscovo, A Del; Lattanzio, R; Sorda, R La; Ciavardelli, D; Goglia, F; Piantelli, M; Canzoniero, L M T; Sensi, S L

    2010-10-28

    The overall effect of brain zinc (Zn(2+)) in the progression and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still not completely understood. Although an excess of Zn(2+) can exacerbate the pathological features of AD, a deficit of Zn(2+) intake has also been shown to increase the volume of amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary Zn(2+) supplementation (30 p.p.m.) in a transgenic mouse model of AD, the 3xTg-AD, that expresses both β amyloid (Aβ)- and tau-dependent pathology. We found that Zn(2+) supplementation greatly delays hippocampal-dependent memory deficits and strongly reduces both Aβ and tau pathology in the hippocampus. We also evaluated signs of mitochondrial dysfunction and found that Zn(2+) supplementation prevents the age-dependent respiratory deficits we observed in untreated 3xTg-AD mice. Finally, we found that Zn(2+) supplementation greatly increases the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) of treated 3xTg-AD mice. In summary, our data support the idea that controlling the brain Zn(2+) homeostasis may be beneficial in the treatment of AD.

  4. Effects of vitamin E from supplements and diet on colonic α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in persons at increased colon cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiting; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Askew, Leah M; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Brenner, Dean E; Ruffin, Mack T; Turgeon, D Kim; Djuric, Zora

    2015-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that γ-tocopherol has more potential for colon cancer prevention than α-tocopherol, but little is known about the effects of foods and supplements on tocopherol levels in human colon. This study randomized 120 subjects at increased colon cancer risk to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet for 6 mo. Supplement use was reported by 39% of the subjects, and vitamin E intake from supplements was twofold higher than that from foods. Serum α-tocopherol at baseline was positively predicted by dietary intakes of synthetic vitamin E in foods and supplements but not by natural α-tocopherol from foods. For serum γ-tocopherol, dietary γ-tocopherol was not a predictor, but dietary α-tocopherol was a negative predictor. Unlike with serum, the data supported a role for metabolic factors, and not a direct effect of diet, in governing concentrations of both α- and γ-tocopherol in colon. The Mediterranean intervention increased intakes of natural α-tocopherol, which is high in nuts, and decreased intakes of γ-tocopherol, which is low in olive oil. These dietary changes had no significant effects on colon tocopherols. The impact of diet on colon tocopherols therefore appears to be limited.

  5. [The influence of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on the extinction of passive avoidance in aggressive and submissive mice].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Tomilenko, R A; Obut, T A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) on the extinction of passive avoidance was studied on C57Bl/6J mice with aggressive and submissive behavioral stereotypes. Administered in a single dose 30 mg/kg one day or one hour before training, DHEAS selectively blocked the extinction of the conditioned habit in submissive mice, thus favoring its retrieval. The probable mechanism of this phenomenon can be related to a decrease in the level of inhibiting control in the GABAergic system.

  6. The broader context of antibiotic resistance: zinc feed supplementation of piglets increases the proportion of multi-resistant Escherichia coli in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bednorz, Carmen; Oelgeschläger, Kathrin; Kinnemann, Bianca; Hartmann, Susanne; Neumann, Konrad; Pieper, Robert; Bethe, Astrid; Semmler, Torsten; Tedin, Karsten; Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    Following the Europe-wide ban of antimicrobial growth promoters, feed supplementation with zinc has increased in livestock breeding. In addition to possible beneficial effects on animal health, feed supplementation with heavy metals is known to influence the gut microbiota and might promote the spread of antimicrobial resistance via co-selection or other mechanisms. As Escherichia coli is among the most important pathogens in pig production and often displays multi-resistant phenotypes, we set out to investigate the influence of zinc feed additives on the composition of the E. coli populations in vivo focusing on phylogenetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance. In a piglet feeding trial, E. coli were isolated from ileum and colon digesta of high dose zinc-supplemented (2500ppm) and background dose (50ppm) piglets (control group). The E. coli population was characterized via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) for the determination of the phylogenetic background. Phenotypic resistance screening via agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration testing was followed by detection of resistance genes for selected clones. We observed a higher diversity of E. coli clones in animals supplemented with zinc compared to the background control group. The proportion of multi-resistant E. coli was significantly increased in the zinc group compared to the control group (18.6% vs. 0%). For several subclones present both in the feeding and the control group we detected up to three additional phenotypic and genotypic resistances in the subclones from the zinc feeding group. Characterization of these subclones suggests an increase in antimicrobial resistance due to influences on plasmid uptake by zinc supplementation, questioning the reasonability of zinc feed additives as a result of the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters.

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone intra vaginal administration for the management of postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intravaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for the management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy are reviewed. A literature search related to vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy, atrophic vaginitis, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone, vulvar itching, burning, dryness, dyspareunia, and libido was performed. Relevant articles addressing the incidence, management, and outcome of DHEA therapy were identified and used for this Expert Opinion. DHEA compared to a placebo is an effective treatment improving symptoms of vaginal atrophy: dyspareunia, burning, itching, and dryness. Objective parameters of vaginal atrophy, specifically pH, vaginal maturation index (VMI), and investigator-evaluated changes in the vagina: moisture, epithelia integrity and color were improved compared to baseline and placebo. There were significant improvements in libido and dyspareunia with the intravaginal use of DHEA that contribute to improved quality of life for postmenopausal women. Dehydroepiandrosterone administered intravaginally on a daily basis is an effective treatment for symptoms, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy along with libido in postmenopausal women. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'.

  8. Effects of androstenedione-herbal supplementation on serum sex hormone concentrations in 30- to 59-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Brown, G A; Vukovich, M D; Martini, E R; Kohut, M L; Franke, W D; Jackson, D A; King, D S

    2001-09-01

    The effectiveness of a nutritional supplement designed to enhance serum testosterone concentrations and prevent the formation of dihydrotestosterone and estrogens from the ingested androgens was investigated in healthy 30- to 59-year old men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume DION (300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg dehydroepiandrosterone, 540 mg saw palmetto, 300 mg indole-3-carbinol, 625 mg chrysin, and 750 mg Tribulus terrestris per day; n = 28) or placebo (n = 27) for 28 days. Serum free testosterone, total testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and lipid concentrations were measured before and throughout the 4-week supplementation period. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and PSA were unchanged by supplementation. DION increased (p < 0.05) serum androstenedione (342%), free testosterone (38%), dihydrotestosterone (71%), and estradiol (103%) concentrations. Serum HDL-C concentrations were reduced by 5.0 mg/dL in DION (p < 0.05). Increases in serum free testosterone (r2 = 0.01), androstenedione (r2 = 0.01), dihydrotestosterone (r2 = 0.03), or estradiol (r2 = 0.07) concentrations in DION were not related to age. While the ingestion of androstenedione combined with herbal products increased serum free testosterone concentrations in older men, these herbal products did not prevent the conversion of ingested androstenedione to estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

  9. Creatine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Trojian, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine triphosphate. The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g·kg·d for 5 to 7 days, followed by maintenance dosing at 0.03 g·kg·d most commonly for 4 to 6 wk. However loading doses are not necessary to increase the intramuscular stores of creatine. Creatine monohydrate is the most studied; other forms such as creatine ethyl ester have not shown added benefits. Creatine is a relatively safe supplement with few adverse effects reported. The most common adverse effect is transient water retention in the early stages of supplementation. When combined with other supplements or taken at higher than recommended doses for several months, there have been cases of liver and renal complications with creatine. Further studies are needed to evaluate the remote and potential future adverse effects from prolonged creatine supplementation.

  10. Overstocking dairy cows during the dry period affects dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Fustini, M; Galeati, G; Gabai, G; Mammi, L E; Bucci, D; Baratta, M; Accorsi, P A; Formigoni, A

    2017-01-01

    Stressful situations trigger several changes such as the secretion of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the adrenal cortex, in response to ACTH. The aim of this study was to verify whether overstocking during the dry period (from 21±3 d to the expected calving until calving) affects DHEA and cortisol secretion and behavior in Holstein Friesian cows. Twenty-eight cows were randomly divided into 2 groups (14 animals each), balanced for the number of lactations, body condition score, and expected date of calving. Cows in the far-off phase of the dry period (from 60 to 21 d before the expected calving date) were housed together in a bedded pack. Then, animals from 21±3 d before the expected calving until calving were housed in pens with the same size but under different crowding conditions due to the introduction of heifers (interference animals) into the pen. The control condition (CTR) had 2 animals per pen with 12.0m(2) each, whereas the overstocked condition (OS) had 3 interference animals in the same pen with 4.8m(2) for each animal. On d -30±3, -21±3, -15±3, -10±3, and -5±3 before and 10, 20, and 30 after calving, blood samples were collected from each cow for the determination of plasma DHEA and cortisol concentrations by RIA. Rumination time (min/d), activity (steps/h), lying time (min/d), and lying bouts (bouts/d) were individually recorded daily. In both groups, DHEA increased before calving and the concentration declined rapidly after parturition. Overstocking significantly increased DHEA concentration compared with the CTR group at d -10 (1.79±0.09 vs. 1.24±0.14 pmol/mL), whereas an increase of cortisol was observed at d -15 (3.64±0.52 vs. 1.64±0.46ng/mL). The OS group showed significantly higher activity (steps/h) compared with the CTR group. Daily lying bouts tended to be higher for the OS group compared with CTR group in the first week of treatment. The overall results of this study documented that overstocking during the dry

  11. Low-dose growth hormone supplementation increases clinical pregnancy rate in poor responders undergoing in vitro fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Lattes, Karinna; Brassesco, Mario; Gomez, Manuel; Checa, Miguel A

    2015-07-01

    Poor ovarian response (POR) often means low success rates after in vitro fertilisation (IVF). We aim to study the impact of a low-dose growth hormone (GH) supplementation in pregnancy rates in poor responders in a prospective, self-controlled study of 64 poor responders to previous IVF cycles, who failed to achieve pregnancy and were supplemented with low-doses of GH in a subsequent cycle using the same gonadotropin dose and protocol. Our primary endpoint was the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), considering secondary endpoints, the number of retrieved oocytes, embryos, embryo quality and the proportion of cycles with embryo transfer. CPR in the GH group was 34.4%. Significant differences were observed for the GH group both in the number of top quality embryos (0.64 ± 0.88 versus 1.03 ± 1.17, p < 0.05) and cryopreserved embryos (0.3 ± 0.81 versus 0.85 ± 1.49, p < 0.05). This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical trial to use a low dose of GH as a supplement for IVF in POR patients. Despite this low dose, we achieved excellent success rates in patients with a very poor prognosis, at a reasonable cost and without side effects, which makes this a safe and cost-effective alternative.

  12. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial123

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I; Atherton, Philip; Reeds, Dominic N; Mohammed, B Selma; Rankin, Debbie; Rennie, Michael J; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loss of muscle mass with aging is a major public health concern. Omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids stimulate protein anabolism in animals and might therefore be useful for the treatment of sarcopenia. However, the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on human protein metabolism is unknown. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults. Design: Sixteen healthy, older adults were randomly assigned to receive either omega-3 fatty acids or corn oil for 8 wk. The rate of muscle protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of key elements of the anabolic signaling pathway were evaluated before and after supplementation during basal, postabsorptive conditions and during a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results: Corn oil supplementation had no effect on the muscle protein synthesis rate and the extent of anabolic signaling element phosphorylation in muscle. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation had no effect on the basal rate of muscle protein synthesis (mean ± SEM: 0.051 ± 0.005%/h compared with 0.053 ± 0.008%/h before and after supplementation, respectively; P = 0.80) but augmented the hyperaminoacidemia-hyperinsulinemia–induced increase in the rate of muscle protein synthesis (from 0.009 ± 0.005%/h above basal values to 0.031 ± 0.003%/h above basal values; P < 0.01), which was accompanied by greater increases in muscle mTORSer2448 (P = 0.08) and p70s6kThr389 (P < 0.01) phosphorylation. Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate muscle protein synthesis in older adults and may be useful for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. This trial was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT00794079. PMID:21159787

  13. Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Zebrowska, Aleksandra; Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Langfort, Jozef

    2010-04-01

    This placebo-controlled double-blind study was designed to investigate the effect of arginine and ornithine (arg and orn) supplementation during 3-week heavy-resistance training on serum growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1/insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (GH/IGF-1/IGFBP-3), testosterone, cortisol, and insulin levels in experienced strength-trained athletes. The subjects were randomly divided between a placebo group (n = 8) and the l-Arg/l-Orn-supplemented group (n = 9), and performed pre and posttraining standard exercise tests with the same absolute load, which consisted of the same exercise schedule as that applied in the training process. Fasting blood samples were obtained at rest, 2 minutes after the cessation of the strength exercise protocol, and after 1 hour of recovery. The resting concentrations of the investigated hormones and IGFBP-3 did not differ significantly between the study groups. In response to exercise test, all the hormones were elevated (p < 0.05) at both time points. Significant increases (p < 0.05) were observed in both GH and IGF-1 serum levels after arg and orn supplementation at both time points, whereas a significant decrease was seen in IGFBP-3 protein during the recovery period. Because there was no between-group difference in the remaining hormone levels, it appears that the GH/IGF-1/IGFBP-3 complex may be the major player in muscle tissue response to short-term resistance training after arg and orn supplementation.

  14. Increased blood oxidative stress in experimental menopause rat model: the effects of vitamin A low-dose supplementation upon antioxidant status in bilateral ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Menopause has been reported to be associated with increased oxidative stress and metabolic disorders among women worldwide. Disarrangements in the redox state similar to those observed in women during the decline of ovarian hormonal activity can be obtained experimentally through rat bilateral ovariectomy. The search for alternative treatments to improve life quality in postmenopausal woman is really important. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and oxidative stress parameters that distinguish sham-operated female rats from Wistar rats bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX). Additionally, we have also investigated the effects of retinol palmitate (a vitamin A supplement) low-dose supplementation (500 or 1500 IU/kg/day, during 30 days) upon blood and plasma antioxidant status in OVX rats. Ovariectomy caused an increase in body weight gain, pronounced uterine atrophy, decreased plasma triglycerides and increased total cholesterol levels, and reduced acid uric content. Moreover, we found increased blood peroxidase activities (catalase and glutathione peroxidase), decreased plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses total reactive antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity, decreased protein and non-protein SH levels, accompanied by increased protein oxidative damage (carbonyl). In addition, vitamin A low-dose supplementation was capable to ameliorate antioxidant status in OVX rats, restoring both enzymatic and non-enzymatic defenses, promoting reduction in plasma SH content, and decreasing protein oxidative damage levels. This is the first work in the literature showing that vitamin A at low dose may be beneficial in the treatment of menopause symptoms. Further studies will be made to better understand the effects of vitamin A supplementation in menopause rat model.

  15. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  16. Gene for ovarian granulosa cell tumor susceptibility, Gct, in SWXJ recombinant inbred strains of mice revealed by dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Beamer, W G; Tennent, B J; Shultz, K L; Nadeau, J H; Shultz, L D; Skow, L C

    1988-09-15

    Spontaneous, malignant ovarian granulosa cell (GC) tumors occur in pubertal SWR and specific SWXJ recombinant inbred strains of mice. Treatment of these mice with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal secretory steroid with anticancer actions against spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumors of different tissues, gave unexpected results. Diet supplemented with 0.4% DHEA (a) induced significantly more GC tumors in spontaneous tumor-susceptible strains (SWR and SWXJ-1, -4, and -9), (b) induced the first GC tumors observed in five previously tumor-free strains (SWXJ-6, -7, -8, -10, and -12), and (c) failed to induce GC tumors in SJL and in the remaining six SWXJ strains (SWXJ-2, -3, -5, -11, -13, and -14). The strain distribution pattern of DHEA-induced GC tumor susceptibility versus resistance was compared with strain distribution patterns for 35 different loci known to distinguish SWR and SJL progenitor strains. A complete match of DHEA-induced GC tumors with pancreas-2 (Pan-2) on mouse chromosome 4 was found. We have named this new locus GC tumor susceptibility (Gct), with the Gcts (susceptible) allele found in SWR and the Gctr (resistant) allele found in SJL mice. The Gct locus is closely linked to pancreas-2, Pan-2, but the order of genes is not yet confirmed. In addition, data from F1 progeny of matings between SWR and selected inbred strains provide suggestive evidence for a second gene controlling GC tumor incidence that we hypothesize involves steroid metabolism. Differences in GC tumor incidence data from reciprocal F1 progeny of matings between SWR and SJL mice reveal a strong maternal effect that may represent yet a third gene. These data support a heritable basis for GC tumorigenesis in the SWR model involving a small number of genes.

  17. Supplementation with linoleic acid-rich soybean oil stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via increased oxidative stress and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-mediated triglyceride biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Jeries, Helana; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael

    2017-01-02

    During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice. Lipid peroxidation and triglyceride mass in aortas from SO or LA supplemented mice were dose-dependently and significantly increased. In MPM from SO or LA supplemented mice, lipid peroxides were significantly increased and a marked accumulation of cellular triglycerides was found in accordance with enhanced triglyceride biosynthesis rate and overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. In cultured J774A.1 macrophages treated with SO or LA, triglyceride accumulated via increased oxidative stress and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated overexpression of DGAT1. Accordingly, anti-oxidants (pomegranate polyphenols), inhibition of p38 MAPK (by SB202190) or DGAT1 (by oleanolic acid), all significantly attenuated SO or LA-induced macrophage triglyceride accumulation. These findings reveal novel mechanisms by which supplementation with SO or LA stimulate macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for overconsumption of SO or LA. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):100-116, 2017.

  18. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  19. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone promotes pulmonary artery relaxation by NADPH oxidation-elicited subunit dimerization of protein kinase G 1α

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhara; Kandhi, Sharath; Kelly, Melissa; Neo, Boon Hwa

    2013-01-01

    The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) controls a vascular smooth muscle relaxing mechanism promoted by the oxidation of cytosolic NADPH, which has been associated with activation of the 1α form of protein kinase G (PKG-1α) by a thiol oxidation-elicited subunit dimerization. This PKG-1α-activation mechanism appears to contribute to responses of isolated endothelium-removed bovine pulmonary arteries (BPA) elicited by peroxide, cytosolic NADPH oxidation resulting from G6PD inhibition, and hypoxia. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone with pulmonary vasodilator activity, which has beneficial effects in treating pulmonary hypertension. Because multiple mechanisms have been suggested for the vascular effects of DHEA and one of the known actions of DHEA is inhibiting G6PD, we investigated whether it promoted relaxation associated with NADPH oxidation, PKG-1α dimerization, and PKG activation detected by increased vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. Relaxation of BPA to DHEA under aerobic or hypoxic conditions was associated with NADPH oxidation, PKG-1α dimerization, and increased VASP phosphorylation. The vasodilator activity of DHEA was markedly attenuated in pulmonary arteries and aorta from a PKG knockin mouse containing a serine in place of a cysteine involved in PKG dimerization. DHEA promoted increased PKG dimerization in lungs from wild-type mice, which was not detected in the PKG knockin mouse model. Thus PKG-1α dimerization is a major contributing factor to the vasodilator actions of DHEA and perhaps its beneficial effects in treating pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24375799

  1. Orally supplemented catechin increases heme amounts and catalase activities in rat heart blood mitochondria: a comparison between middle-aged and young rats.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Imai, Kenichi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2013-11-01

    Orally-administered catechin has long been known to have several beneficial effects on the mammalian host, however, the effects of orally supplemented catechin on the host through gingival tissues have not yet been established. Here, we elucidated the effects of orally supplemented catechin in the rat heart blood mitochondria. We used middle-aged (40 week-old) and young (4 week-old) rats throughout the study. We indirectly verified blood serum catechin levels by measuring O-methyl catechin derivatives using HPLC. Interestingly, we observed higher blood serum O-methyl levels in middle-aged rats as compared to young rats. Subsequently, we isolated blood mitochondria, verified its purity, and measured heme, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase (CAT) levels. We found that catechin induces an increase in blood mitochondrial heme amounts and is associated with an increase in blood mitochondrial CAT activity which is surprisingly higher in middle-aged rats as compared to young rats. This would imply that orally supplemented catechin induces heme increase that preferentially favours CAT activity and is more beneficial to the middle-aged rats.

  2. Dietary supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum strain AH1206 increases its cecal abundance and elevates intestinal interleukin-10 expression in the neonatal piglet.

    PubMed

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Jouni, Zeina E; Chichlowski, Maciej; Stahl, Chad H; Odle, Jack

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal microbiota of infants differ in response to gestational age, delivery mode and feeding regimen. Dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria is one method of promoting healthy populations. We examined the impact of a novel probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum (AH1206) on the health, growth and development of neonatal pigs as a model for infants. Day-old pigs were fed milk-based formula containing AH1206 at 0, 10⁹, or 10¹¹ CFU/d for 18 d (n=10/treatment). Differences were not detected in growth, organ weights or body temperatures (P>0.1); however pigs fed the high dose showed a small (2%) reduction in feed intake. Bacterial translocation was not affected as indicated by total anaerobic and aerobic counts (CFU) in samples of spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (P>0.1). Feeding AH1206 had no effects on fecal consistency, but increased the density of B. longum in the cecum. Ileal TNF expression tended to increase (P=0.08) while IL-10 expression increased linearly (P=0.01) with supplementation. Based upon findings in the suckling piglet model, we suggest that dietary supplementation with B. longum (AH1206) may be safe for human infants based on a lack of growth, development or deleterious immune-related effects observed in piglets.

  3. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist—possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6–8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast. Results A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p < 0.0001) and kilocalorie expenditure (p = 0.001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo at 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion. No statistically significant effects were noted for glycerol or RER (p > 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo. Conclusion Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine

  4. Neutral and Acidic Oligosaccharides Supplementation Does Not Increase the Vaccine Antibody Response in Preterm Infants in a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Jolice P.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In preterm infants, a decreased immunological response and lower serological effectiveness are observed after immunizations due to ineffectiveness of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. Objective To determine the effect of 80% neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS)] in combination with 20% pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on antibody concentrations after DTaP-IPV-Hib immunization in preterm infants. Design In this randomized clinical trial, preterm infants with gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500 g received enteral supplementation with scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS or placebo (maltodextrin) between days 3 and 30 of life. Blood samples were collected at 5 and 12 months of age. Results In total, 113 infants were included. Baseline and nutritional characteristics were not different in both groups. Geometric mean titers were not different after prebiotic supplementation at 5 months, Ptx (37/44 EU/ml), FHA (78/96 EU/ml), Prn (78/80 EU/ml), Diphtheria (0.40/0.57 IU/ml), Tetanus (0.74/0.99 IU/ml) and Hib (0.35/0.63 µg/ml), and at 12 months Ptx (55/66 EU/ml), FHA (122/119 EU/ml), Prn (116/106 Eu/ml), Diphtheria (0.88/1.11 IU/ml), Tetanus (1.64/1.79 IU/ml) and Hib (2.91/2.55 µg/ml). Conclusions Enteral supplementation of neutral (scGOS/lcFOS) and acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) does not improve the immunization response in preterm infants. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN16211826 ISRCTN16211826 PMID:23951035

  5. Effect of age, gender and exercise on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone circadian rhythm profile in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2016-02-01

    There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; p<0.0001, and young females from 401.6 ± 149.5 to 215.4 ± 95.3 pg/mL; p<0.001. In older males DHEA reduced from 267.5 ± 32.4 to 132.5 ± 46.7 pg/mL; p<0.001, and older females from 147.7 ± 78.1 to 89.5 ± 29.1 pg/mL; p=0.05. DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days showed some variations but this was not significant. Aerobic exercise has significantly increased DHEA levels at 2 time points of the day (p=0.05) in male subjects. In conclusion, our study showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females.

    PubMed

    Logan, Samantha L; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    Critical among the changes that occur with aging are decreases in muscle mass and metabolic rate and an increase in fat mass. These changes may predispose older adults to chronic disease and functional impairment; ultimately resulting in a decrease in the quality of life. Research has suggested that long chain omega-3 fatty acids, found predominantly in fatty fish, may assist in reducing these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older females on 1) metabolic rate and substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise; 2) resting blood pressure and resting and exercise heart rates; 3) body composition; 4) strength and physical function, and; 5) blood measures of insulin, glucose, c-reactive protein, and triglycerides. Twenty-four females (66 ± 1 yr) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either 3g/d of EPA and DHA or a placebo (PL, olive oil) for 12 wk. Exercise measurements were taken before and after 12 wk of supplementation and resting metabolic measures were made before and at 6 and 12 wk of supplementation. The results demonstrated that FO supplementation significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 14%, energy expenditure during exercise by 10%, and the rate of fat oxidation during rest by 19% and during exercise by 27%. In addition, FO consumption lowered triglyceride levels by 29% and increased lean mass by 4% and functional capacity by 7%, while no changes occurred in the PL group. In conclusion, FO may be a strategy to improve age-related physical and metabolic changes in healthy older females. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01734538.

  7. Branched-chain amino acid supplements reduced ascites and increased the quality of life in a patient with liver cirrhosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Itou, Minoru; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Oku, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Nobuyoshi; Ando, Eiji; Oriishi, Tetsuharu; Uchida, Yuki; Otsuka, Momoka; Tanaka, Suiko; Iwasaki, Shoko; Torii, Mari; Yoshida, Kiyomi; Adachi, Yuko; Suga, Mariko; Yoshiyama, Manami; Ibi, Ryoko; Akiyama, Yoshiko; Takakura, Machiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2009-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is frequently accompanied by malnutrition and hypoalbuminemia, which in turn commonly induces ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Ascites leads to abdominal distention and appetite loss, resulting in a deteriorated quality of life (QOL). Administration of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich supplements reduces hepatic encephalopathy and malnutrition. In addition, BCAAs by themselves up-regulate albumin synthesis through an increase in Fisher's ratio. Thus, in patients with liver cirrhosis, BCAA-rich supplements seem to be effective at reducing ascites and improving the QOL. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old Japanese man with liver cirrhosis with severe ascites and peripheral edema. The hepatic function of the patient was classified as Child-Pugh grade C. To reduce protein-energy malnutrition, BCAA-rich supplements were administered as a late evening snack as part of a regimen including 2000 kcal/day (32.5 kcal/kg/day) of total energy and 83.5 g/day (1.3 g/kg/day) of total protein intake. Eight weeks after admission, ascites and edema had decreased. Nutritional status also improved from the time of admission to discharge; the serum BCAA level increased from 365.4 to 450.2 µmol/l. Furthermore, the ratio of BCAAs to tyrosine (BTR) increased from 1.70 to 3.65. We also evaluated the effects of nutritional therapy on the patient's QOL using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey upon admission and at discharge. All subscores showed marked improvement and reached a level greater than the Japanese norm with nutritional treatment. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation not only reduced ascites, but also improved the QOL in a patient with liver cirrhosis.

  8. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields and dehydroepiandrosterone on viability and osteo-induction of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kaivosoja, Emilia; Sariola, Veikko; Chen, Yan; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this work was that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regulated by pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) and by intracrine conversion of an adrenal prohormone to dihydrotestosterone. The effect of PEMF and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on viability and osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs and on the viability of osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells was evaluated. It was found that PEMF promoted the viability rate of both cell types, whereas DHEA decreased the viability rate in a concentration-dependent manner. PEMF did not have major effects on osteo-induction at this low seeding density level (3000 cells/cm(2) ). Instead, DHEA, after MSC-mediated and 5α-reductase-dependent conversion to dihydrotestosterone, clearly promoted the osteo-induction of MSCs induced with β-glyserophosphate, ascorbate and dexamethasone. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), SMAD1, RUNX2, osteopontin (OP) and osteocalcin (OC) RNA levels were increased and alizarin red S- and hydroxyapatite-specific OsteoImage(TM) stainings disclosed a promoted mineralization process. In addition, DHEA increased OP and OC mRNA levels of non-induced MSCs. A sequential use of mitogenic PEMF early during the fracture healing, followed by later administration of DHEA with osteogenic differentiating effect, might be worth subjecting to a randomized clinical trial.

  9. Repeated moderate stress stimulates the production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and reduces corticosteroid imbalance in old Macaca Mulatta.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, N D; Vengerin, A A; Chigarova, O A

    2012-09-01

    Young (6-8 years) and old (21-30 years) Macaca mulatta females were subjected to gentle immobilization (2 h daily at 15.00) for 10 days. Blood specimens were collected before the exposure and 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 min and 24 h after the beginning of exposure on days 1, 3, and 10. The adrenocortical reaction to stress was maximum on day 1 in all animals. The increase of cortisol (F) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations in young monkeys decreased on days 3 and 10, DHEAS drop being less pronounced in comparison with F, as a result of which F/DHEAS molar concentration ratio changed negligibly. In old monkeys the basal DHEAS levels were lower, while the F/DHEAS ratio was higher than in young animals. Repeated immobilizations inhibited F elevation on day 3, caused no changes in DHEAS reaction, led to increase of basal DHEAS levels and to a reduction of F/DHEAS ratio on days 2, 3, 4, 10, 11. Hence, chronic moderate stress stimulated the production of DHEAS and reduced the corticosteroid imbalance in old monkeys.

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone Inhibits Glucose Flux Through the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Human and Mouse Endometrial Stromal Cells, Preventing Decidualization and Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Frolova, Antonina I.; O'Neill, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Endometrial stromal cells (ESC) must undergo a hormone-driven differentiation to form decidual cells as a requirement of proper embryo implantation. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that decidualizing cells require glucose transporter 1 expression and an increase in glucose use to complete this step. The present study focuses on the glucose-dependent molecular and metabolic pathways, which are required by ESC for decidualization. Inhibition of glycolysis had no effect on decidualization. However, blockade of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) with pharmacologic inhibitors 6-aminonicotinamide or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting step in the PPP, both led to strong decreases in decidual marker expression in vitro and decreased decidualization in vivo. Additionally, the studies demonstrate that inhibition is due, at least in part, to ribose-5-phosphate depletion, because exogenous nucleoside administration restored decidualization in these cells. The finding that PPP inhibition prevents decidualization of ESC is novel and clinically important, because DHEA is an endogenous hormone produced by the adrenal glands and elevated in a high proportion of women who have polycystic ovary syndrome, the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive age women. Together, this data suggest a mechanistic link between increased DHEA levels, use of glucose via the PPP, and pregnancy loss. PMID:21680659

  11. Enhancement of zidovudine transfer to molt-4 cells, a human t-cell model, by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Jun; Tomi, Masatoshi; Seki, Yoshiaki; Kose, Noriko; Sai, Yoshimichi; Nakashima, Emi

    2011-09-01

    A possible approach to improve antiretroviral therapy with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is to enhance inhibitor delivery to CD4-positive T cells. We previously showed that dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) enhances zidovudine (AZT) transfer into syncytiotrophoblast. Here, we investigated whether DHEAS also enhances AZT transfer into a cellular model of human T lymphocytes, and whether AZT is taken up by a specific transport system. The effects of DHEAS and related compounds on the uptake of [(3) H]AZT and other nucleosides by Molt-4 cells (a model of human CD4-positive T cells) were measured. [(3) H]AZT uptake by Molt-4 cells was nitrobenzylthioinosine insensitive and pH dependent, and the uptake was significantly inhibited by 1 mM ethylisopropylamiloride. [(3) H]AZT uptake by Molt-4 cells was increased in the presence of DHEAS, whereas uptake of other nucleosides was reduced. Kinetic study revealed that the maximum uptake velocity (up to 30 min) was increased in the presence of DHEAS. The structural requirements for AZT uptake-enhancing activity were studied using structural analogues of DHEAS. Estrone-3-sulfate and 16α-hydroxy DHEAS also enhanced AZT uptake into Molt-4 cells. The use of uptake enhancers may be a good strategy to improve the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Supplementation with a new trypsin inhibitor from peanut is associated with reduced fasting glucose, weight control, and increased plasma CCK secretion in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Serquiz, Alexandre C; Machado, Richele J A; Serquiz, Raphael P; Lima, Vanessa C O; de Carvalho, Fabiana Maria C; Carneiro, Marcella A A; Maciel, Bruna L L; Uchôa, Adriana F; Santos, Elizeu A; Morais, Ana H A

    2016-12-01

    Ingestion of peanuts may have a beneficial effect on weight control, possibly due to the satietogenic action of trypsin inhibitors. The aim of this study was to isolate a new trypsin inhibitor in a typical Brazilian peanut sweet (paçoca) and evaluate its effect in biochemical parameters, weight gain and food intake in male Wistar rats. The trypsin inhibitor in peanut paçoca (AHTI) was isolated. Experimental diets were prepared with AIN-93G supplemented with AHTI. Animals had their weight and food intake monitored. Animals were anesthetized, euthanized, and their bloods collected by cardiac puncture for dosage of cholecystokinin (CCK) and other biochemical parameters. Supplementation with AHTI significantly decreased fasting glucose, body weight gain, and food intake. These effects may be attributed to increased satiety, once supplemented animals showed no evidence of impaired nutritional status and also because AHTI increased CCK production. Thus, our results indicate that AHTI, besides reducing fasting glucose, can reduce weight gain via food intake reduction.

  13. Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar

    2013-10-01

    The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production.

  14. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zdzieblik, Denise; Oesser, Steffen; Baumstark, Manfred W; Gollhofer, Albert; König, Daniel

    2015-10-28

    Protein supplementation in combination with resistance training may increase muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly subjects. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of post-exercise protein supplementation with collagen peptides v. placebo on muscle mass and muscle function following resistance training in elderly subjects with sarcopenia. A total of fifty-three male subjects (72·2 (sd 4·68) years) with sarcopenia (class I or II) completed this randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. All the participants underwent a 12-week guided resistance training programme (three sessions per week) and were supplemented with either collagen peptides (treatment group (TG)) (15 g/d) or silica as placebo (placebo group (PG)). Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and bone mass (BM) were measured before and after the intervention using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic quadriceps strength (IQS) of the right leg was determined and sensory motor control (SMC) was investigated by a standardised one-leg stabilisation test. Following the training programme, all the subjects showed significantly higher (P<0·01) levels for FFM, BM, IQS and SMC with significantly lower (P<0·01) levels for FM. The effect was significantly more pronounced in subjects receiving collagen peptides: FFM (TG +4·2 (sd 2·31) kg/PG +2·9 (sd 1·84) kg; P<0·05); IQS (TG +16·5 (sd 12·9) Nm/PG +7·3 (sd 13·2) Nm; P<0·05); and FM (TG -5·4 (sd 3·17) kg/PG -3·5 (sd 2·16) kg; P<0·05). Our data demonstrate that compared with placebo, collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training further improved body composition by increasing FFM, muscle strength and the loss in FM.

  15. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation downregulates the increase of monocytes expressing toll-like receptor 4 in response to 6-day intensive training in kendo athletes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kon, Michihiro; Tanimura, Yuko; Hanaoka, Yukichi; Kimura, Fuminori; Akama, Takao; Kono, Ichiro

    2015-06-01

    This study examined changes in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-expressing monocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in response to continuous intensive exercise training in athletes, as well as the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on these changes. Eighteen male elite kendo athletes in Japan were randomly assigned to a CoQ10-supplementation group (n = 9) or a placebo-supplementation group (n = 9) using a double-blind method. Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per day for 20 days. Subjects in the placebo group took the same dosage of placebo. All subjects practiced kendo 5.5 h per day for 6 consecutive days during the study period. Blood samples were collected 2 weeks before training, on the first day (day 1), third day (day 3), and fifth day of training (day 5), and 1 week after the training period (post-training) to ascertain TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) monocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD28(+)/CD4(+), CD28(+)/CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells) using flow cytometry analysis. The group × time interaction for TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells did not reach significance (p = 0.08). Within the CoQ10 group, the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells was significantly higher only at day 5. The placebo group showed a significant increase in the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells at day 3, day 5, and post-training (p < 0.05). There was no significant group × time interaction for any lymphocyte subpopulation. CD3(+), CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells were significantly reduced at day 3 in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CoQ10 supplementation might downregulate the increase of TLR-4-expressing monocytes in response to continuous strenuous exercise training in kendo athletes.

  16. Soaking increases the efficacy of supplemental microbial phytase in a low-phosphorus corn-soybean meal diet for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Bollinger, D W; Ledoux, D R; Ellersieck, M R; Veum, T L

    1997-05-01

    Sixty-three crossbred barrows averaging 18.7 kg initial BW were used in a 6-wk study of the effects of soaking on the efficacy of supplemental microbial phytase (Natuphos, BASF) in a low-P corn-soybean meal diet. The basal corn-soybean meal diet contained .06% available P, .32% total P, and .55% Ca with no added inorganic P. The basal diet was supplemented with 0, 250, or 500 phytase units (PU)/kg of diet. The diet was fed dry or soaked (2 parts water:1 part diet and mixed for 2 h at 30 degrees C before feeding) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A positive control diet was supplemented with inorganic P and provided .23% available P, .48% total P, and .60% Ca. Pigs were individually penned and fed their respective diets to appetite in four equal meals daily. There were no soaking x phytase interactions (P > .1 to .6) for growth performance criteria. Daily gain and gain/feed ratio were increased (P < .01) by soaking and increased linearly (P < .01) by phytase. Daily feed intake was increased linearly (P < .01) by phytase. There were soaking x phytase quadratic interactions (P < .01) for apparent P absorption criteria because soaking the 250 PU/kg diet increased P absorption similar to that obtained with the 500 PU/kg diet fed dry. Apparent P absorption criteria were increased by soaking (P < .01) and were increased linearly (P < .001) and quadratically (P < .03) by phytase. Phytase reduced fecal P excretion 37 to 40% with dry feeding (P < .03) and 48 to 49% with soaking (P < .01).

  17. Increase in the mitotic recombination frequency in Drosophila melanogaster by magnetic field exposure and its suppression by vitamin E supplement.

    PubMed

    Koana, T; Okada, M O; Ikehata, M; Nakagawa, M

    1997-01-03

    In order to estimate possible mutagenic and/or carcinogenic activity of electromagnetic fields, wing spot tests were performed in Drosophila melanogaster. A DNA repair defective mutation mei-41D5 was introduced into the conventional mwh/flr test system to enhance mutant spot frequency. Third instar larvae were exposed to a 5-Tesla static magnetic field for 24 h, and after molting, wings were examined under a microscope to detect hair spots with mutant morphology. The exposure caused a statistically significant enhancement of somatic recombination compared with the unexposed control. This enhancement was suppressed to the control level by supplement of vitamin E, a non-specific antioxidant. It is inferred that the magnetic field enhanced the genotoxic effect of spontaneously produced free radicals, possibly by affecting the lifetime of the radicals. Enhancement of non-disjunction, terminal deletions and gene mutations were not detected.

  18. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (P<.01 compared to ZnLO). The ZnLO+P and ZnAD rats ran 56-75 km more total distance than ZnLO rats (P<.05), with the ZnLO+P rats running more kilometers per week than the ZnLO rats by Week 6. In vivo DEXA analyses indicate that rats fed phytase-supplemented diets had higher lean body mass (LBM) than those fed ZnLO diets; and that rats fed the Zn-adequate diets had the highest LBM. Body fat (%) was significantly lower in EX rats and was both Zn- and phytase insensitive. Rats fed phytase-supplemented diets had higher bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is

  19. Correlation of brain levels of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone with neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury in female mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Giatti, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Melcangi, Roberto C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of disability in humans. Neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are neuroprotective in TBI models. However in order to design potential neuroprotective strategies based on neuroactive steroids it is important to determine whether its brain levels are altered by TBI. In this study we have used a weight-drop model of TBI in young adult female mice to determine the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain and plasma at 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after injury. We have also analyzed whether the levels of neuroactive steroids after TBI correlated with the neurological score of the animals. TBI caused neurological deficit detectable at 24 and 72 h, which recovered by 2 weeks after injury. Brain levels of progesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), isopregnanolone and 17β-estradiol were decreased 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after TBI. DHEA and brain testosterone levels presented a transient decrease at 24h after lesion. Brain levels of progesterone and DHEA showed a positive correlation with neurological recovery. Plasma analyses showed that progesterone was decreased 72 h after lesion but, in contrast with brain progesterone, its levels did not correlate with neurological deficit. These findings indicate that TBI alters the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain with independence of its plasma levels and suggest that the pharmacological increase in the brain of the levels of progesterone and DHEA may result in the improvement of neurological recovery after TBI.

  20. The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its metabolites alter 5-HT neuronal activity via modulation of GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Gartside, S E; Griffith, N C; Kaura, V; Ingram, C D

    2010-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its metabolites, DHEA-sulphate (DHEA-S) and androsterone, have neurosteroid activity. In this study, we examined whether DHEA, DHEA-S and androsterone, can influence serotonin (5-HT) neuronal firing activity via modulation of γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA(A)) receptors. The firing of presumed 5-HT neurones in a slice preparation containing rat dorsal raphe nucleus was inhibited by the GABA(A) receptor agonists 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridinyl-3-ol (THIP) (25 μM) and GABA (100 μM). DHEA (100 and 300 μM) and DHEA-S (1, 10 and 100 μM) caused a rapid and reversible attenuation of the response to THIP. DHEA (100 μM) and DHEA-S (100 μM) also attenuated the effect of GABA. Androsterone (10 and 30 μM) markedly enhanced the inhibitory response to THIP (25 μM). The effect was apparent during androsterone administration but persisted and even increased in magnitude after drug wash-out. The data indicate that GABA(A) receptor-mediated regulation of 5-HT neuronal firing is sensitive to negative modulation by DHEA and its metabolite DHEA-S is sensitive to positive modulation by the metabolite androsterone. The effects of these neurosteroids on GABA(A) receptor-mediated regulation of 5-HT firing may underlie some of the reported behavioural and psychological effects of endogenous and exogenous DHEA.

  1. The effort-reward imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Mase, Junji; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Rajatanun, Thitipat; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

    2014-09-17

    We examined the influence of work-related effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment to work (OC), as derived from Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We hypothesized that, among healthy workers, both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion would be increased by effort-reward imbalance and OC and, as a result, cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) would not differ by effort-reward imbalance or OC. The subjects were 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Salivary cortisol, DHEA, and C/D ratio were used as indexes of HPA activity. Mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that neither the interaction between the ERI model indicators (i.e., effort, reward, effort-to-reward ratio, and OC) and the series of measurement times (9:00, 12:00, and 15:00) nor the main effect of the ERI model indicators was significant for daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that none of the ERI model indicators was significantly associated with area under the curve of daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. We found that effort, reward, effort-reward imbalance, and OC had little influence on daytime variation patterns, levels, or amounts of salivary HPA-axis-related hormones. Thus, our hypotheses were not supported.

  2. Biological activity of pyrazole and imidazole-dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives on the activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Marisa; Posada, Alejandro; Sánchez-Márquez, Araceli; Heuze, Yvonne; Moreno, Isabel; Soriano, Juan; Garrido, Mariana; Cortés, Francisco; Bratoeff, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 5 (17β-HSD5) catalyzes the transformation of androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone (T) in the prostate. This metabolic pathway remains active in cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Since physicians seek to develop advantageous and better new treatments to increase the average survival of these patients, we synthesized several different dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives. These compounds have a pyrazole or imidazole function at C-17 and an ester moiety at C-3 and were studied as inhibitors of 17β-HSD5. The kinetic parameters of this enzyme were determined for use in inhibition assays. Their pharmacological effect was also determined on gonadectomized hamsters treated with Δ(4)-androstenedione (4-dione) or testosterone (T) and/or the novel compounds. The results indicated that the incorporation of a heterocycle at C-17 induced strong 17β-HSD5 inhibition. These derivatives decreased flank organ diameter and prostate weight in castrated hamsters treated with T or 4-dione. Inhibition of 17β-HSD5 by these compounds could have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  3. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions. PMID:28115973

  4. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice.

    PubMed

    Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena; Rossi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  5. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Carey, Leeanne M; Crewther, Sheila G

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs) are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo-associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes.

  6. Dietary zinc supplementation increased TNFα and IL1β-induced RANKL expression, resulting in a decrease in bone mineral density in rats

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takako; Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of dietary zinc supplementation on bone metabolism in rats. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a 30.0 mg zinc/kg diet (C), a 300.0 mg zinc/kg diet (HZ) or a 3,000.0 mg zinc/kg diet (EZ) for 4 weeks. The zinc content of the femur gradually increased in accordance with the gradual increase in the dietary zinc level. Although the mRNA expression of zinc transporters in bone did not differ between the groups, the mRNA expression of metallothioneins was increased in the HZ and EZ groups compared to the C group. Moreover, the bone mineral density was significantly decreased in the HZ and EZ groups compared to the C group. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α, Interleukin-1β and osteoclastogenesis-related genes such as receptor for activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 was significantly increased in the HZ and EZ groups compared to the C group. These findings suggested that dietary zinc supplementation reduced bone mineral density through the promotion of bone resorption via an increase in the expression of receptor for activator of NF-κB ligand induced by tumor necrosis factor α and Interleukin-1β. PMID:26798197

  7. Soy-based infant formula supplemented with DHA and ARA supports growth and increases circulating levels of these fatty acids in infants.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Dennis; Ziegler, Ekhard; Mitmesser, Susan H; Harris, Cheryl L; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group trial to evaluate safety, benefits, and growth from 14 to 120 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age and 24-h dietary and tolerance recall were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Blood samples were drawn from subsets of 25 infants in each group. Capillary column gas chromatography was used to analyze the percentages of fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) lipids and plasma phospholipids. Compared with the control group, percentages of fatty acids such as DHA and ARA in total RBC and plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in infants in the DHA + ARA group at 120 days of age (P < 0.001). Growth rates did not differ significantly between feeding groups at any assessed time point. Supplementation did not affect the tolerance of formula or the incidence of adverse events. Feeding healthy term infants soy-based formula supplemented with DHA and ARA from single cell oil sources at concentrations similar to human milk significantly increased circulating levels of DHA and ARA when compared with the control group. Both formulas supported normal growth and were well tolerated.

  8. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Strahler, Talia R.; Bassett, Candace J.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Chonchol, Michel B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBFACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBFACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P>0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with no change in placebo (P=0.1). Neither curcumin nor placebo influenced large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity or carotid artery compliance) or circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (all P>0.1). In healthy middle-aged and older adults, 12 weeks of curcumin supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function by increasing vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress, while also improving conduit artery endothelial function. PMID:28070018

  9. DHA-supplemented diet increases the survival of rats following asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhwan; Yin, Tai; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Lampe, Joshua W.; Becker, Lance B.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence illustrates the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on cardiovascular diseases. However, its effects on cardiac arrest (CA) remain controversial in epidemiological studies and have not been reported in controlled animal studies. Here, we examined whether dietary DHA can improve survival, the most important endpoint in CA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups and received either a control diet or a DHA-supplemented diet for 7–8 weeks. Rats were then subjected to 20 min asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest followed by 30 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Rat survival was monitored for additional 3.5 h following resuscitation. In the control group, 1 of 9 rats survived for 4 h, whereas 6 of 9 rats survived in the DHA-treated group. Surviving rats in the DHA-treated group displayed moderately improved hemodynamics compared to rats in the control group 1 h after the start of resuscitation. Rats in the control group showed no sign of brain function whereas rats in the DHA-treated group had recurrent seizures and spontaneous respiration, suggesting dietary DHA also protects the brain. Overall, our study shows that dietary DHA significantly improves rat survival following 20 min of severe CA. PMID:27811958

  10. Vitamin K supplementation increases vitamin K tissue levels but fails to counteract ectopic calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    PubMed

    Gorgels, Theo G M F; Waarsing, Jan H; Herfs, Marjolein; Versteeg, Daniëlle; Schoensiegel, Frank; Sato, Toshiro; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Ivandic, Boris; Vermeer, Cees; Schurgers, Leon J; Bergen, Arthur A B

    2011-11-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which calcification of connective tissue leads to pathology in skin, eye and blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in ABCC6. High expression of this transporter in the basolateral hepatocyte membrane suggests that it secretes an as-yet elusive factor into the circulation which prevents ectopic calcification. Utilizing our Abcc6 (-/-) mouse model for PXE, we tested the hypothesis that this factor is vitamin K (precursor) (Borst et al. 2008, Cell Cycle). For 3 months, Abcc6 (-/-) and wild-type mice were put on diets containing either the minimum dose of vitamin K required for normal blood coagulation or a dose that was 100 times higher. Vitamin K was supplied as menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Ectopic calcification was monitored in vivo by monthly micro-CT scans of the snout, as the PXE mouse model develops a characteristic connective tissue mineralization at the base of the whiskers. In addition, calcification of kidney arteries was measured by histology. Results show that supplemental MK-7 had no effect on ectopic calcification in Abcc6 ( -/- ) mice. MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K levels (in skin, heart and brain) in wild-type and in Abcc6 (-/-) mice. Vitamin K tissue levels did not depend on Abcc6 genotype. In conclusion, dietary MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K tissue levels in the PXE mouse model but failed to counteract ectopic calcification. Hence, we obtained no support for the hypothesis that Abcc6 transports vitamin K and that PXE can be cured by increasing tissue levels of vitamin K.

  11. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael A; Bailey, Alyssa M; Rondon, Matthew J; McNerny, Erin M; Sahar, Nadder D; Kohn, David H

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6-12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups-exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and increases

  12. The clinical course of interstitial pneumonia alias chronic fatigue syndrome under the control of megadose vitamin C infusion system with dehydroepiandrosterone-cortisol annex.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Mitsuo; Kodama, Toshiko

    2005-01-01

    The year 1995 marked the onset of interstitial pneumonia spread in Nagoya, Japan. For the last 9 years, we have been accumulating clinical experience with the disease control using the combination of prophylactic use of anti-biotics and regular practice of megadose vitamin C infusion with either dehydroepiandrosterone-annex or dehydroepiandrosterone-cortisol annex. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of our new treatment system for the control of interstitial pneumonia alias chronic fatigue syndrome. The results obtained are given as follows: i) The long-term maintenance of the above treatment system was effective not only for decreasing the risk for recurrence of active form pneumonia, but also for prevention of malignancy emergence in aged patients with interstitial pneumonia. ii) Evidence is presented to indicate that interstitial pneumonia was associated with increased risk for depression of which the emergence is a candidate subject causally related to the long-term use of glucocorticoid. iii) A patient with both interstitial pneumonia and depression was found to be less responsive to our treatment system. It is suggested that the use of more dehydroepiandrosterone at the sacrifice of cortisol in the infusion annex may be a choice for the control of both interstitial pneumonia and depression. iv) The description of chronic fatigue syndrome as regards the endocrinological, epidemiological and psychiatric characteristics are in good agreement with our experience on patients having interstitial pneumonia, evidence in support of our proposal that there is no convincing reasoning to separate chronic fatigue syndrome from interstitial pneumonia. v) The long-term practice of our treatment system for the control of interstitial pneumonia (an autoimmune disease) was found to suppress the inflammatory process but not the fibrotic process in the long run. vi) A few innovations were made in our treatment system to reduce the risk of bleeding or

  13. Ample Evidence: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Conversion into Activated Steroid Hormones Occurs in Adrenal and Ovary in Female Rat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingqiao; Kang, Jian; Chen, Di; Han, Ningning; Ma, Haitian

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is important for human health, especially for women. All estrogens and practically half of androgens are synthesized from DHEA in peripheral tissues. However, the mechanism and exact target tissues of DHEA biotransformation in the female are not fully clear. The present study showed that maximal content of androstenedione (AD) and testosterone (T) were observed at 3h after DHEA administration in female rats, which was 264% and 8000% above the control, respectively. Estradiol (E2) content significantly increased at 6h after DHEA administration, which was 113% higher than that in control group. Gavage with DHEA could significantly reduce 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) mRNA level at 3-12h and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) mRNA level at 12h in ovary, while increasing aromatase mRNA levels at 6, 24, and 48 h. It is interesting that administration of DHEA caused a significant increase of 17β-HSD, 3β-HSD and aromatase mRNA levels in adrenal. The AD and T contents also markedly increased by 537% and 2737% after DHEA administration in ovariectomised rats, in company with a significant increase in 17β-HSD and 3β-HSD mRNA levels and decreased aromatase mRNA level in adrenal. However, DHEA administration did not restore the decreased E2, estrone (E1), and progesterone (P) caused by the removal of the ovaries in females. These results clearly illustrated that exogenous DHEA is preferentially converted into androgens in adrenal, while its conversion to estrogens mainly happens in the ovary through steroidogenic enzyme in female rats.

  14. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and carnitine treatment on rat liver.

    PubMed

    Battelli, D; Bellei, M; Kneer, N; Contri, M B; Ronchetti, I P; Bobyleva, V; Lardy, H A

    1994-08-01

    It is well established that DHEA treatment is associated in the rat to an increase in fatty acids metabolism. This condition would require levels of L-carnitine much higher than those physiologically present in the liver. The possibility thus exist that during DHEA treatment the concentration of L-carnitine may become a limiting factor for fatty acids oxidation and therefore responsible of some of the effects observed after administration of the hormone. The present experiments were designed to test this hypothesis. The results show that the increase in the levels of peroxisomal enzymes induced in hepatocytes by DHEA, is greatly reduced by parallel administration of L-carnitine. Furthermore, L-carnitine administration counteracts the effect of DHEA on mitochondrial structure. On the contrary, carnitine has no significant effect on the reduction in weight gain observed upon short- or long-term treatment with DHEA.

  15. Novel dehydroepiandrosterone benzimidazolyl derivatives as 5α-reductase isozymes inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Yazmín; Bratoeff, Eugene; Segura, Tania; Mendoza, Maria Eugenia; Sánchez-Márquez, Araceli; Medina, Yesica; Heuze, Yvonne; Soriano, Juan; Cabeza, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    5α-R isozymes (types 1 and 2) play an important role in prostate gland development because they are responsible for intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels when the physiological serum testosterone (T) concentration is low. In this study, we synthesized seven novel dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives with benzimidazol moiety at C-17, and determined their effect on the activity of 5α-reductase types 1 and 2. The derivatives with an aliphatic ester at C-3 of the dehydroepiandrosterone scaffold induced specific inhibition of 5α-R1 activity, whereas those with a cycloaliphatic ester (cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or cyclopentyl ring) or an alcohol group at C-3 inhibited the activity of both isozymes. Derivatives with a cyclohexyl or cycloheptyl ester at C-3 showed no inhibitory activity. In pharmacological experiments, derivatives with esters having an alcohol or the aliphatic group or one of the three smaller cycloaliphatic rings at C-3 decreased the diameter of male hamster flank organs, with the cyclobutyl and cyclopentyl esters exhibiting higher effect. With exception of the cyclobutyl and cyclopentyl esters, these compounds reduced the weight of the prostate and seminal vesicles.

  16. Effect of subepineurial dehydroepiandrosterone treatment on healing of transected nerves repaired with the epineurial sleeve technique.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Sühan; Markal, Nilgün; Siemionow, Krzysztof; Araneo, Barbara; Siemionow, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The epineurial sleeve technique for nerve repair is designed in part to protect a healing nerve from external humoral influences, but research suggests that the external factor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may actually improve nerve healing in crush injuries. To test the effect of DHEA, we injected it into the epineurial chambers created to repair transected rat sciatic nerves. In 18 control rats, the nerve was transected and repaired without DHEA treatment. Eighteen animals received subepineurial injections of propylene glycol vehicle, and 18 received subepineurial injections of about 0.2 ml DHEA. Walking-track analysis and toe-contracture measurements showed no significant differences among the three groups. At 12 weeks, the gastrocnemius muscles in the DHEA group were significantly heavier than those of untreated controls. At 6 and 12 weeks, DHEA-treated nerves had significantly more myelinated axons, larger average fiber diameter, and greater axonal cross-sectional areas in the proximal, middle, and distal sections. Myelin thickness did not differ between groups, except at 6 weeks between the DHEA and vehicle-treated groups. We conclude that subepineurial dehydroepiandrosterone treatment reduced the extent of denervation atrophy and induced an earlier onset of axonal regeneration.

  17. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Frestedt, Joy L; Zenk, John L; Kuskowski, Michael A; Ward, Loren S; Bastian, Eric D

    2008-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium) for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis) and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis). Within group significance was determined at P < 0.05 using a two-tailed paired t-test and between group significance was determined using one way analysis of covariance with baseline data as a covariate. Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03) and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01) groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02). The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost) was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05) and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88) groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control

  18. The protective effect of supplemental calcium on colonic permeability depends on a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Schepens, Marloes A A; ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M; Schonewille, Arjan J; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J

    2012-04-01

    An increased intestinal permeability is associated with several diseases. Previously, we have shown that dietary Ca decreases colonic permeability in rats. This might be explained by a calcium-phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity, which protects against an acidic pH due to microbial fermentation. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary phosphate is a co-player in the effect of Ca on permeability. Rats were fed a humanised low-Ca diet, or a similar diet supplemented with Ca and containing either high, medium or low phosphate concentrations. Chromium-EDTA was added as an inert dietary intestinal permeability marker. After dietary adaptation, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) were added to all diets to stimulate fermentation, acidify the colonic contents and induce an increase in permeability. Dietary Ca prevented the scFOS-induced increase in intestinal permeability in rats fed medium- and high-phosphate diets but not in those fed the low-phosphate diet. This was associated with higher faecal water cytotoxicity and higher caecal lactate levels in the latter group. Moreover, food intake and body weight during scFOS supplementation were adversely affected by the low-phosphate diet. Importantly, luminal buffering capacity was higher in rats fed the medium- and high-phosphate diets compared with those fed the low-phosphate diet. The protective effect of dietary Ca on intestinal permeability is impaired if dietary phosphate is low. This is associated with a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity. Dragging phosphate into the colon and thereby increasing the colonic phosphate concentration is at least part of the mechanism behind the protective effect of Ca on intestinal permeability.

  19. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation increases lipid deposition in the liver and muscle of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) through changes in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Luo, Zhi; Zhuo, Mei-Qing; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Song, Yu-Feng; Hu, Wei; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2014-09-14

    Carnitine has been reported to improve growth performance and reduce body lipid content in fish. Thus, we hypothesised that carnitine supplementation can improve growth performance and reduce lipid content in the liver and muscle of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), a commonly cultured freshwater fish in inland China, and tested this hypothesis in the present study. Diets containing l-carnitine at three different concentrations of 47 mg/kg (control, without extra carnitine addition), 331 mg/kg (low carnitine) and 3495 mg/kg (high carnitine) diet were fed to yellow catfish for 8 weeks. The low-carnitine diet significantly improved weight gain (WG) and reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR). In contrast, the high-carnitine diet did not affect WG and FCR. Compared with the control diet, the low-carnitine and high-carnitine diets increased lipid and carnitine contents in the liver and muscle. The increased lipid content in the liver could be attributed to the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of SREBP, PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and ACCa and the increased activities of lipogenic enzymes (such as FAS, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) and to the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of the lipolytic gene CPT1A. The increased lipid content in muscle could be attributed to the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of the lipolytic genes CPT1A and ATGL and the increased activity of lipoprotein lipase. In conclusion, in contrast to our hypothesis, dietary carnitine supplementation increased body lipid content in yellow catfish.

  20. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large.

  1. Strategies for reducing supplemental medium cost in bioethanol production from waste house wood hydrolysate by ethanologenic Escherichia coli: inoculum size increase and coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Naoyuki; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we report a simultaneous realization of both efficient ethanol production and saving medium nutrient (corn steep liquor [CSL]) during bioethanol fermentation of overliming-treated hydrolysate of waste house wood (WHW) using ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11. In cultivation using WHW hydrolysate supplemented with 4% (v/v) CSL and 0.2 g-dry cell weight (DCW)/l E. coli KO11 cells, the overall ethanol yield reached 84% of the theoretical value at 61 h. When we conducted the cultivation with 1% CSL to reduce the supplemental medium cost, the overall ethanol yield remained in the range of 66-72% even at 90 h. We proposed two alternative methods for increasing the overall yield even with 1% CSL. The first method involved increasing the inoculum size of E. coli KO11 up to 0.8 g-DCW/l, where 83% of the overall yield was attained at 60 h of cultivation. The second method involved the coculture of 0.2 g-DCW/l E. coli KO11 together with 0.02 g-DCW/l of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ1, and the overall yield reached 81% at 47 h of cultivation.

  2. Oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to healthy men: alteration of the urinary androgen profile and consequences for the detection of abuse in sport by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dehennin, L; Ferry, M; Lafarge, P; Pérès, G; Lafarge, J P

    1998-02-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement therapy as compensation for high age-related decline of DHEA and DHEA sulfate production is a matter of intense investigation, since many beneficial effects have been proven, or are suggested and expected. Therefore, DHEA abuse by athletes has been considered by the International Olympic Committee, which banned the substance recently. As DHEA for oral supplementation is easily available, we decided to investigate the effect on the urinary androgen profile of administration along this route of a single substitution dose of 50 mg. Quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring demonstrated that the drug was readily absorbed with 50 to 75% recovery of dosing after 24 h, and with glucuro- and sulfoconjugates of DHEA, androsterone, and etiocholanolone as the most abundant metabolites. In agreement with reported data found in blood, conversion of exogenous DHEA to the principal biologically active androgen, testosterone, was low but proven to be real by the administration of deuterium-labeled DHEA and the subsequent identification and quantification of deuterium-labeled testosterone. A concentration threshold of 300 micrograms/L of DHEA glucuronide is proposed for the screening of DHEA abuse in sport, but a single replacement dose can only be detected during 8 h. Such a short detection period is the consequence of considerable first-pass hepatic metabolism and also of the high interindividual variability of circulating and urinary DHEA and DHEA sulfate concentrations.

  3. Eight weeks of pre- and postexercise whey protein supplementation increases lean body mass and improves performance in Division III collegiate female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lemuel W; Wilborn, Colin; Roberts, Michael D; White, Andrew; Dugan, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    We examined if 8 weeks of whey protein (WP) supplementation improved body composition and performance measures in NCAA Division III female basketball players. Subjects were assigned to consume 24 g WP (n = 8; age, 20 ± 2 years; height, 170 ± 6 cm; weight, 66.0 ± 3.1 kg) or 24 g of maltodextrin (MD) (n = 6; age, 21 ± 3 years; height, 169 ± 6 cm; weight, 68.2 ± 7.6 kg) immediately prior to and following training (4 days/week anaerobic and resistance training) for 8 weeks. Prior to (T1) and 8 weeks following supplementation (T2), subjects underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry body composition assessment as well as performance tests. The WP group gained lean mass from T1 to T2 (+1.4 kg, p = 0.003) whereas the MD group trended to gain lean mass (+0.4 kg, p = 0.095). The WP group also lost fat mass from T1 to T2 (-1.0 kg, p = 0.003) whereas the MD group did not (-0.5 kg, p = 0.41). The WP group presented greater gains in 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (+4.9 kg) compared with the MD group (+2.3 kg) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the WP group improved agility from T1 to T2 (p = 0.001) whereas the MD group did not (p = 0.38). Both groups equally increased leg press 1RM, vertical jump, and broad jump performances. This study demonstrates that 8 weeks of WP supplementation improves body composition and select performance variables in previously trained female athletes.

  4. Short communication: Effects of increasing protein and energy in the milk replacer with or without direct-fed microbial supplementation on growth and performance of preweaned Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Geiger, A J; Ward, S H; Williams, C C; Rude, B J; Cabrera, C J; Kalestch, K N; Voelz, B E

    2014-11-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves were fed a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and 1 of 2 milk replacers to evaluate calf performance and growth. Treatments were (1) a control milk replacer [22:20; 22% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat], (2) an accelerated milk replacer (27:10; 27% CP and 10% fat), (3) the control milk replacer with added DFM (22:20+D), and (4) the accelerated milk replacer with added DFM (27:10+D). Dry matter intake, rectal temperatures, respiration scores and rates, and fecal scores were collected daily. Body weight, hip and withers height, heart girth, blood, and rumen fluid samples were collected weekly. Effects of treatment, sex, week, and their interactions were analyzed. Calves fed an accelerated milk replacer, regardless of DFM supplementation, consumed more CP and metabolizable energy in the milk replacer. No treatment differences were found for starter intake or intake of neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber in the starter. Calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had greater preweaning and weaning body weight compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Average daily gain was greater during the preweaning period for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but the same pattern did not hold true during the postweaning period. Feed efficiency did not differ among treatments. Hip height tended to be and withers height and heart girth were greater at weaning for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Fecal scores were greatest in calves fed DFM. Overall acetate, propionate, butyrate, and n-valerate concentrations were lower in calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but DFM did not have an effect. Rumen pH was not different. Blood metabolites were unaffected by DFM supplementation, but calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had increased partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, and total bicarbonate in the blood. Direct-fed microbial supplementation did not appear to benefit the calf

  5. Enhancement of zidovudine uptake by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in rat syncytiotrophoblast cell line TR-TBT 18d-1.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Seki, Yoshiaki; Sato, Kazuko; Chishu, Takuya; Kose, Noriko; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Kang, Young-Sook; Sai, Yoshimichi; Nakashima, Emi

    2008-10-01

    AZT (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine; zidovudine), which is used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, is transplacentally transferred to the fetus across the blood-placenta barrier, which is composed of syncytiotrophoblasts. We recently showed that apical uptake of AZT by syncytiotrophoblasts is mediated by saturable transport system(s) in the TR-TBT 18d-1 cell line, and the cellular accumulation of AZT was increased in the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Here, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of this effect of DHEAS. Inhibitors of efflux transporters, including breast cancer resistance protein, P-glycoprotein, and multidrug resistance proteins, had little effect on the cellular accumulation of AZT in TR-TBT 18d-1. Kinetic study revealed that the rate constant for AZT uptake was greatly increased in the presence of 1 mM DHEAS. These results suggested that the effect of DHEAS was because of enhancement of the uptake process(es), rather than inhibition of efflux. When AZT uptake was analyzed according to the Michaelis-Menten equation, the estimated Michaelis constant, Km, for AZT uptake in the presence of 1 mM DHEAS was lower than that in its absence, whereas maximum uptake velocity, Vmax, and nonsaturable uptake clearance, kns, were similar in the presence and absence of DHEAS, indicating that DHEAS may change the recognition characteristics of the transporter for AZT in TR-TBT 18d-1. Thus, the increase of AZT uptake in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells in the presence of DHEAS was concluded to be because of a DHEAS-induced change in the affinity of AZT uptake system, although the transporter responsible for AZT uptake has not been identified.

  6. Modulation of Receptor Phosphorylation Contributes to Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Other Peroxisome Proliferators

    PubMed Central

    Tamasi, Viola; Miller, Kristy K. Michael; Ripp, Sharon L.; Vila, Ermin; Geoghagen, Thomas E.; Prough, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 human adrenal steroid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in vivo but does not ligand-activate PPARα in transient transfection experiments. We demonstrate that DHEA regulates PPARα action by altering both the levels and phosphorylation status of the receptor. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with the expression plasmid encoding PPARα and a plasmid containing two copies of fatty acyl coenzyme oxidase (FACO) peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor responsive element consensus oligonucleotide in a luciferase reporter gene. Nafenopin treatment increased reporter gene activity in this system, whereas DHEA treatment did not. Okadaic acid significantly decreased nafenopin-induced reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Okadaic acid treatment of primary rat hepatocytes decreased both DHEA- and nafenopin-induced FACO activity in primary rat hepatocytes. DHEA induced both PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as PP2A message in primary rat hepatocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the serines at positions 12 and 21 were rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment with DHEA and nafenopin. Results using specific protein phosphatase inhibitors suggested that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for DHEA action, and protein phosphatase 1 might be involved in nafenopin induction. Mutation of serines at position 6, 12, and 21 to an uncharged alanine residue significantly increased transcriptional activity, whereas mutation to negative charged aspartate residues (mimicking receptor phosphorylation) decreased transcriptional activity. DHEA action involves induction of PPARα mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPARα transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region. PMID:18079279

  7. Stimulation of androgen-dependent gene expression by the adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione in the rat ventral prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Labrie, C.; Simard, J.; Zhao, H.F.; Belanger, A.; Pelletier, G.; Labrie, F. )

    1989-06-01

    Androgens play a major role in the development, growth, and function of accessory sexual organs, especially the prostate. However, the testis is not the sole source of circulating androgens in man, since the adrenal gland secretes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione (delta 4-dione) in large quantities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of DHEA and delta 4-dione similar to those found in adult man on sensitive and specific markers of androgen action in the rat ventral prostate. In addition to ventral prostate weight, we have measured the steady state levels of the mRNAs encoding the C1 component of rat prostatic binding protein (PBP-C1) and spermine-binding protein (SBP) using 35S-labeled cDNA probes for in situ hybridization. One week after castration, ventral prostate weight fell 84%, while prostatic 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androgen-dependent mRNAs were undetectable. When administered via Silastic implants to castrated adult rats for 1 week, plasma concentrations of 1.37 +/- 0.06 ng/ml DHEA or 0.43 +/- 0.08 ng/ml delta 4-dione independently caused increases in ventral prostate weight to 33% and 65% of normal values, respectively. The same plasma levels of DHEA and delta 4-dione resulted in high intraprostatic levels of DHT to 1.19 +/- 0.34 and 3.66 +/- 0.89 ng/g tissue, respectively. Furthermore, DHEA caused an increase in the steady state levels of PBP-C1 and SBP mRNAs to 50% and 57% of the normal state, respectively, while delta 4-dione caused increases corresponding to 80% and 119% of control values, respectively. Castrated adult rats receiving testosterone at a concentration of 1.66 +/- 0.37 ng/ml plasma maintained normal ventral prostate weight and gene expression levels.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone Stimulates Endothelial Proliferation and Angiogenesis through Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2-Mediated Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongmin; Iruthayanathan, Mary; Homan, Laurie L.; Wang, Yiqiang; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Yao; Dillon, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) activates a plasma membrane receptor on vascular endothelial cells and phosphorylates ERK 1/2. We hypothesize that ERK1/2-dependent vascular endothelial proliferation underlies part of the beneficial vascular effect of DHEA. DHEA (0.1–10 nm) activated ERK1/2 in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) by 15 min, causing nuclear translocation of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylation of nuclear p90 ribosomal S6 kinase. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was dependent on plasma membrane-initiated activation of Gi/o proteins and the upstream MAPK kinase because the effect was seen with albumin-conjugated DHEA and was blocked by pertussis toxin or PD098059. A 15-min incubation of BAECs with 1 nm DHEA (or albumin-conjugated DHEA) increased endothelial proliferation by 30% at 24 h. This effect was not altered by inhibition of estrogen or androgen receptors or nitric oxide production. There was a similar effect of DHEA to increase endothelial migration. DHEA also increased the formation of primitive capillary tubes of BAECs in vitro in solubilized basement membrane. These rapid DHEA-induced effects were reversed by the inhibition of either Gi/o-proteins or ERK1/2. Additionally, DHEA enhanced angiogenesis in vivo in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. These findings indicate that exposure to DHEA, at concentrations found in human blood, causes vascular endothelial proliferation by a plasma membrane-initiated activity that is Gi/o and ERK1/2 dependent. These data, along with previous findings, define an important vascular endothelial cell signaling pathway that is activated by DHEA and suggest that this steroid may play a role in vascular function. PMID:18079198

  9. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on memory and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Sakr, H F; Khalil, K I; Hussein, A M; Zaki, M S A; Eid, R A; Alkhateeb, M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on memory and cognition in experimental animals is well known, but its efficacy in clinical dementia is unproven. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DHEA on learning and memory activities in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). Forty-eight male rats that positively passed the holeboard memory test were chosen for the study before bilateral permanent occlusion of the common carotid artery. They were divided into four groups (n=12, each) as follows (i) untreated control, (ii) rats exposed to surgical permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCCAO) leading to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, (iii) rats exposed to BCCAO then received DHEA (BCCAO + DHEA) and (i.v.) rats exposed to BCCAO then received donepezil (BCCAO + DON). Holeboard memory test was used to assess the time, latency, working memory and reference memory. Central level of acetylcholine, norepinephrine and dopamine in the hippocampus were measured. Furthermore, the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus was determined. Histopathological studies of the cerebral cortex and transmission electron microscope of the hippocampus were performed. BCCAO decreased the learning and memory activities in the holeboard memory. Also, it decreased the expression of BDNF as well as the central level of acetylcholine, noradrenaline and dopamine as compared to control rats. Treatment with DHEA and donepezil increased the working and reference memories, BDNF expression as well as the central acetylcholine in the hippocampus as compared to BCCAO rats. DHEA produced neuroprotective effects through increasing the expression of BDNF as well as increasing the central level of acetylcholine and catecholamines which are non-comparable to donepezil effects.

  10. A nutrient-dense, high-fiber, fruit-based supplement bar increases HDL cholesterol, particularly large HDL, lowers homocysteine, and raises glutathione in a 2-wk trial

    PubMed Central

    Mietus-Snyder, Michele L.; Shigenaga, Mark K.; Suh, Jung H.; Shenvi, Swapna V.; Lal, Ashutosh; McHugh, Tara; Olson, Don; Lilienstein, Joshua; Krauss, Ronald M.; Gildengoren, Ginny; McCann, Joyce C.; Ames, Bruce N.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake modulates disease risk, but little is known how components within food mixtures affect pathophysiology. A low-calorie, high-fiber, fruit-based nutrient-dense bar of defined composition (e.g., vitamins and minerals, fruit polyphenolics, β-glucan, docosahexaenoic acid) appropriate for deconstruction and mechanistic studies is described and evaluated in a pilot trial. The bar was developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Changes in cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk biomarkers were measured after 2 wk twice-daily consumption of the bar, and compared against baseline controls in 25 healthy adults. Plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) increased 6.2% (P=0.001), due primarily to a 28% increase in large HDL (HDL-L; P<0.0001). Total plasma homocysteine (Hcy) decreased 19% (P=0.017), and glutathione (GSH) increased 20% (P=0.011). The changes in HDL and Hcy are in the direction associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline; increased GSH reflects improved antioxidant defense. Changes in biomarkers linked to insulin resistance and inflammation were not observed. A defined food-based supplement can, within 2 wk, positively impact metabolic biomarkers linked to disease risk. These results lay the groundwork for mechanistic/deconstruction experiments to identify critical bar components and putative synergistic combinations responsible for observed effects.—Mietus-Snyder, M. L., Shigenaga, M. K., Suh, J. H., Shenvi, S. V., Lal, A., McHugh, T., Olson, D., Lilienstein, J., Krauss, R. M., Gildengoren, G., McCann, J. C., Ames, B. N. A nutrient-dense, high-fiber, fruit-based supplement bar increases HDL cholesterol, particularly large HDL, lowers homocysteine, and raises glutathione in a 2-wk trial. PMID:22549511

  11. Progress toward acetate supplementation therapy for Canavan disease: glyceryl triacetate administration increases acetate, but not N-acetylaspartate, levels in brain.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Raji; Arun, Peethambaran; Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, M A Aryan

    2005-10-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a fatal genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the gene for aspartoacylase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartate (NAA) into L-aspartate and acetate. Because aspartoacylase is localized in oligodendrocytes, and NAA-derived acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, we hypothesize that an acetate deficiency in oligodendrocytes is responsible for the pathology in CD, and we propose acetate supplementation as a possible therapy. In our preclinical efforts toward this goal, we studied the effectiveness of orally administered glyceryl triacetate (GTA) and calcium acetate for increasing acetate levels in the murine brain. The concentrations of brain acetate and NAA were determined simultaneously after intragastric administration of GTA. We found that the acetate levels in brain were increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with a 17-fold increase observed at 1 to 2 h in 20- to 21-day-old mice at a dose of 5.8 g/kg GTA. NAA levels in the brain were not significantly increased under these conditions. Studies using mice at varying stages of development showed that the dose of GTA required to maintain similarly elevated acetate levels in the brain increased with age. Also, GTA was significantly more effective as an acetate source than calcium acetate. Chronic administration of GTA up to 25 days of age did not result in any overt pathology in the mice. Based on these results and the current Food and Drug Administration-approved use of GTA as a food additive, we propose that it is a potential candidate for use in acetate supplementation therapy for CD.

  12. Food intake reduction and immunologic alterations in mice fed dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Weindruch, R; McFeeters, G; Walford, R L

    1984-01-01

    A diet containing 0.4% DHEA was fed to male mice of a long-lived strain from 3 weeks until 18 weeks of age. These mice were compared with others fed a control diet ad libitum and with mice pair-fed the control diet in amounts approximating the intake of the DHEA-fed group. Mice fed the DHEA diet failed to eat all of the food presented to them whereas the pair-fed mice ate all of their food. All mice were studied at 18 weeks of age for two age-sensitive immune parameters (spleen lymphocyte proliferation induced by T-cell mitogens [PHA or ConA] and natural killer cell lysis of an allogeneic tumor). DHEA feeding led to: 1) a decrease in food intake (approximately 30% less than for mice fed the control diet ad libitum), 2) a lower body weight at 18 weeks of age (approximately 40% lower than for ad libitum controls) due to a decrease in the body weight gained from 3 weeks through 18 weeks of age (approximately 55% lower than controls), 3) a lower spleen weight (approximately 30% lower than controls) but without lower numbers of nucleated cells per spleen, 4) an increase in PHA-induced proliferation by spleen lymphocytes (approximately 100% higher than for controls) and, 5) no influence on splenic natural killer cell activity. The inhibition of body weight gain for mice fed DHEA appeared due to both a reduction in food intake and a metabolic effect since mice eating DHEA gained less body weight per gram of food eaten than did mice in either group eating the control diet.

  13. A novel method for increasing the frequency of somatic embryogenesis in wheat tissue culture by NaCl and KCl supplementation.

    PubMed

    Galiba, G; Yamada, Y

    1988-01-01

    The effect of NaCl, KCl and LiCl on the growth and morphogeneis of tissue cultures originating from immature embryos of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and one triticale (Triticosecale)varieties was investigated. The morphogenetic pathway to plant regeneration in Chinese Spring wheat was determined as incomplete somatic embryogenesis because the differentiation and subsequent germination of the shoot apices happened in the early phase of embryo development. Culture medium supplemented by NaCl suppressed the differentiation of shoot apices resulting in the development of more typical somatic embryoids. Forty mM concentrations of both NaCl or KCl increased the formation of somatic embryos in Chinese Spring. Arthur and GK Kincso wheat varieties while Lasko triticale regenerated well without the addition. The salts inhibited plantlet formation from somatic embryoids so the salts supplement should be omitted. Forty mM LiCl inhibited growth while 10mM LiCl had no effect on growth or embryogenesis.

  14. Impact of trace element changes on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in healthy and diabetic states among middle-age and elderly Egyptians.

    PubMed

    El Husseiny, Noha M; Said, Elham Sobhy; El Shahat Mohamed, Naglaa; Othman, Azza Ismail

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm if there is a link between the alteration in blood levels of trace elements (chromium, copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in healthy and diabetic states. This study is the first study to test these parameters in Egyptians. The study included 150 subjects divided into the following four groups: healthy middle-aged, healthy elderly, middle-aged diabetics, and elderly diabetics. Our results revealed a statistically significant decrease in the level of DHEAS in the elderly compared to middle-aged healthy and diabetic groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference between the middle-aged groups with respect to zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium levels. Zinc and copper were lower in the diabetic subjects while chromium and cadmium were higher in the same group in comparison to healthy subjects. In the elderly groups, there were significant increases in chromium and cadmium levels in diabetic subjects rather than healthy ones. There was a significant increase in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level in the elderly healthy and diabetic groups and a significant decrease in the glutathione level in the elderly groups. There was no correlation between the levels of trace elements and DHEAS or between the levels of DHEAS, oxidants, and antioxidants in all of the tested groups. In conclusion, only the DHEAS level was correlated with age. There was no difference between the diabetic and healthy groups with respect to the levels of trace elements, with the exception of chromium and cadmium, which suggests the effect of pollution on the pathogenesis of diabetes in Egyptians. No correlation existed between the levels of DHEAS and trace elements, oxidants, and antioxidants. Finally, we believe that there is a large regional variation in the levels of trace elements due to different environmental exposure and nutritional factors which are responsible for contradictory results

  15. The use of dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder: a report of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Miki; Meiboom, Hadas; Zaig, Inbar; Schreiber, Shaul; Abramov, Liora

    2013-08-01

    Data regarding the efficacy of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) are scarce and inconsistent. We aimed to determine possible gender differences in the efficacy of DHEA as a treatment for HDSS. Postmenopausal women (n=27), and men (n=21) with HSDD, were randomized to receive either DHEA 100 mg daily or placebo for 6 weeks in a controlled, double blind study. Primary outcome measures were sexual function questionnaires. Hormone serum levels of DHEAS, total and bioavailable testosterone, estradiol, and urine levels of DHEA and androsterone were also measured. Participants on active treatment showed a significant increase in circulating serum levels of DHEAS, while bioavailable testosterone levels increased in women only. In women only, significant interaction effects were observed for sexual arousal (p<0.05), satisfaction (p<0.05), and cognition (trend; p=0.06). For arousal, a significant improvement was observed for the DHEA treated group at 6 weeks (p=0.001). Significant correlations were observed between bioavailable T and sexual cognitions, arousal and orgasm, while DHEAS was correlated with satisfaction. In the men, significant correlations were observed between testosterone and arousal (r=.45), sexual drive (r=.50) and orgasm (r=.55). In women with HSDD, DHEA treatment had a significant beneficial effect on arousal, whereas no efficacy was demonstrated in men, indicating a possible gender difference. This improvement seems to be mediated via DHEA's metabolism to testosterone. Our positive results suggest that the neurosteroid DHEA may be effective as a treatment for women with HSDD if administered at a dose of at least 100 mg per day.

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone Stimulates Phosphorylation of FoxO1 in Vascular Endothelial Cells via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase- and Protein Kinase A-dependent Signaling Pathways to Regulate ET-1 Synthesis and Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Alice Seraphina; Li, Yunhua; Reiter, Chad E. N.; Ver, Maria R.; Quon, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous adrenal steroid hormone with controversial actions in humans. We previously reported that DHEA has opposing actions in endothelial cells to stimulate phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric-oxide synthase leading to increased production of nitric oxide while simultaneously stimulating MAPK-dependent secretion of the vasoconstrictor ET-1. In the present study we hypothesized that DHEA may stimulate PI 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of FoxO1 in endothelial cells to help regulate endothelial function. In bovine or human aortic endothelial cells (BAEC and HAEC), treatment with DHEA (100 nm) acutely enhanced phosphorylation of FoxO1. DHEA-stimulated phosphorylation of FoxO1 was inhibited by pretreatment of cells with wortmannin (PI 3-kinase inhibitor) or H89 (protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor) but not ICI182780 (estrogen receptor blocker), or PD98059 (MEK (MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase) inhibitor). Small interfering RNA knockdown of PKA inhibited DHEA-stimulated phosphorylation of FoxO1. DHEA promoted nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 that was blocked by pretreatment of cells with wortmannin, H89, or by small interfering RNA knockdown of PKA. DHEA treatment of endothelial cells increased PKA activity and intracellular cAMP concentrations. Transfection of BAEC with a constitutively nuclear FoxO1 mutant transactivated a co-transfected ET-1 promoter luciferase reporter. Treatment of BAEC with DHEA inhibited transactivation of the ET-1 promoter reporter in cells overexpressing FoxO1. ET-1 promoter activity and secretion in response to DHEA treatment was augmented by PI 3-kinase blockade and inhibited by MAPK blockade. We conclude that DHEA stimulates phosphorylation of FoxO1 via PI 3-kinase- and PKA-dependent pathways in endothelial cells that negatively regulates ET-1 promoter activity and secretion. Balance between PI 3-kinase-dependent inhibition and MAPK-dependent stimulation of ET-1

  17. N-acetylcysteine supplementation decreases osteoclast differentiation and increases bone mass in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity induced by high-fat diets increases bone resorption, decreases trabecular bone mass, and reduces bone strength in various animal models. This study investigated whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and a glutathione precursor, alters glutathione statu...

  18. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenofovir (TDF) is associated with phosphaturia and elevated 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-OH(2)D). Fibroblast growth factor-23 causes phosphaturia and increases in response to elevated 1,25-OH(2)D. Vitamin D binding proetin (VDBP) binds to 1,25-OH(2)D, decreasing biologic activity, and is elevated...

  19. Vitamin D Supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Tenofovir (TDF) is associated with phosphaturia and elevated 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-OH(2)D). Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) causes phosphaturia and increases in response to elevated 1,25-OH(2)D. Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) binds to 1,25-OH(2)D, decreasing its biologic...

  20. The effects of increasing dietary levels of amino acid-supplemented soy protein concentrate and constant dietary supplementation of phosphorus on growth, composition and immune responses of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Metochis, C; Crampton, V O; Ruohonen, K; Bell, J G; Adams, A; Thompson, K D

    2016-06-01

    Diets with 50 (SPC50), 65 (SPC65) and 80 % (SPC80) substitution of prime fish meal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) were evaluated against a commercial type control feed with 35 % FM replacement with SPC. Increases in dietary SPC were combined with appropriate increases in methionine, lysine and threonine supplementation, whereas added phosphorus was constant among treatments. Diets were administered to quadruplicate groups of 29 g juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed to constant light, for 97 days. On Day 63 salmon were subjected to vaccination. Significant weight reductions in SPC65 and SPC80 compared with SPC35 salmon were observed by Day 97. Linear reductions in body cross-sectional ash, Ca/P ratios, and Ca, P, Mn and Zn were observed at Days 63 (prior vaccination) and 97 (34 days post-vaccination), while Mg presented a decrease at Day 63, in salmon fed increasing dietary SPC. Significant reductions in Zn, Ca, P and Ca/P ratios persisted in SPC65 and SPC80 compared with SPC35 salmon at Day 97. Significant haematocrit reductions in SPC50, SPC65 and SPC80 salmon were observed at Days 63, 70 and 97. Enhanced plasma haemolytic activity, increased total IgM, and a rise in thrombocytes were demonstrated in SPC50 and SPC65 salmon on Day 97, while increased lysozyme activity was demonstrated for these groups on Days 63, 70 and 97. Leucocyte and lymphocyte counts revealed enhanced immunostimulation in salmon fed with increasing dietary SPC at Day 97. High SPC inclusion diets did not compromise the immune responses of salmon, while SPC50 diet also supported good growth without compromising elemental concentrations.

  1. Failure of twice-weekly iron supplementation to increase blood haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Olsen, A; Nawiri, J; Magnussen, P; Krarup, H; Friis, H

    2006-04-01

    In order to increase the intestinal absorption of iron whilst simultaneously minimising the side-effects and thus increasing compliance, once- or twice-weekly, instead of daily, iron supplementation has been widely recommended. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in western Kenya, a tablet of ferrous dextran (containing 60 mg elemental iron) or an identical-looking placebo tablet was provided twice-weekly for 12 months to each child or adult investigated. At baseline each subject had a moderately low blood concentration of haemoglobin (Hb). Initial Hb and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were determined and each subject was tested for malarial and helminth infection and treated, if necessary, with the appropriate anthelminthic drug(s). Overall, 200 children (aged 4-15 years) and 129 adults (aged 16-63 years) completed the 12-month study. At baseline, 47.5% of the children and 58.1% of the adults were anaemic, hookworm (detected in 60.0% of the children and 69.9% of the adults) was the most common helminth infection, and malaria was endemic. The results of bivariate analyses indicated that twice-weekly iron supplementation had no significant effect on blood Hb or SF concentrations, either in the children or the adults investigated. The results were confirmed in multiple linear-regression analyses, which revealed that the predictors of the final Hb concentration in the children investigated were age and infection, after enrollment, with Ascaris lumbricoides. Gender and the serum concentration of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) at final follow-up were predictors of the final SF concentration in the children. In adults, the predictors of the final Hb concentration were gender and HIV infection, and the predictors of the final SF concentration were age and the serum concentration of ACT at the final follow-up. Twice-weekly iron supplementation did not increase Hb or iron stores in children or adults. Since compliance appeared to be high, this lack

  2. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p < 0.01). Mean weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared to control. Single-meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed

  3. Supplementation of Elderly Japanese Men and Women with Fucoidan from Seaweed Increases Immune Responses to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination12

    PubMed Central

    Negishi, Hirokuni; Mori, Mari; Mori, Hideki; Yamori, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The elderly are known to have an inadequate immune response to influenza vaccine. Mekabu fucoidan (MF), a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from seaweed, was previously shown to have an immunomodulatory effect. We therefore investigated antibody production after influenza vaccination in elderly Japanese men and women with and without oral MF intake. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted with 70 volunteers >60 y of age. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, consuming either MF (300 mg/d) or placebo for 4 wk, and then given a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine. Serum was sampled at 5 and 20 wk after vaccination to measure the hemagglutination inhibition titer and natural killer cell activity. The MF group had higher antibody titers against all 3 strains contained in the seasonal influenza virus vaccine than the placebo group. Titers against the B/Brisbane/60/2008 (B) strain increased substantially more in the MF group than in the placebo group over the product consumption period. The immune response against B antigen met the European Union Licensure criteria regarding the geometric mean titer ratio in the MF group (2.4), but not in the placebo group (1.7). In the MF group, natural killer cell activity tended to increase from baseline 9 wk after MF intake (P = 0.08). However, in the placebo group no substantial increase was noted at 9 wk, and the activity decreased substantially from 9 to 24 wk. In the immunocompromised elderly, MF intake increased antibody production after vaccination, possibly preventing influenza epidemics. PMID:24005608

  4. Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Koga, Jinichiro; Kanegae, Minoru; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-09-28

    It is well known that ingestion of a protein source is effective in stimulating muscle protein synthesis after exercise. In addition, there are numerous reports on the impact of leucine and leucine-rich whey protein on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. However, there is only limited information on the effects of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signalling. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of WPH and amino acids on muscle protein synthesis and the initiation of translation in skeletal muscle during the post-exercise phase. Male Sprague–Dawley rats swam for 2 h to depress muscle protein synthesis. Immediately after exercise, the animals were administered either carbohydrate (CHO), CHO plus an amino acid mixture (AA) or CHO plus WPH. At 1 h after exercise, the supplements containing whey-based protein (AA and WPH) caused a significant increase in the fractional rate of protein synthesis (FSR) compared with CHO. WPH also caused a significant increase in FSR compared with AA. Post-exercise ingestion of WPH caused a significant increase in the phosphorylation of mTOR levels compared with AA or CHO. In addition, WPH caused greater phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 than AA and CHO. In contrast, there was no difference in plasma amino acid levels following supplementation with either AA or WPH. These results indicate that WPH may include active components that are superior to amino acids for stimulating muscle protein synthesis and initiating translation.

  5. Novel Cell-Ess ® supplement used as a feed or as an initial boost to CHO serum free media results in a significant increase in protein yield and production.

    PubMed

    Elhofy, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Many metrics, including metabolic profiles, have been used to analyze cell health and optimize productivity. In this study, we investigated the ability of a lipid supplement to increase protein yield. At a concentration of 1% (v/v) the lipid supplement caused a significant increase in protein titer (1118 ± 65.4 ng 10(5) cells(- 1) days(- 1)) when compared to cultures grown in the absence of supplementation (819.3 ± 38.1 ng 10(5) cells(- 1) days(- 1); p < 0.05). This equated to a 37% increase in productivity. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of ammonia, glutamate, lactate, and glucose were not significantly altered by the polar lipid supplement. In a separate set of experiments, using the supplement as a feed resulted in 2 notable effects. The first was a 25% increase in protein titer. The second was an extension of peak protein production from 1 day to 2 days. These results suggest that lipid supplementation is a promising avenue for enhancing protein production. In addition, our results also suggest that an increase in protein production may not necessarily require a change in the metabolic state of the cells.

  6. Kiwifruit-derived supplements increase stool frequency in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Juliet; Butts, Christine A; Paturi, Gunaranjan; Eady, Sarah L; Wallace, Alison J; Hedderley, Duncan; Gearry, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The worldwide growth in the incidence of gastrointestinal disorders has created an immediate need to identify safe and effective interventions. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effects of Actazin and Gold, kiwifruit-derived nutritional ingredients, on stool frequency, stool form, and gastrointestinal comfort in healthy and functionally constipated (Rome III criteria for C3 functional constipation) individuals. Using a crossover design, all participants consumed all 4 dietary interventions (Placebo, Actazin low dose [Actazin-L] [600 mg/day], Actazin high dose [Actazin-H] [2400 mg/day], and Gold [2400 mg/day]). Each intervention was taken for 28 days followed by a 14-day washout period between interventions. Participants recorded their daily bowel movements and well-being parameters in daily questionnaires. In the healthy cohort (n = 19), the Actazin-H (P = .014) and Gold (P = .009) interventions significantly increased the mean daily bowel movements compared with the washout. No significant differences were observed in stool form as determined by use of the Bristol stool scale. In a subgroup analysis of responders in the healthy cohort, Actazin-L (P = .005), Actazin-H (P < .001), and Gold (P = .001) consumption significantly increased the number of daily bowel movements by greater than 1 bowel movement per week. In the functionally constipated cohort (n = 9), there were no significant differences between interventions for bowel movements and the Bristol stool scale values or in the subsequent subgroup analysis of responders. This study demonstrated that Actazin and Gold produced clinically meaningful increases in bowel movements in healthy individuals.

  7. Egg collagen content is increased by a diet supplemented with wood charcoal powder containing wood vinegar liquid.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, K; Matsumoto, Y; Yamauchi, K

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine whether collagen exists in egg, particularly in egg yolk; to establish a Fourier transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) measurement method for collagen in egg and to assess the possibility of increasing the collagen content by feeding hens a diet containing wood charcoal powder containing wood vinegar liquid (WCV). The collagen in eggs from 67-week-old hens fed on the dietary 0 and 9.9 g/kg WCV diets was investigated using a combination of histochemical, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-NIR approaches. All approaches used to identify collagen in egg yolk yielded positive results. The collagen in egg yolk measured using colorimetry, collagen in egg yolk, egg white and eggshell membrane using FT-NIR and collagen in egg yolk determined by treating the egg yolk with collagenase were abundant after feeding a dietary WCV (p<0.05). These results suggest that egg yolk contains collagen, that the collagen in egg can be measured using FT-NIR, and that the collagen content of egg yolk can be increased by feeding dietary WCV diets.

  8. Resveratrol supplementation restores high-fat diet-induced insulin secretion dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial function in islet

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wen; Zheng, Juan; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Xiang; Zeng, Tian-shu; Hu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a natural compound, is known for its effects on energy homeostasis. Here we investigated the effects of RSV and possible mechanism in insulin secretion of high-fat diet rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: NC group (animals were fed ad libitum with normal chow for 8 weeks), HF group (animals were fed ad libitum with high-fat diet for 8 weeks), and HFR group (animals were treated with high-fat diet and administered with RSV for 8 weeks). Insulin secretion ability of rats was assessed by hyperglycemic clamp. Mitochondrial biogenesis genes, mitochondrial respiratory chain activities, reactive oxidative species (ROS), and several mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in islet. We found that HF group rats clearly showed low insulin secretion and mitochondrial complex dysfunction. Expression of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog- 1 (SIRT1) and related mitochondrial biogenesis were significantly decreased. However, RSV administration group (HFR) showed a marked potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was associated with elevated SIRT1 protein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities, resulting in increased mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and decreased ROS level. This study suggests that RSV may increase islet mitochondrial complex activities and antioxidant function to restore insulin secretion dysfunction induced by high-fat diet. PMID:25228148

  9. Peptidomimetics Based On Dehydroepiandrosterone Scaffold: Synthesis, Antiproliferation Activity, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Su, Haihuan; Wang, Wenda; Chen, Changshui; Cao, Xiufang

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel peptidomimetics bearing dehydroepiandrosterone moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibition activities against cell proliferation. According to the preliminary studies on inhibitory activities, some of the newly prepared compounds indicated significantly inhibition activities against human hepatoma cancer (HepG2), human lung cancer (A549), human melanoma (A875) cell lines compared with the control 5-fluorouracil. Especially, compounds Ii (IC50 < 14 μM) and Ik (IC50 < 13 μM) exhibited obvious inhibition activities against all tested cell lines. The highly potential compound Ik induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the apoptotic effects of compound Ik were further evaluated using Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide dual staining assay, which revealed these highly potential compounds induced cell death in HepG2 cells at least partly by apoptosis.

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement decreases insulin resistance and lowers inflammatory cytokines in aging humans.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Edward P; Villareal, Dennis T; Fontana, Luigi; Han, Dong-Ho; Holloszy, John O

    2011-05-01

    Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreases ~80% between ages 25 and 75 yr. In a preliminary study, we found that 6 mo of DHEA replacement improved insulin action in elderly individuals. The purpose of the present larger, randomized double-blind study was to determine whether a longer period of DHEA replacement improves glucose tolerance. Fifty-seven men and 68 women aged 65 to 75 yr were randomly assigned to 50 mg DHEA or placebo once daily. Year one was a randomized, double blind trial. Year 2 was an open label continuation. DHEA replacement improved glucose tolerance in participants who had abnormal GT initially, reduced plasma triglycerides, and the inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNFα.

  11. Altered expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in follicles within dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovaries in rats.

    PubMed

    Bas, Diana; Abramovich, Dalhia; Hernandez, Fatima; Tesone, Marta

    2011-05-01

    PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by hyperandrogenaemia, hirsutism, oligo- or amenorrhea, insulin resistance and anovulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the balance between the ovarian expression of Bax (proapoptotic protein) and Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic protein) is altered in a PCOS model developed in rats by DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) administration. In addition, the ovarian morphology and the circulating progesterone levels were evaluated. Histological studies confirmed the presence of follicular cysts, atretic follicles and the absence of corpora lutea in the ovaries from the PCOS group and a significant decrease in circulating progesterone levels. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were mainly localized in granulosa cells of AFs (antral follicles) in both groups. Bax expression was greater in preantral and AFs from PCOS ovarian sections than in the controls. In contrast, intense Bcl-2 immunostaining was observed in the control AFs, while Bcl-2 protein was either absent in PFs (preantral follicles) or weakly expressed in AFs from PCOS rats. These results were partially confirmed by Western studies. Data revealed that the ovarian level of Bcl-2 protein was lower in PCOS than in the control and that there were no differences in Bax ovarian levels between groups. However, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly higher in PCOS group than in the control group. In conclusion, an increase in ovarian apoptosis through an imbalance among the Bcl-2 family members may be involved in the transformation of growing follicles in cystic follicles in the ovaries from DHEA-induced PCOS rats.

  12. Reduction of atherosclerosis by administration of dehydroepiandrosterone. A study in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand white rabbit with aortic intimal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, G B; Bush, D E; Weisman, H F

    1988-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous steroid that blocks carcinogenesis, retards aging, and exerts antiproliferative properties. In vitro, it is a potent inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first committed step of the pentose phosphate pathway. In man, serum levels of DHEA and its sulfate peak in early adulthood and drop markedly with age. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that low levels of DHEA or its sulfate conjugate are linked to an increased risk of developing cancer or of death from cardiovascular disease. Like cancer, atherosclerosis is a proliferative process characterized by both initiation and promotion phases. This similarity provided a framework in which to study the antiatherogenic effects of DHEA. Rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups. Two groups of rabbits received aortic endothelial injury by balloon catheter and were fed a 2% cholesterol diet for 12 wk. DHEA, 0.5%, was incorporated into the diet of one group receiving the 2% cholesterol diet and endothelial injury and also into the diet of one of the control groups. Animals were killed after 12 wk and aortas, hearts, and livers were studied. Plasma samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, DHEA, and DHEA-sulfate levels. The atherogenic insult resulted in severe atherosclerosis in animals not treated with DHEA. In those receiving DHEA there was an almost 50% reduction in plaque size (P = 0.006), inversely related to the serum level of DHEA attained. Fatty infiltration of the heart and liver were also markedly reduced. These beneficial actions were not attributable to differences in body weight gain, food intake, total plasma cholesterol or distribution of cholesterol among the VLDL, LDL, or HDL fractions. The results show that high levels of plasma DHEA inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and they provide an important experimental link to the epidemiologic studies correlating low DHEA-sulfate plasma levels with an enhanced

  13. The supplementation of low-P diets with microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae increases P and Ca digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Torrallardona, D; Salvadó, R; Broz, J

    2012-12-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the dose response of a novel microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae (Ronozyme HiPhos; DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland) in pigs. Forty-eight individually housed pigs (Landrace × Pietrain; 52 kg BW; 24 males and 24 females) were distributed among 6 experimental treatments consisting of a low-P diet (3.5 g P/kg; 1.1 g digestible P/kg), which was supplemented with 500, 1000, 2000, or 4000 units of phytase activity/kg, and a standard-P diet (4.5 g P/kg; 1.8 g digestible P/kg) that was supplemented with CaHPO(4). After 17 d, fresh feces were sampled from all pigs and the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, ash, P, and Ca was measured using TiO(2) as indigestible marker. Blood samples were also obtained from each pig and serum was analyzed for P and Ca concentrations. The nonsupplemented low-P diet increased Ca and reduced P blood serum concentrations (P < 0.05) relative to the standard-P diet (10.8 vs. 10.2 and 6.7 vs. 7.7 mg/dL, respectively). Phytase supplementation of the low-P diet reduced Ca (from 10.8 to 9.9 mg/dL; linear, P < 0.001) and increased P concentrations (from 6.7 to 8.0 mg/dL; linear and quadratic, P < 0.001) in serum and reduced P concentration in feces (from 13.7 to 7.6 g/kg DM; linear and quadratic, P < 0.001). Phytase improved the total tract digestibility of P (from 29.0 to 62.3%; linear and quadratic, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05), Ca (from 54.0 to 75.7%; quadratic, P < 0.01), and ash (from 46.2 to 57.7%; quadratic, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the microbial 6-phytase tested improves the apparent total tract digestibility of P in growing pigs and reduces P excretion in feces in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. Nutrient digestibility and milk production responses to increasing levels of palmitic acid supplementation vary in cows receiving diets with or without whole cottonseed.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; de Souza, J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment. A palmitic acid-enriched supplement (PA 88.5% C16:0) was fed at 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 2.25% of ration DM in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design within each basal diet group. Periods were 14 d with the final 4 d used for data collection. PA dose increased milk fat content linearly, and cubically affected yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. The PA dose did not affect milk protein and lactose contents, BW, and BCS, but tended to increase yields of milk, milk protein, and milk lactose. Also, PA dose reduced DMI and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and increased 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically. There were no effects of basal diet on the yield of milk or milk components, but DMI tended to decrease in CS compared with SH, increasing feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI). Compared with SH, CS diets increased yield of preformed milk fatty acids and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility, and tended to decrease 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility. We observed basal diet × PA dose interactions for yields of milk and milk protein and for 16-carbon and total fatty acid digestibility, as well as tendency for yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. Also, there was a tendency for an interaction between basal diet and PA dose for NDF digestibility, which increased more for CS with increasing PA than for SH. PA dose linearly decreased digestibility of total fatty acids in SH diets but did not affect it in CS diets Results demonstrate

  15. New ester derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone as 5α-reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Yazmín; Bratoeff, Eugene; Garrido, Mariana; Soriano, Juan; Heuze, Yvonne; Cabeza, Marisa

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize different ester derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone with therapeutic potential as antiandrogens. The biological effect of these steroids was demonstrated in in vivo as well as in vitro experiments. In the in vivo experiments, we measured the activity of seven steroids on the weight of the prostate and seminal vesicles of gonadectomized hamsters treated with testosterone. For the in vitro studies, we determined the IC(50) values by measuring the concentration of the steroidal derivatives that inhibits 50% of the activity of 5α-reductase present in human prostate and also its binding capacity to the androgen receptors (AR) obtained from rat's prostate cytosol. The results from these experiments indicated that compounds 7 5α,6β-dibromo-3β-propanoyloxyandrostan-17-one, 8 5α,6β-dibromo-3β-butanoyloxyandrostan-17-one and 9 5α,6β-dibromo-3β-(3'-oxapentanoyloxy)-androstan-17-one, significantly decreased the weight of the prostate and seminal vesicles as compared to testosterone treated animals; this reduction of the weight of these glands was comparable to that produced by Finasteride 11. On the other hand, compounds 4 3β-acetoxyandrost-5-en-17-one, 5 3β-hexanoyloxyandrost-5-en-17-one 6 3β-(3'-oxapentanoyloxy)-androst-5-en-17-one, 7 and 12 dehydroepiandrosterone, (commercially available) inhibited the enzyme 5α-reductase. Compounds 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 (IC(50) values of 5.2±1.2, 0.049±0.002, 6.4±1.1, 0.10±0.045, and 6.8±0.9 nM, respectively) exhibited the highest inhibitory activity. However, none of these compounds binds to the AR.

  16. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended.

  17. Linear growth increased in young children in an urban slum of Haiti: a randomized controlled trial of a lipid-based nutrient supplement123

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Design: Healthy, singleton infants aged 6–11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ≥80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Results: Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P < 0.001). The effects were sustained 6 mo postintervention. Morbidity and developmental outcomes did not differ by trial arm. Conclusion: A low-energy, fortified product improved the linear growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512. PMID:24225356

  18. Vitamin E supplementation reduces plasma vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and von Willebrand factor levels and increases nitric oxide concentrations in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Desideri, Giovambattista; Marinucci, Maria Contina; Tomassoni, Gianluca; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Santucci, Anna; Ferri, Claudio

    2002-06-01

    Up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability represent early characteristics of atherosclerosis. To evaluate whether the antioxidant vitamin E affected the circulating levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and the plasma metabolite of NO (nitrite+nitrate) in hypercholesterolemic patients, either vitamin E (either 400 IU or 800 IU/d for 8 wk) or placebo were randomly, double-blindly given to 36 hypercholesterolemic patients and 22 age- and sex-matched controls. At baseline hypercholesterolemic patients showed higher plasma sVCAM-1 (microg.liter(-1)) (591.2 +/- 132.5 vs. 505.0 +/- 65.6, P < 0.007) and lower NO metabolite (microM) levels (15.9 +/- 3.4 vs. 29.2 +/- 5.1, P < 0.0001) than controls. In hypercholesterolemic patients, 8 wk vitamin E (but not placebo) treatment significantly decreased circulating sVCAM-1 levels (400 IU: -148.9 +/- 84.6, P < 0.009; 800 IU: -204.0 +/- 75.7, P < 0.0001; placebo: -4.7 +/- 22.6, NS), whereas it increased NO metabolite concentrations (400 IU: +4.0 +/- 1.7, P < 0.02; 800 IU: +5.5 +/- 0.8, P < 0.0001; placebo: +0.1 +/- 1.1, NS) without affecting circulating low- density lipoprotein levels. Changes in both plasma sVCAM-1 and NO metabolite levels showed a trend to significantly correlate (r = -0.515, P = 0.010; and r = 0.435, P = 0.034, respectively) with changes in vitamin E concentrations induced by vitamin E supplementation. In conclusion, isolated hypercholesterolemia both increased circulating sVCAM-1 and reduced NO metabolite concentrations. Vitamin E supplementation counteracts these alterations, thus representing a potential tool for endothelial protection in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  19. Effects of feeding antibiotic-free creep feed supplemented with oligofructose, probiotics or synbiotics to suckling piglets increases the preweaning weight gain and composition of intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Shim, S B; Verstegen, M W A; Kim, I H; Kwon, O S; Verdonk, J M A J

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding an antibiotic-free creep feed supplemented with either oligofructose, probiotics or synbiotics to suckling piglets influences growth performance, the gut microflora, gut morphology and hematological traits at weaning. Twenty sows with 10 piglets each were randomly assigned to one of four treatments. The treatments consisted of a control (antibiotic-free) diet, 0.2% oligofructose (OF), 0.3% probiotics or 0.5% synbiotics (mixture of 0.2% OF+0.3% probiotics). Piglets were offered the diet ad libitum from 7 d after birth until one day after weaning (21 d of age). At the day after weaning, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein to determine the immune response. Digesta samples of the ileum and colon were collected to determine the microbial composition. Tissue segments from the duodenum and ileum were collected for morphometric measurements of the small intestine. The average daily weight gain was significantly higher for piglets fed the OF or synbiotics diet compared with the pigs fed the control diet. The hematological traits (the concentration of lymphocytes and neutrophils in whole blood) were not affected by the diet. Piglets fed the OF, probiotics or synbiotics diet had a significantly decreased number of total coliform bacteria in the colon. Feeding OF, probiotics or synbiotics significantly increased the population of bifidobacteria in the ileum compared to the control. In the colon, the probiotics and synbiotics diet significantly increased the number of bifidobacteria compared with the control diet. The results of this experiment showed that supplementation of oligofructose or synbiotics to an antibiotic-free creep feed during the preweaning period affected gut microbial population and performance of piglets.

  20. Supplementation with red palm oil increases β-carotene and vitamin A blood levels in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sommerburg, Olaf; De Spirt, Silke; Mattern, Annett; Joachim, Cornelia; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Siems, Werner; Stahl, Wilhelm; Mall, Marcus A

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene) daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

  1. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... Sports Supplements? How Some Common Supplements Affect the Body Will Supplements ... improving your sports performance is probably on your mind. Lots of people wonder if taking sports supplements ...

  2. Intraruminal supplementation with increasing levels of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes: effects on nutrient digestion in cattle fed a barley grain diet.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; McAllister, T A; Cheng, K J

    2000-02-01

    The effects of supplying increasing ruminal doses of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (EPDE) on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion were studied using eight ruminally cannulated heifers, four of which were also duodenally cannulated, in a replicated Latin square. The heifers were fed a diet of 85.5% rolled barley grain and 14% barley silage (DM basis), and once daily they were given intraruminal doses of 0 (Control), 100, 200, or 400 g of a preparation containing polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Enzyme treatment decreased ruminal pH (linear, P<.001) and increased ammonia N (quadratic, P<.001) concentration. The ruminally soluble fraction and effective degradability of feed DM in situ were increased (quadratic response, P<.001) by enzyme treatment. Ruminal administration of EPDE increased ruminal fluid carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities linearly (P<.001) and beta-glucanase activity quadratically (P<.01), decreased (quadratic response, P<.05) ruminal fluid viscosity, and did not affect (P>.05) ruminal fluid amylase activity. Elevated levels of fibrolytic activities in the rumen resulted in increased (quadratic, P<.001) carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, and beta-glucanase (P<.01) activities in duodenal digesta. Duodenal amylase activity and reducing sugar concentration were also increased (quadratic responses, P<.001 and P<.05, respectively) by EPDE. Xylanase activity of fecal DM was increased linearly (P<.05) with increasing ruminal EPDE levels. Apparent digestibilities of DM, crude protein, and NDF were not affected by EPDE supplementation. Enzyme treatment did not affect (P>.05) urinary excretion of allantoin and uric acid, or concentrations of glucose and urea in blood.

  3. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p < .001 for all). When adjusted for age, race, gender, annual income, and education, masters swimmers were still more likely (p < .001) to use dietary supplements than the NHANES cohort. In addition, masters swimmers were significantly more likely (p < .001) to use either creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort.

  4. Does n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy increase the IQ of children at school age? Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Treyvaud, Karli; Yelland, Lisa N; Anderson, Peter J; Smithers, Lisa G; Gibson, Robert A; McPhee, Andrew J; Makrides, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite recommendations that pregnant women increase their docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake to support fetal brain development, a recent systematic review found a lack of high-quality data to support the long-term effects of DHA supplementation on children's neurodevelopment. Methods and analysis We will assess child neurodevelopment at 7 years of age in follow-up of a multicentre double-blind randomised controlled trial of DHA supplementation in pregnancy. In 2010–2012, n=2399 Australian women with a singleton pregnancy <21 weeks’ gestation were randomised to receive 3 capsules daily containing a total dose of 800 mg DHA/day or a vegetable oil placebo until birth. N=726 children from Adelaide (all n=97 born preterm, random sample of n=630 born at term) were selected for neurodevelopmental follow-up and n=638 (preterm n=85) are still enrolled at 7 years of age. At the 7-year follow-up, a psychologist will assess the primary outcome, IQ, with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition. Specific measures of executive functioning (Fruit Stroop and the Rey Complex Figure), attention (Test of Everyday Attention for Children), memory and learning (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), language (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition) and basic educational skills (Wide Range Achievement Test, Fourth Edition) will also be administered. Caregivers will be asked to complete questionnaires measuring behaviour and executive functioning. Families, clinicians and research personnel are blinded to group assignment with the exception of families who requested unblinding prior to the follow-up. All analyses will be conducted according to the intention-to-treat principal. Ethics and dissemination All procedures will be approved by the relevant institutional ethics committees prior to start of the study. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journal publications and academic presentations

  5. Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine supplement in early life induces stable increase in dendritic complexity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex of adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Rema, V.; Bali, K.K.; Ramachandra, R.; Chugh, M.; Darokhan, Z.; Chaudhary, R.

    2008-01-01

    Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicholine) is an essential molecule that is required for biosynthesis of cell membranes. In adult humans it is used as a memory-enhancing drug for treatment of age-related dementia and cerebrovascular conditions. However the effect of CDP-choline on perinatal brain is not known. We administered CDP-choline to Long Evans rats each day from conception (maternal ingestion) to postnatal day 60 (P60). Pyramidal neurons from supragranular layers 2/3, granular layer 4 and infragranular layer 5 of somatosensory cortex were examined with Golgi–Cox staining at P240. CDP-choline treatment significantly increased length and branch points of apical and basal dendrites. Sholl analysis shows that the complexity of apical and basal dendrites of neurons is maximal in layers 2/3 and layer 5. In layer 4 significant increases were seen in basilar dendritic arborization. CDP-choline did not increase the number of primary basal dendrites on neurons in the somatosensory cortex. Primary cultures from somatosensory cortex were treated with CDP-choline to test its effect on neuronal survival. CDP-choline treatment neither enhanced the survival of neurons in culture nor increased the number of neurites. However significant increases in neurite length, branch points and total area occupied by the neurons were observed. We conclude that exogenous supplementation of CDP-choline during development causes stable changes in neuronal morphology. Significant increase in dendritic growth and branching of pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex resulted in enlarging the surface area occupied by the neurons which we speculate will augment processing of sensory information. PMID:18619738

  6. Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine supplement in early life induces stable increase in dendritic complexity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rema, V; Bali, K K; Ramachandra, R; Chugh, M; Darokhan, Z; Chaudhary, R

    2008-08-13

    Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicholine) is an essential molecule that is required for biosynthesis of cell membranes. In adult humans it is used as a memory-enhancing drug for treatment of age-related dementia and cerebrovascular conditions. However the effect of CDP-choline on perinatal brain is not known. We administered CDP-choline to Long Evans rats each day from conception (maternal ingestion) to postnatal day 60 (P60). Pyramidal neurons from supragranular layers 2/3, granular layer 4 and infragranular layer 5 of somatosensory cortex were examined with Golgi-Cox staining at P240. CDP-choline treatment significantly increased length and branch points of apical and basal dendrites. Sholl analysis shows that the complexity of apical and basal dendrites of neurons is maximal in layers 2/3 and layer 5. In layer 4 significant increases were seen in basilar dendritic arborization. CDP-choline did not increase the number of primary basal dendrites on neurons in the somatosensory cortex. Primary cultures from somatosensory cortex were treated with CDP-choline to test its effect on neuronal survival. CDP-choline treatment neither enhanced the survival of neurons in culture nor increased the number of neurites. However significant increases in neurite length, branch points and total area occupied by the neurons were observed. We conclude that exogenous supplementation of CDP-choline during development causes stable changes in neuronal morphology. Significant increase in dendritic growth and branching of pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex resulted in enlarging the surface area occupied by the neurons which we speculate will augment processing of sensory information.

  7. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of lambs supplemented with increasing levels of a tanniferous bush (Cistus ladanifer L.) and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Francisco, A; Dentinho, M T; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Fernandes, F; Sengo, S; Jerónimo, E; Oliveira, M A; Costa, P; Sequeira, A; Bessa, R J B; Santos-Silva, J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. (CL) and a vegetable oil blend were evaluated on growth performance,carcass and meat quality of fifty four lambs that were assigned to 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of CL(50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil inclusion (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Treatments had no effects on growth rate. Oil depressed dry matter intake (P = 0.017), carcass muscle (P = 0.041) and increased (P = 0.016) kidney knob channel fat. Chemical and physical meat quality traits were not affected by treatments. Off-flavour perception was higher for 8% of oil (P b 0.001). The level of 100 g/kg DM of CL inclusion improved meat stability after 7 days of storage. Supplementation with linseed and soybean oils (2:1) was a good approach to improve meat nutritional value from feedlot lambs, increasing total n-3 PUFA.

  8. Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-12-01

    Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses.

  9. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P < 0.05). For DPAn-3 the higher level was also found in muscle and gonad of abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P < 0.05). Elongase 2 expression was markedly higher in the muscle of abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P < 0.05), followed by the diet containing 2% FO supplement. For ∆6 desaturase, significantly higher expression was observed in muscle of abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone-induces miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells through estrogen receptor β and androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yun; Litchfield, Lacey M.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Prough, Russell A.; Clark, Barbara J.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Although oncomiR miR-21 is highly expressed in liver and overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its regulation is uncharacterized. We examined the effect of physiologically relevant nanomolar concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) on miR-21 expression in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. 10 nM DHEA and DHEA-S increase pri-miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells. Dietary DHEA increased miR-21 in vivo in mouse liver. siRNA and inhibitor studies suggest that DHEA-S requires desulfation for activity and that DHEA-induced pri-miR-21 transcription involves metabolism to androgen and estrogen receptor (AR and ER) ligands. Activation of ERβ and AR by DHEA metabolites androst-5-ene-3,17-dione (ADIONE), androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (ADIOL), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol (3β-Adiol) increased miR-21 transcription. DHEA-induced miR-21 increased cell proliferation and decreased Pdcd4 protein, a bona fide miR-21. Estradiol (E2) inhibited miR-21 expression via ERα. DHEA increased ERβ and AR recruitment to the miR-21 promoter within the VMP1/TMEM49 gene, with possible significance in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24845419

  11. Supplements and athletes.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John A

    2004-09-01

    Supplements have become a staple with athletes. Athletes take supplements to enhance their performance through replenishment of real and perceived deficiencies, anabolic action of stimulants, increased energy and alertness, and for weight control. Physicians who deal with athletes should be aware of the supplements being utilized by athletes, the athletes' desired effects and the efficacy of the supplement, the adverse effects, and whether the supplement is banned by leagues or organizations in which the athletes are competing. For those athletes who are regularly drug tested for performance enhancers, it is important to remember that one cannot be 100% sure that any supplement will not result in a positive drug test, because there is no independent agency certifying purity.

  12. The expression of serum steroid sex hormones and steroidogenic enzymes following intraperitoneal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijie; Tang, Xue; Kong, Yili; Ma, Haitian; Zou, Sixiang

    2010-03-01

    The adrenals of humans and primates could secrete large amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate ester (DHEA-S) in the circulation, which act as precursors of active steroid hormones in a long series of peripheral target intracrine tissues. The marked decline of serum DHEA and DHEA-S concentrations with age in humans has been incriminated in the development of various pathologies. Therefore, this study aims to provide detailed information on the effects of the intraperitoneal injection of DHEA on circulating steroid hormones and their metabolites and their trade-off relationship over 24 h in male rats. In this study, 100 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, 25 mg kg(-1) DHEA-treated and 100 mg kg(-1) DHEA-treated. The animals were sacrificed at 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h, and the samples were collected for subsequent analysis. Total cholesterol (TC) markedly decreased 3h after the administration of 100 mg kg(-1) DHEA, but markedly increased 12h after administration. The DHEA-S, progesterone (P), testosterone (T), oestradiol (E(2)), cortisol (Cor) and aldosterone (Ald) concentrations also markedly increased after DHEA administration, with serum DHEA-S, T, E(2) and Cor levels peaking at 1.5 h. Over time, steroid hormone levels were depressed, but serum Cor and Ald levels were markedly elevated relative to the control group at 24 h. Furthermore, DHEA treatment produced a significant increase in P450scc, 17beta-HSDIII, CYP17alpha and 3beta-HSD mRNA expression at 1.5 h, but a decided decrease in P450scc and StAR mRNA expression at 12 and 24 h, and CYP17alpha and 17beta-HSDIII expression at 12 h in the 100 mg kg(-1) DHEA group. In total, the results of the present study indicate that DHEA at high pharmacological doses may affect steroid through an effect on steroidogenic enzymes.

  13. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings.

  14. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  15. Enhanced 3β,7α,15α-Trihydroxy-5-Androsten-17-One Production from Dehydroepiandrosterone by Colletotrichum lini ST-1 Resting Cells with Tween-80.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Yin, Siqi; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Li, Heng; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2016-01-01

    7α,15α-diOH-DHEA is a key precursor of the novel oral contraceptive Yasmin. Colletotrichum lini could catalyze dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at the 7α and 15α positions. In this work, C. lini resting cells were applied in the bioconversion of DHEA to 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA. In the presence of 2 % (w/v) Tween-80, the conversion efficiency of DHEA increased drastically. The DHEA conversion and the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield increased by 34.6 and 87.0 %, respectively, at the DHEA concentration of 10 g/L. Furthermore, the effects of Tween-80 on substrate solubility and C. lini physiological properties were studied. Results showed that the DHEA solubility with 2 % Tween-80 increased by 7.8 times. Meanwhile, the mycelia were integrated and full in the presence of 2 % Tween-80. The analysis on fatty acid profile of the C. lini cell membrane indicated that Tween-80 increases the content of unsaturated fatty acid. All above results suggested that the enhanced product yield caused by Tween-80 was mainly associated with easier substrate-molecule transportation across the cell membrane of C. lini.

  16. Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Mike; Willoughby, Darryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and daily overfeeding with carbohydrate and/or protein on blood and skeletal muscle markers of protein synthesis (MPS), myogenesis, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty one resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either a protein + carbohydrate [HPC (n = 11)] or a carbohydrate [HC (n = 10)] supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after eight weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training, but not supplementation (p < 0.05); however, lean mass was not significantly increased in either group (p = 0.068). Upper- (p = 0.024) and lower-body (p = 0.001) muscle strength and myosin heavy chain (MHC) 1 (p = 0.039) and MHC 2A (p = 0.027) were also significantly increased with resistance training. Serum IGF-1, GH, and HGF were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). Muscle total DNA, total protein, and c-Met were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). In conjunction with resistance training, the peri-exercise and daily overfeeding of protein and/or carbohydrate did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS and myogenic activation. Key points In response to 56 days of heavy resistance training and HC or HPC supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting serum IGF-1 GH, or HGF. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting increases in total muscle protein content or the myogenic markers, total DNA and muscle cMet content. In response to 56 days of

  17. Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Spillane, Mike; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-03-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and daily overfeeding with carbohydrate and/or protein on blood and skeletal muscle markers of protein synthesis (MPS), myogenesis, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty one resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either a protein + carbohydrate [HPC (n = 11)] or a carbohydrate [HC (n = 10)] supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after eight weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training, but not supplementation (p < 0.05); however, lean mass was not significantly increased in either group (p = 0.068). Upper- (p = 0.024) and lower-body (p = 0.001) muscle strength and myosin heavy chain (MHC) 1 (p = 0.039) and MHC 2A (p = 0.027) were also significantly increased with resistance training. Serum IGF-1, GH, and HGF were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). Muscle total DNA, total protein, and c-Met were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). In conjunction with resistance training, the peri-exercise and daily overfeeding of protein and/or carbohydrate did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS and myogenic activation. Key pointsIn response to 56 days of heavy resistance training and HC or HPC supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups.The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting serum IGF-1 GH, or HGF.The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting increases in total muscle protein content or the myogenic markers, total DNA and muscle cMet content.In response to 56 days of a

  18. Ergosteroids III. Syntheses and biological activity of seco-steroids related to dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Reich, I L; Lardy, H; Wei, Y; Marwah, P; Kneer, N; Powell, D R; Reich, H J

    1998-10-01

    The unusual activity of some D-ring-seco estrogens led us to prepare several seco steroids related to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and to test for their ability to mimic thyroid hormone and 7-oxo-DHEA (1) as inducers of thermogenic enzymes in rats' livers. Only one, 3 beta-acetoxy-17a-oxa-androst-5-ene-7,17-dione (17), was capable of inducing both mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. The closely related 3 beta-hydroxy-17a-oxa-androsta-5,15-diene-7,17-diones (both 14 alpha and 14 beta, 14 and 15) induce the formation of malic enzyme but not of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. The 3 beta-propionyl ester of the above 14 alpha steroid was not active, presumably because it was not deacylated in vivo. The 16,17 dicarboxylic acid (9) produced by opening the D-ring also induced the formation of malic enzyme but not of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. 3 beta-Acetoxyandrost-5-ene-7,16,17-trione, an intermediate in the synthesis of D-ring seco compounds enhanced the formation of both enzymes. Twelve other D-ring seco compounds were not active. Seco androstanes oxygenated at position 7 and with expanded A or B rings were not active.

  19. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone affect the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to mycobacterial antigens during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mahuad, C; Bay, M L; Farroni, M A; Bozza, V; Del Rey, A; Besedovsky, H; Bottasso, O A

    2004-12-01

    The effect of cortisol and/or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the immune response to antigens obtained from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients at various stages of lung tuberculosis (TB) and from healthy control people (HCo). The results obtained show for the first time that addition of cortisol within concentrations of physiological range can inhibit the mycobacterial antigen-driven proliferation of cells from HCo and TB patients and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), indicating that endogenous levels of cortisol may contribute to the decreased lymphoid cell response to mycobacterium antigens observed in TB patients. DHEA did not affect lymphoid cell proliferation, IFN-gamma production and the cortisol-mediated inhibitory effects. Interestingly, we found that DHEA, but not cortisol, suppressed the in vitro transforming growth factor-beta production by lymphoid cells from TB patients with an advanced disease, which is indicative of a selective direct effect of this hormone.

  20. Astrocytes as a target for neuroprotection: Modulation by progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Arbo, Bruno Dutra; Bennetti, Fernando; Ribeiro, Maria Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Stroke and traumatic injuries of the brain and spinal cord are major public health issues. In the last few decades, hundreds of clinical trials with patients suffering from these conditions have been done, however, most of them had not succeeded and there is still the need to develop more effective treatments for these conditions. Astrocytes play critical roles in the development, function and survival of neurons in the central nervous system. These cells are implicated in the pathophysiology and in the response to several neuropathological conditions and may represent potential cell targets for neuroprotective strategies. Progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are neuroactive steroids that modulate neuronal and astroglial function and have neuroprotective effects in different experimental models, being potential candidates to the development of new therapeutic approaches for brain and spinal cord injuries. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology of brain and spinal cord injuries and how they could be modulated by progesterone and DHEA for the treatment of these conditions.

  1. Effect of fluoxetine on blood concentrations of serotonin, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Rosado, B; García-Belenguer, S; León, M; Chacón, G; Villegas, A; Palacio, J

    2011-10-01

    Canine aggression directed towards people is the most frequent reason for referral to behaviour practices. The serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are believed to play an important role in controlling aggression. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine is the most commonly used drug in canine aggression. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a 30-day-long fluoxetine treatment on the peripheral serotonergic system and the HPA axis in canine aggression. To this end, the concentrations of serum serotonin (5-HT) and plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were analysed in a group of aggressive (n = 22) and nonaggressive dogs (n = 9) during pre- (day 0) and posttreatment (day 30) conditions. Treatment caused a significant decrease in 5-HT concentrations (46% in the aggressive group and 32% in the control group). There was a trend towards a rise of DHEA/cortisol ratio values after treatment both in the aggressive and the control group. The determination of blood 5-HT and the DHEA/cortisol ratio could have important clinical applications in the future for deciding which animals might benefit from a given treatment as well as for monitoring the response. Further large-scale studies with this aim should be carried out to obtain sound conclusions.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone administration improves memory deficits following transient brain ischemia through sigma-1 receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Yasushi; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Izumi, Hisanao; Ikuno, Tatuya; Shioda, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2015-10-05

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant neurosteroid synthesized de novo in the central nervous system. Oral DHEA administration elicits neuroprotection and cognitive improvement, but mechanisms underlying these functions in cerebral ischemia have remained unclear. Since DHEA is the endogenous ligand for the sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), we determined whether oral DHEA administration prevents neuronal cell death and improves cognition via σ1R stimulation in brain ischemia using a 20-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) mouse model. Twenty-four hours after BCCAO ischemia, mice were administered DHEA (15 or 30mg/kg p.o.) daily for 11 consecutive days. Memory deficits following brain ischemia were improved by DHEA administration dose-dependently. Accordingly, DHEA administration significantly prevented neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region in BCCAO mice. Interestingly, DHEA administration rescued decreases in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) in the CA1 region. Moreover, DHEA administration significantly ameliorated decreases in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels and decreased σ1R expression levels in CA1 following BCCAO ischemia. Finally, co-treatment of mice with the σ1R antagonist NE-100 (1mg/kg, p.o.) blocked DHEA effects on memory improvement and neuroprotection in ischemic mice. Taken together, DHEA prevents neuronal cell death and activates CaMKII via σ1R stimulation, thereby improving cognitive deficits following brain ischemia.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone Biosynthesis, Role, and Mechanism of Action in the Developing Neural Tube

    PubMed Central

    Galdo, Mark; Gregonis, Jennifer; Fiore, Christelle S.; Compagnone, Nathalie A.

    2011-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is synthesized from cholesterol by activity of P450scc and P450c17, enzymes that we previously characterized in the developing nervous system. We describe the localization of P450c17 in the differentiated field of the ventral spinal cord in different motor neuron subtypes. We show that, during organogenesis, P450c17 activity is regulated along the antero/posterior axis of the spinal cord concomitantly with the gradient of neurogenesis. To examine whether DHEA may modulate this process, we measured proliferation and differentiation of ventral neural precursors in primary and explant cultures. Our results showed that DHEA-induced the expression of class II protein Nkx6.1, motor neuron precursor Olig-2, and definitive motor neuron marker Isl-1/2. DHEA also promoted proliferation of ventrally committed precursors in isolated spinal cord precursor cultures and in whole spinal cord explants. Both the proliferative and inductive effects of DHEA were dependent on sonic hedgehog signaling. The possibilities that the effects observed with DHEA were due to its metabolism into androgens or to activation of NMDA receptors were excluded. These results support the hypothesis that the tight regulation of DHEA biosynthesis may be a biologic clock restricting the period of ventral neuronal-precursor proliferation, thus controlling the number of pre-committed neurons in the developing neural tube. PMID:22649409

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone protects mice from endotoxin toxicity and reduces tumor necrosis factor production.

    PubMed Central

    Danenberg, H D; Alpert, G; Lustig, S; Ben-Nathan, D

    1992-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated an immunomodulating activity of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) different from that described for glucocorticoids. The present study was designed to test DHEA's activity in endotoxic shock and to investigate its effect on endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Mortality of CD-1 mice exposed to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 800 micrograms per mouse) was reduced from 95 to 24% by treatment with a single dose of DHEA, given 5 min before LPS. LPS administration resulted in high levels of TNF, a response that was significantly blocked by DHEA, both in vivo and in vitro. DHEA treatment also reduced LPS-induced increments in serum corticosterone levels, a parameter considered not to be mediated by TNF. In another experimental model, mice sensitized with D-galactosamine, followed by administration of recombinant human TNF, were subjected to 89% mortality rate, which was reduced to 55% in DHEA-treated mice. These data show that DHEA protects mice from endotoxin lethality. The protective effect is probably mediated by reduction of TNF production as well as by effecting both TNF-induced and non-TNF-induced phenomena. PMID:1444309

  5. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) enhances visual-spatial performance in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Stangl, Bethany; Hirshman, Elliot; Verbalis, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    The current article examines the effect of administering dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on visual-spatial performance in postmenopausal women (N = 24, ages 55-80). The concurrent reduction of serum DHEA levels and visual-spatial performance in this population, coupled with the documented effects of DHEA's androgenic metabolites on visual-spatial performance, suggests that DHEA administration may enhance visual-spatial performance. The current experiment used a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design in which 50 mg of oral DHEA was administered daily in the drug condition to explore this hypothesis. Performance on the Mental Rotation, Subject-Ordered Pointing, Fragmented Picture Identification, Perceptual Identification, Same-Different Judgment, and Visual Search tasks and serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone, estrone, and cortisol were measured in the DHEA and placebo conditions. In contrast to prior experiments using the current methodology that did not demonstrate effects of DHEA administration on episodic and short-term memory tasks, the current experiment demonstrated large beneficial effects of DHEA administration on Mental Rotation, Subject-Ordered Pointing, Fragmented Picture Identification, Perceptual Identification, and Same-Different Judgment. Moreover, DHEA administration enhanced serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone, and estrone, and regression analyses demonstrated that levels of DHEA and its metabolites were positively related to cognitive performance on the visual-spatial tasks in the DHEA condition.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Diurnal Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Concentrations in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C.; York, Timothy P.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Hellhammer, Dirk; Maninger, Nicole; Levine, Seymour; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; Hauger, Richard; Xian, Hong; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is important for its association with immune system function and health outcomes. The characterization of the genetic and environmental contributions to daily DHEAS concentrations is thus important for understanding the genetics of health and aging. Methods Saliva was collected from 783 middle-aged men (389 complete pairs and 5 unpaired twins) as part of the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Samples were taken at multiple specified time points across two non-consecutive days in the home and one day at the study sites. A twin modeling approach was used to estimate genetic and environmental contributions for time-specific and average DHEAS concentrations. Results There was a consistent diurnal pattern for DHEAS concentrations in both at-home and day-of-testing (DOT) measures, which was highest at awakening and decreased slightly throughout the day. Heritability estimates were significant for measures at 10am, 3pm and bedtime for the in-home days and at 10am and 3pm on the DOT, ranging between 0.37 and 0.46. Conclusions The significant heritability estimates later in the day reflect time-specific genetic effects for DHEAS, compared with prior twin and family designs studies which frequently used averaged morning-only measures. Additive genetic influences on DHEAS concentrations were consistent between at-home and DOT measures. PMID:21570195

  7. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation attenuates blood pressure increase at onset of isometric handgrip exercise in healthy young and older humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christine M; Monahan, Kevin D; Drew, Rachel C

    2016-07-01

    Aging is associated with alterations of autonomic nerve activity, and dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oil (FO), can modulate autonomic nerve activity. However, the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption on age-related cardiovascular responses at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise, a time of rapid autonomic adjustments, is unknown. Accordingly, 14 young (25 ± 1 years; mean ± SE) and 15 older (64 ± 2 years) healthy subjects ingested 4 g FO daily for 12 weeks. On pre- and postintervention visits, participants performed 15-sec bouts of isometric handgrip at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) while beat-to-beat systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure (SBP, DBP, MAP; Finometer) and heart rate (HR; electrocardiogram) were recorded. All baseline cardiovascular variables were similar between groups and visits, except DBP was higher in older subjects (P < 0.05). FO increased erythrocyte EPA and DHA content in both groups (P < 0.05). FO attenuated MAP and DBP increases in response to handgrip in both age groups (change from baseline during 70% MVC handgrip pre- and post-FO: young MAPΔ 14 ± 2 mmHg versus 10 ± 2 mmHg, older MAPΔ 14 ± 3 mmHg versus 11 ± 2 mmHg; young DBPΔ 12 ± 1 mmHg versus 7 ± 2 mmHg, older DBPΔ 12 ± 1 mmHg versus 7 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05). FO augmented the PP (SBP-DBP) increase with 70% MVC handgrip in both groups (P < 0.05), but did not alter SBP or HR increases with handgrip. These findings suggest that FO supplementation attenuates MAP and DBP increases at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise in healthy young and older humans.

  8. Dietary supplementation with Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 from weaning reduces local immunoglobulin production in lymphoid-associated tissues but increases systemic antibodies in healthy neonates.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Marie C; Patel, Dilip V; Fowler, Jenni; Duncker, Swantje; Zuercher, Adrian W; Mercenier, Annick; Bailey, Mick

    2013-10-01

    Weaning is associated with a major shift in the microbial community of the intestine, and this instability may make it more acquiescent than the adult microbiota to long-term changes. Modulation achieved through dietary interventions may have potentially beneficial effects on the developing immune system, which is driven primarily by the microbiota. The specific aim of the present study was to determine whether immune development could be modified by dietary supplementation with the human probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 in a tractable model of weaning in infants. Piglets were reared by their mothers before being weaned onto a solid diet supplemented with B. lactis NCC2818, while sibling controls did not receive supplementation. Probiotic supplementation resulted in a reduction in IgA (P<0·0005) and IgM (P<0·009) production by mucosal tissues but had no effect on IgG production (P>0·05). Probiotic-supplemented pigs had more mast cells than unsupplemented littermates (P<0·0001), although numbers in both groups were low. In addition, the supplemented piglets made stronger serum IgG responses to fed and injected antigens (P<0·05). The present findings are consistent with B. lactis NCC2818 reducing intestinal permeability induced by weaning, and suggest that the piglet is a valuable intermediate between rodent models and human infants. The results also strongly suggest that measures of the effect of probiotic supplementation on the immune system need to be interpreted carefully as proxy measures of health benefit. However, they are useful in developing an understanding of the mechanism of action of probiotic strains, an important factor in predicting favourable health outcomes of nutritional intervention.

  9. Obesity is positively associated with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations at 7 y in Chilean children of normal birth weight123

    PubMed Central

    Uauy, Ricardo; Mericq, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    Background: In low-birth-weight girls, obesity increases the risk of premature adrenarche and metabolic complications. However, the consistency of this association in normal-birth-weight children and its potential mediators remain unknown. Objectives: The objectives were to assess the associations between obesity indicators and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) at 7 y of age and to evaluate the role of hormonal markers on these associations. Design: We assessed in 969 participants (6.9 y; 48% girls; all Tanner I) in the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study the associations between DHEAS and weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, skinfold thickness, and percentage total fat (bioimpedance) and determined whether these associations were related to insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and leptin. We also compared BMI and height growth from 0 to 7 y of age in nonobese and obese children with normal and high DHEAS (≥75th percentile) at 7 y. Results: DHEAS concentrations were similar between girls (30.3 ±1.86 μg/dL) and boys (29.4 ±1.73 μg/dL) (P > 0.05); 17.3% of children were obese (BMI-for-age z score ≥2 SD). Adiposity indicators were positively and similarly associated with DHEAS [ie, BMI, β standardized regression coefficient: 0.23 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.29); WC, β standardized regression coefficient: 0.23 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.30)]; these associations were only partially related to IGF-I and leptin. Obese children had twice the risk of high DHEAS (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51, 3.09); at 7 y, obese children with high DHEAS were fatter and more centrally obese than their counterparts (P < 0.05), although their previous growth was similar (P > 0.05). None of the results differed by sex (P > 0.05). Conclusion: In children of normal birth weight, obesity is positively associated with DHEAS at 7 y of age. PMID:23283497

  10. Supplementation with fruit and okara soybean by-products and amaranth flour increases the folate production by starter and probiotic cultures.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Marcela Albuquerque Cavalcanti de; Bedani, Raquel; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2016-11-07

    The ability of two starter cultures (Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus ST-M6 and St. thermophilus TA-40) and eleven probiotic cultures (St. thermophilus TH-4, Lactobacillus (Lb.) acidophilus LA-5, Lb. fermentum PCC, Lb. reuteri RC-14, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lb. casei 431, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei F19, Lb. rhamnosus GR-1, and Lb. rhamnosus LGG, Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, B. longum subsp. longum BB-46, and B. longum subsp. infantis BB-02) to produce folate in a modified MRS broth (mMRS) supplemented with different fruit (passion fruit, acerola, orange, and mango) and okara soybean by-products and amaranth flour was investigated. Initially, the folate content of each vegetable substrate was determined: passion fruit by-product showed the lowest folate content (8±2ng/mL) and okara the highest (457±22ng/mL). When the orange by-product and amaranth flour were added to mMRS, all strains were able to increase folate production after 24h of fermentation. B. longum subsp infantis BB-02 produced the highest concentrations (1223±116ng/mL) in amaranth flour. Okara was the substrate that had the lowest impact on the folate production by all strains evaluated. Lb. acidophilus LA-5 (297±36ng/mL) and B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (237±23ng/mL) were also able to produce folate after growth in mMRS containing acerola and orange by-products, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that folate production is not only strain-dependent but also influenced by the addition of different substrates in the growth media.

  11. [ROLE OF CAPSAICIN-SENSITIVE NERVES IN THE REGULATION OF DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE BLOOD CONTENT UNDER NORMAL AND FRUCTOSE-INDUCED METABOLIC SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, V K; Tolochko, Z S; Ovcjukova, M V; Kostina, N E; Obut, T A

    2015-08-01

    The effects of the stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves (capsaicin, 1 mg/kg, s/c) and their eafferentation (capsaicin, 150 mg/kg, s/c) on the blood content of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) was investigated in normal rats and rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome (12.5% fructose solution, 10 weeks). An increase in blood of tryglyceride, lipid peroxidation, glucose (fasting and after loading glucose, 2 mg/kg, i/p) was considered as symptoms of metabolic syndrome. It was shown that in normal rats drinking tap water the stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves resulted in the increase of DHEAS content while their deafferentation reduced the concentration of this hormone in the blood. The fructose diet caused the decrease in content of DHEAS, triglyceridemia, lipid peroxidation, impaired tolerance glucose. In rats with the metabolic syndrome the stimulation capsaicin-sensitive nerves prevented the fructose-induced decrease of DHEAS content as well as decreased the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. In fructose fed rats the stimulation-induced effects were prevented by the deafferentation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves. It is suggested that capsaicin-sensitive nerves contribute both to the regulation of blood content of DHEAS under normal and fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

  12. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high-nitrate supplement but not by high-nitrate foods in older adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gary D; Marsh, Anthony P; Dove, Robin W; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/nitric oxide cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs high-nitrate diet, with and without a high-nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics and blood pressure using a randomized 4-period crossover controlled design. We hypothesized that the high-nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and lower blood pressure compared with the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were 8 normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5 ± 4.7 years old) with no overt disease or medications that affect nitric oxide metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured before and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet + supplement (P < .001 and P = .017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high-nitrate diet + supplement (P = .001 and P = .002), but not for control diet (P = .713 and P = .741) or high-nitrate diet (P = .852 and P = .500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2-hour postmeal follow-up time points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high-nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction.

  13. The Oportunidades program's fortified food supplement, but not improvements in the home diet, increased the intake of key micronutrients in rural Mexican children aged 12-59 months.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Rivera, Juan A; Leroy, Jef L; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2013-05-01

    Mexico's Oportunidades program provides conditional cash transfers, nutrition education, health services, and fortified food supplements for the young children of poor families. We have documented the effects of the program on growth and reduction of anemia. To better understand the impact pathways and disentangle the relative effects on dietary intake of the food supplements compared with other program components, we analyzed data from a randomized effectiveness evaluation of the Oportunidades program in rural children aged 12-59 mo. All Oportunidades beneficiaries received the cash transfers and the health and education components, but some children did not consume the supplements. The children's diet was evaluated using a single 24-h recall. The impact was estimated using multiple linear regression models with community-level random effects. Comparisons were made among children who received all the benefits of Oportunidades, including the fortified food supplement (SG), beneficiaries of the program who did not consume the food supplement (NSG), and the control group (CG). Relative to the NSG and CG, respectively, the SG consumed greater amounts of [mean (95% CI)]: energy, 94 (28, 160) and 111 (43, 180) kcal/d; iron, 7.6 (6.3, 8.9) and 7.7 (6.5, 9.0) mg/d; zinc, 7.5 (6.4, 8.6) and 7.6 (6.5, 8.7) mg/d; and vitamin A, 0.109 (0.071, 0.147) and 0.120 (0.080, 0.159) mg retinol equivalents/d. No differences were found between the NSG and CG (P > 0.05). To conclude, the Oportunidades program had a positive impact on the diet of children. The effects of the program on dietary intake resulted from the food supplement and not from improvements in the home diet. Our findings are useful for identifying which program components contributed to the effects on the nutritional status of children.

  14. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

  15. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuejun; Cotillard, Aurélie; Vatier, Camille; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Fellahi, Soraya; Stévant, Marie; Allatif, Omran; Langlois, Clotilde; Bieuvelet, Séverine; Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue. Objectives Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization. Results Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24±0.50 vs +0.12±0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02), without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (%) increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement. Conclusions Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530685 PMID:26406981

  16. β2-1 Fructan supplementation alters host immune responses in a manner consistent with increased exposure to microbial components: results from a double-blinded, randomised, cross-over study in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sandra T; Green-Johnson, Julia M; Brooks, Stephen P J; Ramdath, D Dan; Bercik, Premysl; Avila, Christian; Inglis, G Douglas; Green, Judy; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-28

    β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects' regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood was analysed for clinical, biochemical and immunological variables. Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken. β2-1 Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion. With respect to immune function, β2-1 fructan supplementation increased serum IL-4, circulating percentages of CD282+/TLR2+ myeloid dendritic cells and ex vivo responsiveness to a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. β2-1 Fructans also decreased serum IL-10, but did not affect C-reactive protein or serum/faecal Ig concentrations. No differences in host well-being were associated with either treatment, although the self-reported incidence of GI symptoms and headaches increased during the β2-1 fructan phase. Although β2-1 fructan supplementation increased faecal bifidobacteria, this change was not directly related to any of the determined host parameters.

  17. Manganese supplementation increases adiponectin and lowers ICAM-1 and creatinine blood levels in Zucker type 2 diabetic rats, and downregulates ICAM-1 by upregulating adiponectin multimerization protein (DsbA-L) in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Burlet, Elodie; Jain, Sushil K

    2017-01-13

    Blood and tissue levels of manganese (Mn) are lower in type 2 diabetic and atherosclerosis patients compared with healthy subjects. Adiponectin has anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. Impairment in Disulfide bond A-like protein (DsbA-L) is associated with low adiponectin levels and diabetes. This study investigates the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of Mn supplementation are mediated by adiponectin and DsbA-L. At 6 weeks of age, Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) were randomly divided into two groups: diabetic controls and Mn-supplemented diabetic rats. Each rat was supplemented with Mn (D+Mn, 16 mg/kg BW) or water (placebo, D+P) daily for 7 weeks by oral gavage. For cell culture studies, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) or 3T3L1 adipocytes were pretreated with Mn (0-10 µM MnCl2) for 24 h, followed by high glucose (HG, 25 mM) or normal glucose (5 mM) exposure for another 24 h. Mn supplementation resulted in higher adiponectin (p = 0.01), and lower ICAM-1 (p = 0.04) and lower creatinine (p = 0.04) blood levels compared to those in control ZDF rats. Mn-supplemented rats also caused reduced oxidative stress (ROS) and NADPH oxidase, and higher DsbA-L expression in the liver (p = 0.03) of ZDF rats compared to those in livers of control rats; however, Fe levels in liver were lower but not significant (p = 0.08). Similarly, treatment with high glucose (25 mM) caused a decrease in DsbA-L, which was prevented by Mn supplementation in HUVEC and adipocytes. Mechanistic studies with DsbA-L siRNA showed that the beneficial effects of Mn supplementation on ROS, NOX4, and ICAM-1 expression were abolished in DsbA-L knock-down HUVEC. These studies demonstrate that DsbA-L-linked adiponectin mediates the beneficial effects observed with Mn supplementation and provides evidence for a novel mechanism by which Mn supplementation can increase adiponectin and reduce the biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes.

  18. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  19. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; <0.1 mg flavanols) with a high-fat fast-food–style breakfast [766 kcal, 50 g fat (59% energy)] in a crossover trial. After an overnight fast (10–12 h), participants consumed the breakfast with cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P < 0.05) and specifically at 4 h but had no overall effects on insulin resistance (except at 4 h, P < 0.05), systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or small artery elasticity. However, large artery elasticity was overall lower after cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: −1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P < 0.05), with the difference significant only at 2 h. Conclusion: Acute cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food–style meal challenge

  20. Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride to crossbred Angus heifers does not increase stress responsiveness or homeostatic metabolic parameters after a combined corticoptropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anecdotal claims suggest that feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) alters the stress response in cattle; however, there is no scientific data to support or refute these claims. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the stress response of ZH-supplemented cattle when exposed to...

  1. Chronic leucine supplementation of a low protein diet increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and visceral tissues of neonatal pigs through mTOR signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leucine acutely stimulates protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. We hypothesized that leucine supplementation of a low protein diet will enhance protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in the neonate for prolonged periods. Fasted 5-d-old pigs (n=6–8...

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone Activation of G-protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor Rapidly Stimulates MicroRNA-21 Transcription in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yun; Radde, Brandie N; Litchfield, Lacey M; Ivanova, Margarita M; Prough, Russell A; Clark, Barbara J; Doll, Mark A; Hein, David W; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2015-06-19

    Little is known about the regulation of the oncomiR miR-21 in liver. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) regulates gene expression as a ligand for a G-protein-coupled receptor and as a precursor for steroids that activate nuclear receptor signaling. We report that 10 nm DHEA increases primary miR-21 (pri-miR-21) transcription and mature miR-21 expression in HepG2 cells in a biphasic manner with an initial peak at 1 h followed by a second, sustained response from 3-12 h. DHEA also increased miR-21 in primary human hepatocytes and Hep3B cells. siRNA, antibody, and inhibitor studies suggest that the rapid DHEA-mediated increase in miR-21 involves a G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30), estrogen receptor α-36 (ERα36), epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent, pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway requiring activation of c-Src, ERK1/2, and PI3K. GPER antagonist G-15 attenuated DHEA- and BSA-conjugated DHEA-stimulated pri-miR-21 transcription. Like DHEA, GPER agonists G-1 and fulvestrant increased pri-miR-21 in a GPER- and ERα36-dependent manner. DHEA, like G-1, increased GPER and ERα36 mRNA and protein levels. DHEA increased ERK1/2 and c-Src phosphorylation in a GPER-responsive manner. DHEA increased c-Jun, but not c-Fos, protein expression after 2 h. DHEA increased androgen receptor, c-Fos, and c-Jun recruitment to the miR-21 promoter. These results suggest that physiological concentrations of DHEA activate a GPER intracellular signaling cascade that increases pri-miR-21 transcription mediated at least in part by AP-1 and androgen receptor miR-21 promoter interaction.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone Activation of G-protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor Rapidly Stimulates MicroRNA-21 Transcription in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yun; Radde, Brandie N.; Litchfield, Lacey M.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Prough, Russell A.; Clark, Barbara J.; Doll, Mark A.; Hein, David W.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the regulation of the oncomiR miR-21 in liver. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) regulates gene expression as a ligand for a G-protein-coupled receptor and as a precursor for steroids that activate nuclear receptor signaling. We report that 10 nm DHEA increases primary miR-21 (pri-miR-21) transcription and mature miR-21 expression in HepG2 cells in a biphasic manner with an initial peak at 1 h followed by a second, sustained response from 3–12 h. DHEA also increased miR-21 in primary human hepatocytes and Hep3B cells. siRNA, antibody, and inhibitor studies suggest that the rapid DHEA-mediated increase in miR-21 involves a G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30), estrogen receptor α-36 (ERα36), epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent, pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway requiring activation of c-Src, ERK1/2, and PI3K. GPER antagonist G-15 attenuated DHEA- and BSA-conjugated DHEA-stimulated pri-miR-21 transcription. Like DHEA, GPER agonists G-1 and fulvestrant increased pri-miR-21 in a GPER- and ERα36-dependent manner. DHEA, like G-1, increased GPER and ERα36 mRNA and protein levels. DHEA increased ERK1/2 and c-Src phosphorylation in a GPER-responsive manner. DHEA increased c-Jun, but not c-Fos, protein expression after 2 h. DHEA increased androgen receptor, c-Fos, and c-Jun recruitment to the miR-21 promoter. These results suggest that physiological concentrations of DHEA activate a GPER intracellular signaling cascade that increases pri-miR-21 transcription mediated at least in part by AP-1 and androgen receptor miR-21 promoter interaction. PMID:25969534

  4. Low-Dose Iron Supplementation in Infancy Modestly Increases Infant Iron Status at 9 Mo without Decreasing Growth or Increasing Illness in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Rural China123

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Jiang, Yaping; Li, Xing; Zhou, Min; Richards, Blair; Xu, Guobin; Clark, Katy M; Liang, Furong; Kaciroti, Niko; Zhao, Gengli; Santos, Denise CC; Zhang, Zhixiang; Tardif, Twila; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous trials of iron supplementation in infancy did not consider maternal iron supplementation. Objective: This study assessed effects of iron supplementation in infancy and/or pregnancy on infant iron status, illnesses, and growth at 9 mo. Methods: Enrollment occurred from December 2009 to June 2012 in Hebei, China. Infants born to women in a pregnancy iron supplementation trial were randomly assigned 1:1 to iron [∼1 mg Fe/(kg · d) as oral iron proteinsuccynilate] or placebo from 6 wk to 9 mo, excluding infants with cord ferritin <35 μg/L. Study groups were pregnancy placebo/infancy placebo (placebo/placebo), pregnancy placebo/infancy iron (placebo/iron), pregnancy iron/infancy placebo (iron/placebo), and pregnancy iron/infancy iron (iron/iron). The primary outcome was 9-mo iron status: iron deficiency (ID) by cutoff (≥2 abnormal iron measures) or body iron <0 mg/kg and ID + anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L). Secondary outcomes were doctor visits or hospitalizations and weight or length gain from birth to 9 mo. Statistical analysis by intention to treat and dose-response (between number of iron bottles received and outcome) used logistic regression with concomitant RRs and general linear models, with covariate control as applicable. Results: Of 1482 infants randomly allocated, 1276 had 9-mo data (n = 312–327/group). Iron supplementation in infancy, but not pregnancy, reduced ID risk: RRs (95% CIs) were 0.89 (0.79, 0.998) for placebo/iron compared to placebo/placebo, 0.79 (0.63, 0.98) for placebo/iron compared to iron/placebo, 0.87 (0.77, 0.98) for iron/iron compared to placebo/placebo, and 0.86 (0.77, 0.97) for iron/iron compared to iron/placebo. However, >60% of infants still had ID at 9 mo. Receiving more bottles of iron in infancy was associated with better infant iron status at 9 mo but only among iron-supplemented infants whose mothers were also iron supplemented (i.e., the iron/iron group). There were no group differences in

  5. Psychological job strain, social support at work and daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in healthy female employees: cross-sectional analyses.

    PubMed

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Mase, Junji; Ono, Yuichiro

    2015-11-10

    Evidence is limited concerning the influences of high psychological job strain and low social support at work on daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which demonstrates anti-cortisol effects. We carried out a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of job strain and social support with daytime secretion amounts of DHEA and cortisol and daytime variation of the cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) in healthy female workers. Study subjects comprised 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG) of salivary DHEA, cortisol and C/D ratio was calculated for estimation of daytime secretion and variation. Social support scores were negatively associated with daytime DHEA secretion (standardized partial regression coefficient = -0.343, P < 0.001 by multiple linear regression analysis). This association remained significant when daytime cortisol secretion was additionally adjusted. Social support was not associated with daytime variation of the C/D ratio. Significant association between social support and daytime cortisol secretion was not confirmed. Job strain was not associated with DHEA, cortisol or the C/D ratio. In summary, we found that daytime DHEA secretion was increased in healthy workers with low social support, perhaps independent of daytime cortisol secretion.

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone decreases serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and restores insulin sensitivity: independent effect from secondary weight reduction in genetically obese Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Tanaka, S; Yamada, Y; Kiuchi, Y; Yamakawa, T; Sekihara, H

    1998-07-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester are the most abundant circulating adrenal steroids in humans. Administration of DHEA has been reported to have beneficial effects on obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and atherosclerosis in obese rodents, although its effects on insulin resistance have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of DHEA treatment on insulin sensitivity were investigated in genetically obese Zucker rats, an animal model of insulin resistance, using the euglycemic clamp technique. After 0.4% DHEA was administered for 10 days to female obese Zucker rats aged 16 weeks, body weight and plasma insulin decreased and glucose disposal rate (GDR), which was normally reduced in obese rats, rose significantly compared with age- and sex-matched control obese rats. On the other hand, although the pair-fed obese rats also showed levels of weight reduction similar to those of DHEA-treated rats, the increase in GDR of DHEA-treated rats was significantly greater than in pair-fed rats, suggesting a direct ameliorating effect of DHEA on insulin sensitivity of obese rats. Serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, one of cytokines causing insulin resistance, was also reduced significantly in DHEA-treated, but not in pair-fed obese rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that DHEA treatment reduces body weight and serum TNF-alpha independently, and that both may ameliorate insulin resistance in obese Zucker fatty rats.

  7. The effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms in other psychiatric and medical illnesses: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Clayton; Devicari Cheda, Julio Nelson; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Veras, Andre Barciela; Cardoso, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    International interest on the benefits of using the steroid hormone Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on various aspects of human health, including the regulation of mood, is increasing. This study aimed to review the scientific literature on the use of DHEA in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms in other psychiatric and medical illnesses. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases were independently searched by two researchers using the following terms: depression, treatment, DHEA, and mood. Clinical studies were considered eligible when subjects were treated with DHEA and psychological assessments of depression were conducted. No time limits or language for this research were imposed. One 183 references were identified, and 22 references were selected to compose this review. Significant improvements related to the use of DHEA in patients with depression were observed, in addition to improvements in depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa, HIV and adrenal insufficiency. No significant improvements were observed regarding depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia; the results observed in patients with autoimmune diseases and healthy individuals remain contradictory. Although the selected studies demonstrated good methodological applications, most studies consisted of small samples, and only 3 studies were conducted in a young population. Therefore, we concluded that the studies published to date indicate promising results regarding the use of DHEA in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms, especially in depression that is mild or resistant to conventional therapy.

  8. Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Derived from Tropaeolum majus L. in Rat Preimplantation Embryos: Evidence for the Dehydroepiandrosterone and Estradiol Role

    PubMed Central

    Botelho Lourenço, Emerson Luiz; Muller, Juliane Centeno; Boareto, Ana Claudia; Lourenço, Ana Carolina; Calloi Palozi, Rhanany Alan; Lima Prando, Thiago Bruno; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have shown the inhibitory effects of Tropaeolum majus extracts (HETM) on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, no studies have been carried out during the beginning of pregnancy, when humoral and hormonal imbalance may affect zygote and early embryo transport. This study investigates whether HETM can affect embryonic development when administered during the one-cell-blastocyst period. Pregnant Wistar rats received orally the HETM (3, 30, and 300 mg/kg/day) from the 1st to the 7th gestational day. Rats were killed on the 8th day of pregnancy and the following parameters were evaluated: clinical symptoms of toxicity (including organ weights), number of corpora lutea, implants per group, preimplantation losses ratio, and the serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estradiol, and progesterone. No clinical symptoms of maternal toxicity were evidenced. On the 8th day of pregnancy, the levels of DHEA and estradiol were increased and significant preimplantation losses were observed at all doses used. The present study reveals that the HETM can raise levels of DHEA and estradiol and induce difficulty in the embryo implantation in the early stages of pregnancy. The data contributes significantly to the safety aspects of using this natural product when trying to get pregnant or during pregnancy. PMID:24778700

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits events related with the metastatic process in breast tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    López-Marure, Rebeca; Zapata-Gómez, Estrella; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Aguilar, María Cecilia; Espinosa Castilla, Magali; Meléndez Zajgla, Jorge; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Huesca-Gómez, Claudia; Gamboa-Ávila, Ricardo; Gómez-González, Erika Olivia

    2016-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal hormone, has a protective role against cancer. We previously shown that DHEA inhibits the proliferation and migration of cell lines derived from breast cancer; however, the role of DHEA in others events related with these effects are unknown. We hypothesized that DHEA inhibits the expression of proteins and some events related with cell migration and metastasis. We determined the migration in Boyden chambers, the invasion in matrigel, anchorage-independent growth and the formation of spheroids in 3 cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, ZR-75-30) derived from breast cancer exposed to DHEA. The secretion of metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and several pro-inflammatory molecules in the secretome of these cells was also evaluated.  DHEA inhibited the migration in transwells and the invasion in matrigel of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Besides, DHEA inhibited the anchorage-independent growth on agar and decreased the size of spheroids, and also reduced the secretion of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in all cell lines. Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) secretion was slightly decreased by DHEA treatment in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results also showed that inhibition of migration and invasion induced by DHEA in breast cancer cells is correlated with the decrease of cytokine/chemokine secretion and the diminution of tumor cells growth.  MCF-7 cells were the most responsive to the exposure to DHEA, whereas ZR-75-30 cells responded less to this hormone, suggesting that DHEA could be used in the treatment of breast cancer in early stages.

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gisela; Mendoza, Criselda; Zapata, Estrella; Montiel, Angélica; Reyes, Elba; Montaño, Luis Felipe; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2007-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a protective role against atherosclerosis. We determined the effect of pharmacological doses of DHEA upon the adhesion of monocytic U937 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), as well as the expression of adhesion and chemoattractant molecules, the translocation of NF-kappaB, the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HUVEC. Adhesion of U937 cells to DHEA-treated HUVEC was evaluated by co-culture experiments using [(3)H]-thymidine-labeled U937 cells. The expression of adhesion and chemoattractant molecules was evaluated by flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively; NF-kappaB translocation was determined by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and IkappaB-alpha degradation by Western blot. ROS production was determined by the reduction of fluorescent DCFDA. TNF-alpha was used to induce inflammatory responses in HUVEC. One hundred micromolar of DHEA-treatment inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced expression of ICAM-1, E-selectin, ROS production and U937 cells adhesion to HUVEC, and interfered with NF-kappaB translocation and IkappaB-alpha degradation. DHEA at the above mention concentration also inhibited the mRNA expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 in basal conditions but not in TNF-alpha-stimulated conditions. Our results suggest that DHEA inhibits the expression of molecules involved in the inflammatory process, therefore it could be used as an alternative in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  11. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels after balneotherapy and physical therapy in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Semiz, Esra A.; Hizmetli, Sami; Semiz, Murat; Karadağ, Ahmet; Adalı, Merve; Tuncay, Mehmet S.; Alim, Bulent; Hayta, Emrullah; Uslu, Ali U.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigated serum cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) levels between fibromyalgia (FMS) patients and a control group, and the effect of balneotherapy (BT) on these hormones. Methods: Seventy-two patients with FMS and 39 healthy volunteers were included in the study. This prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Medical Faculty, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Cumhuriyet University, Cumhuriyet, Turkey between June 2012 and June 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups. There were 40 patients in the first group, consisting of BT and physical therapy (PT) administered patients. There were 32 FMS patients in the second group who were only administered PT. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers were enrolled as a control group. Result: Cortisol was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (10.10±4.08 μg/dL and 11.78±3.6 μg/dL; p=0.033). Serum DHEA-S level was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (89.93±53.96 μg/dL and 143.15±107.92 μg/dL; p=0.015). Average serum cortisol levels of patients receiving BT were determined to be 9.95±3.20 μg/dL before treatment and 9.06±3.77μg/dL after treatment; while average serum DHEA-S levels were 77.60±48.05 μg/dL before treatment, and 76.84±48.71 μg/dL after treatment. No significant changes were determined in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels when measured again after BT and PT. Conclusion: Low levels of serum cortisol and DHEA-S were suggested to be associated with the physiopathology of FMS. PMID:27146618

  12. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone interacts with nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors, preventing neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Iakovos; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Alexaki, Vassilia-Ismini; Avlonitis, Nicolaos; Pediaditakis, Iosif; Efstathopoulos, Paschalis; Calogeropoulou, Theodora; Castanas, Elias; Gravanis, Achille

    2011-04-01

    The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), produced by neurons and glia, affects multiple processes in the brain, including neuronal survival and neurogenesis during development and in aging. We provide evidence that DHEA interacts with pro-survival TrkA and pro-death p75(NTR) membrane receptors of neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), acting as a neurotrophic factor: (1) the anti-apoptotic effects of DHEA were reversed by siRNA against TrkA or by a specific TrkA inhibitor; (2) [(3)H]-DHEA binding assays showed that it bound to membranes isolated from HEK293 cells transfected with the cDNAs of TrkA and p75(NTR) receptors (K(D): 7.4 ± 1.75 nM and 5.6 ± 0.55 nM, respectively); (3) immobilized DHEA pulled down recombinant and naturally expressed TrkA and p75(NTR) receptors; (4) DHEA induced TrkA phosphorylation and NGF receptor-mediated signaling; Shc, Akt, and ERK1/2 kinases down-stream to TrkA receptors and TRAF6, RIP2, and RhoGDI interactors of p75(NTR) receptors; and (5) DHEA rescued from apoptosis TrkA receptor positive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia in NGF null embryos and compensated NGF in rescuing from apoptosis NGF receptor positive sympathetic neurons of embryonic superior cervical ganglia. Phylogenetic findings on the evolution of neurotrophins, their receptors, and CYP17, the enzyme responsible for DHEA biosynthesis, combined with our data support the hypothesis that DHEA served as a phylogenetically ancient neurotrophic factor.

  13. Neurosteroid Dehydroepiandrosterone Interacts with Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Receptors, Preventing Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Alexaki, Vassilia-Ismini; Avlonitis, Nicolaos; Pediaditakis, Iosif; Efstathopoulos, Paschalis; Calogeropoulou, Theodora; Castanas, Elias; Gravanis, Achille

    2011-01-01

    The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), produced by neurons and glia, affects multiple processes in the brain, including neuronal survival and neurogenesis during development and in aging. We provide evidence that DHEA interacts with pro-survival TrkA and pro-death p75NTR membrane receptors of neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), acting as a neurotrophic factor: (1) the anti-apoptotic effects of DHEA were reversed by siRNA against TrkA or by a specific TrkA inhibitor; (2) [3H]-DHEA binding assays showed that it bound to membranes isolated from HEK293 cells transfected with the cDNAs of TrkA and p75NTR receptors (KD: 7.4±1.75 nM and 5.6±0.55 nM, respectively); (3) immobilized DHEA pulled down recombinant and naturally expressed TrkA and p75NTR receptors; (4) DHEA induced TrkA phosphorylation and NGF receptor-mediated signaling; Shc, Akt, and ERK1/2 kinases down-stream to TrkA receptors and TRAF6, RIP2, and RhoGDI interactors of p75NTR receptors; and (5) DHEA rescued from apoptosis TrkA receptor positive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia in NGF null embryos and compensated NGF in rescuing from apoptosis NGF receptor positive sympathetic neurons of embryonic superior cervical ganglia. Phylogenetic findings on the evolution of neurotrophins, their receptors, and CYP17, the enzyme responsible for DHEA biosynthesis, combined with our data support the hypothesis that DHEA served as a phylogenetically ancient neurotrophic factor. PMID:21541365

  14. Associations between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, pituitary volume, and social anxiety in children.

    PubMed

    Murray, Cynthia R; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B; Byrne, Michelle L; Mundy, Lisa K; Seal, Marc L; Patton, George C; Olsson, Craig A; Whittle, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEA-S) in children, has been linked with mental health problems, particularly anxiety. However, little is known about possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association. The pituitary gland is a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the activation of which triggers the onset of adrenarche. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which pituitary gland volume mediated the relationship between levels of DHEA/DHEA-S relative to age (i.e., adrenarcheal timing) and symptoms of anxiety in 95 children (50 female, M age 9.50 years, SD 0.34 years). Relatively high DHEA and DHEA-S (DHEA/S) levels were found to be associated with larger pituitary gland volumes. There was no significant direct effect of relative DHEA/S levels on overall symptoms of anxiety. However, results supported an indirect link between relatively high DHEA/S levels and symptoms of social anxiety, mediated by pituitary gland volume. No sex differences were observed for any relationship. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms may be partly responsible for the link between relatively early adrenarche and anxiety symptoms in children. One possible mechanism for this finding is that an enlarged pituitary gland in children experiencing relatively advanced adrenarche might be associated with hyper-activity/reactivity of the HPA axis. Further research is needed to understand the role of stress in the link between adrenarcheal timing and HPA-axis function, especially in relation to the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents.

  15. Biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Hua; Li, Juan; Xu, Gong; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Yang-Guang; Yin, Ye-Lin; Liu, Hong-Min

    2010-12-12

    Microbial transformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 1) using Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling has been investigated. Neither fungi had been examined previously for steroid biotransformation. One novel metabolic product of DHEA (1) transformed with P. griseopurpureum Smith, 15α-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (5), was reported for the first time. The steroid products were assigned by interpretation of their spectral data such as (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, and HR-MS spectroscopy. P. griseopurpureum Smith was proven to be remarkably efficient in oxidation of the DHEA (1) into androst-4-en-3,17-dione (2). The strain was also observed to yield different monooxygenases to introduce hydroxyl groups at C-7α, -14α, and -15α positions of steroids. Preference for Baeyer-Villiger oxidation to lactonize D ring and oxidation of the 3β-alcohol to the 3-ketone were observed in both incubations. The strain of P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling catalyzed the steroid 1 to generate both testololactone 3, and d-lactone product with 3β-hydroxy-5-en moiety 8. In addition, the strain promoted hydrogenation of the C-5 and C-6 positions, leading to the formation of 3β-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-5α-androstan-3,17-dione (9). The biotransformation pathways of DHEA (1) with P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling and P. griseopurpureum Smith have been investigated, respectively. Possible metabolic pathways of DHEA (1) were proposed.

  16. Antiapoptotic effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on testicular torsion/detorsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yapanoglu, T; Aksoy, Y; Gursan, N; Ozbey, I; Ziypak, T; Calik, M

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on apoptosis of testicular germ cells after repair of testicular torsion in rats. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, with six rats in each group: sham operation, torsion/detorsion (T/D), T/D + vehicle, and T/D + DHEA. Three hours before detorsion, 50 mg kg(-1) DHEA was given intraperitoneally to T/D + DHEA group. In all groups, bilateral orchiectomies were performed and both testicles were histologically examined, with apoptosis detected using the in situ DNA fragmentation [terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL)] system, with morphological damage detected using a four-level grading scale in each specimen. The testes of the sham group showed a normal histology. In T/D and T/D + vehicle groups, apoptotic spermatogonia and spermatocyte number were significantly higher than in the sham group (P < 0.01 for all). The T/D + DHEA group showed a reduction in apoptotic spermatocyte and spermatogonia number in seminiferous epithelia compared with T/D group (P < 0.01 for both). Apoptotic cell number of contralateral testes did not reveal any significant differences among these groups (P > 0.05). Specimens from T/D and T/D + vehicle had a significantly greater histological injury than sham and T/D + DHEA groups in the ipsilateral testes (P < 0.01 for both). Therefore, the results suggest that DHEA may be a protective agent for preventing apoptosis caused by testicular torsion.

  17. Circulating Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels in Women with Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy during the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lasley, Bill; Crawford, Sybil L.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Santoro, Nanette; McConnell, Daniel; Crandall, Carolyn; Greendale, Gail; Polotsky, Alex J.; Vuga, Marike

    2010-01-01

    Background A rise in circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentration occurs during the menopausal transition (MT) that is ovarian-stage but not age-related. The objective of this study was to determine the source of the rise in circulating DHEAS. Methods Circulating DS concentrations in women that had undergone bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) were compared to the pattern of circulating DHEAS in women that progressed through the MT naturally. Annual serum samples from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) over a ten year study period were used. From1272 women in the SWAN cohort that were eligible for longitudinal evaluation of DHEAS annual samples, eighty one underwent BSO during the pre- or early-perimenopause stage of the menopausal transition and were potentially available for study. Of these eighty one BSO participants, twenty had sufficient annual samples for evaluation of the post-BSO trajectory of circulating DHEAS. SWAN women not having previous hormone replacement therapy those with intact ovaries were compared to women that underwent a BSO immediately after a pre- or early perimenopausal annual visit. There were no intervention and circulating concentrations of DHEAS was the main outcome. Results A detectable rise in DHEAS was observed in fourteen (70%) of the twenty BSO women which is similar to the proportion (85%) of women with intact ovaries that had a detectable DHEAS rise. The mean rise in DHEAS (5-8%) was similar in both BSO and non-BSO women. Conclusion The MT rise in DHEAS (5-8%) occurring in the absence of ovaries is largely of adrenal origin. PMID:21178790

  18. Gradient HPLC separation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from its metabolites and biological congeners: role of tetrahydrofuran in the chromatographic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gergely, András; Horváth, Péter; Szász, György; Veress, Gábor

    2009-08-01

    A three-step gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the separation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulfate ester (DHEA-S), its three C7-oxidized metabolites (7alphaOH-DHEA, 7betaOH-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA), and its biosynthetic congeners (androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, pregnenolone). This new method allows the quantitative characterization of DHEA metabolism and biosynthetic transformation under given physiological, pathological, or therapeutically influenced circumstances. Tetrahydrofuran probably acts as a proton acceptor coadsorbent, while isopropanol behaves as a proton donor during the separation of testosterone, estradiol, and the stereoisomers of 7-OH-DHEA.

  19. Seven days of oral taurine supplementation does not increase muscle taurine content or alter substrate metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Stuart D R; Talanian, Jason L; Shoveller, Anna K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2008-08-01

    This study examined 1) the plasma taurine response to acute oral taurine supplementation (T), and 2) the effects of 7 days of T on muscle amino acid content and substrate metabolism during 2 h of cycling at approximately 60% peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). In the first part of the study, after an overnight fast, 7 volunteers (28+/-3 yr, 184+/-2 cm, 88.0+/-6.6 kg) ingested 1.66 g oral taurine doses with breakfast (8 AM) and lunch (12 noon), and blood samples were taken throughout the day. In the second part of the study, eight men (22+/-1 yr, 181+/-1 cm, 80.9+/-3.8 kg, 4.21+/-0.16 l/min VO2peak) cycled for 2 h after 7 days of placebo (P) ingestion (6 g glucose/day) and again following 7 days of T (5 g/day). In the first part of the study, plasma taurine was 64+/-4 microM before T and rose rapidly to 778+/-139 microM by 10 AM and remained elevated at noon (359+/-56 microM). Plasma taurine reached 973+/-181 microM at 1 PM and was 161+/-31 microM at 4 PM. In the second part of the study, seven days of T had no effect on muscle taurine content (mmol/kg dry muscle) at rest (P, 44+/-15 vs. T, 42+/-15) or after exercise (P, 43+/-12 vs. T, 43+/-11). There was no difference in muscle glycogen or other muscle metabolites between conditions, but there were notable interaction effects for muscle valine, isoleucine, leucine, cystine, glutamate, alanine, and arginine amino acid content following exercise after T. These data indicate that 1) acute T produces a 13-fold increase in plasma taurine concentration; 2) despite the ability to significantly elevate plasma taurine for extended periods throughout the day, 7 days of T does not alter skeletal muscle taurine content or carbohydrate and fat oxidation during exercise; and 3) T appears to have some impact on muscle amino acid response to exercise.

  20. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements can play an important role in health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones ...

  1. Perinatal Choline Supplementation Reduces Amyloidosis and Increases Choline Acetyltransferase Expression in the Hippocampus of the APPswePS1dE9 Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mellott, Tiffany J.; Huleatt, Olivia M.; Shade, Bethany N.; Pender, Sarah M.; Liu, Yi B.; Slack, Barbara E.; Blusztajn, Jan K.

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major goal of biomedical sciences. In previous studies we showed that high intake of the essential nutrient, choline, during gestation prevented age-related memory decline in a rat model. In this study we investigated the effects of a similar treatment on AD-related phenotypes in a mouse model of AD. We crossed wild type (WT) female mice with hemizygous APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP.PS1) AD model male mice and maintained the pregnant and lactating dams on a control AIN76A diet containing 1.1 g/kg of choline or a choline-supplemented (5 g/kg) diet. After weaning all offspring consumed the control diet. As compared to APP.PS1 mice reared on the control diet, the hippocampus of the perinatally choline-supplemented APP.PS1 mice exhibited: 1) altered levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolites–specifically elevated amounts of β-C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) and reduced levels of solubilized amyloid Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides; 2) reduced number and total area of amyloid plaques; 3) preserved levels of choline acetyltransferase protein (CHAT) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) and 4) absence of astrogliosis. The data suggest that dietary supplementation of choline during fetal development and early postnatal life may constitute a preventive strategy for AD. PMID:28103298

  2. Supplementation of Superfine Powder Prepared from Chaenomeles speciosa Fruit Increases Endurance Capacity in Rats via Antioxidant and Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ka; You, Jia; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Peng; Zou, Dan; Zhou, Qicheng; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2014-01-01

    Chaenomeles speciosa fruit is a traditional herb medicine widely used in China. In this study, superfine powder of C. speciosa fruit (SCE), ground by supersonic nitrogen airflow at −140°C, was investigated to assess its in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo antiphysical fatigue activity. SCE was homogenous (d < 10 μm) and rich in antioxidants like polyphenols, saponins, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, ascorbic acid, and SOD. According to the in vitro experiments, SCE displayed promising antioxidant activity with powerful FARP, SC-DPPH, and SC-SAR activities. According to the in vivo experiments, rats supplemented with SCE had prolonged exhaustive swimming time (57%) compared to the nonsupplemented rats. Meanwhile, compared to the nonsupplemented rats, the SCE-supplemented rats had higher levels of blood glucose and liver and muscular glycogen and lower levels of LA and BUN. Lower MDA, higher antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px) activities, and upregulated Nrf2/ARE mediated antioxidant enzymes (HO-1, Trx, GCLM, and GCLC) expression were also detected in the supplemented group. This study indicates that SCE is a potent antioxidant and antifatigue agent, and SCE could be a promising raw material for the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25610489

  3. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  4. Protein Supplementation Does Not Further Increase Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Novice Subjects, but Partially Counteracts the Fast-to-Slow Muscle Fiber Transition.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Pacelli, Quirico F; Cancellara, Pasqua; Toniolo, Luana; Moro, Tatiana; Canato, Marta; Miotti, Danilo; Neri, Marco; Morra, Aldo; Quadrelli, Marco; Reggiani, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    The response to resistance training and protein supplementation in the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) has never been investigated. We investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) and protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and fiber characteristics of the LDM. Eighteen healthy young subjects were randomly assigned to a progressive eight-week RT program with a normal protein diet (NP) or high protein diet (HP) (NP 0.85 vs. HP 1.8 g of protein·kg(-1)·day(-1)). One repetition maximum tests, magnetic resonance imaging for cross-sectional muscle area (CSA), body composition, and single muscle fibers mechanical and phenotype characteristics were measured. RT induced a significant gain in strength (+17%, p < 0.0001), whole muscle CSA (p = 0.024), and single muscle fibers CSA (p < 0.05) of LDM in all subjects. Fiber isometric force increased in proportion to CSA (+22%, p < 0.005) and thus no change in specific tension occurred. A significant transition from 2X to 2A myosin expression was induced by training. The protein supplementation showed no significant effects on all measured outcomes except for a smaller reduction of 2X myosin expression. Our results suggest that in LDM protein supplementation does not further enhance RT-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy nor influence mechanic muscle fiber characteristics but partially counteracts the fast-to-slow fiber shift.

  5. Protein Supplementation Does Not Further Increase Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Novice Subjects, but Partially Counteracts the Fast-to-Slow Muscle Fiber Transition

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio; Pacelli, Quirico F.; Cancellara, Pasqua; Toniolo, Luana; Moro, Tatiana; Canato, Marta; Miotti, Danilo; Neri, Marco; Morra, Aldo; Quadrelli, Marco; Reggiani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The response to resistance training and protein supplementation in the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) has never been investigated. We investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) and protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and fiber characteristics of the LDM. Eighteen healthy young subjects were randomly assigned to a progressive eight-week RT program with a normal protein diet (NP) or high protein diet (HP) (NP 0.85 vs. HP 1.8 g of protein·kg−1·day−1). One repetition maximum tests, magnetic resonance imaging for cross-sectional muscle area (CSA), body composition, and single muscle fibers mechanical and phenotype characteristics were measured. RT induced a significant gain in strength (+17%, p < 0.0001), whole muscle CSA (p = 0.024), and single muscle fibers CSA (p < 0.05) of LDM in all subjects. Fiber isometric force increased in proportion to CSA (+22%, p < 0.005) and thus no change in specific tension occurred. A significant transition from 2X to 2A myosin expression was induced by training. The protein supplementation showed no significant effects on all measured outcomes except for a smaller reduction of 2X myosin expression. Our results suggest that in LDM protein supplementation does not further enhance RT-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy nor influence mechanic muscle fiber characteristics but partially counteracts the fast-to-slow fiber shift. PMID:27258300

  6. Low Circulating Levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone in Histologically Advanced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Michael; Angulo, Paul; Chalasani, Naga; Merriman, Ralph; Viker, Kimberly; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Sanderson, Schuyler; Gawrieh, Samer; Krishnan, Anuradha; Lindor, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The biological basis of variability in histological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA) is the most abundant steroid hormone and has been shown to influence sensitivity to oxidative stress, insulin sensitivity, and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and procollagen messenger RNA. Our aim was to determine whether more histologically advanced NAFLD is associated with low circulating levels of DHEA. Serum samples were obtained prospectively at the time of liver biopsy in 439 patients with NAFLD (78 in an initial and 361 in validation cohorts) and in controls with cholestatic liver disease (n = 44). NAFLD was characterized as mild [simple steatosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis stage 0–2] or advanced (NASH with fibrosis stage 3–4). Serum levels of sulfated DHEA (DHEA-S) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with advanced NAFLD had lower plasma levels of DHEA-S than patients with mild NAFLD in both the initial (0.25 ± 0.07 versus 1.1 ± 0.09 µg/mL, P < 0.001) and validation cohorts (0.47 ± 0.06 versus 0.99 ± 0.04 µg/mL, P < 0.001). A “dose effect” of decreasing DHEA-S and incremental fibrosis stage was observed with a mean DHEA-S of 1.03 ± 0.05, 0.96 ± 0.07, 0.83 ± 0.11, 0.66 ± 0.11, and 0.35 ± 0.06 µg/mL for fibrosis stages 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. All patients in both cohorts in the advanced NAFLD group had low DHEA-S levels, with the majority in the hypoadrenal range. The association between DHEA-S and severity of NAFLD persisted after adjusting for age. A relationship between disease/fibrosis severity and DHEA-S levels was not seen in patients with cholestatic liver diseases. Conclusion More advanced NAFLD, as indicated by the presence of NASH with advanced fibrosis stage, is strongly associated with low circulating DHEA-S. These data provide novel evidence for relative DHEA-S deficiency in patients with

  7. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  8. Lowering the dietary calcium to total phosphorus ratio increases phosphorus utilization in low-phosphorus corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with microbial phytase for growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Bollinger, D W; Ledoux, D R; Veum, T L

    1998-03-01

    Crossbred growing-finishing pigs (n = 120) were used to investigate the effect of three dietary Ca:total P (tP) ratios (1.5:1, 1.3:1, or 1.0:1) on P utilization in low-P corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with microbial phytase at 500 phytase units/kg. The basal grower (23 to 54 kg BW) diet contained .39% tP including .07% added inorganic P (iP), and the basal finisher (54 to 123 kg BW) diet contained .32% tP without added iP. An adequate-P positive control diet without phytase supplementation contained .60% Ca and .50% tP during the growing phase and .50% Ca and .40% tP during the finishing phase. Lowering the Ca:tP ratio linearly increased ADG during the growing phase (P < .03) and overall (P < .08), gain:feed ratio during the growing phase (P < .001), and P absorption during the finishing phase (P < .04). Lowering the Ca:tP ratio linearly increased BW at slaughter (P < .02), carcass weight (P < .04), bone breaking strength (P < .04), and bone ash weight (P < .06), whereas dressing percentage and backfat depth remained unchanged. In conclusion, pig performance and P utilization were increased by lowering the Ca:tP ratio from 1.5:1 to 1.0:1 in low-P corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

  9. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. Is this true? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M. ... calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart attack. Other doctors believe that calcium supplements have little ...

  10. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  11. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  12. Supplementation patterns in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Gates, J R; Butler, J V; Pollett, L M; Dietrich, S J; Lutz, R D

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the use of supplements in a large group of endurance runners (no. = 347) who had participated in the 1987 Los Angeles Marathon. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for nutrient content and supplement usage. The runners' supplementation patterns with respect to demographics, dietary quality, training habits, and race performance were investigated. In general, no significant associations were found between supplement use and the aforementioned variables. Use of supplements, especially vitamins C and E, calcium, and zinc, increased with age (p less than .05). Daily use of at least one type of supplement was reported by 29% of the runners; 48% reported use of at least one type of supplement within the 3-day period.

  13. Soy protein supplementation increases serum insulin-like growth factor-I in young and old men but does not affect markers of bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Dania A; Lucas, Edralin A; Juma, Shanil; Smith, Brenda J; Payton, Mark E; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2002-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that soy protein (SP) protects bone in women; however, its effects on bone metabolism in men have not been investigated. Healthy men (59.2 +/- 17.6 y) were assigned to consume 40 g of either SP or milk-based protein (MP) daily for 3 mo in a double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel design. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which is associated with higher rates of bone formation, was greater (P < 0.01) in men supplemented with SP than in those consuming MP. Serum alkaline phosphatase and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activities, markers of bone formation, and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion, a specific marker of bone resorption, were not different between the SP and MP groups. Furthermore, because substantial reductions in bone density occur in men at approximately 65 y of age, data were analyzed separately for men >/=65 y and those <65 y of age. The response to protein supplementation was consistent in the two age groups. The effects of SP on serum IGF-I levels suggest that SP may positively influence bone in men. Longer-duration studies examining the effects of SP or its isoflavones on bone turnover and bone mineral density and content in men are warranted.

  14. Antioxidant status, lipid and color stability of aged beef from grazing steers supplemented with corn grain and increasing levels of flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Pouzo, L B; Descalzo, A M; Zaritzky, N E; Rossetti, L; Pavan, E

    2016-01-01

    Angus steers were grazed on unsupplemented pasture (CNTRL), pasture supplemented with 0.7% BW cracked corn (FLAX-0), FLAX-0 with 0.125% and 0.250% BW of whole flaxseed (FLAX-1 and FLAX-2). Six steers were grazed per treatment for 70 days, with start and finish weights of 458 and 508 kg. At 24 h post slaughter, longissimus thoracis were harvested, and steaks assigned to treatments of postmortem aging time under vacuum (PM; 3, 14 and 56 days) with or without five days of aerobic exposure (AE). Meat antioxidant status was higher (P<0.05) when feeding CNTRL and FLAX-1 than FLAX-0 and FLAX-2. Under AE, lipid oxidation was highest for FLAX-2 (P<0.05), and lowest for FLAX-1. Greatest TBARs and lowest antioxidant capacity and redness values were obtained with AE and the longer PM (P<0.05). Beef oxidative stability through AE improved by adding a low flaxseed level to supplemented corn grain, but deteriorated by adding a high flaxseed level or by extending PM.

  15. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation.

  16. A diet supplemented with L-carnitine improves the sperm quality of Piétrain but not of Duroc and Large White boars when photoperiod and temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Sancho, S; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Bussalleu, E; Bonet, S

    2010-03-15

    It has been reported that a diet supplemented with L-carnitine can improve sperm quality in some mammalian species. Against this background, the current study seeks to determine the effects of feeding L-carnitine (625 mg day(-1)) on boar semen characteristics (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) in three different porcine breeds (Sus domesticus) (Piétrain, Duroc, and Large White) exposed to natural environmental changes in temperature and photoperiod over a 20-wk period (February to July 2007). One hundred twenty boars (40 per breed) were randomly separated into two groups (60 boars each): the first (20 boars per breed) was fed a control diet and the second (also 20 males per breed) the same diet supplemented with L-carnitine (625 mg day(-1)). Whereas the L-carnitine supplement did not affect ejaculate volume, concentration, motility, viability, or the osmotic resistance of spermatozoa, it did improve sperm morphology in Piétrain boars by reducing the percentage of immature spermatozoa when the temperature and the photoperiod increased. Conversely, no effect on sperm morphology from supplementing feed with L-carnitine was observed in both Duroc and Large White breeds. We can therefore conclude that the addition of L-carnitine to the diet of males may maintain the level of normal sperm morphology in Piétrain boars when a drop in sperm quality occurs (due to increases in photoperiod and temperature), without affecting the other sperm quality parameters.

  17. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the progression phase of mammary carcinogenesis by inducing cellular senescence via a p16-dependent but p53-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shilkaitis, Anne; Green, Albert; Punj, Vasu; Steele, Vernon; Lubet, Ronald; Christov, Konstantin

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal 17-ketosteroid, is a precursor of testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Studies have shown that DHEA inhibits carcinogenesis in mammary gland and prostate as well as other organs, a process that is not hormone dependent. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of DHEA-mediated inhibition of the neoplastic process. Here we examine whether DHEA and its analog DHEA 8354 can suppress the progression of hyperplastic and premalignant (carcinoma in situ) lesions in mammary gland toward malignant tumors and the cellular mechanisms involved. Methods Rats were treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea and allowed to develop mammary hyperplastic and premalignant lesions with a maximum frequency 6 weeks after carcinogen administration. The animals were then given DHEA or DHEA 8354 in the diet at 125 or 1,000 mg/kg diet for 6 weeks. The effect of these agents on induction of apoptosis, senescence, cell proliferation, tumor burden and various effectors of cellular signaling were determined. Results Both agents induced a dose-dependent decrease in tumor multiplicity and in tumor burden. In addition they induced a senescent phenotype in tumor cells, inhibited cell proliferation and increased the number of apoptotic cells. The DHEA-induced cellular effects were associated with increased expression of p16 and p21, but not p53 expression, implicating a p53-independent mechanism in their action. Conclusion We provide evidence that DHEA and DHEA 8354 can suppress mammary carcinogenesis by altering various cellular functions, inducing cellular senescence, in tumor cells with the potential involvement of p16 and p21 in mediating these effects. PMID:16457693

  18. Quantification of Dehydroepiandrosterone, 11-Deoxycortisol, 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, and Testosterone by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Munar, Ada; Frazee, Clint; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. The analysis of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 11-deoxycortisol, and testosterone is generally performed in the diagnosis and/or follow-up of CAH. Cortisol is generally analyzed by immunoassays whereas other hormones are preferably assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A multiple reaction monitoring, positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, LC/MS/MS method is described for the simultaneous quantification of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, 11-deoxycortisol, and testosterone. Stable-isotope labeled internal standards are added to serum samples and steroids are extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether. The extract is evaporated under stream of nitrogen and the residue is reconstituted in methanol and analyzed by LC/MS/MS.

  19. Oxidative metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and biologically active oxygenated metabolites of DHEA and epiandrosterone (EpiA)--recent reports.

    PubMed

    El Kihel, Laïla

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a multifunctional steroid with a broad range of biological effects in humans and animals. DHEA can be converted to multiple oxygenated metabolites in the brain and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms by which DHEA exerts its effects are not well understood. However, evidence that the effects of DHEA are mediated by its oxygenated metabolites has accumulated. This paper will review the panel of oxygenated DHEA metabolites (7, 16 and 17-hydroxylated derivatives) including a number of 5α-androstane derivatives, such as epiandrosterone (EpiA) metabolites. The most important aspects of the oxidative metabolism of DHEA in the liver, intestine and brain are described. Then, this article reviews the reported biological effects of oxygenated DHEA metabolites from recent findings with a specific focus on cancer, inflammatory and immune processes, osteoporosis, thermogenesis, adipogenesis, the cardiovascular system, the brain and the estrogen and androgen receptors.

  20. Effect of genetic background on the therapeutic effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in diabetes-obesity mutants and in aged normal mice.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D L; Schwizer, R W; Leiter, E H

    1984-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was fed at 0.1-0.4% in the diet to genetically diabetic (db/db) or obese (ob/ob) C57BL/KsJ (BL/Ks) or C57BL/6J (BL/6) mice. Treatment of BL/Ks-db/db or ob/ob mice with 0.4% DHEA prevented hyperglycemia, islet atrophy, and severe diabetes associated with this inbred background, but did not affect weight gain and food consumption. Homozygous obese (ob) or diabetes (db) mice on the BL/6 background were more sensitive to DHEA, and the mild, transient hyperglycemia associated with ob or db gene expression on the BL/6 inbred background could be prevented by 0.1% DHEA. Both body weight and food consumption were decreased in BL/6 mutants maintained on 0.1% DHEA whereas this effect was not seen in BL/Ks mutants fed up to 0.4% DHEA. Early therapy with 0.4% DHEA, initiated at 2 wk of age, prevented the development of most diabetes symptoms and decreased the rate of weight gain in pups of all genotypes. In addition to therapeutic effects on both obese mutants, DHEA effected significant changes in an aging study using normal BL/6 female mice. Four weeks of DHEA treatment initiated at 2 yr of age improved glucose tolerance and at the same time reduced plasma insulin to a "younger" level. This suggests that DHEA may act in insulin-resistant mutant mice and in aging normal mice to increase the sensitivity to insulin.

  1. Liver X receptor alpha mediated genistein induction of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) in Hep G2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shunfen; Zhou, Tianyan; Huang, Chaoqun; McLaughlin, Alicia; Chen, Guangping

    2013-04-15

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases are one of the major families of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Sulfotransferase-catalyzed sulfonation regulates hormone activities, metabolizes drugs, detoxifies xenobiotics, and bioactivates carcinogens. Human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) plays important biological roles by sulfating endogenous hydroxysteroids and exogenous xenobiotics. Genistein, mainly existing in soy food products, is a naturally occurring phytoestrogen with both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Our previous studies have shown that genistein significantly induces hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 and Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of liver X receptor (LXRα) in the genistein induction of hSULT2A1. LXRs have been shown to induce expression of mouse Sult2a9 and hSULT2A1 gene. Our results demonstrate that LXRα mediates the genistein induction of hSULT2A1, supported by Western blot analysis results, hSULT2A1 promoter driven luciferase reporter gene assay results, and mRNA interference results. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results demonstrate that genistein increase the recruitment of hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter. These results suggest that hLXRα plays an important role in the hSULT2A1 gene regulation. The biological functions of phytoestrogens may partially relate to their induction activity toward hydroxysteroid SULT. - Highlights: ► Liver X receptor α mediated genistein induction of hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 cells. ► LXRα and RXRα dimerization further activated this induction. ► Western blot results agreed well with luciferase reporter gene assay results. ► LXRs gene silencing significantly decreased hSULT2A1 expression. ► ChIP analysis suggested that genistein enhances hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter.

  2. Low levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in plasma, and reduced sympathoadrenal response to hypoglycaemia in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, R; Rovensky, J; Malis, F; Zlnay, M; Killinger, Z; Kvetnansky, R; Huckova, M; Vigas, M; Macho, L; Koska, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathoadrenal system in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (0.1 IU/kg) was produced in 15 glucocorticoid-naive patients with long term RA with low disease activity and in 14 healthy women matched for age and body mass index. Concentrations of glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, Δ4-androstenedione (ASD), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), interleukin 6 (IL6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were analysed in plasma. Results: Patients had comparable responses of glucose, cortisol, ACTH, ASD, and 17OHP to hypoglycaemia, without any signs of hypothalamic insufficiency. Patients had lower basal DHEAS than controls (3.03 (0.37) µmol/l v 5.1 (0.9) µmol/l, respectively; p<0.05); borderline lower basal DHEA levels (p = 0.067); while the response of DHEA to hypoglycaemia was comparable to that of controls. Patients with RA had lower EPI (p = 0.005) and NE (p<0.001) responses to hypoglycaemia. TNFα and IL6 were higher (p<0.05) in patients with RA (TNFα 8 (2.8) pg/ml in RA v 1.1 (0.5) pg/ml in controls and IL6 15.1 (6.7) pg/ml v 1.4 (0.7) pg/ml). Conclusions: Lower basal DHEAS levels, without concomitant differences or changes in DHEA, ASD, 17OHP, and cortisol responses to hypoglycaemia in patients with RA, indicate an isolated decrease in adrenal androgen production. Significantly lower responses of EPI and NE to hypoglycaemia may suggest sympathoadrenal hyporeactivity in patients with RA. PMID:15647427

  3. Effect of ascorbic acid or increasing metabolizable energy level with or without supplementation of some essential amino acids on productive and physiological traits of slow-growing chicks exposed to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Hassan, R A; Tag El-Din, A E; Abou-Shehema, B M

    2011-12-01

    Four hundred and twenty, 21-day-old slow-growing chicks were divided randomly into seven treatments, each containing five replicates. Each replicate was kept in a 1 × 1-m floor pen. One treatment was kept under thermo-neutral conditions in a semi-open house and fed a corn-soybean meal diet (positive control). The other six groups were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS) at 38 °C and 60% RH for 4 h from 12:00 to 16:00 pm for three successive days per week. Chicks in CHS treatments were fed a corn-soybean meal diet without (negative control) or with increasing metabolizable energy (ME) level by oil supplementation alone, or also with increasing some essential amino acids (EAA) such as methionine (Met), methionine and lysine (Met+Lys) or methionine, lysine and arginine (Met+Lys+Arg) or supplemented with 250 mg of ascorbic acid (AA)/kg. CHS impaired (p < 0.05) growth performance, increased plasma triglycerides and total serum Ca while decreasing (p < 0.05) plasma glucose and total serum protein. Meanwhile 250 mg AA/kg diet or an increasing ME without or with some EAA partially alleviated (p < 0.0001) the negative effect of CHS on growth while increasing (p < 0.05) feed intake and improving (p < 0.05) feed:gain ratio (F:G) and crude protein (CP) digestibility (p < 0.05). AA or increasing ME with or without EAA increased (p < 0.05) percentage dressing, liver and giblets to those of the positive control. AA or increasing ME with or without EAA partially alleviated the negative effect of CHS on blood pH, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hgb), total serum protein and total Ca, plasma glucose and triglyceride, rectal temperature and respiration rate. Increasing ME level improved chickens' tolerance to CHS without a significant difference from those supplemented with AA. However, increasing Met, Lys and Arg concentration did not improve performance over that recorded with increasing ME level alone. Under CHS, 250 mg AA/kg diet or increasing ME level by addition of 3

  4. Breast cancer survivors who use estrogenic botanical supplements have lower serum estrogen levels than non users

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Sharon J; Neuhouser, Marian L; Koprowski, Carol; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiggins, Charles; Gilliland, Frank; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; McTiernan, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between use of estrogenic botanical supplements and serum sex hormones in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Methods 502 postmenopausal women were queried 2-3 years after breast cancer diagnosis about their use of botanical supplements, and supplements were categorized according to their estrogenic properties. Concurrently, a fasting blood sample was obtained for assay of estrone, estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and sex hormone-binding globulin. Adjusted means of the serum hormones were calculated by use of estrogenic supplements. Results Women reporting use of any estrogenic botanical supplement had significantly lower levels of estrone (20.8 v 23.6 pg/mL), estradiol (12.8 v 14.7 pg/mL), free estradiol (0.29 v 0.35 pg/mL), and DHEAS (47.7 v 56.2 ug/dL) compared to women reporting no use. Conclusion Data from this cross-sectional study suggest the use of estrogenic botanical supplements may be associated with sex hormone concentrations in breast cancer survivors. Considering the high use of these supplements among breast cancer patients, further research is needed to clarify the relative estrogenicity/antiestrogenicity of these compounds and their relation with prognosis. PMID:18931907

  5. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  6. Provision of lipid-based nutrient supplements to Honduran children increases their dietary macro- and micronutrient intake without displacing other foods.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Reinhart, Greg A; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Inadequate energy intake and poor diet quality are important causes of chronic child undernutrition. Strategies for improving diet quality using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are currently being tested in several countries. To date, information on children's dietary intakes during LNS use is available only from Africa. In this study, we collected 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on Honduran children (n = 298) participating in a cluster-randomised trial of LNS. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine differences in number of servings of 12 food groups in the LNS and control arms, and multi-level mixed effects models were used to compare macro- and micronutrient intakes. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for child's age, season and breastfeeding status. Mean daily servings of 12 food groups did not differ by study arm at baseline and remained similar throughout the study with the exception of groups that were partially or entirely supplied by LNS (nuts and nut butters, fats, and sweets). Baseline intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrates, protein, folate and vitamin A, but not vitamin B12, iron and zinc were lower in the LNS than control arm. The change in all macro- and micronutrients from baseline to each study visit was larger for the LNS arm than the control, except for carbohydrates from baseline to 9 months. These findings indicate that LNS improved the macro- and micronutrient intakes of young non-malnourished Honduran children without replacing other foods in their diet.

  7. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone and a beta-agonist, energy transducers, alter antioxidant enzyme systems: influence of chronic training and acute exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Schauer, J E; Schelin, A; Hanson, P; Stratman, F W

    1990-12-01

    We examined the influence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a beta-agonist, and exercise training on enzymes that detoxify toxic oxygen species. Feeding 0.4% DHEA decreased hepatic cytosolic (c) selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX), (-26%, P less than 0.0001) and increased hepatic mitochondrial (m) Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD), (+38%, P less than 0.001). DHEA decreased myocardial c-GPX (-21%, P less than 0.05) when compared to a beta-agonist (beta A; L644969 Merck and Co.) fed at 5 ppm but neither differed from the Control (C). In contrast, the beta A increased hepatic m-GPX (+25%, P less than 0.05). In skeletal muscle, DHEA and beta A decreased muscle c-GPX by 20 and 12%, respectively (P less than 0.0009). DHEA increased both muscle (+20%, P less than 0.01) and myocardial (+20%, P less than 0.05) c-glutathione S-transferase (GST) over beta A (+20%, P less than 0.01) but neither was significantly different from C. Similar to DHEA, chronic training (Tr) (1 h/day, 5 days/week at 27 m/min, 15% grade on treadmill) decreased hepatic c-GPX (-16%, P less than 0.003). Tr elevates muscle c-GPX (+36%, P less than 0.05) in C. Tr increased myocardial c-GPX by 28% in the beta A-treated rats, whereas Tr decreased myocardial c-GPX by 22% in the C (P less than 0.05, interaction). One hour of acute exercise (Ex) (70% VO2 max relative work load) decreased hepatic homogenate catalase (-12%, P less than 0.02) and increased hepatic m-Mn SOD (+28%, P less than 0.03). Ex decreased myocardial c-GST (P less than 0.05) only in the DHEA-treated rats. DHEA and Tr may improve efficiency of oxygen utilization at the tissue level with lower antioxidant enzyme activity in liver and locally protective up-regulation in muscle. beta A stresses oxygen utilization systems and liver responds by up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. The increase in myocardial c-GPX activity in the beta A-treated group may be a protective effect against indirect catecholamine-induced myocardial necrosis which

  9. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  10. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  11. The Effects of Vitamin D-K-Calcium Co-Supplementation on Endocrine, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Vitamin D-Deficient Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Razavi, M; Jamilian, M; Karamali, M; Bahmani, F; Aghadavod, E; Asemi, Z

    2016-07-01

    The current study was conducted to assess the effects of vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation on endocrine, inflammation, and oxidative stress biomarkers in vitamin D-deficient women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 60 vitamin D-deficient women diagnosed with PCOS aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups to intake either 200 IU vitamin D, 90 μg vitamin K plus, 500 mg calcium supplements (n=30), or placebo (n=30) twice a day for 8 weeks. Endocrine, inflammation, and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified at the beginning and the end of the study. After 8 weeks of intervention, compared with the placebo, vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in serum-free testosterone (- 2.1±1.6 vs.+0.1±1.0 pg/ml, p<0.001) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels (- 0.8±1.0 vs.-0.1±0.5 μg/ml, p=0.006). In addition, a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+ 75.7±126.1 vs.-80.4±242.8 mmol/l, p=0.005) and a significant difference in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations (+ 0.03±0.6 vs.+1.4±2.4 μmol/l, p=0.005) was observed following the supplementation with vitamin D-K-calcium compared with the placebo. A trend toward a greater decrease in luteinizing hormone was observed in vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplement group compared to placebo group (- 7.0 vs.-1.2 IU/l, p=0.09). We did not find any significant effect of vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation on prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, 17-OH progesterone, inflammatory markers, and glutathione levels. Overall, vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation for 8 weeks among vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS had beneficial effects on serum DHEAS, free testosterone, plasma TAC, and MDA levels.

  12. Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the U.S. due to limited sun exposure and low dietary intake. Few foods naturally contain vitamin D but treatment of mushrooms with ultraviolet (UV) light increases vitamin D2 content and could provide an additional dietary source of vitamin D. We evaluated the imp...

  13. Effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation on broiler performance, intestinal nutrient transport and integrity under experimental conditions with increased microbial challenge.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, G R; Gabler, N K; Persia, M E

    2014-02-01

    1. The effects of Aspergillus oryzae- and Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFM) were investigated on the performance, ileal nutrient transport and intestinal integrity of broiler chickens, raised under experimental conditions, with increased intestinal microbial challenge. 2. The first study was a 3 × 2 factorial experiment, with 3 dietary treatments (control (CON), CON + DFM and CON + antibiotic growth promoter) with and without challenge. Chicks were fed experimental diets from 1 to 28 d, while the challenge was provided by vaccinating with 10 times the normal dose of commercial coccidial vaccine on d 9. In a second experiment, two groups of 1 d-old broilers, housed on built-up litter (uncleaned from two previous flocks), were fed the same CON and CON + DFM diets from 1 to 21 d. 3. The challenge in the first experiment reduced performance, but no differences were observed among dietary treatments from 8 to 28 d. The challenge reduced the ileal epithelial flux for D-glucose, L-lysine, DL-methionine and phosphorus on d 21. Epithelial flux for D-glucose, L-lysine and DL-methionine were increased by DFM. Ileal trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TER) was increased in challenged broilers fed DFM, although this was not observed in unchallenged birds as indicated by a significant interaction. 4. Ileal mucin mRNA expression and colon TER were increased, and colon endotoxin permeability was reduced by DFM on d 21 in the second experiment. 5. It was concluded that the addition of DFM in the diet improved the intestinal integrity of broiler chickens raised under experimental conditions designed to provide increased intestinal microbial challenge.

  14. Relationships of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in the elderly with functional, psychological, and mental status, and short-term mortality: A French community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Berr, Claudine; Lafont, Sylviane; Debuire, Brigitte; Dartigues, Jean-François; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile

    1996-01-01

    In human beings of both sexes, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) circulating in blood is mostly an adrenally secreted steroid whose serum concentration (in the micromolar range and 30–50% higher in men than in women) decreases with age, toward ≈20–10% of its value in young adults during the 8th and 9th decades. The mechanism of action of DHEA and DHEAS is poorly known and may include partial transformation into sex steroids, increase of bioavailable insulin-like growth factor I, and effects on neurotransmitter receptors. Whether there is a cause-to-effect relationship between the decreasing levels of DHEAS with age and physiological and pathological manifestations of aging is still undecided, but this is of obvious theoretical and practical interest in view of the easy restoration by DHEA administration. Here we report on 622 subjects over 65 years of age, studied for the 4 years since DHEAS baseline values had been obtained, in the frame of the PAQUID program, analyzing the functional, psychological, and mental status of a community-based population in the south-west of France. We confirm the continuing decrease of DHEAS serum concentration with age, more in men than in women, even if men retain higher levels. Significantly lower values of baseline DHEAS were recorded in women in cases of functional limitation (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living), confinement, dyspnea, depressive symptomatology, poor subjective perception of health and life satisfaction, and usage of various medications. In men, there was a trend for the same correlations, even though not statistically significant in most categories. No differences in DHEAS levels were found in cases of incident dementia in the following 4 years. In men (but not in women), lower DHEAS was significantly associated with increased short-term mortality at 2 and 4 years after baseline measurement. These results, statistically established by taking into account corrections for age, sex, and health

  15. The feto-placental unit, and potential roles of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in prenatal and postnatal brain development: A re-examination using the spiny mouse.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Tracey A; Ratnayake, Udani; Dickinson, Hayley; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Walker, David W

    2016-06-01

    Synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) by the fetal adrenal gland is important for placental oestrogen production, and may also be important for modulating the effects of glucocorticoids on the developing brain. We have preciously shown that the enzymes and accessory proteins needed for DHEA synthesis-cytochrome P450 enzyme 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17), cytochrome-b5 (Cytb5), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD)-are expressed in the adrenal gland from 30 days gestation, and DHEA, cortisol and aldosterone are present in fetal plasma from this time. Explant culture of fetal adrenal tissue showed that the spiny mouse adrenal gland, can synthesize and secrete DHEA from at least 0.75 of gestation, and suggest that DHEA may have an important role(s) in placental biosynthesis of oestrogens and in modulating the actions of glucocorticoids in the developing brain in this species. Post-natally, increased immuno-expression of P450c17 and Cytb5 expression in the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland and a significant increase in the synthesis and secretion of DHEA in plasma from 8 to 20 days of age in the spiny mouse, are representative of a period of high adrenal androgen production consistent with the human phenomenon of adrenarche. The studies summarised in this review also show that DHEA is produced de novo in the developing brain of the spiny mouse. These results showed that the spiny mouse brain can indeed produce DHEA from pregnenolone in a time-dependant manner, and coupled with the identification of P450c17 and Cytb5 protein in several regions of the brain, support the idea that DHEA is an endogenous neuro-active steroid in this species. Together, the studies outlined in this review indicate that the androgen DHEA is an important hormone of adrenal and Central Nervous System (CNS) origin in the fetal and postnatal spiny mouse. Disturbance of the development of these fetal tissues, and/or of the relationship between the fetal adrenal gland and

  16. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Nogiec, Christopher D; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  17. To Supplement or Not to Supplement: A Metabolic Network Framework for Human Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Nogiec, Christopher D.; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology. PMID:23967053

  18. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  19. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives on the activity of 5α-reductase isoenzymes and on cancer cell line PC-3.

    PubMed

    Bratoeff, Eugene; Garrido, Mariana; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Heuze, Yvonne; Sánchez, Araceli; Soriano, Juan; Cabeza, Marisa

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that testosterone (T) under the influence of 5α-reductase enzyme is converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which causes androgen-dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to synthesize new dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives (3a-e, 4a-i, 6 and 7) having potential inhibitory activity against the 5α-reductase enzyme. This paper also reports the in vivo pharmacological effect of these steroidal molecules. The results from this study showed that all compounds exhibited low inhibitory activity for 5α-reductase type 1 and 2 enzymes and they failed to bind to the androgen receptor. Furthermore, in the in vivo experiment, steroids 3b, 4f, and 4 g showed comparable antiandrogenic activity to that of finasteride; only derivatives 4d and 7 produced a considerable decrease in the weight of the prostate gland of gonadectomized hamsters treated with (T). On the other hand, compounds 4a, f and h showed 100% inhibition of the growth of prostate cancer cell line PC-3, with compound 4 g having a 98.2% antiproliferative effect at 50 μM. The overall data indicated that these steroidal molecules, having an aromatic ester moiety at C-3 (4f-h), could have anticancer properties.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is neuroprotective when administered either before or after injury in a focal cortical cold lesion model.

    PubMed

    Juhász-Vedres, Gabriella; Rózsa, Eva; Rákos, Gabriella; Dobszay, Márton B; Kis, Zsolt; Wölfling, János; Toldi, József; Párducz, Arpád; Farkas, Tamás

    2006-02-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate (DHEAS) are sex hormone precursors that exert marked neurotrophic and/or neuroprotective activity in the central nervous system. The present study evaluated the effects of DHEAS and 17beta-estradiol (E2) in a focal cortical cold lesion model, in which DHEAS (50 mg/kg, sc) and E2 (35 mg/kg, sc) were administered either as pretreatment (two subsequent injections 1 d and 1 h before lesion induction) or posttreatment (immediately after lesion induction). The focal cortical cold lesion was induced in the primary motor cortex by means of a cooled copper cylinder placed directly onto the cortical surface. One hour later, the animals were killed, the brains cut into 0.4-mm-thick slices, and the sections stained with 1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The volume of the hemispheric lesion was calculated for each animal. The results demonstrated that the lesion area was significantly attenuated in both the DHEAS- and E2- pre- and posttreated groups and that in the presence of letrozole, a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, no neuroprotection was observed, suggesting that the beneficial effect of DHEAS on the cold injury might depend on the conversion of DHEAS to E2 within the brain. It is concluded that even a single posttraumatic administration of DHEAS may be of substantial therapeutic benefit in the treatment of focal brain injury with vasogenic edema.

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and their relationships with aggression in early and late alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Saliha; Esel, Ertugrul

    2008-02-15

    The study aims at investigating the relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations and aggression level in alcoholic patients during early and late alcohol withdrawal. Serum levels of basal cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) were measured three times, and cortisol and DHEAS response to dexamethasone twice during the early and late withdrawal periods in alcohol dependent males (n=30) and once in healthy control males (n=20). Abnormal cortisol non-suppression response to dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) was observed in some proportion of the patients in early withdrawal, which normalized in late withdrawal. The study revealed reduced basal DHEAS levels and reduced DHEAS response to dexamethasone in late withdrawal. When the patients were assessed in two separate groups as high- and low-aggressives, in the high-aggression group abnormality in DST was observed during both early and late withdrawal periods, in the low-aggression group it was observed only in early withdrawal. While basal DHEAS levels were low in the high-aggression group only in early withdrawal, it was reduced in the low-aggression group during late withdrawal period. Some alterations of the HPA axis during alcohol withdrawal might be associated not only with alcohol use per se but also with aggressivity tendency of alcoholic patients.

  2. Fecal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) immunoreactivity as a noninvasive index of circulating DHEA activity in young male laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Massimo; Hampton, Joseph E; Lambert, Kelly G

    2010-12-01

    Evidence suggests that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) plays a key role in stress and coping responses. Fecal sampling permits assessment of hormone-behavior interactions reliably and effectively, but no previous study has compared circadian- or stress-dependent alterations between serum DHEA and its fecal metabolites. In the current study, young (28 d of age) male rats were assigned to either an experimental (n = 6) or control (n = 6) group. Rats in the experimental group were exposed to a forced swim test to assess their behavioral and physiologic response to an environmental stressor; blood samples were drawn before the test (baseline), immediately after the test, and at 2 later time points. Only fecal samples were collected from control animals. Fecal DHEA and corticosterone metabolites were monitored in all animals for 24 h. DHEA metabolites in control rats exhibited significant diurnal variation, showing a similar temporal pattern as that of corticosterone metabolites. In addition, fecal and serum DHEA levels were highly correlated. Significant peaks in both DHEA and corticosterone metabolite levels were detected. These data suggest that measures of fecal DHEA can provide a complementary, noninvasive method of assessing adrenal gland function in rats.

  3. Influence of dehydroepiandrosterone on G-6-PD activity and /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake of human lymphocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ennas, M.G.; Laconi, S.; Dessi, S.; Milia, G.; Murru, M.R.; Manconi, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was found to inhibit experimental cancer development in mouse and rat lung, colon and mammary gland. Since DHEA is a potent inhibitor of mammalian G-6-PD, the hypothesis that the compound could inhibit cell proliferation through an inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway has been formulated. We studied the effects of DHEA on the proliferation in vitro of human lymphocytes induced by several mitogens (PHA, ConA and PWM), measuring /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. DHEA inhibited /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake of mitogen-stimulated cells from both G-6-PD+ and G-6-PD- (mediterranean type deficiency) individuals in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion. The inhibitory effect was found even if DHEA was added to cells in the last hours of culture, simultaneously with the addition of /sup 3/H-thymidine. These data suggest that the inhibition of thymidine uptake induced by DHEA on human lymphocytes probably does not depend on the inhibition of G-6-PD.

  4. The Association between Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S) and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Gun; Hwang, Sena; Kim, Jong-Suk; Park, Kyung-Chae; Kwon, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Background The relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. And findings of most studies that have investigated this relationship are restricted to postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum DHEA-S and BMD in both men and women. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated a total of 294 healthy Korean participants through a medical examination program. And a subgroup of 154 participants was subjected to a longitudinal analysis. We measured BMD by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and assayed DHEA-S by a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results We evaluated the association between serum DHEA-S concentration and BMD at the femur trochanter after adjusting for cofounders such as age, body mass index, lifestyle factors, serum cortisol level, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level, and sex. Through our longitudinal study, we found that the changes in BMD at the total spine, at the femur neck, and at the femur trochanter were all smaller in the ΔDHEA-S <0 group than in the ΔDHEA-S >0 group. Conclusions We found that there was a positive correlation between serum DHEA-S and femur BMD, which suggests that controlling serum DHEA-S levels may retard age-related BMD reduction in Koreans. PMID:28326299

  5. Role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibition in the antiproliferative effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Di Monaco, M.; Pizzini, A.; Gatto, V.; Leonardi, L.; Gallo, M.; Brignardello, E.; Boccuzzi, G.

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) exerts a protective effect against breast cancer. It has been proposed that the non-competitive inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) contributes to DHEA antitumor action. We evaluated the effects of DHEA on G6PD activity and on the in vitro proliferation of two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 (steroid receptor positive) and MDA-MB-231 (steroid receptor negative), in a serum-free assay. DHEA inhibition of G6PD was only found to occur at concentrations above 10 microM; at these high concentrations, the growth curve was parallel to the enzyme inhibition curve in both cell lines. In contrast, at concentrations in the in vivo breast tissue concentration range, neither cell growth nor enzyme activity was inhibited. The results failed to confirm DHEA's putative anti-tumor action on breast cancer through G6PD inhibition, as the enzyme blockade only becomes apparent at pharmacological concentrations of the steroid. PMID:9052415

  6. A Hypothesis: Supplementation with Mushroom-Derived Active Compound Modulates Immunity and Increases Survival in Response to Influenza Virus (H1N1) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chunchao, Han; Guo, Jian-you

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that the mushroom-derived active compound may be a potential strategy for increasing survival in response to influenza virus (H1N1) infection through the stimulation of host innate immune response. The validity of the hypothesis can be tested by immune response to influenza infection as seen through survival percentage, virus clearance, weight loss, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels, lytic efficiency in the spleens of mice and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expressions in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The hypothesis may improve people's quality of life, reduce the medical cost of our healthcare system and eliminate people's fears of influenza outbreak. PMID:21660092

  7. Antioxidant supplementation enhances the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA content in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens J; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bruhn, Maria; Silveira, Leonardo; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2007-08-01

    The effects of acute exercise on the mRNA content of selected genes were examined during control conditions and after oral intake of antioxidants. In addition, to provide evidence for formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human skeletal muscle during exercise, cytochrome c reduction was measured in microdialysate from the muscle. For the study on the effects of antioxidants on mRNA content, seven healthy, habitually active, male subjects participated in a double-blinded experimental design in which they, on one occasion, received a placebo and, on another, a mixture of antioxidants containing 1500 mg vitamin C, 120 mg coenzyme Q, and 345 mg alpha-tocopherol every day for 7 days before the experiment. On the experimental day the subjects cycled for 90 min and muscle biopsies were taken preexercise and at 1, 3, and 5 h after exercise. Exercise induced an increase in the eNOS, UCP3, PGC-1alpha, VEGF, Hsp72, and HO-1 mRNA content (p < 0.001), whereas there was no change in the Hsc70 mRNA level. Prior antioxidant treatment further enhanced (p < 0.05) the eNOS and UCP3 mRNA content after exercise. Moreover, the overall level of Hsc70 mRNA tended (p = 0.07) to be higher after antioxidant treatment. In another group of healthy male subjects, cytochrome c reduction was determined in microdialysate from the thigh muscle at rest and during knee extensor exercise to determine ROS formation. There was a significant increase in cytochrome c reduction with exercise both at 14 ( approximately 25%) and at 30 W ( approximately 50%). The data show that ROS are formed within skeletal muscle during exercise and that oral intake of antioxidants can enhance the exercise-induced adaptive mRNA responses of eNOS and UCP3.

  8. Detection, identification and quantification by 1H NMR of adulterants in 150 herbal dietary supplements marketed for improving sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Gilard, Véronique; Balayssac, Stéphane; Tinaugus, Aurélie; Martins, Nathalie; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty dietary supplements (DS) marketed to increase sexual performance were analyzed. All these formulations were claimed to contain only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for confirming the chemical structures. 61% of DS were adulterated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) (27% with the PDE-5i medicines sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, and 34% with their structurally modified analogues). Among them, 64% contained only one PDE-5i and 36% mixtures of two, three and even four. The amounts of PDE-5i medicines were higher than the maximum recommended dose in 25% of DS tainted with these drugs. Additional 5.5% DS included other drugs for the treatment of sexual dysfunction (yohimbine, flibanserin, phentolamine, dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone). Some DS (2.5%) contained products (osthole, icariin) extracted from plants known to improve sexual performance. Only 31% of the samples could be considered as true herbal/natural products. A follow-up over time of several DS revealed that manufacturers make changes in the chemical composition of the formulations. Lack of quality or consistent manufacture (contamination possibly due to inadequate cleaning of the manufacturing chain, presence of impurities or degradation products, various compositions of a given DS with the same batch number, inadequate labelling) indicated poor manufacturing practices. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the power of (1)H NMR spectroscopy as a first-line method for the detection of adulterated herbal/natural DS and the need for more effective quality control of purported herbal DS.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Stimulates Expression of Blood-Testis-Barrier Proteins Claudin-3 and -5 and Tight Junction Formation via a Gnα11-Coupled Receptor in Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Dietze, Raimund; Shihan, Mazen; Kirch, Ulrike; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a circulating sulfated steroid considered to be a pro-androgen in mammalian physiology. Here we show that at a physiological concentration (1 μM), DHEAS induces the phosphorylation of the kinase Erk1/2 and of the transcription factors CREB and ATF-1 in the murine Sertoli cell line TM4. This signaling cascade stimulates the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-3 and claudin-5. As a consequence of the increased expression, tight junction connections between neighboring Sertoli cells are augmented, as demonstrated by measurements of transepithelial resistance. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2, CREB, or ATF-1 is not affected by the presence of the steroid sulfatase inhibitor STX64. Erk1/2 phosphorylation was not observed when dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was used instead of DHEAS. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) expression by siRNA did not affect DHEAS-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, nor did it change DHEAS-induced stimulation of claudin-3 and claudin-5 expression. All of the above indicate that desulfation and conversion of DHEAS into a different steroid hormone is not required to trigger the DHEAS-induced signaling cascade. All activating effects of DHEAS, however, are abolished when the expression of the G-protein Gnα11 is suppressed by siRNA, including claudin-3 and -5 expression and TJ formation between neighboring Sertoli cells as indicated by reduced transepithelial resistance. Taken together, these results are consistent with the effects of DHEAS being mediated through a membrane-bound G-protein-coupled receptor interacting with Gnα11 in a signaling pathway that resembles the non-classical signaling pathways of steroid hormones. Considering the fact that DHEAS is produced in reproductive organs, these findings also suggest that DHEAS, by acting as an autonomous steroid hormone and influencing the formation and dynamics of the TJ at the blood-testis barrier, might play a crucial role for the

  10. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dietary supplement that contains one or more herbs.Herbal health products and supplements are available in ... wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs aren't necessarily safer than the ingredients in ...

  11. A protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of increasing Omega-3 index with krill oil supplementation on learning, cognition, behaviour and visual processing in typically developing adolescents

    PubMed Central

    van der Wurff, I S M; von Schacky, C; Berge, K; Kirschner, P A; de Groot, R H M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation on brain functioning is debated. Some studies have found positive effects on cognition in children with learning difficulties, elderly people with cognitive impairment and depression scores in depressed individuals. Other studies have found null or negative effects. Observational studies in adolescents have found positive associations between fish consumption (containing n-3 LCPUFAs) and academic achievement. However, intervention studies in typically developing adolescents are missing. Objective The goal of this study is to determine the influence of increasing Omega-3 Index on cognitive functioning, academic achievement and mental well-being of typically developing adolescents. Methods and data analysis Double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled intervention; 264 adolescents (age 13–15 years) attending lower general secondary education started daily supplementation of 400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) in cohort I (n=130) and 800 mg EPA+DHA in cohort II (n=134) or a placebo for 52 weeks. Recruitment took place according to a low Omega-3 Index (<5%). The Omega-3 Index was monitored via a finger prick at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The supplement dose was adjusted after 3 months (placebo analogously) to reach an Omega-3 Index of 8–11%. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, a neuropsychological test battery, a number of questionnaires and a standardised math test (baseline and 12 months) were administered. School grades were collected. In a subsample, sleep quality and quantity data (n=64) and/or eye-tracking data (n=33) were collected. Ethics and dissemination Food2Learn is performed according to Good Clinical Practice. All data collected are linked to participant number only. The results will be disseminated on group level to participants and schools. The results will be presented at conferences and published in

  12. Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Reid, Ian R

    2013-07-05

    Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%-31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%-20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  13. Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Julia; Demmelmair, Hans; Hornstra, Gerard; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-02-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy not only improves maternal and neonatal DHA status, but often reduces gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels also, which may compromise foetal and infant development. The present study investigated the effects of a fish oil/evening primrose oil (FSO/EPO) blend (456 mg DHA/d and 353 mg GLA/d) compared to a placebo (mixture of habitual dietary fatty acids) on the plasma fatty acid (FA) composition in two groups of twenty non-pregnant women using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. FA were quantified in plasma total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and TAG at weeks 0, 4, 6 and 8. After 8 weeks of intervention, percentage changes from baseline values of plasma total lipid FA were significantly different between FSO/EPO and placebo for GLA (+49.9 % v. +2.1 %, means), DGLA (+13.8 % v. +0.7 %) and DHA (+59.6 % v. +5.5 %), while there was no significant difference for ARA ( - 2.2 % v. - 5.9 %). FA changes were largely comparable between plasma lipid fractions. In both groups three subjects reported mild adverse effects. As compared with placebo, FSO/EPO supplementation did not result in any physiologically relevant changes of safety parameters (blood cell count, liver enzymes). In women of childbearing age the tested FSO/EPO blend was well tolerated and appears safe. It increases plasma GLA, DGLA, and DHA levels without impairing ARA status. These data provide a basis for testing this FSO/EPO blend in pregnant women for its effects on maternal and neonatal FA status and infant development.

  14. Supplementation with 1000 IU vitamin D/d leads to parathyroid hormone suppression, but not increased fractional calcium absorption, in 4-8-y-old children: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of vitamin D supplementation in healthy prepubertal children on physiologic outcomes have not been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with 1000 IU vitamin D(3)/d on calcium absorption. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assign...

  15. The Effects of Dietary Supplements of Calcium, Vitamin D and Estrogen Hormone on Serum Levels of OPG and RANKL Cytokines and their Relationship with Increased Bone Density in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piri, Fatemeh; Moayeri, Ardeshir; Moradipour, Ayat; Derakhshan, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteoprotegerin (OPG)-Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) pathway is one of the contributing factors in the regulation of osteogenesis and bone resorption routes. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various dietary supplements on this pathway. Materials and Methods The samples for this study (24 newborn rats) were divided in three groups according to the experiment applied for each group. Rats were given special diet according to their group plan for six weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure their serum levels of OPG and RANKL and all organs of rats were used to measure their bone density too. The results were analysed using appropriate statistical analysing tests. Results Levels of whole-body bone mineral density in calcium plus vitamin D plus Estrogen (Ca + D + E) group and calcium plus vitamin D (Ca + D) group were significantly increased compared to control group. Mineral density was highest in calcium plus vitamin D plus Estrogen group and was about 0.1357 g/cm2. RANKL had a significant decrease in calcium plus vitamin D plus Estrogen group compared to control and calcium plus vitamin D groups. There was a significant increase in the mean calcium and OPG in both experimental groups rather than control. Also, significant increase in estrogen was observed in Ca + D group than the control group. Conclusion The results showed that intake of calcium and vitamin D and estrogen at determined dose led to an increase in OPG and RANKL cytokines reduction which ultimately led to an increase in bone mineral density. But Ca, D and E synergies were more effective in increasing bone mineral density compared to only the use of Ca and D. PMID:27790417

  16. The effects of androstenediol and dehydroepiandrosterone on the course and cytokine profile of tuberculosis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Pando, R; De La Luz Streber, M; Orozco, H; Arriaga, K; Pavon, L; Al-Nakhli, S A; Rook, G A

    1998-01-01

    Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine balance accompanied by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and activated macrophages. These facets of the immune response are sensitive to suppression by glucocorticoids (GC), which can reactivate and exacerbate tuberculosis in man and animals. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its derivative, 3beta,17beta androstenediol (AED), are reported to have antiglucocorticoid properties in vivo. We therefore investigated the effects of predetermined optimal doses of these compounds, on the course of pulmonary tuberculosis in an established model in BALB/c mice in which an early phase of Th1-mediated response accompanied by adrenal hyperplasia, is followed by a switch to Th2, progressive loss of TNF-alpha expression and disease progression. Both compounds were protective, particularly AED which caused a fall in bacterial counts and prolonged survival. These effects correlated with the appearance within 3 days of cellular infiltrates rich in cells expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha, and with partial suppression of the switch to IL-4 producing cells that occurred in controls. AED also caused enhanced development of granulomas at 14 days, and persistence of granuloma formation to 120 days, with a corresponding suppression of areas affected by pneumonia. Much of the therapeutic effect of AED and DHEA was obtained by treating for only the first 3 weeks, which is the phase of adrenal hyperplasia. These results suggest that the ratio of GC to anti-GC steroids may play a role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, and further investigation could lead to novel treatment strategies. Images Figure 6 PMID:9824481

  17. The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) protects the retina from AMPA-induced excitotoxicity: NGF TrkA receptor involvement.

    PubMed

    Kokona, Despina; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Pediaditakis, Iosif; Gravanis, Achille; Thermos, Kyriaki

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective properties of the endogenous neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in an in vivo model of retinal excitotoxicity, and the involvement of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in its actions. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) received intravitreally (RS)-alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid hydrobromide (AMPA; 42 nmol/eye) alone or in combination with DHEA (10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6) M), or PBS (50 mM, control group). To examine the involvement of NGF and its TrkA receptor in the pharmacological effects of DHEA, animals received AMPA and NGF (60 pg/eye) in the absence or presence of a TrkA receptor inhibitor (Calbiochem 648450, 10(-6) M) or AMPA, DHEA (10(-6) M) and TrkA receptor inhibitor (10(-6), 10(-5) M). Immunohistochemistry studies [choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), brain nitric oxide synthetase (bNOS), calbindin, and TUNEL] and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were used to examine retinal cell loss and protection. TrkA receptor immunoreactivity (-IR) and colocalization studies with relevant markers were also performed. AMPA (42 nmol) treatment resulted in a loss of bNOS, ChAT and calbindin immunoreactivities 24 h after its administration. DHEA, administered intravitreally, protected the retina from excitotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was mimicked by NGF, and reversed by the NGF TrkA receptor inhibitor. The TrkA receptor is expressed in ganglion cells of rat retina. TUNEL staining and FACS analysis substantiated the neuroprotective actions of DHEA. These results demonstrate for the first time that the neurosteroid DHEA, administered intravitreally, protects the retina from AMPA excitotoxicity. An NGF TrkA receptor mechanism appears to be involved in this neuroprotection.

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), sex, and age in zoo-housed western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Edes, Ashley N

    2017-02-22

    Among humans, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) declines with age and is hypothesized to be involved in somatic maintenance and healthy aging. Men have significantly higher DHEA-S than women, contradicting longer lifespans in the latter. Declines of DHEA-S with age also are observed in chimpanzees. In both chimpanzees and bonobos, males and females show no differences in DHEA-S production. Based on human and chimpanzee data, gorillas were predicted to show declining DHEA-S with age. Similar to chimpanzees and bonobos, it also was predicted DHEA-S would not be significantly different between males and females. DHEA-S was assayed from serum banked during physical examinations of gorillas housed at three North American zoos (n = 63). Gorillas ranged from 6 to 52 years of age. Differences between males and females were examined using t tests. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship of DHEA-S with age. There was no significant difference in DHEA-S between males and females. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between DHEA-S and age. As predicted, there were no sex-based differences in DHEA-S in gorillas, which is similar to chimpanzees and bonobos but different from modern humans. Unlike chimpanzees and humans, there was no significant relationship between DHEA-S and age in gorillas. The absence of a relationship between age and DHEA-S may be due to the lack of gorillas under age 6 years in this sample as declines in chimpanzees occur prior to age 5 years, more rapid growth and development among gorillas compared with other African hominoids, or a unique pattern of DHEA-S production.

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate replacement improves the human plasma fatty acid profile in plasma of obese women.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Santos, C; Larqué, E; Granero, E; Hernández-Morante, J J; Garaulet, M

    2011-12-11

    DHEA-S treatment is used as an anti-aging and anti-obesity hormone therapy in adults; however, it mechanisms of action are not clearly elucidated. The objective of the present work was to analyze the effect of a replacement therapy, which included a daily single oral dose of DHEA-S for three months, on the composition of human plasma fatty acids (FAs) in obese women. In the first study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted involving 61 postmenopausal women, who were assigned to receive 100mg/day of DHEA-S (n = 41) or placebo (n = 20) orally for 3 months. In a second study, the effect of DHEA-S treatment on postmenopausal obese women (n = 41) was compared to that in premenopausal obese women (n = 20). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Plasma FAs were analyzed by gas chromatography. DHEA-S treatment produced significant changes in plasma FAs of both post- and premenopausal women with a reduction of total saturated FAs (SFA) as well as an increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Particularly, in premenopausal women the DHEA-S treatment also increased the plasma n-3 PUFA percentage. Regarding estimation of desaturase activity, our data showed that Δ6-desaturase was significantly decreased in postmenopausal women after DHEA-S treatment, whereas Δ5-desaturase was increased in the premenopausal group. In conclusion, DHEA-S treatment in obese women modifies plasma FA composition towards a potentially better metabolic profile, mainly by decreasing SFA and increasing n-6 PUFA in both postmenopausal and premenopausal women.

  20. Effect of interleukin-1beta and dehydroepiandrosterone on the expression of lumican and fibromodulin in fibroblast-like synovial cells of the human temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, K; Kiga, N; Shinohara, Y; Tojyo, I; Fujita, S

    2015-02-23

    Several epidemiological studies have reported that temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are more prevalent in women than in men. It has recently been proposed that sex hormones such as estrogen, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are involved with the pathogenesis of TMDs. Although studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen and testosterone and the restoration of TMDs, the relationship between DHEA and TMDs is unknown. The synovial tissue of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is made up of connective tissue with an extracellular matrix (ECM) composed of collagen and proteoglycan. One proteoglycan family, comprised of small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRPs), was found to be involved in collagen fibril formation and interaction. In recent years, the participation of SLRPs such as lumican and fibromodulin in the internal derangement of TMJ has been suggested. Although these SLRPs may contribute to the restoration of the synovium, their effect is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DHEA, a sex hormone, on the expression of lumican and fibromodulin in human temporomandibular specimens and in cultured human TMJ fibroblast-like synovial cells in the presence or absence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). In the in vivo study, both normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human temporomandibular synovial tissues were immunohistochemically examined. In the in vitro study, five fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) cell lines were established from human TMJ synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis. The subcultured cells were then incubated for 3, 6, 12 or 24 h with/without IL-1beta (1 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of DHEA (10 μM). The gene expression of lumican and fibromodulin was examined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their protein expression was examined using immunofluorescent staining. We demonstrated that the expression of lumican significantly